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Sample records for file bl stn

  1. STN1-POLA2 interaction provides a basis for primase-pol α stimulation by human STN1.

    PubMed

    Ganduri, Swapna; Lue, Neal F

    2017-09-19

    The CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) complex mediates critical functions in maintaining telomere DNA and overcoming genome-wide replication stress. A conserved biochemical function of the CST complex is its primase-Pol α (PP) stimulatory activity. In this report, we demonstrate the ability of purified human STN1 alone to promote PP activity in vitro. We show that this regulation is mediated primarily by the N-terminal OB fold of STN1, but does not require the DNA-binding activity of this domain. Rather, we observed a strong correlation between the PP-stimulatory activity of STN1 variants and their abilities to bind POLA2. Remarkably, the main binding target of STN1 in POLA2 is the latter's central OB fold domain. In the substrate-free structure of PP, this domain is positioned so as to block nucleic acid entry to the Pol α active site. Thus the STN1-POLA2 interaction may promote the necessary conformational change for nucleic acid delivery to Pol α and subsequent DNA synthesis. A disease-causing mutation in human STN1 engenders a selective defect in POLA2-binding and PP stimulation, indicating that these activities are critical for the in vivo function of STN1. Our findings have implications for the molecular mechanisms of PP, STN1 and STN1-related molecular pathology. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Brittle Dyskinesia Following STN but not GPi Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Ashok; Foote, Kelly D.; Oyama, Genko; Kwak, Joshua; Zeilman, Pam R.; Okun, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of difficult to manage dyskinesia associated with subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS). A small subset of STN DBS patients experience troublesome dyskinesia despite optimal programming and medication adjustments. This group of patients has been referred to by some practitioners as brittle STN DBS-induced dyskinesia, drawing on comparisons with brittle diabetics experiencing severe blood sugar regulation issues and on a single description by McLellan in 1982. We sought to describe, and also to investigate how often the “brittle” phenomenon occurs in a relatively large DBS practice. Methods An Institutional Review Board-approved patient database was reviewed, and all STN and globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS patients who had surgery at the University of Florida from July 2002 to July 2012 were extracted for analysis. Results There were 179 total STN DBS patients and, of those, four STN DBS (2.2%) cases were identified as having dyskinesia that could not be managed without the induction of an “off state,” or by the precipitation of a severe dyskinesia despite vigorous stimulation and medication adjustments. Of 75 GPi DBS cases reviewed, none (0%) was identified as having brittle dyskinesia. One STN DBS patient was successfully rescued by bilateral GPi DBS. Discussion Understanding the potential risk factors for postoperative troublesome and brittle dyskinesia may have an impact on the initial surgical target selection (STN vs. GPI) in DBS therapy. Rescue GPi DBS therapy may be a viable treatment option, though more cases will be required to verify this observation. PMID:24932426

  3. The Student Telescope Network (STN) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannahoe, Ryan M.; Stencel, Robert E.; Bisque, Steve; Rice, Mike

    2003-02-01

    support of this effort, and acknowleedge in-kind support from the estate of William Herschel Womble. Details at website www.du.edu/~rstencel/stn.htm.

  4. Amantadine improves gait in PD patients with STN stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hiu-Fai; Kukkle, Prashanth L; Merello, Marcelo; Lim, Shen-Yang; Poon, Yu-Yan; Moro, Elena

    2013-03-01

    In advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), axial symptoms such as speech, gait, and balance impairment often become levodopa-unresponsive and they are difficult to manage, even in patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). We anecdotally observed that oral administration of amantadine was very effective in treating both residual and stimulation-induced axial symptoms after bilateral STN-DBS in one PD patient. Therefore, we conducted a prospective multicenter observational study to evaluate the effects of amantadine on speech, gait and balance in PD patients with STN-DBS and incomplete axial benefit. Primary outcomes were changes in speech (UPDRS III, item 18), gait (item 29) and postural stability (item 30) with amantadine treatment compared to baseline. Secondary outcome was the patients' subjective scoring of axial symptoms with amantadine compared to baseline. Forty-six PD patients with STN-DBS were enrolled in the study and followed for 10.35 ± 8.21 months (median: 9.00; range: 1-31). The mean daily dose of amantadine was 273.44 ± 47.49 mg. Gait scores significantly improved (from 1.51 ± 0.89 to 1.11 ± 0.92, P = 0.015) with amantadine treatment, whereas postural stability and speech scores were similar before and after treatment. Thirty-five (76.1%) patients reported subjective improvement in speech, gait or balance with amantadine, whereas thirty (65.2%) patients reported improvement in gait and balance. In conclusion, our data suggest that amantadine may have new beneficial effects on axial symptoms in PD patients with STN-DBS.

  5. Comparative phosphoproteome profiling reveals a function of the STN8 kinase in fine-tuning of cyclic electron flow (CEF)

    PubMed Central

    Reiland, Sonja; Finazzi, Giovanni; Endler, Anne; Willig, Adrian; Baerenfaller, Katja; Grossmann, Jonas; Gerrits, Bertran; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Rochaix, Jean-David; Baginsky, Sacha

    2011-01-01

    Important aspects of photosynthetic electron transport efficiency in chloroplasts are controlled by protein phosphorylation. Two thylakoid-associated kinases, STN7 and STN8, have distinct roles in short- and long-term photosynthetic acclimation to changes in light quality and quantity. Although some substrates of STN7 and STN8 are known, the complexity of this regulatory kinase system implies that currently unknown substrates connect photosynthetic performance with the regulation of metabolic and regulatory functions. We performed an unbiased phosphoproteome-wide screen with Arabidopsis WT and stn8 mutant plants to identify unique STN8 targets. The phosphorylation status of STN7 was not affected in stn8, indicating that kinases other than STN8 phosphorylate STN7 under standard growth conditions. Among several putative STN8 substrates, PGRL1-A is of particular importance because of its possible role in the modulation of cyclic electron transfer. The STN8 phosphorylation site on PGRL1-A is absent in both monocotyledonous plants and algae. In dicots, spectroscopic measurements with Arabidopsis WT, stn7, stn8, and stn7/stn8 double-mutant plants indicate a STN8-mediated slowing down of the transition from cyclic to linear electron flow at the onset of illumination. This finding suggests a possible link between protein phosphorylation by STN8 and fine-tuning of cyclic electron flow during this critical step of photosynthesis, when the carbon assimilation is not commensurate to the electron flow capacity of the chloroplast. PMID:21768351

  6. Stn1-Ten1 is an Rpa2-Rpa3-like complex at telomeres

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jia; Yu, Eun Young; Yang, Yuting; Confer, Laura A; Sun, Steven H; Wan, Ke; Lue, Neal F; Lei, Ming

    2010-09-02

    In budding yeast, Cdc13, Stn1, and Ten1 form a heterotrimeric complex (CST) that is essential for telomere protection and maintenance. Previous bioinformatics analysis revealed a putative oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold at the N terminus of Stn1 (Stn1N) that shows limited sequence similarity to the OB fold of Rpa2, a subunit of the eukaryotic ssDNA-binding protein complex replication protein A (RPA). Here we present functional and structural analyses of Stn1 and Ten1 from multiple budding and fission yeast. The crystal structure of the Candida tropicalis Stn1N complexed with Ten1 demonstrates an Rpa2N-Rpa3-like complex. In both structures, the OB folds of the two components pack against each other through interactions between two C-terminal helices. The structure of the C-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Stn1 (Stn1C) was found to comprise two related winged helix-turn-helix (WH) motifs, one of which is most similar to the WH motif at the C terminus of Rpa2, again supporting the notion that Stn1 resembles Rpa2. The crystal structure of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Stn1N-Ten1 complex exhibits a virtually identical architecture as the C. tropicalis Stn1N-Ten1. Functional analyses of the Candida albicans Stn1 and Ten1 proteins revealed critical roles for these proteins in suppressing aberrant telomerase and recombination activities at telomeres. Mutations that disrupt the Stn1-Ten1 interaction induce telomere uncapping and abolish the telomere localization of Ten1. Collectively, our structural and functional studies illustrate that, instead of being confined to budding yeast telomeres, the CST complex may represent an evolutionarily conserved RPA-like telomeric complex at the 3' overhangs that works in parallel with or instead of the well-characterized POT1-TPP1/TEBP{alpha}-{beta} complex.

  7. Comparison of weight changes following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS for advanced PD.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eric M; Kurundkar, Ashish; Cutter, Gary R; Huang, He; Guthrie, Barton L; Watts, Ray L; Walker, Harrison C

    2011-09-01

    Unilateral and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) result in weight gain in the initial postoperative months, but little is known about the changes in weight following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS over longer time intervals. A case-control comparison evaluated weight changes over 2 years in 43 consecutive unilateral STN DBS patients, among whom 25 elected to undergo staged bilateral STN DBS, and 21 age-matched and disease severity matched PD controls without DBS. Regression analyses incorporating age, gender, and baseline weight in case or control were conducted to assess weight changes 2 years after the initial unilateral surgery. Unilateral STN DBS and staged bilateral STN DBS patients gained 3.9 ± 2.0 kg and 5.6 ± 2.1 kg versus their preoperative baseline weight (P < 0.001, respectively) while PD controls without DBS lost 0.8 ± 1.1 kg. Although bilateral STN DBS patients gained 1.7 kg more than unilateral STN DBS patients at 2 years, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.885). Although there was a trend toward greater weight gain in staged bilateral STN DBS patients versus unilateral patients, we found no evidence for an equivalent or synergistic increase in body weight following placement of the second DBS electrode.

  8. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF SEATTLE PM 2.5: A COMPARISON OF IMPROVE AND ENHANCED STN DATA SETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seattle, WA, STN and IMPROVE data sets with STN temperature resolved carbon peaks were analyzed with both the PMF and Unmix receptor models. In addition, the IMPROVE trace element data was combined with the major STN species to examine the role of IMPROVE metals. To compare the ...

  9. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF SEATTLE PM 2.5: A COMPARISON OF IMPROVE AND ENHANCED STN DATA SETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seattle, WA, STN and IMPROVE data sets with STN temperature resolved carbon peaks were analyzed with both the PMF and Unmix receptor models. In addition, the IMPROVE trace element data was combined with the major STN species to examine the role of IMPROVE metals. To compare the ...

  10. Stn1 is critical for telomere maintenance and long-term viability of somatic human cells.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Virginia; Razdan, Neetu; Kaplunov, Jessica; Mundra, Jyoti J; Kimura, Masayuki; Aviv, Abraham; Herbig, Utz

    2015-06-01

    Disruption of telomere maintenance pathways leads to accelerated entry into cellular senescence, a stable proliferative arrest that promotes aging-associated disorders in some mammals. The budding yeast CST complex, comprising Cdc13, Stn1, and Ctc1, is critical for telomere replication, length regulation, and end protection. Although mammalian homologues of CST have been identified recently, their role and function for telomere maintenance in normal somatic human cells are still incompletely understood. Here, we characterize the function of human Stn1 in cultured human fibroblasts and demonstrate its critical role in telomere replication, length regulation, and function. In the absence of high telomerase activity, shRNA-mediated knockdown of hStn1 resulted in aberrant and fragile telomeric structures, stochastic telomere attrition, increased telomere erosion rates, telomere dysfunction, and consequently accelerated entry into cellular senescence. Oxidative stress augmented the defects caused by Stn1 knockdown leading to almost immediate cessation of cell proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of hTERT suppressed some of the defects caused by hStn1 knockdown suggesting that telomerase can partially compensate for hStn1 loss. Our findings reveal a critical role for human Stn1 in telomere length maintenance and function, supporting the model that efficient replication of telomeric repeats is critical for long-term viability of normal somatic mammalian cells.

  11. Stn1 is critical for telomere maintenance and long-term viability of somatic human cells

    PubMed Central

    Boccardi, Virginia; Razdan, Neetu; Kaplunov, Jessica; Mundra, Jyoti J; Kimura, Masayuki; Aviv, Abraham; Herbig, Utz

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of telomere maintenance pathways leads to accelerated entry into cellular senescence, a stable proliferative arrest that promotes aging-associated disorders in some mammals. The budding yeast CST complex, comprising Cdc13, Stn1, and Ctc1, is critical for telomere replication, length regulation, and end protection. Although mammalian homologues of CST have been identified recently, their role and function for telomere maintenance in normal somatic human cells are still incompletely understood. Here, we characterize the function of human Stn1 in cultured human fibroblasts and demonstrate its critical role in telomere replication, length regulation, and function. In the absence of high telomerase activity, shRNA-mediated knockdown of hStn1 resulted in aberrant and fragile telomeric structures, stochastic telomere attrition, increased telomere erosion rates, telomere dysfunction, and consequently accelerated entry into cellular senescence. Oxidative stress augmented the defects caused by Stn1 knockdown leading to almost immediate cessation of cell proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of hTERT suppressed some of the defects caused by hStn1 knockdown suggesting that telomerase can partially compensate for hStn1 loss. Our findings reveal a critical role for human Stn1 in telomere length maintenance and function, supporting the model that efficient replication of telomeric repeats is critical for long-term viability of normal somatic mammalian cells. PMID:25684230

  12. Effects of antidromic and orthodromic activation of STN afferent axons during DBS in Parkinson's disease: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Guiyeom; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that subthalamic nucleus (STN)-Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) may exert at least part of its therapeutic effect through the antidromic suppression of pathological oscillations in the cortex in 6-OHDA treated rats and in parkinsonian patients. STN-DBS may also activate STN neurons by initiating action potential propagation in the orthodromic direction, similarly resulting in suppression of pathological oscillations in the STN. While experimental studies have provided strong evidence in support of antidromic stimulation of cortical neurons, it is difficult to separate relative contributions of antidromic and orthodromic effects of STN-DBS. The aim of this computational study was to examine the effects of antidromic and orthodromic activation on neural firing patterns and beta-band (13-30 Hz) oscillations in the STN and cortex during DBS of STN afferent axons projecting from the cortex. High frequency antidromic stimulation alone effectively suppressed simulated beta activity in both the cortex and STN-globus pallidus externa (GPe) network. High frequency orthodromic stimulation similarly suppressed beta activity within the STN and GPe through the direct stimulation of STN neurons driven by DBS at the same frequency as the stimulus. The combined effect of both antidromic and orthodromic stimulation modulated cortical activity antidromically while simultaneously orthodromically driving STN neurons. While high frequency DBS reduced STN beta-band power, low frequency stimulation resulted in resonant effects, increasing beta-band activity, consistent with previous experimental observations. The simulation results indicate effective suppression of simulated oscillatory activity through both antidromic stimulation of cortical neurons and direct orthodromic stimulation of STN neurons. The results of the study agree with experimental recordings of STN and cortical neurons in rats and support the therapeutic potential of stimulation of cortical neurons.

