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Sample records for figueira ficus carica

  1. Ficus carica L.: Metabolic and biological screening.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Silva, Branca M; Tavares, Fernando; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-11-01

    Ficus carica L. is one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees. In this work, metabolite profiling was performed on the leaves, pulps and peels of two Portuguese white varieties of F. carica (Pingo de Mel and Branca Tradicional). Phenolics and organic acids profiles were determined by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV, respectively. All samples presented a similar phenolic profile composed by 3-O- and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, ferulic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, psoralen and bergapten. 3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin-3-O-glucoside are described for the first time in this species. Leaves' organic acids profile presented oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids, while in pulps and peels quinic acid was absent. The antioxidant potential of the different plant parts was checked. All materials exhibited activity against DPPH and nitric oxide radicals in a concentration-dependent way. However, only the leaves presented capacity to scavenge superoxide radical. Leaves were always the most effective part, which seems to be related with phenolics compounds. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity was evaluated, but no effect was observed. Antimicrobial potential was also assessed against several bacterial species, although no activity was noticed. This is the first study comparing the chemical composition and biological potential of F. carica pulps, peels and leaves.

  2. Strategies of leaf expansion in Ficus carica under semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, A M; Peters, J

    2010-05-01

    Leaf area expansion, thickness and inclination, gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content were analysed in field-grown fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves over time, from emergence until after full leaf expansion (FLE). Ficus carica leaves showed a subtle change in shape during the early stages of development, and FLE was reached within ca. 30 days after emergence. Changes in leaf thickness and inclination after FLE demonstrated good adaptation to environmental conditions during summer in areas with a Mediterranean climate. Changes in gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content showed that F. carica is a delayed-greening species, reaching maximum values 20 days after FLE. Correlation analysis of datasets collected during leaf expansion, confirmed dependence among structural and functional traits in F. carica. Pn was directly correlated with stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration (E), leaf area (LA) and relative chlorophyll content up to FLE. The effect of pruning on leaf expansion, a cultural technique commonly applied in this fruit tree, was also evaluated. Although leaf development in pruned branches gave a significantly higher relative leaf area growth rate (RGR(l)) and higher LA than non-pruned branches, no significant differences were found in other morphological and physiological traits, indicating no pruning effect on leaf development. All studied morphological and physiological characteristics indicate that F. carica is well adapted to semiarid conditions. The delayed greening strategy of this species is discussed.

  3. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents. PMID:24159359

  4. The micromorphology and protein characterization of rubber particles in Ficus carica, Ficus benghalensis and Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Adya P; Wi, Seung Gon; Chung, Gap Chae; Kim, Yoon Soo; Kang, Hunseung

    2003-03-01

    Rubber biosynthesis takes place on the surface of rubber particles. These particles are surrounded by a monolayer membrane in which the rubber transferase is anchored. In order to gain better insight into whether rubber particles from different plant species share common structural characteristics, the micromorphology of rubber particles from Ficus carica, Ficus benghalensis, and Hevea brasiliensis was examined by electron microscopy. Rubber particles of all three species were spherical in shape, and the size of rubber particles of H. brasiliensis was much smaller than those of F. carica and F. benghalensis. In addition, investigations were undertaken to compare the cross-reactivity of the antibody raised against either the H. brasiliensis small rubber particle protein (SRPP) which is suggested to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, or the cis-prenyltransferase (CPT) which has an activity similar to rubber transferase. Both western analysis and TEM-immunogold labelling studies showed that rubber particles of F. carica and F. benghalensis do not contain the SRPP. None of the rubber particles in F. carica, F. benghalensis and H. brasiliensis contained the CPT, suggesting that the CPT itself could not catalyse the formation of high molecular weight rubber. These results indicate that rubber particles in the three different plant species investigated share some degree of similarity in architecture, and that the SRPP and CPT themselves are not the core proteins necessary for rubber biosynthesis.

  5. Identification of phenylpropanoids in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the phenylpropanoid composition and antioxidant activity of identified components in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves were examined. Known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. Furthermore, caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) was the most abundant polyphenol and was identified for the first time. CMA exhibited antioxidant activity similar to that of vitamin C or catechin. Psoralen and bergapten were identified as known furanocoumarins, with psoralen being the most abundant. Moreover, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG) was identified for the first time. As a precursor of psoralen, PAG content was equivalent to the psoralen content in moles. Notably, the content of these compounds varied between the five fig varieties, and the furanocoumarin and PAG contents varied more than that of the polyphenols. Further investigations concerning the influence of CMA and PAG on human health are necessary to elucidate functionalities of fig leaves.

  6. Further insight into the latex metabolite profile of Ficus carica.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Silva, Luís R; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Silva, Branca M; Gonçalves, Rui F; Pereira, José A; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2010-10-27

    Latex is a sticky emulsion that exudes upon damage from specialized canals from several plants. It contains several biologically active compounds, such as phytosterols, fatty acids, and amino acids. In plants, these compounds are involved in the interaction between plants, insects, and the environment. Despite its chemical, biological, and ecological importance, Ficus carica latex is still poorly studied. To improve the knowledge on the metabolite profile of this matrix, a targeted metabolite analysis was performed in a representative sample from F. carica latex. Seven phytosterols were determined by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), with β-sitosterol and lupeol being the compounds present in higher concentrations (ca. 54 and 14%, respectively). A total of 18 fatty acids were characterized by GC-ITMS, being essentially represented by saturated fatty acids (ca. 86.4% of total fatty acids). A total of 13 free amino acids were also identified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (HPLC/UV-vis), and cysteine and tyrosine were the major ones (ca. 38.7 and 31.4%, respectively). In humans, phytosterols and some polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, are known for their anticarcinogenic properties. With regard to amino acids, some of them, such as glycine, are neurotransmitters. Our results reveal the presence of a wide diversity of compounds, from distinct classes, in F. carica latex, possessing various potential pharmacological activities; thus, its biological potential appears to be worth further exploring.

  7. Phenylpropanoid composition in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Kohno, Masahiro

    2017-06-06

    The leaves of fig (Ficus carica L.) have been used for traditional and Chinese medicine. We determined the composition of phenylpropanoids (polyphenols and furanocoumarins) as a functional agent in the leaves of 37 cultivars of fig. The most abundant polyphenol was caffeoylmalic acid (12.0-26.6 mg/g dry weight), followed by rutin (4.7-14.6 mg/g dry weight) and isoschaftoside (2.5-6.4 mg/g dry weight). Psoralen (3.8-23.0 mg/g dry weight) was dominant in the furanocoumarins. In molar amounts, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG), a precursor of psoralen, was equivalent to psoralen. Furanocoumarins and PAG were not detected in the leaves of only one cultivar, Grise de Tarascon. Fig leaves are potentially an excellent source of polyphenols such as caffeoylmalic acid and rutin. From the result of cluster analysis, some cultivars that contained large amount of polyphenols, and a small amount (e.g., Grise de Saint Jean) or no (Grise de Tarascon) furanocoumarins, were found. These cultivars are considered suitable for functional foods or medicinal products.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of four Ficus carica latex fractions against resistant human pathogens (antimicrobial activity of Ficus carica latex).

    PubMed

    Aref, Houda Lazreg; Salah, Karima Bel Hadj; Chaumont, Jean Pierre; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Aouni, Mahjoub; Said, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Methanolic, hexanoïc, chloroformic and ethyl acetate extracts of Ficus carica latex were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial proprieties against five bacteria species and seven strains of fungi. The green fruit latex was collected from Chott Mariam Souse, Middle East coast of Tunisia. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated and based respectively on the inhibition zone using the disc-diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) for bacterial testing and the method by calculating inhibition percentage (I%) for fungi-inhibiting activities. The methanolic extract had no effect against bacteria except for Proteus mirabilis while the ethyl acetate extract had inhibition effect on the multiplication of five bacteria species (Enterococcus fecalis, Citobacter freundei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Echerchia coli and Proteus mirabilis). For the opportunist pathogenic yeasts, ethyl acetate and chlorophormic fractions showed a very strong inhibition (100%); methanolic fraction had a total inhibition against Candida albicans (100%) at a concentration of 500 microg/ml and a negative effect against Cryptococcus neoformans. Microsporum canis was strongly inhibited with methanolic extract (75%) and totally with ethyl acetate extract at a concentration of 750 microg/ml. Hexanoïc extract showed medium results.

  9. Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhanushali, Mittal M.; Makhija, Dinesh T.; Joshi, Yadunath M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test), convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Results: Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1) a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2) significant muscle relaxant activity; (3) a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4) a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5) a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6) increased levels of NE and 5-HT. Conclusion: This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain. PMID:24948859

  10. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): an ancient source of food and health.

    PubMed

    Barolo, Melisa I; Ruiz Mostacero, Nathalie; López, Silvia N

    2014-12-01

    Since early in the man history, common fig was appreciated as food and for its medicinal properties. This review explores some aspects about the importance of Ficus carica L., an amazing and ancient source of medicines and food. Topics regarding chemistry, biological activity, ethno-pharmacological uses, and its nutritional value are discussed, as well as the potential of the species as a source of new and different chemical scaffolds. Very important in the past, appreciated in our time and extremely promising in the future, F. carica represents an interesting example of healthy foods and bioproducts.

  11. The Effect of Fig Tree Latex (Ficus carica) on Stomach Cancer Line.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, S A; Abediankenari, S; Ghasemi, M; Azadbakht, M; Yousefzadeh, Y; Dehpour, A A

    2011-04-01

    The therapeutic effect of herbal materials in inhibition of cancer cell growth was shown. This study investigates the effect of fig tree latex (Ficus carica) on stomach cancer line. The in vitro effect of different doses of fig tree latex on stomach cancer cell line and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells was evaluated after 72 hours. Fig tree latex could inhibit the proliferation of cancer cell line without any cytotoxic effect on human normal cells. Five mg/ml was the optimum concentration in inhibition of cell line growth. Cancer cell line was more sensitive to Ficus carica latex than normal cells. This anticancer activity might be due to presence of its proteolytic enzymes.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

    2012-01-01

    Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities.

  13. Designing and characterizing of tramadol hydrochloride transdermal patches prepared with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and povidone.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Hindustan Abdul; Ishaq, Beludari Mohammed; Shaik, Muneer; Bandagisa, Faheem

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare matrix type transdermal patches of Tramadol HCl using various ratios of Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The matrix type transdermal patches were prepared using Tramadol HCl with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The interactions between Tramadol HCl with F. carica fruit mucilage and Povidone were performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared patches were examined for physicochemical characterization and in vitro drug permeation studies (using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell across hairless Albino rat skin), skin irritation studies and accelerated stability studies. The drug was found to be free from negligible interactions with the polymers used. The formulated patches possessed satisfactory physicochemical properties, in vitro drug permeation and devoid of serious skin irritation. The selected formulation (F-5) was retains the characteristics even after the accelerated environmental conditions. The study concludes that F. carica fruit mucilage with Povidone is a good combination for preparing transdermal patches.

  14. Development of molecular tools for characterization and genetic diversity analysis in Tunisian fig (Ficus carica) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chatti, Khaled; Baraket, Ghada; Ben Abdelkrim, Ahmed; Saddoud, Olfa; Mars, Messaoud; Trifi, Mokhtar; Salhi Hannachi, Amel

    2010-10-01

    Fig, Ficus carica L., is a useful genetic resource for commercial cultivation. In this study, RAPD (60), ISSR (48), RAMPO (63), and SSR (34) markers were compared to detect polymorphism and to establish genetic relationships among Tunisian fig tree cultivars. The statistical procedures conducted on the combined data show considerable genetic diversity, and the tested markers discriminated all fig genotypes studied. The identification key established on the basis of SSR permitted the unambiguous discrimination of cultivars and confirmed the reliability of SSR for fingerprinting fig genotypes. The study findings are discussed in relation to the establishment of a national reference collection that will aid in the conservation of Tunisian fig resources.

  15. Chemical assessment and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Ficus carica latex.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Silva, Luís R; Ferreres, Federico; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Valentão, Patrícia; Silva, Branca M; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-03-24

    Ficus species possess latex-like material within their vasculatures, affording protection and self-healing from physical attacks. In this work, metabolite profiling was performed on Ficus carica latex. Volatiles profile was determined by HS-SPME/GC-IT-MS, with 34 compounds being identified, distributed by distinct chemical classes: 5 aldehydes, 7 alcohols, 1 ketone, 9 monoterpenes, 9 sesquiterpenes and 3 other compounds. Sesquiterpenes constituted the most abundant class in latex (ca. 91% of total identified compounds). Organic acids composition was also characterized, by HPLC-UV, and oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids were determined. Malic and shikimic acids were present in higher amounts (ca. 26%, each). The antioxidant potential of this material was checked by distinct in vitro chemical assays. A concentration-dependent activity was noticed against DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity was evaluated, but a weak effect was found.

  16. Is the old world fig, Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), an alternate host for the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Homoptera: Psyllidae)?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The only non-rutaceous plant on which D. citri has been found breeding in Texas is the edible fig, Ficus carica (Moraceae). In the summer of 2010, we discovered D. citri nymphs on a dooryard fig tree. Fig has its own species of psyllid, Homatoma ficus, but both adults and nymphs of that species ar...

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of four cysteine proteases from Ficus carica latex.

    PubMed

    Haesaerts, Sarah; Rodriguez Buitrago, John Alexander; Loris, Remy; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Azarkan, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The latex of the common fig (Ficus carica) contains a mixture of at least five cysteine proteases commonly known as ficins (EC 3.4.22.3). Four of these proteases were purified to homogeneity and crystals were obtained in a variety of conditions. The four ficin (iso)forms appear in ten different crystal forms. All diffracted to better than 2.10 Å resolution and for each form at least one crystal form diffracted to 1.60 Å resolution or higher. Ficin (iso)forms B and C share a common crystal form, suggesting close sequence and structural similarity. The latter diffracted to a resolution of 1.20 Å and belonged to space group P3₁21 or P3₂21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.9, c = 55.9 Å.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of four cysteine proteases from Ficus carica latex

    PubMed Central

    Haesaerts, Sarah; Rodriguez Buitrago, John Alexander; Loris, Remy; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Azarkan, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The latex of the common fig (Ficus carica) contains a mixture of at least five cysteine proteases commonly known as ficins (EC 3.4.22.3). Four of these proteases were purified to homogeneity and crystals were obtained in a variety of conditions. The four ficin (iso)forms appear in ten different crystal forms. All diffracted to better than 2.10 Å resolution and for each form at least one crystal form diffracted to 1.60 Å resolution or higher. Ficin (iso)forms B and C share a common crystal form, suggesting close sequence and structural similarity. The latter diffracted to a resolution of 1.20 Å and belonged to space group P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.9, c = 55.9 Å. PMID:25849510

  19. Characterization of fig achenes' oil of Ficus carica grown in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Soltana, Hala; Tekaya, Meriem; Amri, Zahra; El-Gharbi, Sinda; Nakbi, Amel; Harzallah, Arij; Mechri, Beligh; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the composition of the oil extract from achenes of "Kholi" variety of Ficus carica, grown in Tunisia. Fatty acid and sterol compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to flame ionization detector (FID). Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity in fig achenes' oil was assessed by employing two different in vitro assays such as DPPH, ABTS(+) radical scavenging capacities. Our results indicated that the fig achenes' oil is a rich source of bioactive molecules. The soxhlet n-hexane extraction of these achenes produced a total oil yield of 16.24%. The predominant fatty acid was linolenic acid. Concerning phytosterols, the total amount reached 1061.45 mg/100 g with a predominance of Δ(5,23)-stigmastadienol (73.78%). Regarding antioxidant activities, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 215.86 μg/ml and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was 95.25 mM. These data indicate that fig achenes oil of F. carica could be potentially useful in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  20. In vitro antiviral activity of Ficus carica latex against caprine herpesvirus-1.

    PubMed

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Lovero, Angela; Elia, Gabriella; Losurdo, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to possess antiviral properties against some human viruses. To determine the ability of F. carica latex (F-latex) to interfere with the infection of caprine herpesvirus-1 (CpHV-1) in vitro, F-latex was resuspended in culture media containing 1% ethanol and was tested for potential antiviral effects against CpHV-1. Titration of CpHV-1 in the presence or in the absence of F-latex was performed on monolayers of Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. Simultaneous addition of F-latex and CpHV-1 to monolayers of MDBK cells resulted in a significant reduction of CpHV-1 titres 3 days post-infection and this effect was comparable to that induced by acyclovir. The study suggests that the F-latex is able to interfere with the replication of CpHV-1 in vitro on MDBK cells and future studies will determine the mechanisms responsible for the observed antiviral activity.

  1. Development and characterization of mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel of midazolam prepared with Ficus carica mucilage.

    PubMed

    Basu, Shyamoshree; Bandyopadhyay, Amal Kumar

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare mucoadhesive in situ nasal gels with mucilage isolated from fig fruits (Ficus carica, family: Moraceae) containing midazolam hydrochloride. Nasal gels of midazolam were prepared using three different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% w/v) of F. carica mucilage (FCM) and synthetic polymers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and Carbopol 934). Evaluation of FCM showed that it was as safe as the synthetic polymers for nasal administration. In situ gels were prepared with mixture Pluronic F127 and mucoadhesive agents. Evaluation of the prepared gels was carried out, including determination of viscosity, texture profile analysis and mucoadhesive strength. In vitro drug permeation study was conducted with the gels prepared with and without permeation enhancer (0.5% w/v sodium taurocholate) using excised goat nasal mucosa. In vitro permeation profiles were evaluated, and histological study of nasal mucosae before and after permeation study was also conducted to determine histological change, if any. In vivo experiments conducted in rabbits further confirmed that in situ nasal gels provided better bioavailability of midazolam than the gels prepared from synthetic mucoadhesive polymers. It was observed that the nasal gel containing 0.5% FCM and 0.5% sodium taurocholate exhibited appropriate rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties and showed better drug release profiles. Moreover, this formulation produced no damage to the nasal mucosa that was used for the permeation study, and absolute bioavailability was also higher compared to gels prepared from synthetic polymers.

  2. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-07-14

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported.

  3. [Antimutagenic activity of plant extracts from Armoracia rusticana, Ficus carica and Zea mays and peroxidase in eukaryotic cells].

    PubMed

    Agabeĭli, R A; Kasimova, T E; Alekperov, U K

    2004-01-01

    Antimutagene activity and high efficiency of antimutagene action of plant extracts from horseradish roots (Armoracia rusticana), fig brunches (Ficus carica) and mays seedlings (Zea mays) and their ability to decrease the frequency of spontaneous and induced by gamma-rays chromosome aberrations in meristematic cells of Vicia faba and marrow cells of mice have been shown. Comparative assessment of genoprotective properties of peroxidase and the studied extracts has revealed higher efficiency of antimutagene action of peroxidase.

  4. Purification, characterization, and solvent-induced thermal stabilization of ficin from Ficus carica.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Kamsagara Basavarajappa; Kumar, Parigi Ramesh; Prakash, Vishweshwaraiah

    2008-12-10

    Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine proteinase isolated from the latex of a Ficus tree, is known to occur in multiple forms. Although crude ficin is of considerable commercial importance, ficin as such has not been fully characterized. A major ficin from the commercial crude proteinase mixture preparation of Ficus carica was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme was homogeneous in both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel-filtration chromatography and is a single polypeptide chain protein with a molecular mass of 23 100 +/- 300 Da as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). The enzyme was active in the pH range of 6.5-8.5, and maximum activity was observed at pH 7.0. The N-terminal core sequence of ficin has homology with N-terminal sequences of plant cysteine proteinases. The enzyme contains three disulfide bonds and a single free cysteine residue at the active site. The effect of co-solvents, such as sorbitol, trehalose, sucrose, and xylitol, on the thermal stability of ficin was determined by activity measurements, fluorescence, and thermal denaturation studies. The apparent thermal denaturation temperature (T(m)) of ficin was significantly increased from the control value of 72 +/- 1 degrees C in the presence of all co-solvents. However, the maximum stabilization effect was observed in terms of thermal stabilization by the co-solvent trehalose.

  5. In vitro cytotoxic and antiviral activities of Ficus carica latex extracts.

    PubMed

    Lazreg Aref, Houda; Gaaliche, Badii; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Mars, Massoud; Aouni, Mahjoub; Pierre Chaumon, Jean; Said, Khaled

    2011-02-01

    The latex of fig fruit (Ficus carica) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin infections such as warts and also diseases of possible viral origin. Five extracts (methanolic, hexanic, ethyl acetate, hexane-ethyl acetate (v/v) and chloroformic) of this species were investigated in vitro for their antiviral potential activity against herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1), echovirus type 11 (ECV-11) and adenovirus (ADV). To evaluate the capacity of the extracts to inhibit the replication of viruses, the following assays were performed: adsorption and penetration, intracellular inhibition and virucidal activity. Observation of cytopathic effects was used to determine the antiviral action. The hexanic and hexane-ethyl acetate (v/v) extracts inhibited multiplication of viruses by tested techniques at concentrations of 78 µg mL(-1). These two extracts were possible candidates as herbal medicines for herpes virus, echovirus and adenovirus infectious diseases. All extracts had no cytotoxic effect on Vero cells at all tested concentrations.

  6. Ficus carica latex-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application as a chemophotoprotective agent.

    PubMed

    Borase, Hemant P; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Patil, Satish V

    2013-10-01

    The present work provides scientific support on the use of latex of Ficus carica to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs synthesized immediately after the addition of latex to silver nitrate solution at room temperature. Synthesized nanoparticles were of spherical shape with average size of 163.7 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed capping of proteins and phenolic compound on AgNPs, while X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the fcc nature of AgNPs. Particles formed were stable for a long time (6 months). It was found that incorporation of AgNPs with 2 and 4% concentration exhibits synergistic increase in sun protection factor of commercial sunscreen and natural extracts ranging from 01 to 12,175% than control. Further characterization of latex and AgNPs revealed total phenolic content of 98.75 and 94.88 μg/ml. The ferric ion reduction potentials of latex and AgNPs were 79.69 and 18.79%. Reduction potential of ascorbic acid was synergistically increased after cumulative preparation of ascorbic acid with latex and AgNPs and found to be 106.76 and 101.50% for ascorbic acid + latex and ascorbic acid + AgNPs, respectively.

  7. Comparison between sample disruption methods and solid-liquid extraction (SLE) to extract phenolic compounds from Ficus carica leaves.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, D Martins; Patão, R Ferreira; Coelho, A Varela; da Costa, C Teixeira

    2006-01-20

    Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) and matrix solid phase disruption (MSPD) were compared to solid-liquid extraction (SLE) for extraction of phenolic compounds from the Ficus carica leaves. Statistical treatment, ANOVA-single factor, was used to compare the extraction yields obtained by these methods, and for the majority of the extracted compounds, significantly higher yields were obtained by the solid disruption methods. Both solid disruption methods are faster and ecologically friendly, but the sea sand method was more reproducible (RSD < 5% for most compounds), and was also the least expensive method. Recoveries above 85% were obtained for chlorogenic acid, rutin, and psoralen using the sea sand extraction method.

  8. Flavonoid content in leaf extracts of the fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    PubMed

    Vaya, Jacob; Mahmood, Saeed

    2006-01-01

    The total flavonoid content of leaf extracts (70% ethanol) from fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.) plants were determined by using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-and analyzed by UV/VIS array and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. As a base for comparison, flavonoid type and level were also determined in extracts from soybeans and grape seeds. It was found that the major flavonoids in Ficus are quercetin and luteolin, with a total of 631 and 681 mg/kg extract, respectively. In Ceratonia leaves, nine different flavonoids were detected. The major one was myricetin (1486 mg/kg extract), with a similar level in Pistacia (1331 mg/kg extract, myricetin). The present study is the first to report the presence of the isoflavone genistein in the Pistacia leaf, which was discovered to consist of about a third of the genistein level detected in soybean.

  9. Partial characterization of a novel amylase activity isolated from Tunisian Ficus carica latex.

    PubMed

    Aref, Houda Lazreg; Mosbah, Habib; Louati, Hanen; Said, Khaled; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2011-11-01

    A large number of plants still need to be investigated through screening of amylases suitable for industry. In the present study, and for the first time, we describe the amylolytic activity of Saint Pedro Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) crude latex of Kahli and Bidhi varieties. Effects of temperature, pH, metal ions, and inhibitors and compatibility with some commercial detergents were investigated for amylase activity. Amylase activity was screened in crude latex using the DNS method and potato starch as a substrate. Analyses of amylolytic reaction products by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed. Bidhi and Kahli amylases were active in optimal pH of 6.5 and 7 at 45°C, respectively, displaying a half life of 85 and 60 min, respectively, at 80°C, and they were very stable in a wide range of pH (4-12). Bidhi amylase activity increased to 260% by addition of 10(-3) mM Fe(2+) or 10(-2) mM Cu(2+), and was strongly inhibited by Mg(2+) and EDTA. In the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), Kahli amylase activity was dramatically enhanced by 220 and 260%, respectively. The compatibility of both amylases with certain commercial detergents was also shown to be good as enzymes retained up to 98% of their activities after 30 min of incubation at 80°C. Analysis of amylolytic reaction products by TLC and HPLC suggested that Kahli amylase was an amyloglucosidase and Bidhi amylase was β-fructose, α(1-4) glucose. Bidhi amylase is a good choice for application in starch, food, detergents and medical industries.

  10. Efficacy of Tissue Culture in Virus Elimination from Caprifig and Female Fig Varieties (Ficus carica L.).

    PubMed

    Bayoudh, Chokri; Elair, Manel; Labidi, Rahma; Majdoub, Afifa; Mahfoudhi, Naima; Mars, Messaoud

    2017-06-01

    Fig mosaic disease (FMD) is a viral disease that spreads in all Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) orchards. RT-PCR technique was applied to leaf samples of 29 fig accessions of 15 fig varieties from the fig germplasm collection of High Agronomic Institute (I.S.A) of Chatt-Mariem, to detect viruses associated to FMD. Analysis results show that 65.5% of the accessions (19/29) and 80.0% (12/15) of the fig varieties are infected by FMD-associated viruses. From all fig accessions, 41.4% of them are with single infection (one virus) and 24.1% are with multi-infections (2 virus and more). Viruses infecting fig leaf samples are Fig mosaic virus (FMV) (20.7%), Fig milde-mottle-associated virus (FMMaV) (17.25%), Fig fleck associated virus (FFkaV) (3.45%), and Fig cryptic virus (FCV) (55.17%). A reliable protocol for FCV and FMMaV elimination from 4 local fig varieties Zidi (ZDI), Soltani (SNI), Bither Abiadh (BA), and Assafri (ASF) via in vitro culture of 3 meristem sizes was established and optimized. With this protocol, global sanitation rates of 79.46%, 65.55%, 68.75%, and 70.83% respectively for ZDI, SNI, BA, and ASF are achieved. For all sanitized varieties, the effectiveness of meristem culture for the elimination of FCV and FMMaV viruses was related to meristem size. Meristem size 0.5 mm provides the highest sanitation rates ranging from 70% to 90%.

  11. Efficacy of Tissue Culture in Virus Elimination from Caprifig and Female Fig Varieties (Ficus carica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bayoudh, Chokri; Elair, Manel; Labidi, Rahma; Majdoub, Afifa; Mahfoudhi, Naima; Mars, Messaoud

    2017-01-01

    Fig mosaic disease (FMD) is a viral disease that spreads in all Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) orchards. RT-PCR technique was applied to leaf samples of 29 fig accessions of 15 fig varieties from the fig germplasm collection of High Agronomic Institute (I.S.A) of Chatt-Mariem, to detect viruses associated to FMD. Analysis results show that 65.5% of the accessions (19/29) and 80.0% (12/15) of the fig varieties are infected by FMD-associated viruses. From all fig accessions, 41.4% of them are with single infection (one virus) and 24.1% are with multi-infections (2 virus and more). Viruses infecting fig leaf samples are Fig mosaic virus (FMV) (20.7%), Fig milde-mottle-associated virus (FMMaV) (17.25%), Fig fleck associated virus (FFkaV) (3.45%), and Fig cryptic virus (FCV) (55.17%). A reliable protocol for FCV and FMMaV elimination from 4 local fig varieties Zidi (ZDI), Soltani (SNI), Bither Abiadh (BA), and Assafri (ASF) via in vitro culture of 3 meristem sizes was established and optimized. With this protocol, global sanitation rates of 79.46%, 65.55%, 68.75%, and 70.83% respectively for ZDI, SNI, BA, and ASF are achieved. For all sanitized varieties, the effectiveness of meristem culture for the elimination of FCV and FMMaV viruses was related to meristem size. Meristem size 0.5 mm provides the highest sanitation rates ranging from 70% to 90%. PMID:28592947

  12. Ficus carica latex prevents invasion through induction of let-7d expression in GBM cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Gulcin; Tunca, Berrin; Bekar, Ahmet; Yalcin, Murat; Sahin, Saliha; Budak, Ferah; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Demir, Cevdet; Guvenc, Gokcen; Yilmaz, Gozde; Erkan, Leman Gizem; Malyer, Hulusi; Taskapilioglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Evrensel, Turkkan; Bilir, Ayhan

    2015-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest human malignancies. A cure for GBM remains elusive, and the overall survival time is less than 1 year. Thus, the development of more efficient therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these patients is required. Induction of tumor cell death by certain phytochemicals derived from medicinal herbs and dietary plants has become a new frontier for cancer therapy research. Although the cancer suppressive effect of Ficus carica (fig) latex (FCL) has been determined in a few cancer types, the effect of this latex on GBM tumors has not been investigated. Therefore, in the current study, the anti-proliferative activity of FCL and the effect of the FCL-temozolomide (TMZ) combination were tested in the T98G, U-138 MG, and U-87 MG GBM cell lines using the WST-1 assay. The mechanism of cell death was analyzed using Annexin-V/FITC and TUNEL assays, and the effect of FCL on invasion was tested using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. To determine the effect of FCL on GBM progression, the expression levels of 40 GBM associated miRNAs were analyzed in T98G cells using RT-qPCR. According to the obtained data, FCL causes cell death in GBM cells with different responses to TMZ, and this effect is synergistically increased in combination with TMZ. In addition, the current study is the first to demonstrate the effect of FCL on modulation of let-7d expression, which may be an important underlying mechanism of the anti-invasive effect of this extract.

  13. Protective Role of Ficus carica Stem Extract against Hepatic Oxidative Damage Induced by Methanol in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Saoudi, Mongi; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Ficus carica stem extract (FE) in methanol-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two batches: 16 control rats (C) drinking tap water and 16 treated rats drinking Ficus carica stem extract for six weeks. Then, each group was divided into two subgroups, and one of them was intraperitoneally injected (i.p.) daily methanol at a dose of 2.37 g/kg body weight i.p. for 30 days, for four weeks. The results showed that FE was found to contain large amounts of polyphenols and carotenoids. The treatment with methanol exhibited a significant increase of serum hepatic biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, were significantly decreased in methanol-treated animals. FE treatment prior to methanol intoxication has significant role in protecting animals from methanol-induced hepatic oxidative damage. PMID:22203864

  14. Methanolic Extract of Ficus carica Linn. Leaves Exerts Antiangiogenesis Effects Based on the Rat Air Pouch Model of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Allahyari, Saeideh; Akbarzadeh-Atashkhosrow, Arezu; Delazar, Abbas; Pashaii, Mahdiyeh; Gan, Siew Hua; Najafi, Moslem

    2015-01-01

    The antiangiogenesis effect of Ficus carica leaves extract in an air pouch model of inflammation was investigated in rat. Inflammation was induced by injection of carrageenan into pouches. After antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) investigations, the extract was administered at 5, 25, and 50 mg/pouch, and then the volume of exudates, the cell number, TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF levels were measured. Angiogenesis of granulation tissues was determined by measuring hemoglobin content. Based on the DPPH assay, the extract had significant antioxidant activity with TPC of 11.70 mg GAE/100 g dry sample. In addition, leukocyte accumulation and volume of exudate were significantly inhibited by the extract. Moreover, it significantly decreased the production of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF, while angiogenesis was significantly inhibited by all administered doses. Interestingly, attenuation of angiogenesis and inflammatory parameters (except leukocyte accumulation) by the extract was similar to that shown by diclofenac. The extract has anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated cell influx and exudation to the site of the inflammatory response which may be related to the local inhibition of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF levels as similarly shown by diclofenac. The antiangiogenesis and anti-VEGF effects of Ficus carica may be correlated with its significant antioxidant potentials. PMID:25977699

  15. Efficient transformation and regeneration of fig (Ficus carica L.) via somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Hemaid Ibrahim; Gabr, Mahdia; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2010-01-01

    Fig is one of the most important fruit trees in Egypt. It used to constitute the major source of income for the inhabitants of the western north coast of Egypt. Since 1993 fig cultivations were threatened by a number of factors including virus, insect and mite infections. An efficient system for regeneration and transformation of the common fig Ficus carica L. cultivar Sultani (fresh consumption) was required to conserve fig cultivation in the area. The effect of different combinations of BA and NAA/2,4-D and kinetin on callus formation from leaf segments were studied. Results showed that the best medium for callus formation was MS supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.2 mg/l kinetin. The best plantlet differentiation was obtained at concentrations of 30 mg/l 2iP and 7 mg/l TDZ with 0.25 mg/l NAA (with a regeneration efficiency of 83 and 79%, respectively). On the other hand, the obtained callus failed to induce organogenesis on media containing a combination of BA and kinetin. The highest shoot formation percentage (89%) was obtained when using 2 mg/l TDZ and 4 mg/l 2iP. The highest percentage of shoots forming roots (95%) was obtained when using MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l IBA. Explants were transformed using Agrobacterium and microprojectile bombardment using the plasmid pISV2678 which harbors the gus-intron and bar genes. Results showed that the highest transformation efficiency using the Agrobacterium (17.5%) was obtained when explants were co-cultivated with the bacteria for 30 min. The highest transformation efficiency recorded using the microprojectile bombardment (12%) was obtained with 2.0 μg DNA per shot at 1,100 psi and a distance of 6 cm repeated twice. The transgenic nature of regenerated plants was confirmed by PCR analysis, histochemical GUS assay and leaf painting assay.

  16. Role of irradiation in the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Ulug, Bulent; Haluk Turkdemir, M; Cicek, Ahmet; Mete, Ahmet

    2015-01-25

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles in an aqueous mixture of fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract and AgNO3 solution exposed to a set of irradiances at different wavelengths are studied. Nanoparticle formation for irradiances between 6.5 mW/cm(2) and 13.3 mW/cm(2) in the 330-550 nm wavelength range is investigated and the results are compared to those of the nanoparticles synthesized in the dark and under direct sunlight. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, along with particle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy are employed for the characterization of samples and extracts. Irradiance is found to have profound influence on the reduction rates. However, size and spherical shape of the nanoparticles are persistent, irrespective of irradiance and wavelength. Irradiance is discussed to influence the particle formation and aggregation rates through the formation of free radicals in the fig extract.

  17. High-performance thin layer chromatographic quantification of bioactive psoralen and daidzein in leaves of Ficus carica L.

    PubMed

    Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Ahmad, S; Siddique, N A; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

    2011-10-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify psoralen and daidzein by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The methanolic extract of 10 mg mL(-1) concentration solution was prepared for HPTLC quantification of psoralen and daidzein. HPTLC aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F(254) were used as the stationary phase. The working standard solution of psoralen and daidzein was applied along with the test sample solution by means of Camag Linomat IV sample applicator. R (f) values of psoralen and daidzein were found to be 0.60 and 0.88, whilst as their percentage values in methanolic extract were found to be 3.02% and 5.64% (w/w), respectively. A simple quantitative estimation method of psoralen and daidzein by HPTLC is reported that can be used for the quality control of marketed preparations containing Ficus carica. However, further study is warranted to isolate and quantify active constituents present in the leaves of F. carica by sophisticated techniques.

  18. Fatty acids, coumarins and polyphenolic compounds of Ficus carica L. cv. Dottato: variation of bioactive compounds and biological activity of aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2014-01-01

    Leaves, bark and woody part of Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato collected in different months were examined to assess their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and phototoxicity on C32 human melanoma cells after UVA irradiation. The phytochemical investigation revealed different composition in the coumarin, fatty acid, polyphenol and flavonoid content. The second harvest of leaves and the first harvest of the bark possessed the highest antiradical activity with IC50 values of 64.00 ± 0.59 and 67.00 ± 1.09 μg/mL, respectively. Harvest III of leaves showed the best inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 1.48 ± 0.04 μg/mL). Leaf samples of F. carica showed also the best antiproliferative activity in comparison with bark and woody part of F. carica.

  19. Fig latex (Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato) in combination with UV irradiation decreases the viability of A375 melanoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Menichini, Giulio; Alfano, Carmine; Provenzano, Eugenio; Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Somma, Francesco; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2012-10-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers are among the most prevalent cancers in the human population. In the present work latex of Ficus carica cultivar Dottato from Italy collected from fruits and leaves was examined to assess its free radical-scavenging activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and its phototoxicity on A375 human melanoma cells. The latex obtained from the fruits of Ficus carica cv. Dottato showed the best antiradical activity with an IC50 value of 0.05 mg/ml while the latex obtained from the leaves showed the best antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 μg/ml on the human tumor cell line A375 (melanoma) after irradiation at a specific UVA dose (1.08 J/cm2). Control experiments with UVA light or drugs alone were carried out without significant cytotoxic effects. Polyphenolic content of the samples was also evaluated. This is the first study comparing F. carica latex of leaves and fruits. Plant derived natural products have long been and will continue to be an important source for anticancer drug development.

  20. Propagation of Some Local Fig (Ficus carica L.) Cultivars by Hardwood Cuttings under the Field Conditions in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Aljane, Fateh; Nahdi, Sabrine

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out in Southeast of Tunisia in 2009 and 2010, in order to study the propagation of six (Ficus carica L.) cultivars by using hardwood cuttings under the field conditions. The effect of the cultivars and the type of buds, shoots age, shoots length, and shoots diameter were recorded. Ten cuttings per cultivar and/or cutting types with three replications were planted in rooting unit. Percentage of root emergence and six morphological parameters of young fig plants were measured. Results showed that the responses of cuttings as fig nursery plants presented a high variability among the five cultivars. The most widely varied characters were % root emergence (RE) and cumulative growth of young plant (CG). The first one ranged from 10% to 90%, the second varied within 32 and 112 cm. Concerning the ''BITHER" cultivar, 6 cutting types with different age, length, and diameter were evaluated. Results showed a great variation in % of root emergence (0-90%), length of nursery plant (3-77 cm), and number of roots/nursery plant (0-29 roots). The present research showed that the hardwood cutting of local fig cultivars can be propagated under field conditions in Southeast of Tunisia.

  1. Identification, purification and characterization of a novel collagenolytic serine protease from fig (Ficus carica var. Brown Turkey) latex.

    PubMed

    Raskovic, Brankica; Bozovic, Olga; Prodanovic, Radivoje; Niketic, Vesna; Polovic, Natalija

    2014-12-01

    A novel collagenolytic serine protease was identified and then purified (along with ficin) to apparent homogeneity from the latex of fig (Ficus carica, var. Brown Turkey) by two step chromatographic procedure using gel and covalent chromatography. The enzyme is a monomeric protein of molecular mass of 41 ± 9 kDa as estimated by analytical gel filtration chromatography. It is an acidic protein with a pI value of approximately 5 and optimal activity at pH 8.0-8.5 and temperature 60°C. The enzymatic activity was strongly inhibited by PMSF and Pefabloc SC, indicating that the enzyme is a serine protease. The enzyme showed specificity towards gelatin and collagen (215 GDU/mg and 24.8 CDU/mg, respectively) and non-specific protease activity (0.18 U/mg against casein). The enzyme was stable and retained full activity over a broad range of pH and temperature. The fig latex collagenolytic protease is potentially useful as a non-microbial enzyme with collagenolytic activity for various applications in the fields of biochemistry, biotechnology and medicine.

  2. Effects of Common Fig (Ficus carica) Leaf Extracts on Sperm Parameters and Testis of Mice Intoxicated with Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Naghdi, Majid; Maghbool, Maryam; Seifalah-Zade, Morteza; Mahaldashtian, Maryam; Makoolati, Zohreh; Kouhpayeh, Seyed Amin; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Fereydouni, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is the leading cause of cellular injury and oxidative damage in testis that is one of the main infertility causes. There has been an increasing evidence of herbal remedies use in male infertility treatment. This assay examines the role of Ficus carica (Fc) leaf extracts in sperm parameters and testis of mice intoxicated with FA. Twenty-five adult male mice were randomly divided into control; sham; FA-treated (10 mg/kg twice per day); Fc-treated (200 mg/kg); and FA + Fc-treated groups. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were analyzed for viability, count, and motility. Testes were weighed and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Also, histoarchitecture of seminiferous tubules was assessed in the Haematoxylin and Eosin stained paraffin sections. The findings showed that FA significantly decreased GSI and increased percentage of immotile sperm compared with control group. Disorganized and vacuolated seminiferous epithelium, spermatogenic arrest, and lumen filled with immature germ cells were also observed in the testes. However, Fc leaf extracts improved sperm count, nonprogressive motility of spermatozoa, and GSI in FA-treated testes. Moreover, seminiferous tubule with spermatogenic arrest was rarely seen, indicating that Fc has the positive effects on testis and epididymal sperm parameters exposed with FA. PMID:26904140

  3. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L.) in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Achtak, Hafid; Ater, Mohammed; Oukabli, Ahmed; Santoni, Sylvain; Kjellberg, Finn; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2010-02-18

    Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections) or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica), within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color) and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers). Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems.

  4. Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Tundis, Rosa

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate, for the first time, the chemical profile, antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica (fig) cultivars Dottato, Citrullara, and San Francesco. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of fig extracts identified terpenes, sterols and fatty acids as major constituents. The aroma profile of honey obtained from a mixture of the three cultivars was investigated by solid-phase micro-extraction/GC-MS. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-propanone were the main compounds. Total phenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin content are also reported. The San Francesco cultivar is characterised by the highest phenol and flavonoid content, while Dottato showed the major anthocyanin content. The Dottato cultivar exhibited the best radical scavenging activity against both 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (IC50 values of 5.4 and 22.6 µg mL(-1) , respectively). This cultivar also showed the highest inhibitory activity against both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, with IC50 values of 26.9 and 31.8 µg mL(-1) , respectively. Dried figs are a convenient source of bioactive compounds that demonstrated potential neuroprotection and antioxidant effects. Therefore, the addition of figs to the human diet should be recommended by dieticians and nutritionists. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Differential accumulation of photosynthetic proteins regulates diurnal photochemical adjustments of PSII in common fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Mlinarić, Selma; Antunović Dunić, Jasenka; Skendrović Babojelić, Martina; Cesar, Vera; Lepeduš, Hrvoje

    2017-02-01

    Molecular processes involved in photosystem II adaptation of woody species to diurnal changes in light and temperature conditions are still not well understood. Regarding this, here we investigated differences between young and mature leaves of common fig (Ficus carica L.) in photosynthetic performance as well as accumulation of the main photosynthetic proteins: light harvesting complex II, D1 protein and Rubisco large subunit. Investigated leaf types revealed different adjustment mechanisms to keep effective photosynthesis. Rather stable diurnal accumulation of light harvesting complex II in mature leaves enabled efficient excitation energy utilization (negative L-band) what triggered faster D1 protein degradation at high light. However, after photoinhibition, greater accumulation of D1 during the night enabled them faster recovery. So, the most photosynthetic parameters, as the maximum quantum yield for primary photochemistry, electron transport and overall photosynthetic efficiency in mature leaves successfully restored to their initial values at 1a.m. Reduced connectivity of light harvesting complexes II to its reaction centers (positive L-band) in young leaves increased dissipation of excess light causing less pressure to D1 and its slower degradation. Decreased electron transport in young leaves, due to reduced transfer beyond primary acceptor QA(-) most probably additionally induced degradation of Rubisco large subunit what consequently led to the stronger decrease of overall photosynthetic efficiency in young leaves at noon.

  6. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L.) in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections) or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica), within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color) and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers). Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems. PMID:20167055

  7. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of a hexane extract of Tunisian caprifig latex from the unripe fruit of Ficus carica.

    PubMed

    Lazreg-Aref, Houda; Mars, Massoud; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Aouni, Mahjoub; Said, Khaled

    2012-04-01

    The plant kingdom has become a target in the search for new drugs and biologically active lead compounds. The common Jrani Tunisian caprifig Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) is one of the large number of plant species that are used in folklore medicine yet to be investigated for the treatment of many diseases, including those of infectious nature. Hexane extract of the Tunisian common Jrani caprifig latex was assayed for antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Chemical composition of the extract was also investigated. The hexane extract was obtained from Tunisian Jrani caprifig latex by maceration, and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The extract was tested in vitro for antibacterial activity by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also determined for all the test cultures. Thirty-six compounds of the extract were identified, 90.56% of the total area of peaks were coumarins. A strong bactericidal effect was demonstrated. The most sensitive bacteria were Staphylococcus saprophyticus clinical isolate, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, with a MIC of 19 µg/mL. These findings demonstrate an effective in vitro antibacterial activity of the hexane extract of caprifig latex.

  8. Propagation of Some Local Fig (Ficus carica L.) Cultivars by Hardwood Cuttings under the Field Conditions in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Aljane, Fateh; Nahdi, Sabrine

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out in Southeast of Tunisia in 2009 and 2010, in order to study the propagation of six (Ficus carica L.) cultivars by using hardwood cuttings under the field conditions. The effect of the cultivars and the type of buds, shoots age, shoots length, and shoots diameter were recorded. Ten cuttings per cultivar and/or cutting types with three replications were planted in rooting unit. Percentage of root emergence and six morphological parameters of young fig plants were measured. Results showed that the responses of cuttings as fig nursery plants presented a high variability among the five cultivars. The most widely varied characters were % root emergence (RE) and cumulative growth of young plant (CG). The first one ranged from 10% to 90%, the second varied within 32 and 112 cm. Concerning the ‘‘BITHER” cultivar, 6 cutting types with different age, length, and diameter were evaluated. Results showed a great variation in % of root emergence (0–90%), length of nursery plant (3–77 cm), and number of roots/nursery plant (0–29 roots). The present research showed that the hardwood cutting of local fig cultivars can be propagated under field conditions in Southeast of Tunisia. PMID:27437458

  9. In vitro antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of plant extracts from Spathodea campanulata, Ficus bubu, and Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Mbosso Teinkela, Jean Emmanuel; Assob Nguedia, Jules Clément; Meyer, Franck; Vouffo Donfack, Erik; Lenta Ndjakou, Bruno; Ngouela, Silvère; Tsamo, Etienne; Adiogo, Dieudonné; Guy Blaise Azebaze, Anatole; Wintjens, René

    2016-01-01

    African medicinal plants represent a prominent source of new active substances. In this context, three plants were selected for biological investigations based on their traditional uses. The antimicrobial and anti-proliferative features of three plants used for medicinal purpose were evaluated. The antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of Ficus bubu Warb. (Moraceae) stem bark and leaves, of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae) flowers, as well as those of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) latex, were determined using the microbroth dilution method against a set of bacteria and fungi pathogens including: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. saprophyticus, S. epidermididis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhimurium, Candida albicans, and Trichophyton rubrum. The tested concentrations of extracts ranged from 2500.0 to 2.4 μg/mL and MIC values were evaluated after 24 h incubation at 37 °C. Subsequently, MTT assay was used to estimate anti-proliferative activity of these methanol extracts and of F. bubu latex on three human cancer cell lines (U373 glioblastoma, A549 NSCLC, and SKMEL-28 melanoma). The methanol extract of F. bubu stem bark exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against C. albicans with a MIC value of 9.8 μg/mL, while the F. bubu latex and the methanol extract of F. bubu leaves induced significant anti-proliferative activity against lung (IC50 values of 10 and 14 μg/mL, respectively) and glioma (IC50 values of 13 and 16 μg/mL, respectively) cancer cells. These results indicate that effective drugs could be derived from the three studied plants.

  10. Changes in the phenolic and lipophilic composition, in the enzyme inhibition and antiproliferative activity of Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato fruits during maturation.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Menichini, Federica; Statti, Giancarlo A; Bonesi, Marco; Duez, Pierre; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2012-03-01

    Fruits of Ficus carica cultivar Dottato from Italy were examined to assess how the stage of ripeness influences their chemical composition, antioxidant activity, pancreatic lipase inhibition and antiproliferative properties on C32 melanoma cells. Fruits of the first harvest (June) showed a major content in furanocoumarins and pyranocoumarins whereas the fruits collected in September showed the highest polyphenolic content (11.9 mg/g of dried material). The total 70% ethanol extracts were portioned between methanol/water and n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, successively. Coumarins and fatty acid esters were the most abundant components of the n-hexane fractions. The dichloromethane fractions showed as major components 2 furanocoumarins (rutarenin and pimpinellin). The total extracts of F. carica cv. Dottato exhibited a significant dose-dependent antiradical and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activity, particularly fruits of the first harvest (June) that showed the highest activity with IC50 of 1.64 mg/mL and 0.004 mg/mL, respectively. Among single fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction from the second harvest (July) showed the highest antiradical activity with an IC50 value of 0.05 mg/mL while the dichloromethane fraction showed the best inhibition of lipid peroxidation with an IC50 value of 0.02 mg/mL. Dichloromethane fractions showed the highest photodynamic cytotoxicity with an IC50<5 μg/mL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation of stress-related genes of rubber particles and latex in fig tree (Ficus carica) and their expressions by abiotic stress or plant hormone treatments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Sun; Kim, Yeon Ok; Ryu, Hyun Ju; Kwak, Yeon Sig; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kang, Hunseung

    2003-04-01

    Two rubber particle protein genes and one latex gene in fig tree (Ficus carica) have been isolated and their expression following various abiotic stress treatments have been investigated. The two major proteins that are tightly associated with the catalytically active rubber particles have been sequenced to be peroxidase (POX) and trypsin inhibitor (TRI). A cDNA encoding a basic class I chitinase (CHI) has also been isolated from the fig tree latex. Wounding treatment strongly induced the expression of the three stress-related genes. Among the abiotic stresses investigated, drought treatment greatly induced the expression of POX, whereas the expression of CHI and TRI decreased after the same treatment. Cold treatment reduced slightly the transcript levels of the thee genes, and NaCl reduced marginally the expression of CHI. The expression of POX, CHI, and TRI was induced by jasmonic acid and abscisic acid, by jasmonic acid, and by salicylic acid, respectively. Different expression of the stress-related genes following various abiotic stress or plant hormone treatments suggests that a crosstalk exists between the signal transduction pathways elicited by abiotic stresses and hormones in plants. Our present results showing the expression of stress-related proteins on the surface of rubber particles and latex in F. carica also imply the possible role of rubber particles and latex in defense in rubber-producing plant species.

  12. First Report of the Fig Cyst Nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, on Fig Tree, Ficus carica, in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fengcheng; Henry, Neil; Yu, Qing

    2017-06-01

    Although fig trees are a popular ornamental fruit tree in subtropical regions, some hardy species, such as Ficus carica, have been grown in the west coast of British Columbia and southern Ontario in Canada. The fig cyst nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, is a pest on fig plants, and the heavy infestation can cause retarded growth and yellowing of leaves (Maqbool et al., 1987). In the spring of 2016, a sample of rhizosphere from a potted fig (F. carica) seedling was submitted to the Nematology Laboratory, Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The sample was collected from a nursery in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, during an inspection to support export certification. The fig trees in the nursery had been grown in the outside fields during the growing seasons and potted and moved to indoor during the winters for last 3 years. The sample was subjected to a nematode extraction process, including decanting and sieving and misting, and lemon-shaped cysts and second-stage juveniles of Heterodera sp. were recovered from the sample examined. The morphological and molecular analyses of the cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles from both the roots and the crushed cysts identified the species as Heterodera fici Kirjanova. The cysts were characterized by their dark brown color and lemon shape, as well as distinct necks and vulval cones. The vulval cones were observed having an ambifenestrate fenestra (Fig. 1AFig. 1Photomicrographs of Heterodera fici on fig tree from Ontario, Canada. A, B. Cyst vulval cones with the ambifenestrate fenestra in A) and well-developed underbridge and bullae in B). C-E. The second-stage juveniles from a crushed cyst with the whole body in C), the anterior region in D) and the posterior region in E).), dome-shaped bullae scattered around the underbridge plane (Fig. 1B), well-developed underbridge (Fig. 1B), and coarse zig-zag ridges surrounding the fenestra on the surface. The cyst measurements (n = 3) were length 608.7 ± 91.6 (506

  13. First Report of the Fig Cyst Nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, on Fig Tree, Ficus carica, in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fengcheng; Henry, Neil; Yu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Although fig trees are a popular ornamental fruit tree in subtropical regions, some hardy species, such as Ficus carica, have been grown in the west coast of British Columbia and southern Ontario in Canada. The fig cyst nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, is a pest on fig plants, and the heavy infestation can cause retarded growth and yellowing of leaves (Maqbool et al., 1987). In the spring of 2016, a sample of rhizosphere from a potted fig (F. carica) seedling was submitted to the Nematology Laboratory, Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The sample was collected from a nursery in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, during an inspection to support export certification. The fig trees in the nursery had been grown in the outside fields during the growing seasons and potted and moved to indoor during the winters for last 3 years. The sample was subjected to a nematode extraction process, including decanting and sieving and misting, and lemon-shaped cysts and second-stage juveniles of Heterodera sp. were recovered from the sample examined. The morphological and molecular analyses of the cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles from both the roots and the crushed cysts identified the species as Heterodera fici Kirjanova. The cysts were characterized by their dark brown color and lemon shape, as well as distinct necks and vulval cones. The vulval cones were observed having an ambifenestrate fenestra (Fig. 1AFig. 1Photomicrographs of Heterodera fici on fig tree from Ontario, Canada. A, B. Cyst vulval cones with the ambifenestrate fenestra in A) and well-developed underbridge and bullae in B). C–E. The second-stage juveniles from a crushed cyst with the whole body in C), the anterior region in D) and the posterior region in E).), dome-shaped bullae scattered around the underbridge plane (Fig. 1B), well-developed underbridge (Fig. 1B), and coarse zig-zag ridges surrounding the fenestra on the surface. The cyst measurements (n = 3) were length 608.7 ± 91.6 (506

  14. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using dried fruit extract of Ficus carica - Screening for its anticancer activity and toxicity in animal models.

    PubMed

    Jacob, S Justin Packia; Prasad, V L Siva; Sivasankar, S; Muralidharan, P

    2017-04-01

    There is an increasing commercial demand for various nanoparticles due to their extensive applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy and medicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. Fig has been a typical fruit component of the health-promoting Mediterranean diet for a very long time. In the present study, we describe a cost effective and eco-friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from 1 mM AgNO3 solution through the extract of dried fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV absorption spectroscopy and SEM. The sizes of the spherical silver particles were found to be in the range of 54-89 nm. The biologically synthesized nanoparticles also exhibited a significant cytotoxic effect on MCF7cell lines and further animal acute toxicity results state that the above AgNPs are toxicologically safe by oral administration.

  15. In vitro antioxidant, collagenase inhibition, and in vivo anti-wrinkle effects of combined formulation containing Punica granatum, Ginkgo biloba, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract

    PubMed Central

    Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Jung, Un Sun; Lee, Ha Youn; Kim, Young Hoon; Ryu, Eun Kyung; Chang, Moon Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background In phytotherapy, the therapeutic potential is based on the combined action of different herbal drugs. Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-collagenase (in vitro), and anti-wrinkle (in vivo) effect of combined formulation containing Ginkgo biloba, Punica granatum, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract. Methods Antioxidant evaluation was based on the scavenging activity of free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H2O2, and O2−) and the anti-collagenase activity was based on the reduction of collagenase enzyme in vitro. In an in vivo study, 21 female subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled trail. Facial wrinkle, especially the crow’s feet region of eyes, was treated with topical formulated 2% cream for 56 days and compared with the placebo. Results In the in vitro study, the combination of fruits extract showed a higher antioxidant activity which was comparable with the positive standard (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, and Trolox). The data also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase. In the in vivo study, treatment with 2% formulated cream for 56 days significantly reduced the percentage of wrinkle depth, length, and area with 11.5, 10.07, and 29.55, respectively. Conclusion The combined formulation of fruit extracts showed excellent antioxidative and anti-collagenase activity as well as a significant effect on anti-wrinkle activity on human skin. PMID:26203268

  16. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the chemical characterisation of modern and archaeological figs (Ficus carica).

    PubMed

    Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2011-06-24

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation, and analytical pyrolysis using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) for in situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Pyrolysis-silylation-GC/MS) were used to investigate the hydrolysable and soluble constituents, and the polymerised macromolecules of an archaeological fig (Ficus carica) recovered in Zaragoza (Spain), as well as of modern figs. The main aim was to study the compositional alterations undergone by the fig tissues in a particular archaeological environment: the fig was in a vessel and covered by a layer of a mixture of orpiment and gypsum. A comparison between the GC/MS results from modern and archaeological figs revealed that degradative reactions took place, leading to the disappearance/depletion of reactive (unsaturated fatty acids) and sensitive compounds (phytosterols and triterpenes). Py-silylation-GC/MS data provided evidence of a significant degradation of the saccharide and lipid components of the fig tissue, which left a residue enriched in polyphenols and polyesters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Volatile profile of Greek dried white figs (Ficus carica L.) and investigation of the role of β-damascenone in aroma formation in fig liquors.

