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Sample records for fifty years chlorpromazine

  1. [A difficult stabilisation. Chlorpromazine in the fifties in Belgium].

    PubMed

    Majerus, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Through a Belgian case study the article tries to trace the gradual stabilisation of chlorpromazine as an antipsychotic in the 1950s. By varying ranges and angles of approach it shows the heterogeneity of actors involved and the semantic bricolage that accompany the marketing of the first antipsychotic. Far from being a revolution, the presence of Largactil in psychiatric practice is rather characterised by integration into a wider range of medicines and sinuous searching to give sense to this new drug.

  2. Fifty years in neonatology.

    PubMed

    Manley, Brett J; Doyle, Lex W; Davies, Mark W; Davis, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Neonatology, the care and study of newborn infants, is a 'young' specialty. Over the last 50 years, there have been many advances in the way that neonatologists care for newborn infants, particularly those born preterm, leading to dramatic improvements in mortality. To illustrate these advances, we describe four eras in neonatology from the point of view of the junior hospital doctor.

  3. Chlorpromazine for schizophrenia: a Cochrane systematic review of 50 years of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Clive Elliott; Rathbone, John; Thornley, Ben; Clarke, Mike; Borrill, Jo; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Awad, A George

    2005-01-01

    Background Chlorpromazine (CPZ) remains one of the most common drugs used for people with schizophrenia worldwide, and a benchmark against which other treatments can be evaluated. Quantitative reviews are rare; this one evaluates the effects of chlorpromazine in the treatment of schizophrenia in comparison with placebo. Methods We sought all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing chlorpromazine to placebo by electronic and reference searching, and by contacting trial authors and the pharmaceutical industry. Data were extracted from selected trials and, where possible, synthesised and random effects relative risk (RR), the number needed to treat (NNT) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated. Results Fifty RCTs from 1955–2000 were included with 5276 people randomised to CPZ or placebo. They constitute 2008 person-years spent in trials. Meta-analysis of these trials showed that chlorpromazine promotes a global improvement (n = 1121, 13 RCTs, RR 0.76 CI 0.7 to 0.9, NNT 7 CI 5 to 10), although a considerable placebo response is also seen. People allocated to chlorpromazine tended not to leave trials early in both the short (n = 945, 16 RCTs, RR 0.74 CI 0.5 to 1.1) and medium term (n = 1861, 25 RCTs, RR 0.79 CI 0.6 to 1.1). There were, however, many adverse effects. Chlorpromazine is sedating (n = 1242, 18 RCTs, RR 2.3 CI 1.7 to 3.1, NNH 6 CI 5 to 8), increases a person's chances of experiencing acute movement disorders, Parkinsonism and causes low blood pressure with dizziness and dry mouth. Conclusion It is understandable why the World Health Organization (WHO) have endorsed and included chlorpromazine in their list of essential drugs for use in schizophrenia. Low- and middle-income countries may have more complete evidence upon which to base their practice compared with richer nations using recent innovations. PMID:16229742

  4. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty years with nuclear fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  5. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  6. Kuru-fifty years later.

    PubMed

    Liberski, Paweł P; Brown, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Kuru, the first human neurodegenerative disease classified as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, prion disease or, in the past, slow unconventional virus disease, was first reported to Western medicine in 1957 by D. Carleton Gajdusek and Vincent Zigas. Thus, this year marks the 50th anniversary of kuru discovery, highlighted by the symposium The end of kuru: 50 years of research into an extraordinary disease organized by John Collinge and Michael Alpers at the Royal Society, London, November 11-12, 2007. In this review, we summarize some data on the epidemiology, neuropathology and clinical picture of kuru.

  7. Fifty Years of Aeronautical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a detailed review of the aeronautical research conducted at Langley Research Center during the 50 years after its construction in 1917 as the first research laboratory for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The research is discussed in five parts, by decades: 1917-27, 1928-37, 1938-47, 1948-57, 1958-67.…

  8. Fifty years of paediatric ethics.

    PubMed

    Gillam, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    In 1965, when the first issue of Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health appeared, medical ethics was just becoming established as a discipline. The sub-speciality of paediatric ethics did not make an appearance until the late 1980s, with the first key texts appearing in the 1990s. Professional concern to practice ethically in paediatrics obviously goes much further back than that, even if not named as such. In clinical areas of paediatrics, the story of the last 50 years is essentially a story of progress - better understanding of disease, better diagnosis, more effective treatment, better outcomes. In paediatric ethics, the story of the last 50 years is a bit more complicated. In ethics, the idea of progress, rather than just change, is not so straightforward and is sometimes hotly contested. There has certainly been change, including some quite radical shifts in attitudes and practices, but on some issues, the ethical debate now looks remarkably similar to that of 40-50 years ago. This is the story of some things that have changed in paediatric ethics, some things that have stayed the same and the key ethical ideas lying beneath the surface.

  9. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  10. Fifty years of shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Rodney

    2017-04-01

    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  11. Environment and Policy, The Next Fifty Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, William R., Jr.

    This is the third of three volumes published as a part of the American Institute of Planners' two-year consultation on "the next fifty years." Leaders in the fields of education, government, medicine, planning, civil rights, transportation, and conservation discuss their expectations for urban planning in regard to the urban crisis and specify…

  12. Information Systems Curricula: A Fifty Year Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.; Feinstein, David; Clark, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of research to explore the nature of changes in skills over a fifty year period spanning the life of Information Systems model curricula. Work begun in 1999 was expanded both backwards in time, as well as forwards to 2012 to define skills relevant to Information Systems curricula. The work in 1999 was based on job…

  13. Fifty years of Chemical Physics Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, A. David

    2017-09-01

    Chemical Physics Letters was born in 1967. In the first Number, published in February that year, the Founding Editors, Jan Hoytink and Laurens Jansen, stipulated that the journal would be truly international and that all submitted papers will be refereed. The aim was to provide a convenient means for the rapid dissemination of research results in the field of chemical physics. There would be an emphasis on theoretical interpretation. This article reviews the progress of the journal over its first fifty years.

  14. Human space exploration the next fifty years.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Turnock, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration.

  15. Essay: fifty years of condensed matter physics.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2008-12-19

    Since the birth of Physical Review Letters fifty years ago, condensed matter physics has seen considerable growth, and both the journal and the field have flourished during this period. In this essay, I begin with some general comments about condensed matter physics and then give some personal views on the conceptual development of the field and list some highlights. The focus is mostly on theoretical developments.

  16. Cruelty in Maternity Wards: Fifty Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Goer, Henci

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years have passed since a scandal broke over inhumane treatment of laboring women in U.S. hospitals, yet first-person and eyewitness reports document that medical care providers continue to subject childbearing women to verbal and physical abuse and even to what would constitute sexual assault in any other context. Women frequently are denied their right to make informed decisions about care and may be punished for attempting to assert their right to refusal. Mistreatment is not uncommon and persists because of factors inherent to hospital social culture. Concerted action on the part of all stakeholders will be required to bring about systemic reform. PMID:21629381

  17. Psychotherapists and the clergy: Fifty years later.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, J M

    1984-03-01

    Jung's two powerful articles on psychotherapy and the clergy, written in 1928 and 1932. are looked at from the vantage point of fifty years later and the author's experience in conducting analysis with many people from both vocations. He notes that relatively few people achieve the kind of integration of the ego that Jung writes about-an essentially religious experience-wherein the center of their existence now gravitates about the Self. Yet Jung's work and views have had a profound effect on spiritually inclined people of all ages. The predictions of Jung's articles, regarding therapy, the dissemination of pyschology to the masses, and other issues are examined.

  18. Fifty years of waste siting postponement

    SciTech Connect

    Inhaber, H. )

    1992-01-01

    Fifty years ago, when Enrico Fermi produced the first controlled nuclear chain reaction, he almost certainly realized he had created a material that could not be disposed of in ordinary ways. While records of radioactive waste disposal of the Curies, Becquerel, and others in the pre Stagg Field era are scattered, it appears likely that most of the waste material they produced was handled as ordinary garbage. There do not seem to be specific sites devoted to pre 1942 nuclear waste. This year marks five decades of attempts to solve the nuclear waste problem. By some measures, the solution is no closer than it was many years ago. If an attempt had been made in the late 1940s or 1950s, it would have been greeted with much less public outcry than today.

  19. Human Space Exploration The Next Fifty Years

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Turnock, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration. PMID:22363199

  20. Magnetic bearings: Fifty years of progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swann, Michael K.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic bearings are just beginning to be flown in spacecraft systems, but their development spans more than 50 years. The promise of completely noncontacting, unlubricated rotating systems operating at speeds substantially beyond the range of conventional bearings, and with no wear and virtually no vibration, has provided the incentive to develop magnetic bearing technology for many diverse applications. Earnshaw theorized in 1842 that stable magnetic suspension is not possible in all three spatial directions unless the magnetic field is actively controlled. Since that time, researchers have attempted to successfully support spinning rotors in a stable manner. Development of magnetic suspension systems over the past fifty years has included progress on both passive (permanent magnet) and active (electromagnet) systems. The improvements in bearing load capacity, stiffness, and damping characteristics are traced. The trends in rotor size, rotational kinetic energy, and improvements in active control systems capabilities are also reviewed. Implications of superconductivity on suspension system design and performance are discussed.

  1. Fifty years with nuclear fission. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D.

    1989-12-31

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, ``Fifty years with nuclear fission,`` in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. Fifty years of dielectrophoretic cell separation technology.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael P

    2016-05-01

    In 1966, Pohl and Hawk [Science 152, 647-649 (1966)] published the first demonstration of dielectrophoresis of living and dead yeast cells; their paper described how the different ways in which the cells responded to an applied nonuniform electric field could form the basis of a cell separation method. Fifty years later, the field of dielectrophoretic (DEP) cell separation has expanded, with myriad demonstrations of its ability to sort cells on the basis of differences in electrical properties without the need for chemical labelling. As DEP separation enters its second half-century, new approaches are being found to move the technique from laboratory prototypes to functional commercial devices; to gain widespread acceptance beyond the DEP community, it will be necessary to develop ways of separating cells with throughputs, purities, and cell recovery comparable to gold-standard techniques in life sciences, such as fluorescence- and magnetically activated cell sorting. In this paper, the history of DEP separation is charted, from a description of the work leading up to the first paper, to the current dual approaches of electrode-based and electrodeless DEP separation, and the path to future acceptance outside the DEP mainstream is considered.

  3. Fifty years of dielectrophoretic cell separation technology

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    In 1966, Pohl and Hawk [Science 152, 647–649 (1966)] published the first demonstration of dielectrophoresis of living and dead yeast cells; their paper described how the different ways in which the cells responded to an applied nonuniform electric field could form the basis of a cell separation method. Fifty years later, the field of dielectrophoretic (DEP) cell separation has expanded, with myriad demonstrations of its ability to sort cells on the basis of differences in electrical properties without the need for chemical labelling. As DEP separation enters its second half-century, new approaches are being found to move the technique from laboratory prototypes to functional commercial devices; to gain widespread acceptance beyond the DEP community, it will be necessary to develop ways of separating cells with throughputs, purities, and cell recovery comparable to gold-standard techniques in life sciences, such as fluorescence- and magnetically activated cell sorting. In this paper, the history of DEP separation is charted, from a description of the work leading up to the first paper, to the current dual approaches of electrode-based and electrodeless DEP separation, and the path to future acceptance outside the DEP mainstream is considered. PMID:27462377

  4. Fifty years with nuclear fission. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D.

    1989-12-31

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, ``Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,`` in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  5. Fifty years of allergy: 1965-2015.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Dianne E; Mehr, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The last 50 years in allergy could almost be considered the first 50 years. Over this time period, we have witnessed the emergence of allergy as a subspecialty, have seen and continue to observe a tremendous change in prevalence of allergic disease and have gained insight into the mechanisms that underlie allergic predisposition and disease manifestation. We have improved the care of children with many forms of allergic disease and now sit poised to be able to alter the natural history of allergic disease with the use of specific immunotherapy. There is much left to do in the next 50 years including understanding what underlies both the predisposition to atopic disease and its natural resolution and identifying the environmental cofactors involved in the 'allergic epidemic' and therefore targets for effective primary prevention.

  6. FIFTY YEARS AS A PLANT PHYSIOLOGIST.

    PubMed

    Henderson, James HM

    2001-06-01

    This chapter is a chronological and biographical sketch of the professional life of a botanist-plant physiologist. He just happens to be of African-American descent. He cites his early education and through college and graduate school, as well as his war years at the University of Chicago. His postdoc appointment at Caltech with James Bonner was really his professional beginning and highlight. Most of his teaching and research years were spent at Tuskegee University and the George Washington Carver Research Foundation. He spent several tours of research activity, in both the United States and foreign countries. His contact with plant physiologists was quite broad, both in the United States and overseas. Finally, in his senior years, he has turned to mentoring young students into careers in the biological and allied sciences. This activity, he states, has "kept me young beyond my chronological age."

  7. Liver transplantation: Fifty years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Song, Alice Tung Wan; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Pecora, Rafael Antonio Arruda; Pugliese, Vincenzo; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Abdala, Edson

    2014-01-01

    Since 1963, when the first human liver transplantation (LT) was performed by Thomas Starzl, the world has witnessed 50 years of development in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, organ allocation, donor selection, and the indications and contraindications for LT. This has led to the mainstream, well-established procedure that has saved innumerable lives worldwide. Today, there are hundreds of liver transplant centres in over 80 countries. This review aims to describe the main aspects of LT regarding the progressive changes that have occurred over the years. We herein review historical aspects since the first experimental studies and the first attempts at human transplantation. We also provide an overview of immunosuppressive agents and their potential side effects, the evolution of the indications and contraindications of LT, the evolution of survival according to different time periods, and the evolution of methods of organ allocation. PMID:24833866

  8. Fifty Years of the Markarian Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    Markarian survey was conducted 50 years ago, in 1965. It was the first systematic survey for active galaxies and was a new method for search for such objects. Until now, it is the largest objective prism survey of the sky (17,000 deg2). It was carried out in 1965-1980 by Beniamin Markarian and colleagues and resulted in discovery of 1515 UV-excess (Markarian) galaxies. They contain many active galaxies, as well as powerful γ-, X-ray, IR and radio sources, BCDGs and interacting/merging systems. They led to the classification of Seyfert galaxies into Sy1 and Sy2 and the definition of Starbursts. Markarian survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS) also served as a basis for search for UVX stellar objects, late-type stars and optical identification of IR sources. At present the survey is digitized and DFBS database is available.

  9. Fifty Years of Innovation in Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Marcus, Hani J; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Hettiaratchy, Shehan

    2016-01-01

    Background Innovation has molded the current landscape of plastic surgery. However, documentation of this process only exists scattered throughout the literature as individual articles. The few attempts made to profile innovation in plastic surgery have been narrative, and therefore qualitative and inherently biased. Through the implementation of a novel innovation metric, this work aims to identify and characterise the most prevalent innovations in plastic surgery over the last 50 years. Methods Patents and publications related to plastic surgery (1960 to 2010) were retrieved from patent and MEDLINE databases, respectively. The most active patent codes were identified and grouped into technology areas, which were subsequently plotted graphically against publication data. Expert-derived technologies outside of the top performing patents areas were additionally explored. Results Between 1960 and 2010, 4,651 patents and 43,118 publications related to plastic surgery were identified. The most active patent codes were grouped under reconstructive prostheses, implants, instruments, non-invasive techniques, and tissue engineering. Of these areas and other expert-derived technologies, those currently undergoing growth include surgical instruments, implants, non-invasive practices, transplantation and breast surgery. Innovations related to microvascular surgery, liposuction, tissue engineering, lasers and prostheses have all plateaued. Conclusions The application of a novel metric for evaluating innovation quantitatively outlines the natural history of technologies fundamental to the evolution of plastic surgery. Analysis of current innovation trends provides some insight into which technology domains are the most active. PMID:27019807

  10. Fifty Years of Innovation in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kwasnicki, Richard M; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Marcus, Hani J; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Hettiaratchy, Shehan

    2016-03-01

    Innovation has molded the current landscape of plastic surgery. However, documentation of this process only exists scattered throughout the literature as individual articles. The few attempts made to profile innovation in plastic surgery have been narrative, and therefore qualitative and inherently biased. Through the implementation of a novel innovation metric, this work aims to identify and characterise the most prevalent innovations in plastic surgery over the last 50 years. Patents and publications related to plastic surgery (1960 to 2010) were retrieved from patent and MEDLINE databases, respectively. The most active patent codes were identified and grouped into technology areas, which were subsequently plotted graphically against publication data. Expert-derived technologies outside of the top performing patents areas were additionally explored. Between 1960 and 2010, 4,651 patents and 43,118 publications related to plastic surgery were identified. The most active patent codes were grouped under reconstructive prostheses, implants, instruments, non-invasive techniques, and tissue engineering. Of these areas and other expert-derived technologies, those currently undergoing growth include surgical instruments, implants, non-invasive practices, transplantation and breast surgery. Innovations related to microvascular surgery, liposuction, tissue engineering, lasers and prostheses have all plateaued. The application of a novel metric for evaluating innovation quantitatively outlines the natural history of technologies fundamental to the evolution of plastic surgery. Analysis of current innovation trends provides some insight into which technology domains are the most active.

  11. Fifty years of progress in acoustic phonetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Kenneth N.

    2004-10-01

    Three events that occurred 50 or 60 years ago shaped the study of acoustic phonetics, and in the following few decades these events influenced research and applications in speech disorders, speech development, speech synthesis, speech recognition, and other subareas in speech communication. These events were: (1) the source-filter theory of speech production (Chiba and Kajiyama; Fant); (2) the development of the sound spectrograph and its interpretation (Potter, Kopp, and Green; Joos); and (3) the birth of research that related distinctive features to acoustic patterns (Jakobson, Fant, and Halle). Following these events there has been systematic exploration of the articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual bases of phonological categories, and some quantification of the sources of variability in the transformation of this phonological representation of speech into its acoustic manifestations. This effort has been enhanced by studies of how children acquire language in spite of this variability and by research on speech disorders. Gaps in our knowledge of this inherent variability in speech have limited the directions of applications such as synthesis and recognition of speech, and have led to the implementation of data-driven techniques rather than theoretical principles. Some examples of advances in our knowledge, and limitations of this knowledge, are reviewed.

  12. Fifty years of progress in speech synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeter, Juergen

    2004-10-01

    A common opinion is that progress in speech synthesis should be easier to discern than in other areas of speech communication: you just have to listen to the speech! Unfortunately, things are more complicated. It can be said, however, that early speech synthesis efforts were primarily concerned with providing intelligible speech, while, more recently, ``naturalness'' has been the focus. The field had its ``electronic'' roots in Homer Dudley's 1939 ``Voder,'' and it advanced in the 1950s and 1960s through progress in a number of labs including JSRU in England, Haskins Labs in the U.S., and Fant's Lab in Sweden. In the 1970s and 1980s significant progress came from efforts at Bell Labs (under Jim Flanagan's leadership) and at MIT (where Dennis Klatt created one of the first commercially viable systems). Finally, over the past 15 years, the methods of unit-selection synthesis were devised, primarily at ATR in Japan, and were advanced by work at AT&T Labs, Univ. of Edinburgh, and ATR. Today, TTS systems are able to ``convince some of the listeners some of the time'' that synthetic speech is as natural as live recordings. Ongoing efforts aim at replacing ``some'' with ``most'' for a wide range of real-world applications.

  13. Atoms for Peace after Fifty Years

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N; Lehman, R; Vergino, E; Schock, R

    2004-03-15

    President Eisenhower's hopes for nuclear technology still resonate, but the challenges to fulfilling them are much different today. On December 8, 1953, President Eisenhower, returning from his meeting with the leaders of Britain and France at the Bermuda Summit, flew directly to New York to address the United Nations General Assembly. His presentation, known afterwards as the ''Atoms for Peace'' speech, was bold, broad, and visionary. Eisenhower highlighted dangers associated with the further spread of nuclear weapons and the end of the thermonuclear monopoly, but the president also pointed to opportunities. Earlier that year, Stalin had died and the Korean War armistice was signed. Talks on reunification of Austria were about to begin. The speech sought East-West engagement and outlined a framework for reducing nuclear threats to security while enhancing the civilian benefits of nuclear technology. One specific proposal offered to place surplus military fissile material under the control of an ''international atomic energy agency'' to be used for peaceful purposes, especially economic development. Eisenhower clearly recognized the complex interrelationships between different nuclear technologies and the risks and the benefits that accrue from each. The widespread use of civilian nuclear technology and absence of any use of a nuclear weapon during the next half-century reflects success in his approach. Today, the world faces choices about nuclear technology that have their parallels in the Eisenhower calculus and its legacy. Although his specific fissile material proposal was never implemented, his broader themes gave impetus to agreements such as the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and institutions such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The resulting governance process has promoted some and restricted other nuclear technology. Perhaps even more influential was Eisenhower's overarching recommendation that we try to reduce the risks and seek

  14. Fifty years of Jaynes-Cummings physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Koch, Jens; Larson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    electromagnetic modes, arrays of coupled cavities [5-7], and optomechanical systems [8] have further enriched the physics of the Jaynes-Cummings model. From the early interests in masers and the consistent quantum description of radiation and atom-photon interaction, the Jaynes-Cummings model has evolved into a cornerstone of quantum state engineering [9]. The authors of this editorial had not been born when Jaynes and Cummings wrote their remarkable paper. It is, therefore, a special honour for us to be able to draw the reader's attention to the accompanying reminiscence contributed by Frederick Cummings where he gives us a glimpse of the early history of the Jaynes-Cummings model from his perspective [11]. By now, the original 1963 paper by Jaynes and Cummings has gathered numerous citations and, at the time of writing, the number of articles involving Jaynes-Cummings physics is approaching 15 000.1 This special issue does not attempt to review this impressive wealth of research. The interested reader, however, is urged to consult the definitive article by Shore and Knight [10] for a comprehensive review of the first 30 years of Jaynes-Cummings physics. The collection of 26 papers presented in this issue, showcases a snapshot of some of the most recent and continuing research devoted to Jaynes-Cummings physics. We begin our special issue with Professor Cumming's recollections [11]. We then have six papers on quantum information aspects of the Jaynes-Cummings model [12-17]. The next topic includes seven papers on the Dicke and generalized Jaynes-Cummings models [18-24], followed by six papers on circuit QED, which is one of the most important experimental frameworks for Jaynes-Cummings systems [25-30]. Finally, we have six papers on the extension to many cavities, the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model [31-36]. The snapshot of research captured in this special issue illustrates the unifying language provided by the Jaynes-Cummings model, tying together research in a number of

  15. EDITORIAL: Semiconductor lasers: the first fifty years Semiconductor lasers: the first fifty years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvez, S.; Adams, M. J.

    2012-09-01

    Anniversaries call for celebrations. Since it is now fifty years since the first semiconductor lasers were reported, it is highly appropriate to celebrate this anniversary with a Special Issue dedicated to the topic. The semiconductor laser now has a major effect on our daily lives since it has been a key enabler in the development of optical fibre communications (and hence the internet and e-mail), optical storage (CDs, DVDs, etc) and barcode scanners. In the early 1960s it was impossible for most people (with the exception of very few visionaries) to foresee any of these future developments, and the first applications identified were for military purposes (range-finders, target markers, etc). Of course, many of the subsequent laser applications were made possible by developments in semiconductor materials, in the associated growth and fabrication technology, and in the increased understanding of the underlying fundamental physics. These developments continue today, so that the subject of semiconductor lasers, although mature, is in good health and continues to grow. Hence, we can be confident that the pervasive influence of semiconductor lasers will continue to develop as optoelectronics technology makes further advances into other sectors such as healthcare, security and a whole host of applications based on the global imperatives to reduce energy consumption, minimise environmental impact and conserve resources. The papers in this Special Issue are intended to tell some of the story of the last fifty years of laser development as well as to provide evidence of the current state of semiconductor laser research. Hence, there are a number of papers where the early developments are recalled by authors who played prominent parts in the story, followed by a selection of papers from authors who are active in today's exciting research. The twenty-fifth anniversary of the semiconductor laser was celebrated by the publication of a number of papers dealing with the early

  16. The classical caesium beam frequency standard: fifty years later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanier, Jacques; Audoin, Claude

    2005-06-01

    The caesium beam frequency standard using the separated oscillatory field technique proposed by Ramsey in 1950 has seen intensive development over the last fifty years. Its practical implementation as a primary time standard made possible the realization of the second with a precision better than that obtained by means of astronomical measurements and provided the basis for its redefinition in terms of atomic properties in 1967. This paper describes the basic principles underlying the operation of such atomic standards, reviews the progress made during the last fifty years since its invention, and provides an update on the state-of-the-art accuracy and frequency stability achieved today in this field.

  17. Tanzania Higher Education--Fifty Years after Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mnubi, Godfrey M.

    2013-01-01

    As Tanzania celebrates fifty years of independence at the crossroads of globalization, the country has experienced a changing landscape and a major transformation in higher learning education with spectacular expansion in student enrollment rates. This requires its higher education institutions, particularly universities, to function effectively…

  18. Tanzania Higher Education--Fifty Years after Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mnubi, Godfrey M.

    2013-01-01

    As Tanzania celebrates fifty years of independence at the crossroads of globalization, the country has experienced a changing landscape and a major transformation in higher learning education with spectacular expansion in student enrollment rates. This requires its higher education institutions, particularly universities, to function effectively…

  19. Fifty Years after "Brown": Tarnished Gold, Broken Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantz, Julie

    2004-01-01

    May 17, 2004 marked the fifty years that have passed since the United States Supreme Court handed down one of its most famous, compelling and iconic decisions, "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas." Certainly the decision itself, labeling the practice of "separate but equal" as unconstitutional, deserves the fanfare…

  20. Fifty year canon of lunar eclipses: 1986-2035

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espenak, Fred

    1989-03-01

    A complete catalog is presented, listing the general circumstances of every lunar eclipse from 1901 through 2100. To compliment this catalog, a set of figures illustrate the basic Moon-shadow geometry and global visibility for every lunar eclipse over the 200 year interval. Focusing in on the next fifty years, 114 detailed diagrams show the Moon's path through Earth's shadow during every eclipse, including contact times at each phase. The accompanying cylindrical projection maps of Earth show regions of hemispheric visibility for all phases. The appendices discuss eclipse geometry, eclipse frequency and recurrence, enlargement of Earth's shadow, crater timings, eclipse brightness and time determination. Finally, a simple FORTRAN program is provided which can be used to predict the occurrence and general characteristics of lunar eclipses. This work is a companion volume to NASA Reference Publication 1178: Fifty Year Canon of Solar Eclipses: 1986-2035.

  1. Fifty Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses: 1986-2035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred

    1989-01-01

    A complete catalog is presented, listing the general circumstances of every lunar eclipse from 1901 through 2100. To compliment this catalog, a set of figures illustrate the basic Moon-shadow geometry and global visibility for every lunar eclipse over the 200 year interval. Focusing in on the next fifty years, 114 detailed diagrams show the Moon's path through Earth's shadow during every eclipse, including contact times at each phase. The accompanying cylindrical projection maps of Earth show regions of hemispheric visibility for all phases. The appendices discuss eclipse geometry, eclipse frequency and recurrence, enlargement of Earth's shadow, crater timings, eclipse brightness and time determination. Finally, a simple FORTRAN program is provided which can be used to predict the occurrence and general characteristics of lunar eclipses. This work is a companion volume to NASA Reference Publication 1178: Fifty Year Canon of Solar Eclipses: 1986-2035.

  2. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    PubMed

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  3. 1961-2011: Fifty years of Hayashi tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla, Francesco

    2012-09-01

    Fifty years after the seminal paper by Prof. C. Hayashi, the field of pre-main sequence (PMS) evolution still plays a fundamental role in observational and theoretical astrophysics. In this contribution, I highlight the contribution made by Hayashi in establishing the theoretical foundation of early stellar evolution. Then, I discuss the changes of the classical theory introduced by the inclusion of protostellar evolution in PMS models and present selected results on young stars.

  4. The chlorpromazine enigma.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Alan A

    2013-01-01

    Two revolutionary drugs were introduced into psychiatry in the early 1950s for the treatment of agitated mental patients - reserpine and chlorpromazine. These drugs initiated the modern era of drug treatment for schizophrenia and other psychoses. Early research revealed that, although the pharmacological profiles of the two drugs overlapped considerably, they had different mechanisms of action. The mechanism of action of reserpine was determined first: it depletes monoamines from the brain and other tissues. By contrast, chlorpromazine has little or no effect on brain monoamine concentrations. The mystery created by two drugs that have similar pharmacological profiles but different mechanisms of action is the chlorpromazine enigma. For about eight years after the mechanism of action of reserpine was determined, researchers followed several false leads about the mechanism of action of chlorpromazine. Then, in 1963, Arvid Carlsson and Margit Lindqvist proposed that chlorpromazine (and haloperidol) work by blocking "monoaminergic" receptors. It was quickly determined that dopamine receptor blockade was the most important action. Although the idea of chemical communication between central neurons had yet to gain wide acceptance, this idea was central to resolving the chlorpromazine enigma.

  5. Fifty years of accelerator based physics at Chalk River

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, John W.

    1999-04-26

    The Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. was a major centre for Accelerator based physics for the last fifty years. As early as 1946, nuclear structure studies were started on Cockroft-Walton accelerators. A series of accelerators followed, including the world's first Tandem, and the MP Tandem, Superconducting Cyclotron (TASCC) facility that was opened in 1986. The nuclear physics program was shut down in 1996. This paper will describe some of the highlights of the accelerators and the research of the laboratory.

  6. Clozapine v. chlorpromazine in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia: 9-year outcomes of a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Girgis, Ragy R; Phillips, Michael R; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Kejin; Jiang, Huiping; Wu, Chengjing; Duan, Naihua; Niu, Yajuan; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2011-10-01

    The differential effects of so-called 'first- and second generation' antipsychotic medications, when given in the first episode, on the long-term outcome of schizophrenia remain to be elucidated. We compared the 9-year outcomes of individuals initially randomised to clozapine or chlorpromazine. One-hundred and sixty individuals with treatment-naive, first episode schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder in a mental health centre in Beijing, China were randomised to clozapine or chlorpromazine treatment for up to 2 years,followed by up to an additional 7 years of naturalistic treatment. The primary outcome was remission status for individuals in each group. Individuals in both groups spent essentially equal amounts of time in each clinical state over the follow-up time period(remission, 78%; intermediate, 8%; relapse, 14%). There were no significant differences on other measures of illness severity. The clozapine group was more likely than the chlorpromazine group to remain on the medication to which they were originally assigned (26% v. 10%, P = 0.01). There were no significant differences between the two groups on other secondary efficacy outcomes. These findings support the comparability in effectiveness between antipsychotic medications but with slightly greater tolerability of clozapine in the treatment of first-episode psychosis.

  7. Thermal fluctuations of magnetic nanoparticles: Fifty years after Brown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, William T.; Kalmykov, Yuri P.

    2012-12-01

    The reversal time, superparamagnetic relaxation time, of the magnetization of fine single domain ferromagnetic nanoparticles owing to thermal fluctuations plays a fundamental role in information storage, paleomagnetism, biotechnology, etc. Here a comprehensive tutorial-style review of the achievements of fifty years of development and generalizations of the seminal work of Brown [Phys. Rev. 130, 1677 (1963)] on thermal fluctuations of magnetic nanoparticles is presented. Analytical as well as numerical approaches to the estimation of the damping and temperature dependence of the reversal time based on Brown's Fokker-Planck equation for the evolution of the magnetic moment orientations on the surface of the unit sphere are critically discussed while the most promising directions for future research are emphasized.

  8. Fifty Years of Climate Curricular Confusion and Pedagogical Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. S.; Niepold, F.

    2008-12-01

    The processes of weather and climate, including the greenhouse effect and the potential for significant, even catastrophic human impacts on the climate system, were sufficiently understood in 1958 during the International Geophysical Year that the authors of the science education booklet, Planet Earth, The Mystery with 100,000 Clues, published by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, were confident to predict that continued emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere could, in time, melt icecaps and glaciers and rise sea levels. This important scientific insight was further studied by climatologists, but is largely missing as an integral, important component of science education. Now, fifty years later, with a global population that has doubled, fossil fuel emissions that have tripled, and current energy consumption and emission trajectories that are above the IPCC Business as Usual scenario, leading politicians still doubt that our global economy can impact the climate system. NRC estimates that up to 40 percent of the approximately $10 trillion U.S. economy is affected by weather and climate events annually, making it a crucial if not dominant factor in our economic well-being, particularly for future generations. Despite the long term and short term importance of climate in our lives, society is essentially illiterate about climate science and confused about the connections between energy, economy and climate, as numerous public opinion polls and studies have shown. A key reason is that education programs and pedagogical content knowledge focusing on the basics of climate, including natural variability as well as human induced climate change, are largely missing from K12 and undergraduate education. Climate has fallen through disciplinary cracks, been avoided because of perceived controversy, and neglected because most educators lack training or expertise in the subject matter. With a focus on climate in formal education, this paper will provide an overview

  9. Fifty years of numerical modeling of baroclinic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisyan, A. S.

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a brief critical analysis of the main historical stages of numerical modeling for the last fifty years. It was a half a century ago that the numerical simulation of an actual baroclinic ocean was initiated by the author and his students [1, 2]. In meteorology, studies on the numerical modeling of a baroclinic atmosphere existed much earlier [21, 22]. Despite this, a similar move in oceanography was met with strong resistance. At that time, there were many studies on the calculation of the total mass transport. The founders of this field, V.B. Shtokman, H. Sverdrup, and W. Munk, were mistaken in believing that they addressed baroclinic models of the ocean. The author preferred works by V. Ekman [12] and I. Sandström and B. Helland-Hansen [19]. A generalization of recent studies made it possible to come to some conclusions on the need to use the level of the free oceanic surface as a basis rather than the function of total mass transport, on the role of the baroclinic β effect (BARBE), on the joint effect of baroclinicity and bottom relief (JEBAR), etc. The author conditionally divides these fifty years into the following three stages. (1) The first stage was 1961-1969, when the author and his students performed almost exclusively diagnostic and adaptation calculations of climatic characteristics. (2) The second stage began with papers by K. Bryan [23] and his students. This is an important and promising stage involving mainly prognostic studies and four-dimensional analysis. The major advances in modeling at this stage (the Gulf Stream separation point [61], the Kuroshio seasonal evolution [63], the formation of the cold intermediate layer in the Black Sea [80], the subsurface countercurrent in the Caspian Sea [25], the realistic four-dimensional analysis of the Kara Sea [60], etc.) were due to high-resolution and/or data assimilation with an adequate period of integration. (3) The third stage began with the activities of international

  10. Fifty years of organ transplants: the successes and the failures.

    PubMed

    Kaserman, David L

    2007-01-01

    More than fifty years have now passed since the first successful human organ transplant. During that time, substantial progress has been made in both surgical techniques and immunosuppressive drug therapy. As a result, transplant success rates have improved dramatically, and thousands of recipients of kidneys, hearts, livers, and lungs have been granted both longer and healthier lives. At the same time, however, many more thousands of patients have died while waiting in vain for a cadaveric donor organ to become available due to a severe and persistent shortage of such organs. That shortage, in turn, is directly attributable to the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984, which proscribes payment to potential organ donors, even if that would increase supply. This atavistic policy and the shortage and deaths it has spawned provides a stirring example of the tendency for public policy to lag behind technological advancement, particularly in the medical field. But the tide of medical opinion may be turning on this issue, and some form of donor payments may soon emerge.

  11. Revisiting fifty years of research on pheromone signaling in ciliates.

    PubMed

    Luporini, Pierangelo; Pedrini, Bill; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Among protists, pheromones have been identified in a great variety of algal species for their activity in driving gamete-gamete interactions for fertilization. Analogously in ciliates, pheromones have been identified for their activity in inducing the sexual phenomenon of conjugation. Although this identification was pioneered by Kimball more than fifty years ago, an effective isolation and chemical characterization of ciliate pheromones has remained confined to species of Blepharisma, Dileptus and Euplotes. In Euplotes species, in which the molecular structures have been determined, pheromones form species-specific families of structurally homologous helical, cysteine-rich, highly-stable proteins. Being structurally homologous, they can bind cells in competition with one another, raising interesting functional analogies with the families of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell differentiation and development in higher organisms. In addition to inducing conjugation by binding cells in heterologous fashion, Euplotes pheromones act also as autocrine growth factors by binding to, and promoting the vegetative reproduction of the same cells from which they originate. This autocrine activity is most likely primary, providing a concrete example of how the original function of a molecule can be obscured during evolution by the acquisition of a new one.

  12. Windscale pile reactors - Decommissioning progress on a fifty year legacy

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Richard J.

    2007-07-01

    The decommissioning of the Windscale Pile 1 reactor, fifty years after the 1957 fire, is one of the most technically challenging decommissioning projects in the UK, if not the world. This paper presents a summary of the 1957 Windscale Pile 1 accident, its unique challenges and a new technical approach developed to safely and efficiently decommission the two Windscale Pile Reactors. The reactors will be decommissioned using a top down approach that employs an array of light weight, carbon fiber, high payload robotic arms to remove the damaged fuel, the graphite core, activated metals and concrete. This relatively conventional decommissioning approach has been made possible by a recently completed technical assessment of reactor core fire and criticality risk which concluded that these types of events are not credible if relatively simple controls are applied. This paper presents an overview of the design, manufacture and testing of equipment to remove the estimated 15 tons of fire damaged fuel and isotopes from the Pile 1 reactor. The paper also discusses recently conducted characterization activities which have allowed for a refined waste estimate and conditioning strategy. These data and an innovative approach have resulted in a significant reduction in the estimated project cost and schedule. (authors)

  13. Fifty Years of Space Weather Forecasting from Boulder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The first official space weather forecast was issued by the Space Disturbances Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, in 1965, ushering in an era of operational prediction that continues to this day. Today, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) charters the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) as one of the nine National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to provide the nation's official watches, warnings, and alerts of space weather phenomena. SWPC is now integral to national and international efforts to predict space weather events, from the common and mild, to the rare and extreme, that can impact critical technological infrastructure. In 2012, the Strategic National Risk Assessment included extreme space weather events as low-to-medium probability phenomena that could, unlike any other meteorogical phenomena, have an impact on the government's ability to function. Recognizing this, the White House chartered the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) to produce the first comprehensive national strategy for the prediction, mitigation, and response to an extreme space weather event. The implementation of the National Strategy is ongoing with NOAA, its partners, and stakeholders concentrating on the goal of improving our ability to observe, model, and predict the onset and severity of space weather events. In addition, work continues with the research community to improve our understanding of the physical mechanisms - on the Sun, in the heliosphere, and in the Earth's magnetic field and upper atmosphere - of space weather as well as the effects on critical infrastructure such as electrical power transmission systems. In fifty years, people will hopefully look back at the history of operational space weather prediction and credit our efforts today with solidifying the necessary developments in observational systems, full-physics models of the entire Sun-Earth system, and tools for predicting the impacts to infrastructure to protect

  14. The Fifty-Year-Old Woman and Midlife Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Shirley

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that women in their fifties are susceptible to many stresses. The possibilities of widowhood, divorce, or poverty, combined with intra- and interpersonal strains, make this a time of insecurity about aging for many women. Some suggestions as to why women nonetheless cope successfully with aging are considered. (Author/JAC)

  15. Fifty years of hemodialysis access literature: The fifty most cited publications in the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Skripochnik, Edvard; O'Connor, David J; Trestman, Eric B; Lipsitz, Evan C; Scher, Larry A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The modern era of hemodialysis access surgery began with the publication in 1966 by Brescia et al. describing the use of a surgically created arteriovenous fistula. Since then, the number of patients on chronic hemodialysis and the number of publications dealing with hemodialysis access have steadily increased. We have chronicled the increase in publications in the medical literature dealing with hemodialysis access by evaluating the characteristics of the 50 most cited articles. Methods We queried the Science Citation Index from the years 1960-2014. Articles were selected based on a subject search and were ranked according to the number of times they were cited in the medical literature. Results The 50 most frequently cited articles were selected for further analysis and the number of annual publications was tracked. The landmark publication by Dr Brescia et al. was unequivocally the most cited article dealing with hemodialysis access (1109 citations). The subject matter of the papers included AV fistula and graft (9), hemodialysis catheter (9), complications and outcomes (24), and other topics (8). Most articles were published in nephrology journals (33), with fewer in surgery (7), medicine (7), and radiology (3) journals. Of the 17 journals represented, Kidney International was the clear leader, publishing 18 articles. There has been an exponential rise in the frequency of publications regarding dialysis access with 42 of 50 analyzed papers being authored after 1990. Conclusion As the number of patients on hemodialysis has increased dramatically over the past five decades, there has been a commensurate increase in the overall number of publications related to hemodialysis access.

  16. [Development on composite restoratives in therapeutic dentistry in first fifty years: photopolimerizable nanocomposites].

    PubMed

    Alingorskaia, E A; Zalesskiĭ, V N; Movchan, B A

    2011-01-01

    The authors have conducted an analysis of current scientific literature concerning studies of the development of dental nanocomposites and stage investigations into materials restoratives in first fifty years.

  17. Fifty-Three Years after a Pencil Puncture Wound.

    PubMed

    Aswani, Vijay H; Kim, Seung Lae

    2015-01-01

    A pencil core with an intact pencil tip was excised from the thigh of a 60-year-old male 53 years after a puncture wound. Histologic examination of the excised pencil core and the surrounding tissue revealed a foreign body reaction with abundant entrapped dark black pigment and chronic reparative changes, including dense sclerosis and focal granulation tissue formation.

  18. Fifty-Three Years after a Pencil Puncture Wound

    PubMed Central

    Aswani, Vijay H.; Kim, Seung Lae

    2015-01-01

    A pencil core with an intact pencil tip was excised from the thigh of a 60-year-old male 53 years after a puncture wound. Histologic examination of the excised pencil core and the surrounding tissue revealed a foreign body reaction with abundant entrapped dark black pigment and chronic reparative changes, including dense sclerosis and focal granulation tissue formation. PMID:26594168

  19. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Comayagua, Hondura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Comayagua that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Humuya and Rio Majada. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Comayagua as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Humuya and Rio Majada at Comayagua were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Humuya at Comayagua, 1,400 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The reasonableness of the regression discharge was evaluated by comparing it with drainage-area-adjusted 50-year-flood discharges estimated for three long-term Rio Humuya stream-gaging stations. The drainage-area-adjusted 50-year-flood discharges estimated from the gage records ranged from 946 to 1,365 cubic meters per second. Because the regression equation discharge agrees closely with the high end of the range of discharges estimated from the gaging-station records, it was used for the hydraulic modeling to ensure that the resulting 50-year-flood water-surface elevations would not be underestimated. The 50-year

  20. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Nacaome, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Nacaome that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Nacaome, Rio Grande, and Rio Guacirope. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Nacaome as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Nacaome, Rio Grande, and Rio Guacirope at Nacaome were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at two bridges. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Nacaome at Nacaome, 5,040 cubic meters per second, was computed as the drainage-area-adjusted weighted average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Nacaome en Las Mercedes, located about 13 kilometers upstream from Nacaome. One of the discharges, 4,549 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 16 years of peak-discharge record for the gage, and the other, 1,922 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges is 3,770 cubic meters per second. The 50-year-flood discharges for Rio Grande, 3,890 cubic meters per

  1. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Choluteca, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Choluteca that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Choluteca and Rio Iztoca. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Choluteca as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Choluteca and Rio Iztoca at Choluteca were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Choluteca at Choluteca is 4,620 cubic meters per second, which is the drainage-area-adjusted weighted-average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Choluteca en Puente Choluteca. One discharge, 4,913 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 17 years of peak discharge record for the gage, and the other, 2,650 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges at the gage is 4,530 cubic meters per second. The 50-year-flood discharge for the study area reach of Rio Choluteca was estimated by multiplying the weighted discharge at the gage by the ratio of the drainage

  2. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Tegucigalpa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Choluteca, Rio Grande, Rio Guacerique, and Rio Chiquito. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Tegucigalpa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Choluteca, Rio Grande, Rio Guacerique, and Rio Chiquito at Tegucigalpa were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at bridges. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharges were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge is 922 cubic meters per second at Rio Choluteca at downstream end of the study area boundary, 663 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Grande, 475 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Guacerique, and 254 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Chiquito.

  3. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Tocoa, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Tocoa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Tocoa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Tocoa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Tocoa at Tocoa were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and a ground survey at one bridge. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Tocoa; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Tocoa, 552 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Tocoa at Tocoa are 204 square kilometers and 1,987 millimeters, respectively. It was assumed that a portion of the 50-year flood, 200 cubic meters per second, would escape the main channel and flow down a side channel before re-entering the main channel again near the lower end of the study area.

  4. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Siguatepeque, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Siguatepeque that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Selguapa, Rio Guique, Rio Celan, Rio Calan, and Quebrada Chalantuma. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Siguatepeque as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on each of the streams studied were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at six bridges. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on any of the streams studied; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharges were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The 50-year-flood discharges estimated for Rio Selguapa, Rio Guique, Rio Celan, Rio Calan, and Quebrada Chalantuma are 323, 168, 161, 146, and 90 cubic meters per second, respectively.

  5. Clotiapine compared with chlorpromazine in chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Geller, Vadim; Gorzaltsan, Igor; Shleifer, Tatiana; Belmaker, R H; Bersudsky, Yuly

    2005-12-15

    Clotiapine is a classic neuroleptic with a chemical structure similar to clozapine. It was said that patients unresponsive to other neuroleptics respond to clotiapine although it causes extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS) like other typical neuroleptics. We conducted a study of clotiapine vs. chlorpromazine in severe chronic active psychotic hospitalized schizophrenia patients. The design was double-blind crossover of clotiapine vs chlorpromazine. No washout was necessary from previous neuroleptic treatment, and flexible overlap with the study medication was individualized for each patient. Patients were treated after reaching neuroleptic monotherapy for 3 months with clotiapine and 3 months with chlorpromazine, in random order. Medication was supplied in identical capsules of 100 mg chlorpromazine or 40 mg of clotiapine. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) were rated every 2 weeks and Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE) every month. Fifty-eight patients were randomized. Forty-three patients completed at least one phase of the study, and thirty-three completed both phases. Because of the small number of hostel patients and the very high dropout rate in the hostel patients, data analysis was done separately for inpatients and hostel patients. Clotiapine was significantly superior to chlorpromazine in 26 inpatients completing the crossover, on the PANSS, NOSIE and CGI. Clotiapine was also superior to chlorpromazine in an analysis of the parallel inpatient groups in the first three months before the crossover. Some classic neuroleptic compounds may have superiority to chlorpromazine in a "clozapine-like" manner, despite a typical profile for EPS.

  6. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Juticalpa, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Juticalpa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Juticalpa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Juticalpa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Juticalpa at Juticalpa were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Juticalpa at Juticalpa, 1,360 cubic meters per second, was computed as the drainage-area-adjusted weighted average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Juticalpa en El Torito, located about 2 kilometers upstream from Juticalpa. One discharge, 1,551 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 33 years of peak-discharge record for the gage, and the other, 486 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges at the gage is 1,310 cubic meters per second. The 50-year flood discharge for the study area reach of Rio Juticalpa was estimated by multiplying the weighted discharge at the gage by the

  7. Behavioral and Social Science: Fifty Years of Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelser, Neil J., Ed.; Gerstein, Dean R., Ed.

    This commemorative book contains 10 papers that provide a selective sample of behavioral and social science research accomplishments and trends over a 50-year period, and comparisons are made with research presented in the 1933 report, "Recent Social Trends in the United States" (The Ogburn Report). Four chapters in part 1,…

  8. Marriage and Fertility in Tianjin, China: Fifty Years of Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasternak, Burton

    A report of research conducted in Tianjin, People's Republic of China (September 1981-January 1982) describes and analyses changes in family structure, marriage, post-marital residence, and fertility in a neighborhood of factory workers over a 50-year period. Social and economic changes such as delayed marriage, increased access to education, and…

  9. Fifty-three-year experience with pediatric umbilical hernia repairs.

    PubMed

    Zendejas, Benjamin; Kuchena, Admire; Onkendi, Edwin O; Lohse, Christine M; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B; Potter, D Dean; Farley, David R; Zarroug, Abdalla E

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term surgical and patient-reported outcomes of pediatric umbilical hernia (UH) repairs. A retrospective review of all children (<18 years old) who underwent UH repair at Mayo Clinic-Rochester in the last half century was done. Follow-up was obtained by mailed survey. From 1956 to 2009, 489 children (boys, 251; girls, 238) underwent a primary UH repair. The mean age was 3.9 years (range, 0.01-17.8 years). Complicated UHs that required emergent repair (n = 34, or 7%) included recurrent incarceration (22), enteric fistula (7), strangulation (4), and evisceration (1). Mean UH size was 1.3 cm (range, 0.2-7.0 cm), varying by operative indication (1.0 cm emergent vs 1.5 cm elective repairs, P = .008) and decade of repair (2.2 cm, 1950s-60s vs 1.3 cm, 1990s-2000s; P = .001). Postoperative morbidity (2%) consisted of superficial wound infection (7), hematoma (3), and seroma (1). With a 66% survey response rate and mean follow-up of 13.0 years (range, 0-53.8 years), 8 (2%) patients experienced a recurrence. Most patients reported satisfaction (90%) with the cosmetic appearance of their umbilicus and are pain free (96%). Pediatric UH repairs have low morbidity and recurrence rates. Most patients are satisfied and pain free. Importantly, complicated UHs were more likely to be associated with smaller defects; therefore, parental counseling for signs of incarceration is recommended even in small defects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Fifty years of mortality or the result of social inequality].

    PubMed

    Jimenez Ornelas, R

    1993-01-01

    An average of 30 years has been added to Mexican life expectancy in the past five decades. Women and men born in 1940 had life expectancies of 41.5 and 39.5 years, respectively, compared to 72.8 and 66.7 in 1990. Mortality declined most sharply between 1940 and 1960, and declined at varying rates in the subsequent decades. In the decade from 1980 to 1990, the mortality decline slowed. The differential in life expectancy between men and women amounted to 6.2 years in 1980 and 6.1 in 1990. The high life expectancy of women means that future advances will be more difficult to achieve. The greater survival of Mexicans over the five decades is due to improvements in living conditions, advances in preventive and curative medicine, and social policy. The slower pace of mortality decline in the past decade may perhaps have been due to deteriorating living conditions, reduced priority accorded to social policies in the areas of health and education, and declining real incomes. Mexican health, education, and other social policies have favored the urban and industrial centers, increasing regional disparities. A comparison of life expectancies in Oaxaca, one of the most impoverished states of Mexico, and Puebla, which has somewhat better conditions, with life expectancies in the wealthy state of Nuevo Leon and the Federal District demonstrates the influence of the level of development on life expectancy. Life expectancy in 1990 in Oaxaca and Puebla was the equivalent of that for all of Mexico ten years earlier. Men in Oaxaca live five years less on average than men in Nuevo Leon. But the gain in life expectancy for males was higher in Oaxaca between 1980 and 1990 than in the other states.

  11. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Sonaguera, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Sonaguera that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Sonaguera and its tributary, Rio Juan Lazaro. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Sonaguera as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Sonaguera and Rio Juan Lazaro at Sonaguera were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and a ground survey at the bridge. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Sonaguera or Rio Juan Lazaro; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Sonaguera above the confluence with Rio Juan Lazaro, 194 cubic meters per second; for Rio Juan Lazaro at its mouth, 168 cubic meters per second, and for Rio Sonaguera at the downstream end of the study area, 282 cubic meters per second; were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation.

  12. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Choloma, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Choloma that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Choloma. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Choloma as part of the in the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Choloma at Choloma were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Choloma; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Choloma, 370 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Choloma at Choloma are 89.5 square kilometers and 2,164 millimeters, respectively.

  13. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Catacamas, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Catacamas that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Catacamas. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Catacamas as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/ floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Catacamas at Catacamas were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Catacamas at Catacamas, 216 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation because there are no long-term stream-gaging stations on the river from which to estimate the discharge. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Catacamas at Catacamas are 45.4 square kilometers and 1,773 millimeters, respectively.

  14. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Olanchito, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Olanchito that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Uchapa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Olanchito as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood discharge of 243 cubic meters per second on Rio Uchapa at Olanchito were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Uchapa; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Uchapa was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Uchapa at Olanchito are 97.1 square kilometers and 1,178 millimeters, respectively.

  15. Fifty year canon of solar eclipses: 1986 - 2035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred

    1987-01-01

    A complete catalog is presented, listing the general characteristics of every solar eclipse from 1901 through 2100. To complement this catalog, a detailed set of cylindrical projection world maps shows the umbral paths of every solar eclipse over the 200 year interval. Focusing in on the next 50 years, accurate geodetic path coordinates and local circumstances for the 71 central eclipses from 1987 through 2035 are tabulated. Finally, the geodetic paths of the umbral and penumbral shadows of all 109 solar eclipses in this period are plotted on orthographic projection maps of the Earth. Appendices are included which discuss eclipse geometry, eclipse frequency and occurrence, modern eclipse prediction and time determination. Finally, code for a simple Fortran program is given to predict the occurrence and characteristics of solar eclipses.

  16. Water chemistry: fifty years of change and progress.

    PubMed

    Brezonik, Patrick L; Arnold, William A

    2012-06-05

    Water chemistry evolved from early foundations in several related disciplines. Although it is difficult to associate a precise date to its founding, several events support the argument that the field as we know it today developed in the mid-20th century--at the dawn of the "environmental era"--that is, ∼1960. The field in its modern incarnation thus is about 50 years old. In celebration of this half-centenary, we examine here the origins of water chemistry, how the field has changed over the past 50 years, and the principal driving forces for change, focusing on both the "practice" of water chemistry and ways that teaching the subject has evolved.

  17. Paranthropus boisei: fifty years of evidence and analysis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Bernard; Constantino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Paranthropus boisei is a hominin taxon with a distinctive cranial and dental morphology. Its hypodigm has been recovered from sites with good stratigraphic and chronological control, and for some morphological regions, such as the mandible and the mandibular dentition, the samples are not only relatively well dated, but they are, by paleontological standards, reasonably-sized. This means that researchers can trace the evolution of metric and nonmetric variables across hundreds of thousands of years. This paper is a detailed review of half a century's worth of fossil evidence and analysis of P. boisei and traces how both its evolutionary history and our understanding of its evolutionary history have evolved during the past 50 years.

  18. 50 (Fifty) Years of Research on Man in Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    Mr. Charles Castellano, Colonel Pharo Gagge , and Mr. Donald Good (deceased). These men were involved when the research was fast and furious in support...Major Dill, Chief, Physiology Branch; Major Randy Lovelace II. Chief, Service Liaison Branch; Major Adolph Gagge , Chief, Biophysics Branch. Captain...Branch: Captain Loran Carlson, Chief, Oxygen Branch; Major Adolph Gagge , Chief, Biophysics Branch; Lt’Col. Frank 27 The War Years 1941-1945 G. Hall

  19. Fifty Years of Boundary-Layer Theory and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryden, Hugh L.

    1955-01-01

    The year 1954 marked the 50th anniversary of the Prandtl boundary-layer theory from which we may date the beginning of man's understanding of the dynamics of real fluids. A backward look at this aspect of the history of the last 50 years may be instructive. This paper (1) attempts to compress the events of those 50 years into a few thousand words, to tell in this brief space the interesting story of the development of a new concept, its slow acceptance and growth, its spread from group to group within its country of origin, and its diffusion to other countries of the world. The original brief paper of Prandtl (2) was presented at the Third International Mathematical Congress at Heidelberg in 1904 and published in the following year. It was an attempt to explain the d'Alembert paradox, namely, that the neglect of the small friction of air in the theory resulted in the prediction of zero resistance to motion. Prandtl set himself the task of computing the motion of a fluid of small friction, so small that its effect could be neglected everywhere except where large velocity differences were present or a cumulative effect of friction occurred This led to the concept of boundary layer, or transition layer, near the wall of a body immersed in a fluid stream in which the velocity rises from zero to the free-stream value. It is interesting that Prandtl used the term Grenzsehicht (boundary layer) only once and the term Ubergangsschicht (transition layer) seven times in the brief article. Later writers also used Reibungsschicht (friction layer), but most writers today use Grenzschicht (boundary layer).

  20. Fifty years of Balkan endemic nephropathy: daunting questions, elusive answers.

    PubMed

    Batuman, V

    2006-02-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has remained a geographically constant endemic for 50 years. Despite extensive research, its etiology remains unknown. In the current issue, in a study in one of the earliest sites where the endemic was first recognized, Dimitrov et al. confirm the persistance of the endemic into a new generation and also identify a maternal link in the pathogenesis of BEN. This intriguing finding needs to be confirmed in other endemic areas.