  13. Effects of antidromic and orthodromic activation of STN afferent axons during DBS in Parkinson's disease: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Guiyeom; Lowery, Madeleine M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that subthalamic nucleus (STN)-Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) may exert at least part of its therapeutic effect through the antidromic suppression of pathological oscillations in the cortex in 6-OHDA treated rats and in parkinsonian patients. STN-DBS may also activate STN neurons by initiating action potential propagation in the orthodromic direction, similarly resulting in suppression of pathological oscillations in the STN. While experimental studies have provided strong evidence in support of antidromic stimulation of cortical neurons, it is difficult to separate relative contributions of antidromic and orthodromic effects of STN-DBS. The aim of this computational study was to examine the effects of antidromic and orthodromic activation on neural firing patterns and beta-band (13-30 Hz) oscillations in the STN and cortex during DBS of STN afferent axons projecting from the cortex. High frequency antidromic stimulation alone effectively suppressed simulated beta activity in both the cortex and STN-globus pallidus externa (GPe) network. High frequency orthodromic stimulation similarly suppressed beta activity within the STN and GPe through the direct stimulation of STN neurons driven by DBS at the same frequency as the stimulus. The combined effect of both antidromic and orthodromic stimulation modulated cortical activity antidromically while simultaneously orthodromically driving STN neurons. While high frequency DBS reduced STN beta-band power, low frequency stimulation resulted in resonant effects, increasing beta-band activity, consistent with previous experimental observations. The simulation results indicate effective suppression of simulated oscillatory activity through both antidromic stimulation of cortical neurons and direct orthodromic stimulation of STN neurons. The results of the study agree with experimental recordings of STN and cortical neurons in rats and support the therapeutic potential of stimulation of cortical neurons

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Elective Conversion From Sotrastaurin (STN) to Tacrolimus (TAC) or Mycophenolate (MPS) in Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Hannun, Pedro; Felipe, Claudia; Ferreira, Alexandra; Sandes-Freitas, Tainá; Cristelli, Marina; Aguiar, Wilson; Franco, Marcello; Campos, Erika; Gerbase de Lima, Maria; Tedesco-Silva, Hélio; Medina-Pestana, José

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety outcomes of conversion strategies in stable kidney transplant recipients after premature termination of the sotrastaurin (STN) development program. This is an exploratory and prospective study, including 38 stable renal transplant recipients. Tacrolimus (TAC) group [STN → mycophenolate sodium (MPS)] consisted of 9 patients receiving TAC, STN, and prednisone that were converted from STN to MPS. Everolimus (EVR) group (STN → TAC) consisted of 29 patients receiving EVR, STN, and prednisone that were converted from STN to TAC. In TAC (STN → MPS) group, dose-adjusted TAC concentrations decreased from baseline to first week (2.3 ± 1.1 versus 1.5 ± 1.0 ng·mL·mg, P < 0.05). Two patients experienced a first acute rejection episode. Conversion to MPS was associated with a higher incidence of adverse events. In EVR (STN → TAC) group, dose-adjusted EVR concentrations decreased from baseline to first week (3.6 ± 2.3 ng·mL·mg versus 1.9 ± 0.8 ng·mL·mg, P < 0.01). The proportion of patients with donor-specific antibodies was lower in TAC (STN → MPS) (11%) compared to EVR (STN → TAC) (31%) before conversion. Conversion from STN to TAC was associated with a reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (69.6 ± 16.9 versus 61.0 ± 18.8 mL·min·1.73 m, P < 0.01) and a decreased proportion of patients with donor-specific antibodies (31% versus 14%) at 12 months. Conversion from TAC/STN to TAC/MPS or from EVR/STN to TAC/EVR was associated with significant pharmacokinetic changes in both TAC and EVR whole-blood trough concentrations due to known drug-to-drug interaction, which were associated with changes in efficacy and safety.

  15. Stn1–Ten1 is an Rpa2–Rpa3-like complex at telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia; Yu, Eun Young; Yang, Yuting; Confer, Laura A.; Sun, Steven H.; Wan, Ke; Lue, Neal F.; Lei, Ming

    2009-01-01

    In budding yeast, Cdc13, Stn1, and Ten1 form a heterotrimeric complex (CST) that is essential for telomere protection and maintenance. Previous bioinformatics analysis revealed a putative oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold at the N terminus of Stn1 (Stn1N) that shows limited sequence similarity to the OB fold of Rpa2, a subunit of the eukaryotic ssDNA-binding protein complex replication protein A (RPA). Here we present functional and structural analyses of Stn1 and Ten1 from multiple budding and fission yeast. The crystal structure of the Candida tropicalis Stn1N complexed with Ten1 demonstrates an Rpa2N–Rpa3-like complex. In both structures, the OB folds of the two components pack against each other through interactions between two C-terminal helices. The structure of the C-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Stn1 (Stn1C) was found to comprise two related winged helix–turn–helix (WH) motifs, one of which is most similar to the WH motif at the C terminus of Rpa2, again supporting the notion that Stn1 resembles Rpa2. The crystal structure of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Stn1N–Ten1 complex exhibits a virtually identical architecture as the C. tropicalis Stn1N–Ten1. Functional analyses of the Candida albicans Stn1 and Ten1 proteins revealed critical roles for these proteins in suppressing aberrant telomerase and recombination activities at telomeres. Mutations that disrupt the Stn1–Ten1 interaction induce telomere uncapping and abolish the telomere localization of Ten1. Collectively, our structural and functional studies illustrate that, instead of being confined to budding yeast telomeres, the CST complex may represent an evolutionarily conserved RPA-like telomeric complex at the 3′ overhangs that works in parallel with or instead of the well-characterized POT1–TPP1/TEBPα–β complex. PMID:20008938

  16. Articulatory Changes in Vowel Production following STN DBS and Levodopa Intake in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Martel Sauvageau, Vincent; Roy, Johanna-Pascale; Cantin, Léo; Prud'Homme, Michel; Langlois, Mélanie; Macoir, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the impact of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) and levodopa intake on vowel articulation in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Vowel articulation was assessed in seven Quebec French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD who underwent STN DBS. Assessments were conducted on- and off-medication, first prior to surgery and then 1 year later. All recordings were made on-stimulation. Vowel articulation was measured using acoustic vowel space and formant centralization ratio. Results. Compared to the period before surgery, vowel articulation was reduced after surgery when patients were off-medication, while it was better on-medication. The impact of levodopa intake on vowel articulation changed with STN DBS: before surgery, levodopa impaired articulation, while it no longer had a negative effect after surgery. Conclusions. These results indicate that while STN DBS could lead to a direct deterioration in articulation, it may indirectly improve it by reducing the levodopa dose required to manage motor symptoms. These findings suggest that, with respect to speech production, STN DBS and levodopa intake cannot be investigated separately because the two are intrinsically linked. Along with motor symptoms, speech production should be considered when optimizing therapeutic management of patients with PD.

  17. Articulatory Changes in Vowel Production following STN DBS and Levodopa Intake in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cantin, Léo; Prud'Homme, Michel; Langlois, Mélanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the impact of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) and levodopa intake on vowel articulation in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Vowel articulation was assessed in seven Quebec French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD who underwent STN DBS. Assessments were conducted on- and off-medication, first prior to surgery and then 1 year later. All recordings were made on-stimulation. Vowel articulation was measured using acoustic vowel space and formant centralization ratio. Results. Compared to the period before surgery, vowel articulation was reduced after surgery when patients were off-medication, while it was better on-medication. The impact of levodopa intake on vowel articulation changed with STN DBS: before surgery, levodopa impaired articulation, while it no longer had a negative effect after surgery. Conclusions. These results indicate that while STN DBS could lead to a direct deterioration in articulation, it may indirectly improve it by reducing the levodopa dose required to manage motor symptoms. These findings suggest that, with respect to speech production, STN DBS and levodopa intake cannot be investigated separately because the two are intrinsically linked. Along with motor symptoms, speech production should be considered when optimizing therapeutic management of patients with PD. PMID:26558134

  18. Comparative study of microelectrode recording-based STN location and MRI-based STN location in low to ultra-high field (7.0 T) T2-weighted MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhagen, Rens; Schuurman, P. Richard; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Fiorella Contarino, M.; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Bour, Lo J.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. The correspondence between the anatomical STN and the STN observed in T2-weighted MRI images used for deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting remains unclear. Using a new method, we compared the STN borders seen on MRI images with those estimated by intraoperative microelectrode recordings (MER). Approach. We developed a method to automatically generate a detailed estimation of STN shape and the location of its borders, based on multiple-channel MER measurements. In 33 STNs of 19 Parkinson patients, we quantitatively compared the dorsal and lateral borders of this MER-based STN model with the STN borders visualized by 1.5 T (n = 14), 3.0 T (n = 10) and 7.0 T (n = 9) T2-weighted MRI. Main results. The dorsal border was identified more dorsally on coronal T2 MRI than by the MER-based STN model, with a significant difference in the 3.0 T (range 0.97-1.19 mm) and 7.0 T (range 1.23-1.25 mm) groups. The lateral border was significantly more medial on 1.5 T (mean: 1.97 mm) and 3.0 T (mean: 2.49 mm) MRI than in the MER-based STN; a difference that was not found in the 7.0 T group. Significance. The STN extends further in the dorsal direction on coronal T2 MRI images than is measured by MER. Increasing MRI field strength to 3.0 T or 7.0 T yields similar discrepancies between MER and MRI at the dorsal STN border. In contrast, increasing MRI field strength to 7.0 T may be useful for identification of the lateral STN border and thereby improve DBS targeting.

  19. Mutations in STN1 cause Coats plus syndrome and are associated with genomic and telomere defects.

    PubMed

    Simon, Amos J; Lev, Atar; Zhang, Yong; Weiss, Batia; Rylova, Anna; Eyal, Eran; Kol, Nitzan; Barel, Ortal; Cesarkas, Keren; Soudack, Michalle; Greenberg-Kushnir, Noa; Rhodes, Michele; Wiest, David L; Schiby, Ginette; Barshack, Iris; Katz, Shulamit; Pras, Elon; Poran, Hana; Reznik-Wolf, Haike; Ribakovsky, Elena; Simon, Carlos; Hazou, Wadi; Sidi, Yechezkel; Lahad, Avishay; Katzir, Hagar; Sagie, Shira; Aqeilan, Haifa A; Glousker, Galina; Amariglio, Ninette; Tzfati, Yehuda; Selig, Sara; Rechavi, Gideon; Somech, Raz

    2016-07-25

    The analysis of individuals with telomere defects may shed light on the delicate interplay of factors controlling genome stability, premature aging, and cancer. We herein describe two Coats plus patients with telomere and genomic defects; both harbor distinct, novel mutations in STN1, a member of the human CTC1-STN1-TEN1 (CST) complex, thus linking this gene for the first time to a human telomeropathy. We characterized the patients' phenotype, recapitulated it in a zebrafish model and rescued cellular and clinical aspects by the ectopic expression of wild-type STN1 or by thalidomide treatment. Interestingly, a significant lengthy control of the gastrointestinal bleeding in one of our patients was achieved by thalidomide treatment, exemplifying a successful bed-to-bench-and-back approach.

  20. Mutations in STN1 cause Coats plus syndrome and are associated with genomic and telomere defects

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Amos J.; Lev, Atar; Zhang, Yong; Weiss, Batia; Rylova, Anna; Eyal, Eran; Kol, Nitzan; Cesarkas, Keren; Rhodes, Michele; Schiby, Ginette; Barshack, Iris; Katz, Shulamit; Reznik-Wolf, Haike; Ribakovsky, Elena; Simon, Carlos; Hazou, Wadi; Katzir, Hagar; Sagie, Shira; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with telomere defects may shed light on the delicate interplay of factors controlling genome stability, premature aging, and cancer. We herein describe two Coats plus patients with telomere and genomic defects; both harbor distinct, novel mutations in STN1, a member of the human CTC1–STN1–TEN1 (CST) complex, thus linking this gene for the first time to a human telomeropathy. We characterized the patients’ phenotype, recapitulated it in a zebrafish model and rescued cellular and clinical aspects by the ectopic expression of wild-type STN1 or by thalidomide treatment. Interestingly, a significant lengthy control of the gastrointestinal bleeding in one of our patients was achieved by thalidomide treatment, exemplifying a successful bed-to-bench-and-back approach. PMID:27432940

  1. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    SciTech Connect

    Lutfi, Zainal; Ahmad, Asmat; Usup, Gires

    2014-09-03

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

  2. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutfi, Zainal; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2014-09-01

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

  3. Using STN DBS and medication reduction as a strategy to treat pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bandini, Fabio; Primavera, Alberto; Pizzorno, Matteo; Cocito, Leonardo

    2007-08-01

    We describe two patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who developed clinical criteria of pathological gambling addiction in the setting of increased dopamine replacement therapy (levodopa and dopamine agonist medications). The second patient showed also signs of dopamine dysregulation syndrome, with an addiction to dopaminergic medication. Neither patients responded to the standard therapy for gambling behavior, but dramatically improved after bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) and early postoperative withdrawal of dopaminergic therapy. The possible therapeutic role of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on such a disabling behavior needs to be investigated prospectively.