    PubMed

    Palassarou, Maria; Melliou, Eleni; Liouni, Maria; Michaelakis, Antonios; Balayiannis, George; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2017-05-05

    During an investigation of the chemical profile of Greek figs (Ficus carica L.), several aqueous ethanol extracts (liquors) were prepared from dried Smyrna fig varieties cultivated in the two major fig-producing geographical areas in Greece: Peloponnese and Evia Island. The distinctive aroma observed among the prepared fig liquors led to the investigation of the odor profile of the different fig cultivars through HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS analysis, with focus on the factors that affect it before and during the preparation of the respective liquors. Significant variation in volatiles was noticed among all fig cultivars, as also between each fig cultivar pulp and the respective liquor. The observed diversity was a result of chemical reactions taking place in the ethanol matrix during the preparation of the liquor. The 'key' odor compound of dried fig aroma was found to be β-damascenone. Owing to its low detection threshold and minute quantity in fig cultivars, the presence of β-damascenone was furthermore confirmed through GC/MS/MS and GC/TOF-MS. β-Damascenone was identified in variable quantities among fig varieties and their liquors, predominating in Kalamon fig cultivar of Peloponnese region, while its amount was found to be dependent on the postharvest storage time and preservation process of dried figs. Each of the studied fig cultivars and liquors showed a unique aroma profile, and the obtained results were used for the preparation of the first dried fig liqueur for potential commercial use with the highest content of β-damascenone. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Selective and reversible thiol-pegylation, an effective approach for purification and characterization of five fully active ficin (iso)forms from Ficus carica latex.

    PubMed

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Matagne, André; Wattiez, Ruddy; Bolle, Laetitia; Vandenameele, Julie; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2011-10-01

    The latex of Ficus carica constitutes an important source of many proteolytic components known under the general term of ficin (EC 3.4.22.3) which belongs to the cysteine proteases of the papain family. So far, no data on the purification and characterization of individual forms of these proteases are available. An effective strategy was used to fractionate and purify to homogeneity five ficin forms, designated A, B, C, D1 and D2 according to their sequence of elution from a cation-exchange chromatographic support. Following rapid fractionation on a SP-Sepharose Fast Flow column, the different ficin forms were chemically modified by a specific and reversible monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) reagent. In comparison with their un-derivatized counterparts, the mPEG-protein derivatives behaved differently on the ion-exchanger, allowing us for the first time to obtain five highly purified ficin molecular species titrating 1mol of thiol group per mole of enzyme. The purified ficins were characterized by de novo peptide sequencing and peptide mass fingerprinting analyzes, using mass spectrometry. Circular dichroism measurements indicated that all five ficins were highly structured, both in term of secondary and tertiary structure. Furthermore, analysis of far-UV CD spectra allowed calculation of their secondary structural content. Both these data and the molecular masses determined by MS reinforce the view that the enzymes belong to the family of papain-like proteases. The five ficin forms also displayed different specific amidase activities against small synthetic substrates like dl-BAPNA and Boc-Ala-Ala-Gly-pNA, suggesting some differences in their active site organization. Enzymatic activity of the five ficin forms was completely inhibited by specific cysteine and cysteine/serine proteases inhibitors but was unaffected by specific serine, aspartic and metallo proteases inhibitors.

  19. Identification of RAN1 orthologue associated with sex determination through whole genome sequencing analysis in fig (Ficus carica L.).

    PubMed

    Mori, Kazuki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Nogata, Hitoshi; Hirata, Chiharu; Tashiro, Kosuke; Habu, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Sangwan; Himeno, Shuichi; Kuhara, Satoru; Ikegami, Hidetoshi

    2017-01-25

    With the aim of identifying sex determinants of fig, we generated the first draft genome sequence of fig and conducted the subsequent analyses. Linkage analysis with a high-density genetic map established by a restriction-site associated sequencing technique, and genome-wide association study followed by whole-genome resequencing analysis identified two missense mutations in RESPONSIVE-TO-ANTAGONIST1 (RAN1) orthologue encoding copper-transporting ATPase completely associated with sex phenotypes of investigated figs. This result suggests that RAN1 is a possible sex determinant candidate in the fig genome. The genomic resources and genetic findings obtained in this study can contribute to general understanding of Ficus species and provide an insight into fig's and plant's sex determination system.

  20. Identification of RAN1 orthologue associated with sex determination through whole genome sequencing analysis in fig (Ficus carica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kazuki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Nogata, Hitoshi; Hirata, Chiharu; Tashiro, Kosuke; Habu, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Sangwan; Himeno, Shuichi; Kuhara, Satoru; Ikegami, Hidetoshi

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of identifying sex determinants of fig, we generated the first draft genome sequence of fig and conducted the subsequent analyses. Linkage analysis with a high-density genetic map established by a restriction-site associated sequencing technique, and genome-wide association study followed by whole-genome resequencing analysis identified two missense mutations in RESPONSIVE-TO-ANTAGONIST1 (RAN1) orthologue encoding copper-transporting ATPase completely associated with sex phenotypes of investigated figs. This result suggests that RAN1 is a possible sex determinant candidate in the fig genome. The genomic resources and genetic findings obtained in this study can contribute to general understanding of Ficus species and provide an insight into fig’s and plant’s sex determination system. PMID:28120935

  1. The effect of the hexanic extracts of fig (Ficus carica) and olive (Olea europaea) fruit and nanoparticles of selenium on the immunogenicity of the inactivated avian influenza virus subtype H9N2.

    PubMed

    Asl Najjari, Amir Hossein; Rajabi, Zolfaghar; Vasfi Marandi, Mehdi; Dehghan, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is a contagious viral disease that is seen in avian, human and other mammals, so its control is important. Vaccination against influenza virus subtype H9N2 is one of the ways in controlling program, for this reason several vaccines has been produced. Recently, application of inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines in poultry for controlling low pathogenic avian influenza is increasing. At present, oils that are used as adjuvant in commercial vaccines are mineral oils, which not only lack immunizing effect, but also produce some detriments. The aim of this study is the evaluation the immunogenicity of vegetable oils, which are more metabolizable and safer than mineral oils. In this study the efficacy of hexanic extracts of fig (Ficus carica) and olive (Olea europaea) fruit and also nano-selenium on the immunogenicity of the inactivated avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 was evaluated in broiler chickens. The results indicated that the prepared emulsions could elicit a little degree of immunity, but they could not inhibit the anamnestic response and infection. With regard to the results, it seems that the intact mixture of fig and olive fruit hexanic extracts could not be administered as an immunoadjuvant in the vaccine, and about nano-selenium. In spite of positive effect on the immunogenicity of avian influenza virus subtype H9N2, it still needs more work.

  2. Proteolytic Activity in the Genus Ficus 1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Donald C.; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro C.; Whitaker, John R.

    1968-01-01

    The latices of only 13 of a total of 46 species of Ficus examined contained appreciable proteolytic activity. Therefore, high proteolytic activity in the latex is not a distinguishing feature of the genus. The latex of F. stenocarpa had the highest specific activity followed closely by the latices of F. carica and F. glabrata. Latices of 6 species of Ficus were examined by chromatography on CM-cellulose and compared with the results obtained for 9 varieties of F. carica. All of the latices were found to contain multiple proteolytic enzymes. Chromatographically, the multiple enzyme components of the several varieties of F. carica were more similar than those of the several species examined. The latices of 16 varieties of F. carica were all different as determined by free boundary electrophoresis although the specific proteolytic activity of the latices was reasonably constant. PMID:16656886

  3. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome and Hormonal Regulation of Pollinated and Parthenocarpic Fig (Ficus carica L.) Fruit Suggest that Fruit Ripening Is Coordinated by the Reproductive Part of the Syconium.

    PubMed

    Rosianski, Yogev; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Freiman, Zohar E; Lama, Kumar; Milo-Cochavi, Shira; Dahan, Yardena; Kerem, Zohar; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2016-01-01

    In the unconventional climacteric fig (Ficus carica) fruit, pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit of the same genotype exhibit different ripening characteristics. Integrative comparative analyses of tissue-specific transcript and of hormone levels during fruit repining from pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fig fruit were employed to unravel the similarities and differences in their regulatory processes during fruit repining. Assembling tissue-specific transcripts into 147,000 transcripts with 53,000 annotated genes provided new insights into the spatial distribution of many classes of regulatory and structural genes, including those related to color, taste and aroma, storage, protein degradation, seeds and embryos, chlorophyll, and hormones. Comparison of the pollinated and parthenocarpic tissues during fruit ripening showed differential gene expression, especially in the fruit inflorescence. The distinct physiological green phase II and ripening phase III differed significantly in their gene-transcript patterns in both pulp and inflorescence tissues. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole fruits enabled the first determination of ripening-related hormone levels from pollinated and non-pollinated figs. Ethylene and auxin both increased during fruit ripening, irrespective of pollination, whereas no production of active gibberellins or cytokinins was found in parthenocarpic or pollinated ripening fruit. Tissue-specific transcriptome revealed apparent different metabolic gene patterns for ethylene, auxin and ABA in pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fruit, mostly in the fruit inflorescence. Our results demonstrate that the production of abscisic acid (ABA), non-active ABA-GE conjugate and non-active indoleacetic acid (IAA)-Asp conjugate in pollinated fruits is much higher than in parthenocarpic fruits. We suggest that fruit ripening is coordinated by the reproductive part of the syconium and the differences in ABA production between pollinated and parthenocarpic fig fruit might

  4. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome and Hormonal Regulation of Pollinated and Parthenocarpic Fig (Ficus carica L.) Fruit Suggest that Fruit Ripening Is Coordinated by the Reproductive Part of the Syconium

    PubMed Central

    Rosianski, Yogev; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Freiman, Zohar E.; Lama, Kumar; Milo-Cochavi, Shira; Dahan, Yardena; Kerem, Zohar; Flaishman, Moshe A.

    2016-01-01

    In the unconventional climacteric fig (Ficus carica) fruit, pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit of the same genotype exhibit different ripening characteristics. Integrative comparative analyses of tissue-specific transcript and of hormone levels during fruit repining from pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fig fruit were employed to unravel the similarities and differences in their regulatory processes during fruit repining. Assembling tissue-specific transcripts into 147,000 transcripts with 53,000 annotated genes provided new insights into the spatial distribution of many classes of regulatory and structural genes, including those related to color, taste and aroma, storage, protein degradation, seeds and embryos, chlorophyll, and hormones. Comparison of the pollinated and parthenocarpic tissues during fruit ripening showed differential gene expression, especially in the fruit inflorescence. The distinct physiological green phase II and ripening phase III differed significantly in their gene-transcript patterns in both pulp and inflorescence tissues. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole fruits enabled the first determination of ripening-related hormone levels from pollinated and non-pollinated figs. Ethylene and auxin both increased during fruit ripening, irrespective of pollination, whereas no production of active gibberellins or cytokinins was found in parthenocarpic or pollinated ripening fruit. Tissue-specific transcriptome revealed apparent different metabolic gene patterns for ethylene, auxin and ABA in pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fruit, mostly in the fruit inflorescence. Our results demonstrate that the production of abscisic acid (ABA), non-active ABA–GE conjugate and non-active indoleacetic acid (IAA)–Asp conjugate in pollinated fruits is much higher than in parthenocarpic fruits. We suggest that fruit ripening is coordinated by the reproductive part of the syconium and the differences in ABA production between pollinated and parthenocarpic fig fruit

  5. Expression of FcFT1, a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, is regulated by light and associated with inflorescence differentiation in fig (Ficus carica L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Because the floral induction occurs in many plants when specific environmental conditions are satisfied, most plants bloom and bear fruit during the same season each year. In fig, by contrast, the time interval during which inflorescence (flower bud, fruit) differentiation occurs corresponds to the shoot elongation period. Fig trees thus differ from many species in their reproductive growth characteristics. To date, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this unorthodox physiology of floral induction and fruit setting in fig trees have not been elucidated. Results We isolated a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene from fig and examined its function, characteristics, and expression patterns. The isolated gene, F. carica FT (FcFT1), is single copy in fig and shows the highest similarity at the amino acid level (93.1%) to apple MdFT2. We sequenced its upstream region (1,644 bp) and identified many light-responsive elements. FcFT1 was mainly expressed in leaves and induced early flowering in transgenic tobacco, suggesting that FcFT1 is a fig FT ortholog. Real-time reverse-transcription PCR analysis revealed that FcFT1 mRNA expression occurred only in leaves at the lower nodes, the early fruit setting positions. mRNA levels remained a constant for approximately 5 months from spring to autumn, corresponding almost exactly to the inflorescence differentiation season. Diurnal variation analysis revealed that FcFT1 mRNA expression increased under relative long-day and short-day conditions, but not under continuous darkness. Conclusion These results suggest that FcFT1 activation is regulated by light conditions and may contribute to fig’s unique fruit-setting characteristics. PMID:24341499

  6. Expression of FcFT1, a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, is regulated by light and associated with inflorescence differentiation in fig (Ficus carica L.).

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Hidetoshi; Nogata, Hitoshi; Inoue, Yoshiaki; Himeno, Shuichi; Yakushiji, Hiroshi; Hirata, Chiharu; Hirashima, Keita; Mori, Masashi; Awamura, Mitsuo; Nakahara, Takao

    2013-12-16

    Because the floral induction occurs in many plants when specific environmental conditions are satisfied, most plants bloom and bear fruit during the same season each year. In fig, by contrast, the time interval during which inflorescence (flower bud, fruit) differentiation occurs corresponds to the shoot elongation period. Fig trees thus differ from many species in their reproductive growth characteristics. To date, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this unorthodox physiology of floral induction and fruit setting in fig trees have not been elucidated. We isolated a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene from fig and examined its function, characteristics, and expression patterns. The isolated gene, F. carica FT (FcFT1), is single copy in fig and shows the highest similarity at the amino acid level (93.1%) to apple MdFT2. We sequenced its upstream region (1,644 bp) and identified many light-responsive elements. FcFT1 was mainly expressed in leaves and induced early flowering in transgenic tobacco, suggesting that FcFT1 is a fig FT ortholog. Real-time reverse-transcription PCR analysis revealed that FcFT1 mRNA expression occurred only in leaves at the lower nodes, the early fruit setting positions. mRNA levels remained a constant for approximately 5 months from spring to autumn, corresponding almost exactly to the inflorescence differentiation season. Diurnal variation analysis revealed that FcFT1 mRNA expression increased under relative long-day and short-day conditions, but not under continuous darkness. These results suggest that FcFT1 activation is regulated by light conditions and may contribute to fig's unique fruit-setting characteristics.

  7. Attack by Pyemotes johnmoseri (Acari:Pyemotidae) on Hypoborus ficus (Coleoptera:Scolytidae) in fig trees in Turkey

    Treesearch

    T. Aksit; I. Cakmak; J. Moser

    2007-01-01

    The Aegean Region of Turkey is one of the largest dried fig producers in the world. A Turkish cultivar sarilop (Ficus carica cv. Calimyrna L.) possesses good qualities for drying process, and has been grown extensively for many years in Turkey. Hypoborus ficus is the most common xylophagous insect attacking fig trees in Aydin (Aks¸...

  8. Anthelmintic activity of the latex of Ficus species.

    PubMed

    de Amorin, A; Borba, H R; Carauta, J P; Lopes, D; Kaplan, M A

    1999-03-01

    The latex of some species of Ficus (Moraceae) has been traditionally used as vermifuge in Central and South America. It has been accepted that anthelmintic activity is due to a proteolytic fraction called ficin. In the present study, the anthelmintic activity of the latex of Ficus insipida Willd. and Ficus carica L. has been investigated in NIH mice naturally infected with Syphacia obvelata, Aspiculuris tetraptera and Vampirolepis nana. The latex of F. insipida, administered by intragastric route in doses of 4 ml/kg/day during three consecutive days, were effective in the removal of 38.6% of the total number of S. obvelata, being inexpressive in the removal of A. tetraptera (8.4%) and segments of V. nana (6.3%). The latex of F. carica, administered in doses of 3 ml/kg/day, during three consecutive days, was effective in the removal of S. obvelata (41.7%) and it did not produce significant elimination of A. tetraptera (2.6%) and V. nana (8.3%). The observed high acute toxicity with hemorrhagic enteritis, in addition to a weak anthelmintic efficacy, do not recommend the use of these lattices in traditional medicine.

  9. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.).

    PubMed

    Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Stover, Ed; Velasco, Dianne; Koehmstedt, Anne

    2010-06-01

    One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig representing the four fig types, Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed for genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation using genetic polymorphism at 15 microsatellite loci. The collection showed considerable polymorphism with observed number of alleles per locus ranging from four for five different loci, MFC4, LMFC14, LMFC22, LMFC31 and LMFC35 to nine for LMFC30 with an average of 4.9 alleles per locus. Seven of the 15 loci included in the genetic structure analyses exhibited significant deviation from panmixia, of which two showed excess and five showed deficiency of heterozygote. The cluster analysis (CA) revealed ten groups with 32 instances of synonymy among cultivars and groups differed significantly for frequency and composition of alleles for different loci. The principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the results of CA with some groups more differentiated than the others. Further, the model based Bayesian approach clustering suggested a subtle population structure with mixed ancestry for most figs. The gene diversity analysis indicated that much of the total variation is found within groups (H (G) /H (T) = 0.853; 85.3%) and the among groups within total component (G (GT) = 0.147) accounted for the remaining 14.7%, of which approximately 64% accounted for among groups within clusters (G (GC) = 0.094) and approximately 36% among clusters (G (CT) = 0.053). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed approximately similar results with nearly 87% of variation within groups and approximately 10% among groups within clusters, and approximately 3% among clusters. Overall, the gene pool of cultivated fig analyzed possesses substantial genetic polymorphism but exhibits narrow differentiation. It is evident that fig accessions from Turkmenistan are somewhat genetically different from the rest of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus figs. The long history of domestication and cultivation with widespread dispersal of cultivars with many synonyms has resulted in a great deal of confusion in the identification and classification of cultivars in fig.

  10. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig representing the four fig types, Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed for genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation using genetic polymorphism at 17 microsatellite loci. The collection showed considerable polymorphism with ...

  11. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Ed; Velasco, Dianne; Koehmstedt, Anne

    2010-01-01

    One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig representing the four fig types, Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed for genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation using genetic polymorphism at 15 microsatellite loci. The collection showed considerable polymorphism with observed number of alleles per locus ranging from four for five different loci, MFC4, LMFC14, LMFC22, LMFC31 and LMFC35 to nine for LMFC30 with an average of 4.9 alleles per locus. Seven of the 15 loci included in the genetic structure analyses exhibited significant deviation from panmixia, of which two showed excess and five showed deficiency of heterozygote. The cluster analysis (CA) revealed ten groups with 32 instances of synonymy among cultivars and groups differed significantly for frequency and composition of alleles for different loci. The principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the results of CA with some groups more differentiated than the others. Further, the model based Bayesian approach clustering suggested a subtle population structure with mixed ancestry for most figs. The gene diversity analysis indicated that much of the total variation is found within groups (HG/HT = 0.853; 85.3%) and the among groups within total component (GGT = 0.147) accounted for the remaining 14.7%, of which ~64% accounted for among groups within clusters (GGC = 0.094) and ~36% among clusters (GCT = 0.053). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed approximately similar results with nearly 87% of variation within groups and ~10% among groups within clusters, and ~3% among clusters. Overall, the gene pool of cultivated fig analyzed possesses substantial genetic polymorphism but exhibits narrow differentiation. It is evident that fig accessions from Turkmenistan are somewhat genetically different from the rest of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus figs. The long history of domestication and cultivation with widespread dispersal of cultivars with many synonyms has resulted in a great deal of confusion in the identification and classification of cultivars in fig. PMID:20217187

  12. Cross-reactivity between Ficus benjamina (weeping fig) and natural rubber latex.

    PubMed

    Brehler, R; Abrams, E; Sedlmayr, S

    1998-04-01

    The importance of hypersensitivity to Ficus allergens is reported. Cross-sensitization between fig (Ficus carica), weeping fig (F. benjamina [Fb]), and natural rubber latex (NRL) was confirmed by RAST inhibition. We performed skin prick tests with fresh Fb tree sap and NRL extracts in 346 consecutive patients and in 151 patients with immediate-type hypersensitivity to NRL. Total serum IgE and IgE antibodies to NRL and Ficus spp. were analyzed in sera. By the RAST-inhibition method, we studied cross-reactivity among latex, fig, and weeping fig. Sensitization to Fb was diagnosed in 23 of the 346 consecutive patients, and the simultaneous presence of latex-specific IgE was highly significant. Of 151 NRL-allergic patients, 35 were also sensitized to Fb. Cross-reacting IgE antibodies recognizing latex and Ficus allergens were demonstrated by RAST inhibition. The present study reinforces the importance of Fb as an indoor allergen. Cross-reacting IgE antibodies to NRL and Ficus spp. allergens are frequently found in the sera of atopic patients. Development of commercially available standardized extracts for skin tests is urgently necessary.

  13. Phenological adaptations in Ficus tikoua exhibit convergence with unrelated extra-tropical fig trees.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting-Ting; Compton, Stephen G; Yang, Yong-Jiang; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species) and fig wasps (Agaonidae), any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce) had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated) northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated.

  14. Phenological Adaptations in Ficus tikoua Exhibit Convergence with Unrelated Extra-Tropical Fig Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ting-Ting; Compton, Stephen G.; Yang, Yong-Jiang; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species) and fig wasps (Agaonidae), any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce) had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated) northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated. PMID:25474008

  15. Quantitative analysis of biomarker rutin in different species of genus Ficus by validated NP and RP-HPTLC methods.

    PubMed

    AlAjmi, Mohamed Fahad; Alam, Perwez; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali; Basudan, Omer Ahmed; Hussain, Afzal

    2015-11-01

    Biomarker rutin was analyzed in methanol extracts of leaves of five different species of genus Ficus (Ficus carica, Ficus nitida, Ficus ingens, Ficus palmata and Ficus vasta) by NP-HPTLC (Method I) and RP- HPTLC methods (Method II). The development and validation for method I was carried out with silica gel 60F254 plates using EA: GAA: FA: H2O (10:1:1:2.5, v/v/v/v) as developing system. Method II was carried out on silica gel 60F254 RP-18 plates using mobile phase ACN: H2O (4:6 v/v). Both analyses were scanned at 305 nm and were found to give well resolved peak of rutin at Rf0.28±0.01 and 0.68±0.03 for Method I and Method II, respectively. The percentage of rutin was found to be 0.51% & 0.66% in F. ingens, 0.24% & 0.54% in F. palmata and 0.14% & 0.17% in F. vasta by Method I & Method II, respectively. Method II (RP-HPTLC) was found to be more accurate, precise and sensitive than Method I. Method II can be used as an important tool for standardization and quality control of bulk drugs and in-process formulations of rutin.

  16. Four new compounds, ficusal, ficusesquilignan A, B, and ficusolide diacetate from the heartwood of Ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Li, Y C; Kuo, Y H

    2000-12-01

    Three new lignans, ficusal (1) and ficusesquilignans A (2), B (3) and one new gamma-lactone, ficusolide diacetate (4), were isolated from the wood of Ficus microcarpa L.f. Their structures were determined by spectral evidence.

  17. [Anaphylactic reaction to Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)].

    PubMed

    Werfel, S; Ruëff, F; Przybilla, B

    2001-10-01

    Ficus benjamina (weeping fig) is a widespread indoor ornamental plant. Allergens of Ficus benjamina are a well-known cause of IgE-mediated respiratory diseases. We treated a 32-year-old female who for 10 years had suffered from perennial rhinoconjunctivitis. When dusting her 2 meter high Ficus benjamina, she developed an anaphylactic reaction which resolved without sequelae. Skin prick testing revealed a strong immediate type reaction to a Ficus extract, the serum concentration of specific IgE-antibodies to Ficus was > 100 kU/I (CAP class 6). In view of these strong test reactions and the conclusive history, no challenge tests with Ficus allergens were performed. After removal of the Ficus plants which she had owned for 17 years and after thorough cleaning of her dwelling, the patient's symptoms of perennial rhinoconjunctivitis stopped. The patient also was sensitized to, but not allergic to natural rubber latex, which occurs frequently in Ficus allergy and probably is due to cross reactivity to allergens from both sources. As Ficus benjamina is an important source of indoor allergens, it should not be used in dwellings or work places.

  18. Hypersensitivity to latex and Ficus benjamina allergens.

    PubMed

    Delbourg, M F; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Guilloux, L; Ville, G

    1995-12-01

    Association between allergy to Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis, two botanically unrelated plants, was suspected in consequence of two clinical observations. Symptoms were rhinitis and asthma. This study was undertaken to assess the in vivo and in vitro cross-reactivity between Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis allergens. The two patients were asked about use and contact with latex devices and relationship between symptoms and Ficus benjamina exposure. Skin prick tests were performed with Ficus benjamina, Hevea brasiliensis extracts and common allergens. Double-blind nasal and bronchial challenge tests were done using the rinse fluid from a brand of latex gloves. Total and specific IgE antibodies to Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis were determined. In vitro cross-reactivity was investigated by means of CAP RAST and immunodot inhibition experiments. We observed that for the first patient the primary phenomenon is probably allergy to latex followed by allergy to Ficus benjamina. For the second patient, allergy to Ficus benjamina was diagnosed (improvement related to the avoidance of exposure to Ficus benjamina allergens) and positivity to latex skin prick tests may be due to the cross-reacting allergens. In vitro assays showed specific IgE antibodies to both allergens and cross-reactivity was confirmed in the two cases by reciprocal inhibition of the two extracts. The increasing risk of sensitization to widely used latex devices and extensive exposure to Ficus species in households and offices indicates increased allergenic risk from this newly recognized cross-reactivity.

  19. Sensory profiles for dried fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars commercially grown and processed in California.

    PubMed

    Haug, Megan T; King, Ellena S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-08-01

    A trained sensory panel evaluated the 6 fig cultivars currently sold in the California dried fig market. The main flavor and aroma attributes determined by the sensory panel were "caramel," "honey," "raisin," and "fig," with additional aroma attributes: "common date," "dried plum," and "molasses." Sensory differences were observed between dried fig cultivars. All figs were processed by 2 commercial handlers. Processing included potassium sorbate as a preservative and SO2 application as an antibrowning agent for white cultivars. As a consequence of SO2 use during processing, high sulfite residues affected the sensory profiles of the white dried fig cultivars. Significant differences between dried fig cultivars and sources demonstrate perceived differences between processing and storage methods. The panel-determined sensory lexicon can help with California fig marketing.

  20. Mass modeling of fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit with some physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Feizollah; Rahmati, Satar

    2013-03-01

    Horticultural crops with the similar weight and uniform shape are in high demand in terms of marketing value, which are used as food. For proper design of grading systems, important relationships among the mass and other properties of fruits such as length, width, thickness, volumes, and projected areas must be known. The aim of this research was to measure and present some physical properties of fig fruits. In addition, Linear, Quadratic, S-curve, and Power models are used for mass predication of fig fruits based on measured physical properties. The results showed that all measured physical properties were statistically significant at the 1% probability level. For mass predication of fig fruits, the best and the worst models were obtained based on criteria projected area and thickness of the fruits with determination coefficients (R (2)) of 0.984 and 0.664, respectively. At last, from economical standpoint, mass modeling of fig fruits based on first projected area is recommended.

  1. Describing the appearance and flavor profiles of fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    King, Ellena S; Hopfer, Helene; Haug, Megan T; Orsi, Jennifer D; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Gayle M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2012-12-01

    Twelve fig cultivars, including cultivars destined for the fresh and dried markets, were harvested from 6 locations and evaluated by a trained panel using descriptive sensory analysis. Instrumental measurements were taken at harvest and also during sensory analysis. Each fresh fig cultivar had a characteristic appearance and flavor sensory profile regardless of the source. The primary flavor attributes used to describe the fig cultivars were "fruity,"melon,"stone fruit,"berry,"citrus,"honey,"green," and "cucumber." Maturity levels significantly affected the chemical composition and sensory profiles of the fig cultivars. Less mature figs had a higher compression force, a thicker outer skin, and higher ratings for "green" and "latex" flavors, firmness, graininess, bitterness, tingling, and seed adhesiveness. Meanwhile, more mature figs had higher soluble solids concentration, and were perceptibly higher in "fruit" flavors, juiciness, stickiness, sliminess, and sweetness. The specific sensory terminology used for fig appearance and flavor profiles will assist with communication between marketers and consumers, which can increase fresh fig consumption.

  2. A novel form of ficin from Ficus carica latex: Purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Matagne, André; El Mahyaoui, Rachida; Wattiez, Ruddy; Azarkan, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    A novel ficin form, named ficin E, was purified from fig tree latex by a combination of cation-exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose Fast Flow, Thiopropyl Sepharose 4B and fplc-gel filtration chromatography. The new ficin appeared not to be sensitive to thiol derivatization by a polyethylene glycol derivative, allowing its purification. The protease is homogeneous according to PAGE, SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry, N-terminal micro-sequencing analyses and E-64 active site titration. N-terminal sequencing of the first ten residues has shown high identity with the other known ficin (iso)forms. The molecular weight was found to be (24,294±10)Da by mass spectrometry, a lower value than the apparent molecular weight observed on SDS-PAGE, around 27 kDa. Far-UV CD data revealed a secondary structure content of 22% α-helix and 26% β-sheet. The protein is not glycosylated as shown by carbohydrate analysis. pH and temperature measurements indicated maxima activity at pH 6.0 and 50 °C, respectively. Preliminary pH stability analyses have shown that the protease conserved its compact structure in slightly acidic, neutral and alkaline media but at acidic pH (<3), the formation of some relaxed or molten state was evidenced by 8-anilino-1-naphtalenesulfonic acid binding characteristics. Comparison with the known ficins A, B, C, D1 and D2 (iso)forms revealed that ficin E showed activity profile that looked like ficin A against two chromogenic substrates while it resembled ficins D1 and D2 against three fluorogenic substrates. Enzymatic activity of ficin E was not affected by Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) at a concentration up to 10mM. However, the activity was completely suppressed by Zn(2+) at a concentration of 1mM. Inhibitory activity measurements clearly identified the enzyme as a cysteine protease, being unaffected by synthetic (Pefabloc SC, benzamidine) and by natural proteinaceous (aprotinin) serine proteases inhibitors, by aspartic proteases inhibitors (pepstatin A) and by metallo-proteases inhibitors (EDTA, EGTA). Surprisingly, it was well affected by the metallo-protease inhibitor o-phenanthroline. The enzymatic activity was however completely blocked by cysteine proteases inhibitors (E-64, iodoacetamide), by thiol-blocking compounds (HgCl2) and by cysteine/serine proteases inhibitors (TLCK and TPCK). This is a novel ficin form according to peptide mass fingerprint analysis, specific amidase activity, SDS-PAGE and PAGE electrophoretic mobility, N-terminal sequencing and unproneness to thiol pegylation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Suppressors of cancer cell proliferation from fig (Ficus carica) resin: isolation and structure elucidation.

    PubMed

    Rubnov, S; Kashman, Y; Rabinowitz, R; Schlesinger, M; Mechoulam, R

    2001-07-01

    A mixture of 6-O-acyl-beta-D-glucosyl-beta-sitosterols, the acyl moeity being primarily palmitoyl and linoleyl with minor amounts of stearyl and oleyl, has been isolated as a potent cytotoxic agent from fig (Ficuscarica) latex and soybeans. Identity was established by spectroscopic methods (NMR, MS) and confirmed by chemical synthesis. Both the natural and the synthetic compounds showed in vitro inhibitory effects on proliferation of various cancer cell lines.

  4. Postharvest decay reduction of fig fruit (Ficus carica) by hot water sodium carbonate solutions dip.

    PubMed

    Molinu, M G; Venditti, T; Dore, A; D'Hallewin, G; Serusi, A; Del Caro, A; Agabbio, M

    2006-01-01

    Treatments as hot water dips or high temperature conditioning have been proven to be effective to control postharvest decay on various horticultural crops. These treatments reduce chilling injury and rot losses without causing detrimental effects on fruit firmness, flavour, taste or peel appearance. These technologies, aimed to control postharvest pathogens, can be easily matched with the use of "Generally Recognized as Safe" (G.R.A.S.) compounds and employed alternatively to pesticides, known to be harmful to health and environment. In this respect we studied the combined effect of sodium carbonate (SC) and hot water on the storability of black fig fruit cultivar 'Niedda Longa' of Sardinian germplasm. Second crop fig fruit, harvested in the middle of September, was dipped for one minute in water solutions containing 0, 0.05, 0.5, and 1% (w/v) of SC at 25 or 60 degrees C and then stored at 5 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH) for two weeks. After one and two weeks of storage decay, weight loss were monitored and visual assessment was scored. Treatments with hot solutions were more effective in controlling decay compared to cold ones and the best results were achieved with 0.5% of SC at 60 degrees C. This combination reduced the decay rate from 26% (control) to 0% after 1 week and from 50% to 14% after two weeks of storage, respectively. Lower or higher SC concentrations applied at 60 degrees C were less effective and, after two weeks of storage, decay percentages were 38 and 43.6%, respectively. Water dip at 60 degrees C did not affect the weight loss as compared to dips at 25 degrees C either after one or two weeks of storage. At the same time, a significant reduction was found only with 1% of SC at 25 degrees C. The fruit treated with 0.5% of SC at 60 degrees C also had the best visual assessment up to two weeks of storage.

  5. Yeasts isolated from figs (Ficus carica L.) as biocontrol agents of postharvest fruit diseases.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Moyano, S; Martín, A; Villalobos, M C; Calle, A; Serradilla, M J; Córdoba, M G; Hernández, A

    2016-08-01

    Fresh fruit is highly perishable during postharvest life, mainly due to fungal growth. Thus, fungal control is an important goal for the fruit industry. In this work, a selection of antagonistic yeasts isolated from fig and breba crops were screened in vitro. The isolated yeasts were challenged with three moulds isolated from decayed figs and breba crops, identified as Penicillium expansum M639 and Cladosporium cladosporioides M310 and M624, and pathogenic moulds Botrytis cinerea CECT20518 and Monilia laxa CA1 from culture collections. Two yeast isolates, Hanseniaspora opuntiae L479 and Metschnikowia pulcherrima L672, were selected for their ability to inhibit the growth of aforementioned moulds. These yeasts reduced the radial growth of moulds on PDA by between 45.23% and 66.09%. Antagonistic activity was associated with the interaction of live yeast cells with moulds. M. pulcherrima L672 apparently parasitised C. cladosporioides isolates. In addition, challenges were assayed using wounded apples and nectarines, with significant reductions in percent infection and lesion size for all moulds tested. To our knowledge, this is the first report identifying H. opuntiae as an antagonist against different pathogenic moulds.

  6. Characterisation of general proteolytic, milk clotting and antifungal activity of Ficus carica latex during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Raskovic, Brankica; Lazic, Jelena; Polovic, Natalija

    2016-01-30

    The physiological role of fig latex is to protect the plant from pathogens. Latex is a rich source of proteases, predominantly ficin. Fig latex also contains collagenolytic protease and chitinolytic enzymes. Our aim was to investigate changes in protein composition, enzyme and antifungal activities of fig latex during fruit ripening. Comparison of latex samples in different time periods showed a uniform increase of protein concentration in chronological order. The content of collagenolytic protease did not differ significantly in the latex samples, while the content of ficin decreased. Ficin-specific activity towards casein was the highest at the beginning of fruit development (about 80 U mg(-1)). Specific milk clotting activity increased as well as the abundance of casein band in the clots. Specific chitinolytic activity at the beginning of flowering was 6.5 times higher than the activity in the period when fruits are ripe. Antifungal activity is the most extensive in spring. Ficin forms with different casein specificities are present in different proportions during fruit ripening, which is of importance for applications in the dairy industry. The protection mechanism against insects and fungi, which relies on chitinolytic activity, is the most important in the early phases of flowering and is replaced with other strategies over time. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Preservation of different fig cultivars (Ficus carica L.) under modified atmosphere packaging during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, María del Carmen; Serradilla, Manuel Joaquín; Martín, Alberto; López Corrales, Margarita; Pereira, Cristina; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2016-04-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the stability of 'Cuello Dama Blanco' (CDB), 'Cuello Dama Negro' (CDN) and 'San Antonio' (SA) figs during post-harvest cold storage was evaluated by using three different films with a diverse number of microperforations (diameter, ø = 100 µm): M10 (16 holes), M30 (five holes) and M50 (three holes). A macroperforated film was used as control (five holes, ø = 9 mm). Gas composition, weight loss, percentage disorder, microbial counts and physico-chemical parameters were monitored during cold storage for 21 days. Furthermore, sensory quality was also evaluated. MAP has allowed the extension of cold storage and distribution time for the three different cultivars of figs, minimising weight loss and delaying pathological disorders related to endosepsis, smut, and souring. Of the three cultivars, the M50 batch (one hole per 50 mm) showed the best efficiency in terms of physico-chemical quality and delay of post-harvest decay, although the M30 batch was also found to be suitable for delaying the post-harvest decay, especially for the CDB cultivar. MAP is a useful tool to extend the storability with optimal quality properties for CDN and SA during 21 days of cold storage and 14-17 days of cold storage for CDB. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Interspecific Variation of Plant Traits Associated with Resistance to Herbivory Among Four Species of Ficus (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    XIANG, HUI; CHEN, JIN

    2004-01-01

    • Background and aims To understand the defensive characteristics of interspecies varieties and their responses to herbivory damage, four species of Ficus plants (Ficus altissima, F. auriculata, F. racemosa and F. hispida) were studied. They were similar in life form, but differed in successional stages. Of these, Ficus altissima is a late successional species, F. hispida is a typical pioneer and F. auriculata and F. racemosa are intermediate successional species. We addressed the following questions: (1) What is the difference in plant traits among the four species and are these traits associated with differences in herbivory damage levels? (2) What is the difference in the damage-induced changes among the four species? • Methods Herbivory damage was measured in the field on randomly planted seedlings of the four species of the same age. Defences to herbivory were also tested by feeding leaves of the four species to larvae of Asota caricae in the laboratory. A total of 14 characters such as water content, thickness, toughness, pubescence density on both sides, leaf expansion time, lifetime and the contents of total carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) were measured. Leaf calcium oxalate crystal (COC) density, total Ca and N content, leaf toughness and height were measured to investigate induced responses to artificial herbivory among the four species. • Key results and conclusions Herbivory damage in the four studied species varied greatly. The pioneer species, F. hispida, suffered the most severe herbivory damage, while the late successional species, F. altissima, showed the least damage. A combination of several characteristics such as high in content of N, Ca and P and low in leaf toughness, lifetime and C : N ratio were associated with increased herbivore damage. The late successional species, F. altissima, might also incorporate induced defence strategies by means of an increase in leaf COC and

  9. Interspecific variation of plant traits associated with resistance to herbivory among four species of Ficus (moraceae).

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hui; Chen, Jin

    2004-09-01

    To understand the defensive characteristics of interspecies varieties and their responses to herbivory damage, four species of Ficus plants (Ficus altissima, F. auriculata, F. racemosa and F. hispida) were studied. They were similar in life form, but differed in successional stages. Of these, Ficus altissima is a late successional species, F. hispida is a typical pioneer and F. auriculata and F. racemosa are intermediate successional species. We addressed the following questions: (1) What is the difference in plant traits among the four species and are these traits associated with differences in herbivory damage levels? (2) What is the difference in the damage-induced changes among the four species? Herbivory damage was measured in the field on randomly planted seedlings of the four species of the same age. Defences to herbivory were also tested by feeding leaves of the four species to larvae of Asota caricae in the laboratory. A total of 14 characters such as water content, thickness, toughness, pubescence density on both sides, leaf expansion time, lifetime and the contents of total carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) were measured. Leaf calcium oxalate crystal (COC) density, total Ca and N content, leaf toughness and height were measured to investigate induced responses to artificial herbivory among the four species. and conclusions Herbivory damage in the four studied species varied greatly. The pioneer species, F. hispida, suffered the most severe herbivory damage, while the late successional species, F. altissima, showed the least damage. A combination of several characteristics such as high in content of N, Ca and P and low in leaf toughness, lifetime and C : N ratio were associated with increased herbivore damage. The late successional species, F. altissima, might also incorporate induced defence strategies by means of an increase in leaf COC and toughness.

  10. An unusual thermostable aspartic protease from the latex of Ficus racemosa (L.).

    PubMed

    Devaraj, K B; Gowda, Lalitha R; Prakash, V

    2008-02-01

    The most extensively studied ficins have been isolated from the latex of Ficus glabrata and Ficus carica. However the proteases (ficins) from other species are less known. The purification and characterization of a protease from the latex of Ficus racemosa is reported. The enzyme purified to homogeneity is a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight of 44,500+/-500Da as determined by MALDI-TOF. The enzyme exhibited a broad spectrum of pH optima between pH 4.5-6.5 and showed maximum activity at 60+/-0.5 degrees C. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by pepstatin-A indicating that the purified enzyme is an aspartic protease. Far-UV circular dichroic spectra revealed that the purified enzyme contains predominantly beta-structures. The purified protease is thermostable. The apparent T(m), (mid point of thermal inactivation) was found to be 70+/-0.5 degrees C. Thermal inactivation was found to follow first order kinetics at pH 5.5. Activation energy (E(a)) was found to be 44.0+/-0.3kcal mol(-1). The activation enthalpy (DeltaH *), free energy change (DeltaG *) and entropy (DeltaS *) were estimated to be 43+/-4kcal mol(-1), -26+/-3kcal mol(-1) and 204+/-10cal mol(-1)K(-1), respectively. Its enzymatic specificity studied using oxidized B chain of insulin indicates that the protease preferably hydrolyzed peptide bonds C-terminal to glutamate, leucine and phenylalanine (at P1 position). The broad specificity, pH optima and elevated thermal stability indicate the protease is distinct from other known ficins and would find applications in many sectors for its unique properties.

  11. Geophysical Character and Geochemical Evolution of the Mesoproterozoic Figueira Branca Intrusive Suite, SW Amazon Craton (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louro, Vinicius; Cawood, Peter; Mantovani, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The Jauru Terrain hosts the Figueira Branca Intrusive Suite (FBS) in the SW of the Amazon Craton (Brazil). The FBS is a series of 1425 Ma layered mafic intrusions, previously interpreted as anorogenic. The FBS area is located in foreland to the Santa Helena orogen, formed by the subduction of the Rio Alegre Terrain under the Jauru Terrain. Potential field methods (magnetic and gravity), gamma-ray spectrometry, geochemical and isotope data were used to characterize and to model the extent of FBS magmatism, the distribution of faults and shear zones in the area, to evaluate affinities of the magmatic activity, and the relation between the FBS and the Santa Helena orogen. The geophysical methods identified three anomalies corresponding with FBS outcrops. A fourth anomaly with significantly higher amplitude was observed to the north of the three anomalies. From south to north, the anomalies were named Indiavaí, Azteca, Figueira Branca and Jauru. These anomalies were modeled and indicated a northwest-southeast trend, parallel to regional shear zones. The gamma-ray data enabled the collection of 50 samples from the FBS rocks, the Alto Jauru group that hosts the FBS, from nearby intrusive suites, and the Rio Alegre Terrain. The 30 freshest samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for oxides and some trace elements, 20 by ICP-MS for Rare-Earth Elements and 10 for Nd-Sr isotope analyses. The FBS samples were gabbros and gabbro-norites with Nb/Yb-Th/Yb and TiO2/Yb-Nb/Yb ratios indicating varying degrees of crustal interaction. The TiO2/Yb-Nb/Yb data suggested a subduction related component and the ɛNd-ɛSr indicated a juvenile source. Samples from coeval adjacent intermediate magma suites displayed similar characteristics, which suggest derivation from a bimodal source probably related with the subduction of the Rio Alegre Terrain. We interpreted the tectonic setting of the FBS as a result of a roll-back of the subducted slab, which resulted in rejuvenation of the

  12. The origin of the non-recombining region of sex chromosomes in Carica and Vasconcellea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carica and Vasconcellea are two closely related sister genera in the family Caricaceae, and were once classified as two sections under Carica. After the section Vasconcellea with 21 species was reinstated as a separate genus based on molecular marker data, papaya became the sole species in Carica. S...

  13. Anther culture of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Tsay, H S; Su, C Y

    1985-02-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) anther containing microspores in tetrad to early-binucleate stages were successfully cultured on 1/2 strength MS salts and vitamins with full strength Na-Fe-EDTA supplemented with 2 mg/l NAA, 1 mg/l BA and 6% sucrose for callus initiation and formation. Highest frequencies of callus induction were obtained when anthers at the uninucleate stage were cultured in the dark. Haploid plantlets and pollen-derived embryoids were obtained from anthers cultured at the uninucleate stage on solidified MS medium containing 3% sucrose without any growth regulators under a low light intensity (1,500 lux). Large quantities of embryoids were obtained when the original embryoids were transferred to MS medium with 3% sucrose and no growth regulators. Cytology of root tips of embryoid-derived plants confirmed the haploid chromosome number of 9 indicating that the embryoids originated from pollen.

  14. Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T T; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2013-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

  16. Ecophysiology of papaya Carica papaya L.: a review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses t...

  17. Different ontogenetic processes promote dicliny in Ficus L. (Moraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso-Alves, João Paulo; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo; Peng, Yang-Qiong; Teixeira, Simone Pádua

    2014-05-01

    The absence of reproductive organs in flowers may ontogenetically arise from inception or by abortion during development. Ficus L., a species-rich genus of angiosperms, is an interesting model for floral developmental studies because of the diversity of sexual systems it contains. This study compares the floral morphology of Ficus citrifolia (monoecious), Ficus religiosa (monoecious), Ficus racemosa (secondarily monoecious), and Ficus hispida (gynodioecious) across development to establish the ontogenetic pathways that result in diclinous flowers. Figs were collected at various developmental stages and were prepared for surface (scanning electron microscopy) and histological (light microscopy) analyses. Dicliny in Ficus is defined by stamen absence from inception in pistillate flowers and either pistil absence from inception (F. citrifolia, F. racemosa and F. religiosa) or by abortion (F. hispida) in staminate flowers. The perianth is formed by a single whorl of sepals, as found in other families related to Moraceae. The gynoecium is tubular during development, a condition that may be related with pseudomonomery. The staminate and neutral flowers in F. hispida develop by similar mechanisms. The diversity in the sexual systems in Ficus results from combinations of different floral morphs (dicliny), which originate from both previously established ontogenetic mechanisms (loss of reproductive organ function by abortion or from inception). These mechanisms act independently of phylogenetic proximity or mechanisms of sex system evolution in Ficus. Other aspects of floral development observed in Ficus are discussed in relation to their systematic position and reproductive biology.

  18. New Antifungal Pyranoisoflavone from Ficus tikoua Bur.

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shaopeng; Wu, Wenjun; Ji, Zhiqin

    2012-01-01

    Considering the undesirable attributes of synthetic fungicides and the availability of Ficus species in China, the stem of Ficus tikoua Bur. was investigated. One new antifungal pyranoisoflavone, 5,3′,4′-trihydroxy-2″,2″-dimethylpyrano (5″,6″:7,8) isoflavone (1), together with two known isoflavones, wighteone (2) and lupiwighteone (3) (with previously reported antifungal activities), were isolated from ethyl acetate extract by bioassay-guided fractionation. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis, such as NMR (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY), IR, UV and HRMS, as well as ESI-MSn analyses. The antifungal activities of 1–3 against Phytophthora infestans were evaluated by direct spore germination assay, and the IC50 values were 262.442, 198.153 and 90.365 μg·mL−1, respectively. PMID:22837700

  19. Ficus (Moraceae) and fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Bain, Anthony; Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jer; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2015-12-01

    Although Ficus-associated wasp fauna have been extensively researched in Australasia, information on these fauna in Taiwan is not well accessible to scientists worldwide. In this study, we compiled records on the Ficus flora of Taiwan and its associated wasp fauna. Initial agronomic research reports on Ficus were published in Japanese in 1917, followed by reports on applied biochemistry, taxonomy, and phenology in Chinese. On the basis of the phenological knowledge of 15 species of the Ficus flora of Taiwan, recent research has examined the pollinating and nonpollinating agaonid and chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Updating records according to the current nomenclature revealed that there are 30 taxa (27 species) of native or naturalized Ficus with an unusually high proportion of dioecious species (78%). Four species were observed to exhibit mutualism with more than one pollinating wasp species, and 18 of the 27 Ficus species were reported with nonpollinating wasp species. The number of nonpollinating wasp species associated with specific Ficus species ranges from zero (F. pumila) to 24 (F. microcarpa). Approximately half of the Taiwanese fig tree species have been studied with basic information on phenology and biology described in peer-reviewed journals or theses. This review provides a solid basis for future in-depth comparative studies. This summary of knowledge will encourage and facilitate continuing research on the pollination dynamics of Ficus and the associated insect fauna in Taiwan.

  20. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies on Ficus Microcarpa L. fil

    PubMed Central

    Kalaskar, Mohan G.; Surana, Sanjay J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ficus microcarpa L. fil. (Syn: Ficus retusa) (Moraceae) is well-known traditional medicinal plant. The bark is used for diverse health ailments in traditional and folklore remedies. Aims: The present study was undertaken to lay down pharmacognostical and phytochemical standards. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies on fresh, dried and powdered bark was carried out to determine it's morphological, anatomical, and phytochemical diagnostic features. Furthermore, major phytoconstituents were identified from the extracts with the help of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) study. Results: The morphology showed to be soft, brittle, rough, shallow vertical, irregularly oriented fissures, curved surface; with splintering, laminated fracture. Microscopically F. microcarpa showed all general characteristics of bark with some distinct differentiation. The phellem is thin and even, phelloderm few cell and rectangular and followed by smaller sclerides, the phloem rays are broad, multi-serrate and showed the scattered bundles of sclerides. The fluorescence and physicochemical standards for bark were established. HPLC analysis showed the predominant presence of therapeutically important phytoconstituents such as oleanolic, betulinic acid, lupeol, β-sitosterol, catechin, and gallic acid. Conclusion: The bark of F. microcarpa considered equivalent to other Ficus species, such as Ficus virens, Ficus infectoria, Ficus arnottiana, Ficus lacor, and Ficus talboti. However, there is no pharmacognostical and phytochemical reports on F. microcarpa to authenticate and differentiate it from similar species. Present work has described pharmacognostical and phytochemical characteristics of F. microcarpa and diagnostic features to differentiate it. PMID:24167337

  1. Efficacy of Ficus spp. on renal injury induced by hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Awad, Nagwa E; Hamed, Manal A; Seida, Ahmed A; Elbatanony, Marwa M

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol and hexane extracts of Ficus microcarpa, Ficus religiosa and Ficus mysorensis leaves were evaluated against renal injury induced by hypercholesterolaemia. Phytochemical screening of the investigated plants was undertaken. For the in vivo study, all rats were orally given cholesterol (30 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, BW) and leaves extract (500 mg kg⁻¹ BW) five times per week for 9 weeks. Hypercholesterolaemic rats showed significant increases in urea nitrogen and creatinine while serum protein and albumin levels, nitric oxide (NO), Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase and phospholipids in kidney tissue were all decreased. Treatment with leaves extract improved kidney function indices (urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum protein and albumin), kidney disorder biochemical parameters (NO, Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase and phospholipids), haematological profile (haemoglobin, RBCs and WBCs) and kidney histopathology. In conclusion, Ficus spp. succeeded in improving renal injury induced by hypercholesterolaemia, with the most potent effects seen while using Ficus microcarpa hexane extract.

  2. Enhanced and green extraction polyphenols and furanocoumarins from Fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves using deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Peng; Guo, Na; Niu, Li-Li; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2017-10-25

    Nowadays, green extraction of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants has gained increasing attention. As green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) have been highly rated to replace toxic organic solvents in extraction process. In present study, to simultaneous extraction five main bioactive compounds from fig leaves, DES was tailor-made. The tailor-made DES composed of a 3:3:3 molar ratio of glycerol, xylitol and D-(-)-Fructose showed enhanced extraction yields for five target compounds simultaneously compared with traditional methanol and non-tailor DESs. Then, the tailor-made DES based extraction methods have compared and microwave-assisted extraction was selected and optimized due to its high extraction yields with lower time consumption. The influencing parameters including extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions the extraction yield of caffeoylmalic acid, psoralic acid-glucoside, rutin, psoralen and bergapten was 6.482mg/g, 16.34mg/g, 5.207mg/g, 15.22mg/g and 2.475mg/g, respectively. Macroporous resin D101 has been used to recovery target compounds with recovery yields of 79.2%, 83.4%, 85.5%, 81.2% and 75.3% for caffeoylmalic acid, psoralic acid-glucoside, rutin, psoralen and bergapten, respectively. The present study suggests that DESs are truly designer and efficient solvents and the method we developed was efficient and sustainable for extraction main compounds from Fig leaves.mg/g. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ficus carica paste for the management of functional constipation.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyang-Im; Ha, Ki-Chan; Kim, Hye-Mi; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Park, Eun-Ock; Park, Byung-Hyun; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Hee Joo; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    背景和目的:便秘影响到世界人口的20%。这项研究目的是探讨无花果酱是 否可以用于韩国功能性便秘患者的治疗。方法与研究设计:我们进行了一项 随机、双盲与安慰剂对照试验。功能性便秘患者摄入无花果酱(n=40)或安 慰剂(n=40)8 周。测定无花果酱的疗效和安全性并且比较8 周前后干预的主 要疗效(结肠转运时间)和次要疗效(涉及到排便的调查问卷)。结果:与 安慰剂组比较,无花果酱能显著减少结肠转运时间,改善粪便类型和腹部不 适。血液和器官毒性的临床参数均保持在正常范围以内。结论:这些结果表 明无花果酱可能对便秘患者产生有益的影响。.

  4. Serum reactivity to other indoor ficus plants in patients with allergy to weeping fig (Ficus benjamina).

    PubMed

    Axelsson, I G; Johansson, S G; Larsson, P H; Zetterström, O

    1991-02-01

    Ornamental plants have long been used for indoor decoration. An example is the india rubber tree (Ficus elastica). With the increased popularity of green plants, both in private homes and public premises, small-leaf species, such as weeping fig or Ficus benjamina (Fb), have become widely used. Exposure to dust from Fb may cause sensitization and allergic airway symptoms, which among occupationally exposed plant keepers occur both in atopics and non-atopics. The serum reactivity to sap extracts from Fb and seven other indoor plants of the genus Ficus were investigated with RAST and a RAST inhibition technique, using sera from 12 atopic subjects and 12 plant keepers, sensitized to Fb. The allergenic similarity between the different extracts was found to be extensive. The specific IgE antibodies with the highest concentrations in serum were those against Fb and its variegate form, "star light", with decreasing values for the other species, especially those with larger leaves. The binding of IgE antibodies to the other Ficus RAST discs could be completely inhibited by extract of Fb. These reactions were probably due to cross-reactivity. Sensitization is believed to occur by inhalation of allergen-enriched dust, emanating from the leaves of the plants. The high allergenic potency of the species with many small leaves may be due to their large total leaf area.

  5. [Role of some species of Ficus in amelioration of environment].

    PubMed

    Seraia, A S; Tsybulia, N V; Dul'tseva, G G

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory investigation of gas-absorbing and antimicrobial (phytoncide) activity of Ficus species was carried out. It was demonstrated that some species of Ficus genus possessing gas-absorbing and phytoncide properties can be used to improve the sanitary characteristics of indoor air. The highest ability to absorb formaldehyde were exhibited by F. benjamina, F. retusa, F. binnendijkii, F. lyrata. The phytoncide action was revealed for all the investigated Ficus species against Escherichia coli, while only F. benjamina was active against Staphylococcus epidermidis. No activity against yeastlike fungi Candida albicans was revealed.

  6. The allergen of Ficus benjamina in house dust.

    PubMed

    Bircher, A J; Langauer, S; Levy, F; Wahl, R

    1995-03-01

    Ficus benjamina, a member of the Moraceae family, is a tropical, non-flowering green plant which is widely used for ornamental purposes. It is an occupational allergen in plant keepers but sensitization is also increasingly found in non-occupationally exposed atopic and non-atopic patients. The allergen of Ficus benjamina is located in the plant sap, a so-called latex. By radioallergosorbent test-(RAST)-inhibition studies allergen could also be demonstrated in the dust collected from the leaf surface and in dust samples from the floor of rooms where the plant was placed. These findings could result in more extensive preventive measures in patients sensitized to Ficus benjamina. In addition there is some evidence that possibly a crossreactivity between latex of Ficus benjamina and latex from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, may exist.

  7. Plant lipases: partial purification of Carica papaya lipase.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Ivanna; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Sandoval, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Lipases from plants have very interesting features for application in different fields. This chapter provides an overview on some of the most important aspects of plant lipases, such as sources, applications, physiological functions, and specificities. Lipases from laticifers and particularly Carica papaya lipase (CPL) have emerged as a versatile autoimmobilized biocatalyst. However, to get a better understanding of CPL biocatalytic properties, the isolation and purification of individual C. papaya lipolytic enzymes become necessary. In this chapter, a practical protocol for partial purification of the latex-associated lipolytic activity from C. papaya is given.

  8. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  9. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  10. Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex, and its predation by a coccinellid beetle, Delphastus catalinae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex, is a pest of ficus plant such as Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis and others. This invasive pest causes plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, wilting, and eventually, leaf drop. There is little information on the effectiveness of insect predators to contr...

  11. Predation of the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex by the coccinellid beetle, Delphastus catalinae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ficus Whitefly (Singhiella simplex) was first reported in Miami-Dade County in August 2007. This invasive pest causes infested plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, followed by leaf drop. The pest has been recorded on multiple ficus hosts including Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis, F. micro...

  12. FECUNDITY OF FICUS WHITEFLY, SINGHIELLA SIMPLEX (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE), AND ITS PREDATION BY DELPHASTUS CATALINAE (COLEOPTERA: COCCINELLIDAE)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ficus Whitefly (Singhiella simplex) was first reported in Miami-Dade County in August 2007. This invasive pest causes infested plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, followed by leaf drop. The pest has been recorded on multiple ficus hosts including Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis, F. micro...

  13. REPRODUCTION OF THE FICUS WHITEFLY, SINGHIELLA SIMPLEX (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE): A NEW INVASIVE PEST IN THE USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ficus Whitefly (Singhiella simplex) was first reported in Miami-Dade County in August 2007. This invasive pest causes infested plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, followed by leaf drop. The pest has been recorded on multiple ficus hosts including Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis, F. micro...

  14. Tectonic insights of the southwest Amazon Craton from geophysical, geochemical and mineralogical data of Figueira Branca mafic-ultramafic suite, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louro, Vinicius H. A.; Cawood, Peter A.; Mantovani, Marta S. M.; Ribeiro, Vanessa B.