  1. Fifty Years of Ocean Observations in the Pacific Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Frank; Tortell, Philippe

    2006-12-01

    Ocean Station Papa, at 50°N, 145°W in the Alaska Gyre (Figure 1), started as a weather station in the 1940s. In 1956, oceanographers began collecting a suite of standard measurements from the cool subarctic waters at Ocean Station Papa (OSP), including temperature, salinity, oxygen, and plankton. Three years later, a series of sampling stations was added along the 1400-kilometer `Line P' from the Canadian coast to OSP, to aid in understanding ocean variability.

  2. Fifty Years of Observing Hardware and Human Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMann, Joe

    2011-01-01

    During this half-day workshop, Joe McMann presented the lessons learned during his 50 years of experience in both industry and government, which included all U.S. manned space programs, from Mercury to the ISS. He shared his thoughts about hardware and people and what he has learned from first-hand experience. Included were such topics as design, testing, design changes, development, failures, crew expectations, hardware, requirements, and meetings.

  3. Fifty years of wilderness science: An international perspective

    Treesearch

    Steve Carver; Steve McCool; Zdenka Krenova; Mark Fisher; Stephen. Woodley

    2014-01-01

    The 50th Anniversary of the U.S. Wilderness Act is a cause for celebration, not least of which is the scientific use recognized in Section 4(b) of the act. This year also marks the 20th anniversary of publication of the International Journal of Wilderness (IJW). IJW plays a unique role in wilderness stewardship, science, and advocacy, providing a forum for presentation...

  4. Fifty years of porphyria at the University of Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Peter N; Corrigall, Anne V; Hift, Richard J

    2012-03-02

    The porphyrias are a group of disorders resulting from defective haem biosynthesis. One form, variegate porphyria, is common in South Africa as a result of a founder effect. Over the past 50 years, the University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences has built and maintained an international reputation for excellence in the field of porphyria. The porphyria group is respected for its research and for its accumulated experience in the management of these disorders. Equally important has been the comprehensive and holistic care offered to patients with porphyria, and to their families.

  5. The right to health fifty years on: still skeptical?

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1999-01-01

    The drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was a crucial step in the recognition of a legal right to health. Although the past 50 years have revealed weaknesses in the Declaration, it has been an important catalyst for social and legal change worldwide and for new thinking about public health. Recently, the struggle against the HIV/AIDS epidemic has taught us that protecting the human rights of those most at risk is, in fact, a most effective means of preventing the spread of HIV. Traditional public health problems, as well as those involving new biotechnologies, must today be addressed with specific attention to human rights.

  6. Fifty years ago: the quest for steroid hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Guy G

    2013-08-15

    In 1963 Peter Karlson put forward the revolutionary "hormone-gene" hypothesis, which would change drastically the way in which steroid hormones were thought to act at the time. From a historical perspective, this review relates the acceptance of this initially controversial idea, the discovery of the steroid receptors and the key experiments that have led to the current understanding of the mechanism of steroid hormone action. It shows how, over 50years, the field has widened beyond all expectation and has contributed to major advances not only in endocrinology, but also in molecular biology, pharmacology and therapeutics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fifty years of IAA History Symposia (1967-2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Hall, R. Cargill

    2017-05-01

    The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Symposia on the History of Rocketry and Astronautics have been held annually at the International Astronautical Congresses since 1967. During these past 50 years nearly 800 papers have been presented and subsequently published in the proceedings. With a 20-year rule imposed for historical presentations, the first 10 symposia concentrated on pre-World War II and early 1950s activities. A surprisingly large number of papers on early, less well-known Soviet-Russian contributions to rocketry and astronautics were presented in the first symposia, despite the ongoing Space Race between the U.S and USSR. Another important element in these symposia involved memoir papers offered by pre- and post-war rocket and astronautics pioneers from many countries, and the participation of many of these pioneers in person. In sum, the history of national space and rocket projects from some 40 countries were presented over the years in IAA History Symposia. These 50 symposia have provided a platform for scholars and professional and non-professional historians to meet and discuss the history of rocketry and astronautics, and to personally interview many space pioneers, most of whom today are deceased. Their personal recollections have since been shared with a large audience. Over time, IAA history papers divided into recognizable periods: ancient times through the 19th century, and the 20th and 21st centuries, which separate among actions and events that took place before 1945, in 1945 to 1957, and after 1957 (which marked the beginning of the space age). Proceedings of the IAA History Symposia have been published in English, ultimately in the History Series of the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and its publishing arm, Univelt Inc., under an agreement secured with the IAA. This paper presents an overview of the IAA History Symposia. It examines the early years of the history committee and its first symposium, the evolution of

  8. Fifty years of IMOG (International Meetings on Organic Geochemistry)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    IMOG2011 is the 25th of a series of international meetings on organic geochemistry that began in 1962. Thus, this 25th meeting marks the 50th anniversary year of IMOG, which has (a) had a rich history with meetings taking place in 11 different countries, (b) published Proceedings, titled “Advances in Organic Geochemistry,” from each meeting that now number 24 volumes totaling almost 18,000 pages, and (c) documented the content and development of the science of organic geochemistry. IMOG2011 adds a new milestone to the progress of organic geochemistry through time.

  9. Chlorpromazine-induced skin pigmentation with corneal and lens opacities.

    PubMed

    Huff, Laura S; Prado, Renata; Pederson, Jon F; Dunnick, Cory A; Lucas, Lisa M

    2014-05-01

    Chlorpromazine is known to cause abnormal oculocutaneous pigmentation in sun-exposed areas. We present the case of a psychiatric patient who developed blue-gray pigmentation of the skin as well as corneal and lens opacities following 7 years of chlorpromazine treatment. Ten months after discontinuation of chlorpromazine, the skin discoloration and anterior lens deposits showed partial improvement, but the corneal deposits remained unchanged. A review of the literature on the reversibility of chlorpromazine-induced abnormal oculocutaneous pigmentation also is provided.

  10. [Fifty years of cooperation--FEBS and Polish Biochemical Society].

    PubMed

    Barańska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    This year, the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS) celebrates its 50th anniversary. The Polish Biochemical Society, represented by the Society's President, Kazimierz Zakrzewski, was a founding member of the organization. The text presents a history of collaboration between FEBS and Polish Biochemical Society, the participation of Polish Biochemical Society members in different FEBS activities, as well as the role they played in running the Federation. Author describes FEBS Congresses which taken place in Warsaw, the first 3rd FEBS Meeting in 1966 and then 29th Congress in 2004. The profiles of Jakub Karol Parnas, the founding father of the Polish biochemistry and some crucial Presidents of the Society, are also presented. The text describes Parnas Conferences, organized jointly by Polish and Ukrainian Biochemical Societies from 1996, and growing from 2011 into three-nation event with participation of Ukrainian, Israeli and Polish scientists, largely due to significant help from FEBS. Summarizing the last few years, author judge the cooperation between the Federation and the Polish Biochemical Society as optimal.

  11. Fifty years of the Korean Society for Parasitology.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seung-Yull

    2009-10-01

    In 1959, the Korean Society for Parasitology was founded by clinical scientists, specialists of public health, and 5 core parasitologists with experience in American science and medicine. The Society this year celebrates its 50th anniversary. Due to public health importance at the time of foundation, medical parasitology was the main stream for next 3 decades. Domestic problems of niche parasitic diseases, unlisted in 6 tropical diseases of major importance, had been studied by own efforts. To cope with the demand of parasite control, evaluation system for control activity was built up. Control activity against soil-transmitted nematodes, conducted for almost 3 decades, was evaluated as a success. Evaluation of praziquantel efficacy for clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and neurocysticercosis, population dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a situation of continuous reinfections, diagnostic modalities of antibody tests combined with brain imaging developed for helminthiasis of the central nervous system and researches on intestinal trematodes were achievements in the first 30 years. During the recent 2 decades, science researches, such as cell and molecular biology of parasites and immunology of parasitic infections have been studied especially on parasitic allergens and proteolytic and anti-oxidant enzymes. Experiences of international cooperation for world health have been accumulated and would be expanded in the future.

  12. Fifty Years of the Korean Society for Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In 1959, the Korean Society for Parasitology was founded by clinical scientists, specialists of public health, and 5 core parasitologists with experience in American science and medicine. The Society this year celebrates its 50th anniversary. Due to public health importance at the time of foundation, medical parasitology was the main stream for next 3 decades. Domestic problems of niche parasitic diseases, unlisted in 6 tropical diseases of major importance, had been studied by own efforts. To cope with the demand of parasite control, evaluation system for control activity was built up. Control activity against soil-transmitted nematodes, conducted for almost 3 decades, was evaluated as a success. Evaluation of praziquantel efficacy for clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and neurocysticercosis, population dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a situation of continuous reinfections, diagnostic modalities of antibody tests combined with brain imaging developed for helminthiasis of the central nervous system and researches on intestinal trematodes were achievements in the first 30 years. During the recent 2 decades, science researches, such as cell and molecular biology of parasites and immunology of parasitic infections have been studied especially on parasitic allergens and proteolytic and anti-oxidant enzymes. Experiences of international cooperation for world health have been accumulated and would be expanded in the future. PMID:19885338

  13. Fifty years of dialysis in Africa: challenges and progress.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Rashad S; Khalil, Soha S; Arogundade, Fatiu A

    2015-03-01

    This review addresses the development of dialysis services in Africa in the face of past and contemporary challenges. Maintenance dialysis treatment programs developed in 29 countries over the past 50 years, usually many years after their independence and the end of subsequent territorial and civil wars. Eight countries had the resources to launch national dialysis programs, conventionally defined as those accommodating at least 100 patients per million population. Additionally, based on information obtained from international and local publications, conference proceedings, and personal communications, it appears that limited short-term dialysis therapy currently is available in most African countries. Currently, the prevalence of and outcomes associated with dialysis in Africa are influenced significantly by the following: (1) local health indexes, including the prevalence of undernutrition and chronic infections; (2) per capita gross domestic product; (3) national expenditures on health and growth of these expenditures with incremental demand; (4) availability and adequate training of health care providers; and (5) literacy. In an attempt to reduce the socioeconomic burden of maintenance dialysis treatment, 12 countries have adopted active transplantation programs and 5 are striving to develop screening and prevention programs. Our recommendations based on these observations include optimizing dialysis treatment initiatives and integrating them with other health strategies, as well as training and motivating local health care providers. These steps should be taken in collaboration with regulatory authorities and the public. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [From conventional cytogenetics to microarrays. Fifty years of Philadelphia chromosome].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Jesús M; Granada, Isabel; Solé, Francesc

    2011-07-23

    In 1960 Ph-chromosome was found associated with the presence of chronic myelogenous leukemia. In these 50 years an increasing number of cytogenetic abnormalities have been found associated with hematological malignancies. The presence of these abnormalities is not only important for the diagnosis of the patient, but it also contributes to the prognosis of patients with leukemia or lymphoma. For this reason the WHO classification of hematological disease has included these studies for the correct characterization of leukemias and lymphomas. In addition, the use of FISH and micromatrix methodologies have refined the genetic lesions present in these malignancies. The cytogenetic changes observed also provide further information in relation to the therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Perspectives on Erving Goffman's "Asylums" fifty years on.

    PubMed

    Adlam, John; Gill, Irwin; Glackin, Shane N; Kelly, Brendan D; Scanlon, Christopher; Mac Suibhne, Seamus

    2013-08-01

    Erving Goffman's "Asylums" is a key text in the development of contemporary, community-orientated mental health practice. It has survived as a trenchant critique of the asylum as total institution, and its publication in 1961 in book form marked a further stage in the discrediting of the asylum model of mental health care. In this paper, some responses from a range of disciplines to this text, 50 years on, are presented. A consultant psychiatrist with a special interest in cultural psychiatry and mental health legislation, two collaborating psychotherapists in adult and forensic mental health, a philosopher, and a recent medical graduate, present their varying responses to the text. The editors present these with the hope of encouraging further dialogue and debate from service users, carers, clinicians, and academics and researchers across a range of disciplines.

  16. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission`s program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance.

  17. A Decade of Reminders: Changing Age Consciousness between Fifty and Sixty Years Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined commonalities of aging consciousness among 72 professional men and women between 50 and 60 years old. Found frequency and intensity of aging messages increased in the fifties, fostering a quickened sense of aging during this decade. Identified four categories of age reminders characteristic in the fifties: body, generational, contextual,…

  18. Fifty Years of Evolving Partnerships in Veterinary Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Kochevar, Deborah T

    2015-01-01

    The Association of American Veterinary Medical College's (AAVMC's) role in the progression of academic veterinary medical education has been about building successful partnerships in the US and internationally. Membership in the association has evolved over the past 50 years, as have traditions of collaboration that strengthen veterinary medical education and the association. The AAVMC has become a source of information and a place for debate on educational trends, innovative pedagogy, and the value of a diverse learning environment. The AAVMC's relationship with the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education (AVMA COE), the accreditor of veterinary medical education recognized by the United Sates Department of Education (DOE), is highlighted here because of the key role that AAVMC members have played in the evolution of veterinary accreditation. The AAVMC has also been a partner in the expansion of veterinary medical education to include global health and One Health and in the engagement of international partners around shared educational opportunities and challenges. Recently, the association has reinforced its desire to be a truly international organization rather than an American organization with international members. To that end, strategic AAVMC initiatives aim to expand and connect the global community of veterinary educators to the benefit of students and the profession around the world. Tables in this article are intended to provide historical context, chronology, and an accessible way to view highlights.

  19. Chemical Hydrogeology: Fifty Years of Advances, Breakthroughs, and Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusseau, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical hydrogeology focuses on the composition, properties, and biogeochemical processes inherent to water in subsurface environments. Multiple avenues of research coalesced in the 1960's to foment the development of chemical hydrogeology as a distinct field. In the intervening 50 years, chemical hydrogeology principles have been applied to innumerable issues and problems, and concomitantly, the field has continually experienced advances, breakthroughs, and innovations in theory, analysis, and application. An overarching theme to chemical hydrogeology in both theory and application is integration--- integration of disciplines (interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary), integration of approaches (theoretical, experimental, analytical), and integration of scales (spatial, temporal). Chemical hydrogeology has never been more relevant and more challenged as today, as we face critical issues related to for example water scarcity and availability of clean water, impacts of energy development, production and storage, and human interactions with ecosystem services. This presentation will illustrate recent advances in chemical hydrogeology, ranging from application of advanced imaging for characterization of pore-scale multiphase systems to integrated physical and biogeochemical assessments of field-scale contaminant transport.

  20. Marijuana: A Fifty-Year Personal Addiction Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E

    2016-01-01

    As of September 2015, the cultivation, possession, and/or use of marijuana is illegal under U.S. federal law as a Schedule I narcotic; however, it is legal in four states and Washington, D.C. Forty-six states allow some form of medicinal marijuana or decriminalization. Marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years; Marijuana's regulation by law enforcement in the U.S., rather than the medical community, led to an almost complete halt to academic and scientific research after the 1930s. The late 1960s saw an upsurge in recreational marijuana use by middle-class youth, the majority of whom experienced minimal adverse effects aside from arrest and attendant legal complications. Since the mid-1990s, the use of medicinal marijuana for certain conditions has gained increasing acceptance. Stronger strains and formulations of marijuana pose a risk to the developing brains of adolescents. Within the addiction medicine community, there is currently no consensus on marijuana. In the East, the feeling is primarily that marijuana continue to be proscribed. In the West, where clinicians must face the realities of medicalization, decriminalization, and/or legalization, as well as widespread recreational use, there is more of a movement to minimize adverse effects, particularly on youth.

  1. [Celebrating fifty years of percutaneous renal biopsies in Spain].

    PubMed

    García Nieto, V; Luis Yanes, M I; Ruiz Pons, M

    2009-01-01

    The first renal biopsies, made as much in adults as in children, were surgical. They were made to patients who were under renal decapsulation with the intention to reduce the kidney pressure, especially in cases of nephrotic syndrome. In 1944, Nils Alwall initiated the accomplishment of percutaneous kidney biopsies by means of a needle and aspiration at the University of Lund (Sweden), although his experience was published in 1952. The first article that had by subject the practice of a percutaneous renal biopsy was written in 1950 by a Cuban doctor, Antonino Pérez Ara, and published in a local journal with little diffusion. The first work that appeared in a Spanish journal (1953) about the practice of the percutaneus renal biopsies was not signed by any Spanish group but by members of the Hospital "Calixto García" of the University of The Havana, Cuba. The first article published in Spain regarding to this subject, saw the light in 1958, now 50 years ago, in the Revista Clínica Española. The two first signers were Alfonso de la Peña Pineda and Vicente Gilsanz García, professors of the Medicine Faculty of Madrid. Later, the practice of the percutaneous renal biopsy became general in other Spanish hospitals.

  2. Fifty thousand years of Arctic vegetation and megafaunal diet.

    PubMed

    Willerslev, Eske; Davison, John; Moora, Mari; Zobel, Martin; Coissac, Eric; Edwards, Mary E; Lorenzen, Eline D; Vestergård, Mette; Gussarova, Galina; Haile, James; Craine, Joseph; Gielly, Ludovic; Boessenkool, Sanne; Epp, Laura S; Pearman, Peter B; Cheddadi, Rachid; Murray, David; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Yoccoz, Nigel; Binney, Heather; Cruaud, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Goslar, Tomasz; Alsos, Inger Greve; Bellemain, Eva; Brysting, Anne Krag; Elven, Reidar; Sønstebø, Jørn Henrik; Murton, Julian; Sher, Andrei; Rasmussen, Morten; Rønn, Regin; Mourier, Tobias; Cooper, Alan; Austin, Jeremy; Möller, Per; Froese, Duane; Zazula, Grant; Pompanon, François; Rioux, Delphine; Niderkorn, Vincent; Tikhonov, Alexei; Savvinov, Grigoriy; Roberts, Richard G; MacPhee, Ross D E; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Kjær, Kurt H; Orlando, Ludovic; Brochmann, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre

    2014-02-06

    Although it is generally agreed that the Arctic flora is among the youngest and least diverse on Earth, the processes that shaped it are poorly understood. Here we present 50 thousand years (kyr) of Arctic vegetation history, derived from the first large-scale ancient DNA metabarcoding study of circumpolar plant diversity. For this interval we also explore nematode diversity as a proxy for modelling vegetation cover and soil quality, and diets of herbivorous megafaunal mammals, many of which became extinct around 10 kyr bp (before present). For much of the period investigated, Arctic vegetation consisted of dry steppe-tundra dominated by forbs (non-graminoid herbaceous vascular plants). During the Last Glacial Maximum (25-15 kyr bp), diversity declined markedly, although forbs remained dominant. Much changed after 10 kyr bp, with the appearance of moist tundra dominated by woody plants and graminoids. Our analyses indicate that both graminoids and forbs would have featured in megafaunal diets. As such, our findings question the predominance of a Late Quaternary graminoid-dominated Arctic mammoth steppe.

  3. Fifty years of progress in speech and speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furui, Sadaoki

    2004-10-01

    Speech and speaker recognition technology has made very significant progress in the past 50 years. The progress can be summarized by the following changes: (1) from template matching to corpus-base statistical modeling, e.g., HMM and n-grams, (2) from filter bank/spectral resonance to Cepstral features (Cepstrum + DCepstrum + DDCepstrum), (3) from heuristic time-normalization to DTW/DP matching, (4) from gdistanceh-based to likelihood-based methods, (5) from maximum likelihood to discriminative approach, e.g., MCE/GPD and MMI, (6) from isolated word to continuous speech recognition, (7) from small vocabulary to large vocabulary recognition, (8) from context-independent units to context-dependent units for recognition, (9) from clean speech to noisy/telephone speech recognition, (10) from single speaker to speaker-independent/adaptive recognition, (11) from monologue to dialogue/conversation recognition, (12) from read speech to spontaneous speech recognition, (13) from recognition to understanding, (14) from single-modality (audio signal only) to multi-modal (audio/visual) speech recognition, (15) from hardware recognizer to software recognizer, and (16) from no commercial application to many practical commercial applications. Most of these advances have taken place in both the fields of speech recognition and speaker recognition. The majority of technological changes have been directed toward the purpose of increasing robustness of recognition, including many other additional important techniques not noted above.

  4. The "strong" RNA world hypothesis: fifty years old.

    PubMed

    Neveu, Marc; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Benner, Steven A

    2013-04-01

    This year marks the 50(th) anniversary of a proposal by Alex Rich that RNA, as a single biopolymer acting in two capacities, might have supported both genetics and catalysis at the origin of life. We review here both published and previously unreported experimental data that provide new perspectives on this old proposal. The new data include evidence that, in the presence of borate, small amounts of carbohydrates can fix large amounts of formaldehyde that are expected in an environment rich in carbon dioxide. Further, we consider other species, including arsenate, arsenite, phosphite, and germanate, that might replace phosphate as linkers in genetic biopolymers. While linkages involving these oxyanions are judged to be too unstable to support genetics on Earth, we consider the possibility that they might do so in colder semi-aqueous environments more exotic than those found on Earth, where cosolvents such as ammonia might prevent freezing at temperatures well below 273 K. These include the ammonia-water environments that are possibly present at low temperatures beneath the surface of Titan, Saturn's largest moon.

  5. Fifty years of progress in speech analysis (LPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itakura, Fumitada

    2004-10-01

    Although the history of statistical linear prediction is very long, it was first applied to speech analysis in 1966 at NTT to estimate the all-pole speech spectrum envelope in order to implement ASR and vocoder. All-pole spectral parameters are investigated in detail to find a better representation with respect to quantization and interpolation characteristics, partly at NTT and Bell Labs, leading to PARCOR and LSP. These parameters were applied to narrow band speech coders or LPC vocoders and speech synthesizer chips in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but the speech quality was insufficient for digital mobile telephone application. The problem was later solved by using hybrid CELP and MLP coding mainly at BTL. LPC analysis was also applied to acoustic front-end for ASR. Again it was found that LPC suffers with additive noise and linear/nonlinear distortions. Whereas computational efficiency of LPC was used to be the most prominent advantage, today we have gained thousands of times the processing power at a ten thousandth of the cost in 40 years. It is hoped a novel series of speech analysis methods, whose competence is comparable to human auditory system, should be developed at any expense of computational complexity.

  6. Fifty Years of THERP and Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    In 1962 at a Human Factors Society symposium, Alan Swain presented a paper introducing a Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP). This was followed in 1963 by a Sandia Laboratories monograph outlining basic human error quantification using THERP and, in 1964, by a special journal edition of Human Factors on quantification of human performance. Throughout the 1960s, Swain and his colleagues focused on collecting human performance data for the Sandia Human Error Rate Bank (SHERB), primarily in connection with supporting the reliability of nuclear weapons assembly in the US. In 1969, Swain met with Jens Rasmussen of Risø National Laboratory and discussed the applicability of THERP to nuclear power applications. By 1975, in WASH-1400, Swain had articulated the use of THERP for nuclear power applications, and the approach was finalized in the watershed publication of the NUREG/CR-1278 in 1983. THERP is now 50 years old, and remains the most well known and most widely used HRA method. In this paper, the author discusses the history of THERP, based on published reports and personal communication and interviews with Swain. The author also outlines the significance of THERP. The foundations of human reliability analysis are found in THERP: human failure events, task analysis, performance shaping factors, human error probabilities, dependence, event trees, recovery, and pre- and post-initiating events were all introduced in THERP. While THERP is not without its detractors, and it is showing signs of its age in the face of newer technological applications, the longevity of THERP is a testament of its tremendous significance. THERP started the field of human reliability analysis. This paper concludes with a discussion of THERP in the context of newer methods, which can be seen as extensions of or departures from Swain’s pioneering work.

  7. Fifty-one Years of Hawaiian Hotspot Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Farnetani, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Tuzo Wilson's ground breaking realization that the progressively increasing ages of volcanism along linear chains of Pacific islands are best explained by movement of the Pacific plate over a stationary heat source was followed by Jason Morgan's physically more plausible plume theory. Hawaii, the "mother" of all plumes/hotspots, has become the focus of a continuing burden-of-proof battle about the existence of mantle plumes. The monotonic age progression of this island chain has been amply confirmed, but the hotspot locus is not perfectly fixed, and this has been taken to be a failed test of the plume model. Numerous numerical experiments in bottom-heated settings have demonstrated that plumes are a physically natural mode of convection, but antiplumers focus on the fact that in internally heated media, plumes are unlikely. Early proposals of propagating lithospheric fractures with magma tapped from the underlying asthenosphere have never been sufficiently developed to seriously compete with the convection models. Geochemists eagerly adopted the plume model and developed highly model-dependent criteria for identifying mantle plumes, but these are easily knocked down, because most geochemical tracers carry no information about the specific mantle depth being sampled. Conversely, petrological-geochemical models invoking exclusively asthenospheric magma sources have not explained how, in the absence of a Bunsen burner, high melt production can be localized in one geographic spot for 108 years. Our work has focussed on using dynamic modelling to trace the path of geochemical heterogeneities from the base of the mantle to the volcanoes. We find that large-scale heterogeneities existing in the lower thermal boundary layer are drawn into close proximity in the plume conduit and in the erupting volcanoes. Geochemistry cannot prove mantle plumes, but plumes offer a promising path to understanding the geochemistry of the deep mantle.

  8. Fifty Years of Progress in Water Relations Research

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Paul J.

    1974-01-01

    Many of the basic concepts dealing with soil and plant water relationships were in existence 50 years ago, but were inadequately presented in the textbooks of that time. There has been a marked increase in the amount of work done in this field during recent decades, but much of it involves advances in understanding the concepts already in existence. Three of the most important advances in the field of water relations are: (a) acceptance of the term, water potential, to describe the free energy status of water in soil and plants; (b) marked improvement in methods of measuring water potential and stomatal resistance; and (c) use of the concept of water flow in the soil-plant system as analogous to flow of electricity in a conducting system. A number of interesting and important problems remain to be studied. Of these, probably the most important is to learn why mild water stress of less than - 10 bars can affect various enzyme-mediated metabolic processes. Plant scientists in applied fields also need to learn more about the causes of differences in ability to tolerate drought among plants of various kinds. There is uncertainty concerning the relative magnitude of the resistances to water flow in various parts of the soil-plant system and concerning the causes of the apparent changes in resistance to water flow with increase in rate and with time of day. More information also is needed concerning the role of growth regulators synthesized in roots and the importance of the older, suberized roots in the absorption of water and mineral nutrients. PMID:16658910

  9. Fifty Years of Quasars: Physical Insights and Potential for Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulentic, J. W.; Marziani, P.; Dultzin, D.; D'Onofrio, M.; del Olmo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Last year (2013) was more or less the 50th anniversary of the discovery of quasars. It is an interesting time to review what we know (and don't know) about them both empirically and theoretically. These compact sources involving line emitting plasma show extraordinary luminosities extending to one thousand times that of our Milky Way in emitting volumes of a few solar system diameters (log Lboi= 44.0 - 48.0 erg s-1: D=1-3 light months ~ 103 - 104 gravitational radii). The advent of 8-10 meter class telescopes enables us to study them spectroscopically in ever greater detail. In 2000 we introduced a 4D Eigenvector 1 parameters space involving optical, UV and X- ray measures designed to serve as a 4D equivalent of the 2D H-R diagram so important for depicting the diversity of stellar types and evolutionary states. This diagram has revealed a principal sequence of quasars distinguished by Eddington ratio (proportional to the accretion rate per unit mass). Thus while stellar differences are primarily driven by the mass of a star, quasar differences are apparently driven by the ratio of luminosity-to-mass. Out of this work has emerged the concept of two quasars populations A and B separated at Eddington ratio around 0.2 which maximizes quasar multispectral differences. The mysterious 8% of quasars that are radio-loud belong to population B which are the lowest accretors with the largest black hole masses. Finally we consider the most extreme population A quasars which are the highest accretors and in some cases are among the youngest quasars. We describe how these sources might be exploited as standard candles for cosmology.

  10. Fifty years of progress in water relations research.

    PubMed

    Kramer, P J

    1974-10-01

    Many of the basic concepts dealing with soil and plant water relationships were in existence 50 years ago, but were inadequately presented in the textbooks of that time. There has been a marked increase in the amount of work done in this field during recent decades, but much of it involves advances in understanding the concepts already in existence. Three of the most important advances in the field of water relations are: (a) acceptance of the term, water potential, to describe the free energy status of water in soil and plants; (b) marked improvement in methods of measuring water potential and stomatal resistance; and (c) use of the concept of water flow in the soil-plant system as analogous to flow of electricity in a conducting system.A number of interesting and important problems remain to be studied. Of these, probably the most important is to learn why mild water stress of less than - 10 bars can affect various enzyme-mediated metabolic processes. Plant scientists in applied fields also need to learn more about the causes of differences in ability to tolerate drought among plants of various kinds. There is uncertainty concerning the relative magnitude of the resistances to water flow in various parts of the soil-plant system and concerning the causes of the apparent changes in resistance to water flow with increase in rate and with time of day. More information also is needed concerning the role of growth regulators synthesized in roots and the importance of the older, suberized roots in the absorption of water and mineral nutrients.

  11. Fifty Years of Fluidic Injection for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviews 50 years of research investigating jet noise reduction through fluidic injection. Both aqueous and gaseous injection concepts for supersonic and subsonic jet exhausts are discussed. Aqueous injection reduces jet noise by reducing main jet temperature through evaporation and main jet velocity through momentum transfer between water droplets and the main jet. In the launch vehicle environment where large quantities of fluid do not have to be carried with the vehicle, water injection is very effective at reducing excess overpressures. For in-flight use, aqueous injection is problematic as most studies show that either large quantities of water or high injection pressures are required to achieve noise reduction. The most effective noise reduction injection systems require water pressures above 2000 kPa (290 psi) and water-to-mainjet mass flow rates above 10% to achieve overall sound pressure level reductions of roughly 6 dB in the peak jet noise direction. Injection at lower pressure (roughly 1034 kPa or 150 psi) has resulted in a 1.6 EPNdb reduction in effective perceived noise level. Gaseous injection reduces noise through jet plume modifications resulting from the introduction of streamwise vorticity in the main jet. In subsonic single-stream jets, air injection usually produces the largest overall sound pressure level reductions (roughly 2 dB) in the peak jet noise direction. In dual-stream jets, properly designed injection systems can reduce overall sound pressure levels and effective perceived noise levels but care must be taken to choose injector designs that limit sound pressure level increases at high frequencies. A reduction of 1.0 EPNdB has been achieved with injection into the fan and core streams. However, air injection into dual-stream subsonic jets has received little attention and the potential for noise reduction is uncertain at this time. For dual-stream supersonic jets, additional research needs to be conducted to determine if

  12. Fifty years of progress in geomagnetic cutoff rigidity determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.

    2009-11-01

    This paper is a review of the progress made in geomagnetic cutoff rigidity calculations over the past 50 years. Determinations of cosmic ray trajectories, and hence cutoff rigidities, using digital computers began in 1956 and progressed slowly until 1962 when McCracken developed an efficient computer program to determine cosmic ray trajectories in a high degree simulation of the geomagnetic field. The application of this cosmic ray trajectory technique was limited by the available computer power. As computers became faster it was possible to determine vertical cutoff rigidity values for cosmic ray stations and coarse world grids; however, the computational effort required was formidable for the computers of the 1960s. Since most cosmic ray experiments were conducted on the surface of the Earth, the vertical cutoff rigidity was adopted as a standard reference value. The effective cutoff value derived from trajectory calculations appeared to be adequate for ordering cosmic ray data from latitude surveys. As the geomagnetic field evolution became more apparent, it was found necessary to update the world grid of cutoff rigidity values using more accurate descriptions of the geomagnetic field. In the 1970s and 1980s it became possible to do experimental verification of the accuracy of these cosmic ray cutoff determinations and also to design experiments based on these cutoff rigidity calculations. The extensive trajectory calculations done in conjunction with the HEAO-3 satellite and a comparison between these experimental measurements and the trajectory calculations verified the Störmer theory prediction regarding angular cutoff variations and also confirmed that the structure of the first order penumbra is very stable and could be used for isotope separation. Contemporary work in improving cutoff rigidities seems to be concentrating on utilizing improved magnetospheric models in an effort to determine more accurate geomagnetic cutoff values. When using geomagnetic

  13. Serving the Nation for Fifty Years: 1952 - 2002 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], Fifty Years of Accomplishments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2002-01-01

    For 50 years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been making history and making a difference. The outstanding efforts by a dedicated work force have led to many remarkable accomplishments. Creative individuals and interdisciplinary teams at the Laboratory have sought breakthrough advances to strengthen national security and to help meet other enduring national needs. The Laboratory's rich history includes many interwoven stories -- from the first nuclear test failure to accomplishments meeting today's challenges. Many stories are tied to Livermore's national security mission, which has evolved to include ensuring the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons without conducting nuclear tests and preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction. Throughout its history and in its wide range of research activities, Livermore has achieved breakthroughs in applied and basic science, remarkable feats of engineering, and extraordinary advances in experimental and computational capabilities. From the many stories to tell, one has been selected for each year of the Laboratory's history. Together, these stories give a sense of the Laboratory -- its lasting focus on important missions, dedication to scientific and technical excellence, and drive to made the world more secure and a better place to live.

  14. Chlorpromazine versus placebo for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Adams, Clive E; Awad, George A; Rathbone, John; Thornley, Ben; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-06

    Chlorpromazine, formulated in the 1950s, remains a benchmark treatment for people with schizophrenia. To review the effects of chlorpromazine compared with placebo, for the treatment of schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (15 May 2012). We also searched references of all identified studies for further trial citations. We contacted pharmaceutical companies and authors of trials for additional information. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing chlorpromazine with placebo for people with schizophrenia and non-affective serious/chronic mental illness irrespective of mode of diagnosis. Primary outcomes of interest were death, violent behaviours, overall improvement, relapse and satisfaction with care. We independently inspected citations and abstracts, ordered papers, re-inspected and quality assessed these. We analysed dichotomous data using risk ratio (RR) and estimated the 95% confidence interval (CI) around this. We excluded continuous data if more than 50% of participants were lost to follow-up. Where continuous data were included, we analysed this data using mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval. We used a fixed-effect model. We inspected over 1100 electronic records. The review currently includes 315 excluded studies and 55 included studies. The quality of the evidence is very low. We found chlorpromazine reduced the number of participants experiencing a relapse compared with placebo during six months to two years follow-up (n = 512, 3 RCTs, RR 0.65 CI 0.47 to 0.90), but data were heterogeneous. No difference was found in relapse rates in the short, medium or long term over two years, although data were also heterogeneous. We found chlorpromazine provided a global improvement in a person's symptoms and functioning (n = 1164, 14 RCTs, RR 0.71 CI 0.58 to 0.86). Fewer people allocated to chlorpromazine left trials early ( n = 1831, 27 RCTs, RR 0.64 CI 0.53 to 0.78) compared with placebo

  15. Deterrence, denuclearization, and proliferation: Alternative visions of the next fifty years

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-02-12

    The great library of Alexandria may have contained fewer volumes than the number which have been written on the subject of nuclear weapons in the Cold War. With the end of the Cold War, a new nuclear library is in the making. Much thought is being given to the next steps in nuclear policy, strategy, forces, arms control, and nonproliferation. For this very distinguished conference, however, I have been asked to look further ahead indeed, forward fifty-years. Prognostication is always a risky business. Detailed predictions beyond the shortest duration are difficult to label as ``scientific`` even in the social sciences. Forecasting ahead fifty years in an age of ever accelerating change would seem to be hopeless. Projecting the future of nuclear weapons, however, may not be as complex as one might think. Detailing the future fifty years from now is not necessary. We want to inform upcoming decisions by examining the possibilities, not write a history in advance of what is to happen. Our look forward con benefit from a brief look back fifty years. In retrospect, those years passed quickly, and with each additional year, analysts make them appear more simple than they seemed at the time. This paper contributes further to this process of oversimplification, as we say, ``for heuristic purposes.`` When in doubt, I have erred on the side of being provocative.

  16. Domain analysis of computational science - Fifty years of a scientific computing group

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.

    2010-02-23

    I employed bibliometric- and historical-methods to study the domain of the Scientific Computing group at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for an extended period of fifty years, from 1958 to 2007. I noted and confirmed the growing emergence of interdisciplinarity within the group. I also identified a strong, consistent mathematics and physics orientation within it.

  17. Fifty years of continuous improvement: (What has DOE done for analytical chemistry?)

    SciTech Connect

    Shults, W.D.

    1993-11-01

    Over the past fifty years, analytical scientist within the DOE complex have had a tremendous impact on the field of analytical chemistry. This paper suggests six ``high impact`` research/development areas that either originated within or were brought to maturity within the DOE laboratories. ``High impact`` means they lead to new subdisciplines or to new ways of doing business.

  18. Fifty Ninth Annual Report: United States Department of Labor. Fiscal Year 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    This fifty-ninth annual report of the United States Department of Labor for the fiscal year 1971 contains a 6-page report by the Secretary of Labor, 11 separate Federal Department reports, and a variety of appended tables covering such areas as enrollments and funding for various government programs. Detailing the initiation or improvement of a…

  19. Fifty Years Later: Comments on the Further Development of a Science of Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigland, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Fifty years after the publication of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", some possibilities for the future of Skinner's "science of verbal behavior" are considered. Specifically, certain areas of development or advancement are examined which might be of special importance to the expansion and influence of the functional analysis of verbal behavior.…

  20. Fifty years of entomological publications in the Revista de Biología Tropical.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Over its fifty year history nearly twenty percent of the papers published in the Revista de Biología Tropical have been about insects and arachnids. In the 1950's papers on arthropods of medical importance were dominant, in the 1960's there was a poliferation of papers on bees, and in more recent years the subjects have become increasingly diverse. In terms of nationality of contributing authors, the journal appears to have become increasingly international in later years.

  1. Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker: A Fifty-Year Friendship*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2015-03-01

    This paper follows Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker during their fifty-year friendship from 1926, when they first met in Copenhagen, to Heisenberg's death in Munich in 1976. The relationship underwent profound changes during that period, as did physics, philosophy, and German society and politics, all of which exerted important influences on their lives, work, and interactions with each other. The nature of these developments and their impact are explored in this paper.

  2. Chlorpromazine versus reserpine for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Nur, Selin; Adams, Clive E

    2016-04-28

    In the 1940s reserpine, refined from a plant extract that had been used for centuries, began to be used as a treatment for people with mental disorders and was one of the very first antipsychotic drugs. Its irreversible pharmacological potency and adverse effects meant that it has been withdrawn in the UK and its role has been superceded by 'newer' compounds. The effects of reserpine are of historical interest although there are some reports of it still being used in highly specialist situations in psychiatry. Chlorpromazine is also an old drug but it is still used for treatment of people with schizophrenia. To investigate the effects of two old medications (reserpine and chlorpromazine) for people with schizophrenia. Reserpine is now rarely used while chlorpromazine remains on the essential list of drugs of the World Health Organization (WHO). We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (24 March 2016). We included randomised clinical trials focusing on chlorpromazine versus reserpine for schizophrenia that presented useable data. We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. We employed a fixed-effect model for analyses. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created a 'Summary of findings' table using GRADE. The review currently includes nine studies with an average 60 participants per study. All of these studies are now over 60 years old, conducted between 1955 and 1962. When chlorpromazine was compared with reserpine for people with schizophrenia, improvement in global state was better at short term for those receiving chlorpromazine (n = 781, 6 RCTs, RR 'not improved' 0.75 95% CI 0.62 to 0.92, low-quality evidence). Short-term improvement in paranoid distortion was measured using the Multidimensional Scale for Rating Psychiatric Patients (MSRPP). Data showed no clear difference between treatment groups (n

  3. Ecology and management of a forested landscape: fifty years on the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John, C.; Blake, John, I.

    2005-07-01

    Kilgo, John, C., and John I. Blake. 2005. Ecology and management of a forested landscape; fifty years on the Savannah River Site. Island Press. Washington, DC. John C. Kilgo and John I. Blake, eds. 479 pp. Abstract: This book chronicles and catalogs the forest management and forest restoration practices over the last 50 years at the Savannah River Site. It includes a description of the land use history, physical environment, forest management, biotic communities, threatened and endangered species and harvestable natural resources of the area known today as the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

  4. [Fifty years ago, the double helix gave birth to molecular biology].

    PubMed

    Lunardi, J

    2003-01-01

    Fifty years ago, a paper signed by two young scientists, James Watson and Francis Crick, and reporting a model for DNA based on a double helix structure was published in the scientific review Nature in date of april 25, 1953. Although this model of striking simplicity and rare elegance was actually worked out in a few months by the two men, it was the result of quite 100 years of research aimed at the definition of the structure of the genetic material present in living organisms. The double helix was the outcome of a multidisciplinary approach initiated in the mid 19th century by the genetic laws of Gregor Mendel and the discovery of the chemical nature of the desoxyribonucleic acid by Johann Friedrich Miesher. The discovery of the DNA structure had been at the origin of major scientific progress regarding mechanisms that rule the replication and the expression of the genetic information. Theses researches have given birth to a new scientific field, molecular biology, which everyone will see very soon is actually part in a quasi symbiotic manner of all other biological fields dealing with life. The spectacular development of molecular biology during the last fifty years was in great part possible thanks to a concomitant enormous development of the different methods of investigation of the biological molecules and structure. The present rising of biotechnology applications is the direct consequence of the tremendous amount of fundamental knowledge gained during the last few decennia. They open very important and attractive perspectives both on medical or on socio-economic point of views. There is no doubt that the next fifty years will be as fruitful as the last ones.

  5. Fifty-year Amundsen-Scott South Pole station surface climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzara, Matthew A.; Keller, Linda M.; Markle, Timothy; Gallagher, John

    2012-11-01

    Fifty-four years of Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station meteorological data have been analyzed to develop a comprehensive climatology from the station's meteorological observations. In reaching the goal of a full climatological analysis, a meteorological station history was required and a full quality control review of the data was conducted. Analysis of the general fifty-year climate is presented for temperature, pressure, wind speed and wind direction along with averages (means), extremes and records, daily ranges, trends and discontinuities. Additional investigations include how often the temperature reaches - 100 °F and changes in the flying season as seen via acceptable temperatures. The analysis found slight decreases in the temperature and pressure over the 1957-2010 time period that are not statistically significant. The wind speed, however, does show a significant downward trend of 0.28 m s- 1 decade- 1 over the same period. The seasonal time series of temperature and pressure illustrate how longer term oscillations are superimposed on shorter-term fluctuations. The seasonal mean wind speed over the 54 year period shows a consistent pattern of decreasing speed for all seasons. In contrast to the mean wind speeds, the maximum wind speeds are increasing for the summer and transition seasons, and the increases are statistically significant. Finally, for the period 1983-2010, the average annual snow accumulation is decreasing at a statistically significant downward rate of - 2.9 mm year- 1.

  6. Interaction between piperazine and chlorpromazine

    PubMed Central

    Sturman, Gillian

    1974-01-01

    The interaction between piperazine and chlorpromazine has been studied in rats and mice. Piperazine administered a few hours previously potentiated the action of chlorpromazine on the central nervous system. No such interaction was found between piperazine and prochlorperazine. PMID:4856722

  7. Fifty Years of Ornithological Coverage at SRS: What Species and Groups Have Fallen Through the Cracks?

    SciTech Connect

    McCallum, D.A.; Leatherman, S.; Mayer, J.J.

    2000-10-01

    The extensive databases on avian species developed at SRS over the last fifty years have been significant. The authors identified that temporal periods and higher taxonomic groups have received little or no coverage. Waterfowl and water birds have been adequately covered as have the three endangered species. Extensive terrestrial monitoring was initiated in the 1990's. Two groups are singled out for study include raptors and cavity nesters. Aerial foragers and nocturnal species have received little attention. Recommendations are made to compare on-site and off-site populations through partnerships.

  8. The scientific bridge: fifty years of Germany-Israel diplomatic relations.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Helmut; Willner, Itamar; Marek, Ilan

    2015-10-12

    "…︁ Fifty years ago, out of the ashes of the Second World War, the German Chancellor, Konrad Adenauer, and the Israeli Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, initiated the establishment of diplomatic relations between Germany and Israel. This special issue commemorates the fruitful and mutually enriching long-term collaborations between Israeli and German scientists …︁ Read more in the Editorial by Helmut Schwarz, Itamar Willner, and Ilan Marek. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Chlorpromazine-induced liver and bone marrow granulomas associated with agranulocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yehuda, A; Bloom, A; Lijovetzky, G; Flusser, D; Tur-Kaspa, R

    1990-08-01

    Chlorpromazine-induced liver damage is usually manifested by intrahepatic cholestasis. Hypoplastic bone marrow associated with agranulocytosis is a well-known side effect of chlorpromazine treatment. A 35-year-old woman with liver and bone marrow granulomas associated with agranulocytosis induced by chlorpromazine treatment is described.

  10. The Research of Dr. Joanne Simpson: Fifty Years Investigating Hurricanes, Tropical Clouds and Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W. -K.; Halverson, J.; Adler, R.; Garstang, M.; Houze, R., Jr.; LeMone, M.; Pielke, R., Sr.; Woodley, W.; O'C.Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This AMS Meteorological Monographs is dedicated to Dr. Joanne Simpson for her many pioneering research efforts in tropical meteorology during her fifty-year career. Dr. Simpson's major areas of scientific research involved the "hot tower" hypothesis and its role in hurricanes, structure and maintenance of trade winds, air-sea interaction, and observations and the mechanism for hurricanes and waterspouts. She was also a pioneer in cloud modeling with the first one-dimensional model and had the first cumulus model on a computer. She also played a major role in planning and leading observational experiments on convective cloud systems. The launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, a joint U.S.-Japan project, in November of 1997 made it possible for quantitative measurements of tropical rainfall to be obtained on a continuous basis over the entire global tropics. Dr. Simpson was the TRAM Project Scientist from 1986 until its launch in 1997. Her efforts during this crucial period ensured that the mission was both well planned scientifically and well engineered as well as within budget. In this paper, Dr. J. Simpson's nine specific accomplishments during her fifty-year career: (1) hot tower hypothesis, (2) hurricanes, (3) airflow and clouds over heated islands, (4) cloud models, (5) trade winds and their role in cumulus development, (6) air-sea interaction, (7) cloud-cloud interactions and mergers, (8) waterspouts, and (9) TRMM science, will be described and discussed.

  11. Fifty Years of Progress, 1937-1987 [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL, LBNL)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Budinger, T. F. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    This booklet was prepared for the 50th anniversary of medical and biological research at the Donner Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California. The intent is to present historical facts and to highlight important facets of fifty years of accomplishments in medical and biological sciences. A list of selected scientific publications from 1937 to 1960 is included to demonstrate the character and lasting importance of early pioneering work. The organizational concept is to show the research themes starting with the history, then discoveries of medically important radionuclides, then the use of accelerated charged particles in therapy, next human physiology studies then sequentially studies of biology from tissues to macromolecules; and finally studies of the genetic code.

  12. A Report on the Hysteroscopic Removal of a Gräfenberg Ring After Almost Fifty Years in Utero

    PubMed Central

    Baldauf, P.; Tönnes, R.; Simon, S.; David, M.

    2014-01-01

    A report on the hysteroscopic removal of a Gräfenberg ring after almost fifty years in utero. In addition to the differential diagnostic considerations, the medical history aspects of this case are particularly interesting. PMID:25484377

  13. The continuous time random walk, still trendy: fifty-year history, state of art and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutner, Ryszard; Masoliver, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    In this article we demonstrate the very inspiring role of the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism, the numerous modifications permitted by its flexibility, its various applications, and the promising perspectives in the various fields of knowledge. A short review of significant achievements and possibilities is given. However, this review is still far from completeness. We focused on a pivotal role of CTRWs mainly in anomalous stochastic processes discovered in physics and beyond. This article plays the role of an extended announcement of the Eur. Phys. J. B Special Issue [years-on">http://epjb.epj.org/open-calls-for-papers/123-epj-b/1090-ctrw-50-years-on] containing articles which show incredible possibilities of the CTRWs. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  14. Psychological Resources and Self-rated Health Status on Fifty-year-old Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study is to expand knowledge about predictors of the self-rated health and mental health in fifty-year-old women. The study exploring links between self-rated mental/health and optimism, self-esteem, acceptance of the changes in physical look and some sociodemographic factors. Methods Participants in this study were 209 women aged 50 to 59. A single-items measures of self-rated health and mental health were used. Self-esteem was measured through the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; optimism through the OPEB questionnaire; acceptance of the changes in physical look was rated by respondents on a seven-point scale. Participants were also asked about weight loss attempts, the amount of leisure time, and going on vacation during the last year. Results Predictors of the self-rated mental health in women in the age range of 50 to 59 were: acceptance of the changes in physical look, self-esteem and optimism. Predictors of the self-rated health were: optimism and acceptance of the changes in physical look. Conclusion Optimism and acceptance of the changes in physical look seem to be important factors that may impact subjective health both physical and mental of women in their 50s. The role of the leisure time and vacation in instilling the subjective health requires further investigation. PMID:26793678

  15. FOREWORD: Fifty years of atomic time-keeping: 1955 to 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Terry

    2005-06-01

    The year 2005 is the centenary of Einstein's four famous papers that were published in 1905. This anniversary is being widely celebrated all over the world and, indeed, 2005 has been dubbed World Year of Physics. The year 2005, however, also marks the fiftieth anniversary of the first operation of Essen and Parry's caesium beam atomic frequency standard at the NPL in May 1955. While Einstein's papers signalled a revolution in physics and in our understanding of the natural world, the first atomic clock signalled a revolution in time-keeping that has become, among other things, one of the most powerful tools in pushing back the frontiers of Einstein's theories of special and general relativity. The atomic clock has also had consequences for navigation comparable to those brought about by Harrison's mechanical clocks almost exactly two hundred years before. Harrison's H3 was completed in 1757 and H4 in 1759. The atomic clock, and the creation of an atomic time scale that quickly followed, led ten years later to the adoption of an atomic definition for the SI second in Resolution 1 of the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures, 1967/68. This marked the end of time-keeping based on the movements of the heavenly bodies that had beaten the rhythm of the days and the seasons since the dawn of human civilization. Fifty years on is a good occasion to look back, to look forward and at the same time to examine where we are today, in terms of measuring time. While we still arrange for our atomic clocks to show noon when the sun is overhead on the Greenwich meridian, everything else has changed in the fifty years since 1955. In this special issue of Metrologia the reader will find articles on the development of the atomic clock, its theory and practice, how the first atomic time scale was devised and formally introduced and how we maintain atomic time today, as well as articles looking forward to even more accurate clocks and time scales. Included also are articles on

  16. Fifty years of co-evolution and beyond: integrating co-evolution from molecules to species.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Diego; Fitzpatrick, Connor R; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-11-01

    Fifty years after Ehrlich and Raven's seminal paper, the idea of co-evolution continues to grow as a key concept in our understanding of organic evolution. This concept has not only provided a compelling synthesis between evolutionary biology and community ecology, but has also inspired research that extends beyond its original scope. In this article, we identify unresolved questions about the co-evolutionary process and advocate for the integration of co-evolutionary research from molecular to interspecific interactions. We address two basic questions: (i) What is co-evolution and how common is it? (ii) What is the unit of co-evolution? Both questions aim to explore the heart of the co-evolutionary process. Despite the claim that co-evolution is ubiquitous, we argue that there is in fact little evidence to support the view that reciprocal natural selection and coadaptation are common in nature. We also challenge the traditional view that co-evolution only occurs between traits of interacting species. Co-evolution has the potential to explain evolutionary processes and patterns that result from intra- and intermolecular biochemical interactions within cells, intergenomic interactions (e.g. nuclear-cytoplasmic) within species, as well as intergenomic interactions mediated by phenotypic traits between species. Research that bridges across these levels of organization will help to advance our understanding of the importance of the co-evolutionary processes in shaping the diversity of life on Earth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cardiac mechano-electric coupling research: fifty years of progress and scientific innovation.

    PubMed

    Quinn, T Alexander; Kohl, Peter; Ravens, Ursula

    2014-08-01

    With its conceptualisation nearly fifty years ago, cardiac mechano-electric coupling (MEC) has developed from a collection of anecdotal reports into a field of research that - in spite of early scepticism - is now an accepted part of cardiac structure-function considerations. Throughout this development, MEC studies have been both driver and beneficiary of technological innovation: from sharp electrode recordings for the study of in situ cell responses to cell isolation and patch clamp; from early approaches to mechanical stimulation of tissue using photographic diaphragms to modern force-length feedback systems for isolated cells; and from strain gauge force recordings to genetically encodes stress probes. While much is now known about subcellular contributors to cardiac MEC, including stretch-activated ion channels and mechanical modulation of cell calcium handling, their integration at higher levels of structural complexity, and the generation of clinically-translatable knowledge, have remained challenging. This short review provides a brief summary of past achievements, current activities, and potentially rewarding future directions of cardiac MEC research. We highlight challenges and opportunities on the way to an integrated understanding of how external and intrinsic mechanical factors affect the heartbeat in health and disease, and how such understanding may improve the ways in which we prevent and/or treat cardiac pathology.

  18. Emerging frontiers of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: The metamorphosis in the last fifty years

    PubMed Central

    Asiri, Yousif A.

    2010-01-01

    The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of “medical and pharmacy education” is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established only half a century ago. This period has seen major changes in the dimension of “pharmacy education” to keep pace with the education systems in the United States and Europe. As our knowledge and perceptions about pharmaceuticals change with time, this motivates educators to search for better teaching alternatives to the ever increasing number of enthusiastic and budding pharmacists. Recently, the academic system in Saudi Arabian Pharmacy has adopted a more clinically-oriented Pharm. D. curriculum. This paper deals with the major changes from the inception of a small pharmacy faculty in 1959, the College of Pharmacy at the King Saud University, Riyadh, to the model of progress and a prototype of pharmacy colleges in Saudi Arabia. The fifty year chronological array can be regarded as an epitome of progress in pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia from its traditional curriculum to the modern day Pharm. D. curriculum with a high population growth and expanding health care sector, the demand for qualified pharmacists is growing and is projected to grow considerably in the future. The number of pharmacy graduates is increasing each year by many folds and to meet the needs the system lays stress upon a constant revising and updating of the current curriculum from a global perspective. PMID:23960737

  19. Higher blood concentrations of synthetic musks in women above fifty years than in younger women.

    PubMed

    Hutter, H-P; Wallner, P; Hartl, W; Uhl, M; Lorbeer, G; Gminski, R; Mersch-Sundermann, V; Kundi, M

    2010-03-01

    Synthetic musk compounds are widely used as fragrance ingredients in many consumer products. Little is known about their accumulation in humans and especially in older persons. In this study, we determined concentrations of 11 synthetic musks in women above fifty years and compared the results with earlier results from samples of young females. Blood was taken from 53 women above 50 years of age, visiting outpatients of the Department of Angiology at the Hanusch-Krankenhaus in Vienna, Austria. The used analytical methods consist of an extraction and clean-up step and a chromatographic analysis by GC/MS. Tonalide-D3 was used as recovery standard in all samples. Hexachlorobenzene (13)C(6) was used as internal standard. Study participants also completed a questionnaire on the use of cosmetics, about nutrition and other life-style aspects. The two substances which could be detected in higher percentages of the blood plasma samples were galaxolide (89 percent, maximum concentration 6900 ng/L) and musk xylene (62 percent, maximum concentration 190 ng/L). Regression analysis revealed a significant association of galaxolide concentration with frequent use of perfumes, deodorants and shampoos. Frequent use of soaps and fabric softener was associated with higher plasma concentrations of musk xylene. Nutrition habits, skin type, body mass index or surface area were not related to plasma concentration of these musk compounds. From the study group investigated older persons showed higher plasma concentrations. These findings could be due to the higher use of lotions and crèmes on face and hands and a more frequent use of skin care products because older persons reported more frequently dry skin. In addition, physiological aging related changes might be responsible for higher dermal absorption of synthetic musks. These results indicate that more focus on aging tissues is needed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Fifty Years of Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, E. M.