  4. STN vs. GPi Deep Brain Stimulation: Translating the Rematch into Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nolan R.; Foote, Kelly D.; Okun, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    When formulating a deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment plan for a patient with Parkinson’s disease (PD), two critical questions should be addressed: 1- Which brain target should be chosen to optimize this patient’s outcome? and 2- Should this patient’s DBS operation be unilateral or bilateral? Over the past two decades, two targets have emerged as leading contenders for PD DBS; the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus internus (GPi). While the GPi target does have a following, most centers have uniformly employed bilateral STN DBS for all Parkinson’s disease cases (Figure 1). This bilateral STN “one-size-fits-all” approach was challenged by an editorial entitled “STN vs. GPi: The Rematch,” which appeared in the Archives of Neurology in 2005. Since 2005, a series of well designed clinical trials and follow-up studies have addressed the question as to whether a more tailored approach to DBS therapy might improve overall outcomes. Such a tailored approach would include the options of targeting the GPi, or choosing a unilateral operation. The results of the STN vs. GPi ‘rematch’ studies support the conclusion that bilateral STN DBS may not be the best option for every Parkinson’s disease surgical patient. Off period motor symptoms and tremor improve in both targets, and with either unilateral or bilateral stimulation. Advantages of the STN target include more medication reduction, less frequent battery changes, and a more favorable economic profile. Advantages of GPi include more robust dyskinesia suppression, easier programming, and greater flexibility in adjusting medications. In cases where unilateral stimulation is anticipated, the data favor GPi DBS. This review summarizes the accumulated evidence regarding the use of bilateral vs. unilateral DBS and the selection of STN vs. GPi DBS, including definite and possible advantages of different targets and approaches. Based on this evidence, a more patient-tailored, symptom specific

  5. Role of STN1 and DNA Polymerase α in Telomere Stability and Genome-Wide Replication in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Derboven, Elisa; Ekker, Heinz; Kusenda, Branislav; Bulankova, Petra; Riha, Karel

    2014-01-01

    The CST (Cdc13/CTC1-STN1-TEN1) complex was proposed to have evolved kingdom specific roles in telomere capping and replication. To shed light on its evolutionary conserved function, we examined the effect of STN1 dysfunction on telomere structure in plants. STN1 inactivation in Arabidopsis leads to a progressive loss of telomeric DNA and the onset of telomeric defects depends on the initial telomere size. While EXO1 aggravates defects associated with STN1 dysfunction, it does not contribute to the formation of long G-overhangs. Instead, these G-overhangs arise, at least partially, from telomerase-mediated telomere extension indicating a deficiency in C-strand fill-in synthesis. Analysis of hypomorphic DNA polymerase α mutants revealed that the impaired function of a general replication factor mimics the telomeric defects associated with CST dysfunction. Furthermore, we show that STN1-deficiency hinders re-replication of heterochromatic regions to a similar extent as polymerase α mutations. This comparative analysis of stn1 and pol α mutants suggests that STN1 plays a genome-wide role in DNA replication and that chromosome-end deprotection in stn1 mutants may represent a manifestation of aberrant replication through telomeres. PMID:25299252

  6. The Role of Stn1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Telomere Capping Can Be Separated From Its Interaction With Cdc13p

    PubMed Central

    Petreaca, Ruben C.; Chiu, Huan-Chih; Nugent, Constance I.

    2007-01-01

    The function of telomeres is twofold: to facilitate complete chromosome replication and to protect chromosome ends against fusions and illegitimate recombination. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, interactions among Cdc13p, Stn1p, and Ten1p are thought to be critical for promoting these processes. We have identified distinct Stn1p domains that mediate interaction with either Ten1p or Cdc13p, allowing analysis of whether the interaction between Cdc13p and Stn1p is indeed essential for telomere capping or length regulation. Consistent with the model that the Stn1p essential function is to promote telomere end protection through Cdc13p, stn1 alleles that truncate the C-terminal 123 residues fail to interact with Cdc13p and do not support viability when expressed at endogenous levels. Remarkably, more extensive deletions that remove an additional 185 C-terminal residues from Stn1p now allow cell growth at endogenous expression levels. The viability of these stn1-t alleles improves with increasing expression level, indicating that increased stn1-t dosage can compensate for the loss of Cdc13p–Stn1p interaction. However, telomere length is misregulated at all expression levels. Thus, an amino-terminal region of Stn1p is sufficient for its essential function, while a central region of Stn1p either negatively regulates the STN1 essential function or destabilizes the mutant Stn1 protein. PMID:17947422

  7. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF SEATTLE PM 2.5 USING STN ORGANIC CARBON PEAKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results from the Source Apportionment of Seattle PM2.5 Using STN Organic Carbon Peaks study will be presented at the American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) 24th Annual Conference in Austin, Texas (Oct 17 - 21, 2005). Receptor modeling results from Seattle us...

  8. STN area detection using K-NN classifiers for MER recordings in Parkinson patients during neurostimulator implant surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiaffino, L.; Rosado Muñoz, A.; Guerrero Martínez, J.; Francés Villora, J.; Gutiérrez, A.; Martínez Torres, I.; Kohan, y. D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) applies electric pulses into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improving tremor and other symptoms associated to Parkinson’s disease. Accurate STN detection for proper location and implant of the stimulating electrodes is a complex task and surgeons are not always certain about final location. Signals from the STN acquired during DBS surgery are obtained with microelectrodes, having specific characteristics differing from other brain areas. Using supervised learning, a trained model based on previous microelectrode recordings (MER) can be obtained, being able to successfully classify the STN area for new MER signals. The K Nearest Neighbours (K-NN) algorithm has been successfully applied to STN detection. However, the use of the fuzzy form of the K-NN algorithm (KNN-F) has not been reported. This work compares the STN detection algorithm of K-NN and KNN-F. Real MER recordings from eight patients where previously classified by neurophysiologists, defining 15 features. Sensitivity and specificity for the classifiers are obtained, Wilcoxon signed rank non-parametric test is used as statistical hypothesis validation. We conclude that the performance of KNN-F classifier is higher than K-NN with p<0.01 in STN specificity.

  9. Coordinated reset stimulation in a large-scale model of the STN-GPe circuit

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Martin; Hauptmann, Christian; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Synchronization of populations of neurons is a hallmark of several brain diseases. Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation is a model-based stimulation technique which specifically counteracts abnormal synchrony by desynchronization. Electrical CR stimulation, e.g., for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), is administered via depth electrodes. In order to get a deeper understanding of this technique, we extended the top-down approach of previous studies and constructed a large-scale computational model of the respective brain areas. Furthermore, we took into account the spatial anatomical properties of the simulated brain structures and incorporated a detailed numerical representation of 2 · 104 simulated neurons. We simulated the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus externus (GPe). Connections within the STN were governed by spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). In this way, we modeled the physiological and pathological activity of the considered brain structures. In particular, we investigated how plasticity could be exploited and how the model could be shifted from strongly synchronized (pathological) activity to strongly desynchronized (healthy) activity of the neuronal populations via CR stimulation of the STN neurons. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of specific stimulation parameters especially the electrode position on the stimulation outcome. Our model provides a step forward toward a biophysically realistic model of the brain areas relevant to the emergence of pathological neuronal activity in PD. Furthermore, our model constitutes a test bench for the optimization of both stimulation parameters and novel electrode geometries for efficient CR stimulation. PMID:25505882

  10. Reduction of influence of task difficulty on perceptual decision making by STN deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Green, Nikos; Bogacz, Rafal; Huebl, Julius; Beyer, Ann-Kristin; Kühn, Andrea A; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2013-09-09

    Neurocomputational models of optimal decision making ascribe a crucial role-the computation of conflict between choice alternatives-to the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Specifically, these models predict that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN will diminish the influence of decision conflict on decision making. In this work, patients with Parkinson's disease judged the direction of motion in random dot stimuli while ON and OFF DBS. To induce decision conflict, we varied the task difficulty (motion coherence), leading to increased reaction time (RT) in trials with greater task difficulty in healthy subjects. Results indicate that DBS significantly influences performance for perceptual decisions under high decision conflict. RT increased substantially OFF DBS as the task became more difficult, and a diffusion model best accounted for behavioral data. In contrast, ON DBS, the influence of task difficulty on RT was significantly reduced and a race model best accounted for the observed data. Individual data fits of evidence accumulation models demonstrate different information processing under distinct DBS states. Furthermore, ON DBS, speed-accuracy tradeoffs affected the magnitude of decision criterion adjustment significantly less compared to OFF DBS. Together, these findings suggest a crucial role for the STN in adjusting decision making during high-conflict trials in perceptual decision making.

  11. Locating the STN-DBS electrodes and resolving their subsequent networks using coherent source analysis on EEG.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, M; Paschen, S; Hellriegel, H; Groppa, S; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J

    2012-01-01

    The deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the most effective surgical therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The first aim of the study was to locate the STN-DBS electrode by applying source analysis on EEG. Secondly, to identify tremor related areas which are associated with the STN. The Dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) was used to find the coherent sources in the brain. The capability of the source analysis to detect deep sources like STN in the brain using EEG data was tested with two model dipole simulations. The simulations were concentrated on two aspects, the angle of the dipole orientation and the disturbance of the cortical areas on locating subcortical regions. In all the DBS treated Parkinsonian tremor patients the power spectrum showed a clear peak at the stimulated frequency and followed by there harmonics. The DBS stimulated frequency constituted a network of primary sensory motor cortex, supplementary motor area, prefrontal cortex, diencephalon, cerebellum and brainstem. Thus the STN was located in the region of the diencephalon. The resolved network may give better understanding to the pathophysiology of the effected tremor network in PD patients with STN-DBS.

  12. Intermediate BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondi, M.; Marchã, M. J. M.; Dallacasa, D.; Stanghellini, C.

    2001-08-01

    The 200-mJy sample, defined by Marchã et al., contains about 60 nearby, northern, flat-spectrum radio sources. In particular, the sample has proved effective at finding nearby radio-selected BL Lac objects with radio luminosities comparable to those of X-ray-selected objects, and low-luminosity flat-spectrum weak emission-line radio galaxies (WLRGs). The 200-mJy sample contains 23 BL Lac objects (including 6 BL Lac candidates) and 19 WLRGs. We will refer to these subsamples as the 200-mJy BL Lac sample and the 200-mJy WLRG sample, respectively. We have started a systematic analysis of the morphological pc-scale properties of the 200-mJy radio sources using VLBI observations. This paper presents VLBI observations at 5 and 1.6GHz of 14 BL Lac objects and WLRGs selected from the 200-mJy sample. The pc-scale morphology of these objects is briefly discussed. We derive the radio beaming parameters of the 200-mJy BL Lac objects and WLRGs and compare them with those of other BL Lac samples and with a sample of FR I radio galaxies. The overall broad-band radio, optical and X-ray properties of the 200-mJy BL Lac sample are discussed and compared with those of other BL Lac samples, radio- and X-ray-selected. We find that the 200-mJy BL Lac objects fill the gap between HBL and LBL objects in the colour-colour plot, and have intermediate αXOX as expected in the spectral energy distribution unification scenario. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of the WLRGs.

  13. Differential modulation of STN-cortical and cortico-muscular coherence by movement and levodopa in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, J; Özkurt, T E; Butz, M; Homburger, M; Elben, S; Hartmann, C J; Vesper, J; Wojtecki, L; Schnitzler, A

    2013-03-01

    Previous research suggests that oscillatory coupling between cortex, basal ganglia and muscles plays an important role in motor behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that oscillatory coupling is altered in patients with movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we performed simultaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG), local field potential (LFP) and electromyogram (EMG) recordings in PD patients selected for therapeutic subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. Patients were recorded (i) after withdrawal of anti-parkinsonian medication (OFF) and (ii) after levodopa administration (ON). We analyzed STN-cortical and cortico-muscular coherence during static forearm contraction and repetitive hand movement in order to evaluate modulations of coherence by movement and medication. Based on previous results from studies investigating resting state coherence in PD patients, we selected primary motor cortex (M1) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) as regions of interest. We found beta coherence between M1 and STN to be suppressed by administration of levodopa. M1-muscular coherence was strongly reduced in the alpha and beta band during repetitive movement compared to static contraction, but was unaffected by administration of levodopa. Strong STG-STN but not STG-muscular coherence could be observed in the alpha band. Coherence with STG was modulated neither by movement nor by medication. Finally, we found both M1-STN and M1-muscular beta coherence to be negatively correlated with UPDRS akinesia and rigidity sub-scores in the OFF state. The present study provides new insights into the functional roles of STN-cortical and cortico-muscular coherence and their relationship to PD symptoms. The results indicate that STN-cortical and cortico-muscular coupling are correlated, but can be modulated independently. Moreover, they show differences in their frequency-specific topography. We conclude that they represent partly independent sub-loops within the motor

  14. BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, John T.

    1998-01-01

    This grant has contributed to one of the original goals of the NAS/LTSA program, the goal of junior faculty development. Below I briefly summarize the following major results on BL Lacertae Objects that we have obtained. An invited talk on BL Lac Objects at IAU 175 "Extragalactic Radio Sources" at Bologna Italy in October 1995 summarized some of these results. A second invited talk in Oct 1998 at Green Bamk, WVA presented other BL Lac results at the conference entitled: "Highly Redshifted Radio Lines". We have used the EMSS sample to measure the X-ray luminosity function and cosmological evolution of BL Lacs. A new large sample of XBLs has been discovered.

  15. The BL Lac Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landt, H.; Padovani, P.

    1999-12-01

    In the optical wavelength range the distinction between a radio galaxy and a BL Lac object is mainly based on the Ca II H and K break observed in the optical spectrum. Marchã et al. (1996, MNRAS, 281, 425) have expanded on the previously used division by suggesting objects with Ca II break values lower than 0.4 to be classified as BL Lacs and sources with values higher than 0.4 to be classified as galaxies. We present new evidence that there is a smooth transition between BL Lac objects and Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies. We find an increase in X-ray and radio core luminosity as the Ca II break gets more and more diluted. This suggests that the only difference between BL Lac objects and their parent population lies in orientation. The closer the jet of the radio galaxy to the observer's line of sight, the more its luminosity gets amplified and the object becomes BL Lac-like. We will address the question of the BL Lac parent population and will propose to unify the beamed and unbeamed objects in nomenclature.

  16. ATR cooperates with CTC1 and STN1 to maintain telomeres and genome integrity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Kara A; Leehy, Katherine; Song, Xiangyu; Nelson, Andrew D; Shippen, Dorothy E

    2012-04-01

    The CTC1/STN1/TEN1 (CST) complex is an essential constituent of plant and vertebrate telomeres. Here we show that CST and ATR (ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM] and Rad3-related) act synergistically to maintain telomere length and genome stability in Arabidopsis. Inactivation of ATR, but not ATM, temporarily rescued severe morphological phenotypes associated with ctc1 or stn1. Unexpectedly, telomere shortening accelerated in plants lacking CST and ATR. In first-generation (G1) ctc1 atr mutants, enhanced telomere attrition was modest, but in G2 ctc1 atr, telomeres shortened precipitously, and this loss coincided with a dramatic decrease in telomerase activity in G2 atr mutants. Zeocin treatment also triggered a reduction in telomerase activity, suggesting that the prolonged absence of ATR leads to a hitherto-unrecognized DNA damage response (DDR). Finally, our data indicate that ATR modulates DDR in CST mutants by limiting chromosome fusions and transcription of DNA repair genes and also by promoting programmed cell death in stem cells. We conclude that the absence of CST in Arabidopsis triggers a multifaceted ATR-dependent response to facilitate maintenance of critically shortened telomeres and eliminate cells with severe telomere dysfunction.