    2017-06-01

    The Figueira Branca Suite is a layered mafic-ultramafic complex in the Jauru Terrane, southwest Amazon Craton. New lithological, geochemical, gamma-ray and potential field data, integrated with geological, isotope and paleomagnetic data are used to characterize this pulse of Mesoproterozoic extension-related magmatism. The Figueira Branca Suite formed through juvenile magma emplacement into the crust at 1425 Ma, coeval with the later stages of the Santa Helena Orogen. Gabbros and peridotite-gabbros display increasing enrichment of LREE, interpreted as evidence of progressive fractionation of the magma. Magnetic and gamma-ray data delimit the extent of magmatism within the suite to four bodies to the north of Indiavaí city. Modelling gravity and magnetic field data indicate that the anomalous sources are close to the surface or outcropping. These intrusions trend northwest over 8 km, with significant remanent magnetization that is consistent with published direction obtained through paleomagnetic data. The emplacement, mineralogy and geochemical signature point towards a back-arc extension tectonic framework in the later stages of the Santa Helena Orogen.

  15. African parasitoid fig wasp diversification is a function of Ficus species ranges.

    PubMed

    McLeish, Michael J; van Noort, Simon; Tolley, Krystal A

    2010-10-01

    Host specificity is a fundamental property implicit in obligate insect-plant associations. Rigid life history constraints exhibited by parasitoid fig wasps are believed to select for specialization directed at fig trees and this is supported by evidence of phenotypic adaptation to figs and partial co-speciation with the fig wasps they attack. Conversely, the ability to colonize such novel communities occurs under relaxed specificity, a behavior typified by more generalist groups such as parasitoids. The specificity directed towards Ficus species by Sycoryctinae parasitoid fig wasps is important in order to understand how this form of specialization influences their diversification and interactions with other fig wasp guilds. We use genetic distance analyses and reconstruct ancestral patterns of Ficus trait association with two genera of Sycoryctinae parasitoid fig wasps to identify evolutionary conservatism in Ficus species utilization. Ancestral state reconstructions of (i) affiliate Ficus subsection and (ii) syconia diameters of natal Ficus species indicate contrasting Ficus species ranges between Arachonia and Sycoryctes parasitoid genera. This work demonstrates that parasitoid speciation is not tightly constrained to Ficus speciation and rather a function of Ficus range limitations. Ficus evolution, ecology, and functional compatibility between parasitoid and Ficus traits appear to constrain parasitoid Ficus utilization. These results suggest that contrasting ecological settings and potential number of hosts available impose different ramifications for the evolution of parasitoid host specificity and so to the species interactions within the communities to which they belong.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saurabh; Cabot, Peter J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is linked with the generation and progression of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis, and anti-inflammatory drugs therefore have the potential to assist in the treatment of these conditions. Carica papaya is a tropical plant that is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments including inflammatory conditions. A literature search was conducted by using the keywords "papaya", "anti-inflammatory and inflammation" and "immunomodulation and immune" along with cross-referencing. Both in vitro and in vivo investigation studies were included. This is a review of all studies published since 2000 on the anti-inflammatory activity of papaya extracts and their effects on various immune-inflammatory mediators. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activities of recognized phytochemicals present in papaya are also included. Although in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that papaya extracts and papaya-associated phytochemicals possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, clinical studies are lacking.

  17. Chaos of Wolbachia sequences inside the compact fig syconia of Ficus benjamina (Ficus: moraceae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Yan; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Niu, Li-Ming; Ma, Guang-Chang; Cook, James M; Bian, Sheng-Nan; Fu, Yue-Guan; Huang, Da-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium (inflorescence) habitat for the lives of a complex assemblage of Chalcidoid insects. These diverse fig wasp species have intimate ecological relationships within the closed world of the fig syconia. Previous surveys of Wolbachia, maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infect vast numbers of arthropod hosts, showed that fig wasps have some of the highest known incidences of Wolbachia amongst all insects. We ask whether the evolutionary patterns of Wolbachia sequences in this closed syconium community are different from those in the outside world. In the present study, we sampled all 17 fig wasp species living on Ficus benjamina, covering 4 families, 6 subfamilies, and 8 genera of wasps. We made a thorough survey of Wolbachia infection patterns and studied evolutionary patterns in wsp (Wolbachia Surface Protein) sequences. We find evidence for high infection incidences, frequent recombination between Wolbachia strains, and considerable horizontal transfer, suggesting rapid evolution of Wolbachia sequences within the syconium community. Though the fig wasps have relatively limited contact with outside world, Wolbachia may be introduced to the syconium community via horizontal transmission by fig wasps species that have winged males and visit the syconia earlier.

  18. Chaos of Wolbachia Sequences Inside the Compact Fig Syconia of Ficus benjamina (Ficus: Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Li-Ming; Ma, Guang-Chang; Cook, James M.; Bian, Sheng-Nan; Fu, Yue-Guan; Huang, Da-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium (inflorescence) habitat for the lives of a complex assemblage of Chalcidoid insects. These diverse fig wasp species have intimate ecological relationships within the closed world of the fig syconia. Previous surveys of Wolbachia, maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infect vast numbers of arthropod hosts, showed that fig wasps have some of the highest known incidences of Wolbachia amongst all insects. We ask whether the evolutionary patterns of Wolbachia sequences in this closed syconium community are different from those in the outside world. In the present study, we sampled all 17 fig wasp species living on Ficus benjamina, covering 4 families, 6 subfamilies, and 8 genera of wasps. We made a thorough survey of Wolbachia infection patterns and studied evolutionary patterns in wsp (Wolbachia Surface Protein) sequences. We find evidence for high infection incidences, frequent recombination between Wolbachia strains, and considerable horizontal transfer, suggesting rapid evolution of Wolbachia sequences within the syconium community. Though the fig wasps have relatively limited contact with outside world, Wolbachia may be introduced to the syconium community via horizontal transmission by fig wasps species that have winged males and visit the syconia earlier. PMID:23145008

  19. The origin of the non-recombining region of sex chromosomes in Carica and Vasconcellea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Moore, Richard C; Zee, Francis; Huber, Steven C; Ming, Ray

    2010-09-01

    Carica and Vasconcellea are two closely related sister genera in the family Caricaceae, and were once classified as two sections under Carica. Sex chromosomes have been found in papaya and originated approximately 2-3 million years ago. The objectives of this study were to determine whether sex chromosomes have evolved in Vasconcellea. Six X/Y gene pairs were cloned, sequenced and analyzed from three dioecious, one trioecious and one monoecious species of Vasconcellea. The isolation of distinctive X and Y alleles in dioecious and trioecious species of Vasconcellea demonstrated that sex chromosomes have evolved in this genus. Phylogenetic analyses indicated a monophyletic relationship between the X/Y alleles of Carica and those of Vasconcellea. Distinctive clusters of X/Y alleles were documented in V. parviflora and V. pulchra for all available gene sequences, and in V. goudatinana and V. cardinamarcensis for some X/Y alleles. The X and Y alleles within each species shared most single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes that differed from other species. Limited evidence of gene conversion was documented among the X/Y alleles of some species, but was not sufficient to cause the evolutionary patterns reported herein. The Carica and Vasconcellea sex chromosomes may have originated from the same autosomes bearing the X allelic form that still exist in the monoecious species V. monoica, and have evolved independently after the speciation event that separated Carica from Vasconcellea. Within Vasconcellea, sex chromosomes have evolved at the species level, at least for some species.

  20. Studies on antibacterial activity of Ficus racemosa Linn. leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Mandal, S C; Saha, B P; Pal, M

    2000-06-01

    Extracts of Ficus racemosa Linn. leaves were tested for antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, Basillus pumilis ATCC 14884, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25619 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29737. The effects produced by the extracts were significant and were compared with chloramphenicol. The petroleum ether extract was the most effective against the tested organisms.

  1. Ficus deltoidea: A Potential Alternative Medicine for Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Zainah; Khamis, Shafii; Ismail, Amin; Hamid, Muhajir

    2012-01-01

    Ficus deltoidea from the Moraceae family has been scientifically proven to reduce hyperglycemia at different prandial states. In this study, we evaluate the mechanisms that underlie antihyperglycemic action of Ficus deltoidea. The results had shown that hot aqueous extract of Ficus deltoidea stimulated insulin secretion significantly with the highest magnitude of stimulation was 7.31-fold (P < 0.001). The insulin secretory actions of the hot aqueous extract involved K+  ATP channel-dependent and K+  ATP-channel-independent pathway. The extract also has the ability to induce the usage of intracellular Ca2+ to trigger insulin release. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts enhanced basal and insulin-mediated glucose uptake into adipocytes cells. The extracts possess either insulin-mimetic or insulin-sensitizing property or combination of both properties during enhancing glucose uptake into such cells. Meanwhile, the hot aqueous and methanolic extracts augmented basal and insulin-stimulated adiponectin secretion from adipocytes cells. From this study, it is suggested that Ficus deltoidea has the potential to be developed as future oral antidiabetic agent. PMID:22701507

  2. Plasticity and diversity of the phenology of dioecious Ficus species in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Anthony; Chou, Lien-Siang; Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Ho, Yi-Chiao; Chiang, Yun-Peng; Chen, Wen-Hsuan; Chio, Yu-Ting; Li, Guan-Yi; Yang, Hui-Wen; Kjellberg, Finn; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2014-05-01

    While Ficus present a series of traits often associated with dioecy, the prevalence of dioecy in Ficus is atypical. In Asian floras, dioecious Ficus species generally outnumber monoecious ones. Further this is also true in relatively northerly locations for Ficus such as the island of Taiwan. Ficus are pollinated by species-specific wasps that use fig flowers as breeding sites. In dioecious fig species, pollinators develop only in the inflorescences of male fig trees. In this study, we investigated the reproductive phenology of four dioecious Ficus species with distinct ecologies in several locations in northern and southern Taiwan. The two first species (Ficus erecta and Ficus septica) were investigated in four locations. Reproductive phenology was quite different among sites, even within a single species. For example, F. erecta presented well-defined crops at the population level in its usual high-elevation habitat but continuous fig production at low elevations, especially in South Taiwan. The two other fig species (Ficus pedunculosa var. mearnsii and Ficus tinctoria subsp. swinhoei), are shrubs growing together along seashores in exposed locations on coral reef remnants. These two species presented quite different traits allowing the survival of pollinating wasp populations. Ficus pedunculosa var. mearnsii produced figs continuously so that fresh receptive figs were always available for the pollinating wasps while F. tinctoria subsp. swinhoei extended the period of receptivity of its figs, so that receptive figs that had been waiting for pollinating wasps were almost always available. In summary, dioecious figs in Taiwan showed remarkable variation in their phenology, within species among locations or among species within location. Nevertheless, despite this variation, the phenology of the trees always allowed survival of pollinating wasp populations. Dioecious figs seem to have adopted a differentiated set of strategies which result in high resilience of

  3. Identification of a new phospholipase D in Carica papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Fendri, Imen; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2012-05-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a lipolytic enzyme involved in signal transduction, vesicle trafficking and membrane metabolism. It catalyzes the hydrolysis and transphosphatidylation of glycerophospholipids at the terminal phosphodiester bond. The presence of a PLD in the latex of Carica papaya (CpPLD1) was demonstrated by transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) in the presence of 2% ethanol. Although the protein could not be purified to homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a protein band was separated by SDS-PAGE after SDS/chloroform-methanol/TCA-acetone extraction of the latex insoluble fraction. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by micro-LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (723 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 2424 bp encoding a protein of 808 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 92.05 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpPLD1 was identified as a PLD belonging to the plant phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase family. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A polymorphic pseudoautosomal boundary in the Carica papaya sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Fiona M; Medert, Charles M; Hawkins, Kevin K; Mardonovich, Sandra; Wu, Meng; Moore, Richard C

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes are defined by a non-recombining sex-determining region (SDR) flanked by one or two pseudoautosomal regions (PARs). The genetic composition and evolutionary dynamics of the PAR is also influenced by its linkage to the differentiated non-recombining SDR; however, understanding the effects of this linkage requires a precise definition of the PAR boundary. Here, we took a molecular population genetic approach to further refine the location of the PAR boundary of the evolutionary young sex chromosomes of the tropical plant, Carica papaya. We were able to map the position of the papaya PAR boundary A to a 100-kb region between two genetic loci approximately 2 Mb upstream of the previously genetically identified PAR boundary. Furthermore, this boundary is polymorphic within natural populations of papaya, with an approximately 100-130 kb expansion of the non-recombining SDR found in 16 % of individuals surveyed. The expansion of the PAR boundary in one Y haplotype includes at least one additional gene. Homologs of this gene are involved in male gametophyte and pollen development in other plant species.

  5. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  6. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress.

  7. Phosotynthesis in hemiepiphytic species of Clusia and Ficus.

    PubMed

    Ting, I P; Hann, J; Holbrook, N M; Putz, F E; Sternberg, L da S L; Price, D; Goldstein, G

    1987-12-01

    Hemiepiphytic species in the genera Clusia and Ficus were investigated to study their mode of photosynthetic metabolism when growing under natural conditions. Despite growing sympatrically in many areas and having the same growth habit, some Clusia species show Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) whereas all species of Ficus investigated are C3. This conclusion is based on diurnal CO2 fixation patterns, diurnal stomatal conductances, diurnal titratable acidity fluctuations, and δ(13)C isotope ratios. Clusia minor, growing in the savannas adjacent to Barinas, Venezuela, shows all aspects of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) on the basis of nocturnal gas exchange, stomatal conductance, total titratable acidity, and carbon isotope composition when measured during the dry season (February 1986). During the wet season (June 1986), the plants shifted to C3-type gas exchange with all CO2 uptake occurring during the daylight hours. The carbon isotope composition of new growth was-28 to-29‰ typical of C3 plants.

  8. Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity.

  9. Phylogeny, biogeography, and ecology of Ficus section Malvanthera (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Rønsted, Nina; Weiblen, George D; Savolainen, V; Cook, James M

    2008-07-01

    We conducted the first molecular phylogenetic study of Ficus section Malvanthera (Moraceae; subgenus Urostigma) based on 32 Malvanthera accessions and seven outgroups representing other sections of Ficus subgenus Urostigma. We used DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal and external transcribed spacers (ITS and ETS), and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh) region. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods recovered a monophyletic section Malvanthera to the exclusion of the rubber fig, Ficus elastica. The results of the phylogenetic analyses do not conform to any previously proposed taxonomic subdivision of the section and characters used for previous classification are homoplasious. Geographic distribution, however, is highly conserved and Melanesian Malvanthera are monophyletic. A new subdivision of section Malvanthera reflecting phylogenetic relationships is presented. Section Malvanthera likely diversified during a period of isolation in Australia and subsequently colonized New Guinea. Two Australian series are consistent with a pattern of dispersal out of rainforest habitat into drier habitats accompanied by a reduction in plant height during the transition from hemi-epiphytic trees to lithophytic trees and shrubs. In contradiction with a previous study of Pleistodontes phylogeny suggesting multiple changes in pollination behaviour, reconstruction of changes in pollination behaviour on Malvanthera, suggests only one or a few gains of active pollination within the section.

  10. Fumonisin B1 and B2 occurrence in dried fig fruits (Ficus carica L.) under Meander Valley's climatic conditions and relationship with fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Kosoglu, I; Aksoy, U; Pehlivan, R

    2011-11-01

    Fusarium is the agent causing endosepsis (internal rot) in fig fruits and it is widespread in fig orchards in the Aegean region. This research was conducted to determine the natural occurrence of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and B(2) (FB(2)) on dried fig fruits of Sarilop (syn. Calimyrna) variety which are mainly grown in the Big and Small Meander Basins in the Aegean region, representing 60% of world dried fig production. A total of 262 samples belonging to two quality classes, Class A and Class cull, were collected from 12 different locations during the two crop years in 2004 and 2005. The fumonisin detection method is based on extraction with methanol-acetonitrile-water, derivatization with o-phthaldehyde and quantification by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The mean concentrations of FB(1) and FB(2) in fumonisin-positive samples were 0.080 ± 0.047 µg g(-1) and 0.055 ± 0.031 µg g(-1) and ranged from LOD to 0.332 µg g(-1) and from LOD to 0.198 µg g(-1), respectively. The incidence of fumonisins significantly differed between the two crop years. This difference can be attributed to the alteration in the rainfall regime from mid-May to mid-August (7.2 mm in 2004, 90.9 mm in 2005) and number of humid wind currents from a westerly direction (183 in 2004, 492 in 2005) from the end of July and mid-August that may have triggered a higher incidence of Fusarium spp. and thus fumonisin production.

  11. Identification and characterization of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid in fig (Ficus carica L.) by next generation sequencing of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Chiumenti, M; Torchetti, E M; Di Serio, F; Minafra, A

    2014-08-08

    Viroids are small (246-401 nt) circular and non coding RNAs infecting higher plants. They are targeted by host Dicer-like enzymes (DCLs) that generate small RNAs of 21-24 nt (sRNAs), which are involved in the host RNA silencing pathways. The accumulation in plant tissues of such viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) is a clear sign of an ongoing viroid infection. In this study, next generation sequencing of a sRNAs library and assembling of the sequenced vd-sRNAs were instrumental for the identification of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid (ADFVd) in a fig accession. After confirming by molecular methods the presence of this viroid in the fig tree, its population was characterized, showing that the ADFVd master sequence from fig diverges from that of the ADFVd reference variant from apple. Moreover, since this viroid accumulates at a low level in fig, a semi-nested RT-PCR assay was developed for detecting it in other fig accessions. ADFVd seems to have a wider host range than thought before and this poses questions about its epidemiology. A further characterization of ADFVd-sRNAs showed similar accumulation of (+) or (-) vd-sRNAs that mapped on the viroid genome generating hotspot profiles. Moreover, similarly to other nuclear-replicating viroids, vd-sRNAs of 21, 22 and 24 nt in size prevailed in the distribution profiles. Altogether, these data support the involvement of double-stranded RNAs and different DCLs, targeting the same restricted viroid regions, in the genesis of ADFVd-sRNAs.

  12. Protection of fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) against oxidative damage by cyanidin-3-rhamnoglucoside isolated from fig fruits (Ficus carica L.).

    PubMed

    Solomon, Anat; Golubowicz, Sara; Yablowicz, Zeev; Bergman, Margalit; Grossman, Shlomo; Altman, Arie; Kerem, Zohar; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2010-06-09

    Anthocyanins, plant secondary metabolites, have been recognized for their health-promoting properties when consumed by humans. In this study, the antioxidant properties of a major anthocyanin in fresh fig fruits, cyanidin-3-rhamnoglucoside (C3R), were evaluated by various assays in vitro and correlated with the protection afforded by C3R to cultured NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells. C3R inhibited lipid peroxidation from producing peroxy radicals (ROO(*)) and MDA in a dose-dependent manner, and a high calculated stoichiometric coefficient [n] for peroxy radicals was demonstrated. In addition to its scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), C3R showed a strong chelating activity toward the Fe(2+) ion. Finally, pretreatment with C3R inhibited proapoptotic processes that were initiated by the oxidation of lysosome membranes in fibroblast cells. The high antioxidant potential, with several modes of action of purified C3R, may contribute to health benefits gained by the consumption of fresh fig fruits.

  13. The ambiguous ripening nature of the fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit: a gene-expression study of potential ripening regulators and ethylene-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Freiman, Zohar E.; Rosianskey, Yogev; Dasmohapatra, Rajeswari; Kamara, Itzhak; Flaishman, Moshe A.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional definition of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits has been put into question. A significant example of this paradox is the climacteric fig fruit. Surprisingly, ripening-related ethylene production increases following pre- or postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application in an unexpected auto-inhibitory manner. In this study, ethylene production and the expression of potential ripening-regulator, ethylene-synthesis, and signal-transduction genes are characterized in figs ripening on the tree and following preharvest 1-MCP application. Fig ripening-related gene expression was similar to that in tomato and apple during ripening on the tree, but only in the fig inflorescence–drupelet section. Because the pattern in the receptacle is different for most of the genes, the fig drupelets developed inside the syconium are proposed to function as parthenocarpic true fruit, regulating ripening processes for the whole accessory fruit. Transcription of a potential ripening regulator, FcMADS8, increased during ripening on the tree and was inhibited following 1-MCP treatment. Expression patterns of the ethylene-synthesis genes FcACS2, FcACS4, and FcACO3 could be related to the auto-inhibition reaction of ethylene production in 1-MCP-treated fruit. Along with FcMADS8 suppression, gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of FcEBF1, and downregulation of FcEIL3 and several FcERFs by 1-MCP treatment. This corresponded with the high storability of the treated fruit. One FcERF was overexpressed in the 1-MCP-treated fruit, and did not share the increasing pattern of most FcERFs in the tree-ripened fig. This demonstrates the potential of this downstream ethylene-signal-transduction component as an ethylene-synthesis regulator, responsible for the non-climacteric auto-inhibition of ethylene production in fig. PMID:25956879

  14. Characterization of microbial population of breba and main crops (Ficus carica) during cold storage: Influence of passive modified atmospheres (MAP) and antimicrobial extract application.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, María Del Carmen; Serradilla, Manuel Joaquín; Martín, Alberto; Hernández-León, Alejandro; Ruíz-Moyano, Santiago; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the changes of bacterial and fungal population of breba fruits such as 'Banane' and 'San Antonio' as well as 'Cuello Dama Negro', 'Cuello Dama Blanco' and 'San Antonio' fig cultivars stored in passive modified atmospheres (MAP) by the use of three different microperforated films (M10 with 16 holes; M30 with five holes and M50 with three holes). Moreover the effects of the application of aqueous soy polyphenolic antimicrobial extract (APE), alone or combined with MAP, were also studied for 'Cuello Dama Negro' and 'Cuello Dama Blanco' fig cultivars. Bacteria and fungi isolates were identified by PCR-RFLP of 16S rRNA and ITS regions, respectively, and subsequently sequence of the different patterns obtained. The results indicated that Pseudomonas gessardii, Pantoea agglomerans and Enterobacter asburiae were the main species of bacteria found in all the treatments studied. The fungal species identified were Aureobasidium pulullans, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternaria alternata, which were found in a lower percentage in fruit stored in MAP and fruits treated with antimicrobial extracts, as this treatments allowed to reduce the microbial growth of moulds and yeasts. Thus, the application of treatments such as M30, M50 or the combination of MAP with antimicrobial extract was highly effective to control fruit spoilage in fig and breba crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The ambiguous ripening nature of the fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit: a gene-expression study of potential ripening regulators and ethylene-related genes.

    PubMed

    Freiman, Zohar E; Rosianskey, Yogev; Dasmohapatra, Rajeswari; Kamara, Itzhak; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2015-06-01

    The traditional definition of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits has been put into question. A significant example of this paradox is the climacteric fig fruit. Surprisingly, ripening-related ethylene production increases following pre- or postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application in an unexpected auto-inhibitory manner. In this study, ethylene production and the expression of potential ripening-regulator, ethylene-synthesis, and signal-transduction genes are characterized in figs ripening on the tree and following preharvest 1-MCP application. Fig ripening-related gene expression was similar to that in tomato and apple during ripening on the tree, but only in the fig inflorescence-drupelet section. Because the pattern in the receptacle is different for most of the genes, the fig drupelets developed inside the syconium are proposed to function as parthenocarpic true fruit, regulating ripening processes for the whole accessory fruit. Transcription of a potential ripening regulator, FcMADS8, increased during ripening on the tree and was inhibited following 1-MCP treatment. Expression patterns of the ethylene-synthesis genes FcACS2, FcACS4, and FcACO3 could be related to the auto-inhibition reaction of ethylene production in 1-MCP-treated fruit. Along with FcMADS8 suppression, gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of FcEBF1, and downregulation of FcEIL3 and several FcERFs by 1-MCP treatment. This corresponded with the high storability of the treated fruit. One FcERF was overexpressed in the 1-MCP-treated fruit, and did not share the increasing pattern of most FcERFs in the tree-ripened fig. This demonstrates the potential of this downstream ethylene-signal-transduction component as an ethylene-synthesis regulator, responsible for the non-climacteric auto-inhibition of ethylene production in fig.

  16. Dioecy, more than monoecy, affects plant spatial genetic structure: the case study of Ficus

    PubMed Central

    Nazareno, Alison G; Alzate-Marin, Ana L; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto S

    2013-01-01

    In this analysis, we attempt to understand how monoecy and dioecy drive spatial genetic structure (SGS) in plant populations. For this purpose, plants of the genus Ficus were used as a comparative model due to their particular characteristics, including high species diversity, variation in life histories, and sexual systems. One of the main issues we assessed is whether dioecious fig tree populations are more spatially genetically structured than monoecious populations. Using the Sp statistic, which allows for quantitative comparisons among different studies, we compared the extent of SGS between monoecious and dioecious Ficus species. To broaden our conclusions we used published data on an additional 27 monoecious and dioecious plant species. Furthermore, genetic diversity analyses were performed for two monoecious Ficus species using 12 microsatellite markers in order to strengthen our conclusions about SGS. Our results show that dioecy, more than monoecy, significantly contributes to SGS in plant populations. On average, the estimate of Sp was six times higher for dioecious Ficus species than monoecious Ficus species and it was two times higher in dioecious than monoecious plant species. Considering these results, we emphasize that the long-distance pollen dispersal mechanism in monoecious Ficus species seems to be the dominant factor in determining weak spatial genetic structure, high levels of genetic diversity, and lack of inbreeding. Although Ficus constitute a model species to study SGS, a more general comparison encompassing a wider range of plants is required in order to better understand how sexual systems affect genetic structure. PMID:24223285

  17. Has Pollination Mode Shaped the Evolution of Ficus Pollen?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Jin; Li, Zong-Bo; Zhang, Feng-Ping; Yang, Da-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Background The extent to which co-evolutionary processes shape morphological traits is one of the most fascinating topics in evolutionary biology. Both passive and active pollination modes coexist in the fig tree (Ficus, Moraceae) and fig wasp (Agaonidae, Hymenoptera) mutualism. This classic obligate relationship that is about 75 million years old provides an ideal system to consider the role of pollination mode shifts on pollen evolution. Methods and Main Findings Twenty-five fig species, which cover all six Ficus subgenera, and are native to the Xishuangbanna region of southwest China, were used to investigate pollen morphology with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Pollination mode was identified by the Anther/Ovule ratio in each species. Phylogenetic free regression and a correlated evolution test between binary traits were conducted based on a strong phylogenetic tree. Seventeen of the 25 fig species were actively pollinated and eight species were passively pollinated. Three pollen shape types and three kinds of exine ornamentation were recognized among these species. Pollen grains with ellipsoid shape and rugulate ornamentation were dominant. Ellipsoid pollen occurred in all 17 species of actively pollinated figs, while for the passively pollinated species, two obtuse end shapes were identified: cylinder and sphere shapes were identified in six of the eight species. All passively pollinated figs presented rugulate ornamentation, while for actively pollinated species, the smoother types - psilate and granulate-rugulate ornamentations - accounted for just five and two among the 17 species, respectively. The relationship between pollen shape and pollination mode was shown by both the phylogenetic free regression and the correlated evolution tests. Conclusions Three pollen shape and ornamentation types were found in Ficus, which show characteristics related to passive or active pollination mode. Thus, the pollen shape is very likely shaped by pollination mode

  18. Has pollination mode shaped the evolution of ficus pollen?

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Jin; Li, Zong-Bo; Zhang, Feng-Ping; Yang, Da-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which co-evolutionary processes shape morphological traits is one of the most fascinating topics in evolutionary biology. Both passive and active pollination modes coexist in the fig tree (Ficus, Moraceae) and fig wasp (Agaonidae, Hymenoptera) mutualism. This classic obligate relationship that is about 75 million years old provides an ideal system to consider the role of pollination mode shifts on pollen evolution. Twenty-five fig species, which cover all six Ficus subgenera, and are native to the Xishuangbanna region of southwest China, were used to investigate pollen morphology with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Pollination mode was identified by the Anther/Ovule ratio in each species. Phylogenetic free regression and a correlated evolution test between binary traits were conducted based on a strong phylogenetic tree. Seventeen of the 25 fig species were actively pollinated and eight species were passively pollinated. Three pollen shape types and three kinds of exine ornamentation were recognized among these species. Pollen grains with ellipsoid shape and rugulate ornamentation were dominant. Ellipsoid pollen occurred in all 17 species of actively pollinated figs, while for the passively pollinated species, two obtuse end shapes were identified: cylinder and sphere shapes were identified in six of the eight species. All passively pollinated figs presented rugulate ornamentation, while for actively pollinated species, the smoother types - psilate and granulate-rugulate ornamentations - accounted for just five and two among the 17 species, respectively. The relationship between pollen shape and pollination mode was shown by both the phylogenetic free regression and the correlated evolution tests. Three pollen shape and ornamentation types were found in Ficus, which show characteristics related to passive or active pollination mode. Thus, the pollen shape is very likely shaped by pollination mode in this unique obligate mutualism.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Owoyele, Bamidele V; Adebukola, Olubori M; Funmilayo, Adeoye A; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2008-08-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves was investigated in rats using carrageenan induced paw oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and formaldehyde induced arthritis models. Experimental animals received 25-200 mg/Kg (orally) of the extracts or saline (control group) and the reference group received 5 mg/ Kg of indomethacin. The ulcerogenic activity of the extract was also investigated. The results show that the extracts significantly (p <0.05) reduced paw oedema in the carrageenan test. Likewise the extract produced significant reduction in the amount of granuloma formed from 0.58 +/-0.07 to 0.22 +/-0.03 g. In the formaldehyde arthritis model, the extracts significantly reduced the persistent oedema from the 4th day to the 10th day of the investigation. The extracts also produced slight mucosal irritation at high doses. The study establishes the anti-inflammatory activity of Carica papaya leaves.

  20. Anti-inflammatory phenylpropanoids and phenolics from Ficus hirta Vahl.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Yi, Xiaomin; Chen, Haiying; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2017-09-01

    Four new phenylpropanoids (1-4) along with ten known phenolics were isolated and purified from the roots of hairy fig (Ficus hirta Vahl.). Their structures were elucidated by the extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. The anti-inflammatory activities of the purified compounds were evaluated. Results indicated that the extracts and some purified compounds exhibited pronounced inhibitory effects on the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 compared to indomethacin, which suggested that hairy fig could be served as an anti-inflammatory agent for health products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Water-soluble constituents from aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, M-A; Kuo, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    Three new water-soluble constituents [ficuscarpanoside B (1), (7E,9Z)-dihydrophaseic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4) and ficuscarpanic acid (6)] and the natural product 2,2'-dihydroxyl ether (7) have been isolated, together with three known compounds [(7S,8R)-syringoylglycerol (2), (7S,8R)-syringoylglycerol-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3) and icariside D2 (5)] from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Identification of their structures was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, including 1H-1H COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC methods and FAB mass spectral data.

  2. A New Ceramide Isolated from Ficus lutea Vahl (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Poumale, Herve Martial Poumale; Djoumessi, Aurelie Vigee Barry Songfack; Ngameni, Bathelemy; Sandjo, Louis Pergaud; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Shiono, Yoshihito

    2011-03-01

    In addition to benjaminamide (2), β-amyrin, β-amyrin acetate, lupeol, betulinic acid, β-sitosterol glucoside, a new ceramide glycoside was isolated from the woods of Ficus lutea Vahl (Moraceae). Using mass fragmentation pattern, 1 and 2D NMR spectra and by comparison with published data, the new compound was characterized as 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S,3R,5E,12E)-2N-[(2'R)-hydroxyhexadecanoyl]-octadecasphinga-5,12-dienine (1a) for which the trivial name lutaoside was proposed. Some isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities. Compounds 1a and 2 showed some antimicrobial activity.

  3. Bioethanol production from Ficus religiosa leaves using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Miri; Griess, Ofir; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon

    2016-07-15

    A microwave assisted feasible process for the production of bioethanol from Ficus religiosa leaves was developed. Under the process conditions (8 min. microwave irradiation, 1 M HCl), 10.1 wt% glucose yield was obtained from the leaves. Microwave based hydrolysis process yielded higher glucose content (10.1 wt%) compared to the conventional hydrothermal process (4.1 wt%). Upon fermentation of the hydrolysate using Baker's yeast, 3 wt% (dry wt. basis) of bioethanol was produced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carpeloidy in flower evolution and diversification: a comparative study in Carica papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ronse De Craene, Louis; Tréhin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Bisexual flowers of Carica papaya range from highly regular flowers to morphs with various fusions of stamens to the ovary. Arabidopsis thaliana sup1 mutants have carpels replaced by chimeric carpel–stamen structures. Comparative analysis of stamen to carpel conversions in the two different plant systems was used to understand the stage and origin of carpeloidy when derived from stamen tissues, and consequently to understand how carpeloidy contributes to innovations in flower evolution. Methods Floral development of bisexual flowers of Carica was studied by scanning electron microscopy and was compared with teratological sup mutants of A. thaliana. Key Results In Carica development of bisexual flowers was similar to wild (unisexual) forms up to locule initiation. Feminization ranges from fusion of stamen tissue to the gynoecium to complete carpeloidy of antepetalous stamens. In A. thaliana, partial stamen feminization occurs exclusively at the flower apex, with normal stamens forming at the periphery. Such transformations take place relatively late in development, indicating strong developmental plasticity of most stamen tissues. These results are compared with evo-devo theories on flower bisexuality, as derived from unisexual ancestors. The Arabidopsis data highlight possible early evolutionary events in the acquisition of bisexuality by a patchy transformation of stamen parts into female parts linked to a flower axis-position effect. The Carica results highlight tissue-fusion mechanisms in angiosperms leading to carpeloidy once bisexual flowers have evolved. Conclusions We show two different developmental routes leading to stamen to carpel conversions by late re-specification. The process may be a fundamental aspect of flower development that is hidden in most instances by developmental homeostasis. PMID:21504912

  5. Carpeloidy in flower evolution and diversification: a comparative study in Carica papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ronse De Craene, Louis; Tréhin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2011-06-01

    Bisexual flowers of Carica papaya range from highly regular flowers to morphs with various fusions of stamens to the ovary. Arabidopsis thaliana sup1 mutants have carpels replaced by chimeric carpel-stamen structures. Comparative analysis of stamen to carpel conversions in the two different plant systems was used to understand the stage and origin of carpeloidy when derived from stamen tissues, and consequently to understand how carpeloidy contributes to innovations in flower evolution. Floral development of bisexual flowers of Carica was studied by scanning electron microscopy and was compared with teratological sup mutants of A. thaliana. In Carica development of bisexual flowers was similar to wild (unisexual) forms up to locule initiation. Feminization ranges from fusion of stamen tissue to the gynoecium to complete carpeloidy of antepetalous stamens. In A. thaliana, partial stamen feminization occurs exclusively at the flower apex, with normal stamens forming at the periphery. Such transformations take place relatively late in development, indicating strong developmental plasticity of most stamen tissues. These results are compared with evo-devo theories on flower bisexuality, as derived from unisexual ancestors. The Arabidopsis data highlight possible early evolutionary events in the acquisition of bisexuality by a patchy transformation of stamen parts into female parts linked to a flower axis-position effect. The Carica results highlight tissue-fusion mechanisms in angiosperms leading to carpeloidy once bisexual flowers have evolved. We show two different developmental routes leading to stamen to carpel conversions by late re-specification. The process may be a fundamental aspect of flower development that is hidden in most instances by developmental homeostasis.

  6. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves.

    PubMed

    Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC(50) of 6.88 μg/ml and 3.58 μg/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC(50) of 2.96 ± 0.14 μg/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds.

  7. Acetylcholine and memory-enhancing activity of Ficus racemosa bark

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Chandra, J. N. Narendra Sharath; Manjunath, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting in dementia and enhancement of acetylcholine (Ach) levels in brain using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors is one of the most important approaches for the treatment of AD. Methods: In this study, aqueous extract of Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) bark having anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activity was evaluated for its ability to enhance Ach levels, and to ascertain its antidementia activity in rats. This work was carried out under the assumption that the F. racemosa extract may show combination of actions which could be beneficial in the treatment of AD, such as neuroprotection, attributed to antioxidant and anti-infl ammatory property and may elevate levels of Ach like Ficus hispida extract reported earlier. Results: Administration of the extract at two levels viz., 250 and 500 mg/kg signifi cantly raised (P ≤ 0.05) Ach levels in hippocampi of rats compared to control. The percentage enhancement in Ach levels was found to be 22% and 38%, respectively. Further, the extract at both dosage levels elicited signifi cant reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in transfer latency on elevated plus-maze, which was used as an exteroceptive behavioral model to evaluate memory in rats. Conclusion: It is inferred that it would be worthwhile to explore the potential of F. racemosa in the management of Alzheimer disease. PMID:22224047

  8. [The return of the prodigal child or allergy to ficus].

    PubMed

    Pradalier, A; Leriche, E; Trinh, Ch; Molitor, J L

    2004-11-01

    Ficus benjamina (FB), the weeping fig, belonging to the Moracea family, is now widely used as an indoor ornamental plant in houses and offices. Its latex can be responsible of IgE allergies : rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, angiooedema, pruritus, anaphylactic shock. In some occupations such as gardeners, caretakers of plants, it can induce a contact urticaria. Most of these patients are atopics. We describe a case of non-occupational, indoor related rhinoconjunctivitis in a non-atopic patient. Prick-test and RAST to FB latex were positive and removal of the ficus plant resolved their symptoms confirming the etiologic role of the plant. The patient did not demonstrate sensitization to other common allergens (except weeds) involved in respiratory (latex of Hevea brasiliensis, mites...) and food allergies (negativity of the prick-tests for fig, avocado, banana, kiwi). Now, FB is a new hidden allergen in the house. Questionning for its presence and testing it should be considered; as it should be introduced in the standard prick-test panel.

  9. Leaf venations in some Ficus L. (Moraceae) species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siti-Khaulah, A. R.; Noraini, T.

    2016-11-01

    A study on the leaf venation anatomical characteristics was conducted on eight chosen Ficus L. (Moraceae) species in Peninsular Malaysia, namely F. callosa, F. apiocarpa, F. caulocarpa, F. pubigera, F. pendens, F. celebensis, F. mollissima, and F. drupacea. The objective of this study was to observe the significant leaf venation anatomical characteristics that can be used in species classification and identification. Leaf clearing, staining, mounting and observation under a light microscope were techniques used for the study. Veinlets, the ultimate marginal and areolar venation were the main leaf venation anatomical characteristics observed in this study. The presence of complex veinlets in the areolar venation were shown in most species studied (F. callosa, F. pubigera, F. celebensis, F. pendens), whilst simple or uni-veinlets were shown in F. apiocarpa, F. caulocarpa and F. mollissima. Free ending veinlet was absence in F. drupacea. Complete ultimate marginal venation was shown in most species studied, such as in F. callosa, F. caulocarpa, F. pendends, F. mollissima and F. drupacea. Opened areolar venation was observed in most species studied, such as in F. callosa, F. pubigera, F. pendens, F. mollissima, and F. celebensis. Diagnostic leaf venation anatomical characteristic was present in cystolith cells in F. pubigera and trichomes were present on venation in F. mollissima only. As a conclusion, the results of this study have shown that leaf venation anatomical characteristics have taxonomic significance that can be used in differentiation and identification in selected Ficus species studied.

  10. Winter cropping in Ficus tinctoria: an alternative strategy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huanhuan; Peng, Yanqiong; Zhang, Yuan; Corlett, Richard T

    2015-11-12

    The many species of figs (Ficus, Moraceae) have evolved a variety of reproductive phenologies that ensure the survival of both the fig plants and their short-lived, species-specific, pollinating wasps. A phenological study of 28 male and 23 female plants of a dioecious hemiepiphytic fig, Ficus tinctoria, was conducted in Xishuangbanna, SW China at the northern margin of tropical SE Asia. In contrast to other figs of seasonal climates, which have a winter low in fig production, both sexes produced their major fig crops at the coldest time of the year. Male plants released pollinators during the period when most female trees were receptive and male syconia had a long wasp-producing (D) phase, which ensured high levels of pollination. Female crops ripened at the end of the dry season, when they attracted numerous frugivorous birds and dispersed seeds can germinate with the first reliable rains. Few syconia were produced by either sex during the rest of the year, but these were sufficient to maintain local pollinator populations. We suggest that this unique phenological strategy has evolved to maximize seed dispersal and establishment in this seasonal climate.

  11. Winter cropping in Ficus tinctoria: an alternative strategy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huanhuan; Peng, Yanqiong; Zhang, Yuan; Corlett, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    The many species of figs (Ficus, Moraceae) have evolved a variety of reproductive phenologies that ensure the survival of both the fig plants and their short-lived, species-specific, pollinating wasps. A phenological study of 28 male and 23 female plants of a dioecious hemiepiphytic fig, Ficus tinctoria, was conducted in Xishuangbanna, SW China at the northern margin of tropical SE Asia. In contrast to other figs of seasonal climates, which have a winter low in fig production, both sexes produced their major fig crops at the coldest time of the year. Male plants released pollinators during the period when most female trees were receptive and male syconia had a long wasp-producing (D) phase, which ensured high levels of pollination. Female crops ripened at the end of the dry season, when they attracted numerous frugivorous birds and dispersed seeds can germinate with the first reliable rains. Few syconia were produced by either sex during the rest of the year, but these were sufficient to maintain local pollinator populations. We suggest that this unique phenological strategy has evolved to maximize seed dispersal and establishment in this seasonal climate. PMID:26560072

  12. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in paracetamol induced nephrotoxicity in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Naggayi, Madinah; Mukiibi, Nozmo; Iliya, Ezekiel

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of drug induced nephrotoxicity. The study aimed to determine the nephroprotective and ameliorative effects of Carica papaya seed extract in paracetamol-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. To carry out phytochemical screening of Carica papaya, measure serum urea, creatinine and uric acid and describe the histopathological status of the kidneys in the treated and untreated groups. Phytochemical screening of the extract was done. Thirty two adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n= 8 in each group). Group A (control) animals received normal saline for seven days, group B (paracetamol group) received normal saline, and paracetamol single dose on the 8th day. Group C received Carica papaya extract (CPE) 500 mg/kg, and paracetamol on the 8th day, while group D, rats were pretreated with CPE 750 mg/kg/day,and paracetamol administration on the 8th day. Samples of kidney tissue were removed for histopathological examination. Screening of Carica papaya showed presence of nephroprotective pytochemicals. Paracetamol administration resulted in significant elevation of renal function markers. CPE ameliorated the effect of paracetamol by reducing the markers as well as reversing the paracetamol-induced changes in kidney architecture. Carica papaya contains nephroprotective phytochemicals and may be useful in preventing kidney damage induced by paracetamol.

  13. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effects of 80% ethanolic Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) pulp extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Kebebew, Zerihun; Shibeshi, Workineh

    2013-11-25

    Carica papaya has been used in the Ethiopian traditional medicine to relieve stress and other disease conditions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic and sedative effects of 80% ethanolic Carica papaya (Caricaceae) pulp extract in mice. Carica papaya pulp extract was screened for anxiolytic effect by using elevated plus maze, staircase and open field tests, and ketamine-induced sleeping time test for sedation at doses of 50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg. Distilled water and Diazepam were employed as negative and positive control groups, respectively. Carica papaya pulp extract 100 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of open arm time and entry, and reduced the percentage of entry and time spent in closed arm in elevated plus maze test; reduced the number of rearing in the staircase test; and increased the time spent and entries in the central squares while the total number of entries into the open field were not significantly affected, suggesting anxiolytic activity without altering locomotor and sedative effects. A synergistic reduction in the number of rearing and an inverted U-shaped dose response curves were obtained with important parameters of anxiety The results of this study established a support for the traditional usage of Carica papaya as anxiolytic medicinal plant. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The origins of an important cactus crop, Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae): new molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Griffith, M Patrick

    2004-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica is a long-domesticated cactus crop that is important in agricultural economies throughout arid and semiarid parts of the world. The biogeographic and evolutionary origins of this species have been obscured through ancient and widespread cultivation and naturalization. The origin of O. ficus-indica is investigated through the use of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of nrITS DNA sequences. These analyses support the following hypotheses: that O. ficus-indica is a close relative of a group of arborescent, fleshy-fruited prickly pears from central and southern Mexico; that the center of domestication for this species is in central Mexico; and that the taxonomic concept of O. ficus-indica may include clones derived from multiple lineages and therefore be polyphyletic.

  15. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  16. Development of 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers for Ficus virens (Moraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Rong-Hua; Li, Yun-Xiang; Liu, Mei; Quan, Qiu-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Ficus virens (Moraceae) is distributed widely in South and Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and northern Australia, and it is also cultivated outside its original northern range limit in southwestern China. Therefore, the species is well suited to explore the mechanism of range limits of Ficus species. However, little is known about its genetic background. Methods and Results: Fifteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed using the biotin-streptavidin capture method. Polymorphism was tested in 85 F. virens individuals sampled from three populations. The number of alleles ranged from three to 17. The observed and expected heterozygosity of each population varied from 0.0667 to 0.9286 and 0.0650 to 0.8890, respectively. Cross-species amplification was also carried out in eight other Ficus species. Conclusions: These 15 markers will be valuable for studying the genetic variation and population structure of F. virens and related Ficus species. PMID:28090407

  17. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism.

    PubMed

    McLeish, Michael J; van Noort, Simon

    2012-01-03

    The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution.

  18. Histological Comparisons of Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) in Neotropical Ficus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Center, Barbara J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Herre, E. Allen; Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.

    1999-01-01

    Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp. PMID:19270912

  19. Histological Comparisons of Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) in Neotropical Ficus spp.

    PubMed

    Center, B J; Giblin-Davis, R M; Herre, E A; Chung-Schickler, G C

    1999-12-01

    Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp.

  20. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution. PMID:22214193

  1. New peroxy triterpenes from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Y M; Kuo, Y H

    2001-04-01

    Six new triterpenes, 3 beta-acetoxy-12 beta,13 beta-epoxy-11 alpha-hydroperoxyursane (1), 3 beta-acetoxy-11 alpha-hydroperoxy-13 alpha H-ursan-12-one (2), 3 beta-acetoxy-1 beta,11 alpha-epidioxy-12-ursene (3), (20S)-3 beta-acetoxylupan-29-oic acid (4), (20S)-3 beta-acetoxy-20-hydroperoxy-30-norlupane (5), and 3 beta-acetoxy-18 alpha-hydroperoxy-12-oleanen-11-one (6), together with 3 beta-acetoxy-12-oleanen-11-one (7), were isolated from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Compounds 1-3, 5, and 6 were characterized as new peroxytriterpenes. The structures of 3 and 6 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  2. Novel triterpenoids from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yi-Ming; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2002-11-01

    Three novel triterpenoids, 3beta-acetoxy-11alpha-hydroxy-11(12-->13)abeooleanan-12-al (1), 3beta-hydroxy-20-oxo-29(20-->19)abeolupane (2), and 29,30-dinor-3beta-acetoxy-18,19-dioxo-18,19-secolupane (3), and the known 4, 5a, and 5b were isolated from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR and X-ray diffraction experiments. Compound 1, derived from the oleanane skeleton, has an unusual five-membered C ring. Compounds 2 and 3, derived from the lupane skeleton, have unique skeletons that may arise from the same biogenetic pathway.

  3. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical trial of Ficus racemosa

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rajnish Kumar; Nandy, Bankim Chandra; Maity, Siddhartha; Sarkar, Srimanta; Saha, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    Ficus racemosa is an important medicinal plant, found in India, Australia, and Southeast Asia. It is popularly known as ‘gular.’ It reduces blood glucose concentration due to the presence of β-sitosterol. Many active constituents that have been isolated from various parts of this plant possess useful pharmacological activities. The literature survey proposed that it has multiple pharmacological actions that include antidiabetic, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antifungal, antibacterial, hypolipidemic, antifilarial, and hepatoprotection. This review article elaborately describes the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of this plant. We also provide useful structures of the secondary metabolites along with their nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data. Some clinical trial data have also been provided in this review. This review would assist researchers to gather scientific information in future. PMID:26009696

  4. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) as a Holographic Material

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Toxqui-López, Santa; Padilla-Velasco, Ana L.

    2012-01-01

    The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm). We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  5. [Ficus benjamina--the hidden allergen in the house].

    PubMed

    Schenkelberger, V; Freitag, M; Altmeyer, P

    1998-01-01

    The weeping fig, Ficus benjamina (Fb), is a relatively common indoor allergen. Many cases of perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma caused by Fb hypersensitivity are not detected. These patients typically have proven sensitization to housedust mites and do not improve after avoidance of exposure (encasing) and specific immunotherapy. The number of Fb sensitizations is increasing in Germany, which can partly be explained by the cross-reactivity between Hevea brasiliensis (Hb) latex and Fb and the rapidly increasing number of mostly occupational latex allergies. But Fb itself is a potential sensitizer which is widely spread as ornamental plant in homes and offices. As relevant indoor allergen Fb ranks third after housedust mites and pets but before molds among our allergy patients. For diagnosis, prick-tests with Fb-latex seem to be more sensitive than in vitro-methods (RAST, CAPRAST). Fb plants should not be kept in the homes of atopic individuals or persons with latex (Hb) allergy.

  6. Chemical composition and Biological studies of Ficus benjamina.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Rasool, Nasir; Rizwan, Komal; Zubair, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Rana, Usman Ali; Nafady, Ayman; Jaafar, Hawa Ze

    2014-02-13

    Current study has been designed to estimate the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and hemolytic potential of Ficus benjamina different parts (leaves, stem and root). All examined extracts and fractions were significantly rich in antioxidants and exhibited potent antimicrobial activity. GC/MS analysis of essential oil identified four compounds in stem and eight compounds in root, respectively. HPLC analysis indicated four phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic and syringic acids) in roots, three (chlorogenic p-coumaric and ferulic acids) in stem and only one (caffeic acid) in leaves. Extracts of all three parts of F. benjamina exhibited substantial hemolytic activity. Considering these results, it is concluded that F. benjamina can be used as a potential source for the exploration of new antioxidant compounds and antimicrobial agents.

  7. Chemical composition and Biological studies of Ficus benjamina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current study has been designed to estimate the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and hemolytic potential of Ficus benjamina different parts (leaves, stem and root). Results All examined extracts and fractions were significantly rich in antioxidants and exhibited potent antimicrobial activity. GC/MS analysis of essential oil identified four compounds in stem and eight compounds in root, respectively. HPLC analysis indicated four phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic and syringic acids) in roots, three (chlorogenic p-coumaric and ferulic acids) in stem and only one (caffeic acid) in leaves. Extracts of all three parts of F. benjamina exhibited substantial hemolytic activity. Conclusions Considering these results, it is concluded that F. benjamina can be used as a potential source for the exploration of new antioxidant compounds and antimicrobial agents. PMID:24524349

  8. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    PubMed

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract

    PubMed Central

    THAM, CHING S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, SRIKUMAR; HALEAGRAHARA, NAGARAJA; DE ALWIS, RANJIT

    2013-01-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

  10. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract.

    PubMed

    Tham, Ching S; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; DE Alwis, Ranjit

    2013-02-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis.

  11. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Carica papaya Linn. seed essential oil against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    He, X; Ma, Y; Yi, G; Wu, J; Zhou, L; Guo, H

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the incidence of clinical yeast infections has increased dramatically. Due to the extensive use of broad-spectrum antifungal agents, there has been a notable increase in drug resistance among infections yeast species. As one of the most popular natural antimicrobial agents, essential oils (EOs) have attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical composition and examine the antifungal activity of the EO extracted from the seeds of Carica papaya Linn. The papaya seed EO was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (99·36%). The filter paper disc diffusion method and broth dilution method were employed. The EO showed inhibitory effect against all the tested Candida strains including C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropical with inhibition zone diameters in the range of 14·2-33·2 mm, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 4·0-16·0 μg ml(-1) and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) in the range of 16·0-64·0 μg ml(-1) . Here, we found that the papaya seed EO has promising anticandida activity and identify C. papaya L. as a potential natural source of antifungal agents. The chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Carica papaya seeds were studied. The oil of papaya seeds could inhibit the growth of Candida spp. for the first report. Carica Papaya may be recognized as a possible new source of natural antifungal agents. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Imaging of Bacterial and Fungal Cells Using Fluorescent Carbon Dots Prepared from Carica papaya Juice.

    PubMed

    Kasibabu, Betha Saineelima B; D'souza, Stephanie L; Jha, Sanjay; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we have described a simple hydrothermal method for preparation of fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) using Carica papaya juice as a precursor. The synthesized C-dots show emission peak at 461 nm with a quantum yield of 7.0 %. The biocompatible nature of C-dots was confirmed by a cytotoxicity assay on E. coli. The C-dots were used as fluorescent probes for imaging of bacterial (Bacillus subtilis) and fungal (Aspergillus aculeatus) cells and emitted green and red colors under different excitation wavelengths, which indicates that the C-dots can be used as a promising material for cell imaging.

  13. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We purified a single stable pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation, which is isolated from Carica papaya (L.) fruit latex. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-ex...

  14. Differential responses of photosystems I and II to seasonal drought in two Ficus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shubin; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jiaolin; Cao, Kunfang

    2016-05-01

    Hemiepiphytic Ficus species exhibit more conservative water use strategy and are more drought-tolerant compared with their non-hemiepiphytic congeners, but a difference in the response of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) to drought stress has not been documented to date. The enhancement of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and cyclic electron flow (CEF) have been identified as important mechanisms that protect the photosystems under drought conditions. Using the hemiepiphytic Ficus tinctoria and the non-hemiepiphytic Ficus racemosa, we studied the water status and the electron fluxes through PSI and PSII under seasonal water stress. Our results clearly indicated that the decline in the leaf predawn water potential (ψpd), the maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax) and the predawn maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) were more pronounced in F. racemosa than in F. tinctoria at peak drought. The Fv/Fm of F. racemosa was reduced to 0.69, indicating net photoinhibition of PSII. Concomitantly, the maximal photo-oxidizable P700 (Pm) decreased significantly in F. racemosa but remained stable in F. tinctoria. The fraction of non-photochemical quenching [Y(NPQ)] and the ratio of effective quantum yield of PSI to PSII [Y(I)/Y(II)] increased for both Ficus species at peak drought, with a stronger increase in F. racemosa. These results indicated that the enhancement of NPQ and the activation of CEF contributed to the photoprotection of PSI and PSII for both Ficus species under seasonal drought, particularly for F. racemosa.

  15. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  16. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  17. Phytochemistry, pharmacology and ethnomedicinal uses of Ficus thonningii (Blume Moraceae): a review.

    PubMed

    Dangarembizi, Rachael; Erlwanger, Kennedy H; Moyo, Davison; Chivandi, Eliton

    2013-01-01

    The common wild fig, Ficus thonningii, is extensively used in African ethnomedicine for treating a number of disease conditions which include diarrhoea, urinary tract infections, diabetes mellitus, gonorrhoea, respiratory infections, and mental illnesses. This review aims to present a logical analysis of the nutritional, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of F. thonningii in relation to its therapeutic applications. A bibliographic analysis of the uses, phytochemical constituents and phytophamacological properties of Ficus thonningii was carried out using published papers, medicinal plant databases and various ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological books. Ficus thonningii contains various bioactive compounds which include alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins and active proteins, all of which contribute to its curative properties. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies revealed that F. thonningii possesses antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, antihelmintic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies have shown that Ficus thonningii is non-toxic if administered orally in low doses. Scientific research has validated the ethnomedicinal claims that Ficus thonningii is useful in disease management. However, there is need to continue identifying, isolating and quantifying the active principles and possibly determine the mechanisms underlying its curative properties.

  18. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica papaya Leaf Extracts.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hodson, Mark P; Pan, Jenny; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-12-24

    In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer.

  19. Carica papaya lipase: a naturally immobilized enzyme with interesting biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Fendri, Imen; Pina, Michel; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2011-03-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases have been thoroughly characterized in mammals and microorganisms, whereas very little is known about plant TAG lipases. The lipolytic activity occurring in all the laticies is known to be associated with sedimentable particles, and all attempts to solubilize the lipolytic activity of Carica papaya latex have been unsuccessful so far. However, some of the biochemical properties of the lipase from Carica papaya latex (CPL) were determined from the insoluble fraction of the latex. The activity was optimum at a temperature of 37°C and a pH of 9.0, and the specific activities of CPL were found to be 2,000 ± 185 and 256 ± 8 U/g when tributyrin and olive oil were used as substrates, respectively. CPL was found to be active in the absence of any detergent, whereas many lipases require detergent to prevent the occurrence of interfacial denaturation. CPL was inactive in the presence of micellar concentrations of Triton X-100, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and tetradecyl trimethylammonium bromide (TTAB), and still showed high levels of activity in the presence of sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) and the zwitterionic Chaps detergent. The effects of various proteases on the lipolytic activity of CPL were studied, and CPL was found to be resistant to treatment with various enzymes, except in the presence of trypsin. All these properties suggest that CPL may be a good candidate for various biotechnological applications.

  20. Molecular cloning of a mitogenic proteinase from Carica candamarcensis: its potential use in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Natássia C R; Mendes, Isabela C; Gomes, Marco Túlio R; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Chagas, Brisa C A; Lopes, Miriam T P; Salas, Carlos E

    2011-11-01

    Cysteine proteinases from the Caricaceae belong to the C1 family of the CA clan and display papain-like structured, the archetype enzyme for this group of proteins. Carica candamarcensis, also named Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, a member of Caricaceae family common to many areas in South America, contains cysteine proteinases with proteolytic activity five to eight-fold higher than those from latex of Carica papaya. The cysteine protease CMS2MS2 from C. candamarcensis latex has been shown to enhance proliferation of L929 fibroblast and to activate the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). In this study, the cDNA cloning, expression and evaluation of biological activity of a CMS2MS2-like protein from C. candamarcensis is reported. The 650 bp fragment was cloned in bacteria and the DNA sequence confirmed a cysteine-proteinase similar to CMS2MS2. The recombinant protein is 30 kDa, induces a mitogenic response, and enhances ERK1/2 phosphorylation, like the non-recombinant enzyme, but lacks either amidase or caseinolytic activity. The mitogenic activity of this protein and its lack of proteolytic activity underscore a potential for use in wound healing treatment.