    1999-05-01

    It is easy to pick out my most memorable meeting of the AAS: the 149th meeting held in January, 1977, and hosted by the University of Hawaii, in Honolulu, HI. It was the meeting at which two traditions of the Society were broken, and we moved into the era of equal opportunity for women astronomers. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin received the highest award of the AAS: the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship. This award had never before been available to women, otherwise Cecilia would, years earlier, have been honored for the many achievements in her lifetime of renowned astronomical research. And I, the first woman to be elected President of the AAS, had the honor of presenting the illuminated scroll to Cecilia, and of introducing her on the platform where she delivered the Henry Norris Russell Prize Lecture, entitled ``Fifty Years of Novae"(1) . Cecilia opened by comparing the experience of young and old scientists in achieving exciting results from their research, and then led us through the history of the discoveries of and about some famous novae. She described the physical picture that emerged from studies of their light curves, their spectra, and the discovery of their binary nature. Three important tables were included, listing data on cataclysmic binaries (dwarf novae) and their link to the nova phenomenon in general. She recalled that she and Sergei Gaposchkin had hesitated between the names catastrophic and cataclysmic for the dwarf novae, and decided on the latter, from the dictionary definitions of those two terms: ``a cataclysm is a great and general flood" while a catastrophe ``is a final event". The nova phenomenon is recurrent, as are the dwarf novae, and both involve an outpouring of a flood of energy. She concluded by describing her 50 years' experience with novae as presenting ``the contemporary portrait of a nova", rather than a final picture, and by forecasting that the next 50 years of discovering and studying novae will be as full of surprises as the

  1. In vivo observations of chlorpromazine ocular deposits in a patient on long-term chlorpromazine therapy.

    PubMed

    Razeghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Nowroozzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Zamani, Mohammad; Amini, Nima

    2008-08-01

    Chlorpromazine is known to deposit in ocular tissues when taken at high doses for prolonged periods. Chlorpromazine therapy in a 59-year-old schizophrenic man with a cumulative dosage exceeding 2500 g resulted in multiple white deposits in both corneas especially in the endothelium. Confocal microscopy revealed significant pleomorphism and polymegethism of endothelial cells. The anterior lens capsules opacities were star-shaped and concentrated in the centre. Because of cataract and chronic angle closure glaucoma our high-myopic patient underwent surgery, and light microscopic evaluation of the obtained anterior lens capsule during cataract surgery showed golden brown cytoplasmic deposits in the central epithelial cells and capsule. The peripheral epithelial cells of the removed capsule had no deposit. There were no sign of retinal deposits in the fundoscopy, optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography. In this patient chlorpromazine deposited mainly in the corneal endothelium, central anterior lens capsule and epithelial cells.

  2. Neurotrophic corneal ulcer after retrobulbar injection of chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Matthew J; Lee, Hb Harold; Timoney, Peter J; Shoshani, Yochai; Nunery, William R

    2012-01-01

    An 80-year-old woman with a painful, poorly seeing right eye underwent retrobulbar chlorpromazine injection for pain control. After the injection, the patient's symptoms improved; however, a neurotrophic ulcer developed within 2 weeks after the procedure. It is postulated that chlorpromazine may lead to sensory denervation to the cornea with the subsequent development of neurotrophic keratopathy, as observed in this case. Awareness of this potential adverse effect is important for proper patient safety, education, and postinjection management.

  3. Initial effects from re-introducing fire in Alabama montane longleaf stands: fifty years since last burn

    Treesearch

    Sharon M. Hermann; John S. Kush

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, after more than fifty years with no burns, the National Park Service reintroduced fire in montane longleaf pine stands at Horseshoe Bend National Military Park in central AL. Residual longleaf pine stands indicates that this tree once dominated many slopes. The prolonged period of fire exclusion resulted in accumulation of duff and litter that exceeds 4 to 5...

  4. Fifty Years of Learning: A History of Adult & Community Education in Aotearoa from the 1960s to the Present Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert Michael

    2016-01-01

    This monograph aims to provide a brief but critical history of adult and community education in Aotearoa over the past fifty years. It draws on primary and secondary sources as well as a substantial body of previous research much of which has yet to be published. The focus of this work is on changing policy environments and their impact on adult…

  5. A Fifty-Year Love Affair with Organic Chemistry (by William S. Johnson)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Reviewed By George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M.

    1999-12-01

    This latest volume is the 20th in Jeff Seeman's projected 22-volume series of autobiographies of 20th-century organic chemists that began publication in 1990 (Kauffman, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A21). Unfortunately, Johnson did not live to see this volume in print. Ted Bartlett and Ray Conrow reviewed the final manuscript, galleys, and page proofs; and Ted Bartlett, Paul Bartlett, John D. Roberts, and Gilbert Stork contributed an epilogue that complements Johnson's own words, adds a warm, personal final touch that he was unable to provide, and incorporates his final research into the volume. Born in New Rochelle, New York, on February 24, 1913, William Summer Johnson attended Amherst College with the aid of a scholarship and various odd jobs such as tending furnace, washing dishes, and playing saxophone in dance bands (he seriously considered becoming a professional musician). Here he became enamored with organic chemistry, which he taught as an instructor for a year after his graduation magna cum laude in 1936. He then worked with a fellowship under Louis Fieser, who sparked his interest in steroids, at Harvard University, from which he received his M.A. (1938) and Ph.D. (1940) degrees. In 1940 Johnson joined the faculty at the University of Wisconsin, where he rose through the ranks, eventually becoming Homer Adkins Professor of Chemistry (1954-60). He began the total synthesis of steroids, the main subject of his life's work, "which soon proved to be the hottest synthetic target of the time". In 1960 he accepted an invitation to become head of and to upgrade the Stanford University Chemistry Department. With faculty recruiting as his primary concern, he was able to add Carl Djerassi, Paul J. Flory, Harden M. McConnell, Henry Taube, and Eugene E. van Tamelen to the department, resulting in its spectacular rise from 15th to 5th place in the nation. He remained at Stanford for the rest of his career, serving as department head for nine years. He died at the

  6. Chlorpromazine dose for people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Katharine; Liu, Xiaomeng; De Haan, Saskia

    2017-04-13

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Model Lists of Essential Medicines lists chlorpromazine as one of its five medicines used in psychotic disorders. To determine chlorpromazine dose response and dose side-effect relationships for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (December 2008; 2 October 2014; 19 December 2016). All relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing low doses of chlorpromazine (≤ 400 mg/day), medium dose (401 mg/day to 800 mg/day) or higher doses (> 800 mg/day) for people with schizophrenia, and which reported clinical outcomes. We included studies meeting review criteria and providing useable data. Review authors extracted data independently. For dichotomous data, we calculated fixed-effect risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and their 95% CIs based on a fixed-effect model. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and graded trial quality using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). As a result of searches undertaken in 2014, we found one new study and in 2016 more data for already included studies. Five relevant studies with 1132 participants (585 are relevant to this review) are now included. All are hospital-based trials and, despite over 60 years of chlorpromazine use, have durations of less than six months and all are at least at moderate risk of bias. We found only data on low-dose (≤ 400 mg/day) versus medium-dose chlorpromazine (401 mg/day to 800 mg/day) and low-dose versus high-dose chlorpromazine (> 800 mg/day).When low-dose chlorpromazine (≤ 400 mg/day) was compared to medium-dose chlorpromazine (401 mg/day to 800 mg/day), there was no clear benefit of one dose over the other for both global and mental state outcomes (low-quality and very low-quality evidence). There was also no clear evidence for people in one

  7. Fifty-Year Record of Glacier Change Reveals Shifting Climate in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research on glacier change shows recent dramatic shrinkage of glaciers in three climatic regions of the United States. These long periods of record provide clues to the climate shifts that may be driving glacier change. The USGS Benchmark Glacier Program began in 1957 as a result of research efforts during the International Geophysical Year (Meier and others, 1971). Annual data collection occurs at three glaciers that represent three climatic regions in the United States: South Cascade Glacier in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State; Wolverine Glacier on the Kenai Peninsula near Anchorage, Alaska; and Gulkana Glacier in the interior of Alaska (fig. 1).

  8. Fifty Years of "Comparative Education Review" Bibliographies: Reflections on the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Rosalind Latiner

    2007-01-01

    For the past three years, the "Comparative Education Review" ("CER") has published annual bibliographic essays reflecting the changes in the field over the previous year. This year, to mark the 50th anniversary of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES), the author analyzed "CER" bibliographies since 1959, in addition to…

  9. Fifty Years of "Comparative Education Review" Bibliographies: Reflections on the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Rosalind Latiner

    2007-01-01

    For the past three years, the "Comparative Education Review" ("CER") has published annual bibliographic essays reflecting the changes in the field over the previous year. This year, to mark the 50th anniversary of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES), the author analyzed "CER" bibliographies since 1959, in addition to…

  10. LACC Faculty During the First Fifty Years: A Look at Some Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    Los Angeles City College (LACC) catalogs for 1979 and every fifth year preceding 1979 were examined to investigate trends in the numbers and characteristics of faculty during the 50 years of the College's history. Variables included in the study were number of faculty, sex, length of time at the college, and highest degree attained. The study…

  11. Fifty years of Parkinson's disease: one step forwards, two steps back?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Simon Jg

    2016-10-01

    The first issue of the British Journal of Hospital Medicine was published in October 1966 and included a symposium covering the neuropathology and treatment of Parkinson's disease. Could things have really changed that much in just 50 brief years?

  12. Reflections on Over Fifty Years in Research and Development; Some Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    private sector is progressing well. In 2006, ARL and the UK Ministry of Defence established an International Technology Alliance in network and...presents some thoughts about research in science and technology (S&T) gleaned from my more than 50 years working in scientific and engineering research...thoughts about research in science and technology (S&T) gleaned from my more than 50 years working in scientific and engineering research—first in the

  13. Semantic memory content in permastore: fifty years of memory for Spanish learned in school.

    PubMed

    Bahrick, H P

    1984-03-01

    Retention of Spanish learned in school was tested over a 50-year period for 733 individuals. Tests of reading comprehension, recall, and recognition vocabulary and grammar were administered together with a questionnaire to determine the level of original training, the grades received, and rehearsals during the retention interval in the form of reading, writing, speaking, or listening to Spanish. Multiple regression analysis shows that retention throughout the 50-year period is predictable on the basis of the level of original training. The great majority of subjects rehearse so little that the data reveal no significant rehearsal effects. The analysis yields memory curves which decline exponentially for the first 3-6 years of the retention interval. After that retention remains unchanged for periods of up to 30 years before showing a final decline. Large portions of the originally acquired information remain accessible for over 50 years in spite of the fact the information is not used or rehearsed. This portion of the information in a "permastore" state is a function of the level of original training, the grades received in Spanish courses, and the method of testing (recall vs. recognition), but it appears to be unaffected by ordinary conditions of interference. The life-span frequency distribution of learned responses is discontinuous; one portion of the response distribution has life spans of 0-6 years, the other portion, life spans in excess of 25 years, and no responses have life spans of 6-25 years. This suggests a discrete transition into a permastore state during the extended period of original training. Analysis of successive relearning processes over extended time periods is deemed essential for an understanding of the acquisition of permanent semantic memory content.

  14. Microprobe analysis of chlorpromazine pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Benning, T.L.; McCormack, K.M.; Ingram, P.; Kaplan, D.L.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    We describe the histochemical, ultrastructural, and microanalytical features of a skin biopsy specimen obtained from a patient with chlorpromazine pigmentation. Golden-brown pigment granules were present in the dermis, predominantly in a perivascular arrangement. The granules stained positively with the Fontana-Masson stain for silver-reducing substances and negatively with Perl's stain for iron. Electron microscopy revealed dense inclusion bodies in dermal histiocytes, pericytes, endothelial cells, and Schwann cells, as well as lying free in the extracellular matrix. These ''chlorpromazine bodies'' were quite dense even in unosmicated, unstained ultrathin sections, indicating that the pigmentation is related, at least in part, to the inclusions. Microprobe analysis of the chlorpromazine bodies revealed a striking peak for sulfur, which strongly suggests the presence of the drug or its metabolite within these inclusions.

  15. Fifty years of language maintenance and language dominance in bilingual Hispanic immigrants.

    PubMed

    Bahrick, H P; Hall, L K; Goggin, J P; Bahrick, L E; Berger, S A

    1994-09-01

    Spanish language tests of 801 Cuban and Mexican immigrants showed no evidence of language loss during 50 years of U.S. residence; a few years after immigration, their English vocabulary approximated that of English monolinguals. The critical-age hypothesis was not supported for the acquisition of English vocabulary when English schooling and language usage were controlled by multiple regression. Most Ss continued to speak about as much Spanish as English; but read, wrote, and heard (on television and radio) far more English than Spanish. Under these conditions, Ss maintained Spanish dominance on tests of vocabulary recognition, lexical decision, and oral comprehension. Dominance was task specific and shifted to English on a category generation task about 12 years after immigration. No evidence of bilingual language interference was found; this is attributed to the strong Spanish foundation of the participants.

  16. Fifty Years of the Index to Dental Literature: A Critical Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    1971-01-01

    The year 1971 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the Index to Dental Literature. The Index had a slow and stormy birth, with twenty-three years of hard work put in until the first volume was issued. The first Index is described and the changes in its contents and format are traced through the years until its production in 1965 by the National Library of Medicine. The current Index is analyzed with attention paid to nomenclature, classification scheme, quality of the index entries and cross references. The results of a survey of regular users of the Index are interpreted, and suggestions gleaned for the improvement of this most useful tool in dental research. Images PMID:4947815

  17. Fifty-Year Flood-Inundation Maps for Santa Rosa de Aguan, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the coastal municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan that are prone to oceanic storm-surge flooding and wave action. The 50-year flood on the Rio Aguan (4,270 cubic meters per second), would inundate most of the area surveyed for this municipality and beyond. Therefore a detailed numerical hydraulic model was not developed for this municipality as it was for the others. The 50-year storm surge would likely produce higher water levels than the 50-year flood on the river during normal astronomical tides. The elevation of the 50-year storm surge was estimated to be 4.35 meters above normal sea level, based on hurricane probabilities and published storm-surge elevations associated with various hurricane categories. Flood-inundation maps, including areas of wave-action hazard and a color-shaded elevation map, were created from the available data and the estimated 50-year storm tide. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the hazard areas are available on a computer in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Data Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the maps in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report.

  18. FIFTY YEARS IN PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY: Homage to Mentors, Methods, and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschbach, Dudley

    2000-10-01

    A nostalgic account is given of my scientific odyssey, recalling early encounters, some fateful, some just fun, with mentors, methods, and molecules. These include stories of my student years at Stanford, pursuing chemical kinetics with Harold Johnston; graduate study at Harvard, doing molecular spectroscopy with Bright Wilson; and fledgling faculty years at Berkeley, launching molecular beam studies of reaction dynamics. A few vignettes from my "ever after " era on the Harvard faculty emphasize thematic motivations or methods inviting further exploration. An Appendix provides a concise listing of colleagues in research and the topics we have pursued.

  19. Higher Education Financing in the Fifty States. Interstate Comparisons, Fiscal Year 1976. Review Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Marilyn; Halstead, D. Kent

    A profile of enrollment and fiscal trends in the U.S. for fiscal year (FY) 1976 is provided. An introductory chapter details the rationale for the study, the design, and an analysis of the data. The second chapter cites general trends among the states, giving state rankings. In the third chapter state-by-state reports are provided in three…

  20. Fifty-Year Trends in the Chemical Industry: What Do They Mean for Chemical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Chadwick A.; Parshall, George W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes major changes that have occurred in the chemical industry over the last 50 years including trends in the development of products and processes, changes in chemical manufacturing, the globalization of business, and modifications of research laboratory practices. Discusses implications for chemistry education and predictions for future…

  1. The State of the South 2004. Fifty Years after Brown v. Board of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Alison; Guillory, Ferrel; Lipsitz, Joan; Rubin,Sarah

    2004-01-01

    State of the South 2004 is the fifth edition in North Carolina Manpower Development Corporation MDC's State of the South series, which examines the region's economic and demographic landscape and how Southerners are faring within it. This edition considers the region through the lens of public education, 50 years after the Supreme Court?s Brown…

  2. C. H. McCloy Lecture: Fifty Years of Advancements in Fitness and Activity Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years progress in fitness and activity research has been influenced by social events, technical innovations, and changes in the field of physical education and kinesiology. The conventional wisdom of the 1950s yielded to a new wisdom based on research evidence. The author's research, as well as the research of others, from 1960 to…

  3. General College: The Open Door through Fifty Years, 1932-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Norman W.

    1983-01-01

    The founders of General College, at the University of Minnesota, established the school in 1932 out of a belief in democratic access to higher education, the need to simplify the academic bureaucracy, and the desire for a liberalized curriculum. During its first 13 years, the college assumed and maintained three basic priorities: open admissions,…

  4. Social Studies and Social Sciences: A Fifty-Year Perspective. Bulletin No. 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wronski, Stanley P., Ed.; Bragaw, Donald H., Ed.

    This publication documents the development of the social studies during the past 50 years. This collection of essays updates major trends in history, political science, sociology, economics, psychology, anthropology, and geography. Unlike two earlier collections, this book has an emphasis on the continuing problems, trends, and issues in both the…

  5. Strategic Concepts for the Development of Chinese Education and Human Resources for the Next Fifty Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the strategic concepts for the development of Chinese education and human resources for the next 50 years. These concepts include: (a) Strategic Choice: Human Resources Are the Most Important Resource Development; (b) Strategic Targets: Realize the "Three Steps" of Education and the "Two Promotions" of…

  6. Shifting Paradigms or Shifting Perspectives: An Analysis of Fifty Years of Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdzkom, David; Kuligowski, Barbara

    Since 1946, four major efforts to improve educational outcomes through shifts in governance have occurred in North Carolina. The 1989 reforms were characterized by an increase in rhetoric about local control and initiatives, teacher involvement, and school-based management. This paper surveys the last 50 years of educational reform policy in North…

  7. Higher Education Financing in the Fifty States: Interstate Comparisons, Fiscal Year 1982. 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Marilyn; Halstead, D. Kent

    Information on state-level financing of higher education and on institutional revenues and expenditures is presented for fiscal year (FY) 1982, with trend data back to FY 1978. In addition to a narrative analysis, nearly 200 tables show state rankings on 46 factors involved in higher education finance. The state rankings cover state and local…

  8. The State of the South 2004. Fifty Years after Brown v. Board of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Alison; Guillory, Ferrel; Lipsitz, Joan; Rubin,Sarah

    2004-01-01

    State of the South 2004 is the fifth edition in North Carolina Manpower Development Corporation MDC's State of the South series, which examines the region's economic and demographic landscape and how Southerners are faring within it. This edition considers the region through the lens of public education, 50 years after the Supreme Court?s Brown…

  9. The Kitty Genovese Story in Introductory Psychology Textbooks: Fifty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the many inaccuracies in the original "New York Times" 38-witnesses version of the Kitty Genovese story, this study examined the accuracy of this story in current introductory psychology textbooks, 50 years later. Recent studies have shown that there is no evidence for the following three key features of the original story: (1)…

  10. Social Studies and Social Sciences: A Fifty-Year Perspective. Bulletin No. 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wronski, Stanley P., Ed.; Bragaw, Donald H., Ed.

    This publication documents the development of the social studies during the past 50 years. This collection of essays updates major trends in history, political science, sociology, economics, psychology, anthropology, and geography. Unlike two earlier collections, this book has an emphasis on the continuing problems, trends, and issues in both the…

  11. Fifty Years Later: A Chance to Get ESEA Back on Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Joseph P.; Jackson, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Looking at the evolution of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) over the last 50 years, this paper argues that many of the racial, social, and economic inequities of 1965 that President Johnson was hoping to address have only been accelerated. It's not only time for a modern rethink on educational equity, but also a much broader set…

  12. C. H. McCloy Lecture: Fifty Years of Advancements in Fitness and Activity Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years progress in fitness and activity research has been influenced by social events, technical innovations, and changes in the field of physical education and kinesiology. The conventional wisdom of the 1950s yielded to a new wisdom based on research evidence. The author's research, as well as the research of others, from 1960 to…

  13. Fifty-Year Trends in the Chemical Industry: What Do They Mean for Chemical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Chadwick A.; Parshall, George W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes major changes that have occurred in the chemical industry over the last 50 years including trends in the development of products and processes, changes in chemical manufacturing, the globalization of business, and modifications of research laboratory practices. Discusses implications for chemistry education and predictions for future…

  14. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for La Ceiba, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of La Ceiba that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Cangrejal. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of La Ceiba as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood discharge of 1,030 cubic meters per second on Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Cangrejal; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba are 498 square kilometers and 2,306 millimeters, respectively.

  15. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for El Progreso, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of El Progreso that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Pelo. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of El Progreso as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Pelo at El Progreso were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Pelo; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Pelo, 235 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Pelo at El Progreso are 47.4 square kilometers and 1,920 millimeters, respectively.

  16. Chlorpromazine bioavailability from a topical gel formulation in volunteers.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Amanda M; Protus, Bridget McCrate; Kimbrel, Jason; Grauer, Phyllis A; Hirsh, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    Symptom management medications are often compounded into topical gel formulations providing an alternative route of administration for hospice and palliative care patients. Though commonly used, transdermal absorption and bioavailability studies of these gel products are lacking. Chlorpromazine was studied because it is FDA approved for treatment of nausea and vomiting and is used off-label for treatment of agitation and delirium. The objective of this study is to determine the transdermal absorption of chlorpromazine PLO gel in healthy adults. Twenty-five milligrams of chlorpromazine in PLO gel was applied to 10 subjects' wrists and 100 mg was applied to 1 subject's wrist. Blood draws were completed preapplication and 1, 2, and 4 hours postapplication. This single-center unblinded study recruited healthy adults between 18 and 70 years of age. Participants were not pregnant, did not have an allergy to any component of the study medication, and were not taking a phenothiazine medication. Chlorpromazine was undetected in any of the 11 subjects' blood samples. There is an assumption of equivalent medication absorption in healthy patients and palliative care or hospice patients. Rapid relief of symptoms at end of life is essential. Chlorpromazine in PLO gel may not be an effective treatment option since blood levels were undetectable at 1, 2, and 4 hours after topical application.

  17. Fifty years of systemic therapy for breast cancer: from one size fits all to tailored therapy.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Harold J

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer treatment has evolved dramatically in the past 50 years. In addition to innovations in medical therapy-including widespread use of endocrine treatments, chemotherapy, and anti-HER2 agents-medical advances in genetic testing, imaging, and screening have revolutionized care. As profound as these changes in medical treatment have been, however, they are matched by a cultural transformation in the way society understands, discusses, and cares about breast cancer. Breast cancer has evolved from an unnamed affliction to a disease that is regularly featured on the front page of the newspapers, and is discussed in countless forums in traditional and social media. Clinical specialization in breast cancer among oncologists has given patients access to dedicated specialists around the country. These transformations will be highlighted through the analysis of a patient, Rachel Carson, who died 50 years ago from breast cancer.

  18. Health Centers after Fifty Years: Lessons from the Health Disparities Collaboratives.

    PubMed

    Stevens, David M

    2016-01-01

    The fertile social movements of the 1960s in the United States gave birth to the community health center model. During the past 50 years, health centers have emerged as a national primary care institution serving over 20 million of the nation's most vulnerable people. Founded on the shared health center mission and commitment to collective action, the Health Disparities Collaboratives (HDC) provided a cultural and social milieu for accelerated learning as well as a homegrown system and infrastructure for collaborative learning and improvement. Although the HDC only existed during the years from 1999-2006, they generated positive health outcomes and strengthened the capacity of health centers for quality improvement. After a description of the history and the characteristics of the HDC, six recommendations are presented for the re-design and implementation of a second-generation health center learning and improvement system.

  19. Fifty years of phenylketonuria newborn screening - A great success for many, but what about the rest?

    PubMed

    Groselj, Urh; Tansek, Mojca Zerjav; Battelino, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    Guthrie's landmark discovery and the subsequent implementation of the first newborn screening programs for phenylketonuria (PKU) and other inherited errors of metabolism (IEM) could be - in a 50 year retrospective - easily considered among the greatest advances in medicine. They have not just improved the quality of hundreds of thousands of lives, but also transformed our understanding and approach to PKU and IEM in general. However, according to the available albeit very scarce data, many countries and regions seem not to share the benefits of the last 50 years of development. Many of them have not yet introduced the newborn screening for PKU or face significant problems in its implementation. In addition, the issue seems to be underrated by the relevant professional forums. Action to improve the current situation should urgently be taken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Experiments on the Dynamics of Molecular Processes: a Chronicle of Fifty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boato, Giovanni; Volpi, Gian Gualberto

    1999-10-01

    This paper reviews the way in which, in the Italy of the years immediately after World War II, interest in the dynamics of molecular processes was awakened. The narrative begins with the work of a small number of chemists and physicists who, in the initial stage, interacted closely. In the course of the years, their interests diverged and younger people joined the newly formed groups. Even now, after half a century, a common approach can still to be seen regarding how to attack problems and perform experiments. Experimental work is discussed, bringing out the common viewpoint of fields as diverse as mass spectrometry, isotope effects, chemical kinetics, molecular beams, molecule-molecule interactions, molecule-ion interactions, molecule-surface interactions, and plasma chemistry.

  1. Fifty years on: Brown v. Board of Education and American psychology, 1954-2000: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Pickren, Wade E

    2004-09-01

    Introduces the current issue of the American Psychologist, which examines the ramifications of the Brown vs. Board of Education decision and its sequelae over the last 50 years, with a special focus on the mixed role of psychological research and practice. Despite the great strides toward a more just society since May 17, 1954, inequities remain in schooling, in social relations, and in economic opportunity. How will history judge American psychology 50 years from now vis-a-vis the possibilities it helped create via Brown? The articles in this special issue suggest several important directions of research and action our field will need to take if the verdict of history is to be a positive one. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  2. Introduction to the focus issue: fifty years of chaos: applied and theoretical.

    PubMed

    Hikihara, Takashi; Holmes, Philip; Kambe, Tsutomu; Rega, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    The discovery of deterministic chaos in the late nineteenth century, its subsequent study, and the development of mathematical and computational methods for its analysis have substantially influenced the sciences. Chaos is, however, only one phenomenon in the larger area of dynamical systems theory. This Focus Issue collects 13 papers, from authors and research groups representing the mathematical, physical, and biological sciences, that were presented at a symposium held at Kyoto University from November 28 to December 2, 2011. The symposium, sponsored by the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, was called 50 Years of Chaos: Applied and Theoretical. Following some historical remarks to provide a background for the last 50 years, and for chaos, this Introduction surveys the papers and identifies some common themes that appear in them and in the theory of dynamical systems.

  3. Fifty-odd years of inter-group contact: from hypothesis to integrated theory.

    PubMed

    Hewstone, Miles; Swart, Hermann

    2011-09-01

    We review 50-odd years of research on Allport's (1954)'contact hypothesis', to assess progress, problems, and prospects. We chart the progress that has been made in understanding two distinct forms of contact: direct and indirect. We highlight the progress made in understanding the effects of each type of contact, as well as both moderating and mediating factors, and emphasize the multiple impacts of direct contact, especially. We then consider some of the main critiques of inter-group contact, focusing on empirical issues and whether contact impedes social change, and provide a research agenda for the coming years. We conclude that this body of work no longer merits the modest title of 'hypothesis', but fully deserves acknowledgement as an integrated and influential theory.

  4. Fifty-year impacts of the beech bark disease in the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak

    2006-01-01

    Records from the early 1950s on the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire showed that the percentage of American beech trees infected with heavy beech scale and Nectria was up to the 80 to 90% range. An inventory of beech bark disease conditions in three stands in 2004 showed that an older, uneven-aged stand managed by individual tree selection for 50 years had...

  5. CASTLE BRAVO: Fifty Years of Legend and Lore. A Guide to Off-Site Radiation Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    care for years. Schools had been non-existent since the war began. Everywhere there were dislocations and deprivations.” “[US Navy] military...to Rongerik at 02-00:10M ordering personnel there to immediately cease all operations and remain inside metal buildings until further notice (TGDC...group of irradiated Marshallese people offers a most valuable source of data on human beings who have sustained injury from all the possible modes of

  6. Fifty-Year Trends in Atrial Fibrillation Prevalence, Incidence, Risk Factors, and Mortality in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Yin, Xiaoyan; PhilimonGona; Larson, Martin G.; Beiser, Alexa S.; McManus, David D.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Lubitz, Steven A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; SudhaSeshadri; Wolf, Philip A; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Levy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Comprehensive long-term data on atrial fibrillation trends in men and women are scant. Methods We investigated trends in atrial fibrillation incidence, prevalence, and risk factors, and in stroke and mortality following its onset in Framingham Heart Study participants (n=9511) from 1958 to 2007. To accommodate sex differences in atrial fibrillation risk factors and disease manifestations, sex-stratified analyses were performed. Findings During 50 years of observation (202,417 person-years), there were 1,544 new-onset atrial fibrillation cases (46.8% women). We observed about a fourfold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence and more than a tripling in age-adjusted incidence of atrial fibrillation (prevalence 20.4 versus 96.2 per 1000 person-years in men; 13.7 versus 49.4 in women; incidence rates in first versus last decade 3.7 versus 13.4 per 1000 person-years in men; 2.5 versus 8.6 in women, ptrend<0.0001). For atrial fibrillation diagnosed by ECG during routine Framingham examinations, age-adjusted prevalence increased (12.6versus 25.7 per 1000 person-years in men; 8.1 versus 11.8 in women, ptrend<0.0001). The age-adjusted incidence increased, but did not achieve statistical significance. Although the prevalence of most risk factors changed over time, their associated hazards for atrial fibrillation changed little. Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models revealed a 73.5% decline in stroke and a 25.4% decline in mortality following atrial fibrillation onset (ptrend=0.0001, ptrend=0.003, respectively). Interpretation Our data suggest that observed trends of increased incidence of atrial fibrillation in the community were partially due to enhanced surveillance. Stroke occurrence and mortality following atrial fibrillation onset declined over the decades, and prevalence increased approximately fourfold. The hazards for atrial fibrillation risk factors remained fairly constant. Our data indicate a need for measures to enhance early

  7. A fifty-year review of soft tissue sarcomas in Jamaica: 1958-2007.

    PubMed

    Gibson, T N; Hanchard, B; Waugh, N; McNaughton, D

    2012-10-01

    To determine the distribution of histologic subtypes of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) in Kingston and St Andrew, Jamaica, according to age and topography. From the Jamaica Cancer Registry (JCR) archives, all cases of STS diagnosed between 1958 and 2007 were extracted. For each case, age, gender, histological diagnosis and anatomical site of tumour were recorded. Patients were categorized according to age at diagnosis as: children (0-14 years) and adults (> 14 years), and the distribution of histologic diagnoses with respect to age and anatomical site were analysed. There were 432 cases (67 children, 364 adults, one person of unknown age) of STS recorded in the JCR over the 50-year period (218 males, 214 females). The commonest STS in adults were "sarcoma, not otherwise specified [NOS]" (20.1%), malignant fibrous histiocytoma [MFH] (17.9%), fibrosarcoma (12.4%), liposarcoma (10.7%) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour [MPNST] (10.2%). In children, they were neuroblastoma (38.8%), rhabdomyosarcoma (23.9%), "sarcoma, NOS" (9%), fibrosarcoma (6%) and MFH (6%). In adults, the lower limb was the commonest location, followed by trunk and/or upper limb for MFH, fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma, and head and neck for MPNST. In children, head and neck was the commonest site for rhabdomyosarcoma, head and neck and upper limb for MFH, retroperitoneum for neuroblastoma and trunk for fibrosarcoma. A high proportion of soft tissue sarcomas in Jamaica are unclassified and the anatomical distribution of common classified sarcomas shows some differences with the literature. Limited access to immunohistochemistry/molecular diagnostics and increasing core biopsy diagnosis may contribute to these phenomena.

  8. Comparison of cord blood transplantation with unrelated bone marrow transplantation in patients older than fifty years.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masatsugu; Miyamura, Koichi; Terakura, Seitaro; Imai, Kiyotoshi; Uchida, Naoyuki; Ago, Hiroatsu; Sakura, Toru; Eto, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Kazuteru; Fukuda, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Mori, Shinichiro; Nagamura-Inoue, Tokiko; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Okamoto, Shin-ichiro

    2015-03-01

    We retrospectively compared the transplantation outcomes for patients 50 years or older who received umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) with those who received unrelated bone marrow transplantation (UBMT) for hematologic malignancies. A total of 1377 patients who underwent transplantation between 2000 and 2009 were included: 516 received 8/8 HLA allele-matched UBMT, 295 received 7/8 HLA allele-matched UBMT, and 566 received 4/6 to 6/6 HLA-matched UCBT. Adjusted overall survival (OS) was significantly lower in those who underwent UCBT than those who underwent 8/8 HLA-matched UBMT but was similar to that of 7/8 HLA-matched UBMT (the 2-year OS after 8/8 HLA-matched UBMT, 7/8 HLA-matched UBMT, and UCBT were 49% [95% confidence interval (CI), 45% to 55%], 38% [95% CI, 32% to 45%], and 39% [95% CI, 34% to 43%], respectively). However, adjusted OS was similar between 8/8 HLA-matched UBMT and UCBT receiving ≥.84 × 10(5) CD34(+) cells/kg among those with acute myeloid leukemia and those with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (the 2-year OS was 49% [95% CI, 43% to 55%], and 49% [95% CI, 41% to 58%], respectively). These data suggest that UCB is a reasonable alternative donor/stem cell source for elderly patients with similar outcomes compared with UBM from 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donors when the graft containing ≥.84 × 10(5) CD34(+) cells/kg is available. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How Has Discharge Been Changing over the U.S. Midwest During the Last Fifty Years?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallakpour, I.; Villarini, G.

    2013-12-01

    Potential changes in discharge distribution and frequency of flood events over the U.S. Midwest could have very large economic and social repercussions (e.g., fatalities, agricultural losses, flood losses, water quality issues). It is therefore of paramount importance to detect these changes. Long-term historical records are key to understand our past and provide valuable information about possible future changes. Streamflow time series from 509 USGS stream gage stations over the U.S. Midwest (North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois) are used to (1) investigate the presence of abrupt and gradual change in different parts of the discharge distribution (from low to high quantiles), and (2) evaluate changes in the frequency of flood events. All stream gage records have at least 50 years of data and ending no earlier than 2011. Non-parametric tests are used to examine the presence of changes in the discharge distribution. The results of this work indicate that the number of stations with statistically significant changes in low to moderate quantiles is higher than the changes in high quantiles. These findings will be interpreted in light of human modifications of the catchments and climate variability. The examination of changes in the frequency of flood events is based on Poisson regression. For any given year, we count the number of flood peaks exceeding a high threshold (the threshold is set to give, on average, two flood events per year). Results indicate that the frequency of flood events has been increasing over large areas of our domain, with the most noticeable exceptions being Nebraska and Kansas. We discuss the interpretation of these changes in terms of possible physical mechanisms (e.g., climate, construction of dams, changes in agricultural practices).

  10. Flight Research at Ames: Fifty-Seven Years of Development and Validation of Aeronautical Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchers, Paul F.; Franklin, James A.; Fletcher, Jay W.

    1998-01-01

    This NASA special publication presents a general overview of the flight research that has been conducted at Ames Research Center over the last 57 years. Icing research, transonic model testing, aerodynamics, variable stability aircraft, boundary layer control, short takeoff and landing (STOL), vertical/ short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) and rotorcraft research are among the major topics of interest discussed. Flying qualities, stability and control, performance evaluations, gunsight tracking and guidance and control displays research are also presented. An epilogue is included which presents the significant contributions that came about as a result of research and development conducted at Ames.

  11. Fifty years in synthetic fuels information: Have we lost a strategic national resource

    SciTech Connect

    Roseberry, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The recent 50-year history of the synthetic fuels industry is a long saga of fluctuating national interest, funding, and precipitous world events. The goal of a unified information set has been seriously compromised by war and shortages, prosperity and apathy, economic conflict and OPEC, and a return to abundant supply. On the horizon looms the dismal prospect of a real and permanent energy shortage, a prospect that easily justifies the need for keeping important technical information for the future. This paper tells the tale of the research literature from the German experience during World War II through the disbanding of the Synthetic Fuels Corporation.

  12. The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

  13. Soil Carbon Change During Fifty Years of Old-Field Forest Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobley, M. L.; Heine, P. R.; Billings, S. A.; Lajtha, K.; Kramer, M. G.; Richter, D. D.

    2010-12-01

    At the Calhoun Experimental Forest, a 50-year-old loblolly pine plantation in the South Carolina Piedmont, researchers have sampled soils and trees regularly since forest establishment in 1957. The Calhoun’s archived soils and data present a unique opportunity to quantify above- and belowground carbon sequestration of an economically and ecologically important ecosystem. This research explores the changes in soil organic carbon quantity, quality, and residence times following conversion of an agricultural field to a 50-year-old pine forest. Following planting of the rapidly-growing forest in an old cotton field, almost 20 years were required to observe any increases in surficial (0-7.5cm) soil carbon. Over the 50-year period, the deepest soil layer sampled (35-60cm) has experienced an on-going and significant loss of soil carbon. Thus, after 50 years, there has been no net change in SOC content of the upper 60cm of mineral soil, despite the development of a mature pine forest canopy and the accumulation of a thick acidic mor-type organic horizon. The bomb spike in radiocarbon enrichment propagated from the surface soil in the 1960s down to the 35-60cm soil in the early 1970s, showing that “new” forest carbon entered the 35-60cm soil layer. A drop in 35-60cm δ14C nearly back to pre-bomb testing levels by the mid-1980s indicated that much of this “new” carbon had been quickly respired. Taken together, the bulk soil C and isotopic data suggest that a) subsoils are sites of active carbon cycling and b) at least some “old”, slow-turnover carbon has been lost from these deeper layers. Stable isotope values have shown divergent trends over time: accumulation of new forest organic matter at the surface has depleted 13C in surface soils, while microbial- and mycorrhizal-mediated tree root uptake of nitrogen has greatly enriched 15N in 15-60cm soils over the course of forest development. For some time, the loss of SOC at depth has been hypothesized to be the

  14. Fifty years of levelling measurements at Askja volcano, Iceland: New Bayesian interpretations of a unique dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnie, Talfan; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Sturkell, Erik

    2017-04-01

    The year 2016 marks the 50th anniversary of the start of geodetic levelling surveys at Askja volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland. Askja has produced frequent basaltic fissural eruptions and rarer silicic caldera forming eruptions during the Holocene, the most recent of each type in 1961 and 1875 respectively. The potential for widespread disruption from larger eruptions and the popularity of the site with tourists makes Askja an important target for observation. Geodetic monitoring started in 1966 with the installation of a 12 station survey line on the 1961 lava flow, which provided a stable, extensive surface close to the putative source of magma. This was infilled and extended over the following two decades to give a finished levelling line of 35 stations spaced approximately 50 m apart (Tryggvason, Nordic Volcanological Institute, 1989). With the exception of the period 1972 to 1983, this line has been surveyed every year, providing a unique record of post eruptive deformation at a spreading rift segment capable of capturing magma motions at depth and any potential recharging in anticipation of future activity. The levelling has so far revealed that after an initial period of complicated inflations and deflations the volcano settled into a pattern of slowly decaying deflation from 1983 onwards (Sturkell and Sigmundsson, JGR, 105, 2000), a pattern that has been confirmed by newer geodetic techniques as they have become available (e.g. Pagli et al., JVGR, 152, 2005). The strength of the levelling data at Askja is its long time span, high accuracy and same measurement type over a period of 50 years. However, the small extent of the levelling line limits the power of the network to resolve changes in the magma plumbing system and requires the addition of constraints from other sources. This lends itself to Bayesian modelling techniques where assumptions are made explicit as priors and uncertainties in retrieved parameters can be comprehensibly modelled

  15. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for La Lima, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of La Lima that would be inundated by Rio Chamelecon with a discharge of 500 cubic meters per second, the approximate capacity of the river channel through the city of La Lima. The 50-year flood (2,400 cubic meters per second), the original design flow to be mapped, would inundate the entire area surveyed for this municipality. Because water-surface elevations of the 50-year flood could not be mapped properly without substantially expanding the area of the survey, the available data were used instead to estimate the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon in La Lima by trial-and-error runs of different flows in a numerical model and to estimate the increase in height of levees needed to contain flows of 1,000 and 2,400 cubic meters per second. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of La Lima as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for various discharges on Rio Chamelecon at La Lima were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at three bridges. Top-of-levee or top-of-channel-bank elevations and locations at the cross sections were critical to estimating the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon

  16. Fifty-five years of soil development in restored freshwater depressional wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ballantine, Katherine; Schneider, Rebecca

    2009-09-01

    Wetland restoration is increasingly used as a strategy both to address historical wetland losses and to mitigate new wetland impacts. Research has examined the success of restored wetlands for avifaunal habitat, plant biodiversity, and plant cover; however, less is known about soil development in these systems. Soil processes are particularly important as soil organic matter (SOM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), and other properties are directly linked to wetland functions such as water quality improvement. This research compared soil development processes and properties of 30 palustrine depressional wetlands of four different age classes (approximately 5, 14, 35, and 55 years since restoration) located in central New York (USA). Five natural wetlands were used as references. This chronosequence included wetlands 27 years older than previously conducted studies, making it the longest reported database available. Replicated soil cores from each site were analyzed for SOM, bulk density (D(b)), CEC, and concentrations of nutrients and other chemical constituents. Decomposition rate and aboveground plant and litter biomass were measured as key contributors to soil development. The results indicate that some soil properties critical for water quality functions take decades or centuries to reach natural reference levels. Of particular importance, in the top five centimeters of soil, SOM, D(b), and CEC achieved <50% of reference levels 55 years after restoration. Soil development processes in these depressional wetlands appear to be driven by autochthonous inputs and by internal processes such as litter decomposition and are not accelerated in the initial phase of development by allochthonous inputs as has been documented in coastal salt marshes and riverine floodplains. While monitoring generally focuses on the initial establishment phase of restored ecosystems, our findings indicate that the later autogenic phase strongly influences development trajectories for

  17. [Fifty years of psychiatry at the interface between psyche and soma: a SWOT analysis].

    PubMed

    van Houdenhove, B; Luyten, P

    2008-01-01

    During the past 50 years the border area between psychiatry and somatic medicine has undergone remarkable changes. Theories have become better-founded, both psychologically and neurobiologically, research has become more sophisticated, and liaison-psychiatrists and health psychiatrist/behavioural medicine psychologists have played an increasingly active role in this domain. At the beginning of the 21st century modern psychosomatic medicine is facing new challenges; these include how to create a workable diagnostic classification system, how to instruct and educate both health professionals and lay-persons to an adequate level, how to utilize innovative research paradigms without having recourse to reductionism and how to implement in medical practice treatments that are geared to the needs of the individual patient.

  18. Legend and legacy: Fifty years of defense production at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1992-09-01

    Today, the Hanford Site is engaged in the largest waste cleanup effort ever undertaken in human history. That in itself makes the endeavor historic and unique. The Hanford Site has been designated the ``flagship`` of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation endeavors. And, just as the wartime Hanford Project remains unmatched in history, no counterpart exists for the current waste cleanup enterprise. This report provides a summary of the extensive historical record, however, which does give a partial road map. The science of environmental monitoring pioneered at the Hanford Site, and records of this type are the most complete of any in the world, from private companies or public agencies, for the early years of Site operations. The Hanford Site was unique for establishing a detailed, scientific, and multi-faceted environmental monitoring program.

  19. Fifty years of computer analysis in chest imaging: rule-based, machine learning, deep learning.

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, Bram

    2017-03-01

    Half a century ago, the term "computer-aided diagnosis" (CAD) was introduced in the scientific literature. Pulmonary imaging, with chest radiography and computed tomography, has always been one of the focus areas in this field. In this study, I describe how machine learning became the dominant technology for tackling CAD in the lungs, generally producing better results than do classical rule-based approaches, and how the field is now rapidly changing: in the last few years, we have seen how even better results can be obtained with deep learning. The key differences among rule-based processing, machine learning, and deep learning are summarized and illustrated for various applications of CAD in the chest.

  20. Invertebrate learning and memory: Fifty years of olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2012-02-01

    The honeybee Apis mellifera has emerged as a robust and influential model for the study of classical conditioning, thanks to the existence of a powerful Pavlovian conditioning protocol, the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER). In 2011, the olfactory PER conditioning protocol celebrates 50 years since it was first introduced by Kimihisa Takeda in 1961. Here, we review its origins, developments, and perspectives in order to define future research avenues and necessary methodological and conceptual evolutions. We show that olfactory PER conditioning has become a versatile tool for the study of questions in extremely diverse fields in addition to the study of learning and memory and that it has allowed behavioral characterizations, not only of honeybees, but also of other insect species, for which the protocol was adapted. We celebrate, therefore, Takeda's original work and prompt colleagues to conceive and establish further robust behavioral tools for an accurate characterization of insect learning and memory at multiple levels of analysis.

  1. World meat consumption patterns: An overview of the last fifty years (1961-2011).

    PubMed

    Sans, P; Combris, P

    2015-11-01

    Driven by economic development and urbanisation, protein consumption has surged worldwide over the last 50years, rising from 61g per person per day in 1961 to 80g per person per day in 2011 [Corrected]. This contribution analyses the apparent convergence of dietary models worldwide with respect to the proportion of ABP and especially meat in intake. By using FAO data for 183 countries over the period 1961-2011, the authors show the connection between annual per capita GDP and the level of ABP (R2=0.62) and meat consumption (R2=0.62). They emphasise the surge in ABP intake in emerging countries (China, Brazil) which has partly replaced plant protein. However, for similar degrees of economic development, the composition of ABPs and the position of meat within this category vary significantly among countries, suggesting that historical, geographical, cultural and religious factors may be involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fifty Years of Diazeniumdiolate Research. From Laboratory Curiosity to Broad-Spectrum Biomedical Advances

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Here I show that a “pure” research project, seemingly totally lacking in practical application when it was first published, can years later spark a whole new scientific field with the potential to revolutionize clinical practice. A 1961 publication describing adducts of nitric oxide (NO) with certain nucleophiles attracted little notice at the time, but later work showing that the adducts could be hydrolyzed to regenerate the NO in bioactive form has provided the foundation for a host of biomedical applications. Crucial to the discovery of widely used tools for studying NO’s chemical biology as well as for the design of a variety of promising therapeutic advances has been the increasingly detailed understanding of the physicochemical properties of these “diazeniumdiolates” (also known as NONOates). PMID:21932836

  3. One hundred and fifty years of sprint and distance running - Past trends and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Martin; Newman, Alexandra; Whitmore, Ceri; Weiss, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Sprint and distance running have experienced remarkable performance improvements over the past century. Attempts to forecast running performances share an almost similarly long history but have relied so far on relatively short data series. Here, we compile a comprehensive set of season-best performances for eight Olympically contested running events. With this data set, we conduct (1) an exponential time series analysis and (2) a power-law experience curve analysis to quantify the rate of past performance improvements and to forecast future performances until the year 2100. We find that the sprint and distance running performances of women and men improve exponentially with time and converge at yearly rates of 4% ± 3% and 2% ± 2%, respectively, towards their asymptotic limits. Running performances can also be modelled with the experience curve approach, yielding learning rates of 3% ± 1% and 6% ± 2% for the women's and men's events, respectively. Long-term trends suggest that: (1) women will continue to run 10-20% slower than men, (2) 9.50 s over 100 m dash may only be broken at the end of this century and (3) several middle- and long-distance records may be broken within the next two to three decades. The prospects of witnessing a sub-2 hour marathon before 2100 remain inconclusive. Our results should be interpreted cautiously as forecasting human behaviour is intrinsically uncertain. The future season-best sprint and distance running performances will continue to scatter around the trends identified here and may yield unexpected improvements of standing world records.

  4. Retinoblastoma. Fifty Years of Progress. The LXXI Edward Jackson Memorial Lecture

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To review the progress made in understanding the genetic basis, molecular pathology, and treatment of retinoblastoma since the previous Jackson lecture on the topic was published 50 years ago. Design Perspective based on personal experience and the literature. Methods The literature regarding retinoblastoma was reviewed since 1963. Advances in understanding the biology and treatment of retinoblastoma provided context through the author’s clinical, pathological and research experiences. Results Retinoblastoma was first identified in the 1500s and defined as a unique clinicopathologic entity in 1809. Until the mid-1900s, knowledge advanced sporadically, with technological developments of ophthalmoscopy and light microscopy, and with the introduction of surgical enucleation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. During the last 50 years, research and treatment have progressed at an unprecedented rate due to innovations in molecular biology and the development of targeted therapies. During this time period, the retinoblastoma gene was discovered; techniques for genetic testing for retinoblastoma were developed; and plaque brachytherapy, chemoreduction, intraarterial chemotherapy, and intraocular injections of chemotherapeutic agents were successfully introduced. Conclusions Nearly all patients with retinoblastoma in developed countries can now be cured of their primary cancer- a remarkable achievement for a childhood cancer that once was uniformly fatal. Much of this success is owed to deciphering the role of the Rb gene, and the benefits of targeted therapies, such as chemoreduction with consolidation as well as intra-arterial and intravitreal chemotherapies. Going forward, the main challenge will be ensuring that access to care is available for all children, particularly those in developing countries. PMID:25065496

  5. [Intussusception after Billroth II operation fifty years ago - an unusual cause for ileus].

    PubMed

    Scharwächter, C; Schwartz, C A; Haage, P

    2013-12-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with occasional vomiting of hematin but no further complaints. 50 years ago a partial gastrectomy after Billroth II had been performed due to a gastric ulcer. The physical examination revealed no pathologic findings. All laboratory values, including hemoglobin (HB), were in normal range. The gastroscopic examination showed traces of hematin in the stomach and in the efferent and afferent loop.  The Braun anastomosis could not be delineated. No other pathologic findings were noted. At the request of the patient additional regular controls of hemoglobin were planned on an outpatient basis. In case of hemoglobin decrease, further treatment should be arranged. Two days after discharge the patient was presented with sudden massive abdominal pain and vomiting. Clinical examination confirmed the assumption of mechanical ileus. An emergency abdominal CT showed an intussusception of a small bowel loop into the Braun anastomosis as the ileus trigger. A laparotomy was carried out immediately after the CT. Because of severe ischemic damage of the intussuscepted loop, an "en bloc" resection of the loop including the Braun anastomosis including reanastomosis had to be carried out. Intussusception is primarily a childhood disease, occurring in adults only in about 5% of cases. Postoperative intussusception is a rare complication after gastric surgery.Especially because of its exceptionality the diagnosis of intussusception in adulthood can be difficult. Crucial herein is to have intussusception in mind in the differential diagnostic pathway of a post gastric surgery ileus. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. One hundred and fifty years of sprint and distance running – Past trends and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Martin; Newman, Alexandra; Whitmore, Ceri; Weiss, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sprint and distance running have experienced remarkable performance improvements over the past century. Attempts to forecast running performances share an almost similarly long history but have relied so far on relatively short data series. Here, we compile a comprehensive set of season-best performances for eight Olympically contested running events. With this data set, we conduct (1) an exponential time series analysis and (2) a power-law experience curve analysis to quantify the rate of past performance improvements and to forecast future performances until the year 2100. We find that the sprint and distance running performances of women and men improve exponentially with time and converge at yearly rates of 4% ± 3% and 2% ± 2%, respectively, towards their asymptotic limits. Running performances can also be modelled with the experience curve approach, yielding learning rates of 3% ± 1% and 6% ± 2% for the women's and men's events, respectively. Long-term trends suggest that: (1) women will continue to run 10–20% slower than men, (2) 9.50 s over 100 m dash may only be broken at the end of this century and (3) several middle- and long-distance records may be broken within the next two to three decades. The prospects of witnessing a sub-2 hour marathon before 2100 remain inconclusive. Our results should be interpreted cautiously as forecasting human behaviour is intrinsically uncertain. The future season-best sprint and distance running performances will continue to scatter around the trends identified here and may yield unexpected improvements of standing world records. PMID:26088705

  7. Fifty years dynamics of Russian forests: Impacts on the earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Kraxner, Florian

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents a succinct history of Russian forests during the time period of 1960-2010 and reanalysis of their impacts on global carbon and nitrogen cycles. We present dynamics of land cover change (including major categories of forest land) and biometric characteristics of forests (species composition, age structure, growing stock volume etc.) based on reconciling all relevant information (data of forest and land inventories, official forest management statistics, multi-sensor remote sensing products, data of forest pathological monitoring etc.). Completeness and reliability of background information was different during the period of the study. Forest inventory data and official statistics were partially modified based on relevant auxiliary information and used for 1960-2000. The analysis for 2001-2010 was provided with a crucial use of multi-sensor remote sensing data. For this last period a hybrid forest mask was developed at resolution of 230m by integration of 8 remote sensing products and using geographical weighted regression and data of crowdsourcing. During the considered 50 years forested areas of Russia substantially increased by middle of 1990s and slightly declined (at about 5%) after. Indicators needed for assessment of carbon and nitrogen cycles of forest ecosystems were defined for the entire period (aggregated estimates by decades for 1960-2000 and yearly for 2001-2010) based on unified methodology with some peculiarities following from availability of information. Major results were obtained by landscape-ecosystem method that uses as comprehensive as possible empirical and semi-empirical information on ecosystems and landscapes in form of an Integrated Land Information System and complimentary combines pool- and flux-based methods. We discuss and quantify major drivers of forest cover change (socio-economic, environmental and climatic) including forest management (harvest, reforestation and afforestation), impacts of seasonal weather on

  8. Fifty years of clinical research by the leukemia committee of the cancer and leukemia group B.

    PubMed

    Larson, Richard A; Stone, Richard M; Mayer, Robert J; Schiffer, Charles A

    2006-06-01

    Progress in the care of patients with leukemia has been one of the great success stories in the field of oncology, and clinical research in leukemia has been the "flagship" of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B since the inception of this organization. Lessons learned from the founders' emphasis on childhood and adult leukemia have been extended broadly over the past 50 years to virtually all types of malignant diseases, and the Leukemia Committee has continued to provide leadership and key contributions. The Leukemia Committee is focused on the individualization of treatment based on distinctive biological and clinical characteristics with the aim of increasing efficacy and decreasing nonspecific toxicity. Our clinical trials in leukemia and myeloma have shifted from primarily empirically derived comparisons of different chemotherapeutic regimens to testing novel concepts such as the role of dose intensity, inhibition of specific mechanisms of drug resistance, the use of hematopoietic growth factors and monoclonal antibodies, and the utility of targeted agents. The Cancer and Leukemia Group B was the pioneer among the cooperative groups in the creation of centralized tissue repositories and the incorporation of correlative laboratory studies as an integral feature of clinical trials, a practice now termed "translational research." Considerable effort has focused on the identification of important pretreatment characteristics, such as morphologic features, immunophenotype, chromosomal abnormalities, and molecular defects, which are significantly associated with outcome in multivariable analyses and which enhance our understanding for the complex biology of these diseases.

  9. The Sertoli cell: one hundred fifty years of beauty and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    França, L. R.; Hess, R. A.; Dufour, J. M.; Hofmann, M. C.; Griswold, M. D.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY It has been one and a half centuries since Enrico Sertoli published the seminal discovery of the testicular ‘nurse cell’, not only a key cell in the testis, but indeed one of the most amazing cells in the vertebrate body. In this review, we begin by examining the three phases of morphological research that have occurred in the study of Sertoli cells, because microscopic anatomy was essentially the only scientific discipline available for about the first 75 years after the discovery. Biochemistry and molecular biology then changed all of biological sciences, including our understanding of the functions of Sertoli cells. Immunology and stem cell biology were not even topics of science in 1865, but they have now become major issues in our appreciation of Sertoli cell’s role in spermatogenesis. We end with the universal importance and plasticity of function by comparing Sertoli cells in fish, amphibians, and mammals. In these various classes of vertebrates, Sertoli cells have quite different modes of proliferation and epithelial maintenance, cystic vs. tubular formation, yet accomplish essentially the same function but in strikingly different ways. PMID:26846984

  10. The 7Q10 in South Carolina water-quality regulation: Nearly fifty years later

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Cantrell, Wade M.

    2010-01-01

    The annual minimum 7-day average streamflow with a 10-year recurrence interval, often referred to as the 7Q10, has a long history of being an important low-flow statistic used in water-quality management in South Carolina as evidenced by its adoption into South Carolina law in 1967. State agencies, such as the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, use such lowflow statistics to determine Wasteload Allocations for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System discharges, develop Total Maximum Daily Loads for streams, prepare the State Water Plan, and restrict the quantity of water that can be transferred out of basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, working cooperatively with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, is updating low-flow statistics at continuous-record streamflow gages in South Carolina on a basin-by-basin approach. Such statistics are influenced by length of record and hydrologic conditions under which the record was collected. Statewide low-flow statistics in South Carolina were last updated in 1987. Since that time several droughts have occurred with the most severe occurring from 1998-2002 and the most recent occurring from 2006-2009. The low-flow statistics for the Pee Dee River basin were the first to be completed in this ongoing investigation.

  11. Fifty years of research on serotypes and mating types in Dileptus anser: A review.

    PubMed

    Uspenskaya, Zoya I; Yudin, Alexander L

    2016-04-01

    The ciliate Dileptus anser is increasingly used as a laboratory model not only in protozoological research sensu stricto, but also in general biology. However, genetic studies of this ciliate have never been carried out, and this species is new to the comparative genetics of ciliates. This review describes the genetic experiments conducted at the Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences for the last 50 years. Two characters that are classical for the genetics of ciliates, serotypes and mating types were selected for analysis. The results presented do not fit into conventional genetic schemes and may have epigenetic nature. Features of this model that were revealed earlier (the simplest possible system of multiple mating types, full serial dominance of the alleles in the mat locus, the excretion of pheromones, etc.) are promising with regard to interesting comparisons of breeding systems in ciliates. The results obtained in studies of mating pheromones in D. anser have demonstrated that this model is a perspective one for further exploration of intercellular recognition in lower eukaryotes and of other related issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Fifty-five years of international epidemic-assistance investigations conducted by CDC's disease detectives.