  17. Distinct effects of dopamine vs STN stimulation therapies in associative learning and retention in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne; Mollion, Hélène; Thobois, Stephane; Broussolle, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Evidence has been provided in Parkinson's disease patients of cognitive impairments including visual memory and learning which can be partially compensated by dopamine medication or subthalamic nucleus stimulation. The effects of these two therapies can differ according to the learning processes involving the dorsal vs ventral part of the striatum. Here we aimed to investigate and compare the outcomes of dopamine vs stimulation treatment in Parkinson patient's ability to acquire and maintain over successive days their performance in visual working memory. Parkinson patients performed conditional associative learning embedded in visual (spatial and non spatial) working memory tasks over two consecutive days either ON or OFF dopaminergic drugs or STN stimulation depending on the group of patients studied. While Parkinson patients were more accurate and faster in memory tasks ON vs OFF stimulation independent of the day of testing, performance in medicated patients differed depending on the medication status during the initial task acquisition. Patients who learnt the task ON medication the first day were able to maintain or even improve their memory performance both OFF and ON medication on the second day after consolidation. These effects were observed only in patients with dopamine replacement with or without motor fluctuations. This enhancement in memory performance after having learnt under dopamine medication and not under STN stimulation was mostly significant in visuo-spatial working memory tasks suggesting that dopamine replacement in the depleted dorsal striatum is essential for retention and consolidation of learnt skill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Crystal Structure of StnA for the Biosynthesis of Antitumor Drug Streptonigrin Reveals a Unique Substrate Binding Mode

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Tianle; Wo, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Song, Quanwei; Feng, Guoqiang; Luo, Ray; Lin, Shuangjin; Wu, Geng; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Streptonigrin methylesterase A (StnA) is one of the tailoring enzymes that modify the aminoquinone skeleton in the biosynthesis pathway of Streptomyces species. Although StnA has no significant sequence homology with the reported α/β-fold hydrolases, it shows typical hydrolytic activity in vivo and in vitro. In order to reveal its functional characteristics, the crystal structures of the selenomethionine substituted StnA (SeMet-StnA) and the complex (S185A mutant) with its substrate were resolved to the resolution of 2.71 Å and 2.90 Å, respectively. The overall structure of StnA can be described as an α-helix cap domain on top of a common α/β hydrolase domain. The substrate methyl ester of 10′-demethoxystreptonigrin binds in a hydrophobic pocket that mainly consists of cap domain residues and is close to the catalytic triad Ser185-His349-Asp308. The transition state is stabilized by an oxyanion hole formed by the backbone amides of Ala102 and Leu186. The substrate binding appears to be dominated by interactions with several specific hydrophobic contacts and hydrogen bonds in the cap domain. The molecular dynamics simulation and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed the important roles of the key interacting residues in the cap domain. Structural alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis indicate that StnA represents a new subfamily of lipolytic enzymes with the specific binding pocket located at the cap domain instead of the interface between the two domains. PMID:28074848

  19. Emotion recognition in Parkinson's disease after subthalamic deep brain stimulation: differential effects of microlesion and STN stimulation.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Marilena; Eleopra, Roberto; Lettieri, Christian; Mondani, Massimo; D'Auria, Stanislao; Belgrado, Enrico; Piani, Antonella; De Simone, Luca; Rinaldo, Sara; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has acquired a relevant role in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite being a safe procedure, it may expose patients to an increased risk to experience cognitive and emotional difficulties. Impairments in emotion recognition, mediated both by facial and prosodic expressions, have been reported in PD patients treated with such procedure. However, it is still unclear whether the STN per se is responsible for such changes or whether others factors like the microlesion produced by the electrode implantation may also play a role. In this study we evaluated facial emotions discrimination and emotions recognition using both facial and prosodic expressions in 12 patients with PD and 13 matched controls. Patients' were tested in four conditions: before surgery, both in on and off medication, and after surgery, respectively few days after STN implantation before turning stimulator on and few months after with stimulation on. We observed that PD patients were impaired in discriminating and recognizing facial emotions, especially disgust, even before DBS implant. Microlesion caused by surgical procedure was found to influence patients' performance on the discrimination task and recognition of sad facial expression while, after a few months of STN stimulation, impaired disgust recognition was again prominent. No impairment in emotional prosody recognition was observed both before and after surgery. Our study confirms that PD patients may experience a deficit in disgust recognition and provides insight into the differential effect of microlesion and stimulation of STN on several tasks assessing emotion recognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Multiple Kernel Learning approach for human behavioral task classification using STN-LFP signal.

    PubMed

    Golshan, Hosein M; Hebb, Adam O; Hanrahan, Sara J; Nedrud, Joshua; Mahoor, Mohammad H

    2016-08-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has gained increasing attention as an effective method to mitigate Parkinson's disease (PD) disorders. Existing DBS systems are open-loop such that the system parameters are not adjusted automatically based on patient's behavior. Classification of human behavior is an important step in the design of the next generation of DBS systems that are closed-loop. This paper presents a classification approach to recognize such behavioral tasks using the subthalamic nucleus (STN) Local Field Potential (LFP) signals. In our approach, we use the time-frequency representation (spectrogram) of the raw LFP signals recorded from left and right STNs as the feature vectors. Then these features are combined together via Support Vector Machines (SVM) with Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) formulation. The MKL-based classification method is utilized to classify different tasks: button press, mouth movement, speech, and arm movement. Our experiments show that the lp-norm MKL significantly outperforms single kernel SVM-based classifiers in classifying behavioral tasks of five subjects even using signals acquired with a low sampling rate of 10 Hz. This leads to a lower computational cost.

  1. Compensatory stepping in Parkinson's disease is still a problem after deep brain stimulation randomized to STN or GPi

    PubMed Central

    St George, R. J.; Carlson-Kuhta, P.; King, L. A.; Burchiel, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on balance in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) are not well established. This study examined whether DBS randomized to the subthalamic nucleus (STN; n = 11) or globus pallidus interna (GPi; n = 10) improved compensatory stepping to recover balance after a perturbation. The standing surface translated backward, forcing subjects to take compensatory steps forward. Kinematic and kinetic responses were recorded. PD-DBS subjects were tested off and on their levodopa medication before bilateral DBS surgery and retested 6 mo later off and on DBS, combined with off and on levodopa medication. Responses were compared with PD-control subjects (n = 8) tested over the same timescale and 17 healthy control subjects. Neither DBS nor levodopa improved the stepping response. Compensatory stepping in the best-treated state after surgery (DBS+DOPA) was similar to the best-treated state before surgery (DOPA) for the PD-GPi group and the PD-control group. For the PD-STN group, there were more lateral weight shifts, a delayed foot-off, and a greater number of steps required to recover balance in DBS+DOPA after surgery compared with DOPA before surgery. Within the STN group five subjects who did not fall during the experiment before surgery fell at least once after surgery, whereas the number of falls in the GPi and PD-control groups were unchanged. DBS did not improve the compensatory step response needed to recover from balance perturbations in the GPi group and caused delays in the preparation phase of the step in the STN group. PMID:26108960

  2. Cdk1 Regulates the Temporal Recruitment of Telomerase and Cdc13-Stn1-Ten1 Complex for Telomere Replication

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Ching; Gopalakrishnan, Veena; Poon, Lai-Fong; Yan, TingDong

    2014-01-01

    In budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the cell cycle-dependent telomere elongation by telomerase is controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). The telomere length homeostasis is balanced between telomerase-unextendable and telomerase-extendable states that both require Cdc13. The recruitment of telomerase complex by Cdc13 promotes telomere elongation, while the formation of Cdc13-Stn1-Ten1 (CST) complex at the telomere blocks telomere elongation by telomerase. However, the cellular signaling that regulates the timing of the telomerase-extendable and telomerase-unextendable states is largely unknown. Phosphorylation of Cdc13 by Cdk1 promotes the interaction between Cdc13 and Est1 and hence telomere elongation. Here, we show that Cdk1 also phosphorylates Stn1 at threonine 223 and serine 250 both in vitro and in vivo, and these phosphorylation events are essential for the stability of the CST complexes at the telomeres. By controlling the timing of Cdc13 and Stn1 phosphorylations during cell cycle progression, Cdk1 regulates the temporal recruitment of telomerase complexes and CST complexes to the telomeres to facilitate telomere maintenance. PMID:24164896

  3. The role of cancer vaccines following autologous stem cell rescue in breast and ovarian cancer patients: experience with the STn-KLH vaccine (Theratope).

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Leona A; Oparin, Dimitri V; Gooley, Ted; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2003-02-01

    The success of high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell rescue as treatment for breast and ovarian cancer is limited by a high incidence of relapse. After autologous transplantation, patients are likely to have a low tumor burden and thus would be more likely to respond immunologically to a cancer vaccine. Sialyl-Tn (STn) is a carbohydrate associated with the MUC1 mucin on breast and ovarian cancer and is an ideal candidate for vaccine immunotherapy. Sialyl-Tn-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (STn-KLH) vaccine (Theratope) incorporates a synthetic STn antigen that mimics the unique tumor-associated STn carbohydrate and is designed to stimulate tumor antigen-specific immune responses in patients with mucin-expressing tumors. Between 1995 and 2000, 70 patients (16 with stage II/III breast cancer, 17 with stage III/IV ovarian cancer, and 37 with stage IV breast cancer) were treated with 2 different formulations of STn-KLH. Toxicity, outcome, and immune response data are reported. STn-KLH was well-tolerated with minimal toxicity. The most common side effects were indurations and erythema at the sites of injections. Humoral and cellular responses were elicited in the majority of patients. Overall, these data indicate that post-autologous transplant patients are able to mount an effective immune response to vaccine immunotherapy with minimal side effects, and that vaccine immunotherapy may be a useful addition to high-dose chemotherapy regimens.

  4. Polarimetry on RGB BL lacs

    SciTech Connect

    Heinamaki, S; Katajainen, A; Muehleisen, S L; Nilsson, P; Pursimo, T; Schmidt, G; Sillanpaa, L O; Smith, P S

    1998-06-01

    We present results on polarimetry on RGB BL Lacs. This sample has its roots in ROSAT and Green Bank catalogues. The broad band spectral energy distribution of RGB BL Lacs differs from the ''traditional'' BL Lacs, filling the gap between two extremes, HBLs and LBLs. We found that the polarization properties of the sample are also intermediate to HBLs and LBLs. The highest measured polarization was {minus}19% and {minus}60% of the objects had high polarization. Our results suggests that there is a connection between HBLs and LBLs and between the synchrotron peak frequency and the degree of polarization.

  5. Weight Changes in STN versus GPi DBS: Results from the COMPARE Parkinson’s Disease DBS Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Maren; Wu, Samuel; Foote, Kelly; Sassi, Marco; Jacobson, Charles; Rodriguez, Ramon; Fernandez, Hubert; Okun, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s patients, on average, gain weight following DBS. Objective To determine potential differences in weight gain when comparing the STN versus the GPi target. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the prospective randomized cohort of NIH COMPARE DBS patients who received unilateral STN or GPi DBS. Baseline weights were recorded prior to DBS surgery and at 6, 12, and 18 months post-operatively. Relationships between weight change and changes in BDI score, UPDRS motor score (part III) (also the dyskinesia duration and disability subscores from UPDRS IV), and HY stage were determined via Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficients. Regression analyses were performed to investigate the effects of potential factors on weight change over time. Results Patients in the COMPARE DBS cohort gained a significant amount of weight-a mean of 4.86 lbs (SD 8.73) (p-value = 0.0006), but there was no significant difference between STN and GPi targets (weight gain of 4.29± 6.79 and 5.38±10.32 pounds, respectively; p-value = 0.684). Weight gain did not correlate with BDI score change, UPDRS motor score, dyskinesia duration, dyskinesia disability change, or the HY stage (p-values were0.617, 0.210, and 0.305 respectively). No specific variable was associated with weight gain, and there were no differences in binge eating post-surgery in either target. Conclusion There were significant changes in weight over time following DBS therapy. However, neither BDI score change nor UPDRS score change or dyskinesia was correlated with weight gain. No significant factor was associated with the weight change. PMID:21273927

  6. Intracranial air correlates with preoperative cerebral atrophy and stereotactic error during bilateral STN DBS surgery for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Hooman; Machado, Andre; Deogaonkar, Milind; Rezai, Ali

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effect of intracranial air on stereotactic accuracy during bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for Parkinson's disease (PD). We also assess factors that may predict an increased risk of intracranial air during these surgeries. 32 patients with PD underwent bilateral DBS surgery. The technique used for implantation of the leads has been standardized in over 800 subthalamic nucleus (STN) implantations. For lead implantation, the goal of the neurophysiological technique is identification of the STN and its borders with 3 microelectrode recording (MER) tracks. We examined the number of tracks and the degree of deviation from the planned target on each side. Total intracranial air (TIA) was then compared in these groups. We also examined the relationship between the TIA and length of surgery, ventricular volume and the degree of atrophy. Side 2 in this series required more MER tracks. The TIA was larger in patients with more than 3 MER tracks on side 2 of surgery. There was more deviation from the target on side 2. In addition, the TIA in patients with >1 mm of vector deviation on side 2 was more than in those without. The TIA correlated with the number of tracks on side 2 as well as with the degree of the second euclidean deviation on side 2. There was a correlation of degree of atrophy with TIA. In bilateral STN DBS for PD, intracranial air may contribute to error in stereotactic accuracy especially on the second side. In addition, there is a correlation between the accumulated volume of intracranial air and the degree of cerebral atrophy. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Reappraising contemporary theories of subcortical participation in language: proposing an interhemispheric regulatory function for the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the mediation of high-level linguistic processes.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Murdoch, Bruce E; Theodoros, Deborah G; Silburn, Peter; Hall, Bruce

    2004-02-01

    Apropos the basal ganglia, the dominant striatum and globus pallidus internus (GPi) have been hypothesised to represent integral components of subcortical language circuitry. Working subcortical language theories, however, have failed thus far to consider a role for the STN in the mediation of linguistic processes, a structure recently defined as the driving force of basal ganglia output. The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of surgically induced functional inhibition of the STN upon linguistic abilities, within the context of established models of basal ganglia participation in language. Two males with surgically induced 'lesions' of the dominant and non-dominant dorsolateral STN, aimed at relieving Parkinsonian motor symptoms, served as experimental subjects. General and high-level language profiles were compiled for each subject up to 1 month prior to and 3 months following neurosurgery, within the drug-on state (i.e., when optimally medicated). Comparable post-operative alterations in linguistic performance were observed subsequent to surgically induced functional inhibition of the left and right STN. More specifically, higher proportions of reliable decline as opposed to improvement in post-operative performance were demonstrated by both subjects on complex language tasks, hypothesised to entail the interplay of cognitive-linguistic processes. The outcomes of the current research challenge unilateralised models of functional basal ganglia organisation with the proposal of a potential interhemispheric regulatory function for the STN in the mediation of high-level linguistic processes.