  1. Production of fatty acid butyl esters using the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase.

    PubMed

    Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2014-07-09

    In this work, the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase (CPL) was investigated for production of fatty acid butyl esters (FABE) to fulfill the aim of reducing the lipase cost in the enzymatic butyl-biodiesel process. The CPL showed specificities to different alcohol acyl acceptors. Alcohols with more than three carbon atoms did not have negative effects on the CPL activity. The CPL catalyzed butanolysis for FABE production was systematically investigated. The reaction solvent, alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, and water activity all affected the butanolysis process. Under the optimized conditions, the highest conversion of 96% could be attained in 24 h. These optimal conditions were further applied to CPL catalyzed butanolysis of other vegetable oils. All of them showed very high conversion. The CPL packed-bed reactor was further developed, and could be operated continuously for more than 150 h. All of these results showed that the low cost Carica papaya lipase can be used as a promising lipase for biodiesel production.

  2. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties.

  3. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica Papaya Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao T.; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hodson, Mark P.; Pan, Jenny; Shaw, Paul N.; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.

    2015-01-01

    In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer. PMID:26712788

  4. Ficus seed shadows in a Bornean rain forest.

    PubMed

    Laman, Timothy G

    1996-08-01

    Due to their copious seed production and numerous dispersers, rain forest fig trees have been assumed to produce extensive and dense seed shadows. To test this idea, patterns of seed dispersal of two species of large hemiepiphytic fig tree were measured in a Bornean rain forest. The sample included four Ficus stupenda and three F. subtecta trees with crop sizes ranging from 2,000 to 40,000 figs (400,000 to 13,000,000 seeds). Seed rain out to a distance of 60 m from each study tree was quantified using arrays of seed traps deployed in the understory. These trees showed a strongly leptokurtic pattern of dispersal, as expected, but all individuals had measurable seed rain at 60 m, ranging from 0.2 to 5.0 seeds/m(2). A regression of In-transformed seed rain density against distance gave a significant fit to all seven trees' dispersal patterns, indicating that the data could be fitted to the negative exponential distribution most commonly fitted to seed shadows. However, for six of seven trees, an improved fit was obtained for regressions in which distance was also In-transformed. This transformation corresponds to an inverse power distribution, indicating that for vertebrate-dispersed Ficus seeds, the tail of the seed rain distribution does not drop off as rapidly as in the exponential distribution typically associated with wind dispersed seed shadows. Over 50% of the seed crop was estimated to fall below each fig tree's crown. Up to 22% of the seed crop was dispersed beyond the crown edge, but within 60 m of the tree. Estimates of the maximum numbers of seeds which could have been transported beyond 60 m were 45% for the two largest crops of figs, but were under 24% for the trees with smaller crops. Seed traps positioned where they had an upper canopy layer above them were associated with higher probabilities of being hit by seeds, suggesting that vertebrate dispersal agents are likely to perch or travel through forest layers at the same level as the fig crown and

  5. Transferability and characterization of microsatellite markers in two Neotropical Ficus species

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were transferred and characterized for two Neotropical fig tree species, Ficus citrifolia and Ficus eximia. Our study demonstrated that microsatellite markers developed from different subgenera of Ficus can be transferred to related species. In the present case, 12 of the 15 primer pairs tested (80%) were successfully transferred to both of the above species. Eleven loci were polymorphic when tested across 60 F. citrifolia and 60 F. eximia individuals. For F. citrifolia, there were 4 to 15 alleles per locus, whereas expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.31 to 0.91. In the case of F. eximia, this was 2 to 12 alleles per locus and expected heterozygosities from 0.42 to 0.87. PMID:21637521

  6. Cytotoxic triterpenes from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yi-Ming; Chang, Jang-Yang; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Chang, Chi-Yen; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2005-02-01

    Six triterpenes, 3beta-acetoxy-12,19-dioxo-13(18)-oleanene (1), 3beta-acetoxy-19(29)-taraxasten-20alpha-ol (2), 3beta-acetoxy-21alpha,22alpha-epoxytaraxastan-20alpha-ol (3), 3,22-dioxo-20-taraxastene (4), 3beta-acetoxy-11alpha,12alpha-epoxy-16-oxo-14-taraxerene (5), 3beta-acetoxy-25-methoxylanosta-8,23-diene (6) along with nine known triterpenes, 3beta-acetoxy-11alpha,12alpha-epoxy-14-taraxerene (7), 3beta-acetoxy-25-hydroxylanosta-8,23-diene (8), oleanonic acid (9), acetylbetulinic acid (10), betulonic acid (11), acetylursolic acid (12), ursonic acid (13), ursolic acid (14), and 3-oxofriedelan-28-oic acid (15) were isolated from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa, and their structures elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The in vitro cytotoxic efficacy of these triterpenes was investigated using three human cancer cell lines, namely, HONE-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma, KB oral epidermoid carcinoma, and HT29 colorectal carcinoma cells. Compound 8 and pentacyclic triterpenes 9-15 possessing a carboxylic acid functionality at C-28 showed significant cytotoxic activities against the aforementioned cell lines and gave IC50 values in the range 4.0-9.4 microM.

  7. Optimization of extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens *

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-xin; Wu, Xiao-bing; Chai, Wei-ming; Feng, Hui-ling; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Han-tao; Chen, Qing-xi

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the conditions for extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction abilities of phenolics (EAP) and flavonoids (EAF), the 2,2-diphenyl-1-pierylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging potential, and the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were used as quality indicators. The results of single-factor experiments showed that temperature, ethanol concentration, extraction time, and the number of extraction cycles were the main influencing variables, and these provided key information for the central composite design. The results of RSM fitted well to a second degree polynomial model and more than 98% of the variability was explained. The ideal extraction conditions for EAP, EAF, DPPH free-radical scavenging potential, and FRAP were obtained. Considering the four quality indicators overall, the ideal extraction conditions were 58% ethanol at 57 °C for 37 min with three extraction cycles. At the ideal extraction conditions, the values of EAP, EAF, DPPH free-radical scavenging potential, and FRAP were 5.72%, 3.09%, 58.88 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/g dry weight (DW), and 15.86 mg AAE/g DW, respectively. In addition, linear correlations were observed between EAP, EAF, and antioxidant potential. PMID:24101207

  8. [Oviposition timing and community structure of Ficus curtipes fig wasps].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Yang, Da-Rong

    2009-08-01

    Through the behavioral observation of Ficus curtipes fig wasps and the counting of various kinds of flowerets in F. curtipes figs, the oviposition timing and community structure of 12 F. curtipes fig wasp species were studied. Besides the agaonid wasp Eupristina sp., the two non-agaonid wasps Diaziella yangi and Lipothymus sp. could enter into F. curtipes figs and oviposit. The other nine non-agaonid fig wasps ( Walkerella sp., Micranisa sp., Sycophilomorpha sp., Philotrypesis sp., Sycosapter sp., Sycobia sp., Ficomila sp., Ormyrus sp. and Sycophila sp.) oviposited outside the figs. In the fig wasp community, Eupristina sp. was the dominant species, accounting for 62.11% of the total, D. yangi and Lipothymus sp. accounted for 27.19% and 4.71%, respectively, while the other nine non-agaonid fig wasp species only occupied 5.99%. The non-agaonid fig wasps produced their progeny through the reproduction strategies of oviposition timing and diet allocation of female flowerets, so as to sustain the fig-wasp mutualism. The individuals of non-agaonid fig wasp progeny had significant negative correlation with those of agaonid fig wasp progeny, but no correlation with F. curtipes seed production.

  9. Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Leaves of Ficus tikoua Under Arsenic Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Chai, Liyuan; Yang, Zhihui; Mubarak, Hussani; Tang, Chongjian

    2016-10-01

    A greenhouse culture experiment was used to quantify effects of arsenic (As) stress on the growth and photochemical efficiency of Ficus tikoua (F. tikoua). Results showed growth of F. tikoua leaves was significantly inhibited at As concentrations higher than 80 μmol/L in solution. Root arsenic concentration was significantly higher than that in stem and leaf. The 320 and 480 μmol/L As concentrations in solution resulted in significant decreases in maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (Fv/Fm), variable to initial chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fo), and quantum yield of PSII electron transport (Y(II)) of F. tikoua leaves, whereas significantly higher non-photochemical quenching of fluorescence and photochemical quenching of fluorescence values were found at 160, 320 and 480 μmol/L As concentrations in solution, implying that PSII reaction centers were damaged at high As concentrations and that F. tikoua eliminates excess energy stress on the photochemical apparatus to adapt to As stress.

  10. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosphate [K4P2O8] and potassium chloride [KCl]. The SEM images indicate that calcite crystals grow to dipyramidal, octahedral-like, prismatic, and flower-like structures; meanwhile, calcium-magnesium bicarbonate structures show rhombohedral exfoliation and calcium oxalate monohydrate is present in a drusenoid morphology. These calcium carbonate compounds have a great importance for humans because their bioavailability. This is the first report about the identification and structural analysis of calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate in nopal cladodes, as well as the presence of magnesium oxide, potassium peroxydiphosphate and potassium chloride in these plants. The significance of the study of the inorganic components of these cactus plants is related with the increasing interest in the potential use of Opuntia as a raw material of products for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  11. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand* §

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

  12. Antiulcer activity of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae): ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Galati, E M; Monforte, M T; Tripodo, M M; d'Aquino, A; Mondello, M R

    2001-06-01

    In Sicily folk medicine, Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. cladodes are used for the treatment of gastric ulcer. We studied the effect of administration of lyophilized cladodes on experimental ethanol-induced ulcer in rat. In this paper, we report the ultrastructural observations of gastric mucosa. The ultrastructural changes were observed by trasmission electronic microscopy (TEM) confirming the protective effect exercised by administration of lyophilized cladodes. Pre-treatment test in rats revealed a protective action against ethanol-induced ulcer. Probably, the mucilage of Opuntia ficus indica is involved.

  13. Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

    2013-06-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya.

  14. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a new pathogen of papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S

    2010-12-24

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch's postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

  15. Carica papaya induces in vitro thrombopoietic cytokines secretion by mesenchymal stem cells and haematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Jazli; Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty; Haque, Nazmul; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2015-07-08

    Use of Carica papaya leaf extracts, reported to improve thrombocyte counts in dengue patients, demands further analysis on the underlying mechanism of its thrombopoietic cytokines induction In vitro cultures of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) were treated with unripe papaya pulp juice (UPJ) to evaluate its potential to induce thrombopoietic cytokines (IL-6 and SCF) RESULTS: In vitro scratch gap closure was significantly faster (p < .05) in SHED culture treated with UPJ. IL-6 concentration was significantly increased (p < .05) in SHED and PBL culture supernatant when treated with UPJ. SCF synthesis in SHED culture was also significantly increased (p < .05) when treated with UPJ CONCLUSION: In vitro upregulated synthesis of IL -6 and SCF both in PBL and SHED reveals the potential mechanism of unripe papaya to induce thrombopoietic cytokines synthesis in cells of hematopoietic and mesenchymal origin.

  16. Antioxidant activities and phenolics profiling of different parts of Carica papaya by LCMS-MS.

    PubMed

    Zunjar, V; Mammen, D; Trivedi, B M

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of various parts of Carica papaya L. The evaluation of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content revealed high antioxidant potential of the seeds and fruits. The free radical-scavenging potential of the aqueous extracts indicated the seeds to have better DPPH-scavenging activity than fruits. The results were augmented by the FRAP activity as well. The phenolics present in the extracts were separated and identified as 5-hydroxy feruloyl quinic acid, acetyl p-coumaryl quinic acid, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, syringic acid hexoside, 5-hydroxy caffeic quinic acid, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, sinapic acid-O-hexoside, cyaniding-3-O-glucose and methyl feruloyl glycoside by LCMS-MS technique.

  17. Sodium tetrathionate effect on papain purification from different Carica papaya latex crude extracts.

    PubMed

    Llerena-Suster, Carlos R; Priolo, Nora S; Morcelle, Susana R

    2011-01-01

    Papain from latex of Carica papaya was purified up to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry homogeneity by salt precipitation from two different crude extract sources: a refined preparation obtained in our laboratory and a commercial one. Sodium tetrathionate was tested in the purification process to preserve the enzymatic activity of the peptidase. Purification was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and cation exchange chromatography, using commercial pure papain as standard for a rapid comparison. The best purification yields (3.4%) were obtained in presence of 30 mM sodium tetrathionate for the crude extract prepared in our laboratory. The described purification method proved to be robust and reliable to obtain pure papain on a preparative scale.

  18. Enantioselective esterification of (R,S)-2-methylalkanoic acid with Carica papaya lipase in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Sheng; Ho, Ssu-Ching

    2011-11-01

    Isooctane was the best reaction medium for the enantioselective esterification of (R,S)-2-methylalkanoic acid with n-butanol using Carica papaya lipase as catalyst. Increasing linear alkyl-chain length of racemic 2-methylalkanoic acids from ethyl to hexyl increased the enantioselectivity (E) from 2.1 to 98.2 for the esterification of racemic 2-methylalkanoic acids with n-butanol at 35°C. Decreasing reaction temperature from 40 to 20°C increased the enantioselectivity (E) from 14 to 33 for the esterification of racemic 2-methylhexanoic acids with n-butanol. We obtained a maximum enantioselectivity, of E = 24.3, for the enantioselective esterification of racemic 2-methylhexanoic acids with n-butanol in isooctane at water activity 0.33, and at 35°C.

  19. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S.

    2011-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya. PMID:21339975

  20. Biomechanical, biochemical, and morphological mechanisms of heat shock-mediated germination in Carica papaya seed.

    PubMed

    Webster, Rachel E; Waterworth, Wanda M; Stuppy, Wolfgang; West, Christopher E; Ennos, Roland; Bray, Clifford M; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2016-12-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) seed germinate readily fresh from the fruit, but desiccation induces a dormant state. Dormancy can be released by exposure of the hydrated seed to a pulse of elevated temperature, typical of that encountered in its tropical habitat. Carica papaya is one of only a few species known to germinate in response to heat shock (HS) and we know little of the mechanisms that control germination in tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate the mechanisms that mediate HS-induced stimulation of germination in pre-dried and re-imbibed papaya seed. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3 ≥250 µM) overcame the requirement for HS to initiate germination. However, HS did not sensitise seeds to GA3, indicative that it may act independently of GA biosynthesis. Seed coat removal also overcame desiccation-imposed dormancy, indicative that resistance to radicle emergence is coat-imposed. Morphological and biomechanical studies identified that neither desiccation nor HS alter the physical structure or the mechanical strength of the seed coat. However, cycloheximide prevented both seed coat weakening and germination, implicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis in both processes. The germination antagonist abscisic acid prevented radicle emergence but had no effect on papaya seed coat weakening. Desiccation therefore appears to reduce embryo growth potential, which is reversed by HS, without physically altering the mechanical properties of the seed coat. The ability to germinate in response to a HS may confer a competitive advantage to C. papaya, an opportunistic pioneer species, through detection of canopy removal in tropical forests. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Biomechanical, biochemical, and morphological mechanisms of heat shock-mediated germination in Carica papaya seed

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Rachel E.; Waterworth, Wanda M.; Stuppy, Wolfgang; West, Christopher E.; Ennos, Roland; Bray, Clifford M.; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) seed germinate readily fresh from the fruit, but desiccation induces a dormant state. Dormancy can be released by exposure of the hydrated seed to a pulse of elevated temperature, typical of that encountered in its tropical habitat. Carica papaya is one of only a few species known to germinate in response to heat shock (HS) and we know little of the mechanisms that control germination in tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate the mechanisms that mediate HS-induced stimulation of germination in pre-dried and re-imbibed papaya seed. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3 ≥250 µM) overcame the requirement for HS to initiate germination. However, HS did not sensitise seeds to GA3, indicative that it may act independently of GA biosynthesis. Seed coat removal also overcame desiccation-imposed dormancy, indicative that resistance to radicle emergence is coat-imposed. Morphological and biomechanical studies identified that neither desiccation nor HS alter the physical structure or the mechanical strength of the seed coat. However, cycloheximide prevented both seed coat weakening and germination, implicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis in both processes. The germination antagonist abscisic acid prevented radicle emergence but had no effect on papaya seed coat weakening. Desiccation therefore appears to reduce embryo growth potential, which is reversed by HS, without physically altering the mechanical properties of the seed coat. The ability to germinate in response to a HS may confer a competitive advantage to C. papaya, an opportunistic pioneer species, through detection of canopy removal in tropical forests. PMID:27811004

  2. Genetic structure and hybridization in the species group of Ficus auriculata: can closely related sympatric Ficus species retain their genetic identity while sharing pollinators?

    PubMed

    Wei, Z-D; Kobmoo, N; Cruaud, A; Kjellberg, F

    2014-07-01

    Obligate mutualistic nursery pollination systems between insects and plants have led to substantial codiversification involving at least some parallel cladogenesis, as documented in Yucca, Ficus and Phyllanthaceae. In such systems, pollinators are generally species specific thus limiting hybridization and introgression among interfertile host species. Nevertheless, in the three systems, cases of one insect pollinating several plant species are reported. In most cases, host plants sharing pollinators are allopatric. However, in the case of the species group of Ficus auriculata, forms may co-occur over large parts of their range. We show here that the species group of F. auriculata is constituted by four well-defined genetic entities that share pollinators. We detected hybrids in nature mainly when both parental forms were growing nearby. Controlled crosses showed that F1 offspring could be successfully backcrossed. Hence, despite sharing pollinators and despite hybrid viability, the different forms have preserved their genetic and morphological identity. We propose that ecological differentiation among forms coupled with limited overlap of reproductive season has facilitated the maintenance of these interfertile forms. As such, establishment of pollinator host specificity may not be a prerequisite for sympatric diversification in Ficus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals

  4. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of antimony in Ficus tikoua.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Chai, Liyuan; Yang, Zhihui; Mubarak, Hussani; Xiao, Ruiyang; Tang, Chongjian

    2017-02-01

    Ficus tikoua (F. tikoua) was a potential species for antimony (Sb) phytoremediation due to its wide growth in the mining area. However, little was known about its tolerance mechanisms toward Sb. The determination of the distribution and chemical speciation of Sb in F. tikoua is essential for understanding the mechanisms involved in Sb accumulation, transportation, and detoxification. The present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Sb in F. tikoua. The plant was exposed to different Sb concentrations (0, 30, 90, and 180 μmol/L) for 30 days. The results showed that F. tikoua possessed a marked ability to tolerate and accumulate Sb. The proportional Sb increased with increasing Sb concentration in the solution, and the highest Sb concentration occurred in roots (1274.5-1580.9 mg/kg), followed by stems (133.5-498.9 mg/kg) and leaves (4.1-15.7 mg/kg). In the subcellular sequestration of Sb in F. tikoua, the largest accumulation of Sb occurred in cell walls (72.4-87.5%) followed by cytoplasmic organelles (8.2-18.6%) and cytoplasmic supernatant. The results suggested that cell walls act as important protective barriers against Sb toxicity in F. tikoua. Although Sb in all plant tissues found primarily in the fractions extracted by ethanol and distilled water, the current study found that the Sb amounts in the HAc-extractable fraction, HCl-extractable fraction, and residue fraction increased at the highest Sb level (180 μmol/L) compared to that under lower Sb levels. These results indicate that excessive Sb accumulated in F. tikoua under Sb stress is bound to non-dissolved or low-bioavailable compounds, a biochemical mechanism that benefits F. tikoua because it helps alleviate Sb toxicity.

  5. Effects of Ficus asperifolia on normal rat estrus cyclicity

    PubMed Central

    Ngadjui, Esther; Watcho, Pierre; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit; Kamanyi, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate Ficus asperifolia (Moraceae) (F. asperifolia) effecting on regular estrus cycle of Wistar rats. Methods Air-dried fruits of F. asperifolia were extracted using water. Prior to the test, vaginal smear was monitored daily for a 3-week period to select females with normal (regular) estrous cycle. Those with regular estrus cycle weighing between 150–170 g were randomized into three sets of 15 animals each. Each set was then divided into three groups: Group 1 (control) was orally administered with distilled water (10 mL/kg body weight) once a day for 1 week starting from the proestrus stage. Groups 2 and 3 were respectively treated with 100 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the plant aqueous extract. The two other sets of 15 animals each were similarly treated as the first set for 3 weeks and 6 weeks respectively. Estrus cycle pattern was monitored before and during plant extract application whereas lipid profile, ovary, uterus and liver growth indices were determined at the end of each treatment. Results F. asperifolia did not disrupt (0%) the order of appearance of normal estrus cycle stages, namely, proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus. Short-term treatment (1 week duration) exhibited high frequency of appearance of proestrus and estrus stages while mid- (3 weeks) and long-term (6 weeks) treatments revealed constancy in the frequency of all stages irrespective to animal groups. The plasma and organ lipid profile, as well as ovary, uterus and liver growth remained unchanged when compared to distilled water-treated animals. Following long-term administration of plant extract (6 weeks), no adverse effect was noticed. Conclusions Our data partially support the use of F. asperifolia in common medicine. PMID:23570017

  6. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-11-01

    The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacognosy and hypotensive evaluation of Ficus exasperata Vahl (Moraceae) leaf.

    PubMed

    Ayinde, Buniyamin A; Omogbai, Eric K I; Amaechina, Fabian C

    2007-01-01

    There is already a literature report on the anti-ulcer effect of water extract of Ficus exasperata. Some communities in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria use the decoction of the leaf as hypotensive crude drug. Verification of this claim and also the microscopy and other pharmacognostic parameters which can be used to establish the identity of the leaf were carried out. The microscopy of the leaf powder revealed the presence of straight walled epidermal cells, cone or nail shaped trichomes or epidermal hairs, clustered or prismatic calcium oxalate crystals of varying dimensions. The percentage weight loss on drying was 9.84 +/- 0.08 whereas water and alcohol extractive values were 5.29 +/- 0.07 and 2.21 +/- 0.11, respectively. The ash value was 30.68 +/- 0.44 whereas the acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash values were 17.87 +/- 0.37 and 16.73 +/- 0.13, respectively. Preliminary phytochemistry of leaf showed that it contains tannins, flavonoids and saponins with no traces of alkaloids or anthraquinones. The water extract showed a dose related reduction in mean arterial blood pressure. At 10 mg/kg, a reduction of 16.6 +/- 1.1 mmHg was observed, whereas at 30 mg/kg, a fall in mean arterial pressure of 38.3 +/- 0.6 mmHg was obtained. The hypotensive effect of the extract was significantly reduced with a prior administration of 2.5 mg of either atropine or chlorpheniramine. This suggests the probable stimulation of muscarinic receptors in the heart or release of histamine into the circulatory system thereby causing the initial fall in blood pressure.

  8. Isolated Ficus trees deliver dual conservation and development benefits in a rural landscape.

    PubMed

    Cottee-Jones, H Eden W; Bajpai, Omesh; Chaudhary, Lal B; Whittaker, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Many of the world's rural populations are dependent on the local provision of economically and medicinally important plant resources. However, increasing land-use intensity is depleting these resources, reducing human welfare, and thereby constraining development. Here we investigate a low cost strategy to manage the availability of valuable plant resources, facilitated by the use of isolated Ficus trees as restoration nuclei. We surveyed the plants growing under 207 isolated trees in Assam, India, and categorized them according to their local human-uses. We found that Ficus trees were associated with double the density of important high-grade timber, firewood, human food, livestock fodder, and medicinal plants compared to non-Ficus trees. Management practices were also important in determining the density of valuable plants, with grazing pressure and land-use intensity significantly affecting densities in most categories. Community management practices that conserve isolated Ficus trees, and restrict livestock grazing and high-intensity land-use in their vicinity, can promote plant growth and the provision of important local resources.

  9. Ficuschlorins A - D, lactone Chlorins from the leaves of ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huan-You; Chiu, Hsi-Lin; Lan, Yu-Hsuang; Tzeng, Chih-Ying; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lee, Ching-Kuo; Shao, Yi-Yuan; Chen, Chiy-Rong; Chang, Chi-I; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2011-09-01

    Four new lactone chlorins, ficuschlorins A - D (1-4, resp.), and six known pheophytins were isolated from the leaves of Ficus microcarpa. The structures of these compounds were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, and other techniques. New natural pheophytins were rarely obtained. In the past ten years, only three new pheophytins were isolated from natural sources.

  10. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape rootstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  11. The effect of fig wall thickness in Ficus erecta var. beecheyana on parasitism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Ou, Chern-Hsiung; Lu, Fu-Yuan; Bain, Anthony; Chou, Lien-Siang; Kjellberg, Finn

    2014-05-01

    Fig wasp communities constitute a model system to analyse determinants of community complexity and to investigate how biological interaction networks are maintained. It has been suggested for monoecious figs, that fig pollinating wasps avoid ovipositing in flowers located close to the fig wall because of strong parasitic pressure by wasps ovipositing through the fig wall. This behaviour could help explain why mainly seeds are produced in flowers located close to the fig wall, thus stabilizing the fig-pollinating wasp mutualism. In this contribution we explore, for dioecious figs, whether ovipositor length of parasitic species may really be limiting. In dioecious figs, functionally male figs produce pollinating wasps and pollen while female figs produce only seeds, facilitating selection of traits favouring pollinator reproduction in male figs. We show in Ficus erecta that fig walls are thicker in male figs than in female figs. Male figs presenting thick walls, thicker than the length of the parasites' ovipositors, went unparasitized while male figs presenting thinner walls were systematically parasitized. Hence, in F. erecta, ovipositor length of the parasites is limiting access to some figs. However, we also show that in another dioecious species, Ficus formosana, presenting thin walled male figs, no fig is protected against oviposition by its two parasites. Hence in dioecious as well as in monoecious figs, in some Ficus species, ovipositors of the parasites are limiting access to ovules, while in other Ficus species all ovules are exposed to parasitism.

  12. Ficus elastica-The Indian rubber tree-an underutilized promising multi-use species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ficus elastica known as the Indian rubber tree has a white, milky latex that is a source of natural rubber was analyzed for its phytochemicals as an intermediate energy source. The tree produces a high quantity of protein and oil (24.5 and 6.1% respectively). The polyphenol content was 4.2%, and hyd...

  13. Influence of Planococcus ficus on Aspergillus section Nigri and ochratoxin A incidence in vineyards from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Chiotta, M L; Ponsone, M L; Torres, A M; Combina, M; Chulze, S N

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Planococcus ficus infection in red wine grapes on Aspergillus section Nigri and ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination. During 2006/2007 and 2008/2009 vintages, Merlot, Malbec and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties divided into two categories of grape samples (undamaged and damaged by P. ficus) were evaluated. Regardless of the grape variety and the harvest season evaluated, Aspergillus section Nigri incidence and the mean OTA concentration in damaged berries were significantly higher than that in the undamaged ones (P < 0.05; P < 0.001). The Merlot variety showed the highest level of black aspergilli contamination in damaged grapes during the 2006/2007 vintage (53.5% of infection), whereas Malbec presented the highest incidence during the 2008/2009 vintage (57.6% of infection). The Cabernet Sauvignon variety showed the highest OTA levels, ranging from 0.1 to 140 microg kg(-1). The presence of P. ficus in vineyards increased the risk of OTA occurrence in grapes, suggesting the need to implement insect control at preharvest stage to reduce the entry of OTA in the wine production chain. This study is the first report on the influence of P. ficus on the potential risk of OTA contamination in grapes.

  14. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  15. Microbial associates of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under different rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Robinson, Wyatt E; Sharon, Rakefet; Droby, Samir; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Sap-feeding insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. Previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. To examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of field and laboratory P. ficus were characterized using molecular and classical microbiological methods. Lab and field colonies of P. ficus harbored different microbiota. While both were dominated by the bacterial obligate nutritional symbionts Moranella and Tremblaya, field samples also harbored a third bacterium that was allied with cluster L, a lineage of bacterial symbionts previously identified in aphids. Archaea were not found in any of the samples. Fungal communities in field-collected mealybugs were dominated by Metschnikowia and Cladosporium species, while those from laboratory-reared mealybugs were dominated by Alternaria and Cladosporium species. In conclusion, this study has identified a diverse set of microbes, most of which appear to be facultatively associated with P. ficus, depending on environmental conditions. The role of various members of the mealybug microbiome, as well as how the host plant affects microbial community structure, remains to be determined.

  16. Bioaccessibility, Intestinal Permeability and Plasma Stability of Isorhamnetin Glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Cepeda-Cañedo, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Isorhamnetin glycosides are representative compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica that possess different biological activities. There is slight information about the changes in bioaccessibility induced by the glycosylation pattern of flavonoids, particularly for isorhamnetin. In this study, the bioaccessibility and permeability of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from O. ficus-indica were contrasted with an isorhamnetin standard. Also, the plasma stability of these isorhamnetin glycosides after intravenous administration in rats was evaluated. Recoveries of isorhamnetin after oral and gastric digestion were lower than that observed for its glycosides. After intestinal digestion, isorhamnetin glycosides recoveries were reduced to less than 81.0%. The apparent permeability coefficient from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) direction (Papp(AP-BL)) of isorhamnetin was 2.6 to 4.6-fold higher than those obtained for its glycosides. Isorhamnetin diglycosides showed higher Papp(AP-BL) values than triglycosides. Sugar substituents affected the Papp(AP-BL) of the triglycosides. Isorhamnetin glycosides were better retained in the circulatory system than the aglycone. After intravenous dose of the isorhamnetin standard, the elimination half-life was 0.64 h but increased to 1.08 h when the O. ficus-indica extract was administered. These results suggest that isorhamnetin glycosides naturally found in O. ficus-indica could be a controlled delivery system to maintain a constant plasmatic concentration of this important flavonoid to exert its biological effects in vivo. PMID:28829356

  17. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Bettiga, Larry J; Daane, Kent M

    2010-04-01

    Controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) were developed successfully for control of vine mealybug, Planococcusflcus Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on dormant grape (Vitis spp.) benchgrafts. At 30 ppm oxygen, 3-d ULO treatment at 25 degrees C and 4-d ULO treatment at 150C achieved complete control of all life stages of P. ficus. At a much lower oxygen level (<1 ppm), the two ULO treatments with the same exposure periods of 3 d at 25 degrees C and 4 d at 15 degrees C were tested on six table and wine grape cultivars grafted on rootstocks along with P. ficus. The benchgrafts were then potted in a greenhouse, together with untreated controls, to determine treatment effects on rootstock viability. Both ULO treatments achieved complete control of P. ficus and did not have any negative effects on vine growth, compared with the control. Results indicate that ULO treatments can be used to control P. ficus on dormant grape benchgrafts. The advantages of the ULO treatments are also discussed with respect to hot water treatments.

  18. Bioaccessibility, Intestinal Permeability and Plasma Stability of Isorhamnetin Glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    PubMed

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Cepeda-Cañedo, Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2017-08-22

    Isorhamnetin glycosides are representative compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica that possess different biological activities. There is slight information about the changes in bioaccessibility induced by the glycosylation pattern of flavonoids, particularly for isorhamnetin. In this study, the bioaccessibility and permeability of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from O. ficus-indica were contrasted with an isorhamnetin standard. Also, the plasma stability of these isorhamnetin glycosides after intravenous administration in rats was evaluated. Recoveries of isorhamnetin after oral and gastric digestion were lower than that observed for its glycosides. After intestinal digestion, isorhamnetin glycosides recoveries were reduced to less than 81.0%. The apparent permeability coefficient from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) direction (Papp(AP-BL)) of isorhamnetin was 2.6 to 4.6-fold higher than those obtained for its glycosides. Isorhamnetin diglycosides showed higher Papp(AP-BL) values than triglycosides. Sugar substituents affected the Papp(AP-BL) of the triglycosides. Isorhamnetin glycosides were better retained in the circulatory system than the aglycone. After intravenous dose of the isorhamnetin standard, the elimination half-life was 0.64 h but increased to 1.08 h when the O. ficus-indica extract was administered. These results suggest that isorhamnetin glycosides naturally found in O. ficus-indica could be a controlled delivery system to maintain a constant plasmatic concentration of this important flavonoid to exert its biological effects in vivo.

  19. Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Smida, Amani; Ncibi, Saida; Taleb, Jihen; Ben Saad, Anouar; Ncib, Sana; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-04-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and traditional folk medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced immunotoxicity in rats. The experimental animals consisted of four groups of Wistar rats (5-6 weeks old) of eight each: a control group, a group treated with CPF (10mg/kg), a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100mg/kg), and a group treated with cactus extract then treated with CPF. These components were daily administered by gavage for 30days. After treatment, immunotoxicity was estimated by a count of thymocytes, splenocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow, relative weights of thymus and spleen, DNA aspects, and oxidative stress status in these organs. Results showed that CPF could induce thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, and a decrease in the cell number in the bone marrow. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in elevated levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both spleen and thymus, and also degradation of thymocyte and splenocyte DNA. Consistent histological changes were found in the spleen and thymus under CPF treatment. However, administration of Opuntia ficus indica extract was found to alleviate this CPF-induced damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    PubMed

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  1. Antithrombocytopenic activity of carpaine and alkaloidal extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in busulfan induced thrombocytopenic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Zunjar, Vishwanath; Dash, Ranjeet Prasad; Jivrajani, Mehul; Trivedi, Bhavna; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2016-04-02

    The decoction of Carica papaya Linn. leaves is used in folklore medicine in certain parts of Malaysia and Indonesia for the treatment of different types of thrombocytopenia associated with diseases and drugs. There are several scientific studies carried out on humans and animal models to confirm the efficacy of decoction of papaya leave for the treatment of disease induced and drug induced thrombocytopenia, however very little is known about the bio-active compounds responsible for the observed activity. The aim of present study was to identify the active phytochemical component of Carica papaya Linn. leaves decoction responsible for anti-thrombocytopenic activity in busulfan-induced thrombocytopenic rats. Antithrombocytopenic activity was assessed on busulfan induced thrombocytopenic Wistar rats. The antithrombocytopenic activity of different bio-guided fractions was evaluated by monitoring blood platelet count. Bioactive compound carpaine was isolated and purified by chromatographic methods and confirmed by spectroscopic methods (LC-MS and 1D/2D-1H/13C NMR) and the structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Quantification of carpaine was carried out by LC-MS/MS equipped with XTerra(®) MS C18 column and ESI-MS detector using 90:10 CH3CN:CH3COONH4 (6mM) under isocratic conditions and detected with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. Two different phytochemical groups were isolated from decoction of Carica papaya leaves: phenolics, and alkaloids. Out of these, only alkaloid fraction showed good biological activity. Carpaine was isolated from the alkaloid fraction and exhibited potent activity in sustaining platelet counts upto 555.50±85.17×10(9)/L with no acute toxicity. This study scientifically validates the popular usage of decoction of Carica papaya leaves and it also proves that alkaloids particularly carpaine present in the leaves to be responsible for the antithrombocytopenic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  2. Preparation and physicochemical evaluation of emulsified virgin coconut oil (VCO)-carica papaya extract concoction using Tween80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Hazreen; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Fadhilah, Mohd Faizulhelmi; Omar, Dzolkhifli; Asib, Norhayu

    2016-11-01

    Carica papaya is a member of the Caricaceae. Its leaves have been used in folk medicine for centuries. Recent studies have shown its beneficial effects as an anti-inflammatory agent (Owoyele et al 2008) and anti-tumour15 as well as antioxidant and wound healing properties7. The study has shown that the effect of carica papaya leaves juice intake also can accelerate the rate of increase in platelet count among the patients infected with dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever18. With all the goodness of carica papaya leaves, a formulation with addition of virgin coconut oil (VCO) is produced to give an enhanced supplement beverage to market nowadays. Virgin coconut oil is well known as anti-oxidant4. The combination of these two substances gives a balance combination in healthy supplement. In recent years the application of emulsion is rapidly increasing in many fields such as cosmetics and paints. Emulsions are dispersions of droplets of one liquid in another, immiscible, liquid in which the droplets are of colloidal or near-colloidal sizes. The combination of water and oil (VCO) with addition of non-ionic surfactant Tween80 was constructed using ternary phase diagram. By considering the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) value of each substance will help in producing a stable emulsion.

  3. Leaf anatomy and histochemistry of three species of Ficus sect. Americanae supported by light and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Nathalia Diniz; Coelho, Victor Peçanha M; Ventrella, Marília Contin; Agra, Maria de Fátima

    2014-02-01

    In this work the leaf anatomy of three species of Ficus section Americanae (Miq.) Miq. from Brazil, whose leaves and latex are used in folk medicine is reported. The work was carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy in order to characterize these species and to evaluate their taxonomic significance, and also contribute to the quality control of their ethnodrugs. The three species (Ficus cyclophylla, Ficus elliotiana, and Ficus caatingae) showed hypostomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, straight epidermal cell outlines, and a dorsiventral mesophyll. Some micro-morphological characters such as density and distribution of epicuticular waxes, glandular trichomes, the length and width of stomata, as well as the palisade of mesophyll and petiole outlines proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation of species. These may contribute as additional support for the taxonomy of the section and for the quality control of their ethnodrugs.

  4. Study on the increment of the production of gastric mucus in rats treated with Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. cladodes.

    PubMed

    Galati, E M; Pergolizzi, S; Miceli, N; Monforte, M T; Tripodo, M M

    2002-12-01

    Opuntia ficus indica cladodes are used in traditional medicine of many countries for their cicatrisant activity. The major components of cladodes are carbohydrate-containing polymers, which consist of a mixture of mucilage and pectin. In this paper we studied the cytoprotective effects of cladodes on experimental ethanol-induced ulcer in rat. The O. ficus indica cladodes administration gives rise to cytoprotection phenomena by breaking up the epithelial cells and stimulating an increase in mucus production. When O. ficus indica cladodes are administered as a preventive therapy, keep the gastric mucosa under normal condition by preventing mucus dissolution caused by ethanol and favouring mucus production. An increase of mucus production is also observed during the course of the curative treatment. The treatment with O. ficus indica cladodes provokes an increase in the number of secretory cells. Probably, the gastric fibroblasts are involved in the antiulcer activity.

  5. Evaluation of the composition of Carica papaya L. seed oil extracted with supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Pedro T W; de Carvalho, Pedro P; Rocha, Thiago B; Pessoa, Fernando L P; Azevedo, Debora A; Mendes, Marisa F

    2016-09-01

    Among the most important tropical fruit grown in the world today and in Brazil, papaya occupies a prominent place. Native to tropical America, papaya has spread to several regions of the world, and Brazil accounts for 12.74% of the world production, followed by Mexico, Nigeria and India. The culture reached a harvested area of 441,042 ha and production of 12,420,585 t worldwide. The largest interest in this fruit relies on its main constituent compounds, like vitamins A, B and C, alkaloids (carpaine and pseudocarpaine), proteolytic enzymes (papain and quimiopapain) and benzyl isothiocyanate, more known as BITC, which has anthelmintic activity. Because of that, the present work has as objective the evaluation of the efficiency and composition of the oil extracted from Carica papaya L. seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed in a unit containing mainly a high-pressure pump and a stainless steel extractor with 42 mL of volume. The sampling was performed at each 20 min until the saturation of the process. About 6.5 g of sample were fed for each experiment done at 40, 60 and 80 °C under the pressures of 100, 150 and 200 bar. Samples of the Carica papaya L. fruit were acquired in a popular market and free for personal use intended for the study. After collection, the seeds were crushed with the help of a pestle, and dried at 60 °C for 60 min. For each operational condition, the extraction curves were constructed relating cumulative mass of oil extracted in function of the operational time. The better efficiencies were found at 40 °C and 200 bar (1.33%) followed by 80 °C and 200 bar (2.56%). Gas chromatography and NMR analysis could identify an insecticide component (BITC) that enables new applications of this residue in pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  6. Hot-water treatments for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on dormant grape cuttings.

    PubMed

    Haviland, David R; Bentley, Walter J; Daane, Kent M

    2005-08-01

    Hot-water immersions were tested for control of mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret), on dormant grape cuttings used for nursery stock. A range of hot-water temperatures (47-58 degrees C) were evaluated at immersion periods of 2, 5, 10, or 20 min, by using a total of 353,720 mealybugs across all treatments. A 5-min immersion at 51 degrees C is effective in killing > 99% of P. ficus. At or above this immersion period and temperature, there was no difference in mealybug stage mortality. We evaluated a commercial operation, which used a 5-min immersion in each of three water tanks: preheating (30.0 +/- 3 degrees C), hot-water (52.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C), and cooling (23 +/- 3 degrees C). The commercial procedure provided 99.8-100% mealybug control in each of three separate trials.

  7. Development of 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Ficus tikoua (Moraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu-Shui; Tan, Lu; Hu, Dai-Mei; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed to facilitate studies on the fine-scale population genetic structure of Ficus tikoua (Moraceae), a prostrate shrub known to have highly restricted gene flow. Methods and Results: Microsatellite primers were developed using the biotin-streptavidin capture method and scanned for polymorphism within 76 individuals sampled from three natural F. tikoua populations. Fourteen loci were shown to be polymorphic, with allele numbers ranging from three to 16. The observed and expected heterozygosity in the three populations ranged from 0 to 1 and from 0 to 0.87, respectively. Substantial divergence was found among the populations at some loci. All loci can be successfully amplified in at least eight other Ficus species, indicating good transferability within the genus. Conclusions: The 14 microsatellite loci will be a helpful tool for assessing the fine-scale genetic structure of F. tikoua. PMID:27011895

  8. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  9. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomical, chemical, and biochemical characterization of cladodes from prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.].

    PubMed

    Ginestra, Giovanna; Parker, Mary L; Bennett, Richard N; Robertson, Jim; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Narbad, Arjan; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2009-11-11

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes represent the green stem of the plant and are generally used as animal feed or disposed of in landfills. The present work investigated the anatomical and chemical composition of Opuntia cladodes, which form the basis of their pharmacological effects. Glucose and galacturonic acid were the main sugars of Opuntia cladodes, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of mainly kaempherol and isorhamnetin glycosides (glucoside and rhamnoside). The presence of high amounts of calcium oxalate crystals was demonstrated by light microscopy on fresh and lyophilized cladodes. No antimicrobial activity was observed even after enzymatic treatment. O. ficus-indica cladodes may retain material tightly associated with cell-wall components, and this property will have the potential to greatly reduce the bioavailability of bioactive compounds.

  11. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller as a source of bioactivity compounds for health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Aragona, M; Lauriano, E R; Pergolizzi, S; Faggio, C

    2017-08-14

    Plants with beneficial properties are known in traditional medicine. Nowadays, in spite of widespread availability of synthetic compounds, the search goes towards natural compounds to lower cost and few side effects. The increasing interest in preventive medicine encourages use of nutraceuticals, bioactive compounds of vegetable origin with important nutritional values. Among the medicinal plants, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (Family Cactaceae, subfamily Opuntiodeae, Genus Opuntia, subgenus Platyopuntia, species Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller) is widely known for its beneficial properties. The aim of the present review is to stress the major classes of Opuntia components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefits and therapeutic impacts on fish and mammals.

  12. Water-soluble phenylpropanoid constituents from aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ming-An; Chen, Pei-Qing; Wang, Si-Bing

    2007-07-20

    New water-soluble phenylpropanoid constituents, ficuscarpanoside A, guaiacylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and erythro-guaiacylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, along with known guaiacylglycerol, erythro-guaiacylglycerol, 4-methoxy guaiacylglycerol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy phenyl) propan-1,2-diol, have been isolated from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  13. Ficusnotins A-F: Rare diarylbutanoids from the leaves of Ficus nota.

    PubMed

    Latayada, Felmer S; Uy, Mylene M; Akihara, Yui; Ohta, Emi; Nehira, Tatsuo; Ômura, Hisashi; Ohta, Shinji

    2017-09-01

    Six diarylbutanoids, designated as ficusnotins A-F, with a rare carbon skeleton consisting of two aromatic rings separated by an unbranched C4-chain have been isolated from the leaves of Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. (Moraceae). The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data, as well as X-ray crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

    PubMed Central

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  15. Interspecific Variation in Compensatory Regrowth to Herbivory Associated with Soil Nutrients in Three Ficus (Moraceae) Saplings

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin; Chen, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Plant compensatory regrowth is an induced process that enhances plant tolerance to herbivory. Plant behavior against herbivores differs between species and depends on resource availability, thus making general predictions related to plant compensatory regrowth difficult. To understand how soil nutrients determine the degree of compensatory regrowth for different plant species, we selected saplings of three Ficus species and treated with herbivore insects and artificial injury in both glasshouse conditions and in the field at two soil nutrient levels. Compensatory regrowth was calculated by biomass, relative growth rate and photosynthetic characteristics. A similar pattern was found in both the glasshouse and in the field for species F. hispida, where overcompensatory regrowth was triggered only under fertile conditions, and full compensatory regrowth occurred under infertile conditions. For F. auriculata, overcompensatory regrowth was stimulated only under infertile conditions and full compensatory regrowth occurred under fertile conditions. Ficus racemosa displayed full compensatory regrowth in both soil nutrient levels, but without overcompensatory regrowth following any of the treatments. The three Ficus species differed in biomass allocation following herbivore damage and artificial injury. The root/shoot ratio of F. hispida decreased largely following herbivore damage and artificial injury, while the root/shoot ratio for F. auriculata increased against damage treatments. The increase of shoot and root size for F. hispida and F. auriculata, respectively, appeared to be caused by a significant increase in photosynthesis. The results indicated that shifts in biomass allocation and increased photosynthesis are two of the mechanisms underlying compensatory regrowth. Contrasting patterns among the three Ficus species suggest that further theoretical and empirical work is necessary to better understand the complexity of the plant responses to herbivore damage. PMID

  16. Interspecific variation in compensatory regrowth to herbivory associated with soil nutrients in three Ficus (Moraceae) saplings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin; Chen, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Plant compensatory regrowth is an induced process that enhances plant tolerance to herbivory. Plant behavior against herbivores differs between species and depends on resource availability, thus making general predictions related to plant compensatory regrowth difficult. To understand how soil nutrients determine the degree of compensatory regrowth for different plant species, we selected saplings of three Ficus species and treated with herbivore insects and artificial injury in both glasshouse conditions and in the field at two soil nutrient levels. Compensatory regrowth was calculated by biomass, relative growth rate and photosynthetic characteristics. A similar pattern was found in both the glasshouse and in the field for species F. hispida, where overcompensatory regrowth was triggered only under fertile conditions, and full compensatory regrowth occurred under infertile conditions. For F. auriculata, overcompensatory regrowth was stimulated only under infertile conditions and full compensatory regrowth occurred under fertile conditions. Ficus racemosa displayed full compensatory regrowth in both soil nutrient levels, but without overcompensatory regrowth following any of the treatments. The three Ficus species differed in biomass allocation following herbivore damage and artificial injury. The root/shoot ratio of F. hispida decreased largely following herbivore damage and artificial injury, while the root/shoot ratio for F. auriculata increased against damage treatments. The increase of shoot and root size for F. hispida and F. auriculata, respectively, appeared to be caused by a significant increase in photosynthesis. The results indicated that shifts in biomass allocation and increased photosynthesis are two of the mechanisms underlying compensatory regrowth. Contrasting patterns among the three Ficus species suggest that further theoretical and empirical work is necessary to better understand the complexity of the plant responses to herbivore damage.

  17. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

    PubMed

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used.

  18. Taurine is absent from amino components in fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market.

  19. Effect of wine inhibitors on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya L. latex.

    PubMed

    Benucci, Ilaria; Esti, Marco; Liburdi, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of potential inhibitors naturally present in wine on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya latex was investigated to evaluate its applicability in white wine protein haze stabilization. Enzymatic activity was tested against a synthetic tripeptide chromogenic substrate in wine-like acidic medium that consisted of tartaric buffer (pH 3.2) supplemented with ethanol, free sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), grape skin and seed tannins within the average ranges of concentrations that are typical in wine. The diagnosis of inhibition type, performed with the graphical method, demonstrated that all of tested wine constituents were reversible inhibitors of papain. The strongest inhibition was exerted by free SO2 , which acted as a mixed-type inhibitor, similar to grape skin and seed tannins. Finally, when tested in table white wines, the catalytic activity of papain, even when if it was ascribable to the hyperbolic behavior of Michaelis-Menten equation, was determined to be strongly affected by free SO2 and total phenol level. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  1. Assessment of the anti-protozoal activity of crude Carica papaya seed extract against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2013-10-11

    In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05), compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage).

  2. Bioseparation of papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complexes.

    PubMed

    Braia, Mauricio; Ferrero, Maximiliano; Rocha, María Victoria; Loureiro, Dana; Tubio, Gisela; Romanini, Diana

    2013-09-01

    The formation of insoluble complexes between enzymes and polyelectrolytes is a suitable technique for isolating these biomolecules from natural sources, because it is a simple and rapid technique that allows the concentration of the protein. This technique can be used in most purification protocols at the beginning of the downstream process. The aim of this investigation is to isolate papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of insoluble complexes between this enzyme and poly (vinyl sulfonate). The papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complex was insoluble at pH lower than 6, with a PVS/PAP stoichiometric ratio of 1:279. Ionic strength affected the complex formation. The presence of the polymer increased the enzymatic activity and protected the enzyme from autodegradation. The optimal conditions for the formation of insoluble papain-polyelectrolyte complex formation were applied to C. papaya latex and a high recovery was obtained (around 86%) and a purification factor around 2. This method can be applied as an isolation method of papain from C. papaya latex or as a first step in a larger purification strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Digital transcriptome analysis of putative sex-determination genes in papaya (Carica papaya).

    PubMed

    Urasaki, Naoya; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Ueno, Hiroki; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Miyagi, Norimichi; Adaniya, Shinichi; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flower samples from male, female and hermaphrodite plants using high-throughput SuperSAGE for digital gene expression analysis. Among the short sequence tags obtained from the transcripts, 312 unique tags were specifically mapped to the primitive sex chromosome (X or Y(h)) sequences. An annotation analysis revealed that retroelements are the most abundant sequences observed in the genes corresponding to these tags. The majority of tags on the sex chromosomes were located on the X chromosome, and only 30 tags were commonly mapped to both the X and Y(h) chromosome, implying a loss of many genes on the Y(h) chromosome. Nevertheless, candidate Y(h) chromosome-specific female determination genes, including a MADS-box gene, were identified. Information on these sex chromosome-specific expressed genes will help elucidating sex determination in the papaya.

  4. Quantification of the antiplasmodial alkaloid carpaine in papaya (Carica papaya) leaves.

    PubMed

    Julianti, Tasqiah; Oufir, Mouhssin; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Daily consumption of papaya (Carica papaya) leaves as greens and an herbal infusion is common in some parts of Indonesia as a means for preventing malaria. Antiplasmodial activity of the leaf extracts and of the main alkaloid carpaine were recently confirmed. A quantitative assay for determination of carpaine in papaya leaves was developed and validated. The assay involved pressurized liquid extraction and quantification with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Extraction conditions were optimized with respect to solvent, temperature, and number of extraction cycles. The ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy assay was validated over a range of 20-5000 ng/mL (R(2) of 0.9908). A total of 29 papaya leaf samples were analyzed, and carpaine concentration in dry leaves was found to range from 0.02 to 0.31%. No obvious dependence on geographic origin and leaf maturity was observed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.

  6. Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

    2011-07-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Identification of miRNAs and miRNA-mediated regulatory pathways in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gang; Li, Yang; He, Hua; Wang, Fang; Yu, Diqiu

    2013-10-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate target gene expression to modulate growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. By analyzing small RNA deep sequencing data in combination with the genome sequence, we identified 75 conserved miRNAs and 11 novel miRNAs. Their target genes were also predicted. For most conserved miRNAs, the miRNA-target pairs were conserved across plant species. In addition to these conserved miRNA-target pairs, we also identified some papaya-specific miRNA-target regulatory pathways. Both miR168 and miR530 target the Argonaute 1 gene, indicating a second autoregulatory mechanism for miRNA regulation. A non-conserved miRNA was mapped within an intron of Dicer-like 1 (DCL1), suggesting a conserved homeostatic autoregulatory mechanism for DCL1 expression. A 21-nt miRNA triggers secondary siRNA production from its target genes, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein genes. Certain phased-miRNAs were processed from their conserved miRNA precursors, indicating a putative miRNA evolution mechanism. In addition, we identified a Carica papaya-specific miRNA that targets an ethylene receptor gene, implying its function in the ethylene signaling pathway. This work will also advance our understanding of miRNA functions and evolution in plants.

  8. Contrasting patterns of X/Y polymorphism distinguish Carica papaya from other sex chromosome systems.

    PubMed

    Weingartner, Laura A; Moore, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    The sex chromosomes of the tropical crop papaya (Carica papaya) are evolutionarily young and consequently allow for the examination of evolutionary mechanisms that drive early sex chromosome divergence. We conducted a molecular population genetic analysis of four X/Y gene pairs from a collection of 45 wild papaya accessions. These population genetic analyses reveal striking differences in the patterns of polymorphism between the X and Y chromosomes that distinguish them from other sex chromosome systems. In most sex chromosome systems, the Y chromosome displays significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the X chromosome maintains a level of polymorphism that is comparable to autosomal loci. However, the four papaya sex-linked loci that we examined display diversity patterns that are opposite this trend: the papaya X alleles exhibit significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the papaya Y alleles maintain greater than expected levels of diversity. Our analyses suggest that selective sweeps in the regions of the X have contributed to this pattern while also revealing geographically restricted haplogroups on the Y. We discuss the possible role sexual selection and/or genomic conflict have played in shaping the contrasting patterns of polymorphism found for the papaya X and Y chromosomes.

  9. Characterization and expression analysis of genes encoding ubiquitin conjugating domain-containing enzymes in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Jue, Dengwei; Sang, Xuelian; Shu, Bo; Liu, Liqin; Wang, Yicheng; Jia, Zhiwei; Zou, Yu; Shi, Shengyou

    2017-01-01

    Ripening affects the quality and nutritional contents of fleshy fruits and is a crucial process of fruit development. Although several studies have suggested that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2s or UBC enzymes) are involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, little is known about the function of E2s in papaya (Carica papaya). In the present study, we searched the papaya genome and identified 34 putative UBC genes, which were clustered into 17 phylogenetic subgroups. We also analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the papaya UBC (CpUBC) genes and found that both exon-intron junctions and sequence motifs were highly conserved among the phylogenetic subgroups. Using real-time PCR analysis, we also found that all the CpUBC genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, male and female flowers, and mature fruit, although the expression of some of the genes was increased or decreased in one or several specific organs. We also found that the expression of 13 and two CpUBC genes were incresesd or decreased during one and two ripening stages, respectively. Expression analyses indicates possible E2s playing a more significant role in fruit ripening for further studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported genome-wide analysis of the papaya UBC gene family, and the results will facilitate further investigation of the roles of UBC genes in fruit ripening and will aide in the functional validation of UBC genes in papaya.

  10. Digital Transcriptome Analysis of Putative Sex-Determination Genes in Papaya (Carica papaya)

    PubMed Central

    Urasaki, Naoya; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Ueno, Hiroki; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Miyagi, Norimichi; Adaniya, Shinichi; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flower samples from male, female and hermaphrodite plants using high-throughput SuperSAGE for digital gene expression analysis. Among the short sequence tags obtained from the transcripts, 312 unique tags were specifically mapped to the primitive sex chromosome (X or Yh) sequences. An annotation analysis revealed that retroelements are the most abundant sequences observed in the genes corresponding to these tags. The majority of tags on the sex chromosomes were located on the X chromosome, and only 30 tags were commonly mapped to both the X and Yh chromosome, implying a loss of many genes on the Yh chromosome. Nevertheless, candidate Yh chromosome-specific female determination genes, including a MADS-box gene, were identified. Information on these sex chromosome-specific expressed genes will help elucidating sex determination in the papaya. PMID:22815863

  11. Isolation and Characterisation of PRSV-P Resistance Genes in Carica and Vasconcellea

    PubMed Central

    Razean Haireen, M. R.; Drew, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the major tropical fruit crops worldwide, but it is limited throughout its range by papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Previous genetic studies identified a functional PRSV-P resistance marker in a mapping population of F2 plants of Vasconcellea pubescens (resistant to PRSV-P) × Vasconcellea parviflora (susceptible to PRSV-P) and showed that the marker exhibited homology to a serine threonine protein kinase (STK) gene. Full length cDNAs of putative PRSV-P resistance genes designated CP_STK from C. papaya and VP_STK1 and VP_STK2 from V. pubescens were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Due to a frame-shift mutation, the two homologous sequences are transcribed and edited differently such that the gene product in V. pubescens is two separate transcripts, whereas in C. papaya they are fused into a single message. A peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS2) present in VP_STK2 but absent in the other transcripts may be the functional source of PRSV resistance in V. pubescens. The STK gene from V. pubescens may have been derived from an alternative splicing to confer resistance. The putative resistance gene, VP_STK2, that was identified in this study is a potential new source of PRSV-P resistance for papaya genotypes. PMID:25184131

  12. Isolation and Characterisation of PRSV-P Resistance Genes in Carica and Vasconcellea.

    PubMed

    Razean Haireen, M R; Drew, R A

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the major tropical fruit crops worldwide, but it is limited throughout its range by papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Previous genetic studies identified a functional PRSV-P resistance marker in a mapping population of F2 plants of Vasconcellea pubescens (resistant to PRSV-P) × Vasconcellea parviflora (susceptible to PRSV-P) and showed that the marker exhibited homology to a serine threonine protein kinase (STK) gene. Full length cDNAs of putative PRSV-P resistance genes designated CP_STK from C. papaya and VP_STK1 and VP_STK2 from V. pubescens were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Due to a frame-shift mutation, the two homologous sequences are transcribed and edited differently such that the gene product in V. pubescens is two separate transcripts, whereas in C. papaya they are fused into a single message. A peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS2) present in VP_STK2 but absent in the other transcripts may be the functional source of PRSV resistance in V. pubescens. The STK gene from V. pubescens may have been derived from an alternative splicing to confer resistance. The putative resistance gene, VP_STK2, that was identified in this study is a potential new source of PRSV-P resistance for papaya genotypes.

  13. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2008-04-24

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.