    PubMed

    Rolle, Italia V; Pearson, Michele L; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-12-01

    For more than 60 years, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has used its scientific expertise to help people throughout the world live healthier, safer, longer lives through science-based health action. In 1951, CDC officially established the Epidemic Intelligence Service to help build public health capacity. During 1950-2005, CDC's Epidemic Intelligence Service officers conducted 462 international epidemiologic field investigations in 131 foreign countries and 7 territories. Investigations have included responding to emerging infectious and noninfectious disease outbreaks, assisting in disaster response, and evaluating core components of public health programs worldwide. Approximately 81% of investigations were responses to infectious disease outbreaks, but the proportion of investigations related to chronic and other noninfectious conditions increased 7-fold (6%-45%). These investigations have contributed to detecting and characterizing new pathogens (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus) and conditions, provided insights regarding factors that cause or contribute to disease acquisition (e.g., Ebola hemorrhagic fever), led to development of new diagnostics and surveillance technologies, and provided information upon which global health policies and regulations can be based. CDC's disease detectives will undoubtedly continue to play a critical role in global health and in responding to emerging global disease threats.

  13. International nuclear societies council vision for the second fifty years of nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, S.R.

    1994-12-31

    A vision of the future should be in the context of ongoing social and technological development Perhaps the most compelling moral and ethical issue facing the world at the close of the 20th Century is to help the peoples of the poorer countries in their struggle for a reasonable quality of life, while at the saw time they face a dramatic increase in their population. Despite improvements in the efficiency of energy use, world energy demand will continue to grow significantly, driven by: (1) an inevitable population increase; (2) the communications revolution, which will generate global aspirations for a better quality of life; (3) the need to generate wealth to address the new level of aspirations; and (4) environmental protection as a cornerstone of sustainable development. The vision of abundant energy in the service of mankind came a step closer to realisation following the discoveries of the properties of the nucleus in the 1930`s. The achievement of a sustained chain fission reaction in 1942 led to the development of nuclear fission into an electrical energy system that now supplies 7% of the world`s energy. The earth`s resources of uranium and thorium for fission and deuterium for fusion provided a virtually inexhaustible rarely of fuel. Looking at the needs of the world over the next 50 years, one can visualise that an even more important contribution will be demanded of nuclear energy.

  14. Fifty-year trends in a box turtle population in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Henry, P.F.P.; Bunck, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    A survey conducted in 1995 investigated long term declines reported in a population of box turtles Terrapene Carolina monitored each decade since 1945 in bottomland hardwood forest at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland. Methods duplicated past surveys in most respects, but were supplemented by radiotelemetry and a survey of dominant vegetation. Seventy different turtles were found on the 11.8 ha study area, a decline of >75% since peak populations were recorded in 1955. Searchers were less efficient in 1995 than in 1945-1975 for a variety of possible reasons. Among turtles recorded, approximately equal numbers persisted from each of the past five decades, with some individuals surviving >70 years. A sex ratio strongly favoring males was first recorded in 1975 and continued in 1995, but juveniles and subadults were found in greater proportion in 1995 than in any other survey. Six of nine radio-marked turtles left the bottomland study area and migrated to the adjoining bluffs to hibernate, suggesting more extensive movements and perhaps less stable home ranges than formerly thought. Age structure of trees indicated a gradual change to more shade-tolerant species. Examination of rates of change from survey data suggested that major losses probably resulted from changes in hydrology that exacerbated flooding in 1972, with recovery only beginning in 1995 and perhaps limited both by repeated flood events and successional changes in the forest. Slow recovery from losses may indicate that populations of the species would respond poorly to exploitation.

  15. Government Medical College Trivandrum - Fifty years of Neurosurgery in Kerala state.

    PubMed

    Peethambaran, Anil Kumar; Chandran, Raj S

    2017-01-01

    The Department of Neurosurgery founded in the Trivandrum Medical College, Kerala, the first teaching hospital in Kerala state, is celebrating its 50th anniversary. The history of Neurosurgery in this Institute is synonymous with the history of Neurosurgery in the state as this was the first medical college to start a Neurosurgery department within the state.The students after undergoing their rigorous training in the department, went on to establish advanced neurosurgical centres throughout Kerala and in several other parts of the country. This article traces the illustrious history of the Department of Neurosurgery, Trivandrum Medical College and also of the eminent faculty members and residents, who helped in advancing the standards of Neurosurgery in the region as well as the rest of India. The Department of Neurosurgery was founded in the Trivandrum Medical College, Kerala, the first teaching hospital in Kerala state, in the year 1951, and is celebrating its 50th anniversary. The history of Neurosurgery in this Institute is synonymous with the history of Neurosurgery in the state as this was the first medical college to start a Neurosurgery department within the state.The students after undergoing their rigorous training in the department, went on to establish advanced neurosurgical centres throughout Kerala and in several other parts of the country. This article traces the illustrious history of the Department of Neurosurgery, Trivandrum Medical College and also of the eminent faculty members and residents, who helped in advancing the standards of Neurosurgery in the region as well as the rest of India.

  16. Fifty years of population growth and absorption of labor in Brazil: from 1950 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Paiva, P D

    1997-01-01

    For a long time, the Brazilian population has grown at a relatively high rate, and only recently has the process of demographic transition intensified in the country. While the associated decline in fertility could result in a future decline in the size of the working-age population, it could also lead to an increase in female participation in the labor market. Brazil's economy is performing well, with gross domestic product (GDP) growing at an average annual rate of 7.1% during 1947-80. Marked growth in industrial employment opportunities has accompanied this growth in GDP. The size of the informal sector, however, has not decreased in similar proportion, while the 1981-83 economic crisis caused urban employment levels to drop, especially in industry and construction. Moreover, the level of rural-urban migration has increased and the agricultural employment index has fallen. The author evaluates past growth trends of the Economically Active Population (EAP) and of employment in Brazil, and assesses the potential growth of the labor force until the year 2000.

  17. Fifty years on: a training for the 21 century, from couple to community.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Jan; Perry, Christopher

    2006-04-01

    The paper describes the gradual transformation of the structures, process and content of the adult training at the Society of Analytical Psychology (SAP) from 1997 when the potential for individuation had gone awry through lack of a culturally relevant and coherent programme until 2005 when trainees' professional and personal individuation could be enhanced by a process and a curriculum representing fairly the interests and beliefs of the range of different approaches to Jungian psychology that are to be found in the SAP. The process has taken eight years to complete and in the paper, the authors, two successive Directors of Training, describe the persistent resistances to necessary change from within their Society, focusing in particular on the key role of the founder member; the privileging of the internal world at the expense of significant external factors; a confusion of roles among members between volunteers and professionals and last, but by no means least, the contamination of the educative task and the creation of a training community by fantasies of the mother/infant couple.

  18. Fifty years of changes in UV Index and implications for skin cancer in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lemus-Deschamps, Lilia; Makin, Jennifer K

    2012-07-01

    Surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in human health. Increased exposure to UV radiation increases the risk of skin cancer. In Australia, public campaigns to prevent skin cancer include the promotion of daily UV forecasts. If all other atmospheric factors are equal, stratospheric ozone decreases result in UV increases. Given that Australia still has the highest skin cancer rates in the world, it is important to monitor Australia's stratospheric ozone and UV radiation levels over time because of the effects cumulative exposure can have on humans. In this paper, two long-term ozone datasets derived from surface and satellite measurements, a radiation code and atmospheric meteorological fields are used to calculate clear-sky UV radiation over a 50-year period (1959-2009) for Australia. The deviations from 1970-1980 levels show that clear-sky UV is on the rise. After the 1990s, an overall annual increase from 2 to 6% above the 1970-1980 levels was observed at all latitudes. Examining the summer and winter deviations from 1970-1980 showed that the winter signal dominated the annual changes, with winter increases almost twice those in summer. With ozone levels not expected to recover to pre-depletion levels until the middle of this century, UV levels are expected to continue to rise. Combined with Australians favoring an outdoor life-style, when temperatures are warmer, under high levels of UV, the associated risk of skin cancer will increase.

  19. Fifty years of changes in UV Index and implications for skin cancer in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemus-Deschamps, Lilia; Makin, Jennifer K.

    2012-07-01

    Surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in human health. Increased exposure to UV radiation increases the risk of skin cancer. In Australia, public campaigns to prevent skin cancer include the promotion of daily UV forecasts. If all other atmospheric factors are equal, stratospheric ozone decreases result in UV increases. Given that Australia still has the highest skin cancer rates in the world, it is important to monitor Australia's stratospheric ozone and UV radiation levels over time because of the effects cumulative exposure can have on humans. In this paper, two long-term ozone datasets derived from surface and satellite measurements, a radiation code and atmospheric meteorological fields are used to calculate clear-sky UV radiation over a 50-year period (1959-2009) for Australia. The deviations from 1970-1980 levels show that clear-sky UV is on the rise. After the 1990s, an overall annual increase from 2 to 6% above the 1970-1980 levels was observed at all latitudes. Examining the summer and winter deviations from 1970-1980 showed that the winter signal dominated the annual changes, with winter increases almost twice those in summer. With ozone levels not expected to recover to pre-depletion levels until the middle of this century, UV levels are expected to continue to rise. Combined with Australians favoring an outdoor life-style, when temperatures are warmer, under high levels of UV, the associated risk of skin cancer will increase.

  20. The centenary of Lester Dragstedt--fifty years of therapeutic vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Modlin, I. M.; Darr, U.

    1994-01-01

    Lester Reynolds Dragstedt was trained initially as a physiologist and subsequently became a surgeon. He achieved renown not only because of his intellectual and technical skills, but because he was able to utilize physiological principles to define the development of surgical procedures. A humble upbringing in Anaconda, Montana was followed by a scientific education in Chicago. His brief background in surgery was obtained during a two year period spent mostly in Vienna and Budapest. At the University of Chicago, he pioneered the development of therapeutic vagotomy in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. His research interests were many and varied, ranging from the toxemia of intestinal obstruction to the quest for a pancreatic hormone which might regulate fat metabolism. After retiring as Chairman of Surgery at the University of Chicago, he assumed a research position in surgery at the University of Florida in Gainesville. Dragstedt was a creative scientist, a superlative clinical surgeon, and a teacher honored by his pupils. The example of his life confirms the benefit of scientific inquiry when applied to clinical and surgical practice. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7502534

  1. Upper airway obstruction due to a change in altitude: first report in fifty years.

    PubMed

    Butskiy, Oleksandr; Anderson, Donald W

    2016-02-01

    Air travel mostly causes minor ear, nose and throat complaints. We describe a second report in literature of airway obstruction caused by a drop in atmospheric pressure during a routine commercial flight. A 54-year-old male was referred to a head and neck surgeon with a 2 cm left submandibular mass that would enlarge during commercial flights. As the plane gained elevation, the mass would grow and cause him to become stridorous and short of breath. The shortness of breath and stridor would only resolve upon landing of the plane. A CT scan showed a large air sac extending from the larynx at the level of the true vocal cords up to the angle of the mandible. Based on the history and the CT findings a diagnosis of a laryngocele was made. The laryngocele was excised using an external approach, resolving the patient's difficulty with flying. This article reports a rare case of upper airway obstruction caused by atmospheric pressure changes during air travel. The reported case is of significance as only a few uncomplicated laryngoceles have been reported to cause airway distress in the literature. This report highlights the epidemiology, presentation, complication and management of laryngoceles.

  2. Fifty years of immunisation in Australia (1964-2014): the increasing opportunity to prevent diseases.

    PubMed

    Royle, Jenny; Lambert, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    Medicine has seen dramatic changes in the last 50 years, and vaccinology is no different. Australia has made a significant contribution to world knowledge on vaccine-preventable diseases. Certain deadly diseases have disappeared or become rare in Australia following successful introduction of vaccines. As diseases become rarer, public knowledge about the diseases and their serious consequences has decreased, and concerns about potential vaccine side effects have increased. To maintain confidence in immunisations, sharing of detailed information about the vaccines and the diseases we are trying to prevent is integral to the continued success of our public health programme. Modern quality immunisation programmes need to communicate complex information to immunisation providers and also to the general community. Improving immunisation coverage rates and eliminating the gap in coverage and timeliness between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous people has become a high priority. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. From local to global-fifty years of research on Salvia divinorum.

    PubMed

    Casselman, Ivan; Nock, Catherine J; Wohlmuth, Hans; Weatherby, Robert P; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-02-03

    In 1962 ethnopharmacologists, Hofmann and Wasson, undertook an expedition to Oaxaca, Mexico. These two researchers were the first scientists to collect a flowering specimen of Salvia divinorum allowing the identification of this species. While the species' traditional use is confined to a very small region of Mexico, since Hofmann and Wasson's expedition 50 years ago, Salvia divinorum has become globally recognized for its main active constituent, the diterpene salvinorin A, which has a unique effect on human physiology. Salvinorin A is a kappa-opioid agonist and the first reported psychoactive diterpene. This review concentrates on the investigation of Salvia divinorum over the last 50 years including ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, taxonomy, systematics, genetics, chemistry and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic research. For the purpose of this review, online search engines were used to find relevant research. Searches were conducted between October 2011 and September 2013 using the search term "Salvia divinorum". Papers were excluded if they described synthetic chemical synthesis of salvinorin A or analogues. Ethnobotanically there is a comprehensive body of research describing the traditional Mazatec use of the plant, however, the modern ethnobotanical use of this plant is not well documented. There are a limited number of botanical investigations into this plant and there are still several aspects of the botany of Salvia divinorum which need further investigation. One study has investigated the phylogenetic relationship of Salvia divinorum to other species in the genus. To date the main focus of chemistry research on Salvia divinorum has been salvinorin A, the main active compound in Salvia divinorum, and other related diterpenoids. Finally, the effects of salvinorin A, a KOR agonist, have primarily been investigated using animal models. As Salvia divinorum use increases worldwide, the emerging cultural use patterns will warrant more research. More botanical

  4. SN 1006 from Chandra: Exquisite Testament to Progress in Fifty Years of X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, P. F.; Katsuda, S.; Long, K. S.; Petre, R.; Reynolds, S. P.; Williams, B. J.

    2013-04-01

    Few objects illustrate the progress made in 50 years of X-ray Astronomy as dramatically as the SN 1006 remnant, which was one of the very faintest sources detected by the first generation of X-ray satellites. We will present the most detailed view of SN 1006 yet obtained, a mosaic of 10 overlapping fields, obtained with ACIS on Chandra in a total exposure time of 700 ks. Comparison with Chandra images from earlier epochs allows us to measure the expansion around most of the X-ray shell. The inferred shock velocity is high everywhere, but is significantly higher (5000 km/s) in regions dominated by non-thermal synchrotron emission than in the NW, where the thermal-dominated X-ray shell is expanding at “only” about 3000 km/s. Yet even in the NW there are isolated X-ray knots with non-thermal spectra and high velocities. We will also present a recent deep optical image that reveals extremely faint Hα emission around the complete 30-arcmin shell in far greater detail than seen previously. These Balmer filaments delineate the leading edge of the primary shock as it expands outward through a partially neutral medium. Interestingly, we find distinct optical features, both within the interior and at the shell limb, that appear to be bow shocks preceding fast knots of ejecta seen in X-rays. This work is being supported by NASA through grant G02-13066, and by the NSF through grant AST-098566.

  5. Fifty years of cytogenetics: a parallel view of the evolution of cytogenetics and genotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Sagredo, J M

    2008-01-01

    A parallelism exists between human cytogenetics and cytogenetic toxicology. The breakthroughs, mostly coming from and used in clinical genetics, are widely used in genetic toxicology. The birth of human cytogenetics occurred in 1956 when it was published that the diploid number of chromosomes in humans is 46. The first stage in chromosome-induced mutagenesis began in 1938 when Sax published the effects of X-rays on the chromosomes of Drosophila. In 1959, the cytogenetic anomalies for Down, Klinefelter, and Turner syndromes were described, and parallelly in 1960, the first publication on chromosomal aberrations in man caused by ionizing radiation appeared. The cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations in cell cultures is considered one of the primary methods to evaluate induced mutagenesis. At the end of the 1960s, banding techniques allowed chromosomes to be individually identified, in parallel, the sister chromatid exchange analysis technology was described. Another milestone in the history of induced mutagenesis was the discovery that mutagenic agents were able to alter chromosomal division and segregation in gonads inducing meiotic nondisjunction. Here we review new approaches and applications such as biological dosimetry, translocation scoring using FISH, and micronucleus test. Chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus test are now effective cytogenetic biomarkers of early effect used as cancer predictors. Human cytogenetics has proven to be effective over its 50-year lifespan and, although each new technique that has appeared seemed to announce its end, the fact is that the current state of cytogenetics is in reality a collection of techniques that, while common, are cheap, fast, and wide-ranging. Therefore, in genotoxicology, they continue to be useful to identify mutagenic agents as well as to evaluate and analyze exposed populations.

  6. Review of the genotoxic properties of chlorpromazine and related phenothiazines.

    PubMed

    Gocke, E

    1996-10-01

    Chlorpromazine and related phenothiazine drugs have been used in human and veterinary medications for more than 40 years, predominantly as psychotropic agents. Genotoxicity reports are in many cases of relatively antiquated test design. Overall there appears to be no genotoxic activity associated with these drugs when tested under standard conditions. Limited evidence for the potential to form mutagenic nitrosation products and some indication for the ability to modulate the genotoxic action of various mutagens have been presented in the literature. UV irradiation of chlorpromazine and other chlorinated derivatives produces reactive free radicals which possess DNA damaging properties. Induction of gene mutation and chromosomal aberrations have been observed in appropriately designed photomutagenesis experiments. Enhancement but also reduction of UV induced skin tumour formation by chlorpromazine have been found. The decisive factor for the discrepant actions has not been recognized. It is clearly advisable to avoid extensive UV exposure during therapy with these drugs.

  7. Magnetite Biomineralization: Fifty years of progress, from beach-combing to the SQUID microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Dixson, A. D.; Raub, T.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetite biomineralization was first discovered 50 years ago as a hardening agent in the teeth of the Polyplacophoran molluscs (chitons) by the late Prof. Heinz A. Lowenstam of Caltech, when he noticed unusual erosional effects produced by their grazing in the intertidal zones of Palau (Lowenstam, 1962). Since then, biogenic magnetite has been detected in a broad range of organisms, including magnetotactic bacteria, protists, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans. In many species, the role of ferromagnetic material as a neurophysiological transducer is demonstrated clearly through the effects of pulse-remagnetization on behavior. A brief (1 uS), properly configured magnetic discharge from a rectified LC circuit, tailored to exceed the coercivity of the magnetite, will often abolish a magnetic behavioral response, or in some cases make the organism go the wrong way. This is a unique ferromagnetic effect. The genes controlling magnetite biomineralization are well characterized in several species of bacteria, and the ability of some of these bacterial genes to initiate magnetite precipitation in mammalian cell lines argues for a common descent, probably via a magnetotactic mitochondrial ancestor. Previous studies in fish reported the presence of single-domain magnetite crystals in cells near projections of the trigeminal nerve, co-located in the olfactory epithelium. Although the cells are rare, the recent development of a spinning magnetic field technique allows easy identification and isolation of these cells for individual study (Eder et al., 2012). The cells are surprisingly magnetic, with moments hundreds of times larger than typical magnetotactic bacteria. Subsequent efforts to identify the anatomical seat of magnetoreceptors have focused on the same locations in new organisms, excluding other areas. Using SQUID moment magnetometry and SQUID scanning microscopy, we report here the unexpected presence of biogenic magnetite in

  8. The big and little of fifty years of Moessbauer spectroscopy at Argonne.

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, C.

    2005-09-20

    Using radioactive materials obtained by chance, a turntable employing gears from Heidelberg's mechanical toy shops, and other minimal equipment available in post World War II Germany, in 1959 Rudolf Moessbauer confirmed his suspicion that his graduate research had yielded ground-breaking results. He published his conclusion: an atomic nucleus in a crystal undergoes negligible recoil when it emits a low energy gamma ray and provides the entire energy to the gamma ray. In the beginning Moessbauer's news might have been dismissed. As Argonne nuclear physicist Gilbert Perlow noted: ''Everybody knew that nuclei were supposed to recoil when emitting gamma rays--people made those measurements every day''. If any such effect existed, why had no one noticed it before? The notion that some nuclei would not recoil was ''completely crazy'', in the words of the eminent University of Illinois condensed matter physicist Frederich Seitz. Intrigued, however, nuclear physicists as well as condensed matter (or solid state) physicists in various locations--but particularly at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell in Britain and at Argonne and Los Alamos in the U.S.--found themselves pondering the Moessbauer spectra with its nuclear and solid state properties starting in late 1959. After an exciting year during which Moessbauer's ideas were confirmed and extended, the physics community concluded that Moessbauer was right. Moessbauer won the Nobel Prize for his work in 1961. In the 1960s and 1970s Argonne physicists produced an increasingly clear picture of the properties of matter using the spectroscopy ushered in by Moessbauer. The scale of this traditional Moessbauer spectroscopy, which required a radioactive source and other simple equipment, began quite modestly by Argonne standards. For example Argonne hosted traditional Moessbauer spectroscopy research using mostly existing equipment in the early days and equipment that cost $100,000 by the 1970s alongside work at

  9. George N. Papanicolaou (1883-1962): Fifty years after the death of a great doctor, scientist and humanitarian.

    PubMed

    Mammas, I N; Spandidos, D A

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years have passed since the death of Dr George Nicholas Papanicolaou, who was born in Kyme at the island of Euboea in Greece in 1883 and became known for his innovative revolutionary invention of the Pap smear test performed at the Cornell University Medical College in the USA. To date, even after the introduction of HPV vaccination into the clinical practice, Dr George Papanicolaou's method remains an essential component of the prevention strategy against cancer and has resulted in a 70% decrease in cervical cancer mortality over the last 60 years. This article, which presents briefly his biography, is dedicated to him on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of his death.

  10. [Fifty years of the Polish School of Medicine at the University of Edinburgh (1941-1991)].

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, W

    1994-01-01

    The Polish School of Medicine at the University of Edinburgh started in 1941 on the initiative of the University. It was destined for soldier-students in the Polish Forces in Great Britain. This academic institution, unique in the history of universities, was a joint Scottish-Polish enterprise. An Agreement was concluded between the Polish Government in London and the University of Edinburgh. The School was an independent Polish academic institution and, at the same time, an integral part of the University of Edinburgh. The students matriculated at the University. The University provided all the laboratory and clinical facilities necessary for teaching. Due to a lack of Polish professors for some chairs a few of them were held by Scottish professors. Attached to them were Polish lecturers but the examinations were then held in English. The diploma, originally valid only in Poland, became recognised in Great Britain following an Act of Parliament in 1947. There were 337 students, a number of them women. 227 obtained the degree M.B., Ch.B. The war ended in 1945. The School continued up till 1949. Poland was not free. The Nazi occupation of Poland was replaced by Soviet domination which was to last for over 40 years. Only 22 of the graduates returned home, about 100 settled in G. Britain, another 100 dispersed world wide. The "magnanimous gesture" of the University of Edinburgh was thereafter remembered with gratitude by the members of the Polish School. In 1961, on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the School, the first reunion of the graduates was organised in Birmingham for those settled in Gr. Britain. The success of the reunion prompted decision on organising annual "English" gatherings of the Polish graduates in Gr. Britain. The first world reunion of the graduates took place in Edinburgh in 1966, attracting a large number of participants on this occasion of the 25th anniversary of the School. That immensely successful anniversary of the Polish School

  11. Contemporary exercise physiology: fifty years after the closure of Harvard Fatigue Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Tipton, C M

    1998-01-01

    , graduate training, health related research, and facility development. Today, the majority of the leaders in exercise physiology are the "products" of the specialization movement. Although undergraduates were encouraged to participate in the research activities, the talented faculty of the Laboratory did not offer formal courses in exercise physiology. Thus, the development of an academic discipline in exercise physiology was left to institutions that required a science-oriented curriculum in their undergraduate and graduate degree programs in physical education, exercise science, or kinesiology. The emergence of exercise physiology as a discipline in the United States was enhanced by the publications of the Journal of Applied Physiology in 1948 and by Medicine and Science in Sports in 1969. These were peer-reviewed journals that were interested in publishing research studies on exercise topics. Two other reasons contributed to its development. The first was the creation of an Applied Physiology Study Section at the National Institute of Health in 1964, whose purpose was to evaluate grant proposals in subject matter area intrinsic to exercise physiology, while the second reason was the formation of the American College of Sports Medicine in 1954. ACSM was an important for the establishment of the discipline because it had an organizational structure that encouraged exercise physiologists to join, provided opportunities for members to present at regional and national meetings, and would publish their findings. Although the American Physiological Society had been established more than a 100 years ago, only a limited number of its members were interested and active in exercise physiology at the time of the Laboratory's closure or at the beginning of the specialization era (1963). However, in 1977, APS created a membership section that included exercise physiology in its title. Currently, both APS and ACSM are effectively representing the professional interests of exercise ph

  12. Chlorpromazine versus metiapine for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zare, Morteza; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2017-03-25

    Chlorpromazine, a widely available and inexpensive antipsychotic drug, is considered the benchmark treatment for schizophrenia worldwide. Metiapine, a dibenzothiazepine derivative, has been reported to have potent antipsychotic characteristics. However, no evidence currently exists on the effectiveness of chlorpromazine in treatment of people with schizophrenia compared to metiapine, a newer antipsychotic. To compare the effect of chlorpromazine versus metiapine for the treatment of people with schizophrenia SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials in November 2015 and 2016. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on chlorpromazine versus metiapine for adults with schizophrenia. We included trials meeting our selection criteria and reporting useable data. We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference between groups and its 95% CI. We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. We included three studies randomising 161 people with schizophrenia. Data were available for only two of our seven prestated main outcomes. Clinically important improvement in global state was measured using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI). There was no clear difference between chlorpromazine and metiapine groups (2 RCTs, n = 120, RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.47, very low quality evidence) and numbers of participants with parkinsonism at eight weeks were similar (2 RCTs, n = 70, RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.03, very low quality evidence). There were no useable data available for the other key outcomes of clinically important improvement in mental state, readmission due to relapse, satisfaction with treatment, aggressive or violent behaviour, or cost of care. Chlorpromazine

  13. Fifty years a vet.

    PubMed

    Winter, Agnes

    2015-07-11

    Agnes Winter wanted to go to Bristol vet school to become a cattle vet, but ended up studying at Liverpool and ultimately became a sheep vet. Here, she discusses the choices she made based on the opportunities available. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Fifty Years of Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Fred

    The worrying situation at that time in cosmology, as it seemed, turned out to be a relatively minor matter, namely the choice of suitable coordinates. Even the best-known cosmologists - de Sitter, Eddington and Lemaitre - had chosen coordinates appropriate to localities in the universe rather than the whole. This produced a sense of mystery that was more apparent than real as to what happened at the boundary of a locality. It is one of the features of Einstein's general relativity that when you choose coordinate systems with special properties you can mistakenly come to think of the properties as physical instead of as mathematical artefacts. Early workers on gravitational waves thought they were investigating physical waves when in fact the waves were in their coordinate system, and a similar situation existed in cosmology. It was also in 1935-36 that this situation was put right, by H.P. Robertson in the United States and A.E. Walker in Britain and the resulting choice of coordinates later became known as the Robertson-Walker line element. Then in 1937 Robertson published an important article on cosmology in the Reviews of Modern Physics, which unfortunately I didn't read at that time because my research interests were in quantum mechanics and nuclear physics.

  15. The relentless past: The effect of chronic sexual abuse in childhood on fifty years of adolescent and adult development.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, Calvin A

    2009-01-01

    Four sisters, now in their late fifties and early sixties, were sexually abused during childhood over a four-year span by the same priest. Until recently they told no one about their experience and never received any psychological diagnostic evaluations or treatment. The author conducted detailed psychiatric evaluations of each of the four women while serving as the plaintiffs' expert witness during their lawsuits against the Catholic Church. The suits have been settled, and the women have given written permission to tell their stories. This unique clinical material provides a rare opportunity to describe and understand the ongoing, pervasive effects of untreated, chronic childhood sexual abuse on developmental processes over half a century. In each instance the women were describing the details of the abuse and the effects on their development for the first time. The severity of the pathology and the intense shame and anxiety associated with discussing their experiences after so many years raises questions about the choice of treatment and technique, particularly in regard to transference and countertransference issues.

  16. Chlorpromazine-induced corneal endothelial phototoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, D.S.; Csukas, S.; Green, K.

    1982-04-01

    Chlorpromazine, which has been used extensively for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, is known to accumulate in the posterior corneal stroma, lens, and uveal tract. Because it is a phototoxic compound, the potential exists for it to cause cellular damage after light exposure. Specular microscopic perfusion of corneal endothelial cells in darkness with 0.5 mM chlorpromazine HCl resulted in a swelling rate of 18 +/- 2 micrometer/hr, whereas corneas exposed to long-wavelength ultraviolet light for 3 min in the presence of 0.5 mM chlorpromazine swelled at 37 +/- 9 micrometer/hr (p less than 0.01). Preirradiation of 0.5 mM chlorpromazine solution with ultraviolet light for 30 min and subsequent corneal perfusion with the solution resulted in a corneal swelling rate of 45 +/- 19 micrometer/hr. Cornea endothelial cells perfused with 0.5 mM chlorpromazine that was preirradiated with ultraviolet light showed marked swelling on scanning electron microscopic examination, whereas those perfused with nonirradiated chlorpromazine were flat and showed a normal mosaic pattern. Combining either 500 U/ml catalase or 290 U/ml superoxide dismutase with chlorpromazine did not alter photoinduction of corneal swelling. The data suggest that corneal endothelial chlorpromazine phototoxicity is secondary to cytotoxic products resulting from the photodynamically induced decomposition of chlorpromazine and is not caused by hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion generated during the phototoxic reaction.

  17. Important metabolites to measure in pharmacodynamic studies of chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Chetty, M; Moodley, S V; Miller, R

    1994-02-01

    Plasma concentrations of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and six metabolites were measured in 12 chronic schizophrenic patients on a fixed dose of CPZ. All six metabolites were measured in significant concentrations, ranging from 12 to 57% of the parent drug concentration. They are listed in order of decreasing mean concentration as follows: chlorpromazine-N-oxide > chlorpromazine sulfoxide > 7-OH chlorpromazine > Nor2 chlorpromazine sulfoxide > Nor2 chlorpromazine > Nor1 chlorpromazine. CPZ concentrations showed significant correlation with the 7-OH chlorpromazine metabolite concentration. Since these metabolites have been associated with in vitro activity and occur in significant concentrations, it is recommended that all six metabolites be measured in studies correlating drug levels with pharmacodynamic effects.

  18. [Chlorpromazine-induced status epilepticus: a case report].

    PubMed

    Momcilović-Kostadinović, Dragana; Simonović, Perisa; Kolar, Dusan; Jović, Nebojsa

    2013-01-01

    It is largely known that some antipsychotic agents could have proconvulsive and proepileptogenic effects in some patients and could induce EEG abnormalities as well. However, the association of status epilepticus with certain antipsychotic drugs has been very rarely reported. A case of an 18-year-old adolescent girl, with chlorpromazine therapy started for anxiety-phobic disorder was reported. Her personal history disclosed delayed psychomotor development. Shortly after the introduction of the neuroleptic chlorpromazine therapy in minimal daily dose (37.5 mg), she developed myoclonic status epilepticus, confirmed by the EEG records. Frequent, symmetrical bilateral myoclonic jerks and altered behavior were associated with bilateral epileptiform discharges of polyspikes and spike-wave complexes. This epileptic event lasted 3.5 hours and it was stopped by the parenteral administration ofvalproate and lorazepam; she was EEG monitored until stable remission. Status epilepticus as initial epileptic event induced by neuroleptic agent was not previously reported in our national literature. Introduction of chlorpromazine to a patient without history of seizures is associated with the evolution of an epileptic activity, including the occurrence of status epilepticus. Clinical evaluation of the risk factors possibly related to chlorpromazine-induced seizure is recommended in individual patients before administering this drug.

  19. Chlorpromazine versus clotiapine for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mazhari, Shahrzad; Esmailian, Saeed; Shah-Esmaeili, Armita; Goughari, Ali S; Bazrafshan, Azam; Zare, Morteza

    2017-04-07

    Schizophrenia is a chronic, disabling and severe mental disorder, characterised by disturbance in perception, thought, language, affect and motor behaviour. Chlorpromazine and clotiapine are among antipsychotic drugs used for the treatment of people with schizophrenia. To determine the clinical effects, safety and cost-effectiveness of chlorpromazine compared with clotiapine for adults with schizophrenia. We searched Cochrane Schizophrenia's Trials Register (last update search 16/01/2016), which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, Embase, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and clinical trials registries. There are no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records in the Register. All randomised clinical trials focusing on chlorpromazine versus clotiapine for schizophrenia. We included trials meeting our selection criteria and reporting useable data. We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% CI. We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created a 'Summary of findings' table using GRADE. We have included four studies, published between 1974 and 2003, randomising 276 people with schizophrenia to receive either chlorpromazine or clotiapine. The studies were poor at concealing allocation of treatment and blinding of outcome assessment. Our main outcomes of interest were clinically important change in global and mental state, specific change in negative symptoms, incidence of movement disorder (dyskinesia), leaving the study early for any reason, and costs. All reported data were short-term (under six months' follow-up).The trials did not report data for the important outcomes of clinically important change in global or mental state, or cost of care. Improvement in

  20. Thirty-five-year results after Charnley total hip arthroplasty in patients less than fifty years old. A concise follow-up of previous reports.

    PubMed

    Warth, Lucian C; Callaghan, John J; Liu, Steve S; Klaassen, Alison L; Goetz, Devon D; Johnston, Richard C

    2014-11-05

    We report the updated results for a previously described cohort of patients who were less than fifty years old at the time of the index Charnley total hip arthroplasty with cement. The original cohort consisted of ninety-three consecutive hips in sixty-nine patients. The patients were followed for a minimum of thirty-five years after surgery or until death. At the latest follow-up evaluation, there were forty-one total hip replacements (44%) in thirty-two living patients. Thirty-four (37%) of the ninety-three total hip replacements in the original cohort had been revised or removed. Twenty acetabular (22%) and seven femoral (8%) components had been revised for aseptic loosening. Since the twenty-five-year follow-up, the average six-minute-walk distance decreased from 395 m to 171 m, and this decrease correlated with increasing comorbidity. This study demonstrates the durability of cemented total hip replacements in a young patient population. Although 63% (fifty-nine) of the ninety-three original hip replacements were functioning at the latest follow-up or at the time of death, a significant decrease in activity level was seen over time (p < 0.001). Of the forty-one original implants in the patients who were alive at the time of the thirty-five-year follow-up, only 46% (nineteen) were retained. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  1. Fifty Years of Pulsar Candidate Selection: From simple filters to a new principled real-time classification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, R. J.; Stappers, B. W.; Cooper, S.; Brooke, J. M.; Knowles, J. D.

    2016-06-01

    Improving survey specifications are causing an exponential rise in pulsar candidate numbers and data volumes. We study the candidate filters used to mitigate these problems during the past fifty years. We find that some existing methods such as applying constraints on the total number of candidates collected per observation, may have detrimental effects on the success of pulsar searches. Those methods immune to such effects are found to be ill-equipped to deal with the problems associated with increasing data volumes and candidate numbers, motivating the development of new approaches. We therefore present a new method designed for on-line operation. It selects promising candidates using a purpose-built tree-based machine learning classifier, the Gaussian Hellinger Very Fast Decision Tree (GH-VFDT), and a new set of features for describing candidates. The features have been chosen so as to i) maximise the separation between candidates arising from noise and those of probable astrophysical origin, and ii) be as survey-independent as possible. Using these features our new approach can process millions of candidates in seconds (˜1 million every 15 seconds), with high levels of pulsar recall (90%+). This technique is therefore applicable to the large volumes of data expected to be produced by the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Use of this approach has assisted in the discovery of 20 new pulsars in data obtained during the LOFAR Tied-Array All-Sky Survey (LOTAAS).

  2. Celebrating fifty years of research and applications in reminiscence and life review: state of the art and new directions.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Gerben J; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2014-04-01

    Fifty years ago, psychiatrist Robert Butler (1963) published an influential article on the recollection and evaluation of personal memories in later life. We discuss the major insights and applications in psychological gerontology that were inspired by Butler. Reminiscence and life review serve to create bonds between people, to cope with important life events, and to attribute meaning to life. We discuss a heuristic framework that relates reminiscence and life review to individual and contextual characteristics as well as to psychological resources and mental health and well-being. The increasing evidence is discussed that different types of interventions can effectively promote mental health and well-being in later life. We propose that processes of reminiscence and life review need further study. This can partly be achieved within the current research tradition by longitudinal studies and good trials that also address the processes accounting for effects of interventions. Synergy with psychological studies on autobiographical remembering and life stories will provide further innovation in the field, as these studies provide new methods and evidence of processes linked to the recollection and evaluation of personal memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chlorpromazine with and without lorazepam as antiemetic therapy in children receiving uniform chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Relling, M V; Mulhern, R K; Fairclough, D; Baker, D; Pui, C H

    1993-11-01

    We prospectively studied the efficacy and adverse effects of chlorpromazine (30 mg/m2 given intravenously) plus lorazepam (0.04 mg/kg given intravenously) versus chlorpromazine alone in a controlled, double-blind, randomized, parallel-design investigation in 25 children (1.5 to 17.3 years of age) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Response to other antiemetics in eight children refusing random assignment to treatment was also evaluated. All children were receiving intravenous infusions of teniposide plus cytarabine, the pharmacokinetics of which were characterized for each of the one to four courses. There were no differences between the 11 patients randomly assigned to receive chlorpromazine alone and the 14 randomly assigned to receive lorazepam plus chlorpromazine in the number of emesis episodes (6.0 vs 5.9; p = 0.53), frequency of dystonic reactions (3% vs 5%), or akathisia (13 vs 10%). The only serious adverse event, symptomatic hypotension, occurred in a boy receiving chlorpromazine plus lorazepam. An exploratory pharmacodynamic analysis revealed that the only variable that correlated with vomiting was cytarabine 1 1/2-hour plasma concentration (p = 0.007). Children who received either chlorpromazine plus lorazepam or chlorpromazine alone had fewer episodes of vomiting than those who received "conventional" antiemetic therapy (6.0 vs 8.6; p = 0.01). We conclude that the severity of emesis is related to the plasma concentration of cytarabine; that intravenously administered chlorpromazine is as effective as chlorpromazine plus lorazepam in preventing chemotherapy-induced vomiting; and that the potential for adverse effects with the addition of lorazepam may be a disadvantage.

  4. Fifty years of the integrated control concept: moving the model and implementation forward in Arizona††

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen outlined a simple but sophisticated idea of pest control predicated on the complementary action of chemical and biological control. This integrated control concept has since been a driving force and conceptual foundation for all integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The four basic elements include thresholds for determining the need for control, sampling to determine critical densities, understanding and conserving the biological control capacity in the system and the use of selective insecticides or selective application methods, when needed, to augment biological control. Here we detail the development, evolution, validation and implementation of an integrated control (IC) program for whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), in the Arizona cotton system that provides a rare example of the vision of Stern and his colleagues. Economic thresholds derived from research-based economic injury levels were developed and integrated with rapid and accurate sampling plans into validated decision tools widely adopted by consultants and growers. Extensive research that measured the interplay among pest population dynamics, biological control by indigenous natural enemies and selective insecticides using community ordination methods, predator:prey ratios, predator exclusion and demography validated the critical complementary roles played by chemical and biological control. The term ‘bioresidual’ was coined to describe the extended environmental resistance from biological control and other forces possible when selective insecticides are deployed. The tangible benefits have been a 70% reduction in foliar insecticides, a >$200 million saving in control costs and yield, along with enhanced utilization of ecosystem services over the last 14 years. Published in 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:19834884

  5. CHLORPROMAZINE ALONE AND WITH RESERPINE—Use in the Treatment of Mental Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hollister, Leo E.; Jones, Kenneth P.; Brownfield, Bernard; Johnson, Franklin

    1955-01-01

    One hundred psychiatric patients were treated with chlorpromazine, alone or combined with reserpine. Fifty-six per cent of patients with chronic schizophrenic reactions showed moderate or pronounced improvement when treated with chlorpromazine alone. The results of treatment with the combined drugs were not so good as that. Indications are that treatment of patients with chronic schizophrenic reactions is more efficacious with these drugs than with other forms of somatic therapy. Complications of treatment were far greater with combined use of chlorpromazine and reserpine. For this reason, the combination appears to have limited usefulness. The Parkinson syndrome was the most frequent complication of large doses of these drugs. It appears to be a toxic reaction, requiring reduction in dosage. Jaundice appears to be neither a frequent nor a serious complication of treatment. PMID:13250424

  6. The cost of postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education: re-examining the status fifty years back.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care.

  7. The Cost of Postgraduate Medical Education and Continuing Medical Education: Re-Examining the Status Fifty Years Back

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care. PMID:25802685

  8. An Ode to Stuart Hall's "The Supply of Demand": The Case of Post-Secondary Education in Ontario Fifty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzGerald Murphy, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that over fifty years have passed since its publication, Stuart Hall's article "The Supply of Demand" (1960), is remarkably relevant today. The central message that society must not be blinded by "prosperity" such that it no longer envisions and demands a better world is especially pertinent in light of the…

  9. An Ode to Stuart Hall's "The Supply of Demand": The Case of Post-Secondary Education in Ontario Fifty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzGerald Murphy, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that over fifty years have passed since its publication, Stuart Hall's article "The Supply of Demand" (1960), is remarkably relevant today. The central message that society must not be blinded by "prosperity" such that it no longer envisions and demands a better world is especially pertinent in light of the…

  10. Chlorpromazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... Eskalith, Lithobid); medications for anxiety, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, ulcers, or urinary problems; ...

  11. [Absolute bioavailability of chlorpromazine, promazine and promethazine].

    PubMed

    Koytchev, R; Alken, R G; Kirkov, V; Neshev, G; Vagaday, M; Kunter, U

    1994-02-01

    The absolute bioavailability of the three phenothiazine neuroleptics, promazine (Sinophenin, CAS 58-40-2), chlorpromazine (Propaphenin, CAS 50-53-3) and promethazine (Prothazin, CAS 60-87-7) was tested in three single-dose cross-over studies. In each trial 12 to 14 healthy volunteers were enrolled. The single doses for promazine, promethazine and chlorpromazine were 100, 75 and 150 mg (orally) and 20, 50 and 50 mg (intravenously), resp. The serum concentrations of the three neuroleptics were measured by means of a selective HPLC-method. the distribution-free confidence intervals for the absolute bioavailability of the three phenothiazines were within 10.5 to 24.7% for chlorpromazine, 7.8 to 24.9% for promazine and 12.3 to 40% for promethazine. Promazine and chlorpromazine are pharmacokinetically very similar and differ substantially from promethazine.

  12. Chlorpromazine for psychosis induced aggression or agitation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Uzair; Jones, Hannah; Adams, Clive E

    2010-04-14

    Agitated or violent behaviour constitutes 10% of all emergency psychiatric treatment. Some guidelines do not recommend the use of chlorpromazine for rapid tranquillisation but it is still often used for this purpose. To examine the effects of oral or intramuscular chlorpromazine for psychosis induced agitation or aggression. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (up to July 2009) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Randomised control trials or double blind trials (implying randomisation) comparing chlorpromazine with another drug or placebo for people who are thought to be acutely aggressive or agitated due to psychotic illness. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a fixed-effects model. One study (total n=30) met the inclusion criteria. When compared with haloperidol (Man 1973) (1 RCT, n=30) people allocated chlorpromazine were no more likely to have one additional injection than those allocated haloperidol (RR 3.00 CI 0.13 to 68.26). This remained true for 2-4 injections (RR 0.90 CI 0.52 to 1.55) and for 5 or more injections (RR 0.75 CI 0.20 to 2.79). Two people allocated chlorpromazine had sudden, serious hypotension while no one allocated haloperidol had such an effect (RR 5.00 CI 0.26 to 96.13). No extrapyramidal symptoms were observed. One person allocated chlorpromazine developed status epilepticus (RR 3.00 CI 0.13 to 68.26). Overall the quality of evidence is limited, poor and dated. Where drugs that have been better evaluated are available, it may be best to avoid use of chlorpromazine. Where chlorpromazine is used for acute aggression or where choices are limited, relevant trials are possible and urgently needed.

  13. Secular Changes of Adiposity and Motor Development in Czech Preschool Children: Lifestyle Changes in Fifty-Five Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sedlak, Petr; Pařízková, Jana; Daniš, Robert; Dvořáková, Hana; Vignerová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Secular trends of adiposity and motor development in preschool children since the fifties of the last century up to the beginning of this millennium were analyzed so as to reveal possible changes due to continuously differentiating lifestyle. In preschool children (n = 3678) height, weight, skinfold thickness over triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac were measured by Harpenden caliper in 1957, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 2012. Simultaneously, motor performance was tested by evaluating the achievements in broad jump and throwing a ball, as a marker of adaptation to changing level of physical activity, free games, and exercise. Along the period of five decades the values of skinfold thickness increased significantly until 2012, mainly on the trunk. Simultaneously, the level of motor performance significantly decreased. Modifications of the way of life during the mentioned five decades characterized by sedentarism and inadequate food intake as related to energy output influenced negatively both adiposity and motor performance already in preschool children. Mostly increased deposition of fat on the trunk which is considered as a marker of possible development of metabolic syndrome was apparent already in preschool age, indicating the importance of early intervention concerning also physical activity and availability for exercise since early life. PMID:26380296

  14. Secular Changes of Adiposity and Motor Development in Czech Preschool Children: Lifestyle Changes in Fifty-Five Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, Petr; Pařízková, Jana; Daniš, Robert; Dvořáková, Hana; Vignerová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Secular trends of adiposity and motor development in preschool children since the fifties of the last century up to the beginning of this millennium were analyzed so as to reveal possible changes due to continuously differentiating lifestyle. In preschool children (n = 3678) height, weight, skinfold thickness over triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac were measured by Harpenden caliper in 1957, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 2012. Simultaneously, motor performance was tested by evaluating the achievements in broad jump and throwing a ball, as a marker of adaptation to changing level of physical activity, free games, and exercise. Along the period of five decades the values of skinfold thickness increased significantly until 2012, mainly on the trunk. Simultaneously, the level of motor performance significantly decreased. Modifications of the way of life during the mentioned five decades characterized by sedentarism and inadequate food intake as related to energy output influenced negatively both adiposity and motor performance already in preschool children. Mostly increased deposition of fat on the trunk which is considered as a marker of possible development of metabolic syndrome was apparent already in preschool age, indicating the importance of early intervention concerning also physical activity and availability for exercise since early life.

  15. Interaction of carbamazepine and chlorpromazine in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rukhadze, M D; Alexishvili, M M; Okujava, V M; Makharadze, T G; Sebiskveradze, M V; Tsagareli, S K

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of carbamazepine and chlorpromazine in rabbits has been studied. The drugs were administrated as single oral doses (200 mg of each drug). The sequence of administration of the drugs was varied. It has been established that by simultaneous administration these drugs decrease absorption of each other in plasma. This may be explained by competition of the drugs to transfer from the gastrointestinal tract into plasma, as well as by the formation of complexes, more or less stable and more or less bound to gastrointestinal tissues. Carbamazepine intensifies the biotransformation of chlorpromazine, which may be caused by the ability of carbamazepine to induce microsomal liver enzymes. Chlorpromazine suppresses the biotransformation of carbamazepine, however. This may be caused by intensive capture of chlorpromazine by liver tissues and by its intensive biotransformation, which in turn is conditioned by its surface-active nature and by the increase of its metabolism with carbamazepine. Therefore the biotransformation of chlorpromazine is increased and metabolism of carbamazepine is reduced. The sequence of administration of the drugs affects their pharmacokinetics significantly. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Basis of behavioral influence of chlorpromazine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emley, G. S.; Hutchinson, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys, studied during response-independent, periodic presentation of electric shock, engaged in biting attack behavior after shock and anticipatory manual and locomotor behavior prior to shock. For all subjects, administration of chlorpromazine caused a dose-dependent decrease in biting attack reactions and a simultaneous increase in anticipatory manual responses. Administration of d-Amphetamine increased while morphine decreased both responses. The results suggest that the tranquilizer, chlorpromazine, produces a shift in an organism's response tendency from post-event aggressivity toward pre-event anticipatory responding.

  17. Basis of behavioral influence of chlorpromazine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emley, G. S.; Hutchinson, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys, studied during response-independent, periodic presentation of electric shock, engaged in biting attack behavior after shock and anticipatory manual and locomotor behavior prior to shock. For all subjects, administration of chlorpromazine caused a dose-dependent decrease in biting attack reactions and a simultaneous increase in anticipatory manual responses. Administration of d-Amphetamine increased while morphine decreased both responses. The results suggest that the tranquilizer, chlorpromazine, produces a shift in an organism's response tendency from post-event aggressivity toward pre-event anticipatory responding.

  18. Fifty years of forestry research: annotated bibliography of the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1926-1975

    Treesearch

    Vincent P. Aitro

    1977-01-01

    Lists 2905 publications, with annotations and subject and author indexes, issued during the first 50 years of the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station (formerly the California Forest and Range Experiment Station), headquartered at Berkeley, California.

  19. An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned from Fifty Years of Observing Hardware and Human Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMann, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pica Kahn conducted "An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned in Human and Hardware Behavior" on August 16, 2011. With more than 40 years of experience in the aerospace industry, McMann has gained a wealth of knowledge. This presentation focused on lessons learned in human and hardware behavior. During his many years in the industry, McMann observed that the hardware development process was intertwined with human influences, which impacted the outcome of the product.

  20. Effect of chlorpromazine on proline absorption across rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Nassar, C F; Abdallah, L E; Karkaji, E G

    1991-07-01

    The effect of chlorpromazine on proline absorption across jejunum in anaesthetized rats was investigated. Intravenous infusion of chlorpromazine reduced significantly (P less than 0.01) proline absorption across the jejunum. Intraluminal perfusion of chlorpromazine into the jejunal segment reversed net absorption of proline to net secretion. Net water absorption was increased significantly (P less than 0.01) when chlorpromazine was infused intravenously or perfused intraluminally. Unidirectional influx of proline across the mucosal surface was significantly inhibited (P less than 0.01) after preincubation with 1 mM chlorpromazine.

  1. Protein binding of chlorpromazine in vivo and in vitro: effect of chlorpromazine metabolite on chlorpromazine protein binding in rat.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Koshiro, A

    1995-04-01

    The serum protein binding curve of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on the Scatchard plot in vitro was a two-phase downward curve. However, after i.v. administration of CPZ the curve was altered to an upward curve. To clarify the reasons for these in vivo changes, the influence of chlorpromazine S-oxide (CPZSO), chlorpromazine N-oxide (CPZNO), desmethylchlorpromazine (nor1-CPZ), chlorpromazine sulfone (sul-CPZ) and 7-hydroxychlorpromazine (7-OH-CPZ) on CPZ protein binding were studied in vitro. The results indicated that the characteristics of the CPZ protein binding are altered by the combination of CPZSO or CPZNO or by either of them. Since it was very difficult to explain the relationship between serum total and free concentrations of CPZ in vivo using mass-balance equations like Hill's equation or a competitive inhibition equation on the multiple binding sites for drug, the correlation between the ratio ot total concentration of CPZ metabolites and CPZ (CPZSO/CPZ or CPZNO/CPZ) and the free fraction of CPZ was examined using the in vitro and in vivo data. The correlation between the ratio of CPZSO/CPZ and the free fraction of CPZ was good in both the in vivo and the in vitro studies. There was no statistically significant difference between the population regression coefficient of the two studies. The values of the slope and the intercept became almost the same as those obtained using the in vivo studies when combined with CPZNO.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. The Meta-Analysis of Clinical Judgment Project: Fifty-Six Years of Accumulated Research on Clinical Versus Statistical Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aegisdottir, Stefania; White, Michael J.; Spengler, Paul M.; Maugherman, Alan S.; Anderson, Linda A.; Cook, Robert S.; Nichols, Cassandra N.; Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Walker, Blain S.; Cohen, Genna; Rush, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical predictions made by mental health practitioners are compared with those using statistical approaches. Sixty-seven studies were identified from a comprehensive search of 56 years of research; 92 effect sizes were derived from these studies. The overall effect of clinical versus statistical prediction showed a somewhat greater accuracy for…

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL] Review, Vol. 25, Nos. 3 and 4, 1992 [The First Fifty Years

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Krause, C.(ed.)

    1992-01-01

    In observation of the 50th anniversary of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, this special double issue of the Review contains a history of the Laboratory, complete with photographs, drawings, and short accompanying articles. Table of contents include: Wartime Laboratory; High-flux Years; Accelerating Projects; Olympian Feats; Balancing Act; Responding to Social Needs; Energy Technologies; Diversity and Sharing; Global Outreach; Epilogue

  4. Organizing a Community and Responding to Its Needs: The First Fifty Years of the American Forensic Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klumpp, James F.

    2000-01-01

    Narrates how the American Forensic Association (AFA) evolved in ways that involved both adaptation and consistency. Describes issues that have driven the AFA's agenda in the first 50 years. Considers the style through which the organization's members have addressed these issues. Notes that the growth of forensics was not isolated from the growth…

  5. Fifty years of the integrated control concept: the role of landscape ecology in IPM in San Joaquin valley cotton.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Peter B

    2009-12-01

    In defining the integrated control concept, Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagan described 'understanding the ecosystem' as a key underpinning of the concept. In following years, Stern and van den Bosch continued to refine and expand the role of the ecological landscape. They and their colleagues developed cultural practices that took advantage of this understanding to limit the need of pesticide intervention in cotton in the San Joaquin Valley during the 1960s and 1970s. Research and extension activities in the intervening years built upon those fundamental concepts using geospatial tools and analytical techniques to refine current understanding and develop ecological landscape level approaches to manage Lygus hesperus (Knight) in San Joaquin Valley cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) and more recently G. barbadense (L.). The result has been a significant drop in insecticide use against L. hesperus, with less than one application per season during the 1990 s and early 2000s.

  6. Pile burning creates a fifty-year legacy of openings in regenerating lodgepole pine forests in Colorado

    Treesearch

    Charles C. Rhoades; Paula J. Fornwalt

    2015-01-01

    Pile burning is a common means of disposing the woody residues of logging and for post-harvest site preparation operations, in spite of the practice’s potential negative effects. To examine the long-term implications of this practice we established a 50-year sequence of pile burns within recovering clear cuts in lodgepole pine forests. We compared tree, shrub and...

  7. From the laboratory to the factory, by way of the countryside: Fifty years of Italian scientific cinema (1908-1958).

    PubMed

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2012-11-01

    The history of the Italian scientific documentary is not very well known nor, with the exception of the pioneer efforts in cinema, is it contemplated in the more complete studies of the evolution of the genre. This article aims to outline the ground covered by Italian scientific cinema in the first 50 years of its existence, from the pioneering works by Roberto Omegna to the industrial documentaries of the 1950s.

  8. Lauriston S. Taylor lecture: fifty years of scientific research: the importance of scholarship and the influence of politics and controversy.

    PubMed

    Brent, Robert L

    2007-11-01

    Over the past 50 years our laboratory has performed and published many studies in the fields of teratology, radiation biology and radiation embryology. The early work took place when I was a research employee at the University of Rochester Manhattan Project in 1944 and where I had my introduction to embryology and genetics. Over the years our lab has provided consultations dealing with the risks of various environmental toxicant exposures during pregnancy. With the advent of the Internet, consulting has become more rapid and efficient. In the past year our pregnancy Web site of the Health Physics Society received approximately 154,000 hits, of which over a thousand contacts were still quite anxious after reading the Web site answers and requested a personal consultation. From this extensive experience we have learned that many physicians and other counselors are not prepared to counsel patients concerning radiation risks. Approximately 8% of the patient contacts who have consulted a professional have been provided with inaccurate information that would have resulted in an unnecessary interruption of a wanted pregnancy. There are five areas of radiation embryology that are considered to be controversial. 1) Can the fetus be harmed by ionizing radiation if the fetus is not directly exposed? 2) Is the production of mental retardation from radiation during pregnancy a threshold phenomenon? 3) Does fractionation and protraction of radiation decrease the magnitude of the reproductive and developmental risks? 4) Is there a period during pregnancy when radiation will result in an increased mortality but not an increase in malformations? 5) How sensitive is the fetus to the oncogenic effects of radiation? We utilize the scientific information obtained from studies in these five areas to counsel patients concerning pregnancy radiation risks. The willingness and persistence of scientists to debate the controversial aspects of this research and apply the best available

  9. Extended radical mastectomy versus simple mastectomy followed by radiotherapy in primary breast cancer. A fifty-year follow-up to the Copenhagen Breast Cancer randomised study.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Helge; Kaae, Sigvard; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning T

    2008-01-01

    From November 1951 to December 1957, 666 consecutive patients with untreated primary breast cancer admitted to the Radium Center in Copenhagen were randomised before their operability was evaluated into two groups, simple mastectomy with postoperative radiotherapy or extended radical mastectomy. Following physical examination 241 of the patients were excluded, primarily due to tumours deemed inoperable due to clinical criteria (n =107) and due to poor general condition (n =69). Twenty-five years results of disease-free free survival and fifty years results of survival are presented, showing no difference between the two groups. Patients with clinical stage I did significantly better than patients with stage II-III tumours. Patients with grade I tumours had a better survival than patients with grade II-III. The breast cancer associated mortality was lower in premenopausal patients compared to postmenopausal patients. An excess mortality due to breast cancer was evident up to 20-25 years following the primary diagnosis.