  8. The STN8 kinase-PBCP phosphatase system is responsible for high-light-induced reversible phosphorylation of the PSII inner antenna subunit CP29 in rice.

    PubMed

    Betterle, Nico; Poudyal, Roshan Sharma; Rosa, Anthony; Wu, Guangxi; Bassi, Roberto; Lee, Choon-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of thylakoid light-harvesting proteins is a mechanism to compensate for unbalanced excitation of photosystem I (PSI) versus photosystem II (PSII) under limiting light. In monocots, an additional phosphorylation event on the PSII antenna CP29 occurs upon exposure to excess light, enhancing resistance to light stress. Different from the case of the major LHCII antenna complex, the STN7 kinase and its related PPH1 phosphatase were proven not to be involved in CP29 phosphorylation, indicating that a different set of enzymes act in the high-light (HL) response. Here, we analyze a rice stn8 mutant in which both PSII core proteins and CP29 phosphorylation are suppressed in HL, implying that STN8 is the kinase catalyzing this reaction. In order to identify the phosphatase involved, we produced a recombinant enzyme encoded by the rice ortholog of AtPBCP, antagonist of AtSTN8, which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of PSII core proteins. The recombinant protein was active in dephosphorylating P-CP29. Based on these data, we propose that the activities of the OsSTN8 kinase and the antagonistic OsPBCP phosphatase, in addition to being involved in the repair of photo-damaged PSII, are also responsible for the HL-dependent reversible phosphorylation of the inner antenna CP29.

  9. Effects of L-DOPA and STN-HFS dyskinesiogenic treatments on NR2B regulation in basal ganglia in the rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Adrien; Sgambato-Faure, Véronique; Savasta, Marc

    2012-12-01

    Dyskinesia is a major side effect of chronic levodopa (L-DOPA) administration, the reference treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS) alleviates parkinsonian motor symptoms and indirectly improves dyskinesia by decreasing L-DOPA requirement. However, inadequate stimulation can also trigger dyskinetic movements in PD patients and animal models. Here, we investigated the possible association between L-DOPA- and STN-HFS-induced dyskinesia and regulation of the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors in the rodent model of PD. We subjected 6-OHDA-lesioned rats to HFS for 1h, at an intensity triggering forelimb dyskinesia. Other 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were treated with chronic high doses of L-DOPA for ten days, to induce abnormal involuntary movements. The 6-OHDA lesion regulated NR2B only in the SNr, where the activation of NR2B was observed (as assessed by phosphorylation of the Tyr1472 residue). Both STN-HFS and L-DOPA dyskinesiogenic treatments induced NR2B activation in the STN and EP, but only L-DOPA triggered NR2B hyperphosphorylation in the striatum. Finally, the use of CP-101,606 exacerbated L-DOPA-induced motor behavior and associated NR2B hyperphosphorylation in the striatum, STN and EP. Thus, NR2B activation in basal ganglia structures is correlated with dyskinesia.

  10. Maintenance of very long telomeres by recombination in the Kluyveromyces lactis stn1-M1 mutant involves extreme telomeric turnover, telomeric circles, and concerted telomeric amplification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianing; McEachern, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    Some cancers utilize the recombination-dependent process of alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to maintain long heterogeneous telomeres. Here, we studied the recombinational telomere elongation (RTE) of the Kluyveromyces lactis stn1-M1 mutant. We found that the total amount of the abundant telomeric DNA in stn1-M1 cells is subject to rapid variation and that it is likely to be primarily extrachromosomal. Rad50 and Rad51, known to be required for different RTE pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were not essential for the production of either long telomeres or telomeric circles in stn1-M1 cells. Circles of DNA containing telomeric repeats (t-circles) either present at the point of establishment of long telomeres or introduced later into stn1-M1 cells each led to the formation of long tandem arrays of the t-circle's sequence, which were incorporated at multiple telomeres. These tandem arrays were extraordinarily unstable and showed evidence of repeated rounds of concerted amplification. Our results suggest that the maintenance of telomeres in the stn1-M1 mutant involves extreme turnover of telomeric sequences from processes including both large deletions and the copying of t-circles.

  11. Activation of the Stt7/STN7 Kinase through Dynamic Interactions with the Cytochrome b6f Complex1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shapiguzov, Alexey; Chai, Xin; Fucile, Geoffrey; Longoni, Paolo; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms have the ability to adapt to changes in light quality by readjusting the cross sections of the light-harvesting systems of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). This process, called state transitions, maintains the redox poise of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain and ensures a high photosynthetic yield when light is limiting. It is mediated by the Stt7/STN7 protein kinase, which is activated through the cytochrome b6f complex upon reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Its probable major substrate, the light-harvesting complex of PSII, once phosphorylated, dissociates from PSII and docks to PSI, thereby restoring the balance of absorbed light excitation energy between the two photosystems. Although the kinase is known to be inactivated under high-light intensities, the molecular mechanisms governing its regulation remain unknown. In this study we monitored the redox state of a conserved and essential Cys pair of the Stt7/STN7 kinase and show that it forms a disulfide bridge. We could not detect any change in the redox state of these Cys during state transitions and high-light treatment. It is only after prolonged anaerobiosis that this disulfide bridge is reduced. It is likely to be mainly intramolecular, although kinase activation may involve a transient covalently linked kinase dimer with two intermolecular disulfide bonds. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have mapped one interaction site of the kinase on the Rieske protein of the cytochrome b6f complex. PMID:26941194

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The HRX-BL Lac sample (Beckmann+, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, V.; Engels, D.; Bade, N.; Wucknitz, O.

    2003-04-01

    The BL Lac subsample was selected on an area of 1687deg^2 with a counter-rate limit of hcps>=0.075s-1 and on additional 1150deg2 with a limit of hcps>=0.15s-1. This sample was analyzed by Bade et al. (1998A&A...334..459) and is referred here as the HRX-BL Lac core sample. It consists of 39 BL Lacs, 34 of which are also part of the present sample. (2 data files).

  13. Cognitive and Psychiatric Effects of STN versus GPi Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Ji-Ping; Li, Yong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus interna (GPi) can reduce motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and improve their quality of life. However, the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on cognitive functions and their psychiatric effects remain controversial. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to clarify these issues. Methods We searched the PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Other sources, including internet-based clinical trial registries and grey literature sources, were also searched. After searching the literature, two investigators independently performed literature screens to assess the quality of the included trials and to extract the data. The outcomes included the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on multiple cognitive domains, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Results Seven articles related to four randomized controlled trials that included 521 participants were incorporated into the present meta-analysis. Compared with GPi DBS, STN DBS was associated with declines in selected cognitive domains after surgery, including attention, working memory and processing speed, phonemic fluency, learning and memory, and global cognition. However, there were no significant differences in terms of quality of life or psychiatric effects, such as depression and anxiety, between the two groups. Conclusions A selective decline in frontal-subcortical cognitive functions is observed after STN DBS in comparison with GPi DBS, which should not be ignored in the target selection for DBS treatment in PD patients. In addition, compared to GPi DBS, STN DBS does not affect depression, anxiety, and quality of life. PMID:27248139

  14. Gait analysis in patients with advanced Parkinson disease: different or additive effects on gait induced by levodopa and chronic STN stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lubik, S; Fogel, W; Tronnier, V; Krause, M; König, J; Jost, W H

    2006-02-01

    The aim of our study was to observe the effects on gait parameters induced by STN stimulation and levodopa medication in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease in order to determine different or additive effects. Therefore we examined 12 patients with advanced Parkinson disease after bilateral implantation of DBS into the STN. We assessed the motor score of the UPDRS and quantitative gait analysis under 4 treatment conditions: with and without stimulation as well as with and without levodopa. The mean improvement of the UPDRS motor score was almost the same with levodopa and DBS. Combining both therapies we saw a further improvement of the motor score. Gait parameters of patients with PD treated either with levodopa or STN stimulation were greatly improved. A significant difference between levodopa and STN stimulation could only be shown for the parameters velocity and step length. These parameters improved more with levodopa than with stimulation. The combination of both therapeutic methods showed the best results on the UPDRS motor score and gait parameters.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High energy peaked BL Lacs optical spectros. (Piranomonte+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piranomonte, S.; Perri, M.; Giommi, P.; Landt, H.; Padovani, P.

    2007-10-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the Sedentary sources still unidentified and of BL Lacs without redshift were carried out during the period 1999-2003 at the KPNO 4m, at the ESO 3.6m and at the TNG telescopes. (3 data files).

  16. Closed-loop stimulation of a delayed neural fields model of parkinsonian STN-GPe network: a theoretical and computational study

    PubMed Central

    Detorakis, Georgios Is.; Chaillet, Antoine; Palfi, Stéphane; Senova, Suhan

    2015-01-01

    Several disorders are related to pathological brain oscillations. In the case of Parkinson's disease, sustained low-frequency oscillations (especially in the β-band, 13–30 Hz) correlate with motor symptoms. It is still under debate whether these oscillations are the cause of parkinsonian motor symptoms. The development of techniques enabling selective disruption of these β-oscillations could contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms, and could be exploited for treatments. A particularly appealing technique is Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). With clinical electrical DBS, electrical currents are delivered at high frequency to a region made of potentially heterogeneous neurons (the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the case of Parkinson's disease). Even more appealing is DBS with optogenetics, which is until now a preclinical method using both gene transfer and deep brain light delivery and enabling neuromodulation at the scale of one given neural network. In this work, we rely on delayed neural fields models of STN and the external Globus Pallidus (GPe) to develop, theoretically validate and test in silico a closed-loop stimulation strategy to disrupt these sustained oscillations with optogenetics. First, we rely on tools from control theory to provide theoretical conditions under which sustained oscillations can be attenuated by a closed-loop stimulation proportional to the measured activity of STN. Second, based on this theoretical framework, we show numerically that the proposed closed-loop stimulation efficiently attenuates sustained oscillations, even in the case when the photosensitization effectively affects only 50% of STN neurons. We also show through simulations that oscillations disruption can be achieved when the same light source is used for the whole STN population. We finally test the robustness of the proposed strategy to possible acquisition and processing delays, as well as parameters uncertainty. PMID:26217171

  17. Closed-loop stimulation of a delayed neural fields model of parkinsonian STN-GPe network: a theoretical and computational study.

    PubMed

    Detorakis, Georgios Is; Chaillet, Antoine; Palfi, Stéphane; Senova, Suhan

    2015-01-01

    Several disorders are related to pathological brain oscillations. In the case of Parkinson's disease, sustained low-frequency oscillations (especially in the β-band, 13-30 Hz) correlate with motor symptoms. It is still under debate whether these oscillations are the cause of parkinsonian motor symptoms. The development of techniques enabling selective disruption of these β-oscillations could contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms, and could be exploited for treatments. A particularly appealing technique is Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). With clinical electrical DBS, electrical currents are delivered at high frequency to a region made of potentially heterogeneous neurons (the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the case of Parkinson's disease). Even more appealing is DBS with optogenetics, which is until now a preclinical method using both gene transfer and deep brain light delivery and enabling neuromodulation at the scale of one given neural network. In this work, we rely on delayed neural fields models of STN and the external Globus Pallidus (GPe) to develop, theoretically validate and test in silico a closed-loop stimulation strategy to disrupt these sustained oscillations with optogenetics. First, we rely on tools from control theory to provide theoretical conditions under which sustained oscillations can be attenuated by a closed-loop stimulation proportional to the measured activity of STN. Second, based on this theoretical framework, we show numerically that the proposed closed-loop stimulation efficiently attenuates sustained oscillations, even in the case when the photosensitization effectively affects only 50% of STN neurons. We also show through simulations that oscillations disruption can be achieved when the same light source is used for the whole STN population. We finally test the robustness of the proposed strategy to possible acquisition and processing delays, as well as parameters uncertainty.

  18. Comparison of imaging modalities and source-localization algorithms in locating the induced activity during deep brain stimulation of the STN.

    PubMed

    Mideksa, K G; Singh, A; Hoogenboom, N; Hellriegel, H; Krause, H; Schnitzler, A; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J; Schmidt, G; Muthuraman, M

    2016-08-01

    One of the most commonly used therapy to treat patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Identifying the most optimal target area for the placement of the DBS electrodes have become one of the intensive research area. In this study, the first aim is to investigate the capabilities of different source-analysis techniques in detecting deep sources located at the sub-cortical level and validating it using the a-priori information about the location of the source, that is, the STN. Secondly, we aim at an investigation of whether EEG or MEG is best suited in mapping the DBS-induced brain activity. To do this, simultaneous EEG and MEG measurement were used to record the DBS-induced electromagnetic potentials and fields. The boundary-element method (BEM) have been used to solve the forward problem. The position of the DBS electrodes was then estimated using the dipole (moving, rotating, and fixed MUSIC), and current-density-reconstruction (CDR) (minimum-norm and sLORETA) approaches. The source-localization results from the dipole approaches demonstrated that the fixed MUSIC algorithm best localizes deep focal sources, whereas the moving dipole detects not only the region of interest but also neighboring regions that are affected by stimulating the STN. The results from the CDR approaches validated the capability of sLORETA in detecting the STN compared to minimum-norm. Moreover, the source-localization results using the EEG modality outperformed that of the MEG by locating the DBS-induced activity in the STN.

  19. The HISS of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Richard L.; Schmidt, Gary D.; West, Steven C.

    1987-03-01

    The polarimetric variability of BL Lacertae is characterized by a random-walk noise spectrum on time scales of hours to weeks. The authors present here approximately 12 hr of polarimetric data obtained on three nights in 1983 - 1984 with the Hale 5 m telescope, which push our knowledge of the variability to the shortest time scales currently possible. During each of the runs, BL Lac was consistently variable. Power spectra of the variations in degree and position angle of polarization roughly follow power laws of index α ≈ 3±1 between time scales of 15 minutes to 3 hours. In the context of the "Christmas tree" model of variations, the steep spectrum at high frequencies suggests a lower limit near 1 light-hr for the size of individual components.