  14. Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

  15. Age and growth of the knobbed whelk Busycon carica (Gmelin 1791) in South Carolina subtidal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eversole, A.G.; Anderson, W.D.; Isely, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Knobbed whelk, Busycon carica (Gmelin, 1791), age and growth were estimated using tagged and recaptured individuals (n = 396) from areas off South Carolina coastal islands. Recaptured whelks were at large an average of 298 d (4-2,640 d). Growth, an increase in shell length (SL), was evident in 24% of the recaptured whelks, whereas 29% of recaptured individuals were the same size as when released and 47% were smaller than the released size. Mean growth rate was <0.001 mm SL/d and 0.022 mm SL/d if decreases in SL were assumed to be zero. Smaller whelks (???90 mm SL) at large for over one year grew seven times faster than larger whelks. The von Bertalanffy growth model: SL1 = 159.5(1 - e-0.0765(t+0.4162)), was developed from the mark - recapture whelks exhibiting growth. Based on a South Carolina minimum legal size of 102 mm SL, whelks recruit into the fishery at 13 y of age. The longevity, large size at maturity and slow growth suggest the potential for over harvest of knobbed whelk. Future whelk management plans may wish to consider whether economically viable commercial harvest can be sustainable.

  16. [Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes].

    PubMed

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F; Dantas, Jorge L L; Morales, Cinara F G; Caldas, Ranulfo C

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lenghtwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil on V. cauliflora.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex

    SciTech Connect

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Clantin, Bernard; Bompard, Coralie; Belrhali, Hassan; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Wintjens, René

    2005-01-01

    The glutaminyl cyclase isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop method. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to 1.7 Å resolution. In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33 kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7 Å.

  18. Antimalarial Potential of Carica papaya and Vernonia amygdalina in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei

    PubMed Central

    Habila, Nathan; Ikwebe, Joseph; Upev, Vincent A.; Isaac, Omiagocho T.

    2016-01-01

    The study determined if administration of Vernonia amygdalina and Carica papaya plants provides synergistic effects in ameliorating plasmodium infection in mice. Thirty mice (17.88–25.3 g) were divided into 6 groups of 5 mice each. Group 1 was normal control, while groups 2–6 were intraperitoneally inoculated 2.5 × 107 Plasmodium berghei parasitized red blood cell, followed by daily administration of 350 mg/kg aqueous leaf extracts after establishment of infection. Group 2 was disease control, while group 6 was treated with standard drug for four consecutive days. The results showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in percentage of parasite load between the infected treatment groups and disease control group at day 3 after infection, which remained consistent until the end of the experiment. All infected treated groups showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in RBC and PCV recovery compared to the disease control, with the exception of WBC. There was insignificant (P > 0.05) change in mean body weight of all treated groups except in disease control group. Histological studies of the infected mice indicate recovery of hepatic cells from congested black pigmentation. The reduction in parasite load and recovery of hepatic cell damage/hematological parameters were induced by these plant extracts. This highlighted the important usage of the plant in traditional remedy of malaria infection. PMID:28042299

  19. Multiscale hierarchical assembly strategy and mechanical prowess in conch shells (Busycon carica).

    PubMed

    Li, Haoze; Xu, Zhi-Hui; Li, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    Seashells are natural body armors with superior mechanical strength and ultra-high toughness compared with their major constituent counterparts. What building blocks and architecture render seashells such mechanical prowess? In this study, micro/nanoscale structural and mechanical characterization of conch shells (Busycon carica) has been carried out. Here we show direct evidence that the previously claimed single-crystal third-order lamellae--the basic building blocks in conch shells are essentially assembled with aragonite nanoparticles of the size ranging from 20 to 45 nm. The nanoparticle-constructed third-order lamellae are not brittle, but ductile. The three-order crossed-lamellar architecture interlocks cracks via crack deflection along the interfaces in a three-dimensional manner, thus confining the damage in a small region. The findings advance the understanding of the mystery of conch shell's mechanical robustness, provide additional design guidelines for developing bioinspired nanomaterials, and lay a constitutive foundation for modeling the deformation behavior of seashells.

  20. Antimalarial Potential of Carica papaya and Vernonia amygdalina in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Okpe, Oche; Habila, Nathan; Ikwebe, Joseph; Upev, Vincent A; Okoduwa, Stanley I R; Isaac, Omiagocho T

    2016-01-01

    The study determined if administration of Vernonia amygdalina and Carica papaya plants provides synergistic effects in ameliorating plasmodium infection in mice. Thirty mice (17.88-25.3 g) were divided into 6 groups of 5 mice each. Group 1 was normal control, while groups 2-6 were intraperitoneally inoculated 2.5 × 10(7)Plasmodium berghei parasitized red blood cell, followed by daily administration of 350 mg/kg aqueous leaf extracts after establishment of infection. Group 2 was disease control, while group 6 was treated with standard drug for four consecutive days. The results showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in percentage of parasite load between the infected treatment groups and disease control group at day 3 after infection, which remained consistent until the end of the experiment. All infected treated groups showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in RBC and PCV recovery compared to the disease control, with the exception of WBC. There was insignificant (P > 0.05) change in mean body weight of all treated groups except in disease control group. Histological studies of the infected mice indicate recovery of hepatic cells from congested black pigmentation. The reduction in parasite load and recovery of hepatic cell damage/hematological parameters were induced by these plant extracts. This highlighted the important usage of the plant in traditional remedy of malaria infection.

  1. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. PMID:23569948

  2. Variations in antioxidant content in leaves and fruits of Ficus fistulosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlail, Shrrog Hammed; Wan Ahmad, Wan Juliana; Abdullah, Aminah

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of (rural vs urban) forest conditions on the total phenolic content and antioxidants activity of Ficus fistulosa in four locations (Bangi, Ayer Hitam, Chini and Bera Forest Reserves) in Malaysia. Total phenolic content of Ficus leaves and fruits extracts was determined by the Foline-Ciocalteau method and the antioxidant activity of Ficus leaves and fruits was measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2, 2-Dipheny-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The TPC and antioxidant activity of F.fistulosa leaves and fruits extracts were significantly (P<0.05) affected by forest types. The highest total phenol content (mg/g) was found in F.fistulosa leaves and fruits, 426.14 and 452.25 respectively in remote forest (Chini Forest Reserves). The FRAP, % DPPH, and ORAC values for different F. fistulosa extracts ranged from251.74 to 321.75 mg /100g DW, 75.49 to 90.54%, and 158.36 to 114.18μmol TE/100g DW respectively. The results suggested that F. fistulosa leaves and fruits are a goodsources of natural antioxidants.

  3. Riparian Ficus tree communities: the distribution and abundance of riparian fig trees in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance.

  4. [Spatial distribution of fig wasps in syconia of two monoecious Ficus sp].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Ji; Li, Guo-Chang; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Yang, Da-Rong

    2012-04-01

    In addition to pollinator fig wasps, there are several non-pollinating fig wasps associated with monoecious Ficus sp. In order to understand how pollinator fig wasps and non-pollinating fig wasps are distributed across the same syconium, the spatial distribution of fig wasps associated with Ficus altissima and F. benjamina were compared using the pedicle lengths of galls containing each species. The results indicate that in Ficus altissima, the average pedicel length of galls containing Eupristina sp. is longer than that containing E. altissima. Average pedicel length of galls containing Sycobia sp., Micranisa ralianga and Sycoscapter sp. two did not show significant difference. The range of pedicel lengths of galls containing Sycobia sp., M. ralianga or Sycoscapter sp. two is narrower than that of galls containing E. altissima, indicating these non-pollinating fig wasps and pollinator have partially separated spatial niches. In F. benjamina, E. koningsbergeri was distributed in galls from the outer layer to inner layer, while most Walkerella sp. were found in outer layer galls, indicating E. koningsbergeri and Walkerella sp. have partially separated spatial niches.

  5. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  6. Anti-Parkinson Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Ficus religiosa (L.) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Bhangale, Jitendra O.; Acharya, Sanjeev R.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated anti-Parkinson's activity of petroleum ether extract of Ficus religiosa (PEFRE) leaves in haloperidol and 6 hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced experimental animal models. In this study, effects of Ficus religiosa (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) were studied using in vivo behavioral parameters like catalepsy, muscle rigidity, and locomotor activity and its effects on neurochemical parameters (MDA, CAT, SOD, and GSH) in rats. The experiment was designed by giving haloperidol to induce catalepsy and 6-OHDA to induce Parkinson's disease-like symptoms. The increased cataleptic scores (induced by haloperidol) were significantly (p < 0.001) found to be reduced, with the PEFRE at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.). 6-OHDA significantly induced motor dysfunction (muscle rigidity and hypolocomotion). 6-OHDA administration showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation level and depleted superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione level. Daily administration of PEFRE (400 mg/kg) significantly improved motor performance and also significantly attenuated oxidative damage. Thus, the study proved that Ficus religiosa treatment significantly attenuated the motor defects and also protected the brain from oxidative stress. PMID:26884755

  7. Riparian Ficus Tree Communities: The Distribution and Abundance of Riparian Fig Trees in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010–2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189

  8. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for Ficus hirta (Moraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Linna; Nason, John D.; Liang, Dan; Ge, Xuejun; Yu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in Ficus hirta (Moraceae). Methods and Results: Sixteen microsatellite primers were developed and optimized for F. hirta using Illumina paired-end sequencing of pre-receptive and receptive developmental-phase female flowers. Out of 16 primers, nine were found to be polymorphic in four populations of F. hirta. Alleles per locus ranged from two to 15 across the 94 F. hirta individuals, while within-population observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.000 to 0.955 and from 0.000 to 0.882, respectively. In addition, the 16 primers were tested in 29 additional Ficus species, with all found to amplify in at least 11 of these species and with most amplifying in a majority of the species. Conclusions: This set of microsatellite primers is the first specifically developed for F. hirta and will facilitate studies of genetic diversity within and genetic differentiation among populations of Ficus species. PMID:26191467

  9. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. Objective: To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). Materials and Methods: The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n-butanol. The n-butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol-n-butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Results: Two flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n-butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-Px. Conclusions: OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. SUMMARY Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). PMID:28839374

  10. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as feedstock for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kuloyo, Olukayode O; du Preez, James C; García-Aparicio, Maria del Prado; Kilian, Stephanus G; Steyn, Laurinda; Görgens, Johann

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production using an enzymatic hydrolysate of pretreated cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) as carbohydrate feedstock was investigated, including a comprehensive chemical analysis of the cladode biomass and the effects of limited aeration on the fermentation profiles and sugar utilization. The low xylose and negligible mannose content of the cladode biomass used in this study suggested that the hemicellulose structure of the O. ficus-indica cladode was atypical of hardwood or softwood hemicelluloses. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation procedures using Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40 and 35 °C, respectively, gave similar ethanol yields under non-aerated conditions. In oxygen-limited cultures K. marxianus exhibited almost double the ethanol productivity compared to non-aerated cultures, although after sugar depletion utilization of the produced ethanol was evident. Ethanol concentrations of up to 19.5 and 20.6 g l(-1) were obtained with K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae, respectively, representing 66 and 70 % of the theoretical yield on total sugars in the hydrolysate. Because of the low xylan content of the cladode biomass, a yeast capable of xylose fermentation might not be a prerequisite for ethanol production. K. marxianus, therefore, has potential as an alternative to S. cerevisiae for bioethanol production. However, the relatively low concentration of fermentable sugars in the O. ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate presents a technical constraint for commercial exploitation.

  11. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n-butanol. The n-butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol-n-butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Two flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n-butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-Px. OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).

  12. Preliminary evaluation of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae)as a predator of the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The predatory lady beetle Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent against the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants. Adult D. catalinae females were starved for ...

  13. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Hodson, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice warrants further study

  14. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao T.; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul N.; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.; Hodson, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice warrants further study

  15. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature embryo explant of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. washington and honey dew).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, J; Khuspe, S S; Renukdas, N N; Rawal, S K

    2002-05-01

    Immature zygotic embryo explants of Carica papaya were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2.0 mg/l) and formed globular embryos on explants without callus formation in 4-6 weeks. Maturation and conversion of somatic embryos was also achieved on the same medium. Cotyledonary stage embryos germinated to 63.66 and 68.33% in cv. honey dew and washington respectively in MS basal medium supplemented ABA (0.5 microm/l). Robust development and proliferation of plantlet roots in vitro was obtained on MS basal medium. Hardened plantlets have 60% survival rate.

  16. Influence of photoperiod on growth for three desert CAM species. [Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, Opuntia ficus-indica

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, P.S. )

    1989-03-01

    Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, and Opuntia ficus-indica were maintained in environmental growth chambers under a constant total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for 1 yr to investigate the effects of photoperiod on growth of these Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. As the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h, growth increased 33% for A. deserti, 81% for F. acanthodes, and 50% for O. ficus-indica. Such increases were explained based on PAR saturation of the C{sub 3} photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle utilized by CAM plants during the daytime. In particular, the highest instantaneous PAR occurred for the shortest photoperiod and led to less growth for the same total daily PAR. Also, the total daily net CO{sub 2} uptake which occurred primarily at night, increased 53% as the photoperiod was increased from 6 to 18 h for O. ficus-indica, even though the accompanying night length decreased. The only other observed morphological effect was the sevenfold increase in the number of new cladodes initiated as the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h for O. ficus-indica. The influence of photoperiod on the daily pattern of net CO{sub 2} uptake and lack of effect of drought on plant survival under long photoperiods for O. ficus-indica differ from previous reports on this and other CAM species.

  17. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear).

    PubMed

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed.

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis of somatic embryo maturation in Carica papaya L.

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis is a complex process regulated by numerous factors. The identification of proteins that are differentially expressed during plant development could result in the development of molecular markers of plant metabolism and provide information contributing to the monitoring and understanding of different biological responses. In addition, the identification of molecular markers could lead to the optimization of protocols allowing the use of biotechnology for papaya propagation and reproduction. This work aimed to investigate the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on somatic embryo development and the protein expression profile during somatic embryo maturation in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Results The maturation treatment supplemented with 6% PEG (PEG6) resulted in the greatest number of somatic embryos and induced differential protein expression compared with cultures grown under the control treatment. Among 135 spots selected for MS/MS analysis, 76 spots were successfully identified, 38 of which were common to both treatments, while 14 spots were unique to the control treatment, and 24 spots were unique to the PEG6 treatment. The identified proteins were assigned to seven categories or were unclassified. The most representative class of proteins observed in the control treatment was associated with the stress response (25.8%), while those under PEG6 treatment were carbohydrate and energy metabolism (18.4%) and the stress response (18.4%). Conclusions The differential expression of three proteins (enolase, esterase and ADH3) induced by PEG6 treatment could play an important role in maturation, and these proteins could be characterized as candidate biomarkers of somatic embryogenesis in papaya. PMID:25076862

  19. Fractionation and purification of the enzymes stored in the latex of Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Azarkan, Mohamed; El Moussaoui, Anouar; van Wuytswinkel, Delphine; Dehon, Géraldine; Looze, Yvan

    2003-06-25

    The latex of the tropical species Carica papaya is well known for being a rich source of the four cysteine endopeptidases papain, chymopapain, glycyl endopeptidase and caricain. Altogether, these enzymes are present in the laticifers at a concentration higher than 1 mM. The proteinases are synthesized as inactive precursors that convert into mature enzymes within 2 min after wounding the plant when the latex is abruptly expelled. Papaya latex also contains other enzymes as minor constituents. Several of these enzymes namely a class-II and a class-III chitinase, an inhibitor of serine proteinases and a glutaminyl cyclotransferase have already been purified up to apparent homogeneity and characterized. The presence of a beta-1,3-glucanase and of a cystatin is also suspected but they have not yet been isolated. Purification of these papaya enzymes calls on the use of ion-exchange supports (such as SP-Sepharose Fast Flow) and hydrophobic supports [such as Fractogel TSK Butyl 650(M), Fractogel EMD Propyl 650(S) or Thiophilic gels]. The use of covalent or affinity gels is recommended to provide preparations of cysteine endopeptidases with a high free thiol content (ideally 1 mol of essential free thiol function per mol of enzyme). The selective grafting of activated methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) chains (with M(r) of 5000) on the free thiol functions of the proteinases provides an interesting alternative to the use of covalent and affinity chromatographies especially in the case of enzymes such as chymopapain that contains, in its native state, two thiol functions.

  20. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Rojop, Isela Esther; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Miranda-Osorio, Pedro H; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés E; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; Ramón-Frías, Teresa; Bermúdez-Ocaña, Deysi Y

    2012-11-28

    Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. It also decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels. Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

  1. Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah

    2012-01-01

    Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33) was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F1 plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets. PMID:23235330

  2. Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths.

    PubMed

    Porter, Brad W; Zhu, Yun J; Webb, David T; Christopher, David A

    2009-04-01

    Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch-regulated genes. The genes and novel touch

  3. Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Yan, P; Gao, X Z; Shen, W T; Zhou, P

    2011-02-01

    The fruit flesh color of papaya is an important nutritional quality trait and is due to the accumulation of carotenoid. To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Carica papaya, the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) genes were isolated from papaya (named CpPDS and CpZDS) using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, and their expression levels were investigated in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties. CpPDS contains a 1749 bp open reading frame coding for 583 amino acids, while CpZDS contains a 1716 bp open reading frame coding for 572 amino acids. The deduced CpPDS and CpZDS proteins contain a conserved dinucleotide-binding site at the N-terminus and a carotenoid-binding domain at the C-terminus. Papaya genome sequence analysis revealed that CpPDS and CpZDS are single copy; the CpPDS was mapped to papaya chromosome LG6, and the CpZDS was mapped to chromosome LG3. Quantitative PCR showed that both CpPDS and CpZDS were expressed in all tissues examined with the highest expression in maturing fruits, and that the expression of CpPDS and CpZDS were higher in red-fleshed fruits than in yellow-fleshed fruits. These results indicated that the differential accumulation of carotenoids in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties might be partly explained by the transcriptional level of CpPDS and CpZDS.

  4. Antihypertensive effect of Carica papaya via a reduction in ACE activity and improved baroreflex.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Romão, Wanderson; da Costa, Helber Barcellos; Scherer, Rodrigo; Ventura, José Aires; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats that were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), the methanolic extract of C. papaya (100 mg/kg; twice a day), or vehicle for 30 days. The baroreflex was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured by ELISA, and cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The methanolic extract of C. papaya was standardised in ferulic acid (203.41 ± 0.02 µg/g), caffeic acid (172.60 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (145.70 ± 0.02 µg/g), and quercetin (47.11 ± 0.03 µg/g). The flavonoids quercetin, rutin, nicotiflorin, clitorin, and manghaslin were identified in a fraction of the extract. The methanolic extract of C. papaya elicited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The antihypertensive effects elicited by the methanolic extract of C. papaya were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalised in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity and cardiac hypertrophy were also reduced to levels comparable to the enalapril-treated group. These results may be associated with the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya, and are the first step into the development of a new phytotherapic product which could be used in the treatment of hypertension. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  5. Characterization and expression analysis of genes encoding ubiquitin conjugating domain-containing enzymes in Carica papaya

    PubMed Central

    Jue, Dengwei; Sang, Xuelian; Shu, Bo; Liu, Liqin; Wang, Yicheng; Jia, Zhiwei; Zou, Yu; Shi, Shengyou

    2017-01-01

    Background Ripening affects the quality and nutritional contents of fleshy fruits and is a crucial process of fruit development. Although several studies have suggested that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2s or UBC enzymes) are involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, little is known about the function of E2s in papaya (Carica papaya). Methodology/Principal findings In the present study, we searched the papaya genome and identified 34 putative UBC genes, which were clustered into 17 phylogenetic subgroups. We also analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the papaya UBC (CpUBC) genes and found that both exon-intron junctions and sequence motifs were highly conserved among the phylogenetic subgroups. Using real-time PCR analysis, we also found that all the CpUBC genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, male and female flowers, and mature fruit, although the expression of some of the genes was increased or decreased in one or several specific organs. We also found that the expression of 13 and two CpUBC genes were incresesd or decreased during one and two ripening stages, respectively. Expression analyses indicates possible E2s playing a more significant role in fruit ripening for further studies. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported genome-wide analysis of the papaya UBC gene family, and the results will facilitate further investigation of the roles of UBC genes in fruit ripening and will aide in the functional validation of UBC genes in papaya. PMID:28231288

  6. Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Brad W.; Zhu, Yun J.; Webb, David T.; Christopher, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Methods Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. Key Results On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. Conclusions The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch

  7. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. It also decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels. Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas. PMID:23190471

  8. Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

    2012-12-01

    Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. © 2012 The Authors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  9. Assessment study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya seeds to control Oreochromis niloticus breeding.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Hossam H; Abbas, Wafaa T

    2011-12-15

    This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects ofpawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day) and high dose (6 g/kg/day) of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs) count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use.

  10. Lactogenic Activity of an Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya in SD Rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Han; Sun, Huili; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-11-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine theory believes that octopus papaya soup can stimulate milk production in lactating women. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with an enzymatic hydrolysate of Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya (EHOC) could increase milk production and nutritional indexes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female SD rats (n = 24) were fed a control diet (n = 8), EHOC-supplemented diet, or a positive control diet (Shengruzhi) from day 10 of pregnancy to day 10 of lactation. Maternal serum, mammary gland (day 10 of lactation), milk, and pup weight (daily) were collected for analysis. Results showed that the EHOC diet obviously elevated daily milk yield and pup weight compared to the control group (P < .05). The EHOC diet was found to increase the concentration of prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), and growth hormone (GH) significantly in the circulation and mammary gland. Mammary glands of EHOC-treated dams showed clear lobuloalveolar development and proliferation of myoepithelial cells, but no striking variations were observed among the groups. Furthermore, the nutrition content and immune globulin concentration in the milk of EHOC-supplemented dams were higher than those of the control group, especially the cholesterol, glucose, and IgG were higher by 44.98% (P < .001), 42.76% (P < .01), and 42.23% (P < .01), respectively. In conclusion, this article demonstrates that EHOC administration has beneficial effects on milk production in the dams and on performance of the dam and pup. These results indicate that EHOC could be explored as a potentially lactogenic nutriment for lactating women.

  11. Habitat fragmentation threatens wild populations of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) in a lowland rainforest.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Pesqueira, Mariana; Suárez-Montes, Pilar; Castillo, Guillermo; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2014-07-01

    • Premise of the study: Wild populations of domesticated species constitute a genetic reservoir and are fundamental to the evolutionary potential of species. Wild papaya (Carica papaya) is a rare, short-lived, gap-colonizing, dioecious tree that persists in the forest by continuous dispersal. Theoretically, these life-history characteristics render wild papaya highly susceptible to habitat fragmentation, with anticipated negative effects on its gene pool. Further, species dioecy may cause founder effects to generate local biases in sex ratio, decreasing effective population size.• Methods: We contrasted the genetic diversity and structure of C. papaya between wild populations from rainforest fragments and continuous forest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We evaluated recent migration rates among populations as well as landscape resistance to gene flow. Finally, we calculated the sex ratio of the populations in both habitats.• Key results: Populations of wild papaya in rainforest fragments showed lower genetic diversity and higher population differentiation than populations in continuous rainforest. Estimates of recent migration rates showed a higher percentage of migrants moving from the continuous forest to the forest fragments than in the opposite direction. Agricultural land and cattle pasture were found to be the most resistant matrices to gene flow. Finally, biased sex ratios were seen to affect the effective population size in both habitats.• Conclusions: The mating system, rarity, and short life cycle of C. papaya are exacerbating the effects of rainforest fragmentation on its genetic diversity, threatening the persistence of its natural populations in the proposed place of origin as well as its genetic reservoir. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  12. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation.

    PubMed

    Vasu, Prasanna; Savary, Brett J; Cameron, Randall G

    2012-07-15

    We purified a Carica papaya pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-exchange chromatographies and then purified by affinity chromatography using Sepharose-immobilized kiwi PME inhibitor protein to obtain a single electrophoretically homogeneous protein. The enzyme was purified 92-fold with 38% yield, providing a specific activity of 1200 U/mg. The molecular weight was determined to be 35,135 by MALDI-TOF-MS in linear mode. MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion indicated CpL-PME represents a novel Carica PME isoform. The CpL-PME required salt for activity, and it showed a broad activity range (pH 6-9) and moderate thermostability (optimum ca. 70°C). A calcium-insensitive methylated lime pectin treated with CpL-PME to reduce degree of methylesterification by 6% converted the substrate to high calcium sensitivity, indicating a processive mode of action. These properties support further research to apply CpL-PME to tailor pectin nanostructure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 19 glycosyl hydrolase from Carica papaya latex

    SciTech Connect

    Huet, Joëlle; Azarkan, Mohamed; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, René

    2008-05-01

    A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been crystallized. The addition of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine to the crystallization solution has improved the diffraction quality resolution of the crystal to 1.8 Å resolution. A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. This enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 19 and exhibits exceptional resistance to proteolysis. The initially observed crystals, which diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å, were improved through modification of the crystallization protocol. Well ordered crystals were subsequently obtained using N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, the monomer resulting from the hydrolysis of chitin, as an additive to the crystallization solution. Here, the characterization of a chitinase crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.08, b = 44.79, c = 76.73 Å, β = 95.33° and two molecules per asymmetric unit, is reported. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.8 Å. Structure refinement is currently in progress.

  14. Effects of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Ficus Glumosa on Fasting blood Glucose and Serum Lipid Profile in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Umar, Z U; Moh'd, A; Tanko, Y

    2013-06-30

    Ficus glumosa, commonly known as the fig tree or "African rock fig" is a plant with immense medicinal value used for the management of diabetes for over 2000 years. The aim of the present study is to determine the hypoglycemic and anti-lipidemic properties of the ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty (30) adult male Wister rats weighing (120 - 220) grams of about 18 to 22 weeks of age were used in the study. The animals were assigned into six groups (1-6) of five rats (n=5) each. Group VI served as the positive control group receiving 0.9% normal saline (5ml/kg) alone via intra-peritoneal route (i.p.), Groups I (negative control), II, III, IV and V were treated with alloxan and after the induction of hyperglycaemia, received in addition via i.p. for 7 days: 0.9% normal saline (5ml/kg) alone, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa respectively while Group V received 6lU/kg of short-acting insulin. The determinations of blood glucose levels were carried out at intervals of one day for 7 days. Serum lipid profile, were done on the 7th day.Premininary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids,saponin,tannins,cardiac glycosides,triterpenes,ceramides and reducing sugars.The LD50 of the extract of Ficus glumosa was found to be 2,154mg/kg.The results of the study showed that,100mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa significantly lowered blood glucose levels and 200mg/kg significantly lowered serum lipid profile compared with negative control group.In conclusion, the results of the study showed that Ficus glumosa possesses anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-lipidemic effect.

  15. First plastid phylogenomic study reveals potential cyto-nuclear discordance in the evolutionary history of Ficus L. (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Bruun-Lund, Sam; Clement, Wendy L; Kjellberg, Finn; Rønsted, Nina

    2017-04-01

    Standard Sanger chloroplast markers provide limited information to resolve species level relationships within plants, in particular within large genera. Figs (Ficus L., Moraceae) compose one of the 50 largest genera of angiosperms with ∼750 species occurring in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Figs, in addition to being a keystone food resource in rainforests, are well-known for the mutualistic interactions with their pollinating wasps. It is regarded as a model system for understanding co-evolution dating back more than 75million years. However, despite significant taxon sampling, combinations of low copy nuclear, nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast regions have not been able to confidently resolve relationships among major groups of figs. Using a high throughput sequencing approach we attempted to resolve the major lineages of Ficus based on plastome data. In this study, we show that the use of a de novo assembled plastome from within the genus provides less ambiguity and higher coverage across the 59 Ficus and 6 outgroup plastome assemblies compared to using the nearest available reference plastome outside the genus resulting in improved resolution and higher support of the phylogenetic relationships within Ficus inferred from plastome data. Chloroplast genome data confidently resolved relationships among major groups of figs and largely support current understanding based on nuclear sequence data including passively pollinated Neotropical section Pharmacosycea as sister lineage to all other Ficus. However, conflicts between the new plastome topology and previous nuclear studies are observed for both individual species as well as relationships among some sections at deeper levels. Conflicts could be caused by lack of resolution in the nuclear data or may indicate potential cyto-nuclear discordance as previously observed in an African lineage of Ficus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, Hussein O B; Adaja, Matthew C; Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Musa O

    2015-03-01

    Carica papaya is an important fruit with its seeds used in the treatment of ulcer in Nigeria. This study investigated the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed against indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male rats. Thirty male rats were separated into 6 groups (A-F) of five rats each. For 14 d before ulcer induction with indomethacin, groups received once daily oral doses of vehicle (distilled water), cimetidine 200 mg/kg body weight (BW), or aqueous extract of C. papaya seed at doses of 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg BW (groups A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively). Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, groups B, C, D, E and F were treated with 100 mg/kg BW of indomethacin to induce ulcer formation. Carica papaya seed extract significantly (P< 0.05) increased gastric pH and percentage of ulcer inhibition relative to indomethacin-induced ulcer rats. The extract significantly (P< 0.05) decreased gastric acidity, gastric acid output, gastric pepsin secretion, ulcer index and gastric secretion volume relative to group B. These results were similar to that achieved by pretreatment with cimetidine. Specific activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the extract-treated groups (D, E and F) were increased significantly over the group B (P< 0.05). Pretreatment with the seed extract protected rats from the indomethacin-mediated decrease in enzyme function experienced by the group B. Similarly, indomethacin-mediated decrease in reduced glutathione level and indomethacin-mediated increase in malondialdehyde were reversed by Carica papaya extract. In this study, pretreatment with aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed exhibited anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects, which may be due to the enhanced antioxidant enzymes.

  17. First record of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Opuntia ficus-indica in Milpa Alta, Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Pérez, Martín; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Brailovsky, Harry; Ramírez-Alarcón, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years a species of Hesperolabops has become a problem as a pest of nopalitos, Opuntia ficus-indica, in Milpa Alta, in the south of Mexico City, which is the most important production region of this vegetable in the country. A survey of Hesperolabops in Milpa Alta has resulted in the first report of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter. This occurrence should be monitored and considered in future studies in order to avoid misidentification of Hesperolabops spp. Kirkaldy native populations there, and to avoid the confusion of the damage that may be caused on O. ficus-indica.

  18. Floral volatiles, pollinator sharing and diversification in the fig–wasp mutualism: insights from Ficus natalensis, and its two wasp pollinators (South Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Cornille, A.; Underhill, J. G.; Cruaud, A.; Hossaert-McKey, M.; Johnson, S. D.; Tolley, K. A.; Kjellberg, F.; van Noort, S.; Proffit, M.

    2012-01-01

    Combining biogeographic, ecological, morphological, molecular and chemical data, we document departure from strict specialization in the fig-pollinating wasp mutualism. We show that the pollinating wasps Elisabethiella stuckenbergi and Elisabethiella socotrensis form a species complex of five lineages in East and Southern Africa. Up to two morphologically distinct lineages were found to co-occur locally in the southern African region. Wasps belonging to a single lineage were frequently the main regional pollinators of several Ficus species. In South Africa, two sister lineages, E. stuckenbergi and E. socotrensis, pollinate Ficus natalensis but only E. stuckenbergi also regularly pollinates Ficus burkei. The two wasp species co-occur in individual trees of F. natalensis throughout KwaZulu-Natal. Floral volatile blends emitted by F. natalensis in KwaZulu-Natal were similar to those emitted by F. burkei and different from those produced by other African Ficus species. The fig odour similarity suggests evolutionary convergence to attract particular wasp species. The observed pattern may result from selection for pollinator sharing among Ficus species. Such a process, with one wasp species regionally pollinating several hosts, but several wasp species pollinating a given Ficus species across its geographical range could play an important role in the evolutionary dynamics of the Ficus-pollinating wasp association. PMID:22130605

  19. Floral volatiles, pollinator sharing and diversification in the fig-wasp mutualism: insights from Ficus natalensis, and its two wasp pollinators (South Africa).

    PubMed

    Cornille, A; Underhill, J G; Cruaud, A; Hossaert-McKey, M; Johnson, S D; Tolley, K A; Kjellberg, F; van Noort, S; Proffit, M

    2012-05-07

    Combining biogeographic, ecological, morphological, molecular and chemical data, we document departure from strict specialization in the fig-pollinating wasp mutualism. We show that the pollinating wasps Elisabethiella stuckenbergi and Elisabethiella socotrensis form a species complex of five lineages in East and Southern Africa. Up to two morphologically distinct lineages were found to co-occur locally in the southern African region. Wasps belonging to a single lineage were frequently the main regional pollinators of several Ficus species. In South Africa, two sister lineages, E. stuckenbergi and E. socotrensis, pollinate Ficus natalensis but only E. stuckenbergi also regularly pollinates Ficus burkei. The two wasp species co-occur in individual trees of F. natalensis throughout KwaZulu-Natal. Floral volatile blends emitted by F. natalensis in KwaZulu-Natal were similar to those emitted by F. burkei and different from those produced by other African Ficus species. The fig odour similarity suggests evolutionary convergence to attract particular wasp species. The observed pattern may result from selection for pollinator sharing among Ficus species. Such a process, with one wasp species regionally pollinating several hosts, but several wasp species pollinating a given Ficus species across its geographical range could play an important role in the evolutionary dynamics of the Ficus-pollinating wasp association.

  20. Behavioral and anticonvulsant effects of the standardized extract of Ficus platyphylla stem bark.

    PubMed

    Chindo, Ben A; Ya'U, Jamilu; Danjuma, Nuhu M; Okhale, Samuel E; Gamaniel, Karniyus S; Becker, Axel

    2014-06-11

    Decoctions of Ficus platyphylla Del.-Holl (Family: Moraceae) are used in Nigeria׳s folk medicine for the management of epilepsy and their efficacies are widely acclaimed among the rural communities of northern Nigeria. The aim of the study is to examine the behavioral and anticonvulsant properties of the standardized methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla (FP) stem bark, in order to scientifically describe its potential values in the management of convulsive disorders. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and preliminary phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract were utilized and the intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) determined in mice. The effects of FP were investigated on some murine models of behavior and its anticonvulsant effects studied on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, strychnine (STN)-, picrotoxin (PCT)-, isoniazid (INH)-, aminophylline (AMI)- and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice. The intraperitoneal oral LD50 of FP was estimated to be 5000mg/kg. FP significantly reduced the locomotor activities including the total distance covered, speed, active time and rearing counts. It shortened the onset and prolonged the duration of diazepam-induced sleep, but had no effect on motor coordination on the rota-rod treadmill or beam-walking assay in mice at the doses tested. The extract protected the mice against PTZ- and STN-induced seizures and significantly delayed the latencies of myoclonic jerks and tonic seizures induced by all the standard convulsant agents (PTZ, PCT, INH, STN and AMI) used in this study, but failed to protect the mice against MES seizures at the doses tested. The HPLC fingerprint of the extract shows a spectrum profile characteristic of Ficus platyphylla, while the preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids and tannins. Our study provides scientific evidence that FP may contain psychoactive principles with potential anticonvulsant properties, thus supporting further

  1. Baseline susceptibility of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from California to select insecticides.

    PubMed

    Prabhaker, Nilima; Gispert, Carmen; Castle, Steven J

    2012-08-01

    Between 2006 and 2008, 20 populations of Planococcus ficus (Signoret), from Coachella and San Joaquin Valleys of California were measured in the laboratory for susceptibility to buprofezin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, methomyl, and imidacloprid. Toxicity was assessed using a petri dish bioassay technique for contact insecticides and by a systemic uptake technique for imidacloprid. Mixed life stages were tested for susceptibility to all insecticides except for buprofezin, which was measured against early and late instars (first, second, and third). Dose-response regression lines from the mortality data established LC50 and LC99 values by both techniques. Responses of populations from the two geographical locations to all five insecticides varied, in some cases significantly. Variations in susceptibility to each insecticide among sample sites showed a sevenfold difference for buprofezin, 11-fold to chlorpyrifos, ninefold to dimethoate, 24-fold to methomyl, and 8.5-fold to imidacloprid. In spite of susceptibility differences between populations, baseline toxicity data revealed that all five insecticides were quite effective based on low LC50s. Chlorpyrifos was the most toxic compound to Planococcus ficus populations as shown by lowest LC50s. Buprofezin was toxic to all immature stages but was more potent to first instars. The highest LC99 estimated by probit analysis of the bioassay data of all 20 populations for each compound was selected as a candidate discriminating dose for use in future resistance monitoring efforts. Establishment of baseline data and development of resistance monitoring tools such as bioassay methods and discriminating doses are essential elements of a sustainable management program for Planococcus ficus.

  2. Sexual specialization in phenology in dioecious Ficus benguetensis and its consequences for the mutualism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shang-Yang; Chou, Lien-Siang; Di Giusto, Bruno; Bain, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Timing of reproductive events has become central in ecological studies linking success in pollination and seed dispersion to optimizing the probability and periods of encounters with pollinators or dispersers. Obligate plant-insect interactions, especially Ficus-fig wasp mutualisms, offer striking examples of fine-tuned encounter optimization as biological cycles between mutualistic partners are deeply dependent on each other and intertwined over generations. Despite fig flowering phenology being crucial in maintaining Ficus-fig wasp mutualisms, until now, the forces of selection shaping the phenological evolution of dioecious fig trees have received little attention. By conducting a 2-year survey of a population of Ficus benguetensis in Northern Taiwan, we assessed whether environmental factors or other selective pressures shape the phenology of male and female fig trees. Constraints by mutualistic pollinating wasps and seed dispersers, rather than climatic factors, appeared to mainly shape fig phenology and allometry in F. benguetensis. We identified a new sexual specialization in dioecious fig trees: the position of fig production. We propose that the continuous male fig production on tree trunks can enhance the survival of pollinating fig wasps through faster localization of receptive figs while reducing the mutualistic conflict between the fig and its obligate pollinators. By contrast, in female trees, fig production is massive in summer, located on the twigs of the foliar crown and seem more related to seed dispersal and germination. Identifying variations in the allometry and phenology of dioecious figs provide valuable insights into how monoecious and dioecious species resolve mutualism conflicts and into the emergence of dioecy in fig trees.

  3. Antioxidant properties and chemical characterization of Spanish Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. cladodes and fruits.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Lucía; Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2017-08-21

    Recent studies have demonstrated that consumption of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. has an important positive health benefit, mainly due to antioxidant properties, which justifies this research. This study examined antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar profile, total phenolic, and physicochemical characteristics of six O. ficus-indica cultivars growing in the Spanish Mediterranean. It should be noted that, in this study, both cladodes (young and adult) and fruits (peel and pulp) were analyzed. The antioxidant activity (2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods) was higher in fruit peel than in cladodes. The young cladodes presented an important antioxidant activity by the ferric-reducing ability of plasma method as well as a higher total phenolic content (18.90 g gallic acid equivalent per kilogram). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detector analysis revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose, which the values were higher in pulp fruits. HPLC with refractive index detector analysis showed that citric, malic, and succinic acids were the main organic acids in all cultivars, with a significant higher content in old cladodes. These investigations valorize O. ficus-indica fruits in comparison with cladodes. In general, this plant can be considered as an ingredient for the production of health-promoting food, highlighting mainly in the antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content found in young cladodes and peel fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. New cyclopropyl-triterpenoids from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Y M; Su, J K; Liu, Y H; Kuo, Y H

    2001-05-01

    Four new cyclopropyl-triterpenes, 27-nor-3beta-hydroxy-25-oxocycloartane (1), (22E)-25,26,27-trinor-3beta-hydroxycycloart-22-en-24-al (2), 3beta-acetoxy-15alpha-hydroxy-13,27-cyclours-11-ene (3), 3beta-acetoxy-12alpha-formyloxy-13,27-cycloursan-11alpha-ol (4), together with (23E)-27-nor-3beta-hydroxycycloart-23-en-25-one (5) were isolated from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Compounds 3 and 4 are rare 13,27-cycloursane-type triterpenes. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  5. Taraxastane-type triterpenes from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Y M; Kuo, Y H

    2000-07-01

    Seven new taraxastane-type triterpenes-20-taraxastene-3beta, 22alpha-diol (1), 3beta-acetoxy-20-taraxasten-22alpha-ol (2), 3beta-acetoxy-22alpha-methoxy-20-taraxastene (3), 3beta-acetoxy-20alpha,21alpha-epoxytaraxastan-22alp ha-ol (4), 3beta-acetoxy-19alpha-methoxy-20-taraxastene (5), 3beta-acetoxy-19alpha-hydroperoxy-20-taraxastene (6), 3beta-acetoxy-20alpha,21alpha-epoxytaraxastane (7)-were isolated from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  6. New occurrence of non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus microcarpa in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Farache, Fernando H A; O, Vanessa T do; Pereira, Rodrigo A S

    2009-01-01

    Ficus microcarpa is an Asian fig tree that is ornamentally cultivated. The specific pollinator, Eupristina verticillata Waterston, and the non-pollinators Walkerella microcarpae Boucek and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi, have been reported associated to F. microcarpa in Brazil. In here we report for the first time the occurrence of Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes and Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen et al in F. microcarpa in Brazil. Our results suggest that P. taiwanensis and O. ishii represent a recent influx of these wasps into Brazil. Considering that approximately 20 fig wasp species are associated with F. microcarpa in its native area, novel occurrences can be reported in the future in Brazil.

  7. Ficus spp. (fig): ethnobotany and potential as anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Lansky, Ephraim Philip; Paavilainen, Helena M; Pawlus, Alison D; Newman, Robert A

    2008-09-26

    This review explores medieval, ancient and modern sources for ethnopharmacological uses of Ficus (fig) species, specifically for employment against malignant disease and inflammation. The close connection between inflammatory/infectious and cancerous diseases is apparent both from the medieval/ancient merging of these concepts and the modern pharmacological recognition of the initiating and promoting importance of inflammation for cancer growth. Also considered are chemical groups and compounds underlying the anticancer and anti-inflammatory actions, the relationship of fig wasps and fig botany, extraction and storage of fig latex, and traditional methods of preparing fig medicaments including fig lye, fig wine and medicinal poultices.

  8. Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    PubMed

    Han, Y N; Choo, Y; Lee, Y C; Moon, Y I; Kim, S D; Choi, J W

    2001-02-01

    Three varieties of methyl citrate and 1-methyl malate were isolated from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Makino through in vitro bioassay-guided isolation for the inhibition on monoamine oxidase(MAO). The IC50 values for MAO-B of 1-monomethyl citrate, 1,3-dimethyl citrate, trimethyl citrate and 1-methyl malate were 0.19, 0.23, 0.61 and 0.25 mM, respectively. However, on MAO-A, their inhibitions showed only marginal activity.

  9. First evidence for the presence of weddellite crystallites in Opuntia ficus indica parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Malainine, Mohamed E; Dufresne, Alain; Dupeyre, Danielle; Vignon, Michel R; Mahrouz, Mostafa

    2003-01-01

    Calcium oxalate crystallites occur very often in the plants tissues and their role is still poorly known. We report here the experimental protocol leading to the isolation of two forms of calcium oxalate crystallites differing in their hydration level in the parenchymal tissues of Opuntia ficus indica (Miller). Whereas the whewellite crystallites are habitual in all Opuntia species, the weddellite form has never been isolated from these species before, which is probably due to their small size (about 1 microm). We have identified these forms using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  10. New Alkaloids and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Flavonoids from Ficus hispida.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zheng-Feng; Lei, Chun; Yu, Bang-Wei; Wang, He-Yao; Hou, Ai-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Two new pyrrolidine alkaloids, ficushispimines A (1) and B (2), a new ω-(dimethylamino)caprophenone alkaloid, ficushispimine C (3), and a new indolizidine alkaloid, ficushispidine (4), together with the known alkaloid 5 and 11 known isoprenylated flavonoids 6 - 16, were isolated from the twigs of Ficus hispida. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Isoderrone (8), 3'-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)biochanin A (11), myrsininone A (12), ficusin A (13), and 4',5,7-trihydroxy-6-[(1R*,6R*)-3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohex-2-en-1-yl]isoflavone (14) showed inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase in vitro.

  11. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil.

  12. Does Regular Use of a Complementary Medicine of Olea Europe and Ficus carica Have Adverse Effects on Lipid Profile and Fasting Blood Glucose of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Patients Under Treatment with DMARD Regimens Containing Methotrexate?

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Shahnaz; Ahmadzadeh, Arman; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are vulnerable to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in which atherosclerosis plays a major role. In this study, the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar (FBS) of RA patients receiving a complementary medicine of olive and fig, as add-on therapy for routine disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) regimen containing low dose methotrexate (MTX), were studied. A randomized controlled clinical trial was designed. Adult RA patients were randomly allocated in two groups receiving routine DMARDs regimen (control group) and routine DMARDs regimen plus the herbal supplementary formulation of olive oil, fig and olive fruits (intervention group). Patients were followed every 4 weeks for total study period of 16 weeks. In addition to demographic and medical history of the patients, the total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) defined as log(TG/HDL-C), and the fasting blood sugar (FBS) were determined and recorded. 56 patients (control = 27 and intervention = 29), with mean ± sd age of 50.9 ± 12.3 years completed the study. Average MTX dose received by intervention and control groups were 24.30 ± 18.39 and 17.61 ± 15.53 mg/week, respectively (p = 0.11). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that differences between lipid profile indicators and FBS in the two study groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). No additional substantial adverse reaction was seen in the study groups. Our findings are more reassuring for patients and their doctors to trust on the safety of the investigated complementary preparation to be used as add-on therapy to manage rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:28243292

  13. Sexual Dimorphic Responses in Lymphocytes of Healthy Individuals after Carica papaya Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Jumat, Nur Ramziahrazanah; Chong, Mun Yee; Seman, Zainina; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Wong, Nyet Kui; Abdullah, Maha

    2017-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in immune response is widely recognized, but few human studies have observed this distinction. Food with endo-immunomodulatory potential may reveal novel sex-biased in vivo interactions. Immunomodulatory effects of Carica papaya were compared between healthy male and female individuals. Volunteers were given fixed meals supplemented with papaya for 2 days. Changes in blood immune profiles and hormone levels were determined. In females, total natural killer (NK) cell percentages decreased (12.7 ± 4.4 vs 14.6 ± 5.8%, p = 0.018, n = 18) while B cells increased (15.2 ± 5.5 vs 14.5 ± 5.0, p = 0.037, n = 18) after papaya consumption. Increased 17β-estradiol (511.1 ± 579.7 vs 282.7 ± 165.0 pmol/l, p = 0.036, n = 9) observed in females may be crucial to this change. Differentiation markers (CD45RA, CD69, CD25) analyzed on lymphocytes showed naïve (CD45RA+) non-CD4+ lymphocytes were reduced in females (40.7 ± 8.1 vs 46.8 ± 5.4%, p = 0.012, n = 8) but not males. A general suppressive effect of papaya on CD69+ cells, and higher percentage of CD69+ populations in females and non-CD4 lymphocytes, may be relevant. CD107a+ NK cells were significantly increased in males (16.8 ± 7.0 vs 14.7 ± 4.8, p = 0.038, n = 9) but not females. Effect in females may be disrupted by the action of progesterone, which was significantly correlated with this population (R = 0.771, p = 0.025, n = 8) after papaya consumption. In males, total T helper cells were increased (33.4 ± 6.4 vs 32.4 ± 6.1%, p = 0.040, n = 15). Strong significant negative correlation between testosterone and CD25+CD4+ lymphocytes, may play a role in the lower total CD4+ T cells reported in males. Thus, dissimilar immune profiles were elicited in the sexes after papaya consumption and may have sex hormone influence. PMID:28649252

  14. Herb-drug pharmacokinetic interaction between carica papaya extract and amiodarone in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Márcio; Alves, Gilberto; Francisco, Joana; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya has been traditionally used worldwide in folk medicine to treat a wide range of ailments in humans, including the management of obesity and digestive disorders. However, scientific information about its potential to interact with conventional drugs is lacking. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the interference of a standardized C. papaya extract (GMP certificate) on the systemic exposure to amiodarone (a narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. In the first pharmacokinetic study, rats were simultaneously co-administered with a single-dose of C. papaya (1230 mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.); in the second study, rats were pre-treated for 14 days with C. papaya (1230 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and received amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the herbal extract vehicle. Blood samples were collected before dosing and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h following amiodarone administration; in addition, at 24 h post-dose, blood and tissues (heart, liver, kidneys and lungs) were also harvested. Thereafter, the concentrations of amiodarone and its major metabolite (mono-N-desethylamiodarone) were determined in plasma and tissue samples employing a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method previously developed and validated. In both studies was observed a delay in attaining the maximum plasma concentrations of amiodarone (tmax) in the rats treated with the extract. Nevertheless, it must be highlighted the marked increase (60-70%) of the extent of amiodarone systemic exposure (as assessed by AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) in the rats pre-treated with C. papaya comparatively with the control (vehicle) group. The results herein found suggest an herb-drug interaction between C. papaya extract and amiodarone, which clearly increase the drug bioavailability. To reliably assess the clinical impact of these findings appropriate human studies should be conducted.

  15. Sexual Dimorphic Responses in Lymphocytes of Healthy Individuals after Carica papaya Consumption.

    PubMed

    Jumat, Nur Ramziahrazanah; Chong, Mun Yee; Seman, Zainina; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Wong, Nyet Kui; Abdullah, Maha

    2017-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in immune response is widely recognized, but few human studies have observed this distinction. Food with endo-immunomodulatory potential may reveal novel sex-biased in vivo interactions. Immunomodulatory effects of Carica papaya were compared between healthy male and female individuals. Volunteers were given fixed meals supplemented with papaya for 2 days. Changes in blood immune profiles and hormone levels were determined. In females, total natural killer (NK) cell percentages decreased (12.7 ± 4.4 vs 14.6 ± 5.8%, p = 0.018, n = 18) while B cells increased (15.2 ± 5.5 vs 14.5 ± 5.0, p = 0.037, n = 18) after papaya consumption. Increased 17β-estradiol (511.1 ± 579.7 vs 282.7 ± 165.0 pmol/l, p = 0.036, n = 9) observed in females may be crucial to this change. Differentiation markers (CD45RA, CD69, CD25) analyzed on lymphocytes showed naïve (CD45RA(+)) non-CD4(+) lymphocytes were reduced in females (40.7 ± 8.1 vs 46.8 ± 5.4%, p = 0.012, n = 8) but not males. A general suppressive effect of papaya on CD69(+) cells, and higher percentage of CD69(+) populations in females and non-CD4 lymphocytes, may be relevant. CD107a(+) NK cells were significantly increased in males (16.8 ± 7.0 vs 14.7 ± 4.8, p = 0.038, n = 9) but not females. Effect in females may be disrupted by the action of progesterone, which was significantly correlated with this population (R = 0.771, p = 0.025, n = 8) after papaya consumption. In males, total T helper cells were increased (33.4 ± 6.4 vs 32.4 ± 6.1%, p = 0.040, n = 15). Strong significant negative correlation between testosterone and CD25(+)CD4(+) lymphocytes, may play a role in the lower total CD4(+) T cells reported in males. Thus, dissimilar immune profiles were elicited in the sexes after papaya consumption and may have sex hormone influence.

  16. ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly

  17. Effect of Carica papaya Leaf Extract Capsule on Platelet Count in Patients of Dengue Fever with Thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Gadhwal, Ajeet Kumar; Ankit, B S; Chahar, Chitresh; Tantia, Pankaj; Sirohi, P; Agrawal, R P

    2016-06-01

    Thrombocytopenia in dengue fever is a common and serious complication. However, no specific treatment is available for dengue fever induced thrombocytopenia. In few countries (Pakistan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and other Asian countries) the leaf extract of Carica papaya has been effectively used for thrombocytopenia. So, the study is planned to access effect of Carica papaya leaf extract on platelet count in dengue fever patients. All participants were randomised into two groups, study group and control group; the study group was given papaya leaf extract capsule of 500 mg once daily and routine supportive treatment for consecutive five days. The controls were given only routine supportive treatment. Daily complete blood counts, platelet counts and haematocrit level, liver function test, renal function test of both groups were observed. On the first day platelet count of study group and control group was (59.82±18.63, 61.06±20.03 thousands, p value 0.36). On the 2nd day platelet count of both study and control groups was not significantly different (61.67±19.46 and 59.93±19.52 thousands, p value 0.20) but on 3rd day platelet count of study group was significantly higher than control group (82.96±16.72, 66.45±17.36 thousands, p value < 0.01). On 4th and 5th day platelet count of study group (122.43±19.36 and 112.47±17.49 thousands respectively) was also significantly higher than the control group (88.75±21.65 and 102.59±19.35 thousands) (p value < 0.01). On 7th day platelet count of study group and control group were not significantly different (124.47±12.35 and 122.46±19.76 thousands respectively, p value 0.08). Average hospitalization period of study group v/s control group was 3.65±0.97 v/s 5.42±0.98 days (p value < 0.01). Average platelet transfusion requirement in study group was significantly less than control group (0.685 units per patient v/s 1.19 units per patient) (p value <0.01). It is concluded that Carica papaya leaf extract increases the

  18. Mature leaf concentrate of Sri Lankan wild type Carica papaya Linn. modulates nonfunctional and functional immune responses of rats.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Chanika Dilumi; Gunasekera, Dinara S; De Silva, Nuwan; Jayawardena, Kithmini Kawya Mandakini; Udagama, Preethi Vidya

    2017-04-26

    The leaf concentrate of Carica papaya is a traditionally acclaimed immunomodulatory remedy against numerous diseases; nonetheless comprehensive scientific validation of this claim is limited. The present study thus investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Carica papaya mature leaf concentrate (MLCC) of the Sri Lankan wild type cultivar using nonfunctional and functional immunological assays. Wistar rats (N = 6/ group) were orally gavaged with 3 doses (0.18, 0.36 and 0.72 ml/100g body weight) of the MLCC once daily for 3 consecutive days. Selected nonfunctional (enumeration of immune cells and cytokine levels) and functional (cell proliferation and phagocytic activity) immunological parameters, and acute toxic effects were determined using standard methods. Effect of the MLCC (31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml) on ex vivo proliferation of bone marrow cells (BMC) and splenocytes (SC), and in vitro phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages (PMs), and their corresponding cytokine responses were evaluated. The phytochemical profile of the MLCC was established using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LS-MS) and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Counts of rat platelets, total leukocytes, lymphocyte and monocyte sub populations, and BMCs were significantly augmented by oral gavage of the MLCC (p < 0.05). The highest MLCC dose tested herein significantly reduced pro inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF α) levels of rats (p < 0.05). The in vivo phagocytic index of rat PMs significantly increased by oral gavage of all three doses of the MLCC (p < 0.05). In vitro phagocytic activity of rat PMs were enhanced by the MLCC and triggered a Th1 biased cytokine response. The MLCC at low concentrations elicited ex vivo proliferation of BMC (31.25 μg/ml) and SC (31.25 and 62.5 μg/ml) respectively. Conversely, high concentrations (500 and 1000 μg/ml) exhibited cytotoxicity of both BMC and SC

  19. Effect of aqueous extract of the bark of Carica papaya on testicular histology in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kusemiju, T O; Osinubi, A A; Noronha, C C; Okanlawon, A O

    2010-01-01

    Males generally have few options for controlling their fertility and these options are far from being satisfactory. There is a great need for research to develop more contraceptive modalities for males. The overall aim of this research was to determine the histological responses of the testes of Sprague-Dawley rats to aqueous extract of bark of Carica papaya using a single daily dose of 100 mg/kg and also to investigate if these responses are reversible or not. Sixty mature (6-8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats, divided into 2 equal groups, were used for this experiment. Group 1 rats were fed with 100 mg/kg/day of the extract for 4 and 8 weeks, while group 2 rats served as the control subjects. Each cauda epididymis of the rats was exteriorized, incised and sperm motility and count conducted on expressed fluid. The testes were harvested and processed for histological examination under light microscope. Phytochemical analysis was done to ascertain the main constituents in the extract, while the LD50 was conducted to guide in the dose of administration of the extract. A subgroup of the animals was allowed a recovery period of 8 weeks before sacrifice. The results showed that 500 mg/kg (LD50) of the extract of bark of Carica papaya produced signs of toxicity with mortality of 50% of the rats. The extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg caused histological changes ranging from seminiferous tubular distortion to outright destruction/ degeneration of the seminiferous tubules. In addition, the testicular interstitia of extract-treated rats showed disorganization and hypocellularity. The extract also caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in both sperm count and motility. There was no significant reversal of these antispermatogenic effects following a recovery period of 8 weeks. Aqueous extract of the bark of Carica papaya has deleterious effects on both the seminiferous tubules and testicular interstitium and deserves to be further investigated as a potential male

  20. Floral ratios in the figs of Ficus montana span the range from actively to passively pollinated fig trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleman, Nazia; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    Fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae) and their associated obligate pollinator fig wasps (Agaonidae) are partners in what is often a pair-wise species-specific association. Their interaction centres on the unique enclosed inflorescence of Ficus species - the fig. Among dioecious fig tree species, only pollinated ovules in figs on female trees develop into seeds. On male trees, galled ovules support development of the fig wasp offspring that will transport their pollen, but no seeds develop. Some fig wasp species actively collect and disperse pollen, whereas others are typical insect pollinators in that pollen is transferred passively. Active pollination is associated with improved larval survivorship in pollinated figs. Because active pollination is much more efficient, their host figs need to contain far fewer male flowers and across numerous Ficus species anther-ovule ratios are a good predictor of pollination mode. We examined variation in inflorescence size and floral ratios among male figs of the Asian Ficus montana and its consequences for the amounts of pollen that would be available for each pollinator to collect. Inflorescence size (total flower number) was highly variable, and female pollinator offspring production was higher in figs with more female flowers. Pollinator offspring numbers and anther-ovule ratios were also highly variable, and encompassed the range typical of both actively and passively pollinated fig tree species. In combination, this variation resulted in large differences in the extent to which pollinators were competing for access to pollen, with potential fitness consequences for both partners in the mutualism.