  10. The Influence of Migration on Secular Trends in Sex Ratios at Birth in Cuba in the Past Fifty Years

    PubMed Central

    Grech, V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Secular trends have been found in the male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births) in various countries and this ratio is anticipated to approximate 0.515. Methods: Annual national data for male and female live births in Cuba with contingency tables were obtained from the World Health Organization and analysed. Results: There were 3 736 718 male and 3 534 270 female births (1960–96). Births declined steadily over the entire period. The male-female ratio at birth remained relatively stable over the period 1960– 1985 with significant sharp dips for the years 1966, 1980 and 1985. There was a sharp rise in M/F from 1966 to 1969, another rise after 1985, a steep drop to 1989, and then a sharp rise once more after 1993 (all p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The single year dips are associated with the passage of laws in the United States of America (USA) that facilitated Cuban entry to the USA. The increases in M/F tended to be associated with a skew toward an efflux from Cuba that was predominantly male. This paralleled the situation in the Second World War where a surplus of women left behind led to an increase in M/F in belligerent countries. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of migration influencing M/F. PMID:25429484

  11. Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Murray, Christopher J L; Gakidou, Emmanuela

    2008-06-28

    To provide an accurate estimate of violent war deaths. Analysis of survey data on mortality, adjusted for sampling bias and censoring, from nationally representative surveys designed to measure population health. Estimated deaths compared with estimates in database of passive reports. 2002-3 World health surveys, in which information was collected from one respondent per household about sibling deaths, including whether such deaths resulted from war injuries. Estimated deaths from war injuries in 13 countries over 50 years. From 1955 to 2002, data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5.4 million violent war deaths (95% confidence interval 3.0 to 8.7 million) in 13 countries, ranging from 7000 in the Republic of Congo [corrected] to 3.8 million in Vietnam. From 1995 to 2002 survey data indicate 36,000 war deaths annually (16,000 to 71,000) in the 13 countries studied. Data from passive surveillance, however, indicated a figure of only a third of this. On the basis of the relation between world health survey data and passive reports, we estimate 378,000 globalwar deaths annually from 1985-94, the last years for which complete passive surveillance data were available. The use of data on sibling history from peacetime population surveys can retrospectively estimate mortality from war. War causes more deaths than previously estimated, and there is no evidence to support a recent decline in war deaths.

  12. Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide an accurate estimate of violent war deaths. Design Analysis of survey data on mortality, adjusted for sampling bias and censoring, from nationally representative surveys designed to measure population health. Estimated deaths compared with estimates in database of passive reports. Setting 2002-3 World health surveys, in which information was collected from one respondent per household about sibling deaths, including whether such deaths resulted from war injuries. Main outcome measure Estimated deaths from war injuries in 13 countries over 50 years. Results From 1955 to 2002, data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5.4 million violent war deaths (95% confidence interval 3.0 to 8.7 million) in 13 countries, ranging from 7000 in the Democratic Republic of Congo to 3.8 million in Vietnam. From 1995 to 2002 survey data indicate 36 000 war deaths annually (16 000 to 71 000) in the 13 countries studied. Data from passive surveillance, however, indicated a figure of only a third of this. On the basis of the relation between world health survey data and passive reports, we estimate 378 000 globalwar deaths annually from 1985-94, the last years for which complete passive surveillance data were available. Conclusions The use of data on sibling history from peacetime population surveys can retrospectively estimate mortality from war. War causes more deaths than previously estimated, and there is no evidence to support a recent decline in war deaths. PMID:18566045

  13. [Drug treatments, from chlorpromazine to new molecules].

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Adeline; Poirier, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    The history of drug treatments, and particularly the discovery of certain molecules, led toan evolution in psychiatric practices. The discovery of the therapeutic properties of chlorpromazine in 1952 by Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker revolutionised the relational process between patients and caregivers.The perspectives are encouraging, notably in the areas of schizophrenia and mood disorders.

  14. Chlorpromazine and ethanol intoxication: an underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Messiha, F S

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro effect of chlorpromazine on hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (L-ADH) was studied as a function of sex and species. The presence of chlorpromazine, 50 muMol, in reaction mixture noncompetitively inhibited rat L-ADH in a dose dependent fashion in the concentration range between 5 X 10(-5) Mol and 10(-4) Mol. This drug concentration also inhibited L-ADH of albino mice of both sexes, but chlorpromazine-produced a decrease in Km which was greater in the female than in the male mouse. Likewise, chlorpromazine, 50 muMol, noncompetitively inhibited mouse L-ADH of C57BL/6J, a mouse strain with ethanol preference, but without a concomitant change in the apparent Km. The KI50 determination indicates 3.5 fold lower concentration requirement of the drug in the C57BL mouse strain compared to that of the albino rat liver preparation. The results suggest that the inhibitory action of the drug on L-ADH and the genetic factor involved may influence the legal limit of serum ethanol concentration during alcohol intoxication in subjects under psychotropic medications. A medical forensic implication is suggested.

  15. Summary of Symposium on Cloud Systems, Hurricanes and TRMM: Celebration of Dr. Joanne Simpson's Career, The First Fifty Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Adler, R.; Braun, S.; Einaudi, F.; Ferrier, B.; Halverson, J.; Heymsfield, G.; Kummerow, C.; Negri, A.; Kakar, R.; hide

    2000-01-01

    A symposium celebrating the first 50 years of Dr. Joanne Simpson's career took place at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center from December 1 - 3, 1999. This symposium consisted of presentations that focused on: historical and personal points of view concerning Dr. Simpson's research career, her interactions with the American Meteorological Society, and her leadership in TRMM; scientific interactions with Dr. Simpson that influenced personal research; research related to observations and modeling of clouds, cloud systems and hurricanes; and research related to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). There were a total of 36 presentations and 103 participants from the US, Japan and Australia. The specific presentations during the symposium are summarized in this paper.

  16. Fifty Years of Flight Research: An Annotated Bibliography of Technical Publications of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, 1946-1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.

    1999-01-01

    Titles, authors, report numbers, and abstracts are given for more than 2200 unclassified and unrestricted technical reports and papers published from September 1946 to December 1996 by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and its predecessor organizations. These technical reports and papers describe and give the results of 50 years of flight research performed by the NACA and NASA, from the X-1 and other early X-airplanes, to the X-15, Space Shuttle, X-29 Forward Swept Wing, and X-31 aircraft. Some of the other research airplanes tested were the D-558, phase 1 and 2; M-2, HL-10 and X-24 lifting bodies; Digital Fly-By-Wire and Supercritical Wing F-8; XB-70; YF-12; AFTI F-111 TACT and MAW; F-15 HiDEC; F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle, and F-18 Systems Research Aircraft. The citations of reports and papers are listed in chronological order, with author and aircraft indices. In addition, in the appendices, citations of 233 contractor reports, more than 200 UCLA Flight System Research Center reports and 25 video tapes are included.

  17. Fifty years of Weibel-Palade bodies: the discovery and early history of an enigmatic organelle of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Weibel, E R

    2012-06-01

    In 1962, a rod-shaped cytoplasmic organelle of endothelial cells, later called the Weibel-Palade body, was serendipitously discovered by electron microscopy. It contains a set of parallel tubules and is wrapped in a membrane. Subsequent studies in the following decades established the unique localization of this organelle in endothelial cells of all vertebrates studied, meaning that it could serve as a marker of endothelial cells in tissue cultures. However, these studies did not reveal its functional significance, except for an indication that it could be related to an undefined thromboplastic substance. Twenty years after its discovery as a structural entity, it was shown by others that it houses von Willebrand factor and is thus clearly related to the coagulation system. In this review, I provide a personal historical account of the discovery and the subsequent limited work that I carried out on the organelle, putting it in the perspective of the current state of knowledge after half a century of research by many scientists.

  18. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; Silva, Tiago Machado; Lima, Giana da Silveira; Silva, Adriana Fernandes; Piva, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in countries such as Brazil.

  19. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    PubMed Central

    ROSA, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; SILVA, Tiago Machado; LIMA, Giana da Silveira; SILVA, Adriana Fernandes; PIVA, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). Results A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Conclusions Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in

  20. The story of the Croatian village of Rude after fifty years of compulsory salt iodination in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Dabelić, Nina; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Nõthig-Hus, Dunja; Lukinac, Ljerka; Ljubicić, Mate; Kusić, Zvonko

    2008-12-01

    The village of Rude is situated near Zagreb, the capital of Croatia in the last Alpine valley on Balkan. In the past, the village was well-known area of severe iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). In 1952', distinguished Croatian endocrinologist Professor Josip Matovinović carried out detailed village survey. Goiter prevalence in school-age children was 85.0% (with 2.3% of cretins in the village). In 1953, the first regulation on compulsory salt iodination with 10 mg of KI/kg of salt was established in former Yugoslavia. Ten years later a dramatic decrease in goiter prevalence was recorded in all endangered areas of the country and no new cretins appeared. However, at the beginning of 1990' mild to moderate iodine deficiency still persisted in Croatia. In 1991, the village of Rude survey demonstrated goiter prevalence in school-age children of 35.0% and median of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) of 7.4 microg/dL. In 1996, the new obligatory regulation with 25 mg of KI/kg of salt was established in Croatia. The study aim was to monitor IDD status in the village after the new law on compulsory salt iodination. Measurements of UIE and thyroid volumes (Tvol) by ultrasound were performed in 7-11-y-old schoolchildren living in the village of Rude. Medians of UIE and body surface area (BSA)-adjusted Tvol in boys and girls were calculated. The study included 84 children in 1997, 132 in 2000, 72 in 2002, 85 in 2003 and 46 in 2004 for UIE measurement. Thyroid volumes were measured in 1999 (43 boys and 26 girls) and in 2005 (22 boys and 26 girls). Data were compared with the new WHO/ICCIDD reference values. Medians of UIE in schoolchildren from the village of Rude demonstrated rising values in microg/dL: 11.4 in 1997, 14.3 in 2000, 17.3 in 2002, 15.4 in 2003 and 19.0 in 2004. Significant decrease in BSA-adjusted Tvol was recorded from 1999-2005 in boys and girls from the village of Rude and in 2005 Tvol were within the normal range according to the new international reference

  1. Changes in Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Fragile Adults over Fifty Years of Age and in Elderly People Exclusively Fed Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Maria D.; Olza, Josune; Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepcion M.; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Jimenez, Africa; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Ruperez, Azahara I.; Gil, Angel

    2016-01-01

    We aim to evaluate whether exclusive feeding of an enteral formula enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) affects oxidative stress and the antioxidant defence system and may improve the levels of some relevant inflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers in frail adults over fifty years of age and in elderly subjects. Fifty-five patients were divided into two groups and were exclusively fed a newly designed normoproteic and isocaloric enteral formula enriched with eicosapentaenoic (98 mg/d) and docosahexaenoic acids (46 mg/d) (n = 26) or a reference enteral diet (n = 29). Oxidative, inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers and red blood cell fatty acid profiles were determined at the beginning and after 90 and 180 days of feeding. The n-3 LC-PUFA percentage tended to be higher (P = 0.053) in the experimental group than in the reference group. Administration of the n-3 LC-PUFA diet did not increase oxidative stress or modify plasma antioxidant capacity but decreased antioxidant enzymatic activities. MMP-9 plasma concentration decreased with both formulae, whereas tPAI-1 tended to decrease (P = 0.116) with the administration of the experimental formula. In conclusion, administration of the new n-3 LC-PUFA-enriched product for 6 months did not negatively alter the oxidative status and improved some cardiovascular risk biomarkers. PMID:26697137

  2. Changes in Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Fragile Adults over Fifty Years of Age and in Elderly People Exclusively Fed Enteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Maria D; Olza, Josune; Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepcion M; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Jimenez, Africa; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Ruperez, Azahara I; Gil, Angel

    2015-01-01

    We aim to evaluate whether exclusive feeding of an enteral formula enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) affects oxidative stress and the antioxidant defence system and may improve the levels of some relevant inflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers in frail adults over fifty years of age and in elderly subjects. Fifty-five patients were divided into two groups and were exclusively fed a newly designed normoproteic and isocaloric enteral formula enriched with eicosapentaenoic (98 mg/d) and docosahexaenoic acids (46 mg/d) (n = 26) or a reference enteral diet (n = 29). Oxidative, inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers and red blood cell fatty acid profiles were determined at the beginning and after 90 and 180 days of feeding. The n-3 LC-PUFA percentage tended to be higher (P = 0.053) in the experimental group than in the reference group. Administration of the n-3 LC-PUFA diet did not increase oxidative stress or modify plasma antioxidant capacity but decreased antioxidant enzymatic activities. MMP-9 plasma concentration decreased with both formulae, whereas tPAI-1 tended to decrease (P = 0.116) with the administration of the experimental formula. In conclusion, administration of the new n-3 LC-PUFA-enriched product for 6 months did not negatively alter the oxidative status and improved some cardiovascular risk biomarkers.

  3. Chlorpromazine versus atypical antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Saha, Kumar B; Bo, Li; Zhao, Sai; Xia, Jun; Sampson, Stephanie; Zaman, Rashid U

    2016-04-05

    Chlorpromazine is an aliphatic phenothiazine, which is one of the widely-used typical antipsychotic drugs. Chlorpromazine is reliable for its efficacy and one of the most tested first generation antipsychotic drugs. It has been used as a 'gold standard' to compare the efficacy of older and newer antipsychotic drugs. Expensive new generation drugs are heavily marketed worldwide as a better treatment for schizophrenia, but this may not be the case and an unnecessary drain on very limited resources. To compare the effects of chlorpromazine with atypical or second generation antipsychotic drugs, for the treatment of people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register up to 23 September 2013. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared chlorpromazine with any other atypical antipsychotic drugs for treating people with schizophrenia. Adults (as defined in each trial) diagnosed with schizophrenia, including schizophreniform, schizoaffective and delusional disorders were included in this review. At least two review authors independently screened the articles identified in the literature search against the inclusion criteria and extracted data from included trials. For homogeneous dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For continuous data, we determined the mean difference (MD) values and 95% CIs. We assessed the risk of bias in included studies and rated the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. This review includes 71 studies comparing chlorpromazine to olanzapine, risperidone or quetiapine. None of the included trials reported any data on economic costs. 1. Chlorpromazine versus olanzapineIn the short term, there appeared to be a significantly greater clinical response (as defined in each study) in people receiving olanzapine (3 RCTs, N = 204; RR 2.34, 95% CI 1.37 to 3.99, low quality evidence). There was no difference between drugs for relapse (1 RCT

  4. Fifty Years of Matter Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medicus, Heinrich A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the origin of de Broglie's concept and its influences on his contemporaries, notably on Einstein, Schrodinger, Elsasser, Davisson, and Thomson. Indicates that the theory served not only as the starting point of quantum mechanics, but also opened new experimental possibilities. Historical inaccuracies are corrected with new material…

  5. Fifty Years of Matter Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medicus, Heinrich A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the origin of de Broglie's concept and its influences on his contemporaries, notably on Einstein, Schrodinger, Elsasser, Davisson, and Thomson. Indicates that the theory served not only as the starting point of quantum mechanics, but also opened new experimental possibilities. Historical inaccuracies are corrected with new material…

  6. Fifty years fused to lac.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    I recount the history of how I became interested in the use of gene fusions for studying biological problems. Initially, selections for mutations that would restore function to an inactivated lac operon unexpectedly yielded fusions in which lac was expressed from the controlling elements of upstream genes. Subsequently, by chance, I generated strains in which the lac operon was transposed from its normal position on the chromosome to a position close to the trp operon, thus facilitating sets of useful fusions of the two operons. The development of a more generalized technique for obtaining fusions by my student Malcolm Casadaban opened up a much broader set of biological problems that could be approached with fusions. Work on these problems included the study of protein translocation across membranes, the analysis of membrane protein topology, and the discovery of the pathway of electron transfer that leads to disulfide bond formation in proteins.

  7. Fifty years of genetic load

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses the radiation effects on Drosophila. It was originally thought that irradiating Drosophila would decrease the average fitness of the population, thereby leading to information about the detrimental effects of mutations. Surprisingly, the fitness of the irradiated population turned out to be higher than that of the control population. The original motivation for the experiment was as a test of genetic load theory. The average fitness of a population is depressed by deleterious alleles held in the population by the balance between mutation and natural selection. The depression is called the genetic load of the population. The load dose not depend on the magnitude of the deleterious effect of alleles, but only on the mutation rate.

  8. Fifty years of migraine research.

    PubMed

    Lance, J W

    1988-05-01

    The prevalence of ice-pick pains and ice-cream headache in migrainous patients and their localisation to the habitual site of migraine headache, suggest that segments of the central pain pathways remain hyperexcitable between spontaneous attacks. Excessive afferent stimulation (flashing lights, noise, strong perfumes) or hypothalamic changes resulting from emotion, stress or the operation of some internal clock may set in motion brainstem mechanisms, including spontaneous unilateral or bilateral discharge of pain pathways. Studies in the experimental animal have shown that certain monoaminergic brainstem nuclei can influence the cerebral circulation unilaterally and that they and the trigeminal system can induce a reflex dilatation of the external carotid circulation. Descending pathways from the same brainstem nuclei cause the adrenal gland to secrete noradrenaline, which in turn can release serotonin from blood platelets. Free serotonin may become adsorbed to the arterial wall, thus increasing sensitivity to pain, augmenting afferent input and adding a pulsating quality to migrainous pain. Both neural and vascular components of migraine implicate monoamines, specifically noradrenaline and serotonin, as neurotransmitters and humoral agents. The recent pharmacological classification of serotonin (5HT) receptors indicates that agonists of a subset of the 5HT1 receptor and antagonists of 5HT2 receptors are most likely to be helpful in the treatment of migraine.

  9. A ten years follow-up of the results of surgery for Dupuytren's disease. A study of fifty-eight cases.

    PubMed

    Norotte, G; Apoil, A; Travers, V

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients (52 males and 6 females) operated on for Dupuytren contracture were examined by the same author with a more than ten year follow-up. At time of surgery the average was 55 years old. 69 hands (169 fingers) rated 4.33 according to the simplified Tubiana's score were treated by the same operative procedure: Mac Indoe's incision, digital Z plasty (if needed), subtotal fasciectomy and physiotherapy beginning 8 days postoperatively. At long term, recurrence appears for 49 hands (71%) one every two in the two first postoperative years, one out of five after five years. 24 of them were graded stage I. The recurrence appeared 14 times associated with an extension of the disease and the earlier, the higher was the initial stage. Some factors seem to be of a bad prognosis regarding recurrence: age (93% of recurrence under 50 years old) Ledderhose or Lapeyronie (100%) other associated diseases (Alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy) and severe preoperative stage. Subjective results are good: 45 patients are satisfied and only 3 underwent a second operation.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of chlorpromazine after single and chronic dosage.

    PubMed

    Dahl, S G; Strandjord, R E

    1977-04-01

    Plasma concentrations of chlorpromazine and its sulfoxide were measured after single intramuscular, single oral, and multiple oral doses of chlorpromazine. In four out of nine patients, intramuscular doses gave stable chlorpromazine plasma levels which were maintained for 12 hr or longer. Chlorpromazine sulfoxide was found in plasma from all patients after oral doses but not after intramuscular doses, which indicates that sulfoxidation took place presystemically. The biologic availability of single oral doses relative to single intramuscular doses ranged from 10 to 69%, and was on average 32%. After 33 days of oral dosing, the plasma levels of chlorpromazine were on average 37% lower than might have been predicted from the single oral dose curves. This was not due to decreased biologic t 1/2 of chlorpromazine, but apparently to a decrease in the biologic availability by oral administration, possibly by increased presystemic metabolism.

  11. Intersubject variation in the pharmacokinetics of chlorpromazine in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Midha, K K; Hawes, E M; Hubbard, J W; Korchinski, E D; McKay, G

    1989-02-01

    Interpatient variation in response to therapy with antipsychotic drugs is a major problem. This study was designed to assess the extent of variation in disease-free subjects in whom known sources of variance were controlled as much as possible. The subjects were 32 healthy, nonsmoking males of European origin, aged 18-25 years, and weighing no more than +/- 15% from the ideal weight for height. After an overnight fast, each subject ingested 50 mg of chlorpromazine. Plasma samples were harvested over a 24-hour period during which the subjects were on a standardized, caffeine-free diet. Plasma levels of chlorpromazine were measured by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed wide intersubject variation in all pharmacokinetic parameters including maximum concentration, area under the curve, and oral clearance. Furthermore, none of the data were normally distributed. For each pharmacokinetic parameter, the distribution was leptokurtotic and skewed. As a consequence, the geometric means provided better estimates of central tendency than the arithmetic means. It seems that a major proportion of intersubject variation is an inherent problem that cannot be accounted for by differences in race, diet, smoking habits, or concomitant drug ingestion.

  12. Chlorpromazine-induced cholestatic liver disease with ductopenia.

    PubMed

    Chlumská, A; Curík, R; Boudová, L; Mukensnabl, P; Klvana, P

    2001-07-01

    We describe a 30-year-old pregnant woman in whom cholestatic liver disease developed 16 resp. 18 days after the medication of chlorprothixeni hydrochloridum and chlorpromazine treatment in the 33rd week of pregnancy. Clinically, the course was characterized by severe jaundice lasting 10 months, fever, pruritus, high serum alkaline phosphatase level, transient aminotransferase elevation, and hypercholesterolemia. The pregnancy was terminated in the 35th week by cesarean section with the birth of a premature female newborn without any signs of liver damage. The histological examination of the mother's liver revealed ductopenia, defined by the absence of interlobular bile ducts in at least 50% of the small portal tracts, and long-standing cholestasis with pseudoxanthomatous transformation of hepatocytes and ductular epithelia, and small lobular xanthomas. The jaundice resolved very slowly after ursodeoxycholic acid therapy. The liver function tests 26 months after the onset of jaundice showed only a slight elevation of alkaline phosphatase and aminotransferases. In the control liver biopsy, non-active periportal and septal fibrosis without signs of cholestasis was seen. To our knowledge this is the sixth report to document chlorpromazine-induced ductopenia in pregnancy and the first to describe a newborn without any liver damage.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and dosage of chlorpromazine in goats.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, M

    1981-06-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters which describe the distribution and elimination of chlorpromazine in goats were determined. Following the intravenous administration of a single dose (2.5 mg/kg), disposition of the drug was described in terms of the biexponential expression Cp = Ae-alpha t + Be-beta t. Based on total (free and bound) chlorpromazine levels in plasma, pseudo-distribution equilibrium was rapidly attained, and the elimination half-life was 1.51 +/- 0.48 h (mean +/- SD, n = 8). Total body clearance, which is the sum of all clearance processes, was 80 +/- 25 ml/min/kg. The curves of an animal representative of the group, based on individual rate constants associated with the two-compartment open model, showed that at 5 h after drug administration 8% and 6% of the dose were present in the peripheral and central compartments, respectively. The kinetic parameters of chlorpromazine determined at a dosage level of 10 mg/kg body weight in six goats showed that the drug followed first-order kinetics and kinetic parameters were similar after both dose levels. Based on these findings and therapeutic plasma levels, a satisfactory intravenous regimen should be 2.0-3.5 mg/kg and the drug action will persist for 5-6 h.

  14. THERAPY OF CHLORPROMAZINE MELANOSIS: A PRELIMINARY REPORT.

    PubMed

    GREINER, A C; NICOLSON, G A; BAKER, R A

    1964-09-19

    Melanosis observed in association with prolonged chlorpromazine therapy has become a serious problem in mental institutions. Skin pigmentation has produced an appearance which is cosmetically undesirable. Ocular deposits have caused visual impairment. Diffuse visceral involvement has been accompanied by functional disturbances of the involved organs.Withholding chlorpromazine did not diminish the pigment deposits already present in eight patients with chlorpromazine-induced melanosis. Therefore therapy for existing cases and means of preventing this side effect were investigated. A method of blocking melanin synthesis by depressing tyrosinase activity was devised. A copperchelating agent, D-penicillamine, was administered for a period of four weeks (300 mg. three times daily for six days each week, with mineral supplement substituted on the seventh day). Four of six days patients thus treated improved markedly as evidenced by diminution of skin pigmentation. Urinary copper excretion was substantially increased during the trial period. An alternative method of treatment designed to stimulate melatonin production by the pineal gland was employed. Two patients were kept in darkness for a period of four weeks. One improved markedly, the other only slightly.

  15. Promazine and chlorpromazine for prolonged spinal anesthesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Chu, Chin-Chen; Chen, Yu-Chung; Kan, Chung-Dann; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2012-07-19

    Though promazine and chlorpromazine elicited cutaneous anesthesia, no study of spinal anesthesia with chlorpromazine and promazine has been reported. This study was to examine whether chlorpromazine and promazine produce spinal anesthesia. Using a rat model via intrathecal injection, we tested spinal blockades of motor function and nociception by promazine, chlorpromazine or bupivacaine, and so were dose-response studies and durations. We demonstrated that chlorpromazine and promazine elicited dose-dependent spinal blockades in motor function and nociception. On the 50% effective dose (ED(50)) basis, the rank of potency of these drugs was bupivacaine>promazine>chlorpromazine (P<0.05 for the differences). On an equipotent basis (25% effective dose [ED(25)], ED(50), and ED(75)), the block duration caused by chlorpromazine or promazine was longer than that caused by the long-lasting local anesthetic bupivacaine (P<0.01 for the differences). Chlorpromazine and promazine, as well as bupivacaine, showed longer duration of sensory block than that of motor block. Our data reported that intrathecal promazine and chlorpromazine with a more sensory-selective action over motor blockade had less potent and longer-lasting spinal blockades when compared with bupivacaine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The mode of neuromuscular blocking action of chlorpromazine

    PubMed Central

    Su, C.; Lee, C. Y.

    1960-01-01

    The inhibitory action of chlorpromazine on skeletal muscle has been studied with isolated preparations. In the nerve-muscle preparations of the frog sartorius and the rat diaphragm, the twitch responses to indirect stimulation are much more strongly depressed by chlorpromazine than those to direct stimulation. The conductivity of the nerve trunk is unaffected. The contractures of the frog rectus abdominis muscle caused by acetylcholine are depressed by chlorpromazine,but the contractures due to KCl are not influenced. Larger doses of chlorpromazine cause contracture by themselves, and this cannot be prevented by tubocurarine. In the sartorius muscle of the toad, the depolarization due to acetylcholine is reduced by chlorpromazine. The paralysing action of chlorpromazine adds to that of tubocurarine, and is antagonized to some extent by eserine or neostigmine. Muscles treated with chlorpromazine do not completely recover on washing. High concentrations of chlorpromazine depress the release of acetylcholine by motor-nerve stimulation, although they do not affect the enzymic synthesis of acetylcholine by acetone-dried powder of guinea-pig brain. The differences between the neuromuscular block produced by chlorpromazine and that by tubocurarine are discussed. PMID:13835490

  17. A Professor Looks at Fifty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhooge, Lucien J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on his career as he turned fifty years old. He looks back on the most significant influences upon his professional life. This includes identifying the people who had the greatest influence on his teaching. This perspective not only serves as a reflection on the people and ideas that have influenced his teaching…

  18. Risperidone-induced Pisa syndrome in MS: resolution with lurasidone and recurrence with Chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Iuppa, Courtney A; Diefenderfer, Lauren A

    2013-09-01

    To report a case of risperidone-induced Pisa syndrome in a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) that resolved with lurasidone, recurred with chlorpromazine, and was complicated by possible drug-drug interactions. A 31-year-old white male with MS developed Pisa syndrome after years of treatment with risperidone at varying doses for behavioral symptoms associated with pervasive developmental disorder. The patient experienced improvement in symptoms after treatment was switched to lurasidone; however, due to psychiatric decompensation, a switch to chlorpromazine was made and Pisa syndrome recurred. To maintain control of the patient's behavioral symptoms, chlorpromazine was not discontinued. Pisa syndrome is a rare adverse drug reaction induced most often by neuroleptic medications. The reaction is characterized by dystonia affecting cervical and lumbar musculature, resulting in flexion of the head and body to one side with axial rotation of the trunk. The etiology is believed to involve a dopaminergic-cholinergic imbalance. Most practitioners are not familiar with this syndrome, and it has not been reported previously in a patient with MS. Definitive diagnostic criteria and treatment have not been established. We identified 15 case reports involving risperidone, paliperidone, chlorpromazine, clomipramine, or valproic acid. The time to development of Pisa syndrome, patient demographics, dosing and titration of causative medications, approach to treatment, and resolution of Pisa syndrome varied widely in these reports. Dystonia in MS often presents differently than Pisa syndrome. The Naranjo probability scale indicated a probable relationship between either risperidone or chlorpromazine in each instance of Pisa syndrome in our patient. Pisa syndrome is a rare adverse drug reaction associated with neuroleptic medications. Our report highlights the importance of identifying this uncommon type of dystonia in order to consider modification of the medication regimen when

  19. Chlorpromazine for the treatment of migraine in a pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Kanis, Jessica M; Timm, Nathan L

    2014-02-01

    Migraine headache is a common presenting condition to the pediatric emergency department (PED). Dopamine receptor antagonists, such as prochlorperazine and metoclopramide, serve as the primary treatment for migraine headache in many emergency departments; however, in 2012, our institution experienced a shortage of these drugs, resulting in the use of alternative medications. Chlorpromazine was included as an option for treatment at our institution during this shortage, although limited data exist on the effectiveness in children. The objectives of this study were: (1) to compare the treatment failure rate of chlorpromazine in the treatment of migraine headache in youth presenting to the PED with those who received prochlorperazine; and (2) to identify the frequency and type of adverse events, and change in pain score. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients 12-21 years of age treated for migraine headache in our emergency department. Our treatment group received intravenous chlorpromazine between February and April 2012, while the comparison group consisted of children treated with intravenous prochlorperazine between February and April 2011. The outcomes of interest were: (1) treatment failure, defined as need for additional therapy, hospitalization or 48-hour return; (2) adverse reactions to drug therapy; and (3) change in pain score. This study yielded 75 patients in the treatment group and 274 in the comparison group. Forty percent (30/75) of the treatment group had treatment failure compared with 15% (41/274) of the comparison group. There was no difference in mean change in pain score between the groups. The most common adverse effects included hypotension in the treatment group (12%) and akathisia in the comparison group (12%). This is the first study that has examined the use of chlorpromazine as a therapy in pediatric migraines. Abortive therapy for migraine headache in the PED with chlorpromazine is associated with greater need for rescue

  20. Intra-venous chlorpromazine with fluid treatment in status migrainosus.

    PubMed

    Utku, Uygar; Gokce, Mustafa; Benli, Elif Muruvvet; Dinc, Aytaç; Tuncel, Deniz

    2014-04-01

    To present the results of the intra-venous chlorpromazine with fluid treatment in patients with status migrainosus. Consecutive 21 patients with status migrainosus were received intra-venous chlorpromazine (maximum 25mg) with fluid treatment and their results were documented. Complete recovery of headache and nausea were seen in 20/21 and 17/21 of the patients respectively. 15/21 of patients were headache free following at 10mg chlorpromazine infusion. Most patients went on sleep after 10mg chlorpromazine infusion and when they wake already up headache free. Side effects such as tachycardia, palpitation, flushing and hypertension were seen only one of 21 patients following first dose 5mg injection. This study showed that intra-venous chlorpromazine with fluid treatment for status migrainosus seems a good option. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photochemical Inactivation of Deoxyribonucleic and Ribonucleic Acid Viruses by Chlorpromazine

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Carl Veith

    1979-01-01

    Chlorpromazine, a widely used tranquilizing drug of the phenothiazine group, was found to be a very potent photochemical inactivator of both deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses in the presence of long-wave ultraviolet light (320 to 380 nm). Neither the light alone nor chlorpromazine alone caused any appreciable inactivation. The known chlorpromazine photoreactions with nucleic acids are somewhat similar to those of psoralen (furocoumarin) derivatives. As in the case of the psoralens, chlorpromazine is capable of photoinactivating viruses totally within a few minutes under near-physiological or other gentle conditions. The antiviral effects of the chlorpromazine photoreaction could make it valuable for the development of inactivated viral vaccines as well as for use in the photochemotherapy of viral dermatoses. PMID:464574

  2. Hydroxyapatite-coated total hip femoral components in patients less than fifty years old. Clinical and radiographic results after five to eight years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Capello, W N; D'Antonio, J A; Feinberg, J R; Manley, M T

    1997-07-01

    One hundred and thirty-three patients (152 hips) who were an average of thirty-nine years old (range, sixteen to forty-nine years old) received a proximally hydroxyapatite-coated femoral prosthesis as part of a total hip arthroplasty and were followed for a minimum of five years (average, 6.4 years; range, five to 8.3 years) or until revision. The average Harris hip score was 47 points (range, 22 to 77 points) preoperatively and 93 points (range, 49 to 100 points) at the time of the latest clinical evaluation. Two patients who had a well fixed femoral implant had activity-limiting pain in the thigh at the time of the most recent examination. Radiographic changes consistent with bone-remodeling (cortical hypertrophy and bone condensation) typically were seen around the mid-part of the shaft of the prosthesis. Forty-eight (32 per cent) of the 148 hips that were included in the radiographic analysis demonstrated a small amount of erosive scalloping in either zone 1 or zone 7 of Gruen et al., and intramedullary osteolysis was suspected in only one hip. All stems were radiographically osseointegrated according to a modification of the criteria described by Engh et al. Four stems were revised, but none of the revisions were performed because of mechanical failure (two stems were revised in conjunction with a revision of the cup because of pain; one, because of an infection; and one, after a traumatic femoral fracture that occurred six years postoperatively). Thus, the rates of aseptic and mechanical failure were both 0 per cent. The combined rate of failure, which included the two stems that were revised because of pain and the two stems that were associated with pain that limited activity, was 2.6 per cent (four of 152 stems). The over-all clinical results associated with hydroxyapatite-coated femoral components were excellent in this group of young patients after intermediate-term follow-up. A review of serial radiographs showed mechanically stable implants with

  3. Authorship trends over the past fifty years in the Journal of the Danish Medical Association (Danish: Ugeskrift for Læger).

    PubMed

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-03-01

    Internationally, the number of authors per scientific article is increasing. The objective of this study was to determine authorship trends over the past fifty years in Ugeskrift for Læger (UfL). From 1960 to 2010, ten volumes of the UfL, 5,962 articles in total, were studied. For each article, category and number of authors were recorded. The median number of authors per article (all categories) was one in 1960 (range 1-3), two in 1985 (range 1-9) and three in 2010 (range 1-14). The proportion of articles published by three or more authors constituted 1% in 1960 and 68% in 2010. For original articles, the median number of authors per article was two in 1960 (range 1-3), three in 1985 (range 1-9) and three in 2010 (range 1-9). For reviews, the median number of authors per article was one in 1960 (range 1-2), two in 1985 (range 1-5) and three in 2010 (range 1-14). For case reports, the median number of authors per article was one in 1960 (range 1-2), two in 1985 (range 1-5) and three in 2010 (range 1-6). The number of authors per article increased for all types of articles published in the UfL. This could reflect increases in "gift authorship", but "multiple authorship" could also be fully legitimate. Replacing or supplementing authorship criteria with contribution statements would provide some transparency and accountability. Yet, questions about credit assessment and overall responsibility need to be clarified. not relevant. not relevant.

  4. [Effect of chlorpromazine and amphetamine on incidental memory and its relation to the introvert-extravert structure of personality].

    PubMed

    Zaimov, K; Kokoshkarova, A

    1978-10-01

    A total of fifty-four test subjects divided into one control group and two experimental groups were used to study the effects of chlorpromazine and amphetamine upon the incidental memory, its accuracy, and possible dependence on the introversive or extroversive personality structure, respectively. It has been found that chlorpromazine tends to lessen the incidental memory in extent and increase the number of allomnesias or instances of inaccurate remembrance, whereas amphetamine has the effects of increasing the extent of the incidental memory and reducing the number of allomnesias. A comparison of the extent of the incidental memory with the structure of personality in respect of introversion or extroversion in the control group also showed significant differences, the incidental memory being of smaller extent in the case of introversion and greater extent in the case of extroversion.

  5. Chlorpromazine, placebo and droperidol in the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cisplatin therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Harris, R.; Buckman, R.; Starke, I.; Wiltshaw, E.

    1983-01-01

    The use of cisplatin may be associated with severe nausea and vomiting. Two separate, randomized, double-blind trials, comparing the anti-emetic effect of chlorpromazine with placebo and chlorpromazine with droperidol, were conducted in patients receiving cisplatin for ovarian cancer. Chlorpromazine was statistically superior to placebo in the control of nausea and vomiting in those patients treated with chlorpromazine had significantly less nausea than with droperidol, but there were no other significant differences between chlorpromazine and droperidol. Toxicities of chlorpromazine and droperidol were similar. Chlorpromazine shows useful activity against cisplatin nausea and vomiting. PMID:6353396

  6. Interaction of chlorpromazine with tea and coffee.

    PubMed Central

    Cheeseman, H J; Neal, M J

    1981-01-01

    1 The interaction between phenothiazine neuroleptics with tea and coffee was studied in vitro. 2 Filtered infusions of tea and coffee caused precipitation of all the neuroleptics studied. Tea always caused a heavier precipitate than coffee. 3 The constituent or constituents of tea and coffee responsible for precipitating the neuroleptics was not identified. Solutions of caffeine, caffeine citrate and sodium chloride did not form a precipitate with chlorpromazine but precipitates were formed by sodium salicylate, sodium benzoate and trisodium citrate. 4 The interaction between chlorpromazine (CPZ) and tea was studied quantitatively using radiolabelled drug and it was found that the precipitation of [3H]-CPZ with a given quantity of tea was 'saturable'. The proportion of CPZ precipitated by a 'standard cup of tea' was 80% at low doses of the drug (10-40 mg) whilst at high doses (800 mg), the proportion of the drug precipitated was approximately 20%. 5 The interaction was further studied in vivo by the oral administration of tea and CPZ to rats. The cataleptic effect of CPZ was significantly reduced by the simultaneous administration of tea and this was apparently not due to the caffeine present in tea. 6 The results suggest that a substantial proportion of orally administered neuroleptic may be precipitated as a highly insoluble compound if coffee, or more especially tea, is taken close to drug administration. This interaction might affect the absorption of phenothiazines given orally to patients. PMID:7197984

  7. Impact of chlorpromazine self-association on its apparent binding constants with cyclodextrins: Effect of SBE(7)-beta-CD on the disposition of chlorpromazine in the rat.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Michelle P; Leong, Nathania; Katneni, Kasiram; Morizzi, Julia; Shackleford, David M; Prankerd, Richard J

    2010-07-01

    Chlorpromazine is an antipsychotic agent with poor aqueous solubility. Complexation with SBE(7)-beta-CD can aid intravenous delivery through increasing the apparent solubility of chlorpromazine. However, chlorpromazine has also been known to self-associate. This self-association can influence its capacity to interact with other chemical species, such as cyclodextrins. This study aimed to characterise the self-association and cyclodextrin binding properties of chlorpromazine, and the effect on pharmacokinetic parameters in rats when dosed with a SBE(7)-beta-CD containing formulation. Pharmacokinetic studies of chlorpromazine in the presence and absence of SBE(7)-beta-CD were undertaken in rats. The binding constant of SBE(7)-beta-CD and chlorpromazine was studied relative to chlorpromazine concentration via fluorescence. The self-association of chlorpromazine was studied by fluorescence and UV-visible spectrophotometry. Urinary excretion of intact chlorpromazine increased in the presence of SBE(7)-beta-CD. The SBE(7)-beta-CD binding constant of chlorpromazine is highly concentration dependent and the variation can be attributed to the self-association of chlorpromazine. The apparent binding constant of chlorpromazine is highest at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, providing an explanation for the significant increase in renal chlorpromazine excretion observed in rats. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  8. Predictive indices for chlorpromazine therapy in schizophrenics.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, P A; Oforah, E; Makanjuola, R

    1982-01-01

    1 Response to chlorpromazine therapy was studied in 24 schizophrenics and 75% reduction in Brief Psychiatric Rating scale (BPRS) within 4 weeks of treatment was taken to indicate good response. 2 Test oral dose of CPZ (200 mg) was administered and serial blood samples and total urine excreted in 6 h were taken for analyses of CPZ and its metabolites. 3 Area under the plasma time curve (AUC) showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with % reduction in BPRS. 4 Three groups of patients were identified, responders, l- and h-group non-responders. 5 l- and h-groups respond on further treatment with haloperidol (30 mg daily) and ECT respectively. 6 Responders showed threshold metabolic molar fraction MMFHO-CPZ greater than or equal to 3.0 x 10(-5) and MMFHO-CPZ/MMFCPZ-SO greater than 1. PMID:7104178

  9. Passive and iontophoretic transdermal penetration of chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Figueroa, María Javiera; González-Aramundiz, José Vicente

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro iontophoretic transdermal delivery of chlorpromazine (CPZ) across pig skin was investigated. Anodal iontophoresis considerably increased CPZ skin penetration and accumulation compared with the passive controls. The effect of CPZ concentration in the donor solution was studied (1.4-8.2 mM). A higher penetration was observed with an increase of the concentration. In addition, the effect of NaCl concentration was also studied (154-200 mM). As expected, CPZ iontophoretic transport decreased with NaCl content. Finally, the influence of the current density (0.20-0.50 mA/cm(2)) was investigated. The iontophoretic transport of CPZ tends to increase with current density, although this effect was not statistically significant between 0.35 and 0.5 mA/cm(2). On the whole, this work shows that iontophoresis may be used to improve the transdermal delivery of CPZ for the treatment of chronic psychosis.

  10. Effect of chlorpromazine on rat placenta development.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Satoshi; Hayashi, Seigo; Abe, Masayoshi; Hagio, Souichiro; Irie, Kota; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ogawa, Izumi; Sugiyama, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We examined the sequential histopathological changes in the placentas from rats exposed to chlorpromazine. Chlorpromazine was intraperitoneally administered on GD 14 at 50 and 100 mg/kg and the placentas were sampled on GDs 14.5, 15, 17 and 21. The incidence of dams with complete fetal resorption was increased from GD 17 up to 20% at 50 mg/kg and 44.4% at 100 mg/kg. The embryo/fetal weights reduced on GDs 15 and 17 at 50 mg/kg and during GDs 15-21 at 100 mg/kg. The placental weights reduced on GD 17 at 50 mg/kg and during GDs 14.5-21 at 100 mg/kg. Histopathologically, in the labyrinth zone, apoptotic cells were scattered in the trophoblastic septa without inhibition of cell proliferation on GDs 14.5 and 15 at 50 and 100 mg/kg in a dose-dependent manner. A decrease in trophoblasts led to labyrinth zone hypoplasia. In the basal zone, apoptotic cells were scattered on GDs 14.5 and 15 at 100 mg/kg, and most of them appeared to be glycogen cells. A decrease in glycogen cells induced the delayed development of glycogen cell islands and the subsequent remaining glycogen cell islands, and led to the cystic degeneration of glycogen cells. In addition, failure of development of the glycogen cell islands led to the impaired interstitial invasion of the glycogen cells, and then metrial gland hypoplasia occurred. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical Comparison of Haloperidol with Chlorpromazine in Mentally Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVann, Leonard J.

    1971-01-01

    In an 8-week double-blind comparison, haloperidol reduced the severity of the target symptoms impulsiveness, hostility, and aggressiveness in significantly more mentally retarded children than did chlorpromazine. (Author)

  12. Inhibition of DNA synthesis in Meth A cells by chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, T; Natori, S; Sekimizu, K

    1993-10-01

    We examined the influence of chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine derivative, on DNA synthesis in Meth A cells. Pulse-labelling experiments with [3H]thymidine showed that chlorpromazine inhibited DNA synthesis in cells cultured in vitro. The drug also inhibited DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei. Observation by fluorescence microscopy of fibroblastic cells stained with chlorpromazine indicated that the drug was localized in the cytoplasm and nuclear membranes, suggesting that it inhibited DNA synthesis in a manner dependent on the interaction of replication proteins with nuclear membranes. Meth A sarcomas growing in the endoderm of BALB/c mice regressed on intra-tumor injection of chlorpromazine, indicating that the drug has an anticancer action.

  13. Clinical Comparison of Haloperidol with Chlorpromazine in Mentally Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVann, Leonard J.

    1971-01-01

    In an 8-week double-blind comparison, haloperidol reduced the severity of the target symptoms impulsiveness, hostility, and aggressiveness in significantly more mentally retarded children than did chlorpromazine. (Author)

  14. Deep sedation in pediatric imaging: efficacy and safety of intravenous chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Heng Vong, C; Bajard, A; Thiesse, P; Bouffet, E; Seban, H; Marec Bérard, P

    2012-05-01

    The quality of MRI and CT depends largely on immobility of the patient during the procedure, which is often difficult to achieve without sedation in children below the age of 6 years. To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous chlorpromazine sedation for repeated imaging in young children treated for cancer. From July 2003 to January 2007, information on children younger than 6 years of age having MRI or CT was prospectively collected. Forty-five minutes before the scan, a 10-min infusion of chlorpromazine 0.5 mg/kg was administered and managed by non-anesthetic staff. Patient monitoring included continuous measurement of pulse, respiration, oxygen saturation and arterial blood pressure. Procedure-related parameters and adverse events were documented. Sedation was considered successful when the procedure was completed and at least 95% of images were usable. One-hundred-one procedures (82 MRI, 19 CT) were evaluated in 62 children, 3-74 months old. Adequate sedation was achieved in 96% of cases, with mean induction time, 22 min; mean duration of sleep, 72 min, and mean duration of procedure, 33 min. Mean time spent in the radiology unit was 104 min. Ninety-six percent of imaging procedures were successfully completed. No cardiac, respiratory, neurological or allergic complication occurred. Intravenous chlorpromazine is safe and effective for procedural sedation in young children with cancer undergoing MRI and CT.

  15. Measurement of total antioxidant activity with chlorpromazine radical cation.

    PubMed

    Miftode, Alina Monica; Stefanache, Alina; Stan, Maria; Dorneanu, V

    2010-01-01

    In the present study there is described a simple and sensitive method for the evaluation of antioxidant activity in chlorpromazine-Fe (III) system using ascorbic acid as standard. Chlorpromazine [2-chloro-N-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-phenothiazine] is oxidized in acidic media by Fe (III) with the formation of a stable radical cation characterized by an intense visible absorbtion band (lambda = 540 nm). The optimum parameters for the stability of the radical cation have been studied: molar ratio chlorpromazine-Fe (III), pH, solvents. Spectrophotometric methods have been used in these studies. The chlorpromazine radical cation is stable in the acidic media (pH = 3) at a molar ratio chlorpromazine: Fe (III) of 2: 1. Ascorbic acid reduces these radicals and induces a decrease of absorbance. Percent inhibition was calculated and plotted as a function of the concentration of standard antioxidant solutions. The results show that percent inhibition varies in a linear manner with the ascorbic acid concentration. Percent inhibition is higher when the antioxidant solution is added after generation of radical cation. It has been developed a method for evaluating antioxidant activity in the chlorpromazine: Fe (III) system using ascorbic acid as a standard. The method is fast, simple and sensitive; it can be applied for the detection and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of simple or complex systems.

  16. Kerato-lenticular ocular deposits and visual impairment with prolonged chlorpromazine use: A case series.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Guru S; Hegde, Aditya; Shanbhag, Vandita; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Jaisoorya, T S

    2017-02-01

    Chlorpromazine is a low potency "typical" antipsychotic agent used to treat schizophrenia. It continues to be prescribed frequently in India owing to its lower cost. There have been previous reports of ocular adverse effects with prolonged use of chlorpromazine. We report three patients who developed corneal and lenticular opacities secondary to prolonged chlorpromazine use leading to visual impairment. Early detection of ocular deposits and switching over to risperidone from chlorpromazine helped in the reversal of chlorpromazine- induced ocular side effects in one of them. The case series further adds evidence to the causative relationship between chlorpromazine and ocular side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiopulmonary Parameters During Meperidine, Promethazine and Chlorpromazine Sedation for Pediatric Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Saravia, Mario E.; Currie, William R.; Campbell, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty pediatric patients were sedated with a meperidine, Promethazine and chlorpromazine drug combination prior to dental rehabilitation. Heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded throughout the procedures, as well as level of patient cooperation. There were no statistically significant changes in either heart rate or blood pressure. Forty-seven percent of subjects treated experienced a decline in oxygen hemoglobin saturation. Fifty percent of the patients were well sedated and cooperative, with another forty-five precent exhibiting moderate sedation but an increased incidence of behavioral management difficulties. All procedures were completed on 95% of patients. One case (5%) was aborted because of uncontrollable patient behavior following initiation of dental procedures. PMID:3479915

  18. Effect of chlorpromazine on rat arterial lipid synthesis, in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, F.P.; Hubert, E.V.

    1982-10-01

    The effect of chlorpromazine, a major tranquilizer, on arterial lipid metabolism was studied in vitro in rat aortas incubated with (/sup 14/C)acetate and (/sup 14/C)mevalonate as lipid precursors. Chlorpromazine at a level of 0.25 mM in the incubation medium significantly reduced the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)acetate into free fatty acids (p less than 0.01) and total phospholipids (p less than 0.001) but not triglycerides. Chlorpromazine also altered the pattern of arterial phospholipids synthesized from (/sup 14/C)acetate by significantly increasing the relative proportion of phosphatidylinositol plus phosphatidylserine (p less than 0.02) and reducing the relative proportion of sphingomyelin (p less than 0.001). (/sup 14/C) Acetate incorporation into the combined fractions of steryl esters plus hydrocarbons and sterols plus diglycerides was also significantly reduced (p less than 0.001) by 0.25 mM chlorpromazine. Studies with (/sup 14/C)mevalonate showed that chlorpromazine is also an inhibitor of sterol biosynthesis in arterial tissues as evidenced by 35-40% reductions (p less than 0.05) in the formation of /sup 14/C-labeled squalene and C27 sterols.

  19. The antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine inhibits HERG potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Dierk; Wu, Kezhong; Kathöfer, Sven; Katus, Hugo A; Schoels, Wolfgang; Kiehn, Johann; Karle, Christoph A

    2003-01-01

    Acquired long QT syndrome (aLQTS) is caused by prolongation of the cardiac action potential because of blockade of cardiac ion channels and delayed repolarization of the heart. Patients with aLQTS carry an increased risk for torsade de pointes arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Several antipsychotic drugs may cause aLQTS. Recently, cases of QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes associated with chlorpromazine treatment have been reported. Blockade of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) potassium channels, which plays a central role in arrhythmogenesis, has previously been reported to occur with chlorpromazine, but information on the mechanism of block is currently not available. We investigated the effects of chlorpromazine on cloned HERG potassium channels to determine the biophysical mechanism of block. HERG channels were heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and ion currents were measured using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. Chlorpromazine blocked HERG potassium channels with an IC50 value of 21.6 μM and a Hill coefficient of 1.11. Analysis of the voltage dependence of block revealed a reduction of inhibition at positive membrane potentials. Inhibition of HERG channels by chlorpromazine displayed reverse frequency dependence, that is, the amount of block was lower at higher stimulation rates. No marked changes in electrophysiological parameters such as voltage dependence of activation or inactivation, or changes of the inactivation time constant were observed. In conclusion, HERG channels were blocked in the closed and activated states, and unblocking occurred very slowly. PMID:12788816

  20. Biotransformation of chlorpromazine and methdilazine by Cunninghamella elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, D; Freeman, J P; Sutherland, J B; Walker, A E; Yang, Y; Cerniglia, C E

    1996-01-01

    When tested as a microbial model for mammalian drug metabolism, the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans metabolized chlorpromazine and methdilazine within 72 h. The metabolites were extracted by chloroform, separated by high-performance liquid chromatography, and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, mass, and UV spectroscopic analyses. The major metabolites of chlorpromazine were chlorpromazine sulfoxide (36%), N-desmethylchlorpromazine (11%), N-desmethyl-7-hydroxychlorpromazine (6%), 7-hydroxychlorpromazine sulfoxide (36%), N-hydroxychlorpromazine (11%), 7-hydroxychlorpromazine sulfoxide (5%), and chlorpromazine N-oxide (2%), all of which have been found in animal studies. The major metabolites of methdilazine were 3-hydroxymethdilazine (3%). (18)O(2) labeling experiments indicated that the oxygen atoms in methdilazine sulfoxide, methdilazine N-oxide, and 3-hydroxymethdilazine were all derived from molecular oxygen. The production of methdilazine sulfoxide and 3-hydroxymethdilazine was inhibited by the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors metyrapone and proadifen. An enzyme activity for the sulfoxidation of methdilazine was found in microsomal preparations of C. elegans. These experiments suggest that the sulfoxidation and hydroxylation of methdilazine and chlorpromazine by C. elegans are catalyzed by cytochrome P-450. PMID:8975609

  1. Biotransformation of chlorpromazine and methdilazine by Cunninghamella elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Freeman, J P; Sutherland, J B; Walker, A E; Yang, Y; Cerniglia, C E

    1996-03-01

    When tested as a microbial model for mammalian drug metabolism, the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans metabolized chlorpromazine and methdilazine within 72 h. The metabolites were extracted by chloroform, separated by high-performance liquid chromatography, and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, mass, and UV spectroscopic analyses. The major metabolites of chlorpromazine were chlorpromazine sulfoxide (36%), N-desmethylchlorpromazine (11%), N-desmethyl-7-hydroxychlorpromazine (6%), 7-hydroxychlorpromazine sulfoxide (36%), N-hydroxychlorpromazine (11%), 7-hydroxychlorpromazine sulfoxide (5%), and chlorpromazine N-oxide (2%), all of which have been found in animal studies. The major metabolites of methdilazine were 3-hydroxymethdilazine (3%). (18)O(2) labeling experiments indicated that the oxygen atoms in methdilazine sulfoxide, methdilazine N-oxide, and 3-hydroxymethdilazine were all derived from molecular oxygen. The production of methdilazine sulfoxide and 3-hydroxymethdilazine was inhibited by the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors metyrapone and proadifen. An enzyme activity for the sulfoxidation of methdilazine was found in microsomal preparations of C. elegans. These experiments suggest that the sulfoxidation and hydroxylation of methdilazine and chlorpromazine by C. elegans are catalyzed by cytochrome P-450.

  2. Preparation and characterization of sustained-release microspheres of chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Gao, Z G; Oh, K H; Kim, C K

    1998-01-01

    Sustained release microspheres of chlorpromazine were prepared from Eudragit RS 100 by an emulsion-solvent evaporation method using a six-baffled vessel. The morphology of microspheres was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the presence of aluminium tristearate (5%), microspheres were spherical in shape and uniform. The release of chlorpromazine from microspheres was pH-independent. With increasing amount of aluminium tristearate and increasing ratio of Eudragit RS 100/drug from 1:1 to 9:1, the particle size of chlorpromazine microspheres was reduced and the release rate decreased. The microspheres prepared with the polymer/drug ratio of 9:1 produced a 12-h sustained release pattern.

  3. Biochemical effects of chlorpromazine on mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Andres, M I; Repetto, G; Sanz, P; Repetto, M

    1999-10-01

    Chlorpromazine and other phenothiazine derivatives are neuroleptic drugs of widespread use for clinical situations beyond the realm of psychiatry, such as to control nausea, vomiting and intractable hiccups. The present study investigated in vitro different cytotoxic effects of chlorpromazine in cultures of mouse neuroblastoma cell line Neuro-2a exposed to different concentrations of this compound. Indicators assessed were cell proliferation by quantification of total protein content of the cell culture, lysosomal function evaluated by the relative uptake of neutral red cytosolic phosphofructokinase (PFK) and enolase (ENL) activities in glycolysis, mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in the citric acid cycle, lysosomal beta-galactosidase (GAL) activity, and neuronal acetylcholinesterase activity. Marked inhibitory effects were found for cell proliferation and relative neutral red uptake; PFK, ENL and GAL activities had no significant differences from control. Stimulation was specifically detected on SDH and the Krebs cycle at concentrations up to 30 microM. Chlorpromazine did not have high toxicity for cytotoxic effects on lysosomes.