  20. Spectroscopy of BL Cam - observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, M.; Michel, R.; Fox-Machado, L.; Sareyan, J. P.; Fauvaud, S.; Tovmassian, G.

    2011-10-01

    The star BL Camelopardalis (GD 428, GSC 04067-00471, V=12.92, B=13.1), is a SX Phoenicis pulsating variable showing a high amplitude variability (300-350 mmag), with a very clear period of 56.3 min. It has being recently studied by Fauvaud et al. (2010), they show that the observed variability is due to a clear and single pulsation, as expected for these type of pulsators. It was discovered as a variable star on 1976 by Berg & Duthie (1977).

  1. NIR brightening of BL LAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Chavushyan, V.; Carraminana, A.

    2013-11-01

    We report on the recent observation that revealed a NIR brightening of the prototype blazar, BL LAC itself. On October 30th,2013 (JD 2456595.735567), its flux in the H band corresponded to the magnitude H = 10.124 +/- 0.03. It is brightest since the time we started monitoring his object in the NIR (JD2454358.657246). Our observations were carried out with the 2.1m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Observatory operated by the National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (Mexico), equipped with the instrument CANICA a NIR camera.

  2. Freestanding rGO-SWNT-STN Composite Film as an Anode for Li Ion Batteries with High Energy and Power Densities

    PubMed Central

    Song, Taeseup; Choi, Junghyun; Paik, Ungyu

    2015-01-01

    Freestanding Si-Ti-Ni alloy particles/reduced graphene oxide/single wall carbon nanotube composites have been prepared as an anode for lithium ion batteries via a simple filtration method. This composite electrode showed a 9% increase in reversible capacity, a two-fold higher cycle retention at 50 cycles and a two-fold higher rate capability at 2 C compared to pristine Si-Ti-Ni (STN) alloy electrodes. These improvements were attributed to the suppression of the pulverization of the STN active material by the excellent mechanical properties of the reduced graphene oxide-single wall carbon nanotube networks and the enhanced kinetics associated with both electron and Li ion transport.

  3. Freestanding rGO-SWNT-STN Composite Film as an Anode for Li Ion Batteries with High Energy and Power Densities.

    PubMed

    Song, Taeseup; Choi, Junghyun; Paik, Ungyu

    2015-12-18

    Freestanding Si-Ti-Ni alloy particles/reduced graphene oxide/single wall carbon nanotube composites have been prepared as an anode for lithium ion batteries via a simple filtration method. This composite electrode showed a 9% increase in reversible capacity, a two-fold higher cycle retention at 50 cycles and a two-fold higher rate capability at 2 C compared to pristine Si-Ti-Ni (STN) alloy electrodes. These improvements were attributed to the suppression of the pulverization of the STN active material by the excellent mechanical properties of the reduced graphene oxide-single wall carbon nanotube networks and the enhanced kinetics associated with both electron and Li ion transport.

  4. Prevalence of multiple drug resistance and screening of enterotoxin (stn) gene in Salmonella enterica serovars from water sources in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, K O; Iwalokun, B A; Foli, F; Oshodi, K; Coker, A O

    2011-02-01

    To determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and carriage of enterotoxin (stn) gene among strains of Salmonella isolated from water sources in Lagos. A total of 200 samples (60 well water, 60 pipe-borne water and 80 different brands of sachet water) were collected at random from various locations in Lagos. The samples were evaluated bacteriologically using standard methods. The identified isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and were further screened for the presence of stn gene using standard procedures. Thirty-seven of the samples analysed were positive for Salmonella isolates. Seven serotypes were found -Salmonella typhi (n = 3, 8.1%), Salmonella typhimurium (n = 8, 21.6%), Salmonella choleraesuis (n = 5, 13.5%), Salmonella enteritidis (n = 9, 24.3%), Salmonella paratyphi (n = 8, 21.6%) and Salmonella arizonae (n = 4, 10.8%) - with at least one serotype present in all water sources. Over 60% of Salmonella isolates carried stn gene and the risk was higher in pipe-borne water. There was no relationship (P > 0.05) between enterotoxin-producing gene and antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates. Thirteen resistance patterns were exhibited by the isolates, with Str. Amp.Tet.Chl.Amo.Gen, Str. Amp.Tet.Amo.Chl.Amo.Nal.Nit, Str.Tet and Str. Amp.Tet.Chl.Amo being the most notable resistance patterns observed. Isolates that carried stn gene developed resistance to more antibiotics. Although reduced susceptibility to ciproflocacin was observed in two strains, none of the isolates developed resistance to ofloxacin. Emerging multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotypes with stn gene were found in the water samples, which may pose a threat to public health. Constant monitoring of pipe leakages, the quality of various wells and the quality of sachet water is advocated to avoid possible future outbreaks of salmonellosis due to consumption of contaminated water. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by

  5. Radio outburst of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buemi, C. S.; Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Giroletti, M.; Orienti, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Bach, U.

    2013-04-01

    We report on extremely high radio flux of BL Lacertae at 43 and 8 GHz. Observations at 43 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Noto (Italy) revealed a flux density of 10.5 +/- 0.2 Jy on 2013 April 10.65, while observations at 8 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Medicina (Italy) detected a flux density of 8.2 +/- 0.7 Jy on April 12.22. These extremely high radio fluxes show that the radio activity likely correlated to the strong optical, near-infrared, and gamma-ray activity of 2011-2012 (see ATels #4028, #4031, #4155, #4271, #4277, #4349, #4565, #4600), and X-ray activity of late 2012 (ATels #4557, #4627), is far to be exhausted.

  6. Multifrequency observations of BL Lacertae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.

    1990-01-01

    Optical, IR, and radio monitoring data covering 20 years are presented for BL Lac. Also, four simultaneous multifrequency spectra are given, covering the range 10 to the 9th - 10 to the 18th Hz. These spectra include ground-based observations and data from the Einstein, Exosat, IUE, and IRAS satellites. From the monitoring data, the character of emission variability is determined using structure functions. The multifrequency spectra are used to study the origin of X-ray emission and to determine the physical parameters of emitting regions. The data show that the emitting region is inhomogeneous, with a small inner region of high density and magnetic field that eventually becomes a large, partially opaque radio emitting region with a low density and magnetic fields. Also, the two simple predictions of the synchrotron self-Compton model are reproduced by the multifrequency spectra.

  7. NIR Flaring of BL Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, L.; Carraminana, A.; Escobedo, G.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Mayya, D. Y.

    2011-05-01

    Following the Fermi LAT report (ATel#3368) of increased activity of BL Lac. We carried out NIR Photometry of this object and found on May,23rd, 2011 (JD 2455704.991690) that the object was indeed brighter (H = 10.08 ± 0.06) than our previous determination on JD 2455575.609653 when it had a flux corresponding to H = 11.439 ± 0.05. This is consistent with the increase in flux in the optical reported in ATel #3371.Observations were carried out with the 2.1m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Observatory operated by the National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (Mexico), equipped with the instrument CANICA a NIR camera.

  8. NIR brightening of BL LAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Carraminana, A.

    2013-10-01

    We report that BL LAC cross identified with the Fermi LAT Gamma Ray source 2FGLJ2202.8+4216 is undergoing a significant NIR brigthening, on October 16th,2013 JD2456581.771019 we determined the flux in the H band to corresponde to H = 10.396 +/- 0.05. That is to be compared with the flux determined for this object on JD 2456282.665081 when the flux was H = 11.979 +/- 0.07. Observations were carried out with the 2.1m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Observatory operated by the National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (Mexico), equipped with the instrument CANICA a NIR camera.

  9. 77 FR 25159 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... SERV AG SCE-TDBU SCE-GPS 13550 Valley Bl Fontana Roof Top Solar Proj to be effective 4/20/2012. Filed... following exempt wholesale generator filings: Docket Numbers: EG12-59-000. Applicants: Copper Mountain Solar 2, LLC. Description: Self-Certification of EG or FC of Copper Mountain Solar 2, LLC in...

  10. Clustering environments of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtz, Ronald; Ellingson, Erica; Stocke, John T.; Yee, H. K. C.

    1993-01-01

    We report measurements of the amplitude of the BL Lac galaxy spatial covariance function, B(gb), for the fields of five BL Lacertae objects. We present evidence for rich clusters around MS 1207+39 and MS 1407+59, and confirm high richness for the cluster containing H0414+009. We discuss the ease of 3C 66 A and find evidence for a poor cluster based on an uncertain redshift of z = 0.444. These data suggest that at least some BL Lac objects are consistent with being FR 1 radio galaxies in rich clusters.

  11. Re-appraising contemporary theories of subcortical participation in language: proposing an interhemispheric regulatory function for the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the mediation of high-level linguistic processes.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Murdoch, Bruce E; Theodoros, Deborah; Silburn, Peter; Hall, Bruce

    2004-10-01

    Apropos the basal ganglia, the dominant striatum and globus pallidus internus (GPi) have been hypothesized to represent integral components of subcortical language circuitry. Working subcortical language theories, however, have failed thus far to consider a role for the STN in the mediation of linguistic processes, a structure recently defined as the driving force of basal ganglia output. The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of surgically induced functional inhibition of the STN upon linguistic abilities, within the context of established models of basal ganglia participation in language. Two males with surgically induced'lesions'of the dominant and non-dominant dorsolateral STN, aimed at relieving Parkinsonian motor symptoms, served as experimental subjects. General and high-level language profiles were compiled for each subject up to 1 month prior to and 3 months following neurosurgery, within the drug-on state (i.e., when optimally medicated). Comparable post-operative alterations in linguistic performance were observed subsequent to surgically induced functional inhibition of the left and right STN. More specifically, higher proportions of reliable decline as opposed to improvement in post-operative performance were demonstrated by both subjects on complex language tasks, hypothesised to entail the interplay of cognitive-linguistic processes. The outcomes of the current research challenge unilateralised models of functional basal ganglia organisation with the proposal of a potential interhemispheric regulatory function for the STN in the mediation of high-level linguistic processes.

  12. On fuzzy ideals of BL-algebras.

    PubMed

    Meng, Biao Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gödel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ω is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if ω(0) = 1 and |Im(ω)| = 2. We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gödel ideal, but the converse implication is not true.

  13. Agricultural Baseline (BL0) scenario

    DOE Data Explorer

    Davis, Maggie R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000181319328); Hellwinckel, Chad M [University of Tennessee] (ORCID:0000000173085058); Eaton, Laurence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000312709626); Turhollow, Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000228159350); Brandt, Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000214707379); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000281537154)

    2016-07-13

    Scientific reason for data generation: to serve as the reference case for the BT16 volume 1 agricultural scenarios. The agricultural baseline runs from 2015 through 2040; a starting year of 2014 is used. Date the data set was last modified: 02/12/2016 How each parameter was produced (methods), format, and relationship to other data in the data set: simulation was developed without offering a farmgate price to energy crops or residues (i.e., building on both the USDA 2015 baseline and the agricultural census data (USDA NASS 2014). Data generated are .txt output files by year, simulation identifier, county code (1-3109). Instruments used: POLYSYS (version POLYS2015_V10_alt_JAN22B) supplied by the University of Tennessee APAC The quality assurance and quality control that have been applied: • Check for negative planted area, harvested area, production, yield and cost values. • Check if harvested area exceeds planted area for annuals. • Check FIPS codes.

  14. SUMOylation regulates telomere length by targeting the shelterin subunit Tpz1Tpp1 to modulate shelterin–Stn1 interaction in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Keisuke; Low, Ross S.; Santosa, Venny; Tsuji, Hiroki; Moser, Bettina A.; Fujisawa, Shiho; Harland, Jennifer L.; Raguimova, Olga N.; Go, Andrew; Ueno, Masaru; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Yoshida, Minoru; Nakamura, Toru M.; Tanaka, Katsunori

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres protect DNA ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes from degradation and fusion, and ensure complete replication of the terminal DNA through recruitment of telomerase. The regulation of telomerase is a critical area of telomere research and includes cis regulation by the shelterin complex in mammals and fission yeast. We have identified a key component of this regulatory pathway as the SUMOylation [the covalent attachment of a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to target proteins] of a shelterin subunit in fission yeast. SUMOylation is known to be involved in the negative regulation of telomere extension by telomerase; however, how SUMOylation limits the action of telomerase was unknown until now. We show that SUMOylation of the shelterin subunit TPP1 homolog in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Tpz1) on lysine 242 is important for telomere length homeostasis. Furthermore, we establish that Tpz1 SUMOylation prevents telomerase accumulation at telomeres by promoting recruitment of Stn1-Ten1 to telomeres. Our findings provide major mechanistic insights into how the SUMOylation pathway collaborates with shelterin and Stn1-Ten1 complexes to regulate telomere length. PMID:24711392

  15. 78 FR 49681 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... 26 CFR Part 53 RIN 1545-BL58 Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the... the tax ] is due, without regard to extensions of time to file the return. Treas. Reg. Sec. Sec. 53... Revenue Code,'' to accompany payment of those excise taxes and provide the time for filing the return...

  16. Multiband Microvariability of BL Lac During Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Carini, M. T.; Noble, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The blazar BL Lac recently underwent a major outburst. A search for microvariability was made with the 0.76 m telescope at the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory. Nearly 300 CCD observations in V and R were made over ten nights in July. During that time, BL Lac varied by more than 1.5 magnitudes and exhibited substantial microvariability. In fact, it exhibited microvariability each of the eight nights multiple exposures were made, being most active when brightest on July 29. On this night, four mini-flares were seen within 7 hours. During one of these flares, BL Lac brightened by more than 0.5 magnitude in less than 2.5 hours. The variations in V and R were simultaneous within the limits of the observations. However, the V and R magnitudes did not always change at the same rate. On July 3, BL Lac brightened in R faster than in V. Then on July 4, it dimmed in V faster than in R. Yet over the ten nights observed, BL Lac became bluer as it brightened. Another interesting difference between the V and R data was seen on July 4 when a mini-flare was seen in V but not in R. Clearly, while the V and R variations are highly correlated, there are compelling differences. Here we present these observations and discuss them in relation to models intended to explain microvariability. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA grant NCC5-228.