  1. Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica flowers maceration on quality and on heat stability of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Imène; BenAmira, Amal; Khemakem, Ibtihel; Attia, Hamadi; Ennouri, Monia

    2017-05-01

    This study was focused on the evaluation of the quality and the oxidative stability of olive oil added with Opuntia ficus-indica flowers. Two different amounts of O. ficus-indica flowers were considered 5 and 15% (w/w). The olive oils were evaluated towards their quality, fatty acids profile, total phenol contents and thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry. The oxidative stability was also monitored by employing the Rancimat and the oven test based on accelerating the oxidation process during storage. The addition of O. ficus-indica flowers induced an increase in free acidity values and a variation in fatty acids profile of olive oils but values remained under the limits required for an extra-virgin olive oil. The obtained olive oils were nutritionally enriched due to the increase in their phenols content. The oxidative stability was generally improved, mainly in olive oil enriched with 5% Opuntia ficus-indica flowers. These findings proved that this enriched olive oil could be considered as a product with a greater added value.

  2. Studies on Leaf Venation in Selected Taxa of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Badron, Ummu Hani; Talip, Noraini; Mohamad, Abdul Latiff; Affenddi, Affina Eliya Aznal; Juhari, Amirul Aiman Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    A study on the variation of leaf venation patterns was conducted on 21 taxa of the genus Ficus in Peninsular Malaysia. The results showed the existence of eight leaf venation patterns based on veinlets, the ultimate marginal and areolar venation. The majority of species, such as F. annulata, F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea var. angustifolia, F. deltoidea var. kunstleri, F. depressa, F. elastica, F. hispida, F. microcarpa, F. religiosa, F. tinctoria, F. ucinata and F. vasculosa, show tri-veinlets. The others exhibit the following: bi-veinlets in F. aurata and F. heteropleura; uni-veinlets in F. lepicarpa, F. schwarzii and F. superba; and simple veinlets in F. aurantiacea and F. fulva. F. sagittata presents no veinlets for areolar venation. The presence of tracheid or swollen veins at the centre of the lamina and the presence of cystolith cells and trichomes are common anatomical characteristics that could assist in group classification of the studied species. Variations in leaf venation patterns are not only valuable in identifying a taxon group, but can also be used to differentiate between species in the genus Ficus.

  3. Studies on Leaf Venation in Selected Taxa of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Badron, Ummu Hani; Talip, Noraini; Mohamad, Abdul Latiff; Affenddi, Affina Eliya Aznal; Juhari, Amirul Aiman Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    A study on the variation of leaf venation patterns was conducted on 21 taxa of the genus Ficus in Peninsular Malaysia. The results showed the existence of eight leaf venation patterns based on veinlets, the ultimate marginal and areolar venation. The majority of species, such as F. annulata, F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea var. angustifolia, F. deltoidea var. kunstleri, F. depressa, F. elastica, F. hispida, F. microcarpa, F. religiosa, F. tinctoria, F. ucinata and F. vasculosa, show tri-veinlets. The others exhibit the following: bi-veinlets in F. aurata and F. heteropleura; uni-veinlets in F. lepicarpa, F. schwarzii and F. superba; and simple veinlets in F. aurantiacea and F. fulva. F. sagittata presents no veinlets for areolar venation. The presence of tracheid or swollen veins at the centre of the lamina and the presence of cystolith cells and trichomes are common anatomical characteristics that could assist in group classification of the studied species. Variations in leaf venation patterns are not only valuable in identifying a taxon group, but can also be used to differentiate between species in the genus Ficus. PMID:27073603

  4. Pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation among dioecious fig species (Ficus, Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Moe, Annika M; Weiblen, George D

    2012-12-01

    The extent of isolation among closely related sympatric plant species engaged in obligate pollination mutualisms depends on the fitness consequences of interspecies floral visitation. In figs (Ficus), interspecific gene flow may occur when pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) visit species other than their natal fig species. We studied reproductive isolation in a clade of six sympatric dioecious fig species in New Guinea. Microsatellite genotyping and Bayesian clustering analysis of the fig community indicated strong reproductive barriers among sympatric species. A total of 1-2% of fig populations consisted of hybrid individuals. A new experimental method of manipulating fig wasps investigated the reproductive consequences of conspecific and heterospecific pollinator visitation for both mutualists. Fig wasps introduced to Ficus hispidioides pollinated and oviposited in receptive figs. Seed development and seedling growth were largely comparable between conspecific and heterospecific crosses. Heterospecific pollinator fitness, however, was significantly less than that of conspecific pollinators. Heterospecific pollinators induced gall formation but offspring did not develop to maturity in the new host. Selection on pollinators maintaining host specificity appears to be an important mechanism of contemporary reproductive isolation among these taxa that could potentially influence their diversification.

  5. Evidence of genetic influence on the flowering pattern of Ficus microcarpa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui-Wen; Bain, Anthony; Garcia, Marjorie; Chou, Lien-Siang; Kjellberg, Finn

    2014-05-01

    Flowering patterns result from the interactions between genetic and environmental factors. While the genetic basis for flowering time variation in commercial plants is often well understood, few studies have been conducted to investigate these patterns in plants without economic importance. Ficus microcarpa is a commonly introduced horticultural fig tree. Asynchrony in syconium development and the initiation, frequency, and size of crops may affect its fitness as well as the success of mutualism with its pollinating wasps. In order to identify genetically determined patterns in the flowering traits in F. microcarpa, a 14-month census was taken on the flowering characteristics of 28 trees growing in close proximity along an urban street in Taipei, Taiwan. Weekly surveys were taken on 7 characteristics: crop number, syconia per branch, crop asynchrony, as well as flowering onset and seed development duration for both the spring and summer crops. Post-census genotyping at microsatellite loci distinguished 16 genetic groups (5 clonal groups and 11 non-clone trees). All crop characteristics presented higher variation across different genotype groups than within groups except for seed development duration. We found no evidence of adjacency effects or spatial auto-correlation of flowering traits. The study offers the first evidence of genetic variations in the flowering patterns in a species of Ficus. These findings lend insight into the adaptive characteristics that potentially facilitate the local establishment of F. microcarpa in new locations.

  6. Medico-historical review of Nyagrŏdha (Ficus bengalensis Linn.).

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    Nyagrŏdha the Banyan tree (Ficus bengalensis Linn.) is a sacred medicinal plant since Vedic times. The English name Banyan is given by the Britishers to this tree because under the tree Banias i.e., the Hindu merchants used to assemble for business. The triad Ganges, the Himalayas and the Banyan tree are symbolise the images of India, hence it is considered as National Tree. Ficus means fig and bengalensis means belonging to or is of Bengal. To the most of Indians it is Sacred and symbolizes all three Gods of Hindus. The bark represents Lord Visnu, Brahma the roots and Siva the branches. Since Vedic times its small branches are used in Yajña (a sacrificial rite) and known for its giant structure. Alexander the Great is said to have camped under a banyan tree, which was big enough to shelter his whole army of 7,000 men. As per Vĕda it checks the environmental pollution and one of the source of Lăksă (Lac). Its medicinal importance is well documented in Ayurvĕda literature. However, more research needs for understanding the medicinal properties of this symbolic tree.

  7. Description of Schistonchus altissimus n. sp. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), an associate of Ficus altissima in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yongsan; Ye, Weimin; Huang, Jianghua; Li, Changhui; Giblin-Davis, Robin M

    2013-01-01

    A new nematode species was recovered from the syconia of Ficus altissima from the residential area of Huajingxincheng, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China during a survey of nematode diversity. Schistonchus altissimus n. sp. is characterised by having females with a short post-uterine sac, an ovoid spermatheca and a conoid tail with a mucron in the female, excretory pore located near the lip; and males with amoeboid sperm, a conoid tail without a mucron and three pairs of subventral papillae, no gubernaculum, and hook-shaped spicules with a cucullus and a thorn-shaped rostrum. Schistonchus altissimus n. sp. is typologically differentiated from all other described species in this genus, except for S. microcarpus, by having a spicule with cucullus on the male tail tip. Schistonchus altissimus n. sp. is easily differentiated from other sequenced species by the partial small subunit rRNA gene (SSU), D3 expansion segment of the large subunit rRNA gene (LSU) and mitochondrial DNA subunit I (mtCOI). Phylogenetic analysis with partial SSU sequences suggests that S. altissimus n. sp. is in a highly supported monophyletic clade with two Chinese species (S. microcarpus and S. centerae) and two neotropical species (S. aureus and Schistonchus sp. ex Ficus colubrinae Standl.). Based on inferences using LSU D3 sequence data, S. altissimus n. sp. has a closer relationship with four Chinese species (S. centerae, S. fistulosus, S. guangzhouensis and S. microcarpus) than with S. hirtus and S. superbus, also from China.

  8. Inhibition on HIV-1 integrase activity and nitric oxide production of compounds from Ficus glomerata.

    PubMed

    Bunluepuech, Kingkan; Sudsai, Teeratad; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai; Tewtrakul, Supinya

    2011-08-01

    An ethanol Ficus glomerata wood extract and its purified components were investigated for their HIV-1 integrase (IN) and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities. From bioassay-guided isolation, five compounds: beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside (1), aloe-emodin (2), genistein (3), 1,3,6-trihydroxy-8-methyl-anthraquinone (4) and 3-(1-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-2,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid (5) were isolated. Among the tested samples, at concentrations of 100 microM; compound 2 showed 31.9% inhibition of HIV-1 IN, followed by 4 (19.5%), whereas other compounds were inactive. With regard to the inhibitory effect on NO production, 3 possessed the highest activity with an IC50 value of 27.5 microM, followed by 4 (IC50 = 34.7 microM) and 2 (IC50 = 41.8 microM), respectively. This is the first time that compounds 2-5 have been isolated from Ficus glomerata.

  9. A new flavan-3-ol dimer from Ficus spragueana leaves and its cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Ragab, Ehab A; Mohammed, Abd El-Salam I; Abbass, Hatem S; Kotb, Saaid I

    2013-04-01

    Isolation and structure elucidation of flavan-3-ol constituents from the leaves of Ficus spragueana and their cytotoxic activity. Different open silica gel column chromatographic techniques with different solvent systems were used for the separation of the constituents of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the alcoholic extract of Ficus spragueana leaves. The structures of these compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. MTT colorimetric assay method (Viability assay) was used for the evaluation of cytotoxic activity of compound 1 against human breast cancer (MCF-7) and human liver cancer (HepG2) cell lines. The isolation of one flavan-3-ol dimer and was identified as (-)-afzelechin-(4α→8)-epicatechin 1, and two flavan-3-ol monomers and were identified as (-)-epiafzelechin 2 and (-)-epicatechin 3. Compound 1 was relatively inactive against human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line at the tested concentrations as compared with the standard. However, at a concentration (50 ΅g) it was found to give inhibition upon the proliferation of examined human liver (HepG2) tumor cell line. Compound 1 is a new flavan-3-ol dimer and it showed a potent cytotoxic activity against human liver (HepG2) tumor cell line.

  10. A new flavan-3-ol dimer from Ficus spragueana leaves and its cytotoxic activity

    PubMed Central

    Ragab, Ehab A.; Mohammed, Abd El-Salam I.; Abbass, Hatem S.; Kotb, Saaid I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Isolation and structure elucidation of flavan-3-ol constituents from the leaves of Ficus spragueana and their cytotoxic activity. Materials and Methods: Different open silica gel column chromatographic techniques with different solvent systems were used for the separation of the constituents of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the alcoholic extract of Ficus spragueana leaves. The structures of these compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. MTT colorimetric assay method (Viability assay) was used for the evaluation of cytotoxic activity of compound 1 against human breast cancer (MCF-7) and human liver cancer (HepG2) cell lines. Results: The isolation of one flavan-3-ol dimer and was identified as (-)-afzelechin-(4α→8)-epicatechin 1, and two flavan-3-ol monomers and were identified as (-)-epiafzelechin 2 and (-)-epicatechin 3. Compound 1 was relatively inactive against human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line at the tested concentrations as compared with the standard. However, at a concentration (50 ΅g) it was found to give inhibition upon the proliferation of examined human liver (HepG2) tumor cell line. Conclusions: Compound 1 is a new flavan-3-ol dimer and it showed a potent cytotoxic activity against human liver (HepG2) tumor cell line. PMID:23772110

  11. Biogeographical and phylogenetic origins of African fig species (Ficus section Galoglychia).

    PubMed

    Rønsted, Nina; Salvo, Gabriele; Savolainen, Vincent

    2007-04-01

    Ficus section Galoglychia (subgenus Urostigma; Moraceae) includes 72 species restricted to the African floristic region (a few extending to the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra). We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of the section including 56 ingroup (representing 44 species) and three outgroup taxa, to investigate its monophyly, classification and evolution. We used sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal and external transcribed spacers (ITS and ETS). Our results suggest that section Galoglychia is paraphyletic to the neotropical section Americana, although this is not supported by bootstrap analysis and only weakly supported by Bayesian posterior probabilities. Maximum parsimony analysis conflict with maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses with respect to the closest relatives of section Americana in Africa. The subsections of section Galoglychia proposed by Berg [Berg, C.C., 1986. Subdivision of Ficus subg. Urostigma sect. Galoglychia (Moraceae). Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Ser. C, 89, 121-127] are generally supported. We find two major clades of section Galoglychia within Africa possibly corresponding to two main centres of diversity. One clade comprises members of subsections Platyphyllae and Chlamydodorae, which are more concentrated in Eastern Africa, and extend to Madagascar and neighbouring archipelagos (Comores, Mascarenes, Aldabra Islands and Seychelles). The other main clade includes members of subsections Caulocarpae, Cyathistipulae, Crassicostae and Galoglychia, which are concentrated in West and Central Africa.

  12. Protective effects of Ficus racemosa stem bark against doxorubucin-induced renal and testicular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna; Karim, Alias A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) bark is a rich source of phenolic compounds known to possess potential antioxidant activity offering numerous health benefits. Materials and Methods: The present study evaluated the protective effects of sequential acetone extract of Ficus racemosa bark at two doses (FR250; 250 mg kg-1 and FR500; 500 mg kg-1 p.o.) against doxorubicin-induced renal and testicular toxicity in rats. Results: Doxorubicin administration resulted in significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in total protein and glutathione concentrations, while increased (P ≤ 0.05) serum urea, creatinine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Extract pretreatment restored biochemical parameters toward normalization. FR250 and FR500 decreased serum creatinine levels by 22.5% and 44%, while serum urea levels were decreased by 30.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Extract pretreatment (500 mg kg-1) decreased TBARS and increased glutathione levels in the kidney and testis to control levels. These observations were substantiated by histopathological studies, wherein normal renal and testicular architecture was restored in FR500 group. Conclusion: Doxorubicin exposure results in pronounced oxidative stress, and administration of F. racemosa stem bark extract offers significant renal and testicular protection by inhibiting lipidperoxidation-mediated through scavenging free radicals. PMID:23772108

  13. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    PubMed

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a protease inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya

    PubMed Central

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Dibiani, Rachid; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor purified from the latex of green papaya (Carica papaya) fruits was crystallized in the presence and absence of divalent metal ions. Crystal form I, which is devoid of divalent cations, diffracts to a resolution of 2.6 Å and belongs to space group P31 or P32. This crystal form is a merohedral twin with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.70, c = 78.97 Å. Crystal form II, which was grown in the presence of Co2+, diffracts to a resolution of 1.7 Å and belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.26, b = 81.99, c = 140.89 Å. PMID:17142906

  17. Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

    2010-12-01

    Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia.

  18. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Carica Papaya fruit extract under sunlight irradiation and their colorimetric detection of mercury ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus, M.; Andriana, S.; Elvinawati; Alwi, W.; Swistoro, E.; Ruyani, A.; Sundaryono, A.

    2017-04-01

    We have successfully synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using aqueous extract of papaya (Carica papaya) fruit as bioreductant under sunlight irradiation without additional capping agent. Characterizations were done using UV-Visible spectrophotometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The synthesized AgNPs have yellowish-brown color with surface plasmon resonance peak at 410 nm. Good selectivity of the AgNPs towards hazardous heavy metal of mercury ions in aqueous solution has been developed as a green environmental sensor. The presence of Hg(II) ions in the mixture changed the yellowish-brown color of AgNPs to colorless due to oxidation of Ag(O) in AgNPs to Ag(I) ions. Effect of samples matrix such as alkali metal, alkaline earth metal and transition metal ions were evaluated.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of CMS1MS2: a cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Marco Túlio Ribeiro; Teixeira, Raphael Dias; Ribeiro, Henrique de Assis Lopes; Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; Junqueira, Caroline Furtado; Lopes, Míriam Tereza Paz; Salas, Carlos Edmundo; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases from the latex of plants of the family Caricaceae are widely used industrially as well as in pharmaceutical preparations. In the present work, a 23 kDa cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex (designated CMS1MS2) was purified for crystallization using three chromatography steps. The enzyme shows about fourfold higher activity than papain with BAPNA as substrate. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction experiments were obtained by the hanging-drop method in the presence of PEG and ammonium sulfate as precipitants. The crystals are monoclinic (space group P21), with unit-cell parameters a = 53.26, b = 75.71, c = 53.23 Å, β = 96.81°, and diffract X-rays to 1.8 Å resolution. PMID:18540057

  20. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase).

  1. Phytochemical screening and in-vitro evaluation of pharmacological activities of peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Sarmad; Nawaz, Shamsa; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Bushra; Aslam, Bilal

    2017-06-18

    Aqueous, absolute and 80% ethanolic extract of fruit peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya were investigated for their antibacterial activity, measured by disc diffusion method and antioxidant activity, measured by four different methods. Papaya and banana peels were found to contain terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins steroid, phenols, fixed oils and fats. 80% ethanolic extract of banana peel was found to contain highest total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity but in papaya peel, highest TPC and reducing activity was shown by water extract while, TFC and radical scavenging activity was given by 80% ethanolic extract. In banana, water extract showed highest antibacterial activity against tested bacteria while in case of papaya, absolute ethanolic extract showed highest antibacterial activity. The present study revealed that peels of banana and papaya fruits are potentially good source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

  2. Green synthesis of colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles using Carica papaya and its application in photocatalytic dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Renu; Manikandan, Perumal; Malarvizhi, Viswanathan; Fathima, Tajudeennasrin; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-03-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by treating 5 mM cupric sulphate with Carica papaya leaves extract. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry. An intense surface Plasmon resonance between 250-300 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) exhibited that the green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles are rod in shape and having a mean particle size of 140 nm, further negative zeta potential disclose its stability at -28.9 mV. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results examined the occurrence of bioactive functional groups required for the reduction of copper ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the copper oxide nanoparticles crystalline nature. Furthermore, colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles effectively degrade the Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 dye beneath the sunlight.

  3. Biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract and evaluation of its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Kokila, T; Ramesh, P S; Geetha, D

    2016-12-01

    Waste fruit peel mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a green chemistry approach that links nanotechnology and biotechnology. Using biological medium such as peel extract for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is an ecofriendly and emerging scientific trend. With this back drop the present study focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract (CPPE) and evaluation of its antimicrobial potentials of the nanoparticles against different human pathogens and to investigate the free radical scavenging activity. Water soluble antioxidant constituents present in Carica Papaya peel extract were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions to nanosized Ag particles. UV-vis spectral analysis shows surface plasmon resonance band at 430nm. The presence of active proteins and phenolic groups present in the biomass before and after reduction was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction study shows the average size of the silver nanoparticles is in the range of 28nm, as well as revealed their face centered cubic structure. Atomic force microscope image gives the 3D topological characteristic of silver nanoparticles and the particle size ranges from 10 to 30nm. The average particle size distribution of silver nanoparticles is 161nm (Dynamic light scattering) and the corresponding average zeta potential value is -20.5mV, suggesting higher stability of silver nanoparticles. Biologically synthesized nanoparticles efficiently inhibited pathogenic organisms both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The biosynthesized nanoparticles might serve as a potent antioxidant as revealed by DPPH and ABT(S+)assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and Differentiation Between Hoodia gordonii Masson) Sweet ex Decne., Opuntia ficus indica (L.) P. Miller and Other Related Hoodia Species by Microscopy and PCR Methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    H.gordonii an appetite suppressant is used extensively as botanical dietary supplement. Microscopy and molecular genetic procedure are provided for identification and differentiation between H. gordonii, O. ficus-indica and other related Hoodia species.P. ...

  5. Epidemiological studies on guinea-worm in some newly discovered villages of Jhabua District (M.P.) and test of carica papaya leaves of guinea worm infection.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, P K

    1989-05-01

    Epidemiological survey was carried out for prevalence of guinea worm infection in 12 villages having a total population of 10281 persons in Jhabua district of M.P. The prevalence of 2.85 percent. Infection was more common in males. A paste of leaves of carica papya with opium and common salt applied for 3 days was helpful in relief of symptoms and easy extraction of worm from the body.

  6. The effectiveness of laser diode induction to Carica Papaya L. chlorophyll extract to be ROS generating in the photodynamic inactivation mechanisms for C.albicans biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi Astuty, S.; Baktir, A.

    2017-05-01

    Research on the effectiveness of photo inactivation of C.albicans biofilms led by a-PDT system mediated by chlorophyll-diode-laser-induced was done. This research was done using in vitro technique in order to effectively determine chlorophyll extract of ROS-generated Carica Papaya L. using in situ technique. This technique induced laser diode on different dose and C. albicans with reduced degree. This research is a preliminary study in efforts to find anew sensitizer agent candidate made of chlorophyll extract and antifungal of Carica Papaya L. The effectiveness of eradication has been tested with MDA’s content and OD of biomass biofilms as well as analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey Test (α=0.05). The characteristic of chlorophyll extract of Carica Papaya L. has maximum absorptions on blue areas (λmax = 420 nm) and red areas (λmax = 670 nm). The MIC value of Carica Papaya L.’schlorophyll extract against C. albicans planktonic and biofilms cell is 63.8 μM and 31.9 μM respectively. The result shows that treatment using laser which was combined with chlorophyll extract is more effective than that with laser only or chlorophyll extract only. The treatment using laser combined with chlorophyll extract obtained more than 65% (α=0.05) (more than that of negative control) for P2L1 group with OD595 0.915. The MDA’s content showed that group of laser which was mediated with chlorophyll extract had larger values than group of laser or chlorophyll extract only.

  7. Green Synthesis of Ag-Cu Nanoalloys Using Opuntia ficus- indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha-Rocha, O.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Hernández-Martínez, A. R.; Gámez-Corrales, R.; Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Britto-Hurtado, R.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Pérez-Rodríguez, A.; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2017-02-01

    Bimetallic Ag/Cu nanoparticles have been obtained by green synthesis using Opuntia ficus- indica plant extract. Two synthesis methods were applied to obtain nanoparticles with core-shell and Janus morphologies by reversing the order of precursors. Transmission electronic microscopy revealed size of 10 nm and 20 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Other small particles with size of up to 2 nm were also observed. Absorption bands attributed to surface plasmon resonance were detected at 440 nm and 500 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Density functional theory predicted a breathing mode type (BMT) located at low wavenumber due to small, low-energy clusters of (AgCu) n with n = 2 to 9, showing a certain correlation with the experimental one (at 220 cm-1). The dependence of the BMT on the number of atoms constituting the cluster is also studied.

  8. Free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective potential of Ficus microcarpa L. fil. bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Kalaskar, Mohan G; Surana, Sanjay J

    2011-07-01

    Successive extracts of Ficus microcarpa L. fil. bark (FMB) were tested for antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride- and paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicities in rats. The ethyl acetate extract of FMB exhibited significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity by reducing carbon tetrachloride- and paracetamol-induced changes in biochemical parameters as evidenced by enzymatic and histological examination. Pretreatment with ethyl acetate extract of FMB significantly shortened the duration of pentobarbitone-induced necrosis in mice, indicating its hepatoprotective potential. Phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of the phenolic compound, catechin, in FMB, which may interfere with free-radical formation and may account for its significant hepatoprotective effects. The present study thus provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use of this plant in the management of liver disorders.

  9. Antioxidant activity of a new C-glycosylflavone from the leaves of Ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Phan, Van Kiem; Nguyen, Xuan Cuong; Nguyen, Xuan Nhiem; Vu, Kim Thu; Ninh, Khac Ban; Chau, Van Minh; Bui, Huu Tai; Truong, Nam Hai; Lee, Sang Hyun; Jang, Hae Dong; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-01-15

    By bioactive-guided fractionation of methanol extract of the Ficus microcarpa leaves, one new C-glucosylflavone, ficuflavoside (1), one new megastigmane glycoside, ficumegasoside (8), and twelve known compounds including flavonoids (2-6), phenylpropanoids (7), megastigmanes (9-11) and sterol derivatives (12-14) were isolated. Their chemical structures were elucidated by mass, 1D, and 2D NMR spectroscopies. The antioxidant activities of these compounds were measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity methods. Compounds 1-6 exhibited potent antioxidant activities of 6.6-9.5μM Trolox equivalents at the concentration of 2.0μM. The results indicated 2, 3, and 5 having meaningful reducing capacity of copper (I) ions concentration of 6.1-8.4μM.

  10. Isolation and identification of antioxidant and hyaluronidase inhibitory compounds from Ficus microcarpa L. fil. bark.

    PubMed

    Ao, Changwei; Higa, Tatsunori; Ming, Hui; Ding, Yu-ting; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2010-06-01

    The aerial roots and bark of Ficus microcarpa L. fil. have been used as folk herbs for perspiration, alleviating fever, and relieving pain in Okinawa. The methanol extract of its bark showed high antioxidant and potential inhibitory activity against hyaluronidase. It was fractionated into hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions. As the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the strongest activity, it was selected for further purification by repeated Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Seven compounds were isolated and identified as protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, methyl chlorogenate, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidin B1, and procyanidin B3 by analysis of ESI-MS, UV, and (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra. All isolated compounds showed strong antioxidant activity when tested by all applied methods. Catechin, epicatechin, procyanidin B1, and procyanidin B3 exhibited excellent inhibitory activity against hyaluronidase. The results indicate that the extract of F. microcarpa bark may be utilized as a potential antioxidant and hyaluronidase inhibitor.

  11. Six new ursane- and oleanane-type triterpenes from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y H; Chiang, Y M

    2000-05-01

    Four new ursane-type triterpenes, 3beta-acetoxy-11alpha-methoxy-12-ursene (1), 3beta-acetoxy-11alpha-ethoxy-12-ursene (2), 3beta-acetoxy-11alpha-hydroperoxy-12-ursene (3), 3beta-hydroxy-11alpha-hydroperoxy-12-ursene (4), and two new oleanane-type triterpenes, 3beta-acetoxy-11alpha-ethoxy-12-oleanene (5), 3beta-acetoxy-111alpha-hydroperoxy-12-oleanene (6), together with 3beta-acetoxy-11alpha-hydroxy-12-ursene (7), 3beta,11alpha-diacetoxy-12-ursene (8), 3beta-acetoxy-11alpha-hydroxy-12-oleanene (9), were isolated from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa L. f. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  12. A cysteine protease isolated from the latex of Ficus microcarpa: purification and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Ibtissem Hamza; Siala, Rayda; Nasri, Rim; Mhamdi, Samiha; Nasri, Moncef; Kamoun, Alya Sellami

    2015-02-01

    A plant protease named microcarpain was purified from the latex of Ficus microcarpa by acetonic (20-40 % saturation) precipitation, Sephadex G-75 filtration, and Mono Q-Sefinose FF chromatography. The protease was purified with a yield of 9.25 % and a purification factor of 8. The molecular weight of the microcarpain was estimated to be 20 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The purified enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 8.0 and at a temperature of 70 °C. Proteolytic activity was strongly inhibited by dithio-bis-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified microcarpain "VPETVDWRSKGAV" showed high homology with a protease from Arabidopsis thaliana. Inhibition studies and N-terminal sequence classified the enzyme as a member of the cysteine peptidases family.

  13. Ficus deltoidea Jack: A Review on Its Phytochemical and Pharmacological Importance

    PubMed Central

    Bunawan, Hamidun; Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Siti Noraini; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain; Mohd Noor, Normah

    2014-01-01

    Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae) has had a long history of use in traditional medicine among the Malays to alleviate and heal ailments such as sores, wounds, and rheumatism and as an after-birth tonic and an antidiabetic drug. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrated that this plant has a wide variety of beneficial attributes for human health. Despite its importance, a review of this species has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Here, we review and summarize the historic and current literature concerning the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, and toxicity of this wonder plant. This summary could be beneficial for future research aiming to exploit the therapeutic potential of this useful, medicinal species. PMID:24772185

  14. Chemical composition of the stem bark and leaves of Ficus pandurata Hance.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, M A; Ahmad, A S; Nafady, A M; Mansour, A I

    2009-01-01

    A new compound, 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (13), in addition to 16 newly reported compounds: alpha-amyrin acetate (1), beta-amyrone (2), 3beta-acetoxy-20-taraxasten-22-one (3), alpha-amyrin (4), ceryl alcohol (5), stigmasterol (6), beta-sitosterol (7), 2alpha,3alpha-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oate (8), ursolic acid (9), beta-sitosterol-3-O-glucosoide (10), protocatechuic acid (11), betulinic acid (12), quercetin (14), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (15), kampferol-3-O-beta-neohesperidoside (16) and rutin (17) were isolated from the stem bark and leaves of Ficus pandurata (Hance) cultivated in Egypt. Identification of these compounds has been established by physical, chemical and spectral data (UV, IR, MS, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR), as well as comparison with authentic samples.

  15. Ficus deltoidea Jack: A Review on Its Phytochemical and Pharmacological Importance.

    PubMed

    Bunawan, Hamidun; Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Siti Noraini; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain; Mohd Noor, Normah

    2014-01-01

    Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae) has had a long history of use in traditional medicine among the Malays to alleviate and heal ailments such as sores, wounds, and rheumatism and as an after-birth tonic and an antidiabetic drug. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrated that this plant has a wide variety of beneficial attributes for human health. Despite its importance, a review of this species has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Here, we review and summarize the historic and current literature concerning the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, and toxicity of this wonder plant. This summary could be beneficial for future research aiming to exploit the therapeutic potential of this useful, medicinal species.

  16. Enhancement of wound healing with roots of Ficus racemosa L. in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Murti, Krishna; Kumar, Upendra

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the wound healing activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of roots of Ficus racemosa (F. racemosa). Methods Two models were performed to evaluate the wound healing activity i.e. incision and excision models. In incision model the parameter which was carried out was breaking strength of wounded skin. In excision model percentage wound contraction and period of epithelialization were established for both the extracts. Reference standard drug was povidone iodine ointment for comparison with other groups. Results From the observation in both two models, aqueous extract of F. racemosa was found to have greater wound healing activity in terms of breaking strength in incision model and percentage wound contraction, period of epithelialization in excision model than that of other groups. Conclusions In conclusion, our findings suggest that aqueous extract of F. racemosa possesses better wound healing ability than the ethanolic extract. PMID:23569913

  17. An arabinogalactan from the skin of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Youssef; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Marais, Marie-France; Vignon, Michel R

    2004-04-28

    The cold-water extract from the skin of Opuntia ficus-indica fruits was fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography. The major fraction, which was purified by size exclusion chromatography, consisted of a polysaccharide composed of galactose and arabinose residues in the ratio 6.3:3.3, with traces of rhamnose, xylose and glucose, but no uronic acid. The results of methylation analysis, supported by (13)C NMR spectroscopy, indicated that this polysaccharide corresponded to an arabinogalactan having a backbone of (1-->4)-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl residues with 39.5% of these units branched at O-3. The side-groups consisted either of single L-arabinofuranosyl units or L-arabinofuranosyl alpha-(1-->5)-linked disaccharides. This polysaccharide is thus an arabinogalactan that can be classified in the type I of the arabinogalactan family.

  18. Initiator-independent and initiator-dependent rubber biosynthesis in Ficus elastica.

    PubMed

    Espy, Stephanie C; Keasling, Jay D; Castillón, Javier; Cornish, Katrina

    2006-04-15

    The rubber-producing tree, Ficus elastica (the Indian rubber tree), requires the same substrates for rubber production as other rubber-producing plants, such as Hevea brasiliensis (the Brazilian or Para rubber tree), the major source of commercial natural rubber in the world, and Parthenium argentatum (guayule), a widely studied alternative for natural rubber production currently under commercial development. Rubber biosynthesis can be studied, in vitro, using purified, enzymatically active rubber particles, an initiator such as FPP, IPP as the source of monomer, and a metal cofactor such as Mg2+. However, unlike H. brasiliensis and P. argentatum, we show that enzymatically active rubber particles purified from F. elastica are able to synthesize rubber, in vitro, in the absence of added initiator. In this paper, we characterize, for the first time, the kinetic differences between initiator-dependent rubber biosynthesis, and initiator-independent rubber biosynthesis, and the effect of cofactor concentration on both of these processes.

  19. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  20. Composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pears fruit (Opuntia ficus indica sp.).

    PubMed

    El Kossori, R L; Villaume, C; El Boustani, E; Sauvaire, Y; Méjean, L

    1998-01-01

    The proximate composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) was investigated and is reported on a dry weight basis. The most abundant component of the pulp and skin was ethanol-soluble carbohydrates. Pulp contained glucose (35%) and fructose (29%) while the skin contained essentially glucose (21%). Protein content was 5.1% (pulp), 8.3% (skin) and 11.8% (seeds). Starch was found in each of the three parts of the fruit. Pulp fibers were rich in pectin (14.4%), skin and seeds were rich in cellulose (29.1 and 45.1%, respectively). Skin was remarkable for its content of calcium (2.09%) and potassium (3.4%). Prickly pear is a neglected nutritional source which should be more widely used because of its potential nutrient contribution.

  1. Phenolic Profiles, Phytchemicals and Mineral Content of Decoction and Infusion of Opuntia ficus-indica Flowers.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Imene; Ennouri, Monia; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ben Amira, Amal; Attia, Hamadi

    2015-12-01

    Opuntia flowers are a natural source of biologically active compounds and they have been used as medicinal plant for a long time. Despite the various uses reported for the decoction and infusion of these flowers, their characterization has been discarded. In this study, the decoction and infusion prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica were analyzed with respect to their content in minerals and phytochemicals in order to evaluate its nutritional characteristics. The obtained data proved that these preparations are a rich source of minerals mainly K and Ca. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed that they have important polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins contents with the infusion that presented the highest polyphenol levels. LC-MS analyses of decoction and infusion allowed the characterization of 20 phenolic compounds. It is mainly identified by the presence of flavonols glycosides.

  2. Hydrothermal carbonization of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes: Role of process parameters on hydrochar properties.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Maurizio; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Fiori, Luca

    2017-09-11

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes are a potential source of solid biofuel from marginal, dry land. Experiments assessed the effects of temperature (180-250°C), reaction time (0.5-3h) and biomass to water ratio (B/W; 0.07-0.30) on chars produced via hydrothermal carbonization. Multivariate linear regression demonstrated that the three process parameters are critically important to hydrochar solid yield, while B/W drives energy yield. Heating value increased together with temperature and reaction time and was maximized at intermediate B/W (0.14-0.20). Microscopy shows evidence of secondary char formed at higher temperatures and B/W ratios. X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric data, microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry suggest that calcium oxalate in the raw biomass remains in the hydrochar; at higher temperatures, the mineral decomposes into CO2 and may catalyze char/tar decomposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Raman bands in Ag nanoparticles obtained in extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocarando-Chacon, J.-G.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Vargas-Vazquez, D.; Rodríguez Melgarejo, F.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Mani-Gonzalez, P. G.; Leon-Sarabia, E.; Navarro-Badilla, A.; Ramírez-Bon, R.

    2014-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been obtained in an extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant. The size and distribution of nanoparticles were quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The diameter was estimated to be about 15 nm. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) peaks of silver were observed in these samples. Three Raman bands have been experimentally detected at 83, 110 and 160 cm-1. The bands at 83 and 110 cm-1 are assigned to the silver-silver Raman modes (skeletal modes) and the Raman mode located at 160 cm-1 has been assigned to breathing modes. Vibrational assignments of Raman modes have been carried out based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum mechanical calculation. Structural and vibrational properties for small Agn clusters with 2≤n≤9 were determined. Calculated Raman modes for small metal clusters have an approximation trend of Raman bands. These Raman bands were obtained experimentally for silver nanoparticles (AgNP).

  4. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive.

  5. Phenology of two Ficus species in seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, E; Emmerick, J M; Messetti, A V L; Pimenta, J A

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree) and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree) for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23° 27'S and 51° 15'W), Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant.

  6. The structure of cystoliths in selected taxa of the genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummu-Hani, B.; Noraini, T.

    2013-11-01

    A study was undertaken on mature leaves of 15 taxa of the genus Ficus in Peninsular Malaysia. The main objectives of this study are to determine the morphology and distribution of cystoliths in the epidermal layers of the leaf lamina in selected taxa of Ficus. The morphology of cystoliths is classified based on its size, shape, colour, and the presence of stalk cystolith. There are seven types of cystolith morphology observed in this study. Most of the cystoliths are either solitary, elongated, narrow or broad, and pointed or blunt at one or both ends. However, double- and rarely triple-cystoliths are also present in some species. The size of the cystoliths varies even within the same species. Based on the position of cystoliths, all the 15 taxa studied can be generally classified into three groups: Group 1 - with cystoliths adjacent to the adaxial epidermis layer (F. annulata, F. benghalensis and F. superba), Group 2 - with cystoliths adjacent to the abaxial epidermis layer (F. aurantiacea, F. lepicarpa, F. hispida, F. obscura var. borneensis, F. religiosa, F. schwarzii, F. ucinata and F. vasculosa), and Group 3 - with cystoliths present in both adaxial and abaxial epidermis layers (F. benjamina, F. depressa, F. microcarpa and F. tinctoria). Based on the occurrence of cystoliths, the types of lithocysts were related to the number of epidermal layers, i.e. hair-like lithocysts in uniseriate epidermis is present in all species studied. However, the characteristics of the cystoliths may not suitably be used as a taxonomic marker but it can be useful as additional character for group identification in Ficusper.

  7. Mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards using reservoir pheromone dispensers.

    PubMed

    Cocco, Arturo; Lentini, Andrea; Serra, Giuseppe

    2014-10-15

    Mating disruption field experiments to control the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were carried out in 2008 and 2009 in two commercial vineyards in Sardinia (Italy). The effectiveness of mating disruption was evaluated by testing reservoir dispensers loaded with 100 mg (62.5 g/ha) and 150 mg (93.8 g/ha) of the sex pheromone in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The number of males captured in pheromone traps, the P. ficus population density and age structure, the parasitism rate, the percentage of ovipositing females, and the crop damage were compared between disrupted and untreated plots. In both field trials, the number of males captured in mating disruption plots was significantly reduced by 86% and 95%, respectively. Mating disruption at the initial dose of 62.5 g/ha of active ingredient gave inconclusive results, whereas the dose of 93.8 g/ha significantly lowered the mealybug density and modified the age structure, which showed a lower percentage of ovipositing females and a higher proportion of preovipositing females. Mating disruption did not affect negatively the parasitism rate, which was higher in the disrupted than in the control plots (>1.5-fold). Crop damage at harvest was very low in both field trials and did not differ between treatments. Mating disruption was effective in wide plots protected with dispensers loaded with 150 mg of the sex pheromone, showing its potential to be included in the overall integrated control programs in Mediterranean wine-growing regions.

  8. Chemical Analysis of Nutritional Content of Prickly Pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at Varied Ages in an Organic Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Pérez-Torrero, Esther; Rodríguez-García, Mario E.

    2011-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica, also known as prickly pads, are an important part of the human diet and are also used as forage for livestock. This is an interesting vegetable due the environmental conditions in which it grows and its resistance to climatic extremes; however, little is known about its nutritional properties, especially in the later stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of organic prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at differing stages of growth maturity. Chemical proximate analysis and mineral constituent analysis at different maturation stages were carried out in this investigation. As a result, older prickly pads were found to be an important source of nutritional components such as calcium. PMID:21655119

  9. Chemical composition of volatiles from Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia prolifera growing on Catalina Island, California.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the cladodes of Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia prolifera growing wild on Santa Catalina Island, California, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Terpenoids were the dominant class of volatiles in O. littoralis, with the two main components being the furanoid forms of cis-linalool oxide (10.8%) and trans-linalool oxide (8.8%). Fatty acid-derived compounds dominated the essential oil of O. ficus-indica with linoleic acid (22.3%), palmitic acid (12.7%), lauric acid (10.5%) and myristic acid (4.2%) as major fatty acids. O. prolifera oil was composed of 46.6% alkanes and the primary hydrocarbon component was heptadecane (19.2%). Sixteen compounds were common to all the three Opuntia species.

  10. Chemical analysis of nutritional content of prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at varied ages in an organic harvest.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Urbiola, Margarita I; Pérez-Torrero, Esther; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2011-05-01

    Opuntia ficus indica, also known as prickly pads, are an important part of the human diet and are also used as forage for livestock. This is an interesting vegetable due the environmental conditions in which it grows and its resistance to climatic extremes; however, little is known about its nutritional properties, especially in the later stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of organic prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at differing stages of growth maturity. Chemical proximate analysis and mineral constituent analysis at different maturation stages were carried out in this investigation. As a result, older prickly pads were found to be an important source of nutritional components such as calcium.

  11. Mesoproterozoic juvenile mafic-ultramafic magmatism in the SW Amazonian Craton (Rio Negro-Juruena province): SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology and Nd-Sr constraints of the Figueira Branca Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Wilson; Geraldes, Mauro C.; D'Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.; Santos, João O. S.; Sant'Ana Barros, Márcia A.; Ruiz, Amarildo S.; Corrêa da Costa, Paulo C.

    2011-12-01

    The Figueira Branca Suite (FBS) comprises a layered mafic-ultramafic complex which together with mafic-felsic plugs makes up a string of NW-trending intrusive bodies that are emplaced into the Jauru domain (Rio Negro-Juruena province; 1.80-1.60 Ga). This domain comprises Orosirian calc-alkaline rocks and coeval metamorphic volcanic-sedimentary associations, intruded by voluminous granitoid plutons resulted from outboard Cachoeirinha (1587-1522 Ma) and Santa Helena (1485-1420 Ma) accretionary orogens that eventually created the Rondonian-San Ignacio province along the SW margin of the proto-Amazonian Craton. SHRIMP U-Pb age in zircon for one cumulatic gabbro from the FBS yielded a concordia intercept age of 1425.5 ± 8.0 Ma (MSWD = 1.11). Another gabbroic plug which crops out to the East gives a similar within error concordia intercept zircon age of 1415.9 ± 6.9 Ma (MSWD = 0.25), whereas a nearby monzogranite yields a concordia intercept zircon age of 1428.9 ± 2.8 Ma (MSWD = 1.30). All these results are crystallization ages and constrain an important intraplate magmatic event within the Orosirian continental crust at the time of outboard Santa Helena orogen. On the other hand, igneous titanite from another gabbro located to the West of the FBS yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb crystallization age of 1541 ± 23 Ma (MSWD = 0.74). Therefore this rock is not genetically associated with the FBS, as previously suggested by the field information. Additional Nd-Sr isotopic analyses of the FBS mafic-ultramafic rocks and coeval gabbro showed comparable ɛNd(1.42Ga) values (+3.0 to +4.7) and variable ɛSr(1.42Ga) ones (-39.1 to -8.1). These data plot in the depleted field quadrant of the Nd-Sr diagram, indicating a significant influence of the MORB end-member reservoir in the magma genesis. This interpretation is similarly supported by comparison of the Nd evolutionary path of the FBS with those that characterize the isotopic evolution of the Jauru crust and the

  12. The River Mondego terraces at the Figueira da Foz coastal area (western central Portugal): Geomorphological and sedimentological characterization of a terrace staircase affected by differential uplift and glacio-eustasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Anabela M.; Cunha, Pedro P.; Cunha, Lúcio S.; Gomes, Alberto; Lopes, Fernando C.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.

    2012-09-01

    A geomorphological and sedimentological characterization of the River Mondego terraces in the Figueira da Foz coastal area, Portugal, is presented. The relief is dominated by a Pliocene a marine sandy unit ~ 10-15 m thick, reaching ~ 250 m a.s.l., that covers a shore platform surface. The River Mondego has incised into the Pliocene relief and its long drainage evolution is recorded within a series of inset river terrace landforms. These river terraces are better preserved on the right-hand (northern) bank, where they form a staircase developed against the uplifted Serra da Boa Viagem structure. A set of five river terraces, represented by sedimentary deposits or erosional straths, are identified, namely: T1 at 128-125 m; T2 at 101-90 m; T3 at 70-60 m; T4 at 29-24 m; T5 at 11-10 m a.s.l. Some luminescence dating ages were obtained from the river terrace deposits: > 390 ka from the middle of T4; > 170 ka from the top of T4; ~ 120 ka from the base of T5; ~ 109 ka from T5 (average age for three samples); and 53 ± 3 ka from a colluvium at 35 m a.s.l. Some differences in altitude of the uppermost sedimentary unit and of the terraces are here interpreted as resulting from vertical displacements of active faults during the Quaternary. The main tectonic structure is the WNW-ESE trending Quiaios fault, responsible for the regional tilting towards SW. Other probably active faults and tectonic lineaments trend NNW-SSE to N-S, NNE-SSW to NE-SW and WNW-ESE. This study reports a long-term uplift rate of 0.004-0.055 m/ka for the last 3.6 Ma, but 0.017-0.118 m/ka for the last ~ 1.8 Ma (using as references, respectively, the base and the surface of the uppermost sedimentary unit). The facies associations that characterize the older terrace deposits (T1 and T2) consist of poorly sorted fluvial sandy-gravels and silts, but also some colluvium at the top of each terrace. The younger terraces (T3, T4 and T5) show better developed sedimentary structures and less sedimentary matrix; the

  13. Ficusmicrochlorin A-C, two new methoxy lactone chlorins and an anhydride chlorin from the leaves of Ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huan-You; Chiu, Hsi-Lin; Lu, Te-Ling; Tzeng, Chih-Ying; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lee, Ching-Kuo; Shao, Yi-Yuan; Chen, Chiy-Rong; Chang, Chi-I; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    Two new methoxy lactone chlorins ficusmicrochlorin A (1) and ficusmicrochlorin B (2), and one new anhydride chlorin ficusmicrochlorin C (3), along with eight known pheophytins were isolated from the leaves of Ficus microcarpa. Their structures were determined by the extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. New pheophytin compound was rarely obtained from natural sources. In the past ten years, only three new natural pheophytins were characterized.

  14. Differentiation in light energy dissipation between hemiepiphytic and non-hemiepiphytic Ficus species with contrasting xylem hydraulic conductivity.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guang-You; Wang, Ai-Ying; Liu, Zhi-Hui; Franco, Augusto C; Goldstein, Guillermo; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2011-06-01

    Hemiepiphytic Ficus species (Hs) possess traits of more conservative water use compared with non-hemiepiphytic Ficus species (NHs) even during their terrestrial growth phase, which may result in significant differences in photosynthetic light use between these two growth forms. Stem hydraulic conductivity, leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were compared in adult trees of five Hs and five NHs grown in a common garden. Hs had significantly lower stem hydraulic conductivity, lower stomatal conductance and higher water use efficiency than NHs. Photorespiration played an important role in avoiding photoinhibition at high irradiance in both Hs and NHs. Under saturating irradiance levels, Hs tended to dissipate a higher proportion of excessive light energy through thermal processes than NHs, while NHs dissipated a larger proportion of electron flow than Hs through the alternative electron sinks. No significant difference in maximum net CO2 assimilation rate was found between Hs and NHs. Stem xylem hydraulic conductivity was positively correlated with maximum electron transport rate and negatively correlated with the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching across the 10 studied Ficus species. These findings indicate that a canopy growth habit during early life stages in Hs of Ficus resulted in substantial adaptive differences from congeneric NHs not only in water relations but also in photosynthetic light use and carbon economy. The evolution of epiphytic growth habit, even for only part of their life cycle, involved profound changes in a suite of inter-correlated ecophysiological traits that persist to a large extent even during the later terrestrial growth phase.

  15. Seasonality of Leaf and Fig Production in Ficus squamosa, a Fig Tree with Seeds Dispersed by Water.

    PubMed

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2016-01-01

    The phenology of plants reflects selection generated by seasonal climatic factors and interactions with other plants and animals, within constraints imposed by their phylogenetic history. Fig trees (Ficus) need to produce figs year-round to support their short-lived fig wasp pollinators, but this requirement is partially de-coupled in dioecious species, where female trees only develop seeds, not pollinator offspring. This allows female trees to concentrate seed production at more favorable times of the year. Ficus squamosa is a riparian species whose dispersal is mainly by water, rather than animals. Seeds can float and travel in long distances. We recorded the leaf and reproductive phenology of 174 individuals for three years in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. New leaves were produced throughout the year. Fig production occurred year-round, but with large seasonal variations that correlated with temperature and rainfall. Female and male trees initiated maximal fig crops at different times, with production in female trees confined mainly to the rainy season and male figs concentrating fig production in the preceding months, but also often bearing figs continually. Ficus squamosa concentrates seed production by female plants at times when water levels are high, favouring dispersal by water, and asynchronous flowering within male trees allow fig wasps to cycle there, providing them with potential benefits by maintaining pollinators for times when female figs become available to pollinate.

  16. Living on the edge: Fig tree phenology at the northern range limit of monoecious Ficus in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu-Shui; Compton, Stephen G.; Xiao, Hui; Lu, Qian; Chen, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are a species-rich group of mainly tropical and subtropical plants that are of ecological importance because of the large numbers of vertebrates that utilise their figs for food. Factors limiting their distributions to warmer regions are still poorly understood, but are likely to include factors linked to their specialised pollination biology, because each Ficus species is dependent on one or a small number of host-specific fig wasps (Agaonidae) for pollination. Adult fig wasps are short-lived, but some species are capable of dispersing extremely long distances to pollinate their hosts. Close to its northern range limit we investigated the phenology of Ficus virens, the monoecious fig tree that reaches furthest north in China. Relatively few trees produced any figs, and very few retained figs throughout the winter. Despite this, new crops produced in spring were pollinated, with seasonally migrant pollinators from plants growing further south the most likely pollen vectors. An inability to initiate new crops at low temperatures may limit the distribution of monoecious fig trees to warmer areas.

  17. Effect of hyaluronic acid and polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes on the metabolism of human chondrocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Panico, A M; Cardile, V; Garufi, F; Puglia, C; Bonina, F; Ronsisvalle, S

    2007-05-04

    Conventional medications in articular disease are often effective for symptom relief, but they can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of the disease. Several natural substances have been shown to be effective as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at relieving the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA), and preliminary evidence suggests that some of these compounds may exert a favourable influence on the course of the disease. In this study, we assay the anti-inflammatory/chondroprotective effect of some lyophilised extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes and of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the production of key molecules released during chronic inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), prostaglandins (PGE(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human chondrocyte culture, stimulated with proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). Further the antioxidant effect of these extracts was evaluated in vitro employing the bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH test). All the extracts tested in this study showed an interesting profile in active compounds. Particularly some of these extracts were characterized by polyphenolic and polysaccharidic species. In vitro results pointed out that the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes were able to contrast the harmful effects of IL-1 beta. Our data showed the protective effect of the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes in cartilage alteration, which appears greater than that elicited by hyaluronic acid (HA) commonly employed as visco-supplementation in the treatment of joint diseases.

  18. Seasonality of Leaf and Fig Production in Ficus squamosa, a Fig Tree with Seeds Dispersed by Water

    PubMed Central

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2016-01-01

    The phenology of plants reflects selection generated by seasonal climatic factors and interactions with other plants and animals, within constraints imposed by their phylogenetic history. Fig trees (Ficus) need to produce figs year-round to support their short-lived fig wasp pollinators, but this requirement is partially de-coupled in dioecious species, where female trees only develop seeds, not pollinator offspring. This allows female trees to concentrate seed production at more favorable times of the year. Ficus squamosa is a riparian species whose dispersal is mainly by water, rather than animals. Seeds can float and travel in long distances. We recorded the leaf and reproductive phenology of 174 individuals for three years in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. New leaves were produced throughout the year. Fig production occurred year-round, but with large seasonal variations that correlated with temperature and rainfall. Female and male trees initiated maximal fig crops at different times, with production in female trees confined mainly to the rainy season and male figs concentrating fig production in the preceding months, but also often bearing figs continually. Ficus squamosa concentrates seed production by female plants at times when water levels are high, favouring dispersal by water, and asynchronous flowering within male trees allow fig wasps to cycle there, providing them with potential benefits by maintaining pollinators for times when female figs become available to pollinate. PMID:27010540

  19. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE BARK OF FICUS BENGALENSIS IN PLANTS OF DIFFERENT AGE

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vikas V.; Patil, Vijay R.

    2010-01-01

    The medicinal plants have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. The aim of this study deals with the comparative evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Ficus bengalensis in plants of different age. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by rat paw edema model induced by carrageenan for acute inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma model for chronic inflammation. Indomethacin was used as a standard drug. The various extracts were studied for their anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats and the paw volume was measured plethysmometrically from 0 to 3h after injection. We have determined the anti-inflammatory activity of various extracts of the bark of Ficus bengalensis with oral administration doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg/day of body weight to healthy animals. Positive results for flavonoids, sterols, and triterpene, tannins and saponins compounds were investigated by phytochemical analysis. The ethanolic extract of younger plant showed a greater anti-inflammatory effect compared with the standard drug indomethacin. Present studies besides confirming anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of younger more potent than mature plant help to identify from the comparative study of the bark of Ficus bengalensis. PMID:24825975

  20. Richness of endophytic fungi isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (Cactaceae) and preliminary screening for enzyme production.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, J D P; Santos, M G S; Svedese, V M; Lima, D M M; Fernandes, M J S; Paiva, L M; Souza-Motta, C M

    2012-05-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (forage cactus) is farmed with relative success in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast for commercial purposes, particularly as forage and food. Endophytic microorganisms are those that can be isolated inside plant tissues and can be a new source to production of enzymes with different potentialities. The objective of this study was to describe the richness of endophytic fungi from O. ficus-indica and to detect the capacity of these species to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Forty-four endophytic fungi species were isolated. Among them, the most commonly found were Cladosporium cladosporioides (20.43%) and C. sphaerospermum (15.99%). Acremonium terricola, Monodictys castaneae, Penicillium glandicola, Phoma tropica and Tetraploa aristata are being reported for the first time as endophytic fungi for Brazil. The majority of isolated fungi exhibited enzymatic potential. Aspergillus japonicus and P. glandicola presented pectinolytic activity. Xylaria sp. was the most important among the other 14 species with positive cellulase activity. All 24 isolates analysed were xylanase-positive. Protease was best produced by isolate PF103. The results indicate that there is a significant richness of endophytic fungi in O. ficus-indica, and that these isolates indicate promising potential for deployment in biotechnological processes involving production of pectinases, cellulases, xylanases and proteases.

  1. Production and characterization of cosmetic nanoemulsions containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill extract as moisturizing agent.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Renato Cesar de Azevedo; Barreto, Stella Maria de Andrade Gomes; Ostrosky, Elissa Aarantes; da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra; Ferrari, Márcio

    2015-02-02

    This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX) and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica MILL extract (FXE) were white, homogeneus and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5-6.0); droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI) around 0.200 and a zeta potential from -26.71 to -47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  2. Compositional and structural changes in Phoenix canariensis and Opuntia ficus-indica with pretreatment: Effects on enzymatic hydrolysis and second generation ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Udeh, Benard Anayo; Erkurt, Emrah Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Two different plants namely Phoenix canariensis and Opuntia ficus-indica were used as substrate for reducing sugar generation and ethanol production. Dilute acid, alkaline and steam explosion were used as pretreatment methods in order to depolymerize lignin and/or hemicellulose and recover cellulose. By using alkaline pretreatment with 2.5% NaOH 71.08% for P. canariensis and 74.61% for O. ficus-indica lignin removal and 81.84% for P. canariensis and 72.66% for O. ficus-indica cellulose recovery yields were obtained. Pretreated materials were hydrolyzed by cellulase with high efficiency (87.0% and 84.5% cellulose conversion yields for P. canariensis and O. ficus-indica) and used as substrate for fermentation. Maximum ethanol production of 15.75g/L and 14.71g/L were achieved from P. canariensis and O. ficus-indica respectively. Structural differences were observed by XRD, FTIR and SEM for untreated, pretreated, hydrolyzed and fermented samples and were highly correlated with compositional analysis results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Green synthesis of colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles using Carica papaya and its application in photocatalytic dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Renu; Manikandan, Perumal; Malarvizhi, Viswanathan; Fathima, Tajudeennasrin; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-01-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by treating 5 mM cupric sulphate with Carica papaya leaves extract. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry. An intense surface Plasmon resonance between 250-300 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) exhibited that the green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles are rod in shape and having a mean particle size of 140 nm, further negative zeta potential disclose its stability at -28.9 mV. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results examined the occurrence of bioactive functional groups required for the reduction of copper ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the copper oxide nanoparticles crystalline nature. Furthermore, colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles effectively degrade the Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 dye beneath the sunlight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome sequence comparison reveals a candidate gene involved in male-hermaphrodite differentiation in papaya (Carica papaya) trees.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroki; Urasaki, Naoya; Natsume, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    The sex type of papaya (Carica papaya) is determined by the pair of sex chromosomes (XX, female; XY, male; and XY(h), hermaphrodite), in which there is a non-recombining genomic region in the Y and Y(h) chromosomes. This region is presumed to be involved in determination of males and hermaphrodites; it is designated as the male-specific region in the Y chromosome (MSY) and the hermaphrodite-specific region in the Y(h) chromosome (HSY). Here, we identified the genes determining male and hermaphrodite sex types by comparing MSY and HSY genomic sequences. In the MSY and HSY genomic regions, we identified 14,528 nucleotide substitutions and 965 short indels with a large gap and two highly diverged regions. In the predicted genes expressed in flower buds, we found no nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes between the MSY and HSY. However, we found an HSY-specific transposon insertion in a gene (SVP like) showing a similarity to the Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) gene. Study of SVP-like transcripts revealed that the MSY allele encoded an intact protein, while the HSY allele encoded a truncated protein. Our findings demonstrated that the SVP-like gene is a candidate gene for male-hermaphrodite determination in papaya.