  4. Chlorpromazine-Induced Hyperprolactinemia on Rat's Uterus.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Zahra; Zare, Samad; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Ahmadi, Abbas; Movahed, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common side effect of antipsychotic drugs that requires further investigation. The current study was designed to evaluate dose-dependent effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on hormonal changes and uterine horn histological structure in rats. Moreover, the mammary glands were analyzed to show hyperprolactinemia-induced histological changes. Albino Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into four groups. The first group was set as a control. In the three drug-treated groups (eight rats in each group), CPZ was administered by a gavage at doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day for 28 days. One day after the last administration of the drug, the animals were sacrificed. Histopathological and histomorphometrical analyses of the uterine horns and mammary glands were carried out to evaluate dose-dependent effect of CPZ on histological structure. Serum levels of prolactin (PRL), estradiol, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were also evaluated. Remarkable (P < 0.05) elevation was observed in CPZ-administrated animals' uterine horn endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium thicknesses, and the mammary glands were observed with galactorrhea features. The serum level of progesterone and PRL significantly (P < 0.05) increased, while the serum concentration of LH, FSH, and estradiol was notably (P < 0.05) decreased depending on administrated CPZ dose. No histological and biological changes were occurred in the control animals. The present findings suggest that CPZ-induced disturbances not only depend on PRL level and increased PRL level largely depends on administrated doses of the CPZ.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of chlorpromazine and key metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yeung, P K; Hubbard, J W; Korchinski, E D; Midha, K K

    1993-01-01

    A study was carried out in 11 healthy young men to investigate the pharmacokinetics of chlorpromazine (CPZ) after a bolus intravenous (i.v.) dose (10 mg) and three single oral doses (25, 50 and 100 mg), with a washout period of two weeks between doses. Plasma levels of CPZ, CPZ N-oxide (CPZNO), CPZ sulfoxide (CPZSO) and both free and conjugated 7-hydroxy-CPZ (7-HOCPZ) were measured by extraction radioimmunoassays. CPZ exhibited multicompartmental pharmacokinetics in most subjects. There was wide between-subject variability in half life (11.05 h), volume of distribution (1215 l), volume of distribution at steady state (642 l) and mean residence time (8.88 h), whereas systemic clearance was somewhat less variable (76.6 l.h-1). All metabolites were present in measurable concentrations in the plasma of 9 of 11 subjects after i.v. CPZ, whereas free 7-HOCPZ was not detected in the other 2 individuals. With the exception of CPZNO, the biological half lives of the primary metabolites were longer than the half life of CPZ. After oral administration, the percentage of CPZ reaching the systemic circulation intact (F%) was very low (4-38%) and dose dependent. Moreover, both within-subject and between-subject variances were very high. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve extrapolated to infinite time (AUC) showed evidence of nonlinearity, whereas half life did not appear to be dose dependent. These data suggest that the high degree of variability in the pharmacokinetics of CPZ is a result of extensive first pass metabolism rather than variation in half life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Studies on the hyperglycaemia induced by chlorpromazine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bonaccorsi, A.; Garattini, S.; Jori, A.

    1964-01-01

    Chlorpromazine induces in rats a marked and long-lasting hyperglycaemia which (a) is more marked at low than high room temperatures, (b) is inhibited by phentolamine but not by dibenamine, and (c) is prevented by adrenalectomy, by removal of the adrenal medullae and by treatment of the rats with reserpine. Other experimental results suggest that there is a correlation between the hyperglycaemia and the hypothermia induced by chlorpromazine and by its congeners. The hyperglycaemia seems to be the result of at least two factors: an activation of the adrenergic mechanisms and an impaired peripheral utilization of glucose. PMID:14208196

  7. The Fifties Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodz, J.; Kersley, B.; Bates, P.

    By 2011, 53 percent of the total population in Great Britain will be aged over 45; however, in recent years the proportion of labor market participants over 50 has declined significantly. Older workers have access to fewer training and development opportunities at work but are less likely to take short-term sickness absence and more likely to be…

  8. The Fifties Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodz, J.; Kersley, B.; Bates, P.

    By 2011, 53 percent of the total population in Great Britain will be aged over 45; however, in recent years the proportion of labor market participants over 50 has declined significantly. Older workers have access to fewer training and development opportunities at work but are less likely to take short-term sickness absence and more likely to be…

  9. Fifty Percent Law Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Joseph M.; Close, Catherine

    Prepared for the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges, this report provides an overview of the 50% Law (Education Code Section 84362), which requires the state's community college districts to spend 50% of the current expense of education each fiscal year (FY) on the payment of salaries for classroom instructors. The first of…

  10. Quantitation of chlorpromazine-bound calmodulin during chlorpromazine inhibition of gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.; Biro, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The regulatory protein, calmodulin (CaM), controls the activity of a plasma membrane localized ATPase in plants which serves to pump calcium out of cells. Recent data are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of this pump is one of the early steps necessary for gravitropism. Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a CaM antagonist, reversibly inhibits gravitropism in oat coleoptiles at concentrations which permit normal growth rates. C-14-labeled CPZ was used to photo-affinity label endogenous CaM in vivo to learn whether the drug is actually binding to some portion of endogenous CaM when it inhibits gravitropism. Under conditions in which CPZ inhibits gravitropism for over an hour, at least 11% of the CaM in gravitropically stimulated coleoptiles is bound to CPZ. In a given CPZ experiment the degree of inhibition of gravitropism correlates well with the amount of CaM bound to CPZ.

  11. Quantitation of chlorpromazine-bound calmodulin during chlorpromazine inhibition of gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.; Biro, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The regulatory protein, calmodulin (CaM), controls the activity of a plasma membrane localized ATPase in plants which serves to pump calcium out of cells. Recent data are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of this pump is one of the early steps necessary for gravitropism. Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a CaM antagonist, reversibly inhibits gravitropism in oat coleoptiles at concentrations which permit normal growth rates. C-14-labeled CPZ was used to photo-affinity label endogenous CaM in vivo to learn whether the drug is actually binding to some portion of endogenous CaM when it inhibits gravitropism. Under conditions in which CPZ inhibits gravitropism for over an hour, at least 11% of the CaM in gravitropically stimulated coleoptiles is bound to CPZ. In a given CPZ experiment the degree of inhibition of gravitropism correlates well with the amount of CaM bound to CPZ.

  12. Fifty not out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    What have the DESY laboratory in Germany, Richard Feynman's visionary lecture on nanotechnology, the discovery of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the "two cultures" debate got in common? The answer is that they are all half a century old this year. The DESY lab was officially launched on 18 December 1959 and is marking its 50th anniversary with a series of events that included the official opening of the PETRA III synchrotron last month. Initially a particle-physics lab pure and simple, DESY is now changing its focus to accelerator science and is set to open its massive new 1bn European X-ray Free Electron Laser in 2014 (p12).

  13. DMT at fifty.

    PubMed

    Szára, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    The steps taken for the discovery of the hallucinogenic effects of N.N-Dimethyl-tryptamine (DMT) is described. DMT had a difficult first 50 years in medical research primarily for legal reasons as it was classified as one of the "drugs of abuse" by authorities in the USA and by the World Health Organization. It has not proved to be a "schizotoxin" as it was first suspected, but the book is not closed on its potential role in some other, high level function as an endogenous neuromodulator. Further clinical work may even substantiate its usefulness in therapeutic application, such as an adjunct to psychotherapy, perhaps not by itself, but in a modified form, or in combination with other substances.

  14. Hydrology and Ecology of the Colorado River Delta in the Face of Changing Climate and Land Use Practices: the Next Fifty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.

    2007-12-01

    The Lower Colorado River Delta in the U.S. and Mexico is an internationally important aquatic biome, supporting fresh water and estuarine wetlands and a riparian corridor rich in avian and other wildlife. These rich ecosystems could be severely harmed by invasive species interacting with projected climate change and land use practices over the next 50 years. It is critical to measure land cover and monitor ecosystem and land use changes because these ecosystems are supported by fresh and brackish water flows originating from flood control releases and agricultural return flows in the U.S. and Mexico. Most climate models project a drying trend in the Colorado River watershed due to global warming, decreasing the frequency of flood releases to the Delta. Total basin water storage in the reservoir system is expected to be reduced by 32-40 percent, and flow volume is expected to meet demands in only 59-75 percent of years in 50 years. The frequency of spills (years in which water is released from the reservoirs to the Delta) will decrease under a global warming scenario. However, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and ENSO events will continue to introduce variability into river flows, and there will still be years in which water is spilled to the Delta. Agricultural return flows will decrease as more water is diverted from agriculture to metropolitan use in both countries. The salinity of the ground water in Mexico, which currently supports cottonwood and willow trees in the riparian corridor, is increasing at a rate of about 20 ppm per year, and in 50 years it might be too saline for cottonwoods and willows. The riparian zone may become dominated by saltcedar and other salt-tolerant shrubs, degrading the habitat for birds and other wildlife. As flows to the Delta diminish, monitoring and active restoration projects to maintain trees and wetlands will be needed to preserve habitat value.

  15. [Photodegradation of chlorpromazine, a drug-related adverse event].

    PubMed

    Chabi, Yossounon; Brahim, Kheira; Da Costa, Maryline; Caffin, Anne-Gaëlle; Camus, Gisèle; Paillet, Michel; Bohand, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The photodegradation of an active substance during treatment is a rare drug-related adverse event which can sometimes have serious consequences. Health professionals must be aware of the specific storage and administration instructions with regard to chlorpromazine and ensure that they are respected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films for prolonged delivery of the antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica; Baldini, Mattia; Abruzzo, Angela; Cerchiara, Teresa; Corace, Giuseppe; Zecchi, Vittorio

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop transdermal films based on hydroxypropylmethylcellulose with the purpose of improving transdermal permeation of chlorpromazine hydrochloride, an antipsychotic drug used to alleviate the symptoms and signs of psychosis. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films were prepared and evaluated for their drug content, film thickness, residual water content and bioadhesive properties. In-vitro permeation experiments were performed in the absence and in the presence of permeation enhancers (oleic acid, polysorbate 80, or both) with the purpose of improving drug availability. Other formulative parameters, such as drug and plasticizer concentration and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose type, were investigated. Both oleic acid and polysorbate 80 had significant effect on drug permeation with respect to the control formulation. In particular films containing a mixture of oleic acid and polysorbate 80 provided the best enhancement activity for chlorpromazine. Moreover, a decrease in propylene glycol or chlorpromazine content or an increase of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose viscosity provided lower cumulative amounts of drug permeated. The results obtained confirm that chlorpromazine permeation can be easily modulated by varying the composition of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose-based films. These formulations could serve as candidates for transdermal delivery of antipsychotic drugs.

  17. Fifty Years of Supporting Children's Learning: A History of Public School Libraries and Federal Legislation from 1953 to 2000. NCES 2005-311

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Joan S.; Holton, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides basic information on school libraries from 1953-54 to 1999-2000. It describes some of the key variables for which data were available over this nearly 50-year timeframe. This report provides a wealth of information drawn from more than 50 sources, the majority of which are federal surveys and reports. Data in the tables of…

  18. Use of porous tantalum components in Paprosky two and three acetabular revision. A minimum five-year follow-up of fifty one hips.

    PubMed

    Flecher, Xavier; Appy, Benjamin; Parratte, Sébastien; Ollivier, Matthieu; Argenson, Jean-Noel

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have reported short-term favourable results of tantalum-made components in acetabular revisions with bone loss. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mid to long-term results of such components. The objective of this study was to analyse the outcome and survivorship of acetabular revision hip arthroplasty using tantalum components for loosening associated with bone loss at a minimum of five-year follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed 51 consecutive patients (51 hips) who had an acetabular revision using porous tantalum components at a minimum follow-up of five years. The mean age was 64 years (range, 31-87). There were 27 males and 24 females, 47 right hips and four left hips. Twenty-five (49 %) included a femoral revision. According to Paprosky's classification 18 hips were classified type 2A, 11 type 2B, ten type 2C, seven type 3A and five type 3B. No bone grafting was performed. Sixteen hips (31.3 %) required the use of additional tantalum-made augments stabilized by screws and cement at the cup-augment interface. At a mean followup of 6.8 years (range, 5.1-10 years), the Harris hip score improved from 44 pre- operatively (range, 23-72) to 84 post-operatively (range, 33-98). The mean post-operative hip centre position in relation to the teardrop was 29 mm (range, 20-43 mm) horizontally and 21 mm (range, 8-36 mm) vertically. The mean acetabular inclination was 42° (range, 17-60°). Six hips (11.7 %) required a re-operation without component revision (two for chronic instability, one ossification removal, one haematoma, one deep infection and one periprosthetic femoral fracture). One patient required a cup re-revision for septic loosening. No aseptic loosening occurred. At last followup the radiological analysis showed one evolutive osteolysis and one screw breakage. The global survivorship was 92.3 % at 64 months. If only aseptic loosening was defined as the end-point the survivorship was 100 % at 64 months. When

  19. Hemodynamic changes by drug interaction of adrenaline with chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Hitoshi; Yabuki, Akiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Maeda, Shigeru; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    Adrenaline (epinephrine) is included in dental local anesthesia for the purpose of vasoconstriction. In Japan, adrenaline is contraindicated for use in patients receiving antipsychotic therapy, because the combination of adrenaline and an antipsychotic is considered to cause severe hypotension; however, there is insufficient evidence supporting this claim. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the changes in hemodynamics caused by drug interaction between adrenaline and an antipsychotic and to evaluate the safety of the combined use of adrenaline and an antipsychotic in an animal study. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. A catheter was inserted into the femoral artery to measure blood pressure and pulse rate. Rats were pretreated by intraperitoneal injection of chlorpromazine or chlorpromazine and propranolol, and after 20 minutes, saline or 1 of 3 different doses of adrenaline was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Changes in the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate were measured after the injection of adrenaline. Significant hypotension and tachycardia were observed after the injection of adrenaline in the chlorpromazine-pretreated rats. These effects were in a dose-dependent manner, and 100 μg/kg adrenaline induced significant hemodynamic changes. Furthermore, in the chlorpromazine and propranolol-pretreated rats, modest hypertension was induced by adrenaline, but hypotension and tachycardia were not significantly shown. Hypotension was caused by a drug interaction between adrenaline and chlorpromazine through the activation of the β-adrenergic receptor and showed a dose-dependent effect. Low-dose adrenaline similar to what might be used in human dental treatment did not result in a significant homodynamic change.

  20. Hemodynamic Changes by Drug Interaction of Adrenaline With Chlorpromazine

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Hitoshi; Yabuki, Akiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Maeda, Shigeru; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    Adrenaline (epinephrine) is included in dental local anesthesia for the purpose of vasoconstriction. In Japan, adrenaline is contraindicated for use in patients receiving antipsychotic therapy, because the combination of adrenaline and an antipsychotic is considered to cause severe hypotension; however, there is insufficient evidence supporting this claim. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the changes in hemodynamics caused by drug interaction between adrenaline and an antipsychotic and to evaluate the safety of the combined use of adrenaline and an antipsychotic in an animal study. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. A catheter was inserted into the femoral artery to measure blood pressure and pulse rate. Rats were pretreated by intraperitoneal injection of chlorpromazine or chlorpromazine and propranolol, and after 20 minutes, saline or 1 of 3 different doses of adrenaline was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Changes in the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate were measured after the injection of adrenaline. Significant hypotension and tachycardia were observed after the injection of adrenaline in the chlorpromazine-pretreated rats. These effects were in a dose-dependent manner, and 100 μg/kg adrenaline induced significant hemodynamic changes. Furthermore, in the chlorpromazine and propranolol–pretreated rats, modest hypertension was induced by adrenaline, but hypotension and tachycardia were not significantly shown. Hypotension was caused by a drug interaction between adrenaline and chlorpromazine through the activation of the β-adrenergic receptor and showed a dose-dependent effect. Low-dose adrenaline similar to what might be used in human dental treatment did not result in a significant homodynamic change. PMID:25517550

  1. Isolated anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in patients aged fifty years: comparison of hamstring graft versus bone-patellar tendon-bone graft.

    PubMed

    Struewer, Johannes; Ziring, Ewgeni; Oberkircher, Ludwig; Schüttler, Karl F; Efe, Turgay

    2013-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency contributes to symptomatic functional instability of the knee, regardless of age. We evaluated patient-reported clinical outcome, instrumental stability and prevalence of radiological osteoarthritis based on two homogenous patient samples aged 50 years, an average of three years after isolated ACL reconstruction. ACL reconstruction using a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft was done in 19 patients and a four-stranded semitendinosus tendon (ST) autograft in 22 patients. Clinical and functional follow-up assessment was performed an average of 32 months after surgical treatment. Clinical and functional follow-up assessment included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Tegner score and Lysholm score. Instrumental stability testing was carried out using the KT-1000™ arthrometer. The degree of degenerative changes and prevalence of osteoarthritis was based on the Kellgren-Lawrence classification. Mean follow-up was 32 months (range, 28-36). Mean age was 49.4 years in both groups. The median pre-injury Tegner score was 5.5 (range, 2-8) and the median preoperative Lysholm score was 35 (range, 15-69). At two years, all variables improved significantly for both groups compared to the preoperative values (P < 0.05), with no significant intergroup differences. Approximately 76 % of patients were graded A or B according to the IKDC score in both groups. Activity level according to the scores of Tegner and Lysholm was 4.9/5.3 and 83.4/82.5 on two-year-follow up in both groups. Radiological assessment reported degenerative changes of grade I Osteoarthritis (OA) in 36 % of patients. Grade-II OA was found in 31 % of patients. Grade-III OA and grade-IV OA were found in about 24 % and 7 % of all patients, respectively. Correlation analyses showed significant relationships between conservation of knee-joint stability and clinical outcome according to the IKDC score, and activity level

  2. Fifty-year follow-up of mortality among a cohort of iron-ore miners in Sweden, with specific reference to myocardial infarction mortality.

    PubMed

    Björ, B; Burström, L; Jonsson, H; Nathanaelsson, L; Damber, L; Nilsson, T

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates both general mortality and mortality from myocardial infarction among men employed in iron-ore mines in Sweden. The mortality of employees (surface and underground workers) at the iron-ore mines in Malmberget and Kiruna, Sweden was investigated. The study cohort comprised men who had been employed for at least 1 year between 1923 and 1996. The causes of death were obtained from the national cause of death register from 1952 to 2001. Indirect standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for four main causes. Mortality specifically from myocardial infarction was also analysed. 4504 deaths in the cohort gave an SMR for total mortality of 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.09). Mortality was significantly higher for lung cancer (SMR 1.73, 95% CI 1.52 to 1.97). There was an increased risk of injuries and poisonings (SMR 1.34, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.46) and respiratory diseases (SMR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.28). There were 1477 cases of myocardial infarction, resulting in an SMR of 1.12 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.18). SMR was higher (1.35, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.50) for men aged years than for those >60 years of age (1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.13). Mortality from myocardial infarction was higher than expected. There was also an increased risk of death from injuries and poisonings, lung cancer and respiratory diseases, as well as higher general mortality. Our findings support the results of previous studies that there is an association between working in the mining industry and adverse health outcomes.

  3. Risk factors and socioeconomic condition effects on periodontal and dental health: A pilot study among adults over fifty years of age

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldi, Carlo; Lalla, Michele; Pradelli, John Mauricio; Cortellini, Pierpaolo; Lucchi, Andrea; Zaffe, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Observational studies on the association among systemic/general and oral cavity indices, tooth loss, periodontal conditions, and socioeconomic inequalities are to be still performed in the population of Southern Europe. This study aims to determine the extent of this relationship among Italian healthy adults 50 years of age and above. Materials and Methods: Socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, cardiovascular indicators, and systemic indices were examined by contrasting the dental indices among adult people of Northern Italy. Data were processed through correlation analysis, and multivariate analysis was carried out using seemingly unrelated regressions. Results: A total of 118 adults 50 years of age and above, after anamnesis, underwent systemic and dental examination. Their socioeconomic status was found to be inversely associated only with smoking and dental parameters. Unexpected outcomes between lifestyle and risk factors were detected. The statistical analysis showed an uneven correlation among dental indices and between those indices and the socioeconomic status, such as, a periodontal condition, apparently free from influences, unusually became worse as the socioeconomic status enhanced. Conclusions: The study outcomes indicate a relationship between tooth loss and conservative endodontic therapy, but they result in alternative choices. Nevertheless, the socioeconomic status has an inverse relationship with tooth loss and conservative endodontic therapy, but a direct relation with worsening of the periodontal condition. This pilot study highlights a need for the public health administration to adopt a socioeconomic assessment not only based on the household income, but also to accordingly improve its therapeutic course. PMID:24926214

  4. Elucidating the responses and role of the cardiovascular system in crocodilians during diving: fifty years on from the work of C.G. Wilber.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Michael; Franklin, Craig E

    2011-09-01

    In 1960, C.G. Wilber in a laboratory-based study described for the first time the changes in heart rate with submergence in the American alligator noting in particular the marked bradycardia that occurred during forced dives. This short review summarizes the major advances in our understanding of diving and the responses and role of the cardiovascular system of crocodilians during submergence in the 50 years since Wilber published his findings. These advances are attributable in part to the technological advances made in physiological monitoring devices and wildlife telemetry that have not only provided greater elucidation of the hemodynamics of the unique crocodilian cardiovascular system but also allowed the natural diving behaviors and heart rates in free-ranging crocodiles to be recorded. Of note, telemetric field-based studies have revealed that wild free-ranging crocodiles typically undertake only short dives, less than 20 min, yet crocodiles are also capable of dives of many hours in duration. In contrast to Wilber's study, dives recorded from free-ranging crocodiles were found to be accompanied by only a modest bradycardia, highlighting the often confounding effects associated with captive animals monitored under laboratory conditions. More recent studies have also documented the complex central flow and pressure patterns of crocodilians, including a pulmonary to systemic shunt that can be initiated by a unique intracardiac valve located in the subpulmonary conus. The role and significance of this cardiac shunt remains controversial and the focus of recent lab-based studies. We contend that elucidation of the role and significance of the cardiac shunt in crocodilians will only be achieved by monitoring telemetrically the central cardiovascular flows and pressures in non-captive animals that are undisturbed and free-ranging. This presents the challenge ahead in the next 50 years. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fifty years of changes in reef flat habitats of the Grand Récif of Toliara (SW Madagascar) and the impact of gleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andréfouët, S.; Guillaume, M. M. M.; Delval, A.; Rasoamanendrika, F. M. A.; Blanchot, J.; Bruggemann, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    The Grand Récif of Toliara (GRT) in Madagascar is a large (33 km2) barrier reef system of the SW Indian Ocean that had been well investigated in the 1960s and early 1970s. A massive degradation of the reef has been reported since at least the early 1980s, just a few years after research activities ceased in the area. Examination of historical aerial photographs and modern high-resolution remote sensing images confirms a continuous loss of coral habitat on GRT outer reef flats between 1962 and 2011, with an average loss of 65 % and a range of 37-79 % loss during this 50-year period. The usual suspects of coral community declines (cyclones, bleaching and sedimentation) may have contributed to the demise of the GRT. However, an independent study (Salimo 1997) suggests that the chronic pressure of fisherman gleaning on reef flats with destructive tools is the main driver of the observed changes. Salimo's reported level of frequentation (6.8 fishermen per day and per km-2) and rates of destruction per fisherman (7.7 m2 of coral habitat h-1) yield a cumulated overall loss in agreement with the image-based rates of habitat loss. The GRT is unlikely to recover because this chronic stress is unlikely to decrease in the near future. Indeed, the GRT daily provides subsistence fishery resources for local Vezo people and to agriculturalist or pastoralist ethnic groups who have turned to exploiting coastal resources due to increasing aridity and dwindling agricultural and livestock production.

  6. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  7. Adolescent Self-Organization and Adult Smoking and Drinking over Fifty Years of Follow-Up: The British 1946 Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Atsushi; Cadar, Dorina; Xu, Man K; Croudace, Timothy; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Variations in markers of adolescent self-organization predict a range of economic and health-related outcomes in general population studies. Using a population-based birth cohort study we investigated associations between adolescent self-organization and two common factors over adulthood influencing health, smoking and alcohol consumption. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was used to test associations between a dimensional measure of adolescent self-organization derived from teacher ratings, and summary longitudinal measures of smoking and alcohol consumption over the ensuing five decades. Multinomial regression models were adjusted for sex, adolescent emotional and conduct problems, occupational social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupational social class. With all covariates adjusted, higher adolescent self-organization was associated with fewer smoking pack years, although not with quitting; there was no association with alcohol consumption across adulthood (none or heavy compared with light to moderate). Adolescent self-organization appears to be protective against smoking, but not against heavy alcohol consumption. Interpretation of this differential effect should be embedded in an understanding of the social and sociodemographic context in which these health behaviours occur over time.

  8. Adolescent Self-Organization and Adult Smoking and Drinking over Fifty Years of Follow-Up: The British 1946 Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Variations in markers of adolescent self-organization predict a range of economic and health-related outcomes in general population studies. Using a population-based birth cohort study we investigated associations between adolescent self-organization and two common factors over adulthood influencing health, smoking and alcohol consumption. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was used to test associations between a dimensional measure of adolescent self-organization derived from teacher ratings, and summary longitudinal measures of smoking and alcohol consumption over the ensuing five decades. Multinomial regression models were adjusted for sex, adolescent emotional and conduct problems, occupational social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupational social class. With all covariates adjusted, higher adolescent self-organization was associated with fewer smoking pack years, although not with quitting; there was no association with alcohol consumption across adulthood (none or heavy compared with light to moderate). Adolescent self-organization appears to be protective against smoking, but not against heavy alcohol consumption. Interpretation of this differential effect should be embedded in an understanding of the social and sociodemographic context in which these health behaviours occur over time. PMID:26752724

  9. A Study on Mortality Profile among Fifty Plus- (50+-) Population (FPP) of India: A 5-Year Retrospective Study at New Delhi District.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, B L; Vidua, Raghvendra K; Kumar, Arvind; Bajaj, Amrita V

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To find out the mortality profile vis-a-vis different epidemiological factors at the time of autopsy among the 50+-Population. Material and Method. A five-year retrospective evaluation of medicolegal records between 2006 and 2010 was done at Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi. Results. A total of 493 (17.78%) cases belonged to 50+-Population age group out of total 2773 autopsies performed. The proportion of unidentified/unknown persons among this age group was 36.51%. The unnatural and natural causes constituted 44.62% and 55.38% cases, respectively. The unspecified pneumonitis (50.18%) was reported as the commonest cause followed by coronary artery disease and respiratory tuberculosis among natural ones and the transport accident (57.27%) followed by accidental and intentional self-poisoning and exposure to noxious substances and falls among the unnatural ones. Conclusion. The findings reveal that this age group most commonly dies of natural causes rather than the unnatural ones even in autopsy cases. They have definite cure with timely interventions. The study also points out the need to devise the road and home safety measures to reduce mortality among the study population.

  10. Fifty years after the Nuremberg Nazi Doctors' Trial: reviewing how the laws of the Third Reich applied to individuals with oral clefts.

    PubMed

    Wyszynski, D F

    1998-02-01

    The Nazi Doctors' Trial, held in the city of Nuremberg 50 years ago, is a landmark in the history of medicine and science. For the first time, the horrors inflicted by a group of German scientists on innocent victims became widely known. Most of the defendants received sentences that ranged from relatively short imprisonment to death. The Trial also provided elements to develop standards for permissible medical experimentation, known as the Nuremberg Code. The atrocities judged in the Nazi Doctors' Trial, however, were not isolated. They were part of an overall eugenic system that encouraged euthanasia, compulsory sterilization, and selective marriages based on "genetic health" and "racial hygiene." Individuals with oral clefts were considered subject to these laws and suffered their consequences. This paper describes the main features of the Trial, reviews the state of knowledge on oral clefts in the 1930s and 1940s, presents how the laws of the Third Reich impacted the lives of individuals with oral clefts, and speculates on the implications of past and present eugenic policies in the future of humankind.

  11. [Effects of fire recurrence on fire behaviour in cork oak woodlands (Quercus suber L.) and Mediterranean shrublands over the last fifty years].

    PubMed

    Schaffhauser, Alice; Pimont, François; Curt, Thomas; Cassagne, Nathalie; Dupuy, Jean-Luc; Tatoni, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Past fire recurrence impacts the vegetation structure, and it is consequently hypothesized to alter its future fire behaviour. We examined the fire behaviour in shrubland-forest mosaics of southeastern France, which were organized along a range of fire frequency (0 to 3-4 fires along the past 50 years) and had different time intervals between fires. The mosaic was dominated by Quercus suber L. and Erica-Cistus shrubland communities. We described the vegetation structure through measurements of tree height, base of tree crown or shrub layer, mean diameter, cover, plant water content and bulk density. We used the physical model Firetec to simulate the fire behaviour. Fire intensity, fire spread, plant water content and biomass loss varied significantly according to fire recurrence and vegetation structure, mainly linked to the time since the last fire, then the number of fires. These results confirm that past fire recurrence affects future fire behaviour, with multi-layered vegetation (particularly high shrublands) producing more intense fires, contrary to submature Quercus woodlands that have not burnt since 1959 and that are unlikely to reburn. Further simulations, with more vegetation scenes according to shrub and canopy covers, will complete this study in order to discuss the fire propagation risk in heterogeneous vegetation, particularly in the Mediterranean area, with a view to a local management of these ecosystems.

  12. An exponential growth of computational phantom research in radiation protection, imaging, and radiotherapy: A review of the fifty-year history

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X. George

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose calculation using models of the human anatomy has been a subject of great interest to radiation protection, medical imaging, and radiotherapy. However, early pioneers of this field did not foresee the exponential growth of research activity as observed today. This review article walks the reader through the history of the research and development in this field of study which started some 50 years ago. This review identifies a clear progression of computational phantom complexity which can be denoted by three distinct generations. The first generation of stylized phantoms, representing a grouping of less than dozen models, was initially developed in the 1960s at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to calculate internal doses from nuclear medicine procedures. Despite their anatomical simplicity, these computational phantoms were the best tools available at the time for internal/external dosimetry, image evaluation, and treatment dose evaluations. A second generation of a large number of voxelized phantoms arose rapidly in the late 1980s as a result of the increased availability of tomographic medical imaging and computers. Surprisingly, the last decade saw the emergence of the third generation of phantoms which are based on advanced geometries called boundary representation (BREP) in the form of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) or polygonal meshes. This new class of phantoms now consists of over 287 models including those used for non-ionizing radiation applications. This review article aims to provide the reader with a general understanding of how the field of computational phantoms came about and the technical challenges it faced at different times. This goal is achieved by defining basic geometry modeling techniques and by analyzing selected phantoms in terms of geometrical features and dosimetric problems to be solved. The rich historical information is summarized in four tables that are aided by highlights in the text on how some of the most well

  13. An exponential growth of computational phantom research in radiation protection, imaging, and radiotherapy: a review of the fifty-year history.

    PubMed

    Xu, X George

    2014-09-21

    Radiation dose calculation using models of the human anatomy has been a subject of great interest to radiation protection, medical imaging, and radiotherapy. However, early pioneers of this field did not foresee the exponential growth of research activity as observed today. This review article walks the reader through the history of the research and development in this field of study which started some 50 years ago. This review identifies a clear progression of computational phantom complexity which can be denoted by three distinct generations. The first generation of stylized phantoms, representing a grouping of less than dozen models, was initially developed in the 1960s at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to calculate internal doses from nuclear medicine procedures. Despite their anatomical simplicity, these computational phantoms were the best tools available at the time for internal/external dosimetry, image evaluation, and treatment dose evaluations. A second generation of a large number of voxelized phantoms arose rapidly in the late 1980s as a result of the increased availability of tomographic medical imaging and computers. Surprisingly, the last decade saw the emergence of the third generation of phantoms which are based on advanced geometries called boundary representation (BREP) in the form of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) or polygonal meshes. This new class of phantoms now consists of over 287 models including those used for non-ionizing radiation applications. This review article aims to provide the reader with a general understanding of how the field of computational phantoms came about and the technical challenges it faced at different times. This goal is achieved by defining basic geometry modeling techniques and by analyzing selected phantoms in terms of geometrical features and dosimetric problems to be solved. The rich historical information is summarized in four tables that are aided by highlights in the text on how some of the most

  14. [Mercury and copper accumulation during last fifty years and their potential ecological risk assessment in sediment of mangrove wetland of Shenzhen, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-Li; Chai, Min-Wei; Qiu, Guo-Yu; He, Bei

    2012-12-01

    The processes of sediment transport and deposition can record some relative anthropogenic information in gulf region. Chronological analysis of the sediment core collected from mangrove wetland in Shenzhen Bay showed that the sedimentation rate was about 1.38 cm x a(-1). Soil buck density, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total organic carbon (TOC) changed in range of 0.36-0.71 g x cm(-3), 6-7, 2.93 x 10(3) -4.97 x 10(3) microS x cm(-1), and 1.5% - 3.8%, respectively. With the increase of soil depth, the soil buck density and EC increased gradually. However, the TOC decreased, with no significant change of pH. Contents of Hg and Cu in the whole depth of core ranged between 92-196 ng x g(-1) and 29-83 microg x g(-1), respectively. And both of them in sediment increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing soil depth. At 14 cm depth, contents of Hg and Cu reached up to the highest levels. Correspondingly, the ecological risk of Hg and Cu changed similarly with the contents of Hg and Cu. At 14 cm depth, the ecological risk indexes of Hg and Cu were at the highest levels of 39.10 and 13.85, respectively. The potential ecological risks of both Hg and Cu in sediments were mild. The rapid economical development of Hong Kong in 1960-1985 and Shenzhen in 1985-2000 contributed much to the Hg and Cu accumulation in mangrove wetland of Shenzhen Bay, China. Since the year of 2000, the reduction in contents of Hg and Cu has been expected as a consequence of the adoption of contamination control policies, improving the environment for growth of mangrove. In conclusion, the variations of core sediment heavy metal contents and its ecological risk assessment along the vertical profile reveal the interaction processes and extent of anthropogenic influences from the areas around the Shenzhen Bay and the catchments.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: The First Fifty Years

    SciTech Connect

    MORA,CARL J.

    1999-11-03

    On Nov. 1, 1999, Sandia National Laboratories celebrates its 50th birthday. Although Sandia has its roots in the World War II-era Manhattan Project, Sandia began operating as a separate nuclear weapons engineering laboratory under the management of AT&T on Nov. 1, 1949. Today the lab employs more than 7,000 people at its two sites in Albuquerque and Livermore, California, and has research and development missions in national security, energy and environmental technologies, and U.S. economic competitiveness. Lockheed Martin Corporation operates Sandia for the US. Department of Energy.

  16. Fifty years of obstetrics and gynaecology.

    PubMed

    Drife, James O

    2016-10-01

    The term 'obstetrics and gynaecology' now feels like an outmoded name for women's health care. Since the 1960s the specialty has been transformed by social change, technical innovation and medical subspecialization, although the core values of good clinical practice remain unchanged.

  17. Kuru: its ramifications after fifty years.

    PubMed

    Liberski, P P; Brown, P

    2009-01-01

    Kuru was the first human neurodegenerative disease in the group of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, prion diseases or, in the past, slow unconventional virus diseases. It was reported to Western medicine in 1957 by Gajdusek and Zigas. Kuru was spread by endocannibalism and because of this the ratio of affected women and children to men was excessive. The hallmark of kuru neuropathology is the amyloid plaque. We may speculate what would happen if kuru had not been discovered or did not exist. The infectious nature of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) would probably not have been suspected until the beginning of the variant CJD (vCJD) outbreak in the UK. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease would have remained for decades as obscure neurodegenerations of merely academic interest. The familial forms of CJD would not have benefited from PRNP gene (a gene encoding for prion protein) analysis, but only later would have been studied by linkage analysis and reverse genetics probably. The study of kuru would have probably been of minimal interest to veterinarians and anthropologists until the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic began to exert its devastating effect. The discovery of vCJD would have been delayed, as no surveillance would have been initiated for CJD. And perhaps most importantly, the realization of 'protein-misfolding diseases', including not only the neurodegenerative but also an increasing number of non-neurological disorders, would have been delayed by decades.

  18. Fifty Years of Scholarship in Media Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christians, Clifford G.

    1977-01-01

    Describes changing attitudes toward the role of mass media ethics, as reflected in the literature. Available from: Journal of Communication, The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 3620 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, $15.00 yr; $4.00 sc. (KS)

  19. Fifty-five years of molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, N.F.

    1993-05-01

    The history of molecular beams since the invention of molecular beam magnetic resonance is discussed. Rabi`s 1937 theoretical paper on resonance transitions led Rabi, Zacharias, Millman and Kusch to measure various nuclear magnetic moments by magnetic resonance. Kellogg, Rabi, Ramsey and Zacharias found a multiple line radio frequency spectrum in H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and HD which enabled them to measure not only the nuclear magnetic moments but also internal molecular interactions including that of the deuteron electric quadrupole moment. The method was successfully extended to atoms. In 1947 Nafe, Nelson and Rabi found that the observed hyperfine separations in atomic hydrogen and deuterium differed from theoretical predictions and Lamb and Retherford soon thereafter observed the large Lamb shift in the atomic fine structures; these two discoveries were the principal incentives for the development of QED, which was confirmed by Kusch`s measurement of the electron magnetic moment. Ramsey`s separated oscillatory field method increased the accuracy and frequency range of the resonance method and provided the basis for accurate atomic clocks. Townes and his associates used a molecular beam for the first Maser as did Goldenberg, Klepper and Ramsey for the atomic hydrogen maser. Many nuclear, atomic and molecular properties have been measured with the molecular beam magnetic resonance. Van der Waal`s molecules and highly excited Rydberg atoms have been examined. Laser spectroscopy has been extensively studied with atomic beams and lasers have been used for state selection and excitation. Wieman and others used atomic beams to study parity and time reversal symmetry. Atomic beams have been slowed by laser cooling and Phillips and others have shown that the atoms can be cooled to about one micro-Kelvin, well below the Doppler limit. Collision experiments between two beams, often from jet sources, provided extensive and detailed information about molecular interactions.

  20. Fifty years of commercial caesium clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Leonard S.

    2005-06-01

    The first commercial caesium-beam clock was the Atomichron, developed by National Company. The first unit was delivered in 1956. This paper first presents a brief history of commercial caesium-beam clocks. It then covers many of the sources of frequency error and frequency instability. Some details of the technical design of the caesium-tube and electronics are presented. Finally, we present some possible directions for future commercial caesium clocks.

  1. The Pentagon: The First Fifty Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    agencies and people helped to make this undertaking possible. L. Walter Freeman, Director for Real Estate and Facilities of OSD’s Washington Headquarters...solve not only our problem, . . . it will solve a lot of other problems, including the Navy and a lot of other people all around." Since Congress...estimated, by 25 to 40 percent, and make it more accessible to the public. The building would be capable of housing 40,000 people , but for the present it

  2. Fifty Years of Scholarship in Media Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christians, Clifford G.

    1977-01-01

    Describes changing attitudes toward the role of mass media ethics, as reflected in the literature. Available from: Journal of Communication, The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 3620 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, $15.00 yr; $4.00 sc. (KS)

  3. Fifty years of genetic load: An odyssey

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is an engaging, personalized account of attempts in population genetics to develop a useful quantitative theory of genetic load. The author concludes that genetic loads do not tell us anything about real populations because of the conceptual ambiguities and the oversimplified view of differential reproductive success.

  4. Energy Resources and the Next Fifty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon, S. M.

    2002-05-01

    At this time, approximately 85 percent of the energy needs of the United States are supplied by fossil fuels. Crude oil currently supports transportation, generally as gasoline or jet fuel. The United States is importing roughly 60 percent of the crude oil we are now using and our domestic refining capacity is declining. Coal is providing more than 56 percent of the nation's electricity, although the use of natural gas as a fuel for electricity generation has been increasing. Natural gas, with today's technology, is considered a cleaner fuel as we continue to move toward decarbonization. The next logical phase in this historical progress will probably be the transition to pure hydrogen as an energy source, chiefly as a fuel for fuel cells. The initial source of hydrogen will probably be natural gas, given the existing infrastructure for natural gas, its cost, and its availability. Demand for natural gas is expected to peak in approximately 2050. But in the transition to an affordable, efficient, reliable, market-driven, carbon-free energy economy, substantial demand will still exist for coal and crude oil, even as these energy fuels are phased out. A massive requirement will exist for natural gas as the transition fuel since renewables will probably continue to supply only about 10 percent of our nation's electricity demand. The implied demand for coal and oil in the U. S. and the World can readily be met with existing known or probable resources; the challenge will be in assuring supplies that are secure, priced reasonably, and made ever cleaner. The implied demand for natural gas, however, exceeds the currently estimated resource base both in the U. S. and globally. For example, the currently estimated remaining resource of natural gas in the U. S. is about 2,000 TCF. The implied demand for natural gas in a methane economy, during the transition to a non-fossil source of hydrogen, is on the order of 3,000 to 4,000 TCF, half again to twice currently estimated volumes, assuming likely population growth, average economic growth of 3 percent annually, average energy efficiency of 2 percent annually, and a contribution of natural gas of more than 50 percent of total energy used. Potential additions to the resource base are from such sources as basin-centered formations, coalbed methane, sub-volcanic reservoirs, methane hydrates, among others; but many of these sources are not well understood and the practicality and cost of their availability are not known.

  5. Environment for Man, The Next Fifty Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, William R., Jr.

    This volume is the first of three publications emanating from the American Institute of Planners' nationwide campaign to encourage study and public education on "the future environment of a democracy." Experts in many areas scrutinize the psychological, physiological, and social needs of modern man in an attempt to discover the kind of environment…

  6. Perilymph Fistula: Fifty Years of Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Hornibrook, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Perilymph fistula (PLF) is defined as a leak of perilymph at the oval or round window. It excludes other conditions with “fistula” tests due to a dehiscent semi circular canal from cholesteatoma and the superior canal dehiscence syndrome. It was first recognized in the early days of stapedectomy as causing disequilibrium and balance problems before sealing of the stapedectomy with natural tissue became routine. It then became apparent that head trauma and barotraumatic trauma from flying or diving could be a cause of PLF. Descriptions of “spontaneous” PLF with no trauma history followed. A large literature on PLF from all causes accumulated. It became an almost emotional issue in Otolaryngology with “believers” and “nonbelievers.” The main criticisms are a lack of reliable symptoms and diagnostic tests and operative traps in reliably distinguishing a perilymph leak from local anaesthetic. There are extensive reviews on the whole topic, invariably conveying the authors' own experiences and their confirmed views on various aspects. However, a close examination reveals a disparity of definitions and assumptions on symptoms, particularly, vestibular. This is an intentionally provocative paper with suggestions on where some progress might be made. PMID:23724269

  7. History * Autobiography * Growth: (Fifty Years since Dartmouth)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doecke, Brenton

    2016-01-01

    This essay explores how my professional experiences as an English educator have been shaped by the values and beliefs that are typically associated with the Dartmouth Seminar of 1966 as they were presented by John Dixon in his immensely influential report of that seminar, "Growth Through English." Rather than seeing "Growth"…

  8. Environment for Man, The Next Fifty Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, William R., Jr.

    This volume is the first of three publications emanating from the American Institute of Planners' nationwide campaign to encourage study and public education on "the future environment of a democracy." Experts in many areas scrutinize the psychological, physiological, and social needs of modern man in an attempt to discover the kind of environment…

  9. Catenanes: Fifty Years of Molecular Links

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Ramírez, Guzmán; Leigh, David A; Stephens, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Half a century after Schill and Lüttringhaus carried out the first directed synthesis of a [2]catenane, a plethora of strategies now exist for the construction of molecular Hopf links (singly interlocked rings), the simplest type of catenane. The precision and effectiveness with which suitable templates and/or noncovalent interactions can arrange building blocks has also enabled the synthesis of intricate and often beautiful higher order interlocked systems, including Solomon links, Borromean rings, and a Star of David catenane. This Review outlines the diverse strategies that exist for synthesizing catenanes in the 21st century and examines their emerging applications and the challenges that still exist for the synthesis of more complex topologies. PMID:25951013

  10. Plastochromanol-8: fifty years of research.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Jerzy; Szymańska, Renata; Cela, Jana; Munne-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-12-01

    Plastochromanol-8 (PC-8) is an antioxidant that, together with tocopherols and tocotrienols, belongs to the group of tocochromanols. Plastochromanol-8 has been found to occur in several plant species, including mosses, and lichens. PC-8 is found in seeds, leaves and other organs of higher plants. In leaves, PC-8 is restricted to chloroplasts. The identification of tocopherol cyclase (VTE1) as the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of PC-8 suggests that plastoglobules are the primary site of its biosynthesis. Other enzymes related with PC-8 biosynthesis in plastoglobules include: NDC1 and the ABC1-like kinase ABC1K3. The antioxidant properties of PC-8 are similar to those of other chloroplastic antioxidants in polar solvents but considerably they are enhanced in hydrophobic environments, suggesting that the unsaturated side chain performs some quenching activity. As a result of a non-enzymatic reaction, singlet oxygen can oxidize any of the 8 double bonds in the side chain of PC-8, giving at least eight hydroxy-PC-8 isomers. This review summarizes current evidence of a widespread distribution of PC-8 in photosynthetic organisms, as well as the contribution of PC-8 to the pool of lipid-soluble antioxidants in both leaves and seeds.

  11. Fifty years of stroke researches in India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the stroke incidence in India is much higher than Western industrialized countries. Large vessel intracranial atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of ischemic stroke in India. The common risk factors, that is, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidemia are quite prevalent and inadequately controlled; mainly because of poor public awareness and inadequate infrastructure. Only a small number of ischemic stroke cases are able to have the benefit of thrombolytic therapy. Benefits from stem cell therapy in established stroke cases are under evaluation. Presently, prevention of stroke is the best option considering the Indian scenario through control and/or avoiding risk factors of stroke. Interventional studies are an important need for this scenario. PMID:27011621

  12. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Donald J.

    2015-01-01

    The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. PMID:26506379

  13. Thurstones's Discriminal Processes Fifty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luce, R. Duncan

    1977-01-01

    Thurstone's landmark papers on psychophysics, published in the twenties, are discussed in this presidential address to the Psychometric Society. The development of psychophysics from Thurstone to the present is presented in some detail. (JKS)

  14. Liver disorders in patients receiving chlorpromazine or isoniazid.

    PubMed

    Derby, L E; Gutthann, S P; Jick, H; Dean, A D

    1993-01-01

    Based on information derived from computers and clinical records obtained from general practitioners in the United Kingdom, we estimated the frequency of liver toxicity associated with two known hepatotoxins, chlorpromazine and isoniazid. Among the cohort of 10,502 users of chlorpromazine, 14 had illnesses compatible with drug-induced liver disease, a frequency of 1.3/1000 users (95% Cl 0.8, 2.2). Four presumed cases of the disorder occurred among 921 users of isoniazid, for a frequency of 4/1000 users (95% Cl 1.7, 11.1). This study provides population-based quantification of the frequency of liver disorders associated with the use of these two agents.

  15. PIGMENT DEPOSITION IN VISCERA ASSOCIATED WITH PROLONGED CHLORPROMAZINE THERAPY.

    PubMed

    GREINER, A C; NICOLSON, G A

    1964-09-19

    Twelve physically healthy young adult mental hospital patients died unexpectedly while on prolonged chlorpromazine therapy. Five of them had clinically obvious pigmentation of the exposed skin. Two of these had impairment of vision as well. Autopsies were performed on all 12 patients. Extensive deposits of pigment (exhibiting the physical and histochemical properties of melanin) were present in macrophages in the dermis and throughout the reticuloendothelial system, and in the parenchymal cells of internal organs. The dopa tyrosinase reaction indicated increased melanocyte activity in the epidermis.The possible mechanism of production of this pigment is discussed, and the belief is expressed that the increased melanin production is due, at least partly, to the effect of chlorpromazine on the autonomic nervous system, blocking the production of pigment-lightening factors, of which melatonin is the most important. A short outline of contemplated further investigation is given.

  16. Antagonism of a behavioral effect of d-amphetamine by chlorpromazine in the pigeon1

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Joel L.

    1965-01-01

    A dose of d-amphetamine which completely suppressed all responding was administered to each of five pigeons under an FR 30 schedule. When the pigeons were treated with chlorpromazine after 45 min or more, responding was restored. When d-amphetamine and chlorpromazine were administered simultaneously to three other pigeons, responding was better maintained than after d-amphetamine alone. This study confirms a previous finding that chlorpromazine can antagonize the rate-decreasing effect of d-amphetamine. PMID:14342371

  17. The effect of chlorpromazine on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of phenobarbital in X-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, I; Wójciakowa, Z; Godlewski, J; Nowakowska, E

    1984-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were irradiated with a single 600R dose of X-rays on the whole body. Chlorpromazine was given 30 min before phenobarbital. Phenobarbital sleeping time was prolonged by chlorpromazine both in irradiated and non-irradiated rats. On the 3rd day after irradiation the prolongation of the phenobarbital sleep by chlorpromazine was more marked than on the 6th day. No correlation between the pharmacodynamic action of phenobarbital and its cerebral level was noted.

  18. Comparative enzyme-inducing effects of chlorpromazine and fluphenazine therapies in psychotic patients.

    PubMed

    Harman, A W; Frewin, D B; Priestly, B G

    1980-01-01

    Antipyrine elimination kinetics were measured in psychotic patients receiving either long-term chlorpromazine or fluphenazine decanoate therapy and in non-medicated control subjects. Patients receiving chlorpromazine metabolised antipyrine faster than the controls while, in patients receiving fluphenazine decanoate, there was not change. The results suggest that long-term chlorpromazine therapy induced the activity of drug-metabolising enzymes, whereas fluphenazine decanoate therapy had no effect.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of chlorpromazine-induced miotic response in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, P B; Jhawar, A K; Weigand, W A; Smolen, V F

    1976-11-01

    The time variation of changes in the chlorpromazine-induced pupil diameter decrease was studied following varying bolus and slowly infused intravenous doses administered to rabbits. The observed pharmacological response data were coverted, via, the use of a dose-effect curve, to values theoretically corresponding to relative biophasic drug levels. These values were, in turn, used to construct a linear pharmacokinetic model of the drug bioavailability input equilibrium pharmacological response output dynamics of the system. The use of a time domain, MULTIFIT, computerized method of fitting the data to obtain a pharmacokinetic model was compared to the use of a frequency response, PLTEST, approach. The fidelity of the model in quantitatively relating the time course of systemic drug bioavailability to observed pupil response was verified by the satisfactory agreement obtained by directly comparing experimentally known amounts of drug intravenously infused with corresponding values computed from observed changes in pupil size. The applicability of using pharmacological data for quantitative bioavailability and pharmacokinetic analysis of chlorpromazine is demonstrated. This finding is particularly significant because no suitable chemical or radiological direct assay technique exists for determining levels of chlorpromazine, except for high doses, in body fluids.

  20. Chlorpromazine equivalent doses for the newer atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Woods, Scott W

    2003-06-01

    Several clinical and research applications require an estimation of therapeutic dose equivalence across antipsychotic medications. Since the advent of the newer atypical antipsychotics, new dose equivalent estimations have been needed. The reported minimum effective dose was identified for each newer atypical antipsychotic medication and for haloperidol across all available fixed-dose placebo-controlled studies. Reported minimum effective dose equivalence ratios to haloperidol were then converted to chlorpromazine equivalents using the "2 mg of haloperidol equals 100 mg of chlorpromazine" convention. To identify the fixed-dose studies, the following sources were searched until June 2002: MEDLINE, the bibliographies of identified reports, published meta-analyses and reviews, Cochrane reviews, Freedom of Information Act material available from the Food and Drug Administration, and abstracts from several scientific meetings from 1997 to 2002. Doses equivalent to 100 mg/day of chlorpromazine were 2 mg/day for risperidone, 5 mg/day for olanzapine, 75 mg/day for quetiapine, 60 mg/day for ziprasidone, and 7.5 mg/day for aripiprazole. These equivalency estimates may be useful for clinical and research purposes. The source of the dose equivalency estimation is evidence-based and consistent across medication.

  1. Ventricular fibrillation due to lithium withdrawal--an interaction with chlorpromazine?

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, R. N.; Blanshard, C.; Patterson, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of primary ventricular fibrillation following withdrawal of lithium in a patient concurrently taking chlorpromazine. A potentially important drug interaction is discussed. PMID:2616436

  2. Prediction of drug responses in schizophrenia: a method using a test dose of chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Minami, H; Nakahara, T; Miyahara, A; Nakane, Y

    1997-08-01

    Thirty-seven newly admitted schizophrenic patients were treated with an open and flexible dosage of chlorpromazine for 3 months after receiving a test dose. Levels of chlorpromazine, demethylated chlorpromazine and chlorpromazine sulfoxide 3 h after the test dose were measured. Twenty-three patients responded to long-term chlorpromazine treatment but 14 did not, a rate of 62.2%. A discriminant function analysis was performed using variables relating to the patients, backgrounds added to the ratios of plasma drug levels separately by sex to increase predictability over the level of previous studies. The obtained equations were applied to 23 newly admitted schizophrenic patients, with the prescription of chlorpromazine for designated responders and haloperidol for designated non-responders for 4 weeks. The patients in the latter study responded better than those of the former with chlorpromazine alone; 71.4 and 88.9% of chlorpromazine- and haloperidol-treated groups improved, respectively, for an overall rate of 78.3%. However, the chlorpromazine-treated group had a lower level of positive symptoms than the haloperidol-treated group before treatment and this and other differences between the groups should be further examined.

  3. The use of a side effect as a qualitative indicator of plasma chlorpromazine levels.

    PubMed

    Chetty, M; Gouws, E; Miller, R; Moodley, S V

    1999-01-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is widely used in South African hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any physiological parameter (side-effect) could be correlated with plasma concentrations of CPZ or its metabolites. In the absence of a blood level, such a correlation could serve as a qualitative indicator of the amount of chlorpromazine in the body. Such a marker can assist the psychiatrist with therapeutic decisions regarding poor compliance and the lack of response with the drug. Fifteen schizophrenic patients were included in this study and regression analysis was used to determine any correlation between CPZ, 7-hydroxychlorpromazine, Chlorpromazine-N-oxide, Nor1 chlorpromazine, Nor2 chlorpromazine, chlorpromazine sulfoxide, Nor2 chlorpromazine sulfoxide and blood pressure, pulse rate, sedation and finger tremor. No correlation was seen between blood pressure or pulse rate and plasma concentrations of CPZ or the metabolites. A good correlation was seen between sedation, 7- hydroxychlorpromazine (P=0.035) and chlorpromazine sulfoxide (P=0.016). The results suggest that as the levels of chlorpromazine sulfoxide increase, the probability of sedation increases, while increasing levels of 7-hydroxychlorpromazine have the opposite effect. A good correlation was also seen between finger tremor and chlorpromazine levels (P=0.035). These results suggest that there is a 50% probability that the patient would experience finger tremor when the plasma concentration of chlorpromazine is 46 ng/ml. This study demonstrated the potential for the use of sedation and finger tremor as qualitative indicators of the plasma concentration of CPZ and two metabolites. Further studies with larger patient numbers are warranted.

  4. Mechanism of inhibition by chlorpromazine of the human pain threshold sodium channel, Nav1.7.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Hahn, Sang June; Waxman, Stephen G; Choi, Jin-Sung

    2017-02-03

    Chlorpromazine is a phenothiazine derivative which is primarily used for schizophrenia and occasionally for migraine. Because Nav1.7 plays an important role in pain sensation, we investigated whether chlorpromazine blocks the human Nav1.7 (hNav1.7) sodium current in HEK293 cells stably expressing hNav1.7 using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The peak current of hNav1.7 was reduced by chlorpromazine in a concentration-dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 25.9±0.6μM and a Hill coefficient of 2.3±0.1. The calmodulin inhibitory peptide did not abolish the blockade of hNav1.7 currents by chlorpromazine. The blockade of hNav1.7 currents by chlorpromazine was completely and repeatedly reversible after washout. The half-maximal voltage of activation of hNav1.7 was not changed by chlorpromazine. However, chlorpromazine caused hyperpolarized the steady-state inactivation of hNav1.7. The recovery from inactivation in the presence of chlorpromazine was slower than in the absence of chlorpromazine. Chlorpromazine also showed strong use-dependent inhibition of the hNav1.7 current. Our results demonstrate that chlorpromazine blocks the hNav1.7 current in concentration-, state- and use-dependent manners and suggest that it merits further study for potential use in pain management.