  17. Xenopus laevis Ctc1-Stn1-Ten1 (xCST) Protein Complex Is Involved in Priming DNA Synthesis on Single-stranded DNA Template in Xenopus Egg Extract*

    PubMed Central

    Nakaoka, Hidenori; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Saito, Motoki; Ishikawa, Fuyuki

    2012-01-01

    The Ctc1-Stn1-Ten1 (CST) complex is an RPA (replication protein A)-like protein complex that binds to single-stranded (ss) DNA. It localizes at telomeres and is involved in telomere end protection in mammals and plants. It is also known to stimulate DNA polymerase α-primase in vitro. However, it is not known how CST accomplishes these functions in vivo. Here, we report the identification and characterization of Xenopus laevis CST complex (xCST). xCST showed ssDNA binding activity with moderate preference for G (guanine)-rich sequences. xStn1-immunodepleted Xenopus egg extracts supported chromosomal DNA replication in in vitro reconstituted sperm nuclei, suggesting that xCST is not a general replication factor. However, the immunodepletion or neutralization of xStn1 compromised DNA synthesis on ssDNA template. Because primed ssDNA template was replicated in xStn1-immunodepleted extracts as efficiently as in control ones, we conclude that xCST is involved in the priming step on ssDNA template. These results are consistent with the current model that CST is involved in telomeric C-strand synthesis through the regulation of DNA polymerase α-primase. PMID:22086929

  18. On Fuzzy Ideals of BL-Algebras

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gödel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ω is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if ω(0) = 1 and |Im⁡(ω)| = 2. We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gödel ideal, but the converse implication is not true. PMID:24892085

  19. B-L mediated SUSY breaking with radiative B-L symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Tatsuru; Kubo, Takayuki

    2008-11-23

    We explore a mechanism of radiative B-L symmetry breaking in analogous to the radiative electroweak symmetry breaking. The breaking scale of B-L symmetry is related to the neutrino masses through the see-saw mechanism. Once we incorporate the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry in SUSY models, the U(1){sub B-L} gaugino, Z-tilde{sub B-L} appears, and it can mediate the SUSY breaking (Z-prime mediated SUSY breaking) at around the scale of 10{sup 6} GeV. Then we find a links between the neutrino mass (more precisly the see-saw or B-L scale of order 10{sup 6} GeV) and the Z-prime mediated SUSY breaking scale. It is also very interesting that the gluino at the weak scale becomes relatively light, and almost compressed mass spectra for the gaugino sector can be realized in this scenario, which is very interesting in scope of the LHC.

  20. RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 and Their Complex Proteins Implicated in Many Cellular Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorynia, Sabine; Bandeiras, Tiago M.; Matias, Pedro M.; Pinho, Filipa G.; McVey, Colin E.; Donner, Peter; Carrondo, Maria Arménia

    RuvBL1 and its homolog RuvBL2 belong to the AAA+ family of ATPases and play important roles in chromatin remodeling, in transcriptional regulation, in DNA repair and in the c-Myc and Wnt signaling pathways. Proteins involved in these pathways are often mutated in human cancers. Both RuvBL proteins form a complex and act alone or together in diverse cellular processes. The three-dimensional structures of human RuvBL1 refined using diffraction data to 2.2 Å resolution and of the human RuvBL1/RuvBL2 complex with a truncated domain II at 3 Å resolution are presented. The dodecameric RuvBL1/RuvBL2 complex structure differs from previously described models. It consists of two heterohexameric rings with alternating RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 monomers that interact with each other via domain II. ATPase and helicase activities of RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 were also tested. Interestingly, truncation of domain II resulted not only in a substantial increase of ATP consumption by the RuvBL proteins, but also in stimulation of helicase activity, which was not observed with the full-length proteins.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The CLASS BL Lac sample (Marcha+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcha, M. J. M.; Caccianiga, A.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a new sample of BL Lac objects selected from a deep (30mJy) radio survey of flat spectrum radio sources (the CLASS blazar survey). The sample is one of the largest well-defined samples in the low-power regime with a total of 130 sources of which 55 satisfy the 'classical' optical BL Lac selection criteria, and the rest have indistinguishable radio properties. The primary goal of this study is to establish the radio luminosity function (RLF) on firm statistical ground at low radio luminosities where previous samples have not been able to investigate. The gain of taking a peek at lower powers is the possibility to search for the flattening of the luminosity function which is a feature predicted by the beaming model but which has remained elusive to observational confirmation. In this study, we extend for the first time the BL Lac RLF down to very low radio powers ~1022W/Hz, i.e. two orders of magnitude below the RLF currently available in the literature. In the process, we confirm the importance of adopting a broader, and more physically meaningful set of classification criteria to avoid the systematic missing of low-luminosity BL Lacs. Thanks to the good statistics we confirm the existence of weak but significant positive cosmological evolution for the BL Lac population, and we detect, for the first time the flattening of the RLF at L~1025W/Hz in agreement with the predictions of the beaming model. (1 data file).

  2. A Search for Low-Luminosity BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rector, Travis A.; Stocke, John T.; Perlman, Eric S.

    1999-05-01

    Many properties of BL Lacs have become explicable in terms of the ``relativistic beaming'' hypothesis, whereby BL Lacs are FR 1 radio galaxies viewed nearly along the jet axis. However, a possible problem with this model is that a transition population between beamed BL Lacs and unbeamed FR 1 galaxies has not been detected. A transition population of ``low-luminosity BL Lacs'' was predicted to exist in abundance in X-ray-selected samples such as the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) by Browne & Marcha. However, these BL Lacs may have been misidentified as clusters of galaxies. We have conducted a search for such objects in the EMSS with the ROSAT High-Resolution Imager (HRI) here we present ROSAT HRI images, optical spectra, and VLA radio maps for a small number of BL Lacs that were previously misidentified in the EMSS catalog as clusters of galaxies. While these objects are slightly lower in luminosity than other EMSS BL Lacs, their properties are too similar to the other BL Lacs in the EMSS sample to ``bridge the gap'' between BL Lacs and FR 1 radio galaxies. Also, the number of new BL Lacs found is too low to alter significantly the X-ray luminosity function or value for the X-ray-selected EMSS BL Lac sample. Thus, these observations do not explain fully the discrepancy between the X-ray- and radio-selected BL Lac samples.

  3. BL Lac objects and relativistic beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, Diana M.

    1986-01-01

    General arguments for relativistic beaming in BL Lac objects are reviewed. These include overproduction of X-rays and fast time variability. Comments are made about the relationship of the X-ray continuum to that at lower frequencies, and observational evidence for and against continuum radiation being relativistically beamed is discussed. Finally, there is discussion of the influence of geometrical effects on predictions for time variability as a function of frequency in the context of inhomogeneous synchrotron self-Compton jet models.

  4. VHE BL Lacs through the MAGIC glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra González, Josefa; MAGIC Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    In this contribution an overview of the latest results on the study of BL Lac objects with the MAGIC telescopes at the very high energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-rays is presented. Three new VHE sources were detected during 2014, two BL Lac objects and the gravitational lensed blazar S3 0218+357. MAGIC detected very fast intra-night variability from IC 310. This detection points to smaller emitting regions than the event horizon, this is hard to be explained in the framework of the current theoretical models. The long term multi wavelength (MWL) study of the BL Lac PKS 1424+240 shows correlation between the radio and optical emission, pointing to a common origin. The MWL SED is not well fitted by a one-zone synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) model, but a two-zone SSC model can explain both, the MWL light curve and the SED. Spectral curvature has been found in the observed VHE spectrum from PG 1553+113. This is the first time that spectral curvature compatible with the EBL absorption is found in an individual object.

  5. IMAGING REDSHIFT ESTIMATES FOR BL LACERTAE OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, Aaron M.; Romani, Roger W. E-mail: rwr@astro.stanford.ed

    2010-03-20

    We have obtained high dynamic range, good natural seeing i' images of BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) to search for the active galactic nucleus host and thus constrain the source redshift. These objects are drawn from a sample of bright flat-spectrum radio sources that are either known (via recent Fermi Large Area Telescope observations) gamma-ray emitters or similar sources that might be detected in continuing gamma-ray observations. All had spectroscopic confirmation as BL Lac sources, but no redshift solution. We detected hosts for 25/49 objects. As these galaxies have been argued to be standard candles, our measured host magnitudes provide redshift estimates (ranging from 0.2 to 1.0). Lower bounds are established on the redshifts of non-detections. The mean of the fit redshifts (and lower limits) is higher than those of spectroscopic solutions in the radio-loud and gamma-ray-loud parent samples, suggesting corrections may be needed for the luminosity function and evolution of these sources.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Fermi detection of BL Lac objects (Wu+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Jiang, D.; Gu, M.; Chen, L.

    2014-04-01

    By cross-correlating an archival sample of 170 BL Lacs with a 2 year Fermi/LAT AGN sample, we have compiled a sample of 100 BL Lacs with Fermi detection (FBLs) and a sample of 70 non-Fermi BL Lacs (NFBLs). We compared various parameters of FBLs with those of NFBLs, including the redshift, the low-frequency radio luminosity at 408MHz (L408MHz), the absolute magnitude of host galaxies (Mhost), the polarization fraction from the NVSS survey (PNVSS), the observed arcsecond scale radio core flux at 5GHz (Fcore), and the jet Doppler factor. All these parameters are directly measured or derived from available data in the literature. We found that the Doppler factor is on average greater in FBLs than in NFBLs, and the Fermi γ-ray detection rate is higher in sources with higher Doppler factor. In contrast, there are no significant differences in terms of the intrinsic parameters of redshift, L408MHz, Mhost, and PNVSS. FBLs seem to have a higher probability of exhibiting measurable proper motion. (1 data file).

  7. BATSE observations of BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect

    Connaughton, V.; Laurent-Muehleisen, S.; McCollough, M.A; Robinson, C.F.

    1998-06-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory has been shown to be sensitive to non-transient hard X-ray sources in our galaxy, down to flux levels of 100 mCrab for daily measurements, 3 mCrab for integrations over several years. We use the continuous BATSE database and the Earth Occultation technique to extract average flux values between 20 and 2OO keV from complete and radio- and X-ray- selected BL Lac samples over a 2 year period.

  8. The gBL transport equations

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1989-05-01

    The transport equations arising from the ''generalized Balescu- Lenard'' (gBL) collision operator are obtained, and some of their properties examined. The equations contain neoclassical and turbulent transport as two special cases, having the same structure. The resultant theory offers potential explanation for a number of results not well understood, including the anomalous pinch, observed ratios of Q/GAMMAT on TFTR, and numerical reproduction of ASDEX profiles by a model for turbulent transport invoked without derivation, but by analogy to neoclassical theory. The general equations are specialized to consideration of a number of particular transport mechanisms of interest. 10 refs.

  9. Stellar Populations in BL Lac type Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serote Roos, Margarida

    The relationship between an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) and its host galaxy is a crucial question in the study of galaxy evolution. We present an estimate of the stellar contribution in a sample of low luminosity BL Lac type objects. We have performed stellar population synthesis for a sample of 19 objects selected from Marchã et al. (1996, MNRAS 281, 425). The stellar content is quantified using the equivalent widths of all absorption features available throughout the spectrum. The synthesis is done by a variant of the GPG method (Pelat: 1997, MNRAS 284, 365).

  10. Computer files.

    PubMed

    Malik, M

    1995-02-01

    From what has been said, several recommendations can be made for users of small personal computers regardless of which operating system they use. If your computer has a large hard disk not specially required by any single application, organize the disk into a small number of volumes. You will then be using the computer as if it had several smaller disks, which will help you to create a logical file structure. The size of individual volumes has to be selected carefully with respect to the files kept in each volume. Otherwise, it may be that you will have too much space in one volume and not enough in another. In each volume, organize the structure of directories and subdirectories logically so that they correspond to the logic of your file content. Be aware of the fact that the directories suggested as default when installing new software are often not the optimum. For instance, it is better to put different graphics packages under a common subdirectory rather than to install them at the same level as all other packages including statistics, text processors, etc. Create a special directory for each task you use the computer. Note that it is a bad practice to keep many different and logically unsorted files in the root directory of any of your volumes. Only system and important service files should be kept there. Although any file may be written all over the disk, access to it will be faster if it is written over the minimum number of cylinders. From time to time, use special programs that reorganize your files in this way.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Compress Your Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    File compression enables data to be squeezed together, greatly reducing file size. Why would someone want to do this? Reducing file size enables the sending and receiving of files over the Internet more quickly, the ability to store more files on the hard drive, and the ability pack many related files into one archive (for example, all files…

  12. Compress Your Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    File compression enables data to be squeezed together, greatly reducing file size. Why would someone want to do this? Reducing file size enables the sending and receiving of files over the Internet more quickly, the ability to store more files on the hard drive, and the ability pack many related files into one archive (for example, all files…

  13. BL LAC candidates for TeV observations

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; Errando, M.; D'Abrusco, R.; Masetti, N.; Tosti, G.; Funk, S.

    2013-07-01

    BL Lac objects are the most numerous class of extragalactic TeV-detected sources. One of the biggest difficulties in investigating their TeV emission is due to their limited number, since only 47 BL Lac objects are known to be TeV emitters. In this paper, we propose new criteria to select TeV BL Lac candidates based on infrared and X-ray observations. We apply our selection criteria to the BL Lac objects listed in the ROMA-BZCAT catalog, thereby identifying 41 potential TeV emitters. We then perform a search over a more extended sample combining the ROSAT bright source catalog and the WISE all-sky survey, revealing 54 additional candidates for TeV observations. Our investigation also led to a tentative classification of 16 unidentified X-ray sources as BL Lac candidates. This analysis provides new interesting BL Lac targets for future observations with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes.

  14. Production of superoxide from photosystem II-light harvesting complex II supercomplex in STN8 kinase knock-out rice mutants under photoinhibitory illumination.