  5. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, José A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

  6. Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah

    2012-04-10

    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  7. How to become a tree without wood--biomechanical analysis of the stem of Carica papaya L.

    PubMed

    Kempe, A; Lautenschläger, T; Lange, A; Neinhuis, C

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya L. does not contain wood, according to the botanical definition of wood as lignified secondary xylem. Despite its parenchymatous secondary xylem, these plants are able to grow up to 10-m high. This is surprising, as wooden structural elements are the ubiquitous strategy for supporting height growth in plants. Proposed possible alternative principles to explain the compensation for lack of wood in C. papaya are turgor pressure of the parenchyma, lignified phloem fibres in the bark, or a combination of the two. Interestingly, lignified tissue comprises only 5-8% of the entire stem mass. Furthermore, the phloem fibres do not form a compact tube enclosing the xylem, but instead form a mesh tubular structure. To investigate the mechanism of papaya's unusually high mechanical strength, a set of mechanical measurements were undertaken on whole stems and tissue sections of secondary phloem and xylem. The structural Young's modulus of mature stems reached 2.5 GPa. Since this is low compared to woody plants, the flexural rigidity of papaya stem construction may mainly be based on a higher second moment of inertia. Additionally, stem turgor pressure was determined indirectly by immersing specimens in sucrose solutions of different osmolalities, followed by mechanical tests; turgor pressure was between 0.82 and 1.25 MPa, indicating that turgor is essential for flexural rigidity of the entire stem. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of poultry dropping and Carica papaya peels: Modelling and process parameter optimization study.

    PubMed

    Dahunsi, S O; Oranusi, S; Owolabi, J B; Efeovbokhan, V E

    2016-09-01

    The study evaluated anaerobic co-digestion of poultry dropping and pawpaw peels and the optimization of important process parameters. The physic-chemical analyses of the substrates were done using standard methods after application of mechanical, thermal and chemical pre-treatments methods. Gas chromatography analysis revealed the gas composition to be within the range of 66-68% methane and 18-23% carbon dioxide. The study equally revealed that combination of the different pre-treatment methods enhanced enormous biogas yield from the digestion. Optimization of the generated biogas data were carried out using the Response Surface Methodology and the Artificial Neural Networks. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for RSM (0.9181) was lower compare to that of ANN (0.9828). This shows that ANN model gives higher accuracy than RSM model for the current. Further usage of Carica papaya peels for biogas generation is advocated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of plants resistant to Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by intergeneric hybridization between Carica papaya and Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis

    PubMed Central

    Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Kawano, Shinji; Yasuda, Keiji; Ueno, Hiroki; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we confirmed that Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis resists Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and used it to produce intergeneric hybrids with Carica papaya. From the cross between C. papaya and V. cundinamarcensis, we obtained 147 seeds with embryos. Though C. papaya is a monoembryonic plant, multiple embryos were observed in all 147 seeds. We produced 218 plants from 28 seeds by means of embryo-rescue culture. All plants had pubescence on their petioles and stems characteristic of V. cundinamarcensis. Flow cytometry and PCR of 28 plants confirmed they were intergeneric hybrids. To evaluate virus resistance, mechanical inoculation of PLDMV was carried out. The test showed that 41 of 134 intergeneric hybrid plants showed no symptoms and were resistant. The remaining 93 hybrids showed necrotic lesions on the younger leaves than the inoculated leaves. In most of the 93 hybrids, the necrotic lesions enclosed the virus and prevented further spread. These results suggest that the intergeneric hybrids will be valuable material for PLDMV-resistant papaya breeding. PMID:28163589

  10. Rapid sex identification of papaya (Carica papaya) using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2012-10-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is established as a cash crop throughout the tropical and subtropical regions due to its easy adaptation to diverse agricultural conditions, high yields, and prompt returns. The sex types of papaya plants are hermaphrodite, male, and female. Among them, hermaphroditic plants are the major type in papaya production, because the fruit has commercial advantages over that of the other sexes. Sex inheritance in papaya is determined by the M and M(h) dominant alleles in males and hermaphrodites, respectively, and a recessive m allele in females. Currently, all hermaphrodite seeds are not available due to the lethality of dominant homozygosity. Therefore, in this study, six male-hermaphrodite-specific markers were developed for a rapid sex identification using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) to efficiently and precisely select hermaphroditic individuals in the seedling or early growth stage. The LM1-LAMP assay consisted of two sex-LAMP reactions for amplifying two male-specific markers (T12 and Cpsm90) in one reaction, and showed several advantages in terms of a rapid reaction time (<1 h), isothermal conditions (less equipment required), a high efficiency (0.5 ng of DNA required in the reaction mixture), and an economical reaction system (5 μl in volume). The established method can be easily performed in the field by visual inspection and facilitates the selection of all hermaphroditic individuals in papaya production.

  11. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nohara, Lilian L; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Almeida, Igor C; Zingali, Russolina B; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-06-18

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Natalia N dos S; Santana, Lucimeire A; Sampaio, Misako U; Lemos, Francisco J A; Oliva, Maria Luiza

    2013-07-01

    As Aedes aegypti transmits the etiologic agents of both yellow and dengue fever; vector control is considered essential to minimise their incidence. The aim of this work was to identify the component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti, and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it. Aqueous extracts (1%, w/v) of the seed tegument and cotyledon of C. papaya are not larvicidal isolately. However, a mixture of 17μgmL(-1) tegument extract and 27μgmL(-1) cotyledon extract caused 100% larval mortality in a bioassay. The mixture was no longer larvicidal after the tegument extract was pre-treated at 100°C for 10min. The enzyme tegupain efficiently hydrolysed the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-pNan (Km 58.8μM, Kcat 28020s(-1), Kcat/Km 5×10(8)M(-1) s(-1)), and its activity increased with 2mM dithiothreitol (DTT), at 37°C, pH 5.0. The chelating agent EDTA did not modify the enzyme activity. Inhibition of tegupain by cystatin (Kiapp 2.43nM), E64 (3.64nM, 83% inhibition), and the propeptide N-terminal sequence indicate that the toxic activity is due to a novel cysteine proteinase-like enzyme, rendered active upon the hydrolysis of a cotyledon component of C. papaya seeds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of plants resistant to Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by intergeneric hybridization between Carica papaya and Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis.

    PubMed

    Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Kawano, Shinji; Yasuda, Keiji; Ueno, Hiroki; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we confirmed that Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis resists Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and used it to produce intergeneric hybrids with Carica papaya. From the cross between C. papaya and V. cundinamarcensis, we obtained 147 seeds with embryos. Though C. papaya is a monoembryonic plant, multiple embryos were observed in all 147 seeds. We produced 218 plants from 28 seeds by means of embryo-rescue culture. All plants had pubescence on their petioles and stems characteristic of V. cundinamarcensis. Flow cytometry and PCR of 28 plants confirmed they were intergeneric hybrids. To evaluate virus resistance, mechanical inoculation of PLDMV was carried out. The test showed that 41 of 134 intergeneric hybrid plants showed no symptoms and were resistant. The remaining 93 hybrids showed necrotic lesions on the younger leaves than the inoculated leaves. In most of the 93 hybrids, the necrotic lesions enclosed the virus and prevented further spread. These results suggest that the intergeneric hybrids will be valuable material for PLDMV-resistant papaya breeding.

  14. A purely green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Carica papaya, Manihot esculenta, and Morinda citrifolia: synthesis and antibacterial evaluations.

    PubMed

    Syafiuddin, Achmad; Salmiati; Hadibarata, Tony; Salim, Mohd Razman; Kueh, Ahmad Beng Hong; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-06-08

    Green procedure for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently considered due to its economy and toxic-free effects. Several existing works on synthesizing AgNPs using leaves extract still involve the use of physical or mechanical treatment such as heating or stirring, which consume a lot of energy. To extend and explore the green extraction philosophy, we report here the synthesis and antibacterial evaluations of a purely green procedure to synthesize AgNPs using Carica papaya, Manihot esculenta, and Morinda citrifolia leaves extract without the aforementioned additional treatment. The produced AgNPs were characterized using the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and antibacterial investigations. For antibacterial tests, two bacteria namely Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus were selected. The presently employed method has successfully produced spherical AgNPs having sizes ranging from 9 to 69 nm, with plasmonic characteristics ranging from 356 to 485 nm, and energy-dispersive X-ray peak at approximately 3 keV. In addition, the smallest particles can be produced when Manihot esculenta leaves extract was applied. Moreover, this study also confirmed that both the leaves and synthesized AgNPs exhibit the antibacterial capability, depending on their concentration and the bacteria type.

  15. Preliminary in vitro antisickilng properties of crude juice extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya and Ciklavit®.

    PubMed

    Iweala, E E J; Uhegbu, F O; Ogu, G N

    2009-12-30

    The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle cell disease (HbSS) blood samples checked alongside Ciklavit®. Blood samples were stabilized using normal saline and the antisickling effects were checked by counting the number of sickle cells remaining after incubation of the blood samples with the crude fruit extracts and Ciklavit® for twenty-four hours. The results showed that Ciklavit® produced a sustained reduction in the number of sickle cells in both HbAS and HbSS blood samples. Also the alkaline and alcoholic extracts of P. americana and C. papaya produced significant reduction in the number of sickle cells.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a protease inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya

    SciTech Connect

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Dibiani, Rachid; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2006-12-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms are observed, diffracting to 2.6 and 1.7 Å. A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor purified from the latex of green papaya (Carica papaya) fruits was crystallized in the presence and absence of divalent metal ions. Crystal form I, which is devoid of divalent cations, diffracts to a resolution of 2.6 Å and belongs to space group P3{sub 1} or P3{sub 2}. This crystal form is a merohedral twin with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.70, c = 78.97 Å. Crystal form II, which was grown in the presence of Co{sup 2+}, diffracts to a resolution of 1.7 Å and belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.26, b = 81.99, c = 140.89 Å.

  17. Biodiesel production from crude Jatropha oil catalyzed by non-commercial immobilized heterologous Rhizopus oryzae and Carica papaya lipases.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J; Canet, A; Rivera, I; Osório, N M; Sandoval, G; Valero, F; Ferreira-Dias, S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of biodiesel production by transesterification of Jatropha oil with methanol, catalyzed by non-commercial sn-1,3-regioselective lipases. Using these lipases, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and monoacylglycerols are produced, avoiding the formation of glycerol as byproduct. Heterologous Rhizopus oryzae lipase (rROL) immobilized on different synthetic resins and Carica papaya lipase (rCPL) immobilized on Lewatit VP OC 1600 were tested. Reactions were performed at 30°C, with seven stepwise methanol additions. For all biocatalysts, 51-65% FAME (theoretical maximum=67%, w/w) was obtained after 4h transesterification. Stability tests were performed in 8 or 10 successive 4h-batches, either with or without rehydration of the biocatalyst between each two consecutive batches. Activity loss was much faster when biocatalysts were rehydrated. For rROL, half-life times varied from 16 to 579h. rROL on Lewatit VPOC 1600 was more stable than for rCPL on the same support.

  18. Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

    PubMed

    Ekanem, A P; Obiekezie, A; Kloas, W; Knopf, K

    2004-03-01

    The ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is among the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. In the present study, the effects of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens and the petroleum-ether extract of seeds of Carica papaya against I. multifiliis were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) infected with the parasites were immersed for 72 h in baths with M. pruriens extract, and for 96 h in baths with C. papaya extract. There was a 90% reduction in numbers of I. multifiliis on fish after treatment in baths of each plant extract at 200 mg l(-1 )compared to untreated controls. Consequently, parasite-induced fish mortality was reduced significantly. A complete interruption of trophont recruitment was achieved by immersion in the M. pruriens extract. In vitro tests led to a 100% mortality of I. multifiliis in 150 mg/l M. pruriens extract, and in 200 mg/l of C. papaya extract after 6 h. Although the active constituents of the medicinal plant extracts are still unknown, we have demonstrated that they have potential for effective control of I. multifiliis.

  19. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zakiah; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Afzan, Adlin; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

  20. Antihyperglycaemic effects of ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Sumathi, Vello; Jegathambigai, Naidu Rameshwar; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global disease that is increasing in an alarming rate. The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the body weight of the treated groups when compared to diabetic control. Whereas, there was significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the blood glucose level of the plant-treated groups compared to the diabetic control. Histologically the pancreas of the treated groups indicated significant regeneration of the β-cells when compared to the diabetic control. The liver tissues of the treated group indicated a reduction in fatty changes and pyknotic nucleus. The kidney tissues of the treated groups indicated significant recovery in the cuboidal tissue. The results from the phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin and tannin in C. papaya and P. amaryfollius. The antidiabetic effect of C. papaya and P. amaryfollius observed in the present study may be due to the presence of these phytochemicals.

  1. Carica papaya (Caricaceae): a case study into the effects of domestication on plant vegetative growth and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karl J; Marler, Thomas E

    2007-06-01

    Few studies have quantitatively evaluated the gender specific effects of cultivation on plant growth and reproduction. The availability of cultivated and wild populations of different genders of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) on Guam provided an opportunity to study these effects quantitatively. We compared the gender specific allometry of height vs. basal stem diameter (H vs. D), stem slenderness ratio (H/D), and the height at first flowering (H(fl)) of carpellate and staminate plants growing under natural conditions (N = 150 each) with those of carpellate and hermaphroditic plants (N = 250 each) from two cultivars (Sunrise and Tainung 2). These comparisons indicated that (1) wild carpellate and staminate plants are significantly taller than either gender of the two cultivars with equivalent D; (2) the scaling exponent governing the H vs. D relationship of both genders of wild plants is significantly higher than that of either cultivated gender; (3) cultivar type does not affect the H vs. D exponent, but gender expression does; (4) gender expression (but not cultivar-type) also affects H(fl) (cultivation substantially reduces carpellate plant H(fl)); and (5) the onset of sexual maturity is associated with a dramatic reversal in H/D ontogeny. Cultivation therefore has "condensed" patterns of vegetative growth in a gender specific manner, whereas gender expression alters both vegetative and reproductive growth significantly more so than does cultivar-type.

  2. In vitro efficacy of latex and purified papain from Carica papaya against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Dayane; Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; da Costa, Antônio Paulino; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis. PMID:28380118

  3. In vitro efficacy of latex and purified papain from Carica papaya against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Dayane; Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Costa, Antônio Paulino da; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2017-04-03

    Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis.

  4. Content determination of benzyl glucosinolate and anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product in Carica papaya L.

    PubMed

    Li, Ze-You; Wang, Yong; Shen, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Peng

    2012-03-01

    To determine the content of benzyl glucosinolate (BG) in the pulp and the seed and investigate the anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product in Carica papaya L. Determination of BG was performed on an Hypersil BDS C(18) column at the wavelength of 214 nm with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) aqueous solution (A) and 0.1%TFA acetonitrile (B) as the mobile phase. In vitro activity test was adopted with cultured human lung cancer H69 cell in vitro to investigate the inhibition rate of cell proliferation of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) against H69 cell. The pulp has more BG before the maturation of papaya and it nearly disappeared after papaya matured, while the seed contains BG at every stage. Activity test demonstrated that the a higher concentration of BITC would have better inhibition rate of cell proliferation on H69 cell, and the IC(50) was 6.5 μmol/L. BG also can be produced in the pulp of papaya and it will be stored in the seed after the fruit has been matured. The hydrolysis product of BG has certain cancer-prevention anti-cancer activities for human. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Purification and characterization of a wound-inducible thaumatin-like protein from the latex of Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Looze, Yvan; Boussard, Paule; Huet, Joëlle; Vandenbusche, Guy; Vandenbussche, Guy; Azarkan, Mohamed; Raussens, Vincent; Wintjens, René

    2009-05-01

    A 22.137 kDa protein constituent of fresh latex was isolated both from the latex of regularly damaged papaya trees and from a commercially available papain preparation. The protein was purified up to apparent homogeneity and was shown to be absent in the latex of papaya trees that had never been previously mechanically injured. This suggests that the protein belongs to pathogenesis-related protein family, as expected for several other protein constituents of papaya latex. The protein was identified as a thaumatin-like protein (class 5 of the pathogenesis-related proteins) on the basis of its partial amino acid sequence. By sequence analysis of the Carica genome, three different forms of thaumatin-like protein were identified, where the latex constituent belongs to a well-known form, allowing the molecular modeling of its spatial structure. The papaya latex thaumatin-like protein was further characterized. The protein appears to be stable in the pH interval from 2 to 10 and resistant to chemical denaturation by guanidium chloride, with a DeltaG(water)(0) of 15.2 kcal/mol and to proteolysis by the four papaya cysteine proteinases. The physiological role of this protein is discussed.

  6. Development and characterization of edible films based on mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    PubMed

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, J; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Santillán, Carlos; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2010-08-01

    Mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) was extracted and characterized by its composition and molecular weight distribution. Mucilage film-forming dispersions were prepared under different pHs (3, 4, 5.6, 7, and 8) and calcium concentration (0% and 30% of CaCl(2), with respect to mucilage's weight), and their particle size determined. Mucilage films with and without calcium (MFCa and MF, respectively) were prepared. The effect of calcium and pH on mucilage films was evaluated determining thickness, color, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), and percentage of elongation (%E). The average molecular weight of the different fractions of mucilage was: 3.4 x 10(6) (0.73%), 1 x 10(5) (1.46%), 1.1 x 10(3) (45.79%), and 2.4 x 10(2) Da (52.03%). Aqueous mucilage dispersions with no calcium presented particles with an average size d(0.5) of 15.4 microm, greater than the dispersions with calcium, 13.2 microm. MFCa films showed more thickness (0.13 mm) than the MF films (0.10 mm). The addition of calcium increased the WVP of the films from 109.94 to 130.45 gmm/m(2)dkPa. Calcium and pH affected the mechanical properties of the films; the largest TS was observed on MF films, whereas the highest %E was observed on MFCa films. The highest differences among MF and MFCa films were observed at pHs 5.6 and 7 for TS and at pHs 4 and 8 for %E. No effect of pH and calcium was observed on luminosity and hue angle. Chroma values were higher for MF when compared with MFCa, and increased as pH of the films increased. Practical Application: In this study mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form edible films under different pHs, and with or without the addition of calcium. Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage had the ability to form edible films. In general, it can be considered that mucilage films without modification of pH and without the addition of calcium have the best water vapor barrier properties and tensile strength. Mucilage from nopal

  7. Comparative DNA profiling, phytochemical investigation, and biological evaluation of two Ficus species growing in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Kashoury, El-Sayeda A.; Hetta, Mona H.; Yassin, Nemat Z.; Hassan, Hossam M.; El-Awdan, Sally A.; Afifi, Naglaa I.

    2013-01-01

    Aim and Background: A comparison between two Ficus species, cultivated in Egypt, was carried out in this study. Their DNA analysis revealed that they are not closely related. Materials and Methods: The pharmacopoeial constants of the leaves showed higher total ash and acid insoluble ash in F. lyrata than in F. platypoda. The other parameters were close in both species. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate and/or glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, sterols, and triterpenes in their leaves and was detected in traces in their stems. Results: Saponification of n-hexane extract of the leaves yielded 46% and 74.8% for the unsaponifiable matters and 20% and 15% for the fatty acids for F. platypoda and F. lyrata, respectively. n-Docosane (21.69%) and n-heptacosane (33.77%) were the major hydrocarbons in F. platypoda and F. lyrata, respectively. b-Sitosterol was the main sterol, palmitic (22.07%) and carboceric (35.72%) acids were the major identified saturated fatty acids in both species, while linoleic acid was the main unsaturated fatty acid (18.66% and 16.7%) in both species, respectively. The acute toxicity study revealed that the two species were safe up to 2 g/kg. The antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and pyrogallol as the standard was more significant for F. platypoda (232.6 μg/ml) than for F. lyrata, (790.9 μg/ml). The oral antihyperglycemic activity in diabetic rats using alloxan revealed that the 80% ethanolic extract of the leaves of F. platypoda was more active than that of the leaves of F. lyrata in decreasing the blood glucose level at 200 mg/kg/day (107.9 ± 5.817, 127.2 ± 4.359) and 400 mg/kg/day (64.11 ± 4.358, 127.7 ± 6.889), respectively, when compared with the diabetic control gliclazide (172.3 ± 2.089). Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence that the two Ficus species have antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity, in the order F. platypoda and then F. lyrata

  8. Metabolite profiling of enzymatically hydrolyzed and fermented forms of Opuntia ficus-indica and their effect on UVB-induced skin photoaging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Woon; Kim, Dae-Eung; Lee, Dae-Hee; Jung, Kyung-Hoon; Hurh, Byung-Serk; Kwon, Oh Wook; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation of natural products is emerging as an important processing method and is attracting a lot of attention because it may have the advantage of having a new biological function. In this study, fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica were enzymatically hydrolyzed and then fermented with two species of yeast. We identified novel prominent markers in enzymatically hydrolyzed O. ficus-indica (EO) and fermented O. ficus-indica (FO) samples by using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We also evaluated the effect of EO and FO on photoaging of skin cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation. We identified the major fermented metabolite in the FO as ferulic acid. Our in vitro study indicated that FO significantly enhanced the concentration of pro-collagen type 1 than the EO, by increasing the TGF-β1 production.

  9. Phytochemical and pharmacological study of Ficus palmata growing in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alqasoumi, Saleh Ibrahim; Basudan, Omer Ahmed; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan; Abdel-Kader, Maged Saad

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical study of the aerial parts of Ficus palmata utilizing liquid–liquid fractionation and different chromatographic techniques resulted in the isolation of a new isomer of psoralenoside namely, trans-psoralenoside (5) in addition to, one triterpene: germanicol acetate (1), two furanocoumarins: psoralene (2), bergapten (3), one aromatic acid vanillic acid (4) and the flavone glycoside rutin (6). Structures of the isolated compounds were established through physical, 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS data. The total extract and fractions of the plant were examined in vivo for its possible effects as hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, antiulcer and anticoagulant activities in comparison with standard drugs. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed via serum biochemical parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. Tissue parameters such as non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and total protein (TP) were also measured. In addition to tissue parameters, nephroprotective effect was evaluated by measuring the serum levels of sodium, potassium, creatinine and urea. Histopathological study for both liver and kidney cells was also conducted. Antiulcer activity was explored by observing stomach lesions after treatment with ethanol. Whole blood clotting time (CT) was taken as a measure for the anticoagulant activity of the extract. Antioxidant activity of the total extract and fractions of the plant was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and ascorbic acid as standard. PMID:25473335

  10. Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities of Ficus microcarpa (L.) in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Awad, Nagwa E; Seida, Ahmed A; Hamed, Manal A; Elbatanony, Marwa M

    2011-07-01

    Saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of Ficus microcarpa leaves hexane extract have been phytochemically studied and evaluated for its hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects in hypercholesterolemic rats. The effect of the extract on the lipid profile was assessed by measuring the levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, phospho and total lipids. Lipid peroxides, glutathione and superoxide dismutase were measured as antioxidants. The work was extended to evaluate liver function indices as well as the histopathological picture of the liver after treatment. Treatment with leaves extract (500 mg kg⁻¹ body weight) 5 times/week for 9 weeks at the same time of cholesterol administration (30 mg/0.3 mL 0.7% tween/animal) recorded an improvement of lipid profile, antioxidants, liver function enzymes and the liver histopathological picture. The lipoidal matters of the unsaponifiable fraction of the hexane extract by GC/MS led to the identification of 22 compounds, while saponifiable fraction by (MS/MS) technique led to identification of 13 unsaturated and saturated fatty acid methyl ester derivatives. It can be concluded that the hexane extract of F. microcarpa L has been proved to have hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects in hypercholesterolemic rats through its role in counteracting LDL oxidation, enhancement of HDL synthesis and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  11. Study on mating ecology and sex ratio of three internally ovipositing fig wasps of Ficus curtipes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, F P; Yang, D R

    2010-04-01

    Studies on mating ecology and sex allocation in fig-parasitizing wasps ovipositing from outside the fig have given valuable insights into known factors that are responsible for the theory of sex ratio. Similarly, internally ovipositing fig-parasitizing wasps and fig-pollinating wasps provide interesting models for comparative analysis. In addition to the fig-pollinating wasp Eupristina sp., we found that Ficus curtipes hosts two species of internally ovipositing fig-parasitizing wasps: D. yangi and Lipothymus sp. Eupristina sp. males showed less aggression. Eupristina sp. has wingless males that mate only within the natal patch, providing excellent examples of full local-mate competition. D. yangi males showed high levels of aggression and lethal combat. D. yangi has winged males but mate mostly within the natal patch. Only a few matings occur after male dispersal. Its sex ratio was lower than the prediction of partial local mate competition theory. Wingless male Lipothymus sp., which mate partly after dispersal, did not present fatal fight. Therefore, the mating behaviour of D. yangi and Lipothymus sp. did not follow predicted patterns, based on wing morph. The mating pattern of D. yangi and Lipothymus sp. should follow the partial local mate competition theory. Furthermore, there was not a significant correlation between the proportion of males and the proportion of fruit parasitized in both winged D. yangi males and wingless Lipothymus sp. males.

  12. [Sex ratio adjustment of a non-pollinating fig wasp species on Ficus semicordata in Xishuangbanna].

    PubMed

    Song, Bo; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Guan, Jun-Ming; Yang, Pei; Yang, Da-Rong

    2008-03-01

    Through controlling the number of ovipositing foundresses inside a fig, and combining with the observation of ovipositing behavior and mating behavior, this paper studied the sex ratio of Apocryptophagus sp., a species of non-pollinating fig wasps hosted on Ficus semicordata in Xishuangbanna. The results showed that female Apocryptophagus sp. started to visit the fig on the 3rd day after pollinator Ceratosolen gravelyi oviposited. Apocryptaphagus sp. oviposited on the outside of the fig, and the ovipositing lasted for 2 days. Male Apocryptophagus sp. emerged at the same time with pollinators. The males opened a small hole on the wall of gall where the females developed, and mated with the females. Mated females emerged from their development fig, and left for a new receptive fig. The sex ratio of Apocryptaphagus sp. was in agreement with local mate competition theory, i. e., it was female-biased. Meanwhile, the total number of offspring increased with increasing foundress number. In contrast, the average number of offspring per foundress decreased. At individual level, when a female laid eggs inside a fig, the sex ratio of offspring correlated negatively with the number of offspring.

  13. Evaluation of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis fruit juice hepatoprotective effect upon ethanol toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Mbarki, Sakhria; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rouma, Khémais

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our present study is to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice (PPJ) against ethanol-induced liver injury in rats. Chronic ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w.) during 90 days to Wistar rats, significantly (p < 0.01) increased the liver lipid and protein oxidation, reduced the glutathione content and the activities of liver antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and conversely elevated the liver injury biochemical markers like aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, triglycerides and caused a severe histopathologic injuries. Conversely pre-treatment of ethanol-fed rats with PPJ (20 and 40 ml/kg b.w., orally), interestingly reduced liver lipid and protein oxidation, histopathologic lesions and inhibited the alterations of antioxidant enzymes and the release of biochemical markers. The hepatoprotective effect of PPJ could be due to their capacity to end free radicals chain reactions or to enhance the endogenous antioxidants activities.

  14. Ficus racemosa Stem Bark Extract: A Potent Antioxidant and a Probable Natural Radioprotector

    PubMed Central

    Veerapur, V. P.; Prabhakar, K. R.; Parihar, Vipan kumar; Kandadi, Machendar Reddy; Ramakrishana, S.; Mishra, B.; Satish Rao, B. S.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Priyadarsini, K. I.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol extract (FRE) and water extract (FRW) of Ficus racemosa (family: Moraceae) were subjected to free radical scavenging both by steady state and time resolved methods such as nanosecond pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometric analyses. FRE exhibited significantly higher steady state antioxidant activity than FRW. FRE exhibited concentration dependent DPPH, ABTS•−, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation with IC50 comparable with tested standard compounds. In vitro radioprotective potential of FRE was studied using micronucleus assay in irradiated Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79). Pretreatment with different doses of FRE 1h prior to 2 Gy γ-radiation resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the percentage of micronucleated binuclear V79 cells. Maximum radioprotection was observed at 20 μg/ml of FRE. The radioprotection was found to be significant (P < 0.01) when cells were treated with optimum dose of FRE (20 μg/ml) 1 h prior to 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy γ-irradiation compared to the respective radiation controls. The cytokinesis-block proliferative index indicated that FRE does not alter radiation induced cell cycle delay. Based on all these results we conclude that the ethanol extract of F. racemosa acts as a potent antioxidant and a probable radioprotector. PMID:18955240

  15. Impact of cooking process on nutritional composition and antioxidants of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    PubMed

    De Santiago, Elsy; Domínguez-Fernández, Maite; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2018-02-01

    The impact of cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, griddling and frying in olive and soybean oils) on nutritional composition (protein, minerals, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, fatty acid profile and energy), antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica) was evaluated. Culinary processes, except boiling, increased soluble and insoluble fibre up to 5.0g/100g becoming a good fibre source. Cactus cladodes fried in olive oil showed a healthier fatty acid profile and lower ω-6/ω-3 ratio than in soybean oil. Flavonoids accounted for 80% of total (poly)phenolic compounds, being isorhamnetin the most abundant. Heat treatment, particularly griddling and microwaving, increased every flavonoid and phenolic acid up to 3.2-fold higher than in raw samples, and consequently their antioxidant capacity. Even boiling induced losses in total (poly)phenols and antioxidant capacity by leaching into water, the main compounds were maintained. Principal Component Analysis distributed heat treated cactus cladodes according to their distinctive polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds. PMID:26078966

  17. [Effect of a dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) on blood glucose].

    PubMed

    Frati-Munari, A C; de León, C; Ariza-Andraca, R; Bañales-Ham, M B; López-Ledesma, R; Lozoya, X

    1989-01-01

    To assess if a dehydrated extract of nopal stems retains the effect on glycemia of the entire nopal stems two experiments were performed. A. Six patients with type II diabetes mellitus in fasting condition received 30 capsules containing 10.1 +/- 0.3 g of the extract, and serum glucose levels were measured hourly from 0 to 180 minutes. B. Six healthy volunteers received 30 capsules with the extract followed by 74 g of dextrose orally. Serum glucose measurements were made in a similar fashion. In each experiment a control test with empty capsules was performed. Nopal extract did not reduce fasting glycemia in diabetic subjects. Nevertheless, the extract diminished the increase of serum glucose which followed a dextrose load. Peak serum glucose was 20.3 +/- 18.2 mg/dl (X +/- SD) lower in the test with nopal than in the control one (P less than 0.025). Dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) did not show acute hypoglycemic effect, although could attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  18. Arabinan-cellulose composite in Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear spines.

    PubMed

    Vignon, M R; Heux, L; Malainine, M-E; Mahrouz, M

    2004-01-02

    The ultrastructure of the spines decorating the cladodes of the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, wide angle X-ray, and solid state 13C NMR analyses. Each spine consisted of a compact parallel arrangement of slender cellulosic fibers (0.4 mm in length and 6-10 microm in diameter) with small lumens. The fibers were disencrusted by alkali and sodium chlorite bleaching, yielding a remarkable arabinan-cellulose (1:1) product. X-ray fiber diagrams of the spines before and after purification confirmed the presence of crystalline cellulose domains with molecular axis parallel to the spine axis. CP-MAS 13C T1 NMR data showed a strong interaction at a nanometric level of a fraction of the arabinan and the cellulose crystalline domains. By sequential hydrothermal extractions, followed by a trifluoroacetic acid treatment, a relatively pure cellulose was isolated while the extracted fibers became fibrillated into slender microfibrils having no more than 4-6 nm diameter. The hydrothermal extract yielded the alpha-L-arabinofuranan consisting of a chain of (1-->5)-linked L-arabinosyl residues with branching either at C-2 or C-3 or at both C-2 and C-3. Taken together, these observations suggest that the bulk of the spine fibers consists of an intimate composite of cellulose microfibrils embedded in an arabinan matrix.

  19. Structural features of pectic polysaccharides from the skin of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Y; Heyraud, A; Mahrouz, M; Vignon, M R

    2004-04-28

    After removal of the mucilage with water at room temperature, pectic polysaccharides were solubilized from Opuntia ficus-indica fruit skin, by sequential extraction with water at 60 degrees C (WSP) and EDTA solution at 60 degrees C (CSP). Polysaccharides with neutral sugar content of 0.48 and 0.36 mol/mol galacturonic acid residue were obtained, respectively, in the WSP and CSP extracts. These pectic polysaccharides were de-esterified and fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, yielding for each extract five fractions, which were thereafter purified by size-exclusion chromatography. Two of these purified fractions were characterized by sugar analysis combined with methylation and reduction-methylation analysis. The study was then supported by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that the water-soluble fraction WSP3 and the EDTA soluble fraction CSP3, consisted of a disaccharide repeating unit -->2)-alpha-l-Rhap-(1-->4)-alpha-d-GalpA-(1--> backbone, with side chains attached to O-4 of the rhamnosyl residues. The side chains contained highly branched alpha-(1-->5)-linked arabinan and short linear beta-(1-->4)-linked galactan.

  20. Benghalensin, a highly stable serine protease from the latex of medicinal plant Ficus benghalensis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anurag; Kumari, Moni; Jagannadham, M V

    2009-12-09

    A serine protease was purified to homogeneity from the latex of medicinal plant Ficus benghalensis by a single step procedure using anion exchange chromatography. The enzyme, named benghalensin, has a molecular mass of 47 kDa (MALDI-TOF and SDS-PAGE). The purified protein is a glycoprotein, and the enzymatic activity is solely inhibited by PMSF and chymostatin, indicating that the enzyme belongs to the serine protease class. The isoelectric point of the enzyme is pH 4.4 with optimum pH and temperature of pH 8.0 and 55 degrees C respectively. The extinction coefficient (epsilon(1%)(280)) of the enzyme is 29.25, and the molecular structure consists of 17 tryptophan, 31 tyrosine and 09 cysteine residues. Peptide mass fingerprinting and de novo sequencing of tryptic-digested fragments of the protein did not find any putative conserved domains in BLAST analysis. The enzyme is stable and retains full activity over a broad range of pH and temperature or prolonged storage at 4 degrees C. Simple purification, high yield and stability enable exploration of the protein for structure-function relationship studies as well as other applications.

  1. Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action. PMID:22096323

  2. Ficus umbellata Vahl. (Moraceae) Stem Bark Extracts Exert Antitumor Activities In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Silihe, Kevine Kamga; Zingue, Stéphane; Winter, Evelyn; Awounfack, Charline Florence; Bishayee, Anupam; Desai, Nishil N.; João Mello, Leônidas; Michel, Thomas; Tankeu, Francine Nzufo; Ndinteh, Derek Tantoh; Honorine Riwom, Sara; Njamen, Dieudonné; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    A Ficus umbellata is used to treat cancer. The present work was therefore designed to assess antitumor potentials of F. umbellata extracts in nine different cell lines. Cell cycle, apoptosis, cell migration/invasion, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspases activities as well as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein content were assessed in MDA-MB-231 cells. The 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis in rats were also used to investigate antitumor potential of F. umbellata extracts. The F. umbellata methanol extract exhibited a CC50 of 180 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cells after 24 h. It induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, while it did not alter their cell cycle phases. Further, it induced a decrease in MMP, an increase in ROS levels and caspases activities as well as a downregulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein contents in MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, F. umbellata aqueous (200 mg/kg) and methanol (50 mg/kg) extracts significantly (p < 0.001) reduced ovarian tumor incidence (10%), total tumor burden (58% and 46%, respectively), average tumor weight (57.8% and 45.6%, respectively) as compared to DMBA control group. These results suggest antitumor potential of F. umbellata constituents possibly due to apoptosis induction mediated through ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway. PMID:28545243

  3. Seed dormancy and germination of Ficus lundellii and tropical forest restoration.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ximena; Hong, Tran D; Ellis, Richard H

    2006-01-01

    We investigated seed dormancy and germination in Ficus lundellii Standl. (Moraceae), a native species of Mexico's Los Tuxtlas tropical rain forest. In an 8-h photoperiod at an alternating diurnal (16/8 h) temperature of 20/30 degrees C, germination was essentially complete (96%) within 28 days, whereas in darkness, all seeds remained dormant. Neither potassium nitrate (0.05-0.2%) applied continuously nor gibberellic acid applied either continuously (10-200 ppm) or as a 24 hour pretreatment (2000 ppm) induced germination in the dark. Germination in the light was not reduced by a 24-h hydrochloric acid (0.1-1%) pretreatment, but it was reduced both by a 24-h pretreatment with either H(2)O(2) (0.1-5 M) or 5% HCl, or by more than 5 days of storage at 40 degrees C (4.5% seed water content). In a study with a 2-dimensional temperature gradient plate, seeds germinated fully and rapidly in the light at a constant temperature of 30 degrees C, and fully but less rapidly in the light at alternating temperatures with low amplitudes (< 12 degrees C) about the optimal constant temperature. The base, optimal and ceiling temperatures for rate of germination were estimated as 13.8, 30.1 and 41.1 degrees C, respectively. In all temperature regimes, light was essential for the germination of F. lundellii seeds.

  4. Modification of the isoprene emission model G93 for tropical tree Ficus virgata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oku, Hirosuke; Fukuta, Masakazu; Iwasaki, Hironori; Tambunan, Parlindungan; Baba, Shigeyuki

    This study describes parameterization and modification of G93 model to predict the isoprene emission from a tropical tree Ficus virgata. The optimized parameters of CT for four tropical trees determined by best fit were greater than those of default values for G93, and the temperature response profiles of these tropical trees showed divergence from that predicted by G93 model. Among the tropical trees studied, F. virgata was the highest emitter, and hence chosen as model plant for parameterization and modification of the emission model G93. Functions of factors CT and CL were respectively fitted to the emission data at 11 temperature and 12 light intensities obtained from three replicates obtained from cutting of F. virgata. With respect to CT, parameters determined by best fit were again much larger than those of original G93 suggesting that the temperature response of isoprene emission from F. virgata differs from that predicted by G93 model. Temperature normalization of the emission rate by our optimized CT revealed that the isoprene emission from F. virgata leveled off with increasing light intensities. To incorporate this decline in isoprene emission at high light intensities, the original CL of G93 was combined with a logistic function to produce modified CL. These optimization and modification much improved the model performance to predict the diurnal variation of isoprene emission from F. virgata. The present study thus describes a possible modification of model G93 to maximize its model performance to predict the regional isoprene emission more precisely.

  5. Conidarnes, a new oriental genus of Sycophaginae (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae) associated with Ficus section Conosycea (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Farache, Fernando Henrique Antoniolli; Rasplus, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The sycophagines are strictly associated with two subgenera of Ficus L. (Moraceae), namely Sycomorus and Urostigma. They mostly oviposit through the fig wall and lay their eggs within the fig flowers, being either gall-makers or parasitoids of other fig wasps. In this contribution, a new genus of Sycophaginae, Conidarnes Farache & Rasplus, gen. n., is described with seven new species: Conidarnes achterbergi Farache & Rasplus, sp. n.; Conidarnes bergi Farache & Rasplus, sp. n.; Conidarnes laevis Farache & Rasplus, sp. n.; Conidarnes santineloi Farache & Rasplus, sp. n.; Conidarnes subtectae Farache & Rasplus, sp. n.; Conidarnes sulcata Farache & Rasplus, sp. n.; and Conidarnes sumatranae Farache & Rasplus, sp. n. Illustrations, morphological diagnoses, dichotomous keys and multi-entry online keys to species are provided. Conidarnes species strictly occur in the oriental region, and their distribution does not overlap with the distribution of the two other genera belonging to the same clade. Due to their relative rarity, we encourage extensive sampling of Conosycea figs to improve our knowledge of the genus. PMID:26798249

  6. Conidarnes, a new oriental genus of Sycophaginae (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae) associated with Ficus section Conosycea (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Farache, Fernando Henrique Antoniolli; Rasplus, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    The sycophagines are strictly associated with two subgenera of Ficus L. (Moraceae), namely Sycomorus and Urostigma. They mostly oviposit through the fig wall and lay their eggs within the fig flowers, being either gall-makers or parasitoids of other fig wasps. In this contribution, a new genus of Sycophaginae, Conidarnes Farache & Rasplus, gen. n., is described with seven new species: Conidarnes achterbergi Farache & Rasplus, sp. n.; Conidarnes bergi Farache & Rasplus, sp. n.; Conidarnes laevis Farache & Rasplus, sp. n.; Conidarnes santineloi Farache & Rasplus, sp. n.; Conidarnes subtectae Farache & Rasplus, sp. n.; Conidarnes sulcata Farache & Rasplus, sp. n.; and Conidarnes sumatranae Farache & Rasplus, sp. n. Illustrations, morphological diagnoses, dichotomous keys and multi-entry online keys to species are provided. Conidarnes species strictly occur in the oriental region, and their distribution does not overlap with the distribution of the two other genera belonging to the same clade. Due to their relative rarity, we encourage extensive sampling of Conosycea figs to improve our knowledge of the genus.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus bengalensis and Pterocarpus marsupium roxb

    PubMed Central

    Gayathri, M.; Kannabiran, K.

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus bengalensis and Pterocarpus marsupium roxb was evaluated against pathogenic bacteria Stahylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia in an in vitro condition. Aqueous extracts from roots of H. indicus and barks of F. bengalensis and P. marspium roxb were tested for antimicrobial activity using the zone of inhibition method and also screened for phytochemicals. The aqueous extract of P. marsupium roxb inhibited growth of bacteria with the minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.04 mg to 0.08 mg and extracts of F. bengalensis and H. indicus showed inhibition at the range of 0.04 mg to 0.1 mg against the bacteria tested. The susceptibility of bacterial pathogens was in the order of S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was synergistic with antibiotics tested. Results of the present study suggest that the aqueous extracts of H. indicus, F. bengalensis and P. marspium roxb has significant antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:20502584

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus bengalensis and Pterocarpus marsupium roxb.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, M; Kannabiran, K

    2009-09-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus bengalensis and Pterocarpus marsupium roxb was evaluated against pathogenic bacteria Stahylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia in an in vitro condition. Aqueous extracts from roots of H. indicus and barks of F. bengalensis and P. marspium roxb were tested for antimicrobial activity using the zone of inhibition method and also screened for phytochemicals. The aqueous extract of P. marsupium roxb inhibited growth of bacteria with the minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.04 mg to 0.08 mg and extracts of F. bengalensis and H. indicus showed inhibition at the range of 0.04 mg to 0.1 mg against the bacteria tested. The susceptibility of bacterial pathogens was in the order of S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was synergistic with antibiotics tested. Results of the present study suggest that the aqueous extracts of H. indicus, F. bengalensis and P. marspium roxb has significant antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Pectinesterase inhibitor from jelly-fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achenes reduces methanol content in carambola wine.

    PubMed

    Wu, James Swi-Bea; Wu, Ming-Chang; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hwang, Ya-Ping; Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-11-30

    Crude pectinesterase (PE) inhibitor (PEI) extracted from jelly-fig achenes (JFA) (Ficus awakeosang Makino) was added to carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) puree to determine the change in methanol production during fermentation. Addition of pectin or microbial pectic enzyme to puree increased dose-dependently the methanol content in fermented products. Decreasing ratio (from 1:0 to 1:19, v:v) of pectic enzyme to diluted crude PEI solution in the puree-enzyme mixture decreased the PE activity remarkably. Except for transmittance (%T), addition of crude PEI to puree did not affect apparently the physical and chemical properties of wine; however, it reduced methanol content in the control from 256 to 58 ppm. The degree of esterification (DE) of pectin in starting puree was approximately 70%. It decreased to approximately 27% in the control group and reduced slightly to approximately 67% in fermented puree with crude PEI added after 14 days of fermentation. This reveals that crude PEI solution was potent in inhibiting intrinsic carambola PE activity and appeared to be a potential alternative for methanol reduction in wines.

  10. Replacing commercial concentrate by Ficus thonningii improved productivity of goats in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Balehegn, Mulubrhan; Eik, Lars Olav; Tesfay, Yayneshet

    2014-06-01

    Ficus thonningii (FT) is an important multipurpose fodder tree providing economic and ecological benefits across arid and semi-arid areas in Africa. Despite its availability in many Sub-Saharan African countries, there is lack of information on its effect on animal productivity. Twenty-four male weaned highland goats of age 7 ± 1.5 months were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized block design. All animals were fed wheat straw, water, and salt licks ad libitum. The control group (T1) was fed concentrate mixture at 2 % of their body weight, while in T2, T3, and T4, 25, 50, and 75 % of the weight of concentrate (DM basis), respectively, was replaced by sun dried FT leaf meal. FT leaf meal had acceptable levels crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and tannins and has resulted in increased body weight in all treatments. Goats fed T3 diet showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) values in terms of feed intake, body weight gain, some carcass attributes, and local meat quality indicators than the rest of the treatments. An increase in proportion of FT leaf meal beyond 50 %, however, resulted in decreased body weight gain, and other carcass parameters, despite increased feed intake. Therefore, F. thonningii can be used to replace commercial concentrate mixture up to 50 % to improve feed intake and productivity of Ethiopian highland goats.

  11. Clot Lysis and Antimitotic Study of Ficus glomerata Roxb Fruit Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shivasharanappa, Kirankumar; Londonkar, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the thrombolytic and antimitotic potentiality of various extracts of fruits of Ficus glomerata, a traditional medicinal plant, using an in vitro assay method. Three crude extracts such as petroleum ether (FGPE), chloroform (FGCE), and methanol (FGME) were used for the study, with a standard (streptokinase) and negative control (sterile distilled water) to validate the method. The thrombolytic nature of the plant was found significant with methanol extract and chloroform and petroleum ether extracts have recorded mild activity, when compared with the negative control (sterile distilled water). The extracts have shown mild clot lysis, that is, 2.16%, 23.06%, 27.60%, and 47.74% of sterile distilled water, FGPE, FGCE, and FGME, respectively, while the standard (streptokinase) has shown 74.22% clot lysis. FGME inhibited the root growth in number as well as length effectively, followed by FGPE, while FGCE exhibited moderate antimitotic activity and it was supported by mitotic index. Therefore, the obtained results suggest that among all the extracts of plant the methanolic extract has shown highest thrombolytic and antimitotic activity. PMID:25006495

  12. Depolymerization of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica: Antioxidant and antiglycated activities.

    PubMed

    Chaouch, Mohamed Aymen; Hafsa, Jawhar; Rihouey, Christophe; Le Cerf, Didier; Majdoub, Hatem

    2015-08-01

    The extraction, purification and degradation of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes, as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiglycated activities in vitro were investigated. The optimization of the extraction showed that extraction by ultrasound at 40 °C presented the best carbohydrates yield. The degradation of the extracted polysaccharides was achieved by free radical depolymerization with H2O2 in the presence of copper(II) acetate for various reaction times. Sugar contents were determined by colorimetric assays. The macromolecular characteristics of the different isolated and degraded carbohydrates were carried by size exclusion chromatography (SEC/MALS/VD/DRI). These experiments showed that all samples are polysaccharides, which are probably pectins and that molecular weight (Mw) has decreased from 6,800,000 to 14,000 g/mol after 3 h of depolymerization without changing the structure. Preliminary antioxidant and antiglycated tests indicated that degraded polysaccharides for 2 and 3 h showed even better antioxidant and antiglycated activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction, characterization and gelling behavior enhancement of pectins from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica.

    PubMed

    Lefsih, Khalef; Delattre, Cédric; Pierre, Guillaume; Michaud, Philippe; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Dahmoune, Farid; Madani, Khodir

    2016-01-01

    Total Pectins Fraction (TPF) was extracted at room temperature from dried cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica. TPF is constituted of three pectic fractions WSP, CSP and ASP, which are made up of 66.6%, 44.3% and 81.1% (w/w) of galacturonic acid, respectively. The antioxidant ability of TPF increased with the concentration increasing. It scavenged hydroxyl radical by 90% and chelated 90% of ferrous ions at 5 g/L. FTIR study was carried out. Strong characteristic absorption peaks at 1,618 cm(-1) assigned to the vibration of COO(-) group of galacturonic acid. In the fingerprint region, we noticed three well-defined peaks at 1054, 1085, and 1,154 cm(-1) characteristic of pectic polysaccharides. TPF are non-gelling pectins. The co-crosslinking of TPF with carrageenan was carried out and the gelling behavior was successfully improved. Thermo-sensitive hydrogel was obtained with 82% of TPF and 18% of carrageenan (w/w). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos; Allen, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.

  16. Topical anti-inflammatory effects of isorhamnetin glycosides isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Martínez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR) at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7 ± 5.0%, resp.) without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4 ± 5.7%) equating the indomethacin effects (69.5 ± 5.3%). Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  17. Potential of Opuntia ficus-indica for air pollution biomonitoring: a lead isotopic study.

    PubMed

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Benoit, Mathieu; Munoz, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) is a long-domesticated cactus that is widespread throughout arid and semiarid regions. Ofi is grown for both its fruits and edible cladodes, which are flattened photosynthetic stems. Young cladodes develop from mother cladodes, thus forming series of cladodes of different ages. Therefore, successive cladodes may hold some potential for biomonitoring over several years the local atmospheric pollution. In this study, cladodes, roots, dust deposited onto the cladodes, and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of three heavily polluted sites, i.e., a fertilizer industry, the road side of a highway, and mine tailings. The lead content was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used to characterize the cladode surfaces and the nature of dust deposit, and the lead isotopes were analyzed to identify the origin of Pb. The results show that (i) Ofi readily bioaccumulates Pb, (ii) the lead isotopic composition of cladodes evidences a foliar pathway of lead into Ofi and identifies the relative contributions of local Pb sources, and (iii) an evolution of air quality is recorded with successive cladodes, which makes Ofi a potential biomonitor to be used in environmental and health studies.

  18. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    PubMed Central

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.; Martínez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR) at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7 ± 5.0%, resp.) without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4 ± 5.7%) equating the indomethacin effects (69.5 ± 5.3%). Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient. PMID:25821823

  19. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pectin from Opuntia ficus indica: Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and preliminary characterization.

    PubMed

    Lefsih, Khalef; Giacomazza, Daniela; Dahmoune, Farid; Mangione, Maria Rosalia; Bulone, Donatella; San Biagio, Pier Luigi; Passantino, Rosa; Costa, Maria Assunta; Guarrasi, Valeria; Madani, Khodir

    2017-04-15

    Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of water-soluble pectin (WSP) from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes was performed using Response Surface Methodology. The effect of extraction time (X1), microwave power (X2), pH (X3) and solid-to-liquid ratio (X4) on the extraction yield was examined. The optimum conditions of MAE were as follows: X1=2.15min; X2=517W; X3=2.26 and X4=2g/30.6mL. The maximum obtained yield of pectin extraction was 12.57%. Total carbohydrate content of WSP is about 95.5% including 34.4% of Galacturonic acid. Pectin-related proteins represent only the 0.66% of WSP mass. HPSEC and light scattering analyses reveal that WSP is mostly constituted of high molecular pectin and FTIR measurements show that the microwave treatment does not alter the chemical structure of WSP, in which Galacturonic acid content and yield are 34.4% and 4.33%, respectively. Overall, application of MAE can give rise to high quality pectin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction and characterization of three polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes.

    PubMed

    Bayar, Nadia; Kriaa, Mouna; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-11-01

    The chemical extraction and the characterization of polysaccharides from mucilage (MC), pectin (PC) and total pectic mucilage fraction (TFC) of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant activities was investigated. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups corresponding to polysaccharides. Uronic acid and the total sugar contents of PC were higher than those of TFC and MC whereas ash content of MC was considerably more important. In addition, the findings showed that all the samples had little protein content and low average molecular weight compared to the results mentioned in literature. Furthermore, MC reached not only the highest water (WHC) and oil holding (OHC) capacities (7.81g/g and 1.34g/g, respectively) but also the highest antioxidant properties (DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities, β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity and reducing power). However, PC had the strongest emulsifying and foaming properties. As for TFC, it had low WHC, OHC and emulsifying properties whereas it had higher foaming properties than MC and greater antioxidant properties compared to PC. These outcomes can encourage the use of PC as a surfactant and MC and TFC as natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Gopi, D; Kanimozhi, K; Kavitha, L

    2015-04-15

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of Antifungal Extracts from Ficus hirta Fruits Using Response Surface Methodology and Antifungal Activity Tests.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuying; Wan, Chunpeng; Peng, Xuan; Chen, Yuhuan; Chen, Ming; Chen, Jinyin

    2015-10-29

    The fruits of Ficus hirta (FH) display strong antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. In order to optimize the extraction conditions of antifungal extracts from FH fruit, various extraction parameters, such as ethanol concentration, extraction time, solvent to solid ratio and temperature, were chosen to identify their effects on the diameters of inhibition zones (DIZs) against these two Penicillium molds. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to obtain the optimal combination of these parameters. Results showed that the optimal extraction parameters for maximum antifungal activity were: 90% (v/v) ethanol concentration, 65 min extraction time, 31 mL/g solvent to solid ratio and 51 °C temperature. Under the abovementioned extraction conditions, the experimental DIZs values obtained experimentally were 57.17 ± 0.75 and 39.33 ± 0.82 mm, which were very close to the values of 57.26 and 39.29 mm predicted by the model. Further, nine kinds of phytopathogens were tested in vitro to explore the antifungal activity of the FH extracts. It was found for the first time that the FH extracts showed significant inhibition on the growth of P. italicum, A. citri, P. vexans, P. cytosporella and P. digitatum.

  4. Condensed Tannins from Ficus virens as Tyrosinase Inhibitors: Structure, Inhibitory Activity and Molecular Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Feng, Hui-Ling; Zhuang, Jiang-Xing; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Condensed tannins from Ficus virens leaves, fruit, and stem bark were isolated and their structures characterized by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results showed that the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins were complex mixtures of homo- and heteropolymers of B-type procyanidins and prodelphinidins with degrees of polymerization up to hexamer, dodecamer, and pentadecamer, respectively. Antityrosinase activities of the condensed tannins were studied. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were potent tyrosinase inhibitors. The concentrations for the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins leading to 50% enzyme activity were determined to be 131.67, 99.89, and 106.22 μg/ml on monophenolase activity, and 128.42, 43.07, and 74.27 μg/ml on diphenolase activity. The inhibition mechanism, type, and constants of the condensed tannins on the diphenolase activity were further investigated. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were reversible and mixed type inhibitors. Fluorescence quenching, copper interacting, and molecular docking techniques were utilized to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the inhibition. The results showed that the hydroxyl group on the B ring of the condensed tannins could chelate the dicopper irons of the enzyme. Moreover, the condensed tannins could reduce the enzyme product o-quinones into colourless compounds. These results would contribute to the development and design of antityrosinase agents. PMID:24637701

  5. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of pre-flowering PMeV-infected Carica papaya L.

    PubMed

    Soares, Eduardo de A; Werth, Emily G; Madroñero, Leidy J; Ventura, José A; Rodrigues, Silas P; Hicks, Leslie M; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2017-01-16

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) infects papaya (Carica papaya L.) and leads to Papaya Sticky Disease (PSD) or "Meleira", characterized by a spontaneous exudation of latex from fruits and leaves only in the post-flowering developmental stage. The latex oxidizes in contact with air and accumulates as a sticky substance on the plant organs, impairing papaya fruit's marketing and exportation. To understand pre-flowering C. papaya resistance to PMeV, an LC-MS/MS-based label-free proteomics approach was used to assess the differential proteome of PMeV-infected pre-flowering C. papaya vs. uninfected (control) plants. In this study, 1333 proteins were identified, of which 111 proteins showed a significant abundance change (57 increased and 54 decreased) and supports the hypothesis of increased photosynthesis and reduction of 26S-proteassoma activity and cell-wall remodeling. All of these results suggest that increased photosynthetic activity has a positive effect on the induction of plant immunity, whereas the reduction of caspase-like activity and the observed changes in the cell-wall associated proteins impairs the full activation of defense response based on hypersensitive response and viral movement obstruction in pre-flowering C. papaya plants. The papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit's production is severely limited by the occurrence of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) infection, which causes Papaya Sticky Disease (PSD). Despite the efforts to understand key features involved with the plant×virus interaction, PSD management is still largely based on the observation of the first disease symptoms in the field, followed by the elimination of the diseased plants. However, C. papaya develops PSD only after flowering, i.e. about six-months after planting, and the virus inoculum sources are kept in field. The development of PMeV resistant genotypes is impaired by the limited knowledge about C. papaya resistance against viruses. The occurrence of a resistance/tolerance mechanism to PSD

  6. Identification and expression of the WRKY transcription factors of Carica papaya in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lin-Jie; Jiang, Ling

    2014-03-01

    The WRKY transcription factor (TF) plays a very important role in the response of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. A local papaya database was built according to the GenBank expressed sequence tag database using the BioEdit software. Fifty-two coding sequences of Carica papaya WRKY TFs were predicted using the tBLASTn tool. The phylogenetic tree of the WRKY proteins was classified. The expression profiles of 13 selected C. papaya WRKY TF genes under stress induction were constructed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these WRKY genes in response to 3 abiotic and 2 biotic stresses were evaluated. TF807.3 and TF72.14 are upregulated by low temperature; TF807.3, TF43.76, TF12.199 and TF12.62 are involved in the response to drought stress; TF9.35, TF18.51, TF72.14 and TF12.199 is involved in response to wound; TF12.199, TF807.3, TF21.156 and TF18.51 was induced by PRSV pathogen; TF72.14 and TF43.76 are upregulated by SA. The regulated expression levels of above eight genes normalized against housekeeping gene actin were significant at probability of 0.01 levels. These WRKY TFs could be related to corresponding stress resistance and selected as the candidate genes, especially, the two genes TF807.3 and TF12.199, which were regulated notably by four stresses respectively. This study may provide useful information and candidate genes for the development of transgenic stress tolerant papaya varieties.