  5. Extraction and analysis of chlorpromazine and its major metabolites in post mortem material by enzymic digestion and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Allender, W J; Archer, A W; Dawson, A G

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of chlorpromazine and some of its major metabolites in post mortem specimens by enzymic digestion of the tissues with ethyl acetate using a simple, single micro-extraction method, followed by HPLC of the extracts using a 10 micron silica column packing and a mobile phase consisting of ethanolamine:methanol:water. Separation and quantitation of 7-hydroxy-chlorpromazine, chlorpromazine, chlorpromazine sulfoxide, norchlorpromazine and norchlorpromazine sulfoxide was achieved employing mesoridazine as an internal standard.

  6. Double-blind trial of thiothixene and chlorpromazine in acute schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rickels, K; Byrdy, H; Valentine, J; Postel, W; Norstad, N; Downing, R

    1978-01-01

    In a double-blind trial of chlorpromazine and thiothixene conducted with 79 acutely ill, newly hospitalized schizophrenic patients, chlorpromazine and thiothixene were shown to be equally effective in producing meaningful symptomatic improvment over an average period of approximately 3 weeks, as measured by Global Assessments (CGI), BPRS, and NOSIE.

  7. [Effect of chlorpromazine combined with Platycodon grandiflorum on change of dopamine in rat striatum by microdialysis].

    PubMed

    He, Xinrong; Huan, Dincai; Cao, Zheng; Liu, Ping

    2009-09-01

    To study the effects of chlorpromazine combined with Platycodon grandiflorum on the striatal extracellular dopamine level in rats and to research the interaction and the mechanism of action after combining traditional Chinese medicine with western medicine. Twenty four rats were randomly assigned into four groups: the control group, Platycodon group, chlorpromazine group and chlorpromazined combined with P. grandiflorum group. The level of dopamine in CSF microdialysis samples was detected with high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector after administration for 10 days. The CSF level of DA (1.52 +/- 0.34) microg x L(-1) was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in chlorpromazine combined with P. grandiflorum group than that in the chlorpromazine group (1.25 +/- 0.22) microg x L(-1) (P < 0.05) and that in the normal control (1.06 +/- 0.24) microg x L(-1) (P < 0.01). The combining utilization of P. grandiflorum and chlorpromazine may increase the DA concentration of monoamine neurotransmitters, which results in under the therapeutic effect is maintained, the dosage of chlorpromazine used to individuals are decreased and the incidence rate of the adverse reactions of chlorpromazine will descend.

  8. Neurotoxicity of chlorpromazine and modulation by amantadine as a function of mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Messiha, F S

    1991-01-01

    The separate and combined effects of successive administration of amantadine, 100 mg/kg, i.p., and chlorpromazine, 0.2 mg/kg, i.p., on motor activity and whole brain levels of certain biogenic amines and major metabolites were studied in four strains of mice. These were the albino ICR, the inbred BALB/C, C57BL/6 and the hybrid CDF-I mice. Amantadine produced a strain-dependent behavioral stimulation subsequent the fourth dose. This was apparent in ICR and C57BL/6 mouse strains and was followed by a behavioral depression phase occurring during the night in C57BL/6 mice which was antagonized by chlorpromazine. Administration of chlorpromazine alone affected only CDF-1 mouse mobility. Chlorpromazine reduced only ICR mouse brain dopamine without concomitant changes in major acid metabolites. Repeated administration of amantadine prior to chlorpromazine negated this effect. Chlorpromazine enhancement of BALB/C brain serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid was antagonised by pretreatment with amantadine. This antagonism was also evident in BALB/C mouse brain dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. The results suggest genotypic-dependent behavioral and cerebral effects by the drugs studied. The antagonism between amantadine and chlorpromazine on brain amines may explain the therapeutic efficacy of amantadine in modulating chlorpromazine-induced extrapyramidal disorders.

  9. Destruction of chlorpromazine during absorption in the rat in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Curry, S. H.; D'Mello, A.; Mould, G. P.

    1971-01-01

    1. Concentrations of total radioactivity in plasma of rats given intravenous and oral 35S-chlorpromazine, were similar. Concentrations of unchanged drug, however, were lower after oral doses. 2. Chlorpromazine circulated in solution through isolated loops of rat intestine was rapidly absorbed by the tissue. Measurements of glucose transport and histological examination indicated that the tissue was intact. In these in vitro experiments some of the chlorpromazine was converted to products, which together with unchanged drug, were partly retained in the intestinal wall and partly transferred to the serosal side of the tissue. Observations at three concentrations supported the hypothesis that transfer of unchanged drug occurred by passive diffusion. 3. Conversion of chlorpromazine to metabolites in the intestine in vivo, would account for the differences in concentrations of chlorpromazine and total radio-activity in plasma after oral doses. ImagesFIG. 4 PMID:5560899

  10. Kinetics membrane disruption due to drug interactions of chlorpromazine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Nussio, Matthew R; Sykes, Matthew J; Miners, John O; Shapter, Joseph G

    2009-01-20

    Drug-membrane interactions assume considerable importance in pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism. Here, we present the interaction of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ) with supported phospholipid bilayers. It was demonstrated that CPZ binds rapidly to phospholipid bilayers, disturbing the molecular ordering of the phospholipids. These interactions were observed to follow first order kinetics, with an activation energy of approximately 420 kJ mol(-1). Time-dependent membrane disruption was also observed for the interaction with CPZ, such that holes appeared in the phospholipid bilayer after the interaction of CPZ. For this process of membrane disruption, "lag-burst" kinetics was demonstrated.

  11. Repeated chlorpromazine administration increases a behavioural response of rats to 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Green, A R

    1977-01-01

    1 The hyperactivity syndrome produced in rats by administration of tranylcypromine (20 mg/kg i.p.) followed 30 min later by L-tryptophan (50 mg/kg i.p.) is generally considered to be due to increased 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) functional activity. It is inhibited by chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg i.p.) injected 60 min before the tranylcypromine. However, chlorpromazine injection for 4 days either at a dose of 30 mg/kg once daily or 5 mg/kg twice daily results in an enhanced hyperactivity response to tranylcypromine and L-tryptophan administration 24 h after the final dose of chlorpromazine. 2 One injection of chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg) did not produce enhancement 24 h later and the inhibition of the tranylcypromine/L-tryptophan hyperactivity observed after acute chlorpromazine injection was seen if the rats were given tranylcypromine and L-tryptophan 1 h after the fourth chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg) dose. 3 Chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg) once daily or 5 mg/kg twice daily for 4 days resulted in rats displaying enhanced behavioral responses to the suggested 5-HT agonist 5-methoxy N,N-dimethyltryptamine (2 mg/kg) on day 5. 4 Chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg) once daily for 4 days produces a slight increase in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration on day 5, but no difference in the rate of brain 5-HT synthesis or the rate of 5-HT accumulation after tranylcypromine and L-tryptophan administration. 5. There is some evidence that chlorpromazine blocks 5-HT receptors. It has also been observed that several other neuroleptic drugs do not produce enhanced 5-HT responses after repeated administration. It is suggested therefore that the enhanced behavioural response to 5-HT receptor stimulation following repeated chlorpromazine administration may be because this drug blocks 5-HT receptors. PMID:264797

  12. Effects of chlorpromazine on Na+-K+-ATPase pumping and solute transport in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, R.W.; Scharschmidt, B.F.

    1987-11-01

    Inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase and sodium-dependent bile acid transport has been suggested as a mechanism for the cholestasis produced by certain drugs such as chlorpromazine. We examined the effects of chlorpromazine (and in selected studies, two of its metabolites) on Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping (ouabain-suppressible /sup 86/Rb uptake), exchangeable intracellular sodium content, membrane potential (assessed by /sup 36/Cl- distribution), and sodium-dependent transport of taurocholate and alanine in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Chlorpromazine (10-300 microM), 7,8-dihydroxychlorpromazine (10-300 microM), and ouabain (0.1-2 mM), but not chlorpromazine sulfoxide, produced a concentration-dependent decrease in Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping and an increase in intracellular sodium content. Chlorpromazine (100 microM) and ouabain (0.75 mM) also modestly decreased hepatocyte membrane potential. In further studies, chlorpromazine (75 and 100 microM) and ouabain (0.1, 0.5, and 0.75 mM) decreased initial sodium-dependent uptake rates of taurocholate and alanine by 18-63%. Although the steady-state intracellular content of alanine was decreased 25-53% by both agents, chlorpromazine increased the steady-state content of taurocholate by 171% and decreased taurocholate efflux, apparently related to partitioning of taurocholate into a large, slowly turning over intracellular pool. These studies provide direct evidence that chlorpromazine inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping in intact cells and that partial inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping is associated with a reduction of both the electrochemical sodium gradient and sodium-dependent solute transport. These effects of chlorpromazine may contribute to chlorpromazine-induced cholestasis in animals and humans.

  13. Effects of chlorpromazine on Na+-K+-ATPase pumping and solute transport in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, R W; Scharschmidt, B F

    1987-11-01

    Inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase and sodium-dependent bile acid transport has been suggested as a mechanism for the cholestasis produced by certain drugs such as chlorpromazine. We examined the effects of chlorpromazine (and in selected studies, two of its metabolites) on Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping (ouabain-suppressible 86Rb uptake), exchangeable intracellular sodium content, membrane potential (assessed by 36Cl- distribution), and sodium-dependent transport of taurocholate and alanine in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Chlorpromazine (10-300 microM), 7,8-dihydroxychlorpromazine (10-300 microM), and ouabain (0.1-2 mM), but not chlorpromazine sulfoxide, produced a concentration-dependent decrease in Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping and an increase in intracellular sodium content. Chlorpromazine (100 microM) and ouabain (0.75 mM) also modestly decreased hepatocyte membrane potential. In further studies, chlorpromazine (75 and 100 microM) and ouabain (0.1, 0.5, and 0.75 mM) decreased initial sodium-dependent uptake rates of taurocholate and alanine by 18-63%. Although the steady-state intracellular content of alanine was decreased 25-53% by both agents, chlorpromazine increased the steady-state content of taurocholate by 171% and decreased taurocholate efflux, apparently related to partitioning of taurocholate into a large, slowly turning over intracellular pool. These studies provide direct evidence that chlorpromazine inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping in intact cells and that partial inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping is associated with a reduction of both the electrochemical sodium gradient and sodium-dependent solute transport. These effects of chlorpromazine may contribute to chlorpromazine-induced cholestasis in animals and humans.

  14. Successful 20-hour rat liver preservation with chlorpromazine in sodium lactobionate sucrose solution.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Y; Wicomb, W N; Concepcion, W; Nakazato, P; Collins, G M; Esquivel, C O

    1991-07-01

    We investigated the effect of the addition of chlorpromazine to a new, simplified organ preservation solution, sodium lactobionate sucrose (SLS), for 20-hour hypothermic rat liver preservation. Survival beyond 7 days after orthotopic transplantation of the stored liver was eight of eight rats in control groups (immediate transplantation, less than 1-hour preservation), one of 14 rats with the University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, four of 14 rats with SLS, seven of eight rats with SLS + chlorpromazine, 1 mg/L, and seven of eight rats with SLS + chlorpromazine, 10 mg/L. The differences is survival between UW and SLS and between SLS and SLS + chlorpromazine were significant (p less than 0.05). Lactic dehydrogenase levels in the effluent after reflushing through the portal vein at the time of transplantation were 145 +/- 20 IU/L (mean +/- SEM) in the controls, 525 +/- 78 IU/L in UW, 492 +/- 44 IU/L in SLS, 290 +/- 39 IU/L in SLS + chlorpromazine, 1 mg/L, 290 +/- 11 IU/L in SLS + chlorpromazine, 10 mg/L. The values for the SLS + chlorpromazine were significantly lower than for SLS and UW (p less than 0.05). The pH of the effluent was 7.10 +/- 0.10 in controls, 6.42 +/- 0.12 in UW, 6.64 +/- 0.18 in SLS, and 7.07 +/- 0.02 in SLS + chlorpromazine, 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L. The pH drop was significantly greater in the groups without chlorpromazine (p less than 0.01). This study shows that superior rat liver preservation was achieved with a simplified lactobionate solution containing sodium as the principal cation, sucrose in place of raffinose, and omitting the colloid and several of the other UW components. The addition of low concentrations of chlorpromazine further enhanced the effectiveness of this solution, without the need for donor pretreatment.

  15. In vivo study of the mutagenicity of biperidine, pipotiazine, chlorpromazine, and haloperidol

    SciTech Connect

    de Arruda Cardoso Smith, M.; Valentim de Souza, M.A.; Pugliese, S.; Jesus Mari, J. de

    1996-04-09

    The evaluation of the mutagenic potential of drugs during long-term psychiatric use in schizophrenic patients is of interest considering that the incidence and treatment of this disorder comes in the reproductive age and that there is a close correlation between mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. We did a case-control study involving 12 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed by DMS III-R, of whom 6 were men and 6 women, with an average age of 33.25 years (s.d. {+-} 7.44) and 12 controls matched for sex and for the same age. This is the first case-controlled study comparing patients under treatment with biperidine, pipotiazine, chlorpromazine, and haloperidol with normal controls in relation to the frequency of chromosomal lesions. 4 refs.

  16. Risperidone, quetiapine and chlorpromazine may have induced priapism in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Baytunca, Muharrem Burak; Kose, Sezen; Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    Priapism is the prolonged, painful erection of penile tissue not accompanied by sexual arousal. Priapism has been established as a rare adverse drug reaction to drugs such as antipsychotics, psychostimulants, antidepressants, and mood stabilizers. Immediate intervention is needed to prevent destructive and irreversible complications, such as erectile dysfunction, disfigurement, inability of the penis to stay erect, and related social/emotional problems. Antipsychotic-induced priapism may result from the alpha receptor occupancy property of those drugs. We report the case of a 13-year-old suffering from attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder plus conduct disorder with priapism related to antipsychotics. Episodes occurred with risperidone plus methylphenidate, quetiapine plus methylphenidate, and chlorpromazine alone. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Chlorpromazine as Prophylaxis for Bipolar Disorder with Treatment- and Electroconvulsive Therapy-Refractory Mania: Old Horse, New Trick.

    PubMed

    Modak, Tamonud; Kumar, Saurabh; Pal, Arghya; Gupta, Rishab; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Khandelwal, Sudhir Kumar

    2017-01-01

    A 22-year-old male diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder presented to us with a 3(rd) episode mania resistant to both olanzapine and haloperidol as well as electroconvulsive therapy. He, however, responded to chlorpromazine (CPZ) which was also effective as a mood stabilizer. The patient had a relapse of his illness when CPZ was stopped and responded again when it was started. The case demonstrates that CPZ may have a role in as both an anti-manic agent and for the maintenance for bipolar disorders. The possible underlying mechanism for this role is also discussed.

  18. Chlorpromazine inhibits store-operated calcium entry and subsequent noradrenaline secretion in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se-Young; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Kyu; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2001-01-01

    The effect of chlorpromazine on the store-operated Ca2+ entry activated via the phospholipase C signalling pathway was investigated in PC12 cells. Chlorpromazine inhibited the sustained increase after the initial peak in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration produced by bradykinin while having no effect on the initial transient response. The inhibition was lowered by the removal of extracellular free Ca2+. However, chlorpromazine did not inhibit bradykinin-induced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. Chlorpromazine inhibited the bradykinin-induced noradrenaline secretion in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50: 24±5 μM, n=3). To test for a direct effect of chlorpromazine on store-operated Ca2+ entry, thapsigargin, an inhibitor of microsomal Ca2+-ATPase, was used to induce store-operated Ca2+ entry in PC12 cells. Chlorpromazine reduced the thapsigargin-induced sustained Ca2+ level (IC50: 24±2 μM, n=3), and the inhibition also occluded the inhibitory action of 1-[-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl) propoxy]-4-methoxyphenyl]-1H-imidazole hydrochloride (SK&F96365). The results suggest that chlorpromazine negatively modulates the store-operated Ca2+ entry activated subsequent to PLC activation. PMID:11159689

  19. Clinical evaluation of sulpiride in schizophrenic patients--a double-blind comparison with chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Härnryd, C; Bjerkenstedt, L; Björk, K; Gullberg, B; Oxenstierna, G; Sedvall, G; Wiesel, F A; Wik, G; Aberg-Wistedt, A

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical potential of sulpiride for the treatment of schizophrenic patients, a double-blind study was performed comparing fixed doses of sulpiride (800 mg daily) and chlorpromazine (400 mg daily). Twenty-five schizophrenic (RDC) patients participated in each treatment group. Antipsychotic effects were evaluated by CPRS and NOSIE ratings before and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Interrater reliabilities for CPRS items and subscales were satisfactory. Treatment with sulpiride or chlorpromazine resulted in a significant reduction of psychotic morbidity as estimated by CPRS and global ratings. CPRS scores reflecting autism were significantly reduced in all ratings of sulpiride-treated patients, but only after four weeks in the chlorpromazine group. Total NOSIE scores indicated improvement in both treatment groups. A significant difference in favour of sulpiride was obtained for the NOSIE subscale "retardation". Extrapyramidal side effects occurred at a similar frequency in both treatment groups. Autonomic side effects occurred to a greater extent in chlorpromazine-treated patients. Lactation was reported only in four sulpiride-treated patients. Liver transaminase enzymes in serum were markedly elevated only in chlorpromazine-treated patients. The results indicate that sulpiride has a marked antipsychotic effect which is at least not inferior to that of chlorpromazine. A better effect on autistic components of behaviour was demonstrated for sulpiride. The results indicate a higher risk of lactation but a lower risk of anticholinergic side effects and liver toxicity for treatment with sulpiride than with chlorpromazine.

  20. Inhibition of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin by MDL 12330A and chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Bitonti, A J

    1984-04-30

    ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin of the guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein (Gs) of rat liver membrane adenylate cyclase was inhibited by 0.1-1 mM MDL 12330A or 0.1-1 mM chlorpromazine. Basal as well as cholera toxin activated adenylate cyclase activity in liver membranes was also inhibited by the two drugs. NAD glycohydrolase activity and self-ADP-ribosylation of cholera toxin were also inhibited by MDL 12330A and chlorpromazine. These effects of MDL 12330A and chlorpromazine may be related to their effects on cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion in vivo.

  1. Evaluation of the percutaneous absorption of chlorpromazine from PLO gels across porcine ear and human abdominal skin.

    PubMed

    Alsaab, Hashem; Alzhrani, Rami M; Boddu, Sai H S

    2016-08-01

    The overall objective of this work is to determine the percutaneous absorption of chlorpromazine hydrochloride from pluronic lecithin organogels (PLO gels) and verify the suitability of topically applied chlorpromazine hydrochloride PLO gels for use in hospice patients for relieving symptoms such as vomiting and nausea during the end stages of life. PLO gels of chlorpromazine hydrochloride were prepared using isopropyl palmitate (IPP) or ricinoleic acid (RA) as oil phase. In vitro percutaneous absorption of chlorpromazine hydrochloride was assessed through porcine ear and human abdominal skin. Further, the theoretical steady state plasma concentration (Css) of chlorpromazine was calculated from the flux values. The pH, viscosity, and stability of both PLO gels prepared with IPP and RA were comparable. The thixotropic property of RA PLO gel was found to be better than that of IPP PLO gel. The permeation of chlorpromazine hydrochloride was higher from RA PLO gel than from IPP PLO gel and pure drug solution. Theoretical Css of chlorpromazine from pure drug solution, IPP PLO gel and RA PLO gel were found to be 1.05, 1.20, and 1.50 ng/ml, respectively. PLO gels only marginally increased the flux and theoretical Css of chlorpromazine. From this study, it is clearly evident that PLO gels fail to achieve required systemic levels of chlorpromazine following topical application. Chlorpromazine PLO gel may not be effective in treating nausea and vomiting for hospice patients with swallowing difficulties.

  2. Effect of chlorpromazine on the smg GDS action.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S; Kikuchi, A; Takai, Y

    1992-02-14

    A stimulatory GDP/GTP exchange protein for smg p21 (smg GDS) stimulated the binding of guanosine 5'-(3-0-thio) triphosphate (GTP gamma S) to smg p21B. Chlorpromazine (CPZ) inhibited the smg GDS action in a manner competitive with smg GDS and in a manner noncompetitive with smg p21B. In spite of the inhibitory effect of CPZ on the smg GDS action, it counteracted the inhibition of the smg GDS action by acidic phospholipids. These results suggest that CPZ interacts with smg p21B, smg GDS, or both, and thereby inhibits the smg GDS action, and that CPZ also interacts with the acidic phospholipids and thereby counteracts their inhibitory effect on the smg GDS action.

  3. Reactions and structural investigation of chlorpromazine radical cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Ravi; Ghanty, Tapan K.; Mukherjee, T.

    2008-10-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to understand pro-oxidant behaviour of chlorpromazine radical cation (CPZ rad + ). Pulse radiolysis studies have shown that CPZ rad + oxidizes physiological antioxidants (uric acid and bilirubin), and biomolecules like, tyrosine and proteins (bovine serum albumin and casein), thereby acting as a pro-oxidant. Ab-initio quantum chemical calculations suggest structural and electronic changes on oxidation of CPZ. The calculations with Hartree-Fock and density functional methods show that ring nitrogen atom is the site of electron removal from CPZ and sulfur atom is the site of maximum spin in CPZ rad + . The calculations also suggest that oxidation of CPZ leads to increase in planarity of the tricyclic ring as well as tilting of alkyl side chain towards chlorine containing ring. The structural changes on oxidation of CPZ and spin delocalization in CPZ rad + fairly explain the pro-oxidant activity of CPZ.

  4. Phototoxicity mechanisms: chlorpromazine photosensitized damage to DNA and cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kochevar, K.E.

    1981-07-01

    Photosensitized damage to biological molecules is the initial process in phototoxic responses. It is now recognized that many phototoxic compounds can photosensitize damage to more than one type of biological substrate. The in vitro light-initiated reactions of phototoxic compounds with DNA, soluble proteins and membrane components can be classified by their molecular mechanisms: (1) those in which an excited state of the phototoxic compound (or an unstable species derived from it) reacts directly with the biological substrate and (2) those in which a molecule derived from the phototoxic compound (a photoproduct or an activated oxygen species) reacts with the biological substrate. This paper describes the mechanisms by which chlorpromazine photosensitizes damage to membranes, protein and DNA and compares them to the mechanisms of photosensitization by psoralens, porphyrins, dyes, and other molecules.

  5. Impaired absorption of chlorpromazine in rats given trihexyphenidyl.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Calimlim, L

    1976-01-01

    1 The absorption and tissue distribution of orally administered [14C]-chlorpromazine (CPZ) were compared in trihexyphenidyl (THP; Artane)-treated and control rats. 2 Total radioactivity (CPZ) in the plasma and brain of rats treated with THP was significantly lower whereas total radioactivity in the stomach was significantly higher than in rats not previously treated with THP. 3 Gastric emptying in rats treated with THP was significantly delayed as measured by gastric clearance of a marker [14C]-polyethylene glycol. 4 Transport of [14C]-CPZ in everted sacs was not affected by treatment with THP. 5 Metabolism of [14C]-CPZ by liver homogenates was not affected by treatment with THP. 6 The relationship of delayed gastric emptying in THP-treated rats and their lower plasma and brain levels of [14C]-CPZ after oral administration is discussed. PMID:1260174

  6. Effect of chlorpromazine on human and murine intracellular carboxylesterases.

    PubMed

    Radenovic, L; Kartelija, G

    2004-04-01

    Clinical use of chlorpromazine (CPZ), an antipsychotic drug, is limited due to its hepatotoxicity. CPZ is found to inhibit in vitro intracellular carboxylesterases (CE), such as alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase, naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase, and alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase in polymorphonuclear neutrophils, hepatocytes, and neuronal brain cells from mice. CPZ inhibits CE of all these cell types, whereby the degree of the inhibition depends on the incubation time and CPZ concentration. The polymorphonuclear neutrophils are most sensitive to CPZ. Comparable results were obtained with polymorphonuclear neutrophils from mice and humans. Since leukocytes are much more available than hepatocytes or neuronal cells in humans, we assume that CE in peripheral blood leukocytes (neutrophils and monocytes) can be used as markers for indication of pending liver damage by CPZ.

  7. Enhanced photo(geno)toxicity of demethylated chlorpromazine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Fabrizio; Garcia-Lainez, Guillermo; Limones-Herrero, Daniel; Coloma, M Dolores; Escobar, Javier; Jiménez, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A; Andreu, Inmaculada

    2016-12-15

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is an anti-psychotic drug widely used to treat disorders such as schizophrenia or manic-depression. Unfortunately, CPZ exhibits undesirable side effects such as phototoxic and photoallergic reactions in humans. In general, the influence of drug metabolism on this type of reactions has not been previously considered in photosafety testing. Thus, the present work aims to investigate the possible photo(geno)toxic potential of drug metabolites, using CPZ as an established reference compound. In this case, the metabolites selected for the study are demethylchlorpromazine (DMCPZ), didemethylchlorpromazine (DDMCPZ) and chlorpromazine sulfoxide (CPZSO). The demethylated CPZ metabolites DMCPZ and DDMCPZ maintain identical chromophore to the parent drug. In this work, it has been found that the nature of the aminoalkyl side chain modulates the hydrophobicity and the photochemical properties (for instance, the excited state lifetimes), but it does not change the photoreactivity pattern, which is characterized by reductive photodehalogenation, triggered by homolytic carbon-chlorine bond cleavage with formation of highly reactive aryl radical intermediates. Accordingly, these metabolites are phototoxic to cells, as revealed by the 3T3 NRU assay; their photo-irritation factors are even higher than that of CPZ. The same trend is observed in photogenotoxicity studies, both with isolated and with cellular DNA, where DMCPZ and DDMCPZ are more active than CPZ itself. In summary, side-chain demethylation of CPZ, as a consequence of Phase I biotransformation, does not result a photodetoxification. Instead, it leads to metabolites that exhibit in an even enhanced photo(geno)toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A proposed mechanism for chlorpromazine jaundice--defective hepatic sulphoxidation combined with rapid hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Watson, R G; Olomu, A; Clements, D; Waring, R H; Mitchell, S; Elias, E

    1988-08-01

    On the basis of previous experimental studies we postulated that individuals who were phenotypically good hydroxylators but poor sulphoxidisers would be susceptible to chlorpromazine jaundice. Sulphoxidation capacity was assessed in 12 subjects with a history of chlorpromazine jaundice, using S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine as an in vivo probe. Following an oral dose of 750 mg, unchanged compound and sulphoxide metabolites were measured in urine. All 12 subjects (100%) were shown to be poor sulphoxidisers compared to 22% of normal controls (P less than 0.001) and 23.8% of liver disease controls (P less than 0.001). No subjects with a history of chlorpromazine jaundice had an impaired hydroxylation capacity as assessed by recovery of 4-hydroxydebrisoquine in urine following oral debrisoquine. The results support the hypothesis and demonstrate an inherent metabolic basis of susceptibility to chlorpromazine jaundice.

  9. d-Amphetamine-chlorpromazine antagonism in a food reinforced operant1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Hugh

    1963-01-01

    Dose effect curves for d-amphetamine and chlorpromazine were obtained with rats on a milk reinforced FR 10 schedule. A dose of d-amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) which completely suppressed all responding for 60 min was administered simultaneously (concomitant with the pretreatment times) with various doses of chlorpromazine. The d-amphetamine-induced cessation of responding was removed by several of the doses of chlorpromazine with maximal antagonism occurring at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg i.p. This dose of chlorpromazine, when administered independently, produced no observable side effects and showed no effect on the FR 10 schedule. One animal appeared to develop tolerance to the repeated dosages of d-amphetamine. PMID:14015971

  10. Quinidine inhibits the 7-hydroxylation of chlorpromazine in extensive metabolisers of debrisoquine.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, G; Cooper, J K; Hawes, E M; Korchinski, E D; Midha, K K

    1996-01-01

    Quindine is a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6 (debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase). Its effect on the disposition of chlorpromazine was investigated in ten healthy volunteers using a randomised crossover design with two phases. A single oral dose of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (100 mg) was given with and without prior administration of quinidine bisulphate (250 mg). Chlorpromazine and seven of its metabolites were quantified in the 0- to 12-h urine while plasma concentrations of chlorpromazine and 7-hydroxychlorpromazine were measured over 48 h. All volunteers were phenotyped as extensive metabolisers with respect to CYP2D6 using the methoxyphenamine/O-desmethyl-methoxyphenamine metabolic ratio. Quinidine significantly decreased the urinary excretion of 7-hydroxylchlorpromazine 2.2-fold. Moreover the urinary excretion of this metabolite correlated inversely (rs = -0.80) with the metabolic ratio. The urinary recoveries of chlorpromazine, chlorpromazine N-oxide, 7-hydroxy-N-desmethylchlorpromazine, N-desmethyl-chlorpromazine sulphoxide and the total of all eight analytes were unaltered by quinidine. However, quinidine administration caused significant increases in the urinary excretions of chlorpromazine sulphoxide, N-desmethylchlorpromazine and N, N-didesmethylchlorpromazine sulphoxide, which indicated that compensatory increase in these metabolic routes of chlorpromazine might have been responsible for the lack of change observed in the urinary recovery of the parent drug. Quinidine administration produced modest decreases (1.2- to 1.3-fold) in the mean peak plasma concentrations and mean areas under the plasma concentration-time curves of 7-hydroxychlorpromazine and increases (1.3- to 1.4-fold) in these parameters for the parent drug chlorpromazine, but none of these changes reached statistical significance. Based on ANOVA the sample sizes required to detect these differences as significant (alpha = 0.5) with a probability of 0.8 were determined to vary between 15 and 42

  11. Chlorpromazine-induced changes in membrane micro-architecture inhibit thrombopoiesis in rat megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Itsuro; Ejima, Yutaka; Endo, Yasuhiro; Toyama, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Mitsunobu; Baba, Asuka; Tachi, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    Chlorpromazine often causes severe and persistent thrombocytopenia. Several clinical studies have suggested the presence of an as-yet-unknown mechanism in this drug-induced thrombocytopenia, by which the platelet production from megakaryocytes may directly be affected. As we previously demonstrated in rat peritoneal mast cells or adipocytes, chlorpromazine is amphiphilic and preferentially partitioned into the lipid bilayers of the plasma membrane. Therefore, it can induce some structural changes in the megakaryocyte membrane surface and thus affect the process of thrombopoiesis. In the present study, employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique, we examined the effects of chlorpromazine on the membrane capacitance and Kv1.3-channel currents in rat megakaryocytes. By electron microscopic imaging of the cellular surface, we also examined the effects of chlorpromazine on the membrane micro-architecture of megakaryocytes. Chlorpromazine markedly decreased the membrane capacitance of megakaryocytes, indicating the decreased number of invaginated plasma membranes, which was not detected by the fluorescent imaging techniques. As shown by electron microscopy, chlorpromazine actually changed the membrane micro-architecture of megakaryocytes, and was likely to halt the process of pro-platelet formation in the cells. This drug persistently decreased the membrane capacitance and almost totally and irreversibly inhibited the Kv1.3-channel currents in megakaryocytes. This study demonstrated for the first time that chlorpromazine is likely to inhibit the process of thrombopoiesis persistently in megakaryocytes, as detected by the long-lasting decrease in the membrane capacitance and the irreversible suppression of the Kv1.3-channel currents. Chlorpromazine-induced changes in the membrane micro-architecture are thought to be responsible for its persistent effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of chlorpromazine on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Krutetskaya, Z I; Milenina, L S; Naumova, A A; Butov, S N; Antonov, V G; Nozdrachev, A D

    2017-05-01

    Using Fura-2AM microfluorimetry, it was shown for the first time that neuroleptic chlorpromazine causes intracellular Ca(2+) concentration increase in macrophages due to Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular Ca(2+) stores and subsequent Ca(2+) entry from the external medium. Chlorpromazine-induced Ca(2+) entry is inhibited by La(3+) and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and is associated with Ca(2+) store depletion.

  13. Effect of chlorpromazine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pentobarbital in rats.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, T; Sato, S; Endoh, M; Katayama, K; Kakemi, M; Koizumi, T

    1988-01-01

    The effects of chlorpromazine (4 mg/kg i.v.) on the disposition and duration of loss of the righting reflex (LRR, sleeping time) produced by intravenous pentobarbital (5 to 50 mg/kg) were studied in rats. The plasma concentration time profile following i.v. administration of pentobarbital alone was reasonably well described by a three compartment open model with Michaelis-Menten type elimination kinetics. The brain to plasma concentration ratio of pentobarbital was 1.5 and was almost constant during the experiment. Coadministration of chlorpromazine significantly reduced the systemic clearance of pentobarbital. Since pentobarbital is eliminated from the body mainly by hepatic metabolism, reduction of systemic clearance reflects the reduction of hepatic metabolism of pentobarbital. The hepatic intrinsic clearance of pentobarbital was decreased from 0.438 to 0.331 l/h by chlorpromazine coadministration. Hepatic blood flow was also decreased significantly, whereas the plasma protein binding and the distribution to the red blood cell were not appreciably altered. The profile of duration of LRR versus the logarithm of the dose of pentobarbital was linear over a 20 to 70 mg/kg dose range irrespective of chlorpromazine coadministration. The awakening plasma and brain concentrations of pentobarbital without chlorpromazine were estimated as 12.4 micrograms/ml and 17.8 micrograms/g, respectively. The sleeping time versus the logarithm of pentobarbital dose under chlorpromazine coadministration was shifted to the left and the slope of the linear portion was also decreased. There was no single value of awakening plasma or brain concentration. Plasma concentration at the end of the action decreased with decreasing dose. These facts indicated that the sensitivity of the central nervous system to pentobarbital might be increased by chlorpromazine. In conclusion, chlorpromazine inhibited the hepatic metabolism of pentobarbital, resulting in significant increases in plasma and

  14. Melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in normal human melanocytes cultured in the presence of chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Otreba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota; Beberok, Artur; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-02-01

    Chlorpromazine is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychotic disorders and belongs to phenothiazine class of neuroleptic drugs. It shows severe side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms as well as ocular and skin disorders, but the mechanism is still not fully established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chlorpromazine on cell viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in normal human melanocytes. It has been demonstrated that chlorpromazine induces concentration dependent loss in cell viability. The value of EC(50) was calculated to be 2.53 μM. Chlorpromazine in lower concentrations (0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01 μM) increased the melanin and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) content and tyrosinase activity, while changes of antioxidant enzymes activity were not observed. It suggests that long-term chlorpromazine therapy, even with low drug doses, may lead to hyperpigmentation disorders in skin and/or eye. The use of the analyzed drug in higher concentrations (0.1 and 1.0 μM) caused significant alterations of antioxidant enzymes activity in normal melanocytes, what may explain a potential role of chlorpromazine in the depletion of cellular antioxidant status leading to other adverse effects associated with the high-dose and/or long-term therapy.

  15. Influence of antidepressant drugs on chlorpromazine metabolism in human liver--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wójcikowski, Jacek; Daniel, Władysława A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of antidepressant drugs (fluvoxamine, imipramine) on the metabolism of the aliphatic-type phenothiazine neuroleptic chlorpromazine in the human liver. The experiment was performed in vitro using human liver microsomes. The kinetic analysis of chlorpromazine metabolism carried out in the absence or presence of antidepressants showed that fluvoxamine potently inhibited chlorpromazine 5-sulfoxidation (K(i) = 2.8 μM), mono-N-demethylation (K(i) = 1.4 μM) and di-N-demethylation (K(i) = 1.1 μM) via a competitive mechanism at therapeutic antidepressant concentrations. Imipramine moderately diminished the rate of chlorpromazine 5-sulfoxidation (K(i) = 8.7 μM, competitive inhibition), mono-N-demethylation (K(i) = 16.0 μM, non-competitive inhibition) and di-N-demethylation (K(i) = 13.5 μM mixed inhibition). Considering the serious side-effects of chlorpromazine and some of its metabolites, metabolic interactions between this neuroleptic and antidepressant drugs (especially the chlorpromazine-fluvoxamine interaction) may be of pharmacological and clinical importance.

  16. Interactions of orphenadrine and phenobarbitone with chlorpromazine: plasma concentrations and effects in man.

    PubMed Central

    Loga, S; Curry, S; Lader, M

    1975-01-01

    1 Two studies were carried out on acutely psychotic patients receiving chlorpromazine (100 mg) 8-hourly. 2 In the pilot study on five patients, plasma chlorpromazine concentrations fell over the course of 3 weeks of treatment and parallel changes were noted in the plasma half-life of antipyrine, salivation rate and handwriting length. 3 In the main study involving twelve patients treated for 15 weeks, the above findings were confirmed and were interpreted as indicating that chlorpromazine accelerated its own metabolism by inducing liver microsomal oxidising enzymes. No metabolites of chlorpromazine were detected in plasma. 4 The addition of phenobarbitone (50 mg) 8-hourly for 3 weeks, or orphenadrine (100 mg) 8-hourly for 3 weeks, resulted in a lowering of plasma chlorpromazine concentrations together with a further shortening of plasma antipyrine half-life. 5 Physiological effects of the additional treatments suggested that phenobarbitone lessens the effects of chlorpromazine by lowering body concentrations. However, orphenadrine acts more by virtue of its anticholinergic effects. 6 It was concluded that phenobarbitone and orphenadrine should not be prescribed routinely in patients receiving major tranquillisers. The need for the addition of orphenadrine should be assessed in each individual case. PMID:791320

  17. Immune responses to chlorpromazine in rats. Detection and relation to hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Mullock, B M; Hall, D E; Shaw, L J; Hinton, R H

    1983-09-15

    It has frequently been suggested that the jaundice which occurs in a small percentage of human patients following treatment with chlorpromazine is due to a hypersensitivity reaction. It has, however, proved impossible to obtain an animal model for this condition. We now show that oral administration of chlorpromazine at 25 mg/kg per day to Wistar albino rats results in formation of both humoral and secretory antibodies to chlorpromazine. We also demonstrate that the severity of the hepatic changes observed in chlorpromazine-fed animals (periportal glycogen loss and centrilobular fatty change) is enhanced by preimmunization of the rats via the gut-associated lymphoid tissue with a chlorpramizine-protein conjugate. There was, however, no correlation between the titre of either serum or biliary antibodies in individual animals and the degree of liver damage. Our results therefore suggest than an immune mechanism is indeed implicated in chlorpromazine toxicity but show clearly that toxic symptoms are not a simple consequence of the formation of anti-chlorpromazine antibodies.

  18. Tax Wealth in Fifty States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    This study presents a scheme for yearly, comparative, computation of state and local government tax capacity and effort. Figures for all states for fiscal year 1975 are presented in extensive tables. The system used is a simplified version of the Representative Tax System, which identifies tax bases, determines national average tax rates for those…

  19. The effects of neuroleptics (haloperidol and chlorpromazine) on the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, T; Chiba, K; Saito, M; Kobayashi, K; Iizuka, R

    1984-10-01

    The steady state trough concentrations (Cmin) and pharmacokinetics of valproic acid were investigated in schizophrenic patients during the treatment of valproic acid, 200 mg, twice daily and after the one dose of 400 mg, respectively, with and without haloperidol (6 to 10 mg/day, N = 6) or chlorpromazine (100 to 300 mg/day, N = 6). Four to 5 Cmin were monitored just before the morning valproic acid dose for 3 to 4 days preceding the kinetic study. The overall Cmin of valproic acid with chlorpromazine (33.2 +/- 1.7 micrograms/ml, N = 25) was significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than without (27.1 +/- 1.4 micrograms/ml, N = 25). The majority of the mean valproic acid concentrations observed after the 400-mg dose were significantly (p less than 0.05 to 0.01) greater during the chlorpromazine treatment as compared to those without the phenothiazine. The mean t1/2 was shortened from 15.4 +/- 1.4 to 13.5 +/- 1.2 hours (p less than 0.05) with a comparable increase in the clearance from 7.18 +/- 0.38 to 8.32 +/- 0.34 ml/hour/kg (p less than 0.01) after the discontinuation of chlorpromazine. All the patients revealed an increase in the valproic acid clearance after the chlorpromazine therapy was discontinued. When viewed overall, such a trend as found in the chlorpromazine group was not observed in the haloperidol group. The results suggest that chlorpromazine, but not haloperidol, inhibits the metabolism of valproic acid. However, the clinical significance of the interaction awaits future study.

  20. Severe exacerbation of psychosis after sudden withdrawal of chlorpromazine in the treatment of methamphetamine-associated psychosis with aripiprazole and chlorpromazine: 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Devi Thakoor, Jaya Prishni; Wang, Xuyi; Hao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine is commonly associated with psychosis, which may be due to imbalance in dopamine. Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic drug that shows a partial agonistic activity at D2 receptors. This may lead in some cases to an exacerbation of psychotic symptoms due to dopamine agonism when there is sudden withdrawal of chlorpromazine. We report on 2 cases of men with an DSM-IV defined methamphetamine-associated psychosis. Aripiprazole was started to treat methamphetamine-associated psychosis with chlorpromazine. Psychotic symptoms improved but because of pain at the intravenous injection site chlorpromazine needed to be discontinued. After initiating aripiprazole and clonazepam the patient's psychotic symptoms increased drastically. Therefore aripiprazole was discontinued. Olanzapine was prescribed and psychotic symptoms declined again. Concurrent causes for both serious adverse events may be the partial agonistic activity of aripiprazole at D2 receptors as well as methamphetamine use may induce behavioral sensitization. Furthermore, chlorpromazine's early discontinuation may be related to psychotic symptoms. All aspects may have contributed to the severe psychotic exacerbation. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of this severe adverse event when administering aripiprazole with other antipsychotics or when switching treatment to aripiprazole.

  1. Molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of chlorpromazine in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    MacAllister, Stephanie L; Young, Cheryl; Guzdek, Anna; Zhidkov, Nickholas; O'Brien, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a member of the largest class of first-generation antipsychotic agents, is known to cause hepatotoxicity in the form of cholestasis and hepatocellular necrosis in some patients. The mechanism of CPZ hepatotoxicity is unclear, but is thought to result from reactive metabolite formation. The goal of this research was to assess potential cytotoxic mechanisms of CPZ using the accelerated cytotoxicity mechanism screening (ACMS) technique with freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. This study identified CPZ cytotoxicity and inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) to be concentration-dependent. Furthermore, inhibition of cytochrome P450s (CYPs), including CYP2D1 and 1A2, delayed CPZ cytotoxicity, suggesting a role for CYP activation of CPZ to a toxic metabolite(s) in this model. Metabolism studies also demonstrated glucuronide and glutathione (GSH) requirement for CPZ detoxification in hepatocytes. Inactivating the 2-electron reduction pathway, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), caused a significant increase in hepatocyte susceptibility to CPZ, indicating quinoneimine contribution to CPZ cytotoxicity. Nontoxic concentrations of peroxidase/H(2)O(2) (inflammatory model) increased cytotoxicity in CPZ-treated hepatocytes and caused additional mitochondrial toxicity. Inflammation further depleted GSH and increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels. Results suggest activation of CPZ to reactive metabolites by 2 pathways in hepatocytes: (i) a CYP-catalyzed quinoneimine pathway, and (ii) a peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of CPZ to CPZ radicals.

  2. Chlorpromazine distribution in hamsters and mice bearing transplantable melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.; Greenberg, D.; Watts, K.P.; Packer, S.; Atkins, H.L.; Som, P.; Hannon, S.J.; Brill, A.B.; Fand, I.; McNally, W.P.

    1982-02-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) distribution was measured in tissues of Syrian golden hamsters bearing Greene melanoma and in BALB/c mice bearing Harding-Passey melanoma. Distribution was evaluated as a function of time (0.5 to 14 days) and as a function of single and multiple doses (up to five) of from 5 to 50 mg CPZ per kg body weight. Routes of administration (i.p., i.v., p.o.) were compared. The physiological behavior of CPZ is of interest as it is used extensively as a tranquilizing drug (Thorazine). Further, since CPZ binds to the pigment melanin, the possibility exists of using CPZ to transport diagnostic or therapeutic agents to melanoma. It was found that, at 2 days postinjection, tumor/tissue concentration ratios exceeded 10 for metabolizing organs, such as liver, and 100 for background tissues, such as blood and muscle. Absolute concentrations of CPZ in tumor exceeding 100 ..mu..g CPZ per g tumor were obtained with both single and multiple doses. This selective high concentration in tumor would make CPZ an ideal vehicle for the transport of boron to tumor for use in neutron capture therapy via the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction.

  3. Chlorpromazine confers neuroprotection against brain ischemia by activating BKCa channel.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Zhou, Li; Han, Feng; Wang, Ming-Yan; Xue, Mao-Qiang; Qi, Zhi

    2014-07-15

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is a well-known antipsychotic drug, still widely being used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia, psychotic depression and organic psychoses. We have previously reported that CPZ activates the BKCa (KCa1.1) channel at whole cell level. In the present study, we demonstrated that CPZ increased the single channel open probability of the BKCa channels without changing its single channel amplitude. As BKCa channel is one of the molecular targets of brain ischemia, we explored a possible new use of this old drug on ischemic brain injury. In middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) focal cerebral ischemia, a single intraperitoneal injection of CPZ at several dosages (5mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg) could exert a significant neuroprotective effect on the brain damage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, blockade of BKCa channels abolished the neuroprotective effect of CPZ on MCAO, suggesting that the effect of CPZ is mediated by activation of the BKCa channel. These results demonstrate that CPZ could reduce focal cerebral ischemic damage through activating BKCa channels and merits exploration as a potential therapeutic agent for treating ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ascorbic acid, catalase and chlorpromazine reduce cryopreservation-induced damages to crossbred bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Paudel, K P; Kumar, S; Meur, S K; Kumaresan, A

    2010-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of ascorbic acid, catalase, chlorpromazine and their combinations in reducing the cryodamages to crossbred bull (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) spermatozoa. A total of 32 ejaculates (eight each from four bulls) were diluted in Tris-citric acid-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol extender. Each ejaculate was split into six parts (five treatment and one control). Treatment groups included 10 mm ascorbic acid, 0.1 mm chlorpromazine, 200 IU/ml catalase, 10 mm ascorbic acid + 0.1 mm chlorpromazine or 200 IU/ml catalase + 0.1 mm chlorpromazine in the extender. Fluorescent probes (Fluorescein isothiocyanate--Pisum sativum agglutinin + Propidium iodide) were used for the assessment of spermatozoa viability and acrosomal status. The proportion of acrosome intact live (AIL), acrosome intact dead, acrosome reacted live and acrosome reacted dead sperm was assessed in fresh, equilibrated and frozen-thawed semen. The functional status of the sperm was assessed using hypo-osmotic sperm swelling test (HOSST). Activities of acrosin and hyaluronidase enzyme were also determined. Lipid peroxidation level was assayed based on the melonaldehyde (MDA) production. In cryopreserved semen, the values of AIL spermatozoa, HOSST response, hyaluronidase and acrosin activity were reduced by 53%, 47%, 34% and 54%, respectively from their initial values in fresh semen. However, MDA level was threefold higher in the frozen-thawed sperm compared with fresh sperm. Significant (p < 0.05) improvement in motility, viability, HOSST response, retention of hyaluonidase and acrosin and reduction in MDA was recorded in ascorbic acid, catalase, ascorbic acid + chlorpromazine and catalase + chlorpromazine incorporated groups. The percentage of AIL sperm was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in ascorbic acid, catalase and ascorbic acid + chlorpromazine incorporated groups compared with the control. Chlorpromazine alone did not improve the post-thaw semen quality but when combined

  5. [The effect of chlorpromazine on the temperature and osmotic sensitivity of erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Shpakova, N M; Bondarenko, V A

    1991-12-01

    The effect of chlorpromazine on the development of cold shock in erythrocytes exposed to sodium chloride was shown to depend on the tonicity of the medium in which the cells were cooled from 37 degrees C down to 0 degrees C as well as on the amphipate concentration. After cooling of erythrocytes in a NaCl (0.75-1.5 M)-containing medium with chlorpromazine (7 x 10(-5) M, 2.1 x 10(-4) M and 3.5 x 10(-4) M) the hypertonic cold shock was inhibited, the protective effect of the amphipate being less pronounced at its increasing concentrations. After cooling of cells under conditions of moderate hypertonicity (0.3-0.6 M NaCl) no modifying effect of chlorpromazine on the sensitivity of erythrocytes to the temperature decrease from 37 degrees C down to 0 degrees C was manifested. However, under iso- and hypertonic conditions chlorpromazine used at 2.1 x 10(-4) M and 3.5 x 10(-4) M stimulated the cold shock development in erythrocytes. A sharp increase in the medium tonicity (up to 1.8-3.0 M and higher) the cells underwent isothermal hemolysis which was more expressed at 0 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. These data suggest that chlorpromazine significantly activates the hemolytic process at low temperatures.

  6. Effects of daily chlorpromazine administration on behavioural and physiological parameters in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nsimba, S E D

    2009-01-01

    Chlorpromazine is a classical neuroleptic drug which produces both therapeutic effects as well as unwanted side effects in human such as sedation, autonomic, endocrine and neurological effects. It is thought that blockade of dopamine D-2 receptors caused by chlorpromazine induces these untoward side effects. Pre-clinical studies on catalepsy has been proposed as an animal model for neuroleptic induced extrapyramidal side effects. The drug also blocks certain stereotypic behaviours in animals induced by dopamine agonists such as apomorphine and amphetamine. These stereotypic behaviours are circling, chewing, rearing, grooming and hyperactivity. Daily administration of chlorpromazine (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, i.p) to rats for 21 days induced catalepsy, tolerance to catalepsy and locomotor sensitization following PCP (10 mg/kg, i.p) challenge. These results suggest that daily chlorpromazine treatment induced DA/NMDA-receptor sensitization to total locomotor activity following PCP challenge. Furthermore, there were no changes in other behavioural parameters assessed. Surprisingly daily chlorpromazine administration in rats also produced no changes in other physiological parameters assessed (body weight, food and water intake).

  7. Toxicological analysis of the psychotropic drugs chlorpromazine and diazepam using chemically fixed organ tissues.

    PubMed

    Nishigami, J; Takayasu, T; Ohshima, T

    1995-01-01

    Toxicological analysis for chlorpromazine and diazepam was performed using chemically fixed organ tissue specimens. After chlorpromazine and diazepam had been injected into rabbits, organ tissues (brain, lung, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle) were collected and fixed in 3 fixative solutions: buffered 10% formalin solution (pH 7.4, 10% BF), non-buffered 10% formalin solution (pH 5.1, 10% non-BF), buffered 4% paraformaldehyde solution (pH 7.4, 4% BPA). Chlorpromazine and diazepam were determined by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) after 5 different fixation periods, and were detected even after 28 days of fixation. Recoveries of chlorpromazine and diazepam in 10% BF were within the range 48-86% and 68-171%, respectively after 28-day fixation, those in 10% non-BF were 22-54% and 48-78%, respectively, and those in 4% BPA solution were 13-59% and 14-50%, respectively. Thus, 10% BF was found to be the most suitable fixation medium for analysis of chlorpromazine and diazepam.

  8. The mechanism of chlorpromazine and quinidine inhibition of cardiac sarcotubular ATPase.

    PubMed

    Pang, D C; Briggs, F N

    1975-01-01

    Although chlorpromazine and quinidine have dissimilar chemical properties, both are negative inotropic agents and both depress the ATPase activity of cardiac sarcotubular fractions. With the aid of gamma-AT32 P we have identified the step in ATP hydrolysis which is inhibited by each of these agents. By optimizing the conditions for formation of a phosphorylated intermediate (EP) by addition of 5 mM calcium to the incubation medium we found that chlorpromazine (0.25--1 mM) severely depressed EP formation, whereas quinidine (0.25--1 mM) had no effect. After the isolation of EP we showed that chlorpromazine had no effect on the magnesium-facilitated hydrolysis of EP, whereas quinidine was a potent inhibitor of this hydrolytic step. The effects of both quinidine and chlorpromazine on the E + ATP equilibrium EP + ADP reaction were studied. Quinidine had no effect on this reaction, whereas chlorpromazine, at 1 mM, shifted the reaction toward ATP formation.

  9. The "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior" at Fifty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laties, Victor G.

    2008-01-01

    The "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior" was founded in 1958 by a group of male psychologists, mainly from the northeastern USA and connected with either Harvard or Columbia. Fifty years later about 20% of both editors and authors reside outside this country and almost the same proportion is women. Other changes in the…

  10. Effect of oral contraceptives on the transport of chlorpromazine across the CACO-2 intestinal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Brown, Deon; Goosen, Theunis C; Chetty, Mano; Hamman, Josias H

    2003-09-01

    In previous chlorpromazine pharmacokinetic studies a dramatic elevation in blood plasma levels of this drug was observed when taken in combination with oral contraceptives. Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain this observation. The aim of the study was to investigate whether oral contraceptives such as ethinyloestradiol and progesterone enhance the absorption of chlorpromazine by means of inhibiting P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and if this effect is mainly due to ethinyloestradiol or progesterone or their combination. The Caco-2 cell line was used as an in vitro model to study the effects of these compounds on the transport of chlorpromazine. Both apical to basolateral (AP-BL) and basolateral to apical (BL-AP) transport studies were done on chlorpromazine in combination with different compounds. Ethinyloestradiol enhanced the AP-BL cumulative transport of chlorpromazine by 11.5% compared to the control group, which was also statistically significantly higher than the effect caused by progesterone (0.8%). A combination of these two steroidal hormones enhanced the cumulative transport of chlorpromazine by only 2.0% compared to the control group. This indicates the possible existence of separate drug-binding sites for these two hormones and chlorpromazine on P-gp. The drug-binding site (or receptor) for progesterone probably interacts allosterically with the binding site for ethinyloestradiol and thereby decreasing its transport enhancing effects on chlorpromazine.

  11. EPR spectroscopy of chlorpromazine-induced free radical formation in normal human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Otręba, Michał; Zdybel, Magdalena; Pilawa, Barbara; Beberok, Artur; Wrześniok, Dorota; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of chlorpromazine on free radical concentration in HEMn-DP melanocytes using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. It was found that chlorpromazine at concentrations of 1 × 10(-7) and 1 × 10(-6) M contributed to the formation of free radicals (g values ~2) in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in free radical formation was accompanied by an increase in cytotoxicity, as shown by a tetrazolium assay. Homogeneous broadening of EPR lines, slow spin-lattice relaxation processes, and strong dipolar interactions characterized all the tested cellular samples. The performed examination of free radical formation in cells exposed to different chlorpromazine concentrations confirmed the usefulness of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the effect of a drug on free radical production in a cellular model system in vitro.

  12. Effects of chlorpromazine on appetitive and aversive components of a multiple schedule1

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Marcus B.; Waller, Patricia F.

    1962-01-01

    A multiple schedule having both an appetitive and an avoidance component was maintained in two dogs to create a complex behavioral base line for observing the effects of chlorpromazine. Both soluble and “Spansule” chlorpromazine generated similar functions relating drug dose to measures of behavioral output. Although the dose ranges and the drugging procedures differed markedly for the different preparations of CPZ, the functions generated were comparable. There was no evidence that chlorpromazine had a differential depressing effect as a function of type of reinforcement. At low doses, rates of responding on the food-reinforced components increased slightly, whereas rates on the avoidance components remained relatively unchanged. At higher doses, both components showed an approximately equal depression of responding. These results are discussed with reference to some of the logical and experimental difficulties inherent in making comparisons across components of a multiple schedule and across schedules in general. PMID:14004690

  13. Genotype-treatment interaction between amantadine and chlorpromazine in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Messiha, F S

    1991-01-01

    1. Repeated administration of amantadine prior to chlorpromazine to two different strains of mice altered both locomotor activity, concentrations of brain biogenic amines and selected major metabolites as a function of mouse strain. 2. Amantadine antagonized chlorpromazine effect on motility which was associated with increases in whole brain levels of homovanillic acid in the CDF-1 but not C57BL/6 mice. 3. Conversely, the treatment with amantadine prior to chlorpromazine reduced whole brain normetanephrine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels from respective controls in the C57BL/6 and CDF-1 mice, respectively. 4. The results suggest that genetic factors underly differential alteration of brain dopamine and serotonin which may underly the mechanism of amantadine efficacy in neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal disorders and to the variable responses to amantadine therapy.

  14. Inhibition of HIV infection of H9 cells by chlorpromazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, I; Lee, S; Molnar, J; Foldeak, S; Pine, P S; Weaver, J L; Aszalos, A

    1997-05-01

    The binding between the HIV surface protein, gp120, and the CD4 coreceptor is known to be initiated by electrostatic interactions. Because of the ability of chlorpromazine to interact with proteins by charge transfer, we tested several derivatives for their ability to block binding of HIV to CD4+ cells. We have shown that 7,8-dioxo-chlorpromazine blocks binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled anti-Leu3a and rgp120 to peripheral human blood T4 cells and blocks syncytia formation between gp120- and CD4-expressing cells. We also found that 7,8-dioxo-chlorpromazine blocks HIV infectivity of H9 cells and acts synergistically with zidovudine.