  7. Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation by the Leaf Extract of Carica papaya During Dengue Infection: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Chinnappan, Shobia; Ramachandrappa, Vijayakumar Shettikothanuru; Tamilarasu, Kadhiravan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Pillai, Agiesh Kumar Balakrishna; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2016-04-01

    Dengue cases were reported to undergo platelet activation and thrombocytopenia by a poorly understood mechanism. Recent studies suggested that Carica papaya leaf extract could recover the platelet count in dengue cases. However, no studies have attempted to unravel the mechanism of the plant extract in platelet recovery. Since there are no available drugs to treat dengue and considering the significance of C. papaya in dengue treatment, the current study aimed to evaluate two research questions: First one is to study if the C. papaya leaf extract exerts its action directly on platelets and second one is to understand if the extract can specifically inhibit the platelet aggregation during dengue viral infection. Sixty subjects with dengue positive and 60 healthy subjects were recruited in the study. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma were prepared from both the dengue-infected and healthy control blood samples. Effect of the leaf extract obtained from C. papaya leaves was assessed on plasma obtained as well as platelets collected from both healthy and dengue-infected individuals. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced when leaf extract preincubated with dengue plasma was added into control PRP, whereas no change in aggregation when leaf extract incubated-control plasma was added into control PRP. Upon direct addition of C. papaya leaf extract, both dengue PRP and control PRP showed a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Within the dengue group, PRP from severe and nonsevere cases showed a significant decrease in aggregation without any difference between them. From the study, it is evident that C. papaya leaf extract can directly act on platelet. The present study, the first of its kind, found that the leaf extract possesses a dengue-specific neutralizing effect on dengue viral-infected plasma that may exert a protective role on platelets.

  8. HPLC-based activity profiling for antiplasmodial compounds in the traditional Indonesian medicinal plant Carica papaya L.

    PubMed

    Julianti, Tasqiah; De Mieri, Maria; Zimmermann, Stefanie; Ebrahimi, Samad N; Kaiser, Marcel; Neuburger, Markus; Raith, Melanie; Brun, Reto; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-08-08

    Leaf decoctions of Carica papaya have been traditionally used in some parts of Indonesia to treat and prevent malaria. Leaf extracts and fraction have been previously shown to possess antiplasmodial activity in vitro and in vivo. Antiplasmodial activity of extracts was confirmed and the active fractions in the extract were identified by HPLC-based activity profiling, a gradient HPLC fractionation of a single injection of the extract, followed by offline bioassay of the obtained microfractions. For preparative isolation of compounds, an alkaloidal fraction was obtained via adsorption on cationic ion exchange resin. Active compounds were purified by HPLC-MS and MPLC-ELSD. Structures were established by HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For compounds 5 and 7 absolute configuration was confirmed by comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy data, and by X-ray crystallography. Compounds were tested for bioactivity in vitro against four parasites (Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani, and Plasmodium falciparum), and in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model. Profiling indicated flavonoids and alkaloids in the active time windows. A total of nine compounds were isolated. Four were known flavonols--manghaslin, clitorin, rutin, and nicotiflorin. Five compounds isolated from the alkaloidal fraction were piperidine alkaloids. Compounds 5 and 6 were inactive carpamic acid and methyl carpamate, while three alkaloids 7-9 showed high antiplasmodial activity and low cytotoxicity. When tested in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, carpaine (7) did not increase the survival time of animals. The antiplasmodial activity of papaya leaves could be linked to alkaloids. Among these, carpaine was highly active and selective in vitro. The high in vitro activity could not be substantiated with the in vivo murine model. Further investigations are needed to clarify the divergence between our negative in vivo results

  9. The effect of praziquantel and Carica papaya seeds on Hymenolepis nana infection in mice using scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Abou Shady, Omayma M; Basyoni, Maha M A; Mahdy, Olfat A; Bocktor, Nardden Zakka

    2014-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) is the most common tapeworm infection worldwide. It is more prevalent in warm climates where sanitation is poor, particularly among children. The effect and mechanism of action of praziquantel (PZQ), given at a dose of 25-mg/kg BW, and Carica papaya dried seed crude aqueous extract (CAE), given at a dose of 1.2-g/kg BW, were assessed on H. nana worms in experimentally infected mice. Tegumental changes were studied using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and different parasitological parameters were observed. Each group of infected mice was divided into two subgroups. The first subgroup received either treatment before the 4th day after infection to investigate their effects on the cysticercoid stage. The other subgroup received treatments after the development of the adult stage, confirmed by eggs detection in stool. Both PZQ and C. papaya dried seed CAE resulted in a significant reduction of worm burden, total egg output and viable egg count. Marked tegumental changes were evident in adult worms treated with either treatment including shrinkage of the scolex and neck region with rostellar edema and complete loss of its hooks. However, all previous effects were exerted more rapidly in the case of PZQ treatment. They both significantly reduced cysticercoid stage size. Nevertheless, C. papaya outstand PZQ in having a deforming effect on adults arising from treated cysticercoids. It was concluded that C. papaya has significant anti-cestodal properties that enable its seed extract to be a very effective alternative to PZQ against H. nana.

  10. X-ray crystal structure of CMS1MS2: a high proteolytic activity cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marco T R; Teixeira, Raphael D; Lopes, Míriam T P; Nagem, Ronaldo A P; Salas, Carlos E

    2012-12-01

    CMS1MS2 (CC-Ib) from Carica candamarcensis (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis) is a cysteine proteinase found as a single polypeptide containing 213 residues of 22,991 Da. The enzyme was purified by three chromatographic steps, two of them involving cationic exchange. Crystals of CMS1MS2 complexed with E-64 were obtained by the hanging drop vapor-diffusion method at 291 K using ammonium sulfate and polyethylene glycol 4000/8000 as precipitant. The complex CMS1MS2-E-64 crystallized in the tetragonal space group P4(1)2(1)2 with unit-cell parameters; a = b = 73.64, c = 118.79 Å. The structure was determined by Molecular Replacement and refined at 1.87 Å resolution to a final R factor of 16.2 % (R (free) = 19.3 %). Based on the model, the structure of CMS1MS2 (PDB 3IOQ) ranks as one of the least basic cysteine isoforms from C. candamarcensis, is structurally closer to papain, caricain, chymopapain and mexicain than to the other cysteine proteinases, while its activity is twice the activity of papain towards BAPNA substrate. Two differences, one in the S2 subsite and another in the S3 subsite of CMS1MS2 may contribute to the enhanced activity relative to papain. In addition, the model provides a structural basis for the sensitivity of CMS1MS2 to inhibition by cystatin, not shown by other enzymes of the group, e.g., glycyl endopeptidase and CMS2MS2.

  11. In situ earthworm breeding in orchards significantly improves the growth, quality and yield of papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Huimin; Guo, Lei; Zhao, Benliang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four fertilizer applications—control (C), chemical fertilizer (F), compost (O), and in situ earthworm breeding (E)—on the growth, quality and yield of papaya (Carica papaya L.). In this study, 5 g plant−1 urea (CH4N2O, %N = 46.3%) and 100 g plant−1 microelement fertilizer was applied to each treatment. The fertilizer applications of these four treatments are different from each other. The results showed that the E treatment had the highest growth parameters over the whole growth period. At 127 days after transplantation, the order of plant heights from greatest to smallest was E > F > O > C, and the stem diameters were E > F > O > C, with significant differences between all treatments. Soluble-solid, sugar, vitamin C, and protein content significantly increased in the E treatment. In addition, the total acid and the electrical conductivity of the fruit significantly decreased in the E treatment. Fruit firmness clearly increased in the O treatment, and decreased in the F treatment. The fresh individual fruit weights, fruit numbers, and total yields were greatly improved in the F and E treatments, and the total yield of the E treatment was higher than that in the F treatment. In conclusion, the in situ earthworm breeding treatment performed better than conventional compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Furthermore, in situ earthworm breeding may be a potential organic fertilizer application in orchards because it not only improves the fruit quality and yield but also reduces the amount of organic wastes from agriculture as a result of the activities of earthworms. PMID:27994969

  12. Cyto-nuclear discordance in the phylogeny of Ficus section Galoglychia and host shifts in plant-pollinator associations

    PubMed Central

    Renoult, Julien P; Kjellberg, Finn; Grout, Cinderella; Santoni, Sylvain; Khadari, Bouchaïb

    2009-01-01

    Background Hybridization events are relatively common in vascular plants. However, the frequency of these events is unevenly distributed across the plant phylogeny. Plant families in which individual species are pollinated by specific pollinator species are predicted to be less prone to hybridization than other families. However, exceptions may occur within these families, when pollinators shift host-plant species. Indeed, host shifts are expected to increase the rate of hybridization events. Pollinators of Ficus section Galoglychia are suspected to have changed host repeatedly, based on several cases of incongruence between plant phylogeny and taxonomy, and insect phylogeny and taxonomy. We tracked cyto-nuclear discordance across section Galoglychia as evidence for hybridization. To achieve a proper global view, we first clarified the monophyly of section Galoglychia as it had been questioned by recent phylogenetic studies. Moreover, we investigated if fig size could be a factor facilitating host shifts. Results Phylogenetic chloroplast and nuclear results demonstrated the monophyly of section Galoglychia. Within section Galoglychia, we detected several cases of statistically significant cyto-nuclear discordance. Discordances concern both terminal nodes of the phylogenetic trees and one deep node defining relationships between subsections. Because nuclear phylogeny is congruent with morphological taxonomy, discordances were caused by the chloroplast phylogeny. Introgressive hybridization was the most likely explanation for these discordances. We also detected that subsections pollinated by several wasp genera had smaller figs and were pollinated by smaller wasps than subsections pollinated by a single wasp genus. Conclusion As hypothesized, we discovered evidences of past hybridization in Ficus section Galoglychia. Further, introgression was only detected in subsections presenting incongruence between plant and pollinator phylogenies and taxonomy. This supports

  13. Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) Inhabiting Neotropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Heer, Katrin; Albrecht, Larissa; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Staeps, Felix C.; Herre, Edward Allen; Dick, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae) pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km). Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru) for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites) and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>>permuted RST) was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km) in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea), and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma) sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012). Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs. PMID:26226482

  14. Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

    PubMed

    Heer, Katrin; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Albrecht, Larissa; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Staeps, Felix C; Herre, Edward Allen; Dick, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae) pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km). Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru) for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites) and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>permuted RST) was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km) in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea), and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma) sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012). Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

  15. Antioxidant status, metabolic profile and immune response of lambs supplemented with tannin rich Ficus infectoria leaf meal.

    PubMed

    Dey, Avijit; Dutta, Narayan; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Kusumakar

    2015-02-01

    To study the effect of supplementation of tanniferous tree leaves Ficus infectoria on antioxidant status and immune response, twenty four lambs were randomly divided into four groups of six each in a completely randomized design and fed either a conventional supplement (CON) or experimental supplements (FILM-I, FILM-II and FILM-III) containing 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% condensed tannins (CT), respectively by replacement of wheat bran of supplement CON with Ficus infectoria leaf meal (FILM). Blood biochemical profile was monitored in all lambs at 0, 45, 90, 135, 180 days of feeding. Although haemato-biochemical parameters remained similar, there was significant (p < 0.05) improvement in catalase activity, total thiol and protein thiol groups with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in lambs fed FILM diet irrespective of levels. However, intracellular status of reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity was improved (p < 0.05) only in FILM-II and FILM-III supplemented lambs. The cell-mediated immune response was significantly (p < 0.05) improved in all the lambs fed FILM supplemented diets. Improved antioxidant status and immunity in FILM supplemented lambs increased voluntary feed intake irrespective of level. However, the average daily gain for a period of 180 d showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase by the supplementation of FILM-II diet containing 1.5% CT. The present study reveals that the supplementation of Ficus infectoria leaf meal up to 21.2% in the concentrate mixture could improve the antioxidant status and immunity in lambs. However, as feed efficiency was reduced at higher levels due to presence of CT, 15.9% supplementation containing 1.5% condensed tannins in concentrate mixture is suggested to improve the health and production performance of lambs.

  16. Influence of Condensed Tannins from Ficus bengalensis Leaves on Feed Utilization, Milk Production and Antioxidant Status of Crossbred Cows

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Avijit; De, Partha Sarathi

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) from Ficus bengalensis leaves on the feed utilization, milk production and health status of crossbred cows. Eighteen crossbred dairy cows at their second and mid lactation (avg. BW 351.6±10.6 kg) were randomly divided into two groups of nine each in a completely randomized block design and fed two iso-nitrogenous supplements formulated to contain 0% and 1.5% CT through dried and ground leaves of Ficus bengalensis. The diets were designated as CON and FBLM, respectively and fed to cows with a basal diet of rice straw to meet requirements for maintenance and milk production. The daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) increased due to supplementation of FBLM diet. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was also significantly (p<0.01) higher due to increased (p<0.05) milk fat in cows under diet FBLM as compared to CON. The inclusion of CT at 1.5% in the supplement did not interfere with the feed intake or digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF by lactating cows. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values of the composite diets were comparable between the groups. The blood biochemical parameters remained unaltered except significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum urea concentration in cows fed FBLM diet. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in cows supplemented with condensed tannins. The total thiol group (T-SH) was found to be higher with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cows of FBLM group. The cost of feeding per kg milk production was also reduced due to supplementation of Ficus bengalensis leaves. Therefore, a perceptible positive impact was evident on milk production and antioxidant status in crossbred cows during mid-lactation given supplement containing 1.5% CT through Ficus bengalensis leaves. PMID:25049960

  17. Visualization of micromorphology of leaf epicuticular waxes of the rubber tree Ficus elastica by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo

    2008-10-01

    Ultrastructural aspects of leaf epicuticular waxes were investigated in Ficus elastica by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Glossy leaves of the rubber tree were collected and subjected to different regimes of specimen preparation for surface observations. F. elastica leaves were hypostomatic and stomata were surrounded with a cuticular thickening that formed a rim. The most prominent epicuticular wax structures of F. elastica leaves included granules and platelets. Without fixation and metal coating, epicuticular wax structures could be discerned on the leaf surface by low-vacuum (ca. 7 Pa) scanning electron microscopy. In terms of delineation and retention of the structures, the combination of vapor fixation by glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide with subsequent gold coating provided the most satisfactory results, as evidenced by high resolution and sharp protrusions of epicuticular waxes. However, erosion of epicuticular wax edges was noted in the immersion fixed leaves, showing less elongated platelets, less distinct wax edges, and granule cracking. These results suggest that the vapor fixation procedure for demonstrating three-dimensional epicuticular wax structures would facilitate characterization of diverse types of waxes. Instances were noted where epicuticular waxes grew over neighboring epidermal ridges and occluded stomata. In cross sections, epicuticular waxes were observed above the cuticle proper and ranged approximately from 100 nm to 500 nm in thickness. The native leaf epicuticular waxes had many layers of different electron density that were oriented parallel to each other and parallel or perpendicular to the cuticle surface, implying strata of crystal growth. Such retention of native epicuticular wax structures could be achieved through the use of acrylic resin treated with less harsh dehydrants and mild heat polymerization, alleviating wax extraction during specimen preparations.

  18. Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract, fractions and compounds from Ficus polita Vahl. (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many plants of the family Moraceae are used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Ficus polita Vahl., an edible plant belonging to this family is used traditionally in case of dyspepsia, infectious diseases, abdominal pains and diarrhea. The present work was designed to assess the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract from the roots of F. polita (FPR), as well as that of its fractions (FPR1-5) and two of the eight isolated compounds, namely euphol-3-O-cinnamate (1) and (E)-3,5,4'-trihydroxy-stilbene-3,5-O-β-D-diglucopyranoside (8). Methods The liquid microdilution assay was used in the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC), against seven bacterial and one fungal species. Results The results of the MIC determination showed that the crude extract, fractions FPR1, FPR2 and compound 8 were able to prevent the growth of the eight tested microorganisms. Other samples showed selective activity. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/ml for the crude extract was recorded on 50% of the studied microbial species. The corresponding value for fractions of 32 μg/ml was obtained on Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans ATCC strains. The MIC values recorded with compound 8 on the resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 strain was equal to that of chloramphenicol used as reference antibiotic. Conclusion The obtained results highlighted the interesting antimicrobial potency of F. polita as well as that of compound 8, and provided scientific basis for the traditional use of this taxon in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:21269424

  19. Distribution of nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes in three pollinator fig wasps associated with Ficus pumila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Min; Compton, Stephen G.; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (NUMTs) are nuclear sequences transferred from mitochondrial genomes. Although widespread, their distribution patterns among populations or closely related species are rarely documented. We amplified and sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene to check for NUMTs in three fig wasp species that pollinate Ficus pumila (Wiebesia sp. 1, 2 and 3) in Southeastern China using direct and cloned sequencing. Unambiguous sequences (332) of 487 bp in length belonging to 33 haplotypes were found by direct sequencing. Their distribution was highly concordant with those of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). Obvious signs of co-amplification of NUMTs were indicated by their uneven distribution. NUMTs were observed in all individuals of 12 populations of Wiebesia sp. 3, and 13 individuals of three northern populations of Wiebesia sp. 1. Sequencing clones of potential co-amplification products confirmed that they were NUMTs. These NUMTs either clustered as NUMT clades basal to mtDNA Cytb clades (basal NUMTs), or together with Cytb haplotypes. Basal NUMTs had either stop codons or frame-shifting mutations resulting from deletion of a 106 bp fragment. In addition, no third codon or synonymous substitutions were detected within each NUMT clade. The phylogenetic tree indicated that basal NUMTs had been inserted into nuclei before divergence of the three species. No significant pairwise differences were detected in their ratios of third codon substitutions, suggesting that these NUMTs originated from one transfer event, with duplication in the nuclear genome resulting in the coexistence of the 381 bp copy. No significant substitution differences were detected between Cytb haplotypes and NUMTs that clustered with Cytb haplotypes. However, these NUMTs coexisted with Cytb haplotypes in multiple populations, suggesting that these NUMT haplotypes were recently inserted into the nuclear genome. Both basal and recently inserted NUMTs were rare

  20. Ficus religiosa L. bark extracts inhibit human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Kumar, Ravi; Pradhan, Subhankar; Donalisio, Manuela; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Ghosh, Manik; Lembo, David

    2015-12-24

    Ficus religiosa L. is one of the most relevant members of the family of Moraceae. It is the most sacred tree of South Asia, and it is used in traditional Ayurvedic and Unani medicine to cure respiratory disorders like cough, wheezing and asthma. Some studies were performed to investigate the anti-asthmatic potential of F. religiosa bark, leaves and fruit extracts but none of them tested their antiviral activity against viruses responsible for the exacerbation of wheezing and asthma. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiviral activity of F. religiosa L. extracts against respiratory viruses such as human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV). The antiviral activity of F. religiosa L. was tested in vitro by plaque reduction and virus yield assays and the major mechanism of action was investigated by virus inactivation and time-of-addition assays. F. religiosa L. methanol bark extract was the most active against HRV with an EC50 of 5.52 µg/mL. This extract likely inhibited late steps of replicative cycle. Water bark extract was the most active against RSV with an EC50 between 2.23 and 4.37 µg/mL. Partial virus inactivation and interference with virus attachment were both found to contribute to the anti-RSV activity. Replication of both viruses was inhibited in viral yield reduction assays. The results of the present study demonstrate that F. religiosa L. is endowed with antiviral activity against RSV and HRV in vitro. Further work remains to be done to identify the active components and to assess the therapeutic potential in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity studies of a standardized methanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves

    PubMed Central

    Farsi, Elham; Shafaei, Armaghan; Hor, Sook Yee; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B.; Yam, Mun Fei; Asmawi, Mohd Z.; Ismail, Zhari

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections. The present study was conducted to assess the genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity of a standardized methanol extract of F. deltoidea leaves. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with five different single doses of the extract and screened for signs of toxicity for two weeks after administration. In the subchronic study, three different doses of the extract were administered for 28 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological parameters were monitored during the study. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with the TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains. Phytochemical standardization was performed using a colorimeter and high-performance liquid chromatography. Heavy metal detection was performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer. RESULTS: The acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of the extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic toxicity study, there were no significant adverse effects on food consumption, body weight, organ weights, mortality, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, or histopathology. However, a dose-dependent increase in the serum urea level was observed. The Ames test revealed that the extract did not have any potential to induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium, either in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed high contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed high levels of vitexin and isovitexin in the extract, and the levels of heavy metals were below the toxic levels. CONCLUSION: The no-observed adverse effect level of F. deltoidea in rats was determined to be 2500 mg/kg. PMID:23778480

  2. Soil sheaths, photosynthate distribution to roots, and rhizosphere water relations for Opuntia ficus-indica

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.; North, G.B.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1993-09-01

    Soil sheaths incorporating aggregated soil particles surround young roots of many species, but the effects of such sheaths on water movement between roots and the soil are largely unknown. The quantity and location of root exudates associated with soil sheath along the entire length of its young roots, except within 1.4 cm of the tip. The soil sheaths, which average 0.7 mm in thickness, were composed of soil particles and root hairs, both of which were covered with exuded mucilaginous material. As determined with a [sup 14]C pulse-labeling technique, 2% of newly fixed [sup 14]C-photosynthate was translocated into the roots at 3d, 6% at 9 d, and 8% at 15 d after labeling. The fraction of insoluble [sup 14]C in the roots increased twofold from 3 d to 15 d. Over the same time period, 6%-9% of the [sup 14]C translocated to the roots was exuded into the soil. The soluble [sup 14]C compounds exuded into the soil were greater in the 3-cm segment at the root tip than elsewhere along the root, whereas mucilage was exuded relatively uniformly along roots 15 cm in length. The volumetric efflux of water increase for both sheathed and unsheathed roots as the soil water potential decreased form -0.1 MPa to -1.0 MPa. The efflux rate was greater for unsheathed roots than for sheathed roots, which were more turgid and had a higher water potential, especially at lower soil water potentials. During drying, soil particles in the sheaths aggregate more tightly, making the sheaths less permeable to water and possibly creating air gaps. The soil sheaths of O. ficus-indica thus reduce water loss from the roots to a drying soil. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Ameliorative effect of Opuntia ficus indica juice on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis fruit juice (OFIj) on reversing oxidative damages induced by chronic ethanol intake in rat erythrocytes. OFIj was firstly analyzed with HPLC for phenolic and flavonoids content. Secondly, 40 adult male Wistar rats were equally divided into five groups and treated for 90 days as follows: control (C), ethanol-only 3 g/kg body weight (b.w) (E), low dose of OFIj 2 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Ldj+E), high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Hdj+E), and only a high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100g b.w (Hdj). HPLC analysis indicated high concentrations of phenolic acids and flavonoids in OFIj. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Changes in the erythrocyte's antioxidant ability were accompanied by enhanced oxidative modification of lipids (increase of malondialdeyde level) and proteins (increase in carbonyl groups). Interestingly, pre-administration of either 2 ml/100 g b.w or 4 ml/100 g b.w of OFIj to ethanol-intoxicated rats significantly reversed decreases in enzymatic as well as non enzymatic antioxidants parameters in erythrocytes. Also, the administration of OFIj significantly protected lipids and proteins against ethanol-induced oxidative modifications in rat erythrocytes. The beneficial effect of OFIj can result from the inhibition of ethanol-induced free radicals chain reactions in rat erythrocytes or from the enhancement of the endogenous antioxidants activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Water Relations, Diurnal Acidity Changes, and Productivity of a Cultivated Cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica1

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Edmundo; Badilla, Ignacio; Nobel, Park S.

    1983-01-01

    Physiological responses of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) were studied on a commercial plantation in central Chile. Young cladodes (flattened stems) and flower buds exhibited daytime stomatal opening, whereas mature cladodes and fruit exhibited the nocturnal stomatal opening characteristic of CAM plants. Severe water stress suppressed the nocturnal stomatal opening by mature cladodes, but their high water vapor conductance occurring near dawn was not affected. Nocturnal acidity increases were not as sensitive to water stress as was the nocturnal stomatal opening. The magnitude of the nocturnal acidity increases depended on the total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), being 90% PAR-saturated at 27 moles per square meter per day for a mean nighttime air temperature of 5°C and at 20 moles per square meter per day for 18°C. Inasmuch as the PAR received on unshaded vertical surfaces averaged about 21 moles per square meter per day, nocturnal acidity increases by the cladodes were on the verge of being PAR-limited in the field. The net assimilation rate, which was positive throughout the year, annually averaged 3.4 grams per square meter per day for 1.0- and 2.0-year-old plants. Plants that were 5.4 years old had 7.2 square meters of cladode surface area (both sides) and an annual dry weight productivity of 13 megagrams (metric tons) per hectare per year when their ground cover was 32%. This substantial productivity for a CAM plant was accompanied by the highest nocturnal acidity increase so far observed in the field, 0.78 mole H+ per square meter. PMID:16663084

  5. Parameterization of G-93 isoprene emission formula for tropical trees Casuarina equisetifolia and Ficus septica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanda, Ishmael; Inafuku, Masashi; Iwasaki, Hironori; Saitoh, Seikoh; Fukuta, Masakazu; Watanabe, Keiichi; Oku, Hirosuke

    2016-09-01

    Tropical trees account for most emissions of isoprene, a reactive biogenic volatile organic compound into the atmosphere. The Guenther 1993 (G-93) model is the most widely used algorithm for predicting isoprene emissions by leaves of terrestrial plants. Several studies have reported on the poor performance of the G-93 model in predicting emissions from tropical tree species. To improve the performance of the G-93 model in tropical regions, we carried out diurnal leaf-scale observations of tropical trees Casuarina equisetifolia and Ficus septica outdoors. We developed an iterative method that uses mutual and repetitive step-by-step optimization of the G-93 parameters for temperature (CT) and light (CL) variables using best fit practices, named "Ping-Pong" optimization. Using temperate tree species (Poplar) for comparison, we show that emissions from C. equisetifolia and F. septica had a diversion from predictions of the G-93 formula, especially at high temperatures and high light intensities during mid-day, whilst emissions from temperate tree species were fairly captured by G-93. Results demonstrate that our optimized formulas greatly improved capturing of high light and temperature responses of emission profiles from tropical trees whilst it also performed well for poplar species. Parameterization of the G-93 formula greatly improved its performance on predicting diurnal isoprene emission from tropical trees C. equisetifolia and F. septica; explaining 81-96% of variation up from 73 to 77% explained by default G-93. We propose that there is a need to optimize the G-93 model to more accurately predict regional emissions from tropical ecosystems.

  6. Changes in Osmotic Pressure and Mucilage during Low-Temperature Acclimation of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, G; Nobel, P S

    1991-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, a Crassulacean acid metabolism plant cultivated for its fruits and cladodes, was used to examine chemical and physiological events accompanying low-temperature acclimation. Changes in osmotic pressure, water content, low molecular weight solutes, and extracellular mucilage were monitored in the photosynthetic chlorenchyma and the water-storage parenchyma when plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30/20 degrees C were shifted to 10/0 degrees C. An increase in osmotic pressure of 0.13 megapascal occurred after 13 days at 10/0 degrees C. Synthesis of glucose, fructose, and glycerol accounted for most of the observed increase in osmotic pressure during the low-temperature acclimation. Extracellular mucilage and the relative apoplastic water content increased by 24 and 10%, respectively, during exposure to low temperatures. These increases apparently favor the extracellular nucleation of ice closer to the equilibrium freezing temperature for plants at 10/0 degrees C, which could make the cellular dehydration more gradual and less damaging. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies helped elucidate the cellular processes during ice formation, such as those revealed by changes in the relaxation times of two water fractions in the chlorenchyma. The latter results suggested a restricted mobility of intracellular water and an increased mobility of extracellular water for plants at 10/0 degrees C compared with those at 30/20 degrees C. Increased mobility of extracellular water could facilitate extracellular ice growth and thus delay the potentially lethal intracellular freezing during low-temperature acclimation.

  7. Antiarthritic and antioxidant effects of the leaf extract of Ficus exasperata P. Beauv. (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Abotsi, Wonder M. K.; Woode, Eric; Ainooson, George K.; Amo-Barimah, Ama K.; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Leaf extracts of Ficus exasperata P. Beauv. (Moraceae) are commonly used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of several pathological states including inflammatory disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antiarthritic effect of an ethanolic extract of F. exasperata (FEE) in the Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats. Since free radicals and reactive oxygen species are implicated in inflammatory joint diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, the antioxidant potential of the extract was investigated in in vitro experimental models. FEE as well as the positive controls, dexamethasone and methotrexate, showed significant dose-dependent antiarthritic properties when applied to established adjuvant arthritis. Oral administration of FEE (30–300 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reduced the arthritic edema in the ipsilateral paw of rats with a maximal inhibition of 34.46 ± 11.42%. FEE (30–300 mg/kg p.o.) also significantly prevented the spread of the edema from the ipsilateral to the contralateral paws indicating inhibition of systemic spread. The disease-modifying antirheumatic drug methotrexate (0.1–1 mg/kg i.p.) and the steroidal anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone (0.3–3 mg/kg i.p.) also reduced very significantly the total polyarthritic edema as well as the spread of the arthritis from the ipsilateral to the contralateral paws of the treated animals. The extract also exhibited reducing activity (EC50 = 8.105 ± 18.49), scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, EC50 = 0.499 ± 0.302) and prevented lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 1.283 ± 0.923) in rat brain homogenates. Phenols were detected in the extract. These results suggest that ethanolic extract of the leaves of F. exasperata exerts antiarthritic activity after oral administration and also has antioxidant properties which may contribute to its activity. PMID:21808547

  8. Antimicrobial activity of the crude extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Ficus ovata (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Kuete, Victor; Nana, Frédéric; Ngameni, Bathélémy; Mbaveng, Armelle Tsafack; Keumedjio, Félix; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu

    2009-07-30

    This study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts from the stem bark of Ficus ovata (FOB), fractions (FOB1-6) and compounds isolated following bio-guided fractionation [3-friedelanone (1), taraxeryl acetate (2), betulinic acid (3), oleanoïc acid (4), 2-hydroxyisoprunetin (5), 6,7-(2-isopropenyl furo)-5,2,4-trihydroxyisoflavone (6), Cajanin (7) and protocatechuic acid (8)]. The micro-dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC) against fungi (two species), gram-positive (three species) and gram-negative bacteria (five species). The results of the MIC determinations indicated that the crude extract (FOB), fractions FOB2 and FOB4 as well as compound 5 were active on the entire studied organisms. Other samples showed selective activity, fractions FOB1, FOB3 and FOB5 being active against 50% of the tested microbial species while FOB6 was active on 40%. Compounds 8, 6, 2 and 7 prevented the growth of 80%, 70%, 50% and 20% of the organisms respectively. The lowest MIC value (156 g/ml) observed with the crude extract was recorded on Streptococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Microsporum audouinii. The corresponding value for fractions (39 microg/ml) was noted with FOB4 against Staphylococcus aureus, while that of the tested compounds (10 microg/ml) was observed with compound 8 on Microsporum audouinii. The results of the MMC determination suggested that the cidal effect of most of the tested samples on the studied microorganisms could be expected. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extract, as well as some of the isolated compounds might be potential sources of new antimicrobial drug.

  9. Pheromone-based mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards.

    PubMed

    Walton, Vaughn M; Daane, Kent M; Bentley, Walter J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Larsen, Thomas E; Malakar-Kuenen, Raksha

    2006-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a mating disruption program for the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards. The sprayable, microencapsulated formulation of the racemic sex pheromone lavandulyl senecioate was applied with an air-blast sprayer, using three and four applications in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Mating disruption was combined with an application of buprofezin (2004) in June. Compared with a no-pheromone control, there were significantly lower season-long trap catches of adult males, season-long mealybug densities (2003 only), and crop damage in mating disruption plots. The amount of mealybug reduction and mechanisms that resulted in lower crop damage in mating disruption plots is discussed. In samples taken during the growing season (April to September), mealybug density was only 12.0 +/- 15.6 and 31.1 +/- 11.6% lower in the mating disruption plots than in control plots in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In the mating disruption treatment, mealybug egg production was significantly lower (2003 only), as were the proportion of ovisacs and crawlers produced. There was no treatment impact on percentage of parasitism. Mealybug density influenced treatment impact. In 2004, vines were categorized as having low, medium, or high mealybug densities during a preapplication survey. After treatment application, mealybug density was reduced by 86.3 +/- 6.3% on vines in the low mealybug density category, but it was unchanged on vines in the high density category. Another factor that reduced treatment impact was the relatively short effective lifetime of the sprayable formulation.

  10. Nematodes Associated with Fig Wasps, Pegoscapus spp. (Agaonidae), and Syconia of Native Floridian Figs (Ficus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Center, Barbara J.; Nadel, Hannah; Frank, J. Howard; Ramírez B., William

    1995-01-01

    Syconia in successive developmental phases from Ficus laevigata Vahl (F. citrifolia Miller sensu DeWolf 1960) (Moraceae) and successive life stages of its fig wasp pollinator, Pegoscapus sp. (P. assuetus (Grandi) sensu Wiebes 1983) (Agaonidae) were dissected to elucidate their association with two undescribed species of nematodes. Parasitodiplogazter sp. (Diplogasteridae) are transported by female Pegoscapus sp. into the cavity of a phase B syconium as third-stage juveniles (J3), where they molt to the J4 stage and greatly increase in size in the hemocoel of the fig wasp after it begins to pollinate and oviposit in female florets. The J4 exit the wasp cadaver in a phase B or early phase C syconium, and molt to adults that mate and lay eggs. New J3 infect the next generation of female or male wasps as they emerge from their galls in phase D figs. Mated entomogenous females of Schistonchus sp. (Aphelenchoididae) are transported in the hemocoel of female wasps to the fig cavity of a phase B syconium. Female Schistonchus sp. exit the wasp and parasitize immature male florets causing an exudate, the development of hypertrophied epidermal cells of the anther filaments and anthers, and aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. At least one generation of Schistonchus sp. occurs in the male florets. Entomogenous females appear at about the time that fig wasps molt to adults in their galls in late phase C syconia. Another Schistonchus sp. was recovered from females of P. mexicanus (Ashmead) (P. jimenezi (Grandi) sensu Wiebes 1983) and from the syconia of F. aurea Nuttall and appears to have a life cycle similar to that described for the Schistonchus sp. from F. laevigata. PMID:19277255

  11. Transpiration efficiency of a tropical pioneer tree (Ficus insipida) in relation to soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Turner, Benjamin L; Marshall, John D

    2007-01-01

    The response of whole-plant water-use efficiency, termed transpiration efficiency (TE), to variation in soil fertility was assessed in a tropical pioneer tree, Ficus insipida Willd. Measurements of stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C, delta(18)O, delta(15)N), elemental concentrations (C, N, P), plant growth, instantaneous leaf gas exchange, and whole-plant water use were used to analyse the mechanisms controlling TE. Plants were grown individually in 19 l pots with non-limiting soil moisture. Soil fertility was altered by mixing soil with varying proportions of rice husks, and applying a slow release fertilizer. A large variation was observed in leaf photosynthetic rate, mean relative growth rate (RGR), and TE in response to experimental treatments; these traits were well correlated with variation in leaf N concentration. Variation in TE showed a strong dependence on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO(2) mole fractions (c(i)/c(a)); both for instantaneous measurements of c(i)/c(a) (R(2)=0.69, P <0.0001, n=30), and integrated estimates based on C isotope discrimination (R(2)=0.88, P <0.0001, n=30). On the other hand, variations in the leaf-to-air humidity gradient, unproductive water loss, and respiratory C use probably played only minor roles in modulating TE in the face of variable soil fertility. The pronounced variation in TE resulted from a combination of the strong response of c(i)/c(a) to leaf N, and inherently high values of c(i)/c(a) for this tropical tree species; these two factors conspired to cause a 4-fold variation among treatments in (1-c(i)/c(a)), the term that actually modifies TE. Results suggest that variation in plant N status could have important implications for the coupling between C and water exchange in tropical forest trees.

  12. Transmission of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 by the vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus).

    PubMed

    Tsai, C-W; Chau, J; Fernandez, L; Bosco, D; Daane, K M; Almeida, R P P

    2008-10-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease is caused by grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaVs). Within this virus complex, GLRaV-3 is the predominant species in the world. Several GLRaVs have been shown to be transmitted from vine to vine by mealybugs although a detailed characterization of transmission biology is lacking. The introduction of the vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus) in California and other regions of the world may result in increasing disease incidence of established GLRaVs. We studied the characteristics of GLRaV-3 transmission by the vine mealybug. Our results indicate that the vine mealybug transmits GLRaV-3 in a semipersistent manner. First instars were more efficient vectors than adult mealybugs. GLRaV-3 transmission lacked a latent period in the vector. Virus transmission occurred with a 1-h acquisition access period (AAP) and peaked with a 24-h AAP. Mealybugs inoculated GLRaV-3 with a 1-h inoculation access period (IAP), and transmission efficiency increased with longer plant access period up to 24 h, after which transmission rate remained constant. After an AAP of 24 h, mealybugs lost GLRaV-3 and infectivity 4 days after virus acquisition. In addition, GLRaV-3 was not transovarially transmitted from infected females to their progeny as detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In summary, we systematically analyzed transmission parameters of GLRaV-3 by the vine mealybug and showed that transmission of this virus occurs in a semipersistent manner. This research fills in important gaps in knowledge of leafroll virus transmission, which is critical for development of leafroll disease management practices.

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of Ficus religiosa leaves against isoniazid+rifampicin and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Parameswari, Sundaramoorthi Angala; Chetty, Challa Madhusudhana; Chandrasekhar, Kothapalli Bannoth

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was designed to investigate the hepato protective effect of methanolic extract of Ficus religisoa L., Moraceae, on isoniazid-rifampicin and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups; group 1 served as a control received vehicle (Distilled water), group 2 served as a toxic control, received isoniazid-rifampicin (100 mg/ kg, i.p.) or paracetamol 200mg/kg, p.o in sterile water, groups 3, 4 and 5 received 100, 200 and 300mg/kg bw, p.o. methanolic extract of F. religisoa along with INH+RIF or paracetamol and group 6 received Liv 52 as reference standard. All the treatment protocols followed 21 days for INH+RIF model and seven days for paracetamol model, after treatment rats were sacrificed and blood was used for biochemical and liver was used for histological studies. Results: Administration of INH+RIF and paracetamol caused a significant elevation in the levels of liver marker enzymes (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (P < 0.001) in experimental rats. Administration of methanolic extracts of F. religisoa significantly prevented isoniazid-rifampicin and paracetamol induced elevation in the levels of serum diagnostic liver marker enzymes and TBARS level in experimental groups of rats. Moreover, total protein and reduced glutathione levels were significantly (P < 0.001) increased in treatment group. The effect of extract was compared with a standard drug, Liv 52. The changes in biochemical parameters were supported by histological profile. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of F. religisoa protects against isoniazid- rifampicin and paracetamol induced oxidative liver injury in rats. PMID:24174821

  14. Young Daughter Cladodes Affect CO2 Uptake by Mother Cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica

    PubMed Central

    PIMIENTA-BARRIOS, EULOGIO; ZAÑUDO-HERNANDEZ, JULIA; ROSAS-ESPINOZA, VERONICA C.; VALENZUELA-TAPIA, AMARANTA; NOBEL, PARK S.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Drought damages cultivated C3, C4 and CAM plants in the semi-arid lands of central Mexico. Drought damage to Opuntia is common when mother cladodes, planted during the dry spring season, develop young daughter cladodes that behave like C3 plants, with daytime stomatal opening and water loss. In contrast, wild Opuntia are less affected because daughter cladodes do not develop on them under extreme drought conditions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the number of daughter cladodes on gas exchange parameters of mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica exposed to varying soil water contents. • Methods Rates of net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content and relative water content were measured in mature mother cladodes with a variable number of daughter cladodes growing in spring under dry and wet conditions. • Key Results Daily carbon gain by mother cladodes was reduced as the number of daughter cladodes increased to eight, especially during drought. This was accompanied by decreased mother cladode relative water content, suggesting movement of water from mother to daughter cladodes. CO2 assimilation was most affected in phase IV of CAM (late afternoon net CO2 uptake) by the combined effects of daughter cladodes and drought. Rainfall raised the soil water content, decreasing the effects of daughter cladodes on net CO2 uptake by mother cladodes. • Conclusions Daughter cladodes significantly hasten the effects of drought on mother cladodes by competition for the water supply and thus decrease daily carbon gain by mother cladodes, mainly by inhibiting phase IV of CAM. PMID:15567805

  15. Application of Opuntia ficus-indica in bioremediation of wastewaters. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-15

    Heavy metal ion, pesticide and dye wastewaters cause severe ecological contamination with conventional treatment methods proving inadequate, unsuccessful or expensive to apply. Several biomaterials have recently been explored for the biosorption and biocoagulation-flocculation of pollutants from wastewaters. In the past 10 years, there has been an extensive research output on the use of biological materials such as agricultural wastes, chitosan, Moringa Oleifera, Eichhornia crassipes, bacteria, algae, Cactus plants etc. in environmental remediation. The present paper reviews the scattered information about the green technology involving Opuntia ficus-indica derived biomaterials in wastewater decontamination. Its characterization, physicochemical compositions, its application in biosorption and flocculation of dyes, pesticides and metallic species focussing on equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic properties are reviewed. The main results obtained in the depollution of a variety of contaminated wastewaters using cladodes, fruit pulp and peels mucilage and electrolytes show very high and promising pollutant maximum sorption capacities and removal percentages in the range -125.4-1000 mg/g and 0.31-2251.56 mg/g for the biosorption of dyes and metallic species respectively and removal % ranges of 50-98.7%, 11-93.62% and 17-100% for turbidity, chemical oxygen demand and heavy metals respectively by coagulation-flocculation process. The biomaterials proved to be efficient in pollutant removal that there is need to explore the scaling up of the study from the laboratory scale to community pilot plants and eventually to industrial levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Opuntia ficus indica on symptoms of the alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Jeff; McPherson, Steve; Odden, Michelle C; Shlipak, Michael G

    2004-06-28

    The severity of the alcohol hangover may be related to inflammation induced by impurities in the alcohol beverage and byproducts of alcohol metabolism. An extract of the Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) plant diminishes the inflammatory response to stressful stimuli. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 64 healthy, young adult volunteers were randomly assigned to receive OFI (1600 IU) and identical placebo, given 5 hours before alcohol consumption. During 4 hours, subjects consumed up to 1.75 g of alcohol per kilogram of body weight. Hangover severity (9 symptoms) and overall well-being were assessed on a scale (0-6), and blood and urine samples were obtained the following morning. Two weeks later, the study protocol was repeated with OFI and placebo reversed. Fifty-five subjects completed both the OFI and placebo arms of the study. Three of the 9 symptoms-nausea, dry mouth, and anorexia-were significantly reduced by OFI (all P<.05). Overall, the symptom index was reduced by 2.7 points on average (95% confidence interval, -0.2 to 5.5; P =.07), and the risk of a severe hangover (>/=18 points) was reduced by half (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.88; P =.02). C-reactive protein levels were strongly associated with hangover severity; the mean symptom index was 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-7.1; P =.007) higher in subjects with morning C-reactive protein levels greater than 1.0 mg/L. In addition, C-reactive protein levels were 40% higher after subjects consumed placebo compared with OFI. The symptoms of the alcohol hangover are largely due to the activation of inflammation. An extract of the OFI plant has a moderate effect on reducing hangover symptoms, apparently by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators.

  17. Young daughter cladodes affect CO2 uptake by mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Pimienta-Barrios, Eulogio; Zañudo-Hernandez, Julia; Rosas-Espinoza, Veronica C; Valenzuela-Tapia, Amaranta; Nobel, Park S

    2005-01-01

    Drought damages cultivated C3, C4 and CAM plants in the semi-arid lands of central Mexico. Drought damage to Opuntia is common when mother cladodes, planted during the dry spring season, develop young daughter cladodes that behave like C3 plants, with daytime stomatal opening and water loss. In contrast, wild Opuntia are less affected because daughter cladodes do not develop on them under extreme drought conditions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the number of daughter cladodes on gas exchange parameters of mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica exposed to varying soil water contents. Rates of net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content and relative water content were measured in mature mother cladodes with a variable number of daughter cladodes growing in spring under dry and wet conditions. Daily carbon gain by mother cladodes was reduced as the number of daughter cladodes increased to eight, especially during drought. This was accompanied by decreased mother cladode relative water content, suggesting movement of water from mother to daughter cladodes. CO2 assimilation was most affected in phase IV of CAM (late afternoon net CO2 uptake) by the combined effects of daughter cladodes and drought. Rainfall raised the soil water content, decreasing the effects of daughter cladodes on net CO2 uptake by mother cladodes. Daughter cladodes significantly hasten the effects of drought on mother cladodes by competition for the water supply and thus decrease daily carbon gain by mother cladodes, mainly by inhibiting phase IV of CAM.

  18. A New Classification of Ficus Subsection Urostigma (Moraceae) Based on Four Nuclear DNA Markers (ITS, ETS, G3pdh, and ncpGS), Morphology and Leaf Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Chantarasuwan, Bhanumas; Kjellberg, Finn; Rønsted, Nina; Garcia, Marjorie; Baider, Claudia; van Welzen, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Ficus subsection Urostigma as currently circumscribed contains 27 species, distributed in Africa, Asia, Australia and the Pacific, and is of key importance to understand the origin and evolution of Ficus and the fig-wasp mutualism. The species of subsection Urostigma are very variable in morphological characters and exhibit a wide range of often partly overlapping distributions, which makes identification often difficult. The systematic classification within and between this subsection and others is problematic, e.g., it is still unclear where to classify F. amplissima and F. rumphii. To clarify the circumscription of subsection Urostigma, a phylogenetic reconstruction based on four nuclear DNA markers (ITS, ETS, G3pdh, and ncpGS) combined with morphology and leaf anatomy is conducted. The phylogenetic tree based on the combined datasets shows that F. madagascariensis, a Madagascan species, is sister to the remainder of subsect. Urostigma. Ficus amplissima and F. rumphii, formerly constituting sect. Leucogyne, appear to be imbedded in subsect. Conosycea. The result of the phylogenetic analysis necessitates nomenclatural adjustments. A new classification of Ficus subsection Urostigma is presented along with the morphological and leaf anatomical apomorphies typical for the clades. Two new species are described ─ one in subsect. Urostigma, the other in Conosycea. One variety is raised to species level. PMID:26107649

  19. A New Classification of Ficus Subsection Urostigma (Moraceae) Based on Four Nuclear DNA Markers (ITS, ETS, G3pdh, and ncpGS), Morphology and Leaf Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Chantarasuwan, Bhanumas; Berg, Cornelis C; Kjellberg, Finn; Rønsted, Nina; Garcia, Marjorie; Baider, Claudia; van Welzen, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Ficus subsection Urostigma as currently circumscribed contains 27 species, distributed in Africa, Asia, Australia and the Pacific, and is of key importance to understand the origin and evolution of Ficus and the fig-wasp mutualism. The species of subsection Urostigma are very variable in morphological characters and exhibit a wide range of often partly overlapping distributions, which makes identification often difficult. The systematic classification within and between this subsection and others is problematic, e.g., it is still unclear where to classify F. amplissima and F. rumphii. To clarify the circumscription of subsection Urostigma, a phylogenetic reconstruction based on four nuclear DNA markers (ITS, ETS, G3pdh, and ncpGS) combined with morphology and leaf anatomy is conducted. The phylogenetic tree based on the combined datasets shows that F. madagascariensis, a Madagascan species, is sister to the remainder of subsect. Urostigma. Ficus amplissima and F. rumphii, formerly constituting sect. Leucogyne, appear to be imbedded in subsect. Conosycea. The result of the phylogenetic analysis necessitates nomenclatural adjustments. A new classification of Ficus subsection Urostigma is presented along with the morphological and leaf anatomical apomorphies typical for the clades. Two new species are described ─ one in subsect. Urostigma, the other in Conosycea. One variety is raised to species level.

  20. Sex pheromone of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus in Israel: occurrence of a second component in a mass-reared population.

    PubMed

    Zada, A; Dunkelblum, E; Assael, F; Harel, M; Cojocaru, M; Mendel, Z

    2003-04-01

    Two pheromonal components were detected in airborne collections from the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) mass-reared on potato sprouts. The compounds were identified as (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II) by GC and GC-MS by comparison with synthetic standards. Chiral GC analysis on a cyclodextrin column established their chirality. Compound I was identified recently as the sex pheromone of P. ficus in California. The attraction of vine mealybug males to both components I and II was demonstrated in a Petri dish bioassay and in a flight assay in the rearing chamber. Indoors, both compounds displayed a similar level of attractiveness to the mass-reared males. However, trials in a vineyard indicated that feral males were attracted only to compound I. Reanalysis of the airborne pheromone indicated that laboratory first generation daughters of females that were collected in the vineyard produce only (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I). The relative amount of (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II) increased gradually in each subsequent generation of P. ficus reared on potatoes. These findings indicate that feral P. ficus mealybugs produce and respond only to (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I), whereas mealybugs that were reared in the laboratory on potato sprouts produce and respond to both (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II).

  1. Exchange of hosts: can agaonid fig wasps reproduce successfully in the figs of non-host Ficus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pei; Li, Zongbo; Peng, Yanqiong; Yang, Darong

    2012-03-01

    In the obligate mutualism between figs ( Ficus) and their specific pollinators (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae), each species of fig wasp typically reproduces in figs of a single host species. Host specificity is maintained largely because pollinators are attracted to tree-specific volatiles released from their host figs, but whether the wasps can reproduce if they enter figs of non-host species is unclear. We investigated the reproductive success of Ceratosolen emarginatus (associated with Ficus auriculata) and Ceratosolen sp. (associated with F. hainanensis) in atypical hosts by experimentally introducing foundresses into host and non-host figs. F. auriculata figs entered by Ceratosolen sp. were more likely to abort than if entered by C. emarginatus, but abortion of F. hainanensis figs was not affected by pollinator species. Single C. emarginatus foundresses produced more but smaller offspring in F. hainanensis than in their normal host. Conversely Ceratosolen sp. produced fewer but larger offspring in F. auriculata than in their normal host, probably as a result of having longer to develop. Mean style length differences, relative to the lengths of the wasps' ovipositors, may have dictated the number of offspring produced, with oviposition made easier by the shorter styles in F. hainanensis figs. Our results imply that, in addition to morphological constraints and tree-specific volatiles, reduced reproductive success in atypical hosts can be another factor maintaining host specificity, but for other species only behavioural changes are required for host switching to occur.

  2. Activities of carboxylating enzymes in the CAM species Opuntia ficus-indica grown under current and elevated CO2 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Israel, A A; Nobel, P S

    1994-06-01

    Responses of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) to an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were determined along with net CO2 uptake rates for the Crassulacean acid metabolism species Opuntia ficus-indica growing in open-top chambers. During the spring 13 months after planting, total daily net CO2 uptake of basal and first-order daughter cladodes was 28% higher at 720 than at 360 μl CO2 l(-1). The enhancement, caused mainly by higher CO2 assimilation during the early part of the night, was also observed during late summer (5 months after planting) and the following winter. The activities of Rubisco and PEPCase measured in vitro were both lower at the elevated CO2 concentration, particularly under the more favorable growth conditions in the spring and late summer. Enzyme activity in second-order daughter cladodes increased with cladode age, becoming maximal at 6 to 10 days. The effect ofelevated CO2 on Rubisco and PEPCase activity declined with decreasing irradiance, especially for Rubisco. Throughout the 13-month observation period, O. ficus-indica thus showed increased CO2 uptake when the atmospheric CO2 concentration was doubled despite lower activities of both carboxylating enzymes.

  3. Patterns of genomic diversification reflect differences in life history and reproductive biology between figs (Ficus) and the stone oaks (Lithocarpus).

    PubMed

    Kua, Chai-Shian; Cannon, Charles H

    2017-09-01

    One of the remarkable aspects of the tremendous biodiversity found in tropical forests is the wide range of evolutionary strategies that have produced this diversity, indicating many paths to diversification. We compare two diverse groups of trees with profoundly different biologies to discover whether these differences are reflected in their genomes. Ficus (Moraceae), with its complex co-evolutionary relationship with obligate pollinating wasps, produces copious tiny seeds that are widely dispersed. Lithocarpus (Fagaceae), with generalized insect pollination, produces large seeds that are poorly dispersed. We hypothesize that these different reproductive biologies and life history strategies should have a profound impact on the basic properties of genomic divergence within each genus. Using shallow whole genome sequencing for six species of Ficus, seven species of Lithocarpus, and three outgroups, we examined overall genomic diversity, how it is shared among the species within each genus, and the fraction of this shared diversity that agrees with the major phylogenetic pattern. A substantially larger fraction of the genome is shared among species of Lithocarpus, a considerable amount of this shared diversity was incongruent with the general background history of the genomes, and each fig species possessed a substantially larger fraction of unique diversity than Lithocarpus.

  4. Phytochemical Compositions and Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Extracts from Ficus pandurata H. (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Huiqing; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, XueZhi; Xie, Zhijun; Wen, Chengping; Jiang, Kezhi

    2013-01-01

    Background. Ficus pandurata H. (Moraceae) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as a healthy food condiment or a medicine for treatment of various diseases including inflammation. Objective. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the phytochemical compositions and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of crude water (FPW) and ethanolic extracts (FPE) from Ficus pandurata H. Methods. Phytochemical compositions were identified by a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method (HPLC-ESI-MS). The antioxidant activities were evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical assays, and the anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated by paw edema and levels of inflammatory mediator TNF-α and PGE2 in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced rats. Results. Six compounds were identified by HPLC-MS method, and abundance of phenolics was found in FPE. The FPE showed concentration-dependent-significant scavenging of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals with IC50 values 118.4 and 192.9 μg/mL, respectively. The FPE treatment significantly inhibited the paw edema and the production of TNF-α and PGE2 in MSU crystal-induced rats. Conclusion. The FPE exerted stronger antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities which may be attributed to its high phenolic content. PMID:24191163

  5. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice upon ethanol-induced damages in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2012-05-01

    Juice from the fruit of the cactus Opuntia ficus indica is claimed to possess several health-beneficial properties. The present study was carried out to determine whether O. ficus indica f. inermis fruit extract might have a protective effect upon physiological and morphological damages inflicted to erythrocytes membrane by chronic ethanol poisoning, per os, in rat. Chemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and betalains. Ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w, per day for 90 days) induced an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonylated proteins levels and a decrease of glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocyte. Ethanol administration also reduced the scavenging activity in plasma and enhanced erythrocytes hemolysis, as compared to control rats. In addition, ethanol intake increased the erythrocyte shape index by +895.5% and decreased the erythrocyte diameter by -61.53% as compared to controls. In animals also given prickly pear juice during the same experimental period, the studied parameters were much less shifted. This protective effect was found to be dose-dependent. It is likely that the beneficial effect of the extract is due to the high content of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Protein Domain Analysis of Genomic Sequence Data Reveals Regulation of LRR Related Domains in Plant Transpiration in Ficus

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Tiange; Yin, Kangquan; Liu, Jinyu; Cao, Kunfang; Cannon, Charles H.; Du, Fang K.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting protein domains is essential for understanding a protein’s function at the molecular level. However, up till now, there has been no direct and straightforward method for predicting protein domains in species without a reference genome sequence. In this study, we developed a functionality with a set of programs that can predict protein domains directly from genomic sequence data without a reference genome. Using whole genome sequence data, the programming functionality mainly comprised DNA assembly in combination with next-generation sequencing (NGS) assembly methods and traditional methods, peptide prediction and protein domain prediction. The proposed new functionality avoids problems associated with de novo assembly due to micro reads and small single repeats. Furthermore, we applied our functionality for the prediction of leucine rich repeat (LRR) domains in four species of Ficus with no reference genome, based on NGS genomic data. We found that the LRRNT_2 and LRR_8 domains are related to plant transpiration efficiency, as indicated by the stomata index, in the four species of Ficus. The programming functionality established in this study provides new insights for protein domain prediction, which is particularly timely in the current age of NGS data expansion. PMID:25269070

  7. Acute and chronic toxicity studies on partially purified hypoglycemic preparation from water extract of bark ofFicus bengalensis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Shukla, R; Prabhu, K M; Aggrawal, S; Rusia, U; Murthy, P S

    2002-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity studies were conducted to assess toxicity of a partially purified preparation from the water extract of the bark ofFicus bengalensis, which was demonstrated in our earlier studies to have significant hypoglycemic and hypocholesteroiemic effect on alloxan induced, mild and severe diabetes in rabbits. LD(50) of this preparation was found to be ∼1 gm/kg in rats when given orally. For chronic toxicity studies 3 doses of aqueous preparation were given to 3 groups of rats. First group received 5 times ED(50) (50 mg/kg), second group 10 times ED(50) (100 mg/kg) and the third group 15 times ED(50) (150 mg/kg) for 3 months. Fourth group which served as control was given water. After three months, blood was collected for studying biochemical and hematological parameters. Blood glucose, serum cholesterol, liver and kidney function tests, haemoglobin, total and differential leukocyte count were determined. Animals were sacrificed and histopathological examination of liver, heart and kidneys was carried out. Results of the study showed that partially purified preparation fromFicus bengalensis is not toxic by all the above mentioned parameters.

  8. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) Protects Against Stress-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800–1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:23062184

  10. The polysaccharide and low molecular weight components of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes: Structure and skin repairing properties.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Schiraldi, Chiara; D'Agostino, Antonella; Izzo, Elisabetta; Rizza, Luisa; Bonina, Andrea; Bonina, Francesco; Lanzetta, Rosa

    2017-02-10

    The Opuntia ficus-indica multiple properties are reflected in the increasing interest of chemists in the identification of its natural components having pharmaceutical and/or cosmetical applications. Here we report the structural elucidation of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage that highlighted the presence of components differing for their chemical nature and the molecular weight distribution. The high molecular weight components were identified as a linear galactan polymer and a highly branched xyloarabinan. The low molecular weight components were identified as lactic acid, D-mannitol, piscidic, eucomic and 2-hydroxy-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-butanoic acids. A wound healing assay was performed in order to test the cicatrizing properties of the various components, highlighting the ability of these latter to fasten dermal regeneration using a simplified in vitro cellular model based on a scratched keratinocytes monolayer. The results showed that the whole Opuntia mucilage and the low molecular weight components are active in the wound repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioactives in cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) stems possess potent antioxidant and pro-apoptotic activities through COX-2 involvement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhee; Soh, Soon Yil; Shin, Juha; Cho, Chi-Woung;