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Macrolide Rokitamycin and Chlorpromazine against Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Mattana, A.; Biancu, G.; Alberti, L.; Accardo, A.; Delogu, G.; Fiori, P. L.; Cappuccinelli, P.

    2004-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the in vitro effectiveness of the macrolide rokitamycin and the phenothiazine compound chlorpromazine against Acanthamoeba castellanii. Growth curve evaluations revealed that both drugs inhibit trophozoite growth in dose- and time-dependent ways. The effects of both drugs when they were used at the MICs at which 100% of isolates are inhibited were amoebistatic, but at higher doses they were amoebicidal as well as cysticidal. Experiments showed that when rokitamycin was associated with chlorpromazine or amphotericin B, rokitamycin enhanced their activities. Furthermore, low doses of rokitamycin and chlorpromazine, alone or in combination, blocked the cytopathic effect of A. castellanii against WKD cells derived from the human cornea. These results may have important significance in the development of new anti-Acanthamoeba compounds. PMID:15561820

  16. Effects of chlorpromazine and bromolysergic acid diethylamide on gastric secretion of acid induced by histamine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Amure, B. O.; Ginsburg, M.

    1964-01-01

    In anaesthetized rats in which the lumen of the stomach was perfused with 0.001 to 0.00025 N-sodium hydroxide solution and the pH of effluent fluid was recorded continuously, intravenous administration of chlorpromazine caused transient inhibition of acid secretion. After acid secretion had returned to the control level the responses to histamine were greater than those before chlorpromazine was given. Aminoguanidine, iproniazid and bromolysergic acid diethylamide also potentiated the effect of histamine on acid secretion but the initial inhibition was absent. Indirect evidence from experiments in which mixtures of aminoguanidine with chlorpromazine or bromolysergic acid diethylamide and of iproniazid with chlorpromazine or bromolysergic acid diethylamide were given, suggests that chlorpromazine and bromolysergic acid diethylamide enhance responses to histamine by inhibition of imidazole-N-methyl transferase. PMID:14211682

  17. A comparison of the abilities of chlorpromazine and molindone to interact adversely with guanethidine.

    PubMed

    Gilder, D A; Fain, W; Simpson, L L

    1976-08-01

    Chlorpromazine and molindone were tested for their abilities to impair conditioned avoidance behavior of rats. Chlorpromazine was effective within the dose range of 0.3 to 7.0 mg/kg (ID50approximately 2.0 mg/kg); molindone was effective within the range of 0.3 to 5.0 mg/kg (ID50 approximately 0.6 mg/kg). Behaviorally relevant doses of chlorpromazine and molindone were then tested for their effects on blood pressure and on adrenergic mechanisms. When given intravenously to anesthetized, hypertensive animals, both drugs (1.0 mg/kg) produced significant but transient vasodepression. When given intraperitoneally to anesthetized or to conscious hypertensive rats, the drugs did not produce significant effects on blood pressure. Both drugs (1.0 mg/kg) blocked responses to an alpha agonist (methoxamine), but chlorpromazine was significantly more potent than molindone. In addition, chlorpromazine produced a dose-dependent (1.0-10.0 mg/kg) inhibition of 3H-l-norepinephrine uptake into heart, but molindone at the same doses produced no inhibition of uptake. In related experiments, it was found that guanethidine (50 mg/kg) was an effective agent for lowering blood pressure of hypertensive rats. When chlorpromazine (3-10 mg/kg) was administered concomitantly with guanethidine, the blood pressure lowering properties of guanethidine were diminished or abolished. When molindone (1-10 mg/kg) was administered concomitantly with guanethidine, there was no loss of blood pressure control. It is concluded that molindone is an important drug, because it is an antipsychotic agent that does not interact adversely with guanethidine.

  18. Photoinduced free radicals from chlorpromazine and related phenothiazines: relationship to phenothiazine-induced photosensitization.

    PubMed Central

    Chignell, C F; Motten, A G; Buettner, G R

    1985-01-01

    Chlorpromazine and several other related phenothiazines are known to cause both phototoxic and photoallergic reactions in the skin and eyes of patients receiving these drugs. While the detailed mechanisms of photosensitization are not known, it is obvious that the first step must be the absorption of light by the drug, its metabolites, or photoproducts, or possibly an induced endogenous chemical. In this review, the free-radical photochemistry of phenothiazines is described, and the evidence for the involvement of photoinduced free radicals in photosensitization is examined. Upon irradiation chlorpromazine yields a variety of free radicals including the corresponding cation radical (via photoionization), the neutral promazinyl radical and a chlorine atom (Cl.) (via homolytic cleavage), and a sulfur-centered peroxy radical. The chlorpromazine cation radical is probably responsible for some of the observed in vitro phototoxic effects of this drug. However, it seems unlikely that the cation radical is involved in phototoxicity in vivo, since photoionization only occurs when chlorpromazine is excited into the S2 level (lambda ex less than 280 nm). The promazinyl radical is a more likely candidate for the phototoxic species both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, this radical can react covalently with proteins and other macromolecules to yield antigens which could be responsible for the photoallergic response to chlorpromazine. Neither oxygen-derived radicals nor singlet oxygen (1O2*), appear to be important in chlorpromazine photosensitization. In contrast, it would seem that promazine-induced phototoxicity may result in part from the generation of superoxide (O2-.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2869942

  19. Determination of hematoporphyrin and protoporphyrin by ion-pair extraction with chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Gasco, M R; Trotta, M

    1981-11-01

    A sensitive method based on ion-pair extraction is described for the quantification of hematoporphyrin and protoporphyrin using chlorpromazine as an ion-pair-forming agent. Extraction of the ion-pair in chloroform is obtained quickly at an optimum pH of 6.5 for hematoporphyrin and 6.5-6.8 for protoporphyrin, giving an excellent recovery of the porphyrin. A stoichiometric relationship of 1:2 between porphyrin and chlorpromazine is proved. Cyanocobalamin and liver extract do not interfere with the assay.

  20. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of chlorpromazine in rats: effect of chlorpromazine on dopamine and dopamine metabolite concentration in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Koitabashi, T; Koshiro, A

    1995-07-01

    The concentrations of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in rat striatum were increased after the i.v. administration of chlorpromazine (CPZ). Assuming that the enhancement of dopamine concentration in the striatum after CPZ administration is caused by the release of dopamine from the dopamine neuronal terminals, the relationship between the enhancement of dopamine concentration in the striatum and CPZ concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the striatum were analyzed using the sigmoid Emax model. The enhancement of dopamine concentration in the striatum could be described quantitatively by this model. The time courses of DOPAC and HVA concentration in the striatum after CPZ administration were analyzed using the dopamine metabolism model, which has an apparent first-order clearance from dopamine to DOPAC and HVA, and also using the Michaelis-Menten type elimination kinetics of DOPAC and HVA. The values of the metabolism parameters for DOPAC and HVA were fixed to the estimated values of the L-dopa study. The calculated values of DOPAC and HVA concentrations in the striatum were greater than those of the observed data. The elimination parameters for DOPAC and HVA were reestimated by the nonlinear least squares method. The time courses of DOPAC and HVA concentration in the striatum could be described using these reestimated elimination parameters. These results indicated that the turnover rate of dopamine and dopamine metabolites, DOPAC and HVA in the striatum after CPZ administration is different from that after L-dopa administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The Fifties ... Fifty Years Later: "Connection" Interviews Historian David Halberstam on a Half Century of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with historian David Halberstam who graduated from Harvard University in 1955 after serving as managing editor of the "Harvard Crimson." Upon graduation, he joined the staff of the "Daily Times Leader" newspaper of West Point, Mississippi, and then moved on to the "Nashville…

  2. Thermal responses to 5. 6-GHz radiofrequency radiation in anesthetized rats: effect of chlorpromazine

    SciTech Connect

    Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R.; Heinmets, F.

    1988-01-01

    Anesthetized rats were exposed to 5.6-GHz continuous wave radiofrequency radiation at an average power density of 60 mW/cm2 (average specific absorption rate 12 W/kg). Exposure was performed to raise colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5 degrees C. Following acute administration of chlorpromazine, body temperature exhibited a faster return to baseline temperature when exposure was discontinued. When exposure was initiated at 38.5 degrees C and continued until lethal temperatures resulted, chlorpromazine-treated animals exhibited significantly shorter survival times than saline-treated animals. Thus, although chlorpromazine enhanced thermo-regulatory efficiency at colonic temperatures below 39.5 degrees C, the drug caused increased susceptibility to terminal radiofrequency radiation exposure. The present results, when compared to previous studies of irradiation at 2.8 GHz, indicate that the effects of chlorpromazine on thermal responses to RFR during intermittent and terminal exposure are similar at both 2.8 and 5.6 GHz.

  3. Thermal responses to 5. 6-GHz radiofrequency radiation in anesthetized rats. Effect of chlorpromazine

    SciTech Connect

    Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R.; Heinmets, F.

    1988-01-01

    Anesthetized rats were exposed to 5.6-GHz continuous-wave radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at an average power density of 60 mW/Sq. cm (average specific absorption rate 12 W/kg). Exposure was performed to raise colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5C. Following acute administration of chlorpromazine, body temperature exhibited a faster return to baseline temperature when exposure was discontinued. When exposure was initiated at 38.5C and continued until lethal temperature resulted, chlorpromazine-treated animals exhibited significantly shorter survival times than saline-treated animals. Thus, although chlorpromazine enhanced thermoregulatory efficiency at colonic temperature below 39.5 deg C, the drug caused increased susceptibility to terminal RFR. The present results, when compared with previous studies of irradiation at 2.8 GHz, indicate that the effects of chlorpromazine on thermal response to RFR during intermittent and terminal exposure are similar at both 2.8 and 5.6 GHz.

  4. Chlorpromazine as permeabilizer and reagent for detection of microbial peroxidase and peroxidaselike activities.

    PubMed Central

    Galeazzi, L; Turchetti, G; Grilli, G; Groppa, G; Giunta, S

    1986-01-01

    Chlorpromazine was used to perform a test for the detection of microbial peroxidase activities. The compound acts as both a cell permeabilizer and a reagent in the procedure developed which allows the detection of peroxidase and peroxidase like reactions both semiquantitatively in whole cell determinations and quantitatively in cell-free supernatants. PMID:3539020

  5. Effects of chlorpromazine and diazepam on time estimation behavior and motivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, S A; Paule, M G

    1996-01-01

    The effects of chlorpromazine and diazepam on performance of two operant tasks, one modelling time estimation and the other motivation to work for food reinforcers, were investigated in rats. These same tasks had been used previously in rhesus monkeys to assess the effects of chlorpromazine and diazepam. Rat performance of the time estimation task [temporal response differentiation (TRD)] was nearly identical to that previously described in monkeys. This performance similarity across these two species occurred despite slightly different methodologies. Performance of the motivation task [progressive ratio (PR)] was clearly different between rats and adult monkeys in that rats exhibited lower values on all PR endpoints. Acute administration of chlorpromazine [0.03-5.6 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (IP)] caused decrements in rat TRD and PR performance at doses > or = 1.0 mg/kg. Acute administration of diazepam (0.25-4.0 mg/kg, IP) altered TRD performance only. The effects of chlorpromazine and diazepam in rats were similar to those previously noted in the monkey, indicating the potential utility of rat performance in these operant tasks to predict drug effects in the rhesus monkey.

  6. Adaptation of a primate operant test battery to the rat: effects of chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, A J; Popke, E J; Fogle, C M; Paule, M G

    2000-01-01

    The National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) Operant Test Battery (OTB) has been used extensively in rhesus monkeys to characterize the effects of drugs and toxicants on the performance of tasks designed to model several cognitive functions. Recently, the majority of the OTB tasks have been adapted for use in rats. The current study is the first to examine the effects of a prototypic pharmacological agent previously assessed in monkeys on rat OTB performance. The effects of the dopamine antagonist chlorpromazine (0.56-5.6 mg/kg, i.p.) were assessed in rats performing tasks designed to model auditory-visual-position discrimination, learning, time estimation, and appetitive motivation. All four tasks were equally sensitive to the behavioral effects of chlorpromazine. This pattern of sensitivity was very similar to that obtained when chlorpromazine was tested in monkeys performing the OTB. These data thus suggest that operant tasks designed to model cognitive functions in monkeys can also be used in rats, and that the effects of chlorpromazine on the performance of these tasks may be predictive of results obtained with monkeys. Further characterization of the rat OTB using prototypic pharmacological agents will further determine the extent to which drug effects on rat OTB performance can be generalized to primates.

  7. The effect of anti-parkinsonian drugs on chlorpromazine-induced depression of operant behaviour.

    PubMed

    Székely, J I; Dunai-Kovács, Z; Borsy, J

    1976-01-01

    Rats were conditioned in automatic Skinner boxes on a discrete trial avoidance-escape schedule. The chlorpromazine-induced conditioned reflex inhibition could be reversed by apomorphine and amantadine, but not by atropine, trihexyphenidyl and diethazine. These findings seem to provide an additional tool for differentiating the atropine-like and dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian drugs.

  8. Chlorpromazine metabolism in extracts of liver and small intestine from guinea pig and from man.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, F; Gruenke, L D; Craig, J C; Bissell, D M

    1983-01-01

    The metabolism of chlorpromazine by microsomes in vitro has been examined with extracts from normal liver and small intestinal mucosa of man and guinea pigs. A GC-MS approach has been utilized to measure primary metabolites generated by these extracts, including the S-oxide, N-oxide, 7-hydroxyl, desmethyl, and didesmethyl species. In short term incubations (less than 30 min), the measured metabolites accounted for at least 90% of the substrate utilized. Chlorpromazine metabolism differed strikingly both between species and between hepatic and intestinal tissues of the same species. Guinea pig hepatic microsomes were the most active of the preparations studied, producing relatively large amounts of N-oxide. By contrast, human hepatic microsomes produced the 7-hydroxyl metabolite predominantly, with minimal formation of N-oxide. Extracts of guinea pig intestinal mucosa formed the desmethyl and S-oxide products; an extract of duodenal mucosa from a healthy accident victim exhibited minimal metabolism of chlorpromazine. The kinetics of metabolite formation and studies with inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 suggested the involvement of multiple microsomal enzymes in chlorpromazine metabolism.

  9. The novel combination of chlorpromazine and pentamidine exerts synergistic antiproliferative effects through dual mitotic action.

    PubMed

    Lee, Margaret S; Johansen, Lisa; Zhang, Yanzhen; Wilson, Amy; Keegan, Mitchell; Avery, William; Elliott, Peter; Borisy, Alexis A; Keith, Curtis T

    2007-12-01

    Combination therapy has proven successful in treating a wide variety of aggressive human cancers. Historically, combination treatments have been discovered through serendipity or lengthy trials using known anticancer agents with similar indications. We have used combination high-throughput screening to discover the unexpected synergistic combination of an antiparasitic agent, pentamidine, and a phenothiazine antipsychotic, chlorpromazine. This combination, CRx-026, inhibits the growth of tumor cell lines in vivo more effectively than either pentamidine or chlorpromazine alone. Here, we report that CRx-026 exerts its antiproliferative effect through synergistic dual mitotic action. Chlorpromazine is a potent and specific inhibitor of the mitotic kinesin KSP/Eg5 and inhibits tumor cell proliferation through mitotic arrest and accumulation of monopolar spindles. Pentamidine treatment results in chromosomal segregation defects and delayed progression through mitosis, consistent with inhibition of the phosphatase of regenerating liver family of phosphatases. We also show that CRx-026 synergizes in vitro and in vivo with the microtubule-binding agents paclitaxel and vinorelbine. These data support a model where dual action of pentamidine and chlorpromazine in mitosis results in synergistic antitumor effects and show the importance of systematic screening for combinations of targeted agents.

  10. Electroencephalographic and psychomotor effects of chlorpromazine and risperidone relative to placebo in normal healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, A M; Lynch, P; Rhodes, J; Ervine, C M; Yates, R A

    1999-01-01

    Aims To investigate the effects of single oral doses of chlorpromazine (50 mg) and risperidone (2 mg) relative to placebo on topographical electroencephalometry (CATEEM™) and psychomotor tests in 12 healthy male volunteers. Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover design using a double dummy blinding technique was utilized. Chlorpromazine was selected as representative of the ‘typical’ neuroleptics, being also highly sedative. Risperidone has been suggested as representative of the newer ‘atypical’ neuroleptics and is claimed to be only minimally sedative. Volunteers were dosed on 3 separate days with a minimum of 7 days interval between trial days. On each trial day volunteers were dosed twice. Dose 1 consisting of either chlorpromazine 50 mg or placebo to chlorpromazine, and dose 2 either risperidone 2 mg or placebo to risperidone. The volunteers were randomized so that each received either chlorpromazine or risperidone (or neither), but not both on an individual trial day. A 17 electrode quantitative topographical electroencephalograph (EEG) recording was taken for each volunteer before and after each dosing period. Seven psychomotor function tests were used to determine the effects of each treatment on psychomotor performance. Results The data confirm the cited reports of sedation following single oral doses of chlorpromazine 50 mg. However, 7 of the 12 volunteers dosed with risperidone 2 mg also reported drowsiness/lethargy which was of greater severity and duration than 5 of the 12 volunteers who reported somnolence following dosing with chlorpromazine 50 mg. Objective assessment of psychomotor impairment using a short battery of psychomotor function tests mirrored the subjective reports of somnolence in that the impairment in volunteers dosed with risperidone 2 mg was greater in extent and magnitude than in volunteers dosed with chlorpromazine 50 mg. With respect to the cortical quantitative electroencephalogram, both

  11. The introduction of chlorpromazine in Belgium and the Netherlands (1951-1968); tango between old and new treatment features.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Toine; Majerus, Benoît

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of chlorpromazine in Belgium and the Netherlands demonstrates an intriguing tango between old and new treatments. Chlorpromazine, marketed by the French company Rhône Poulenc entered psychiatry as an adjunct to existing therapies. Instead of promoting chlorpromazine as a revolutionary therapy, we see early efforts to market Largactil as a supplement to the armoury of psychiatric treatments. These marketing efforts matched the idiosyncrasies of national and local styles and cultures. Despite continuities with earlier therapeutic developments, we support the notion of a therapeutic revolution. In the early sixties supply and demand provoked a turn towards more standardized therapeutic regimes.

  12. Formulation and stability of an extemporaneously compounded oral solution of chlorpromazine HCl.

    PubMed

    Prohotsky, Daniel L; Juba, Katherine M; Zhao, Fang

    2014-12-01

    Chlorpromazine is a phenothiazine antipsychotic which is often used in hospice and palliative care to treat hiccups, delirium, and nausea. With the discontinuation of the commercial oral solution concentrate, there is a need to prepare this product by extemporaneous compounding. This study was initiated to identify an easy-to-prepare formulation for the compounding pharmacist. A stability study was also conducted to select the proper storage conditions and establish the beyond-use date. Chlorpromazine HCl powder and the Ora-Sweet® syrup vehicle were used to prepare the 100 mg/mL solution. Once the feasibility was established, a batch of the solution was prepared and packaged in amber plastic prescription bottles for a stability study. These samples were stored at refrigeration (2-8°C) or room temperature (20-25°C) for up to 3 months. At each monthly time point, the samples were evaluated by visual inspection, pH measurement, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A separate forced stability study was conducted to confirm that the HPLC method was stability indicating. A clear and colorless solution of 100 mg/mL chlorpromazine HCl was obtained by dissolving the drug powder in Ora-Sweet® with moderate agitation. The stability study results indicated that this solution product remained unchanged in visual appearance or pH at both refrigeration and room temperature for up to 3 months. The HPLC results also confirmed that all stability samples retained 93.6-101.4% of initial drug concentration. Chlorpromazine HCl solution 100 mg/mL can be compounded extemporaneously by dissolving chlorpromazine HCl drug powder in Ora-Sweet®. The resulting product is stable for at least three months in amber plastic prescription bottles stored at either refrigeration or room temperature.

  13. Antipsychotics, chlorpromazine and haloperidol inhibit voltage-gated proton currents in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyewon; Song, Jin-Ho

    2014-09-05

    Microglial dysfunction and neuroinflammation are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Some antipsychotic drugs have anti-inflammatory activity and can reduce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species from activated microglial cells. Voltage-gated proton channels on the microglial cells participate in the generation of reactive oxygen species and neuronal toxicity by supporting NADPH oxidase activity. In the present study, we examined the effects of two typical antipsychotics, chlorpromazine and haloperidol, on proton currents in microglial BV2 cells using the whole-cell patch clamp method. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol potently inhibited proton currents with IC50 values of 2.2 μM and 8.4 μM, respectively. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol are weak bases that can increase the intracellular pH, whereby they reduce the proton gradient and affect channel gating. Although the drugs caused a marginal positive shift of the activation voltage, they did not change the reversal potential. This suggested that proton current inhibition was not due to an alteration of the intracellular pH. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol are strong blockers of dopamine receptors. While dopamine itself did not affect proton currents, it also did not alter proton current inhibition by the two antipsychotics, indicating dopamine receptors are not likely to mediate the proton current inhibition. Given that proton channels are important for the production of reactive oxygen species and possibly pro-inflammatory cytokines, the anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic activities of chlorpromazine and haloperidol may be partly derived from their ability to inhibit microglial proton currents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A fifty channel electrically scanned pressure module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallon, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    A unique miniature pressure sensor system consisting of an array of fifty integrated sensor pressure transducers with integral electronic logic and switching is described. Solid state processing of the piezoresistive array is combined with hybrid microelectronics to produce a very small, dense (80 cc displacement), high reliability pressure measuring system. Application to high speed data acquisition, energy conservation in wind tunnels and flight test is discussed. Test data are presented typifying system performance.

  15. Identification of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the 7-hydroxylation of chlorpromazine by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, K; Kobayashi, K; Tsumuji, M; Tani, M; Shimada, N; Chiba, K

    2000-01-01

    Studies to identify the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform(s) involved in chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylation were performed using human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed human CYPs. The kinetics of chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylation in human liver microsomes showed a simple Michaelis-Menten behavior. The apparent Km and Vmax values were 3.4+/-1.0 microM and 200.5+/-83.7 pmol/min/mg, respectively. The chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylase activity in human liver microsomes showed good correlations with desipramine 2-hydroxylase activity (r = 0.763, p < 0.05), a marker activity for CYP2D6, and phenacetin O-deethylase activity (r = 0.638, p < 0.05), a marker activity for CYP1A2. Quinidine (an inhibitor of CYP2D6) completely inhibited while alpha-naphthoflavone (an inhibitor of CYP1A2) marginally inhibited the chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylase activity in a human liver microsomal sample showing high CYP2D6 activity. On the other hand, alpha-naphthoflavone inhibited the chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylase activity to 55-65% of control in a human liver microsomal sample showing low CYP2D6 activity. Among eleven cDNA-expressed CYPs studied, CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 exhibited significant activity for the chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylation. The Km values for the chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylation of both cDNA-expressed CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 were in agreement with the Km values of human liver microsomes. These results suggest that chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylation is catalyzed mainly by CYP2D6 and partially by CYP1A2.

  16. Chlorpromazine oligomer is a potentially active substance that inhibits human D-amino acid oxidase, product of a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Iwana, Sanae; Kawazoe, Tomoya; Park, Hwan Ki; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Ono, Koji; Yorita, Kazuko; Sakai, Takashi; Kusumi, Takenori; Fukui, Kiyoshi

    2008-12-01

    D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), a potential risk factor for schizophrenia, has been proposed to be involved in the decreased glutamatergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia. Here we show the inhibitory effect of an antipsychotic drug, chlorpromazine, on human DAO, which is consistent with previous reports using porcine DAO, although human DAO was inhibited to a lesser degree (K(i) = 0.7 mM) than porcine DAO. Since chlorpromazine is known to induce phototoxic or photoallergic reactions and also to be transformed into various metabolites, we examined the effects of white light-irradiated chlorpromazine on the enzymatic activity. Analytical methods including high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that irradiation triggered the oligomerization of chlorpromazine molecules. The oligomerized chlorpromazine showed a mixed type inhibition with inhibition constants of low micromolar range, indicative of enhanced inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that oligomerized chlorpromazine could act as an active substance that might contribute to the therapeutic effects of this drug.

  17. Behavioral effects of chlorpromazine and diazepam combined with low-level microwaves. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.R.; Schrot, J.; Banvard, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Previous research findings on the interaction between drugs and microwave radiation were extended to chlorpromazine and to diazepam. The drugs were combined with a 1 mW/cm/sub 2/ pulsed microwave field (2.8 GHz) and effects were measured on a fixed interval (FI 1) schedule of food reinforcement with rats. Dose-effect functions with and without sham irradiation were established for each drug. At effective doses chlorpromazine consistently decreased rate of responding and reduced with-interval response patterning. Low to moderate doses of diazepam produced little change or increases in response rate, and higher doses produced a decline in response rate. Response patterning within intervals was reduced by increasing doses of diazepam. The animals were exposed to the microwave field alone before test sessions combining the drugs with microwave radiation. Microwave exposure alone did not affect FI performance. Microwave radiation in combination with either drug did not produce any alterations in the dose-effect functions.

  18. Quantification of the effects of chlorpromazine on performance under delayed matching to sample in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Watson, J E; Blampied, N M

    1989-05-01

    The effects of four doses of chlorpromazine (dose range 0.5 to 12.5 mg/kg) on performance under a delayed matching-to-sample procedure in pigeons was investigated, using the exponential model of memory (White, 1985). Performance was measured using a bias-free measure of discriminability, log d (Davison & Tustin, 1978), and negative exponential functions were fitted to individual-subject and group data at each dose level. A decrease in matching accuracy was found to be caused by an increase in the rate of forgetting, b, and a decrease in the initial discriminability, log d0. Changes in rate of forgetting and discriminability occurred at doses that had no statistically significant effect on response latency. The exponential model of memory accounted well for the data and provided a useful way of quantifying the effects of chlorpromazine on the processes involved in delayed matching-to-sample performance.

  19. Effects of reinforcer limitations on fixed-ratio responding during repeated administration of chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Smith, J B

    1993-07-01

    Key-pecking was maintained under a 30-response fixed-ratio schedule of food presentation and pigeons received 30 mg/kg/day chlorpromazine immediately prior to experimental sessions. After responding stabilized during chronic drug and animals were receiving all available reinforcers, the time available for receiving reinforcers was systematically varied. When that time was decreased, animals initially received fewer reinforcers but responding subsequently increased to an extent that animals once more received all available reinforcers. When that time was again increased, responding once again decreased but only to an extent that animals continued receiving all available reinforcers. During subsequent reversals of the time for reinforcer availability, responding increased or decreased to an extent always resulting in the maximum number of reinforcers. When drug was discontinued, responding returned to predrug levels. These results demonstrate that effects of chronically administered chlorpromazine were influenced by both drug activity at its site of action and by the behavioral process of reinforcement.

  20. Changes in the affinity of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding sites in the brain upon chlorpromazine treatment and subsequent withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkumar, V.; el-Fakahany, E.E.

    1985-06-01

    Male mice were chronically treated with chlorpromazine mixed in powdered diet, and the properties of brain calcium channels were assessed using (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding. It was found that this treatment resulted in a significant increase in the affinity of calcium channels, without a significant change in their density. These effects of chlorpromazine were time dependent. When mice were administered chlorpromazine for 2 months, then the drug was withdrawn, there was a rebound decrease in the channel affinity.

  1. A comparison of the central nervous system effects of haloperidol, chlorpromazine and sulpiride in normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, G R; Cooper, S M; Pilgrim, A J

    1990-01-01

    1. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in four experimental occasions during each of which they were dosed with one of the following anti-psychotic drugs: chlorpromazine (50 mg), haloperidol (3 mg), sulpiride (400 mg) and placebo. Drugs were allocated to subjects in a double-blind, crossover fashion. 2. The subject's mood state, psychometric performance and electroencephalogram (EEG) were assessed pre-dose, and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 h post-dose. Mood states were assessed using 16 visual analogue scales and psychomotor performance was measured using the following tests: elapsed time estimation, tapping rate, choice reaction times, a rapid information processing task, flash fusion threshold, a manipulative motor task, digit span, body sway and tremor. 3. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol significantly reduced subjective ratings of 'alertness' and 'contentedness', and haloperidol significantly reduced feelings of 'calmness'. Sulpiride did not significantly affect any of the visual analogue scales. 4. All three anti-psychotic drugs had similar EEG effects with peak effect 2 to 4 h postdose. The profile was characterised by an increase in the proportion of slow wave activity (delta and theta) as well as decreased alpha (8-14 Hz) and faster (beta) wave activity. 5. Chlorpromazine reduced tapping rate and increased choice reaction movement times. Haloperidol reduced the flash fusion threshold frequency at 6 h post-dose. Sulpiride prolonged the duration of the manipulative motor task, particularly at 48 h post-dose. 6. All three anti-psychotic drugs impaired performance on the rapid information processing task. Chlorpromazine significantly reduced the number of correct letter pair identifications at 2, 4 and 6 h post-dose, haloperidol at 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 h post-dose, and sulpiride at 24 h post-dose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2288826

  2. Histomorphological comparison of rat placentas by different timing of chlorpromazine-administration.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Satoshi; Tsuji, Naho; Hayashi, Seigo; Abe, Masayoshi; Hagio, Souichiro; Yamagishi, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Yusuke; Sugiyama, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    The effects of chlorpromazine-treatment timing on the development of the placenta in pregnant rats were examined. Chlorpromazine was administered intraperitoneally at 100mg/kg on gestation day (GD) 11 (GD11-treated group), GD 13 (GD13-treated group) or GD 15 (GD15-treated group) into pregnant rats. All treated dams exhibited decreased body weight, prone position, hypothermia, loss or decrease of locomotor activity, etc. The fetal mortality rates were increased up to 42.9% in the GD11- and GD13-treated groups and up to 16.7% in the GD15-treated group. The embryo/fetal weight was on a declining trend from GD 16 onward, and the intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rates on GD 21 were increased in all treated groups. The placental weight showed a declining trend from GD 15 onward in all treated groups. Histopathologically, apoptosis was detected 1 or 2 days after treatment, and led to hypoplasia in the labyrinth zone and metrial gland, and cystic degeneration in the basal zone on GD 21 in all treated groups. There was no difference in the histopathological lesions on GD 21 among the treated groups. Thus, it is considered that chlorpromazine-induced placental toxicity is characterized in that there is no obvious specific sensitive period from GD 11 to GD 15. Chlorpromazine induced a non-specific transient development retardation of the placenta by apoptosis independently of the cell proliferation period in each part/zone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectrometric determination of total antioxidant activity in chlorpromazine radical cation - ascorbic acid system.

    PubMed

    Miftodei, Alina Monica; Stefanache, Alina; Spac, A; Dorneanu, V

    2013-01-01

    Through univalent oxidation chlorpromazine forms a colored and relatively stable radical cation with maximum absorbance at 525 nm, considered a redox mediator in a number of b iochemical reactions. To develop a spectrometric method for the determination of total antioxidant activity based on the reaction of chlorpromazine radical capture by ascorbic acid (standard antioxidant). The calibration curve was drawn by monitoring the decrease in the absorbance of the preformed radical solution (obtained by oxidation of chlorpromazine by potassium persulfate in an acidic environment) depending on ascorbic acid concentration. The method was validated. In the ascorbic acid concentration range 10-100 microM/L linearity was good (r2 = 0.9991). Limit of detection (LOD) was 3.13 microM/L and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 9.49 microM/L. System precision (RSD = 0.75%), method precision (RSD = 4.50%) and intermediate precision (RSD = 4.63%) were determined. The average recovery of 101.7% for the concentration range 91.1 -105.9% confirmed the accuracy of the method. The method has a good linearity, precision, accuracy, and is easy to use for evaluation of antioxidant action of different products. Total antioxidant activity is expressed as ascorbic acid molar equivalents (AAE). The method has the advantage of using a radical involved in redox processes in the body.

  4. NEUROMODULATORY EFFECTS OF THYMOQUINONE IN EXTENUATING OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHLORPROMAZINE TREATED RATS.

    PubMed

    Safhi, Mohammed Mohsin

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effect of thymoquinone on chlorpromazine induced catalepsy, locomotor activity and cerebral oxidative stress in rats. The rats were divided into four groups, each group containing eight animals. The animals were evaluated after repeated administration of chlorpromazine (CPZ) 30 min before the administration of thymoquinone (TQ) for 21 days. Catalepsy was assessed using block method whereas the locomotor activity was assessed using acceleratory rotarod and actophotometer. Markers of oxidative stress parameters (LPO, GSH, GPx, GR, GST and CAT) were evaluated in the brain of rats. The cataleptic scores were significantly increased in CPZ treated rats when compared with normal control rats. Oral administration of TQ (5 and 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased cataleptic scores when compared with chlorpromazine (CPZ) treated rats. The muscle coordination and spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly decreased in CPZ treated rats when compared with normal control rats. Treatment with TQ significantly improved the muscle coordination and spontaneous locomotor activity when compared with CPZ treated rats. TQ treated rats significantly reduced the elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), increased levels of antioxidant enzymes i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) when compared with CPZ treated rats. The results clearly suggest that supplementation with TQ can be used to preclude CPZ induced extrapyramidal side effects and may find a role in reducing the oxidative stress.

  5. Effect of enzyme induction on bioavailability of hetacillin in patients treated with anticonvulsants and chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Galanopoulou, P; Karageorgiou, C; Dimakopoulou, K

    1990-01-01

    The effect of liver enzyme induction on bioavailability of hetacillin was studied in patients chronically treated with anticonvulsants or chlorpromazine. 24 chronic psychiatric patients classified according to their medication in two groups (anticonvulsants, chlorpromazine) and one group of 11 healthy volunteers, received an i.m. administration of 500 mg hetacillin. Serum levels of ampicillin derived from hetacillin in blood samples taken 2, 4 and 6 hours after the injection were measured and the half-life of the antibiotic was determined for each group. Urinary D-glucaric acid was considered the induction index. Correlation coefficients between the induction index and pharmacokinetic parameters of hetacillin were also determined. Anticonvulsants and chlorpromazine induced the liver microsomal enzymes as demonstrated by the increased D-glucaric acid excretion (P less than 0.001 - P less than 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found in serum levels and half-life of the antibiotic. Correlation coefficients suggest that enzyme induction and hetacillin bioavailability are not significantly related.

  6. Preparation of a monoclonal antibody and development of an indirect competitive ELISA for the detection of chlorpromazine residue in chicken and swine liver.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Weihua; Yin, Weiwei; Meng, Meng; Wan, Yuping; Feng, Caiwei; Wang, Shanliang; Xi, Rimo

    2010-08-30

    Chlorpromazine is a typical antipsychotic drug used to make food-producing animals calm and promote growth as feed additives. Accumulation of chlorpromazine in animal bodies would cause side effects in the circulatory and nervous systems, and have adverse effects on blood cells, the skin and the eye. To detect the chlorpromazine residue in food producing animals, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed based on preparation of an anti-chlorpromazine monoclonal antibody. The antibody generated from immunogen of cationic bovine serum albumin (cBSA) coupled with chlorpromazine showed high sensitivity toward chlorpromazine with an IC(50) value of 0.73 ppb. The ELISA method was applied to detect swine liver and chicken samples spiked by chlorpromazine and satisfactory results were obtained. The recovery rates in chicken and swine liver were in the range of 88-95% and 86-95%, respectively; the intra-assay coefficients of variation were both < 15.3% and < 13.5%, respectively. An indirect competitive ELISA method based on a monoclonal antibody towards chlorpromazine with excellent sensitivity and specificity has been successfully developed. The immunoassay provided in this study was a hopeful alternative to chromatography spectrometry for regulatory analysis of chlorpromazine residue in food-producing animals. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Recent nonmetropolitan population change in fifty-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K M; Purdy, R L

    1980-02-01

    Post-1970 nonmetropolitan population shifts are examined by dividing nonmetropolitan counties into ten cohorts based on the duration and direction of consistent population change since 1920. Analysis indicates that the post-1970 gains reported by Beale are pervasive in nonmetropolitan America, occurring even in a majority of the counties that lost population consistently from 1920 to 1970. Growth was greatest in countries adjacent to metropolitan areas but was more than urban spillover effect. In a clear break with traditional patterns, net inmigration contributed significantly to overall population gain and was particularly strong among countries without an urban center. The rate of natural increase continued to slow in the post-1970 period, with natural decrease becoming common among countries with protracted histories of population decline.

  8. Fifty years of beverages consumption trends in Spanish households.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Alonso, Paula; Del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Valero Gaspar, Teresa; Ruiz Moreno, Emma; Ávila Torres, José Manuel; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-07-13

    To describe the evolution of non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages consumption in the Spanish households from the 60's to nowadays. This study is based on beverages and food consumption in Spanish households; the data sample consisted of consumption and distribution data, obtained from the Household Budget Survey (HBS) since 1964 to 1991 and from the Food Consumption Survey (FCS) since 2000 to 2014, in collaboration with the Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN). In 2014 the average consumption of non-alcoholic beverages was 332 g/person/day, whereas alcoholic beverages consumption represented 72.6 g/person/day. Consumption of non-alcoholic beverages has increased 721% (1964: 46 g/person/day; 1991: 96 g/person/day; 2000: 240 g/person/day and 2014: 332 g/person/day), whereas alcoholic beverages consumption has decreased roughly a 50% (1964: 145 g/person/day; 1991: 113 g/person/day; 2000: 78.4 g/person/day and 2014: 72.6 g/person/day). The most consumed alcoholic beverage in 2014 was beer (41.3 g/day), followed by wine (23.0 g/day). Regarding non-alcoholic beverages, the most consumed was water (144 g/day), followed by cola (ordinary: 30.7 g/day and diet: 20.5 g/day).According to Spanish regions, in 2014 non-alcoholic beverages were the most consumed in the islands (Balearic Islands 521 grams/person/day; Canary Islands 515 grams/person/day), as it was in the nineties (Balearic Islands 148 grams/person/day and Canary Islands 281 grams/person/day). However in 1980-81 the largest consumption of alcoholic beverages was that of Galicia, 408 g/person per day, and the lower in the Canary Islands, 63 g/person per day. In 2014, Murcia and Andalucía represented the regions with the highest consumption of alcoholic beverages. In 2014, alcoholic beverages provided roughly 1.89% of the total energy and 1.47% of sugars, whereas non-alcoholic beverages provided 3.28% of energy and 15.72% of sugars and, in 2000, alcoholic beverages contributed 2.29% of the energy and 1.47% of sugars and non-alcoholic drinks provided 3.76% of the energy and 22.7% of sugars. There have been signifi cant changes in the eating patterns at the Spanish homes, especially regarding beverages consumption, over the last five decades. In general, a higher consumption and variety for non-alcoholic drinks has occurred, especially in the islands. In parallel, a decline in alcoholic beverages consumption has been clearly observed.

  9. Beyond the Ionosphere: Fifty Years of Satellite Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butrica, Andrew J. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The three overlapping stages of satellite communications development outlined provide the three-part framework for the organization of the papers contained in this book. Part 1, 'Passive Origins,' treats the first stage of satellite communications development, extending from the 1940s into the early 1960s, when passive artificial and natural satellites funded by the military and private enterprise established the field. Part 2, 'Creating the Global, Regional, and National Systems,' addresses events that constituted the second stage of development. Early in this stage, which stretched from the 1960s into the 1970s, satellite systems began to make their appearance in the United States, while domestic and international efforts sought to bring order to this new but chaotic, field in the form of Comsat and Intelsat. Part 3, 'The Unfolding of the World System,' explores the development of satellite communications in the remainder of the world, with a strong emphasis on Asia.

  10. Fifty years of forest hydrology in the Southeast

    Treesearch

    C. Rhett Jackson; Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Wayne T. Swank; Mark Riedel; Jim Patric; Tom Williams; Jim M. Vose; Carl Trettin; W. Michael Aust; R. Scott Beasley; Hamlin Williston; George G. Ice

    2004-01-01

    The forests of the southeastern United States are incredibly valuable and diverse, both for timber production and for the aquatic habitat they provide. These overlapping values and diverse conditions have spawned numerous studies to assess how forest management affects hydrology and water quality. In the mountains, key watershed studies include those conducted at USDA...

  11. The lure of local SETI: Fifty years of field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailleris, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    With the commemoration in October 2007 of the Sputnik launch, space exploration celebrated its 50th anniversary. Despite impressive technological and scientific achievements the fascination for space has weakened during the last decades. One contributing factor has been the gradual disappearance of mankind's hope of discovering extraterrestrial life within its close neighbourhood. In striking contrast and since the middle of the 20th century, a non-negligible proportion of the population have already concluded that intelligent beings from other worlds do exist and visit Earth through space vehicles popularly called Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). In light of the continuous public interest for the UFO enigma symbolized by the recent widely diffused media announcements on the release of French and English governmental files; and considering the approach of broadening the strategies of the "Active SETI" approach and the existence of a rich multi-disciplinary UFO documentation of potential interest for SETI; this paper describes some past scientific attempts to demonstrate the physical reality of the phenomena and potentially the presence on Earth of probes of extraterrestrial origin. Details of the different instrumented field studies deployed by scientists and organizations during the period 1950-1990 in the USA, Canada and Europe are provided. In conclusion it will be argued that while continuing the current radio/optical SETI searches, there is the necessity to maintain sustaining attention to the topic of anomalous aerospace phenomena and to develop new rigorous research approaches.

  12. Anniversary Paper: Nuclear medicine: Fifty years and still counting

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.

    2008-01-01

    The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography∕computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography∕CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated. PMID:18697524

  13. American Academic Culture in Transformation: Fifty Years, Four Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Thomas, Ed.; Schorske, Carl E., Ed.

    The 14 essays in this collection reflect on how the major academic disciplines of economics, English, philosophy, and political science have changed in the decades since World War II. Following an introductory essay by the editors, essay titles are: (1) "Politics, Intellect, and the American University, 1945-1995" (Thomas Bender); (2) "How Did…

  14. The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem: fifty years of progress.

    PubMed

    Berman, G P; Izrailev, F M

    2005-03-01

    A brief review of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) paradox is given, together with its suggested resolutions and its relation to other physical problems. We focus on the ideas and concepts that have become the core of modern nonlinear mechanics, in their historical perspective. Starting from the first numerical results of FPU, both theoretical and numerical findings are discussed in close connection with the problems of ergodicity, integrability, chaos and stability of motion. New directions related to the Bose-Einstein condensation and quantum systems of interacting Bose-particles are also considered.

  15. TVA: fifty years of grass-roots bureaucracy

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, E.C.; Conkin, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    This book is based on papers presented at a December 1981 symposium at Vanderbilt University. Thirteen historians and political scientists contributed to this examination of TVA at age 50. The book covers TVA's history from 1933 to 1983; its role in regional development; its electric power program; the Tellico project and the snail darter episode; and the conflict between TVA and the environmentalists. Conclude the editors: the central theme of TVA's first half-century is the tension between a strong, autonomous bureaucracy ng, autonomous bureaucracy and the shifting tides of public opinion. The strong, autonomous bureaucracy has the authority to operate pretty much as it wishes. But if the bureaucracy ignores, or toys with, the views of the people of the region, it runs the risk of falling short of its goals. As to the next half-century the editors say: This book says nothing about the future of TVA because that future is very much in question. The power company will stay in business. Congress will provide modest appropriations for resource conservation and development. A new era of creativity could occur if the capacities of TVA match new national needs, but that union is not yet apparent.

  16. Fifty-year record of north polar temperatures shows warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Jansen, Mark; Pulrang, Martin A.

    2001-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean has long been at the center of the global warming debate, since a significant reduction in sea ice could alter the Earth's radiation balance, as well as modify global atmospheric circulation. According to an August 19, 2000, report in The New York Times, passengers aboard a Russian icebreaker-turned-cruise ship observed a "mile-wide" patch of ice-free ocean at the pole. This observation immediately prompted speculation that global warming is already melting the polar icecap. Two types of open water commonly occur throughout the Arctic pack ice. The linear features, called leads, and curvilinear features, called polynyas, are not necessarily cause for concern. However, the overall extent of Arctic sea ice has decreased in recent decades and, hence, the issue of polar warming is of broad environmental interest.

  17. Transactions with Literature: A Fifty-Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Edmund J., Ed.; Squire, James R., Ed.

    To honor the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Louise M. Rosenblatt's book "Literature as Exploration," this book offers 12 essays that demonstrate the extraordinary influence of Rosenblatt's work on the teaching of literature, on literary theory, and on educational research in all English-speaking countries. Further, it evinces…

  18. Fifty Years of the European Convention on Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This booklet is intended as the nongovernmental organization's (NGO's) contribution to the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Its aim is to bear witness to the commitment of the NGOs having consultative status with the Council of Europe, and to all that they have done to make known, put into…

  19. American Academic Culture in Transformation: Fifty Years, Four Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Thomas, Ed.; Schorske, Carl E., Ed.

    The 14 essays in this collection reflect on how the major academic disciplines of economics, English, philosophy, and political science have changed in the decades since World War II. Following an introductory essay by the editors, essay titles are: (1) "Politics, Intellect, and the American University, 1945-1995" (Thomas Bender); (2) "How Did…

  20. Fifty-one years of Los Alamos Spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, Edward E.

    2014-09-04

    From 1963 to 2014, the Los Alamos National Laboratory was involved in at least 233 spacecraft. There are probably only one or two institutions in the world that have been involved in so many spacecraft. Los Alamos space exploration started with the Vela satellites for nuclear test detection, but soon expanded to ionospheric research (mostly barium releases), radioisotope thermoelectric generators, solar physics, solar wind, magnetospheres, astrophysics, national security, planetary physics, earth resources, radio propagation in the ionosphere, and cubesats. Here, we present a list of the spacecraft, their purpose, and their launch dates for use during RocketFest

  1. Fifty-Year Fate and Impact of General Medical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John P. A.; Belbasis, Lazaros; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    Background Influential medical journals shape medical science and practice and their prestige is usually appraised by citation impact metrics, such as the journal impact factor. However, how permanent are medical journals and how stable is their impact over time? Methods and Results We evaluated what happened to general medical journals that were publishing papers half a century ago, in 1959. Data were retrieved from ISI Web of Science for citations and PubMed (Journals function) for journal history. Of 27 eligible journals publishing in 1959, 4 have stopped circulation (including two of the most prestigious journals in 1959) and another 7 changed name between 1959 and 2009. Only 6 of these 27 journals have been published continuously with their initial name since they started circulation. The citation impact of papers published in 1959 gives a very different picture from the current journal impact factor; the correlation between the two is non-significant and very close to zero. Only 13 of the 5,223 papers published in 1959 received at least 5 citations in 2009. Conclusions Journals are more permanent entities than single papers, but they are also subject to major change and their relative prominence can change markedly over time. PMID:20824146

  2. Anniversary paper: nuclear medicine: fifty years and still counting.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lawrence E

    2008-07-01

    The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated.

  3. Anniversary Paper: Nuclear medicine: Fifty years and still counting.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lawrence E

    2008-07-01

    The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated. © 2008 The Authors. Published by American Association of Physicists in Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Fifty Years of the European Convention on Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This booklet is intended as the nongovernmental organization's (NGO's) contribution to the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Its aim is to bear witness to the commitment of the NGOs having consultative status with the Council of Europe, and to all that they have done to make known, put into…

  5. Fifty year canon of solar eclipses: 1986-2035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred

    1986-01-01

    A reference of moderately detailed eclipse predictions and maps for use by the professional astronomical community is provided. The general characteristics of every solar eclipse and a detailed set of cylindrical project world maps which show the umbral paths of every solar eclipse from 1901 to 2100 are presented. The geodetic path coordinates and local circumstance on the center line, and a series of orthographic projection maps which show the regions of visibility of both partial and central phases for every eclipse from 1986 through 2035 are also provided.

  6. Revisiting the Freud-Klein controversies fifty years later.

    PubMed

    Baudry, F

    1994-04-01

    This paper examines the contribution to the study of psychoanalytic controversy made possible by the publication of the Freud-Klein Controversies. The availability of the complete minutes allows us as never before to dissect a historical, scientific controversy immersed in passion and intertwined with issues of power, economics and educational control. For the first time in the analytic literature we are able to follow closely how each side conceptualised the nature of preverbal development, and how and where and with what consequences polemics and artificial polarisation contaminated the dialogue. The problematic relation between theory and data is illustrated very sharply and many of the methodological issues encountered are highly relevant to current disagreements within our field. A careful reading shows at which points opportunities for bridging gaps were scuttled, and how ensuing developments in our field were coloured by the failure of a true resolution. Particularly remarkable are the 'Memoranda on Technique' written by a number of participants. These very moving, brief essays document the process of acquiring a personal approach to analytic work. The section by Brierley deserves a special mention for its excellence, clarity and modesty.

  7. Fifty Years of Family Research, 1937-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, F. Ivan

    1988-01-01

    Examines family research and its cultural setting in 1937, then reports on changes and commonalities in research topics, research methods, and use of theory from 1937 through 1987. Offers general evaluations of current research and suggestions for changes that might increase productivity of family research. (Author)

  8. Fifty years of nuclear fission: Nuclear data and measurements series

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    This report is the written version of a colloquium first presented at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1989. The paper begins with an historical preamble about the events leading to the discovery of nuclear fission. This leads naturally to an account of early results and understanding of the fission phenomena. Some of the key concepts in the development of fission theory are then discussed. The main theme of this discussion is the topography of the fission barrier, in which the interplay of the liquid-drop model and nucleon shell effects lead to a wide range of fascinating phenomena encompassing metastable isomers, intermediate-structure effects in fission cross-sections, and large changes in fission product properties. It is shown how study of these changing effects and theoretical calculations of the potential energy of the deformed nucleus have led to broad qualitative understanding of the nature of the fission process. 54 refs., 35 figs.

  9. Fifty-five-year personal experience with human nutrition worldwide.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S

    2007-01-01

    By 1950 the vitamins had been identified, but little was known of their functions. Beriberi, pellagra, and ariboflavinosis were disappearing, but kwashiorkor and/or marasmus were common in most developing countries. Requirements for protein were still uncertain, and those for essential amino acids or essential fatty acids were unknown. The author's contributions in the field of vitamins began in the 1950s and have been reported in more than 650 publications and in 20 books or monographs. These contributions include establishing the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama, the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the World Hunger Program of the United Nations University, and the International Nutrition Foundation. His scientific contributions include identification of synergistic interactions of nutrition and infection, use of potassium iodate for fortifying crude moist salt, research in the epidemiology of kwashiorkor and marasmus, development of a successful low-cost protein-rich food for infants and young children, establishment of human protein requirements, and investigation of single-cell protein for food use.

  10. Ion Channels, from Fantasy to Fact in Fifty Years1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Peter C.

    Biologists have long recognized that the transport of ions and of neutral species across cell membranes is central to physiological function. Cells rely on their biomembranes, which separate the cytoplasm from the extracellular medium, to maintain the two electrolytes at very different composition. Specialized molecules, essentially biological nanodevices, have evolved to selectively control the movement of all the major physiological species. As should be clear, there have to be at least two distinct modes of transport. To maintain the disequilibrium, there must be molecular assemblies that drive ions and other permeable species against their electrochemical potential gradients. Such devices require energy input, typically coupling a vectorial pump with a chemical reaction, the dephosphorylation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). These enzymes (biochemical catalysts) control highly concerted, and relatively slow, process, with turnovers of ≫ 100 s¡ 1.

  11. Fifty years of the Hodgkin-Huxley era.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco

    2002-11-01

    Modern neuroscientists are accustomed to the detailed information on the structure and function of membrane ion channels that can be obtained by the combination of molecular biology, crystallography and patch-clamp recordings. It can be difficult for us to appreciate how hard it was for humankind to realize that physical events underlie nervous function and, moreover, to appreciate how long it took to devise a realistic model for the generation and propagation of the nerve impulse.

  12. Food irradiation: The past fifty years as prologue to tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Urbain, W.M. )

    1989-07-01

    Food Irradiation is a process ready for use. Backing that statement are more than four decades of research and development that have provided the extensive knowledge necessary to proceed confidently with its utilization. Research done since 1943 has demonstrated that treating foods with irradiation can provide considerable advantages: preserves foods; decontaminates food; controls maturation; alters chemical composition for quality improvement; produces no toxic residues in foods; maintains full nutritive value of foods; and maintains sensory quality. Yet, despite government approval, the United States food industry has not made a significant use of food irradiation. This article also discusses government actions that have affirmed its safety and utility.

  13. Anniversary Paper: Nuclear medicine: Fifty years and still counting

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Lawrence E.

    2008-07-15

    The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated.

  14. Fifty Years of Federal Teacher Policy: An Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Gary; Dibner, Kenne

    2009-01-01

    Federal policy directed to teaching and teachers is the subject of this review, which is organized around: (1) recruitment; (2) training; (3) accountability; (4) incentives; (5) qualifications; (6) class size reduction; (teacher working conditions; and (8) human resource management and the overall coordination of teacher policy. For each theme,…

  15. Fifty years of oxacalix[3]arenes: A review

    PubMed Central

    Cottet, Kevin; Marcos, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arenes, commonly called oxacalix[3]arenes, were first reported in 1962. Since then, their chemistry has been expanded to include numerous derivatives and complexes. This review describes the syntheses of the parent compounds, their derivatives, and their complexation behaviour towards cations. Extraction data are presented, as are crystal structures of the macrocycles and their complexes with guest species. Applications in fields as diverse as ion selective electrode modifiers, fluorescence sensors, fullerene separations and biomimetic chemistry are described. PMID:22423288

  16. Metallography at the Met Lab -- The first fifty years

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The Met Lab at the University of Chicago was established to build the world`s first nuclear reactor. The object was to see if a pile (CP-1) could be built to create a sustained chain reaction, i.e., controlled nuclear fission. New materials of the very best quality were needed and people of many skills worked together to achieve the goal as quickly as possible. This is the story of a select group of people who were scientific and engineering pioneers in this new field. Research continued at new sites on more advanced reactors and cooling systems. Many problems were encountered in the fabrication of reactor components, and metallography was a crucial method of analyzing the reactions and quality of consolidation. 1996 will be the 50th anniversary of the beginning of the National Laboratories, so it is appropriate to commemorate and recall some pioneering achievements.

  17. Fifty Years of A-Level Mathematics: Have Standards Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Wheadon, Chris; Humphries, Sara; Inglis, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Advanced-level (A-level) mathematics is a high-profile qualification taken by many school leavers in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and around the world as preparation for university study. Concern has been expressed in these countries that standards in A-level mathematics have declined over time, and that school leavers enter university or the…

  18. The Journal of The Experimental Analysis of Behavior at Fifty

    PubMed Central

    Laties, Victor G

    2008-01-01

    The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior was founded in 1958 by a group of male psychologists, mainly from the northeastern USA and connected with either Harvard or Columbia. Fifty years later about 20% of both editors and authors reside outside this country and almost the same proportion is made up of women. Other changes in the journal include having its own website for more than a decade and now publishing online as well as on paper. A recent connection with PubMed Central of the National Library of Medicine has made possible the completely free electronic presentation of the entire archive of about 3,800 articles. PMID:18338677

  19. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior at fifty.

    PubMed

    Laties, Victor G

    2008-01-01

    The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior was founded in 1958 by a group of male psychologists, mainly from the northeastern USA and connected with either Harvard or Columbia. Fifty years later about 20% of both editors and authors reside outside this country and almost the same proportion is made up of women. Other changes in the journal include having its own website for more than a decade and now publishing online as well as on paper. A recent connection with PubMed Central of the National Library of Medicine has made possible the completely free electronic presentation of the entire archive of about 3,800 articles.

  20. Antineoplastic and cytogenetic effects of chlorpromazine on human lymphocytes in vitro and on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lialiaris, Theodore S; Papachristou, Fotini; Mourelatos, Constantine; Simopoulou, Maria

    2009-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of phenothiazines in tumor growth and cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo has been established. These reports motivated us to investigate the genotoxic, cytotoxic, and cytostatic potential of chlorpromazine, alone or in combination with mitomycin C, in vitro and in vivo. Sister chromatid exchange levels were assessed providing a quantitative index of genotoxicity. In-vitro studies were performed on human lymphocyte cultures and in-vivo studies involved Ehrilch ascites tumor (EAT) cells. An antitumour study was also conducted on the survival time and the ascitic volume in EAT-bearing Balb/C mice. The combination of chlorpromazine plus caffeine and mitomycin C exerted cytostatic and cytotoxic actions in human lymphocytes. The combination of chlorpromazine plus mitomycin C exerted cytostatic and cytotoxic actions in EAT cells, significantly increased the survival span of the mice inoculated with EAT cells, and suppressed the expected tumor growth increase. The findings of this basic study illustrate that high chlorpromazine concentrations increase chemotherapeutic effectiveness of mitomycin C. Chlorpromazine concentrations within the observed human plasma concentration range need to be tested along with antineoplastic agents in vitro for its synergistic action so as to evaluate a potential clinical application. Further investigation including other phenothiazines, biological systems, and cancer models is required.