    PubMed

    Poudyal, Roshan Sharma; Nath, Krishna; Zulfugarov, Ismayil S; Lee, Choon-Hwan

    2016-09-01

    When phosphorylation of Photosystem (PS) II core proteins is blocked in STN8 knock-out mutants of rice (Oryza sativa) under photoinhibitory illumination, the mobilization of PSII supercomplex is prevented. We have previously proposed that more superoxide (O2(-)) is produced from PSII in the mutant (Nath et al., 2013, Plant J. 76, 675-686). Here, we clarify the type and site for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using both histochemical and fluorescence probes, we observed that, compared with wild-type (WT) leaves, levels of ROS, including O2(-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), were increased when leaves from mutant plants were illuminated with excess light. However, singlet oxygen production was not enhanced under such conditions. When superoxide dismutase was inhibited, O2(-) production was increased, indicating that it is the initial event prior to H2O2 production. In thylakoids isolated from WT leaves, kinase was active in the presence of ATP, and spectrophotometric analysis of nitrobluetetrazolium absorbance for O2(-) confirmed that PSII-driven superoxide production was greater in the mutant thylakoids than in the WT. This contrast in levels of PSII-driven superoxide production between the mutants and the WT plants was confirmed by conducting protein oxidation assays of PSII particles from osstn8 leaves under strong illumination. Those assays also demonstrated that PSII-LHCII supercomplex proteins were oxidized more in the mutant, thereby implying that PSII particles incur greater damage even though D1 degradation during PSII-supercomplex mobilization is partially blocked in the mutant. These results suggest that O2(-) is the major form of ROS produced in the mutant, and that the damaged PSII in the supercomplex is the primary source of O2(-).

  15. The beaming model and Hubble diagram of BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, G. Z.; Liu, F. K.; Liu, B. F.; Lu, R. W.; Li, K. H.; Zhu, Y. Y.

    1991-09-01

    The enhancement of the observed flux density is determined for the relativistic beaming of BL Lacertae objects. The observed apparent magnitude of 33 BL Lac objects are corrected for enhancement by the bulk relativistic Doppler factor. The diagram of apparent magnitudes corrected for the Doppler effect correlates well with the Hubble relation, and 8 of the 33 BL Lac objects have large emission-line redshifts.

  16. Multifrequency observations of BL Lacertae in 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, N.; Matsuoka, M.; Bregman, J. N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Hughes, P. A.; Balbus, S. A.; Balonek, T. J.; Chambers, K. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G. H.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous multiwavelength observations of BL Lacertae were performed on two occasions separated by 1 month in 1988 June and July, covering the radio, submillimeter, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wave bands. In the wide-band photon spectra, the X-ray flux lies clearly above the extension of radio-ultraviolet continuum as expected. The slope of the X-ray spectra is significantly flatter than that at optical-ultraviolet regimes, and its spectral index 0.7-1.0 corresponds to the slope at submillimeter band. Comparison with earlier observations, in fact, indicates that the X-ray flux is correlated with the submillimeter band, and not with the others, and supports the SSC model.

  17. Intraday optical variability of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Nankun; Wu, Jianghua; Webb, James R.; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Dai, Yan

    2017-08-01

    We monitored BL Lacertae simultaneously in the optical B, V, R and I bands for 13 nights during the period 2012-2016. The variations were well correlated in all bands and the source showed significant intraday variability (IDV). We also studied its optical flux and colour behaviour, and searched for inter-band time lags. A strong bluer-when-brighter chromatism was found on the intra-night time-scale. The spectral changes are not sensitive to the host galaxy contribution. Cross-correlation analysis revealed possible time delay of about 10 min between variations in the V and R bands. We interpreted the observed flares in terms of the model consisting of individual synchrotron pulses.

  18. Modeling BL Lac Emission Lines: A Preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Sunil; Schlegel, Eric M.; Packham, Chris

    2012-12-01

    We present preliminary results based on a model of the emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) combining special relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD), radiative transfer effects, and the spin rate of the super-massive black hole (SMBH). The RMHD code, PLUTO, can compute radiative cooling losses at each user definable time step and we use these capabilities to generate spectra. Additionally, the code will be used to model temporal variability of total broad band flux and line emission. We will use these model results to compare with observed spectra of AGN, focusing on blazars with the goal of predicting line strengths in BL Lac objects. We present methods for estimating line strengths from our simulated results.

  19. CCD photometry of 10 BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, G. Z.; Li, K. H.; Cheng, F. Z.; Lu, R. W.; Liu, B. F.; Hao, P. J.; Liu, Z. H.

    1991-03-01

    CCD photometric data for 10 BL Lacertae objects are given. The main results are: (1) a short timescale variability exists for OI 090.4 with a characteristic time of 80 minutes and an amplitude of Delta-B = 0.56 mag (+ or - 0.11 mag); (2) an outburst of 0.72 mag (+ or - 0.1 mag) within 40 minutes has again been recorded in the V band for ON + 231; its morphology strongly resembles that of the two previously reported outbursts of 1987 and 1988; and (3) a large amplitude outburst of 0.87 mag (+ or - 0.10 mag) within 96 minutes has been recorded for OJ-131 in the B band.

  20. Intranight Variability During the 1997 Outburst of BL Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Sandra D.; Carini, Michael T.; Noble, John C.

    1998-02-01

    The blazar BL Lac underwent a major outburst this summer. To search for intranight variability during the outburst, observations of BL Lac were made with the 30 inch telescope at the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory. During ten nights in July, nearly 300 CCD observations were made. BL Lac was seen to vary by more than 1.5 magnitudes over those ten nights. Substantial intranight variability was also observed. For example, on July 29, BL Lac increased in brightness by more than 0.5 magnitude in less than 2.5 hours. The observations of BL Lac taken in July are reported here and discussed in relation to the models intended to explain intranight variability.

  1. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  2. The Discovery of Low-Luminosity BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rector, Travis A.; Stocke, John T.

    1995-12-01

    Many of the properties of BL Lacs have become explicable in terms of the ``relativistic beaming'' hypothesis whereby BL Lacs are ``highly beamed'' FR-I radio galaxies (i.e. our line of sight to these objects is nearly along the jet axis). Further, radio-selected BL Lacs (RBLs) are believed to be seen nearly ``on-axis'' (the line-of-sight angle theta ~ 8deg ) while X-ray selected BL Lacs (XBLs) are seen at larger angles (theta ~ 30deg ; the X-ray emitting jet is believed to be less collimated). However, a major problem with this model was that a transition population between beamed BL Lacs and unbeamed FR-Is had not been detected. Low-luminosity BL Lacs may be such a transition population, and were predicted to exist by Browne and Marcha (1993). We present ROSAT HRI images, VLA radio maps and optical spectra which confirm the existence of low-luminosity BL Lacs, objects which were previously mis-identified in the EMSS catalog as clusters of galaxies. Thus our results strengthen the relativistic beaming hypothesis.

  3. The cosmic evolution of Fermi BL Lacertae objects

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Romani, R. W.; Shaw, M. S.; Healey, S. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Gasparrini, D.; Bolmer, J.; Cotter, G.; Potter, W. J.; Finke, J.; Greiner, J.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; King, O.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L. E-mail: rwr@astro.stanford.edu E-mail: gasparrini@asdc.asi.it

    2014-01-01

    Fermi has provided the largest sample of γ-ray-selected blazars to date. In this work we use a uniformly selected set of 211 BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects detected by Fermi during its first year of operation. We obtained redshift constraints for 206 out of the 211 BL Lac objects in our sample, making it the largest and most complete sample of BL Lac objects available in the literature. We use this sample to determine the luminosity function of BL Lac objects and its evolution with cosmic time. We find that for most BL Lac classes the evolution is positive, with a space density peaking at modest redshift (z ≈ 1.2). Low-luminosity, high-synchrotron-peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are an exception, showing strong negative evolution, with number density increasing for z ≲ 0.5. Since this rise corresponds to a drop-off in the density of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), a possible interpretation is that these HSPs represent an accretion-starved end state of an earlier merger-driven gas-rich phase. We additionally find that the known BL Lac correlation between luminosity and photon spectral index persists after correction for the substantial observational selection effects with implications for the so-called 'blazar sequence'. Finally, by estimating the beaming corrections to the luminosity function, we find that BL Lac objects have an average Lorentz factor of γ=6.1{sub −0.8}{sup +1.1}, and that most are seen within 10° of the jet axis.

  4. The cosmic evolution of Fermi BL lacertae objects

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Romani, R. W.; Gasparrini, D.; Shaw, M. S.; Bolmer, J.; Cotter, G.; Finke, J.; Greiner, J.; Healey, S. E.; King, O.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Michelson, P. F.; Potter, W. J.; Rau, A.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Schady, P.

    2013-12-13

    Fermi has provided the largest sample of γ-ray-selected blazars to date. We use a uniformly selected set of 211 BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects detected by Fermi during its first year of operation. We obtained redshift constraints for 206 out of the 211 BL Lac objects in our sample, making it the largest and most complete sample of BL Lac objects available in the literature. We use this sample to determine the luminosity function of BL Lac objects and its evolution with cosmic time. Here, we find that for most BL Lac classes the evolution is positive, with a space density peaking at modest redshift (z ≈ 1.2). Low-luminosity, high-synchrotron-peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are an exception, showing strong negative evolution, with number density increasing for z lesssim 0.5. Since this rise corresponds to a drop-off in the density of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), a possible interpretation is that these HSPs represent an accretion-starved end state of an earlier merger-driven gas-rich phase. Additionally, we find that the known BL Lac correlation between luminosity and photon spectral index persists after correction for the substantial observational selection effects with implications for the so-called "blazar sequence." Finally, by estimating the beaming corrections to the luminosity function, we find that BL Lac objects have an average Lorentz factor of $\\gamma =6.1^{+1.1}_{-0.8}$, and that most are seen within 10° of the jet axis.

  5. The cosmic evolution of Fermi BL lacertae objects

    DOE PAGES

    Ajello, M.; Romani, R. W.; Gasparrini, D.; ...

    2013-12-13

    Fermi has provided the largest sample of γ-ray-selected blazars to date. We use a uniformly selected set of 211 BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects detected by Fermi during its first year of operation. We obtained redshift constraints for 206 out of the 211 BL Lac objects in our sample, making it the largest and most complete sample of BL Lac objects available in the literature. We use this sample to determine the luminosity function of BL Lac objects and its evolution with cosmic time. Here, we find that for most BL Lac classes the evolution is positive, with a space density peaking at modest redshift (z ≈ 1.2). Low-luminosity, high-synchrotron-peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are an exception, showing strong negative evolution, with number density increasing for z lesssim 0.5. Since this rise corresponds to a drop-off in the density of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), a possible interpretation is that these HSPs represent an accretion-starved end state of an earlier merger-driven gas-rich phase. Additionally, we find that the known BL Lac correlation between luminosity and photon spectral index persists after correction for the substantial observational selection effects with implications for the so-called "blazar sequence." Finally, by estimating the beaming corrections to the luminosity function, we find that BL Lac objects have an average Lorentz factor ofmore » $$\\gamma =6.1^{+1.1}_{-0.8}$$, and that most are seen within 10° of the jet axis.« less

  6. The megaparsec-scale environments of BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric P.; O'Dea, C. P.; Baum, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    We compare observations of BL Lac megaparsec-scale clustering environments with those for F-R I radio galaxies V and R image data are used to show that the strengths of the clustering measured via spatial cross-correlation amplitude are similar for the two types of galaxies and are consistent with Abel richness class 0. We discuss the implications this has for the origin of the BL Lac phenomena. We also examine the evolution of clustering environments of F-R I radio galaxies and BL Lac objects with redshift.

  7. Dark matter in B-L extended MSSM models

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, S.; Okada, H.

    2009-04-15

    We analyze the dark matter problem in the context of the supersymmetric U(1){sub B-L} model. In this model, the lightest neutralino can be the B-L gaugino Z-tilde{sub B-L} or the extra Higgsinos {chi}-tilde{sub 1,2} dominated. We compute the thermal relic abundance of these particles and show that, unlike the lightest neutralino in the MSSM, they can account for the observed relic abundance with no conflict with other phenomenological constraints. The prospects for their direct detection, if they are part of our galactic halo, are also discussed.

  8. 43 CFR 4.1352 - Who may file; where to file; when to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may file; where to file; when to file... Indian Lands) § 4.1352 Who may file; where to file; when to file. (a) The applicant or operator may file... to file a timely request constitutes a waiver of the opportunity for a hearing before OSM makes...

  9. HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-3bl COLLAPSE ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada and National Security Technologies, LLC

    2006-09-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing.

  10. Report filing in histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Blenkinsopp, W K

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of alternative methods of filing histopathology report forms in alphabetical order showed that orthodox card index filing is satisfactory up to about 100000 reports but, because of the need for long-term retrieval, when the reports filed exceed this number they should be copied on jacketed microfilm and a new card index file begun. PMID:591645

  11. A comparative phenotypic and genomic analysis of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mouse inbred line C57BL/6J is widely used in mouse genetics and its genome has been incorporated into many genetic reference populations. More recently large initiatives such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) are using the C57BL/6N mouse strain to generate null alleles for all mouse genes. Hence both strains are now widely used in mouse genetics studies. Here we perform a comprehensive genomic and phenotypic analysis of the two strains to identify differences that may influence their underlying genetic mechanisms. Results We undertake genome sequence comparisons of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N to identify SNPs, indels and structural variants, with a focus on identifying all coding variants. We annotate 34 SNPs and 2 indels that distinguish C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N coding sequences, as well as 15 structural variants that overlap a gene. In parallel we assess the comparative phenotypes of the two inbred lines utilizing the EMPReSSslim phenotyping pipeline, a broad based assessment encompassing diverse biological systems. We perform additional secondary phenotyping assessments to explore other phenotype domains and to elaborate phenotype differences identified in the primary assessment. We uncover significant phenotypic differences between the two lines, replicated across multiple centers, in a number of physiological, biochemical and behavioral systems. Conclusions Comparison of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N demonstrates a range of phenotypic differences that have the potential to impact upon penetrance and expressivity of mutational effects in these strains. Moreover, the sequence variants we identify provide a set of candidate genes for the phenotypic differences observed between the two strains. PMID:23902802

  12. Polarimetry of optically selected BL Lacertae candidates from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, J.; Nilsson, K.

    2011-05-01

    We present and discuss polarimetric observations of 182 targets drawn from an optically selected sample of 240 probable BL Lac candidates out of the SDSS compiled by Collinge et al. (2005, AJ, 129, 2542). In contrast to most other BL Lac candidate samples extracted from the SDSS, its radio- and/or X-ray properties have not been taken into account for its derivation. Thus, because its selection is based on optical properties alone, it may be less prone to selection effects inherent in other samples derived at different frequencies, so it offers a unique opportunity to extract the first unbiased BL Lac luminosity function that is suitably large in size. We found 124 out of 182 targets (68%) to be polarized, 95 of the polarized targets (77%) to be highly polarized (>4%). The low-frequency peaked BL Lac candidates in the sample are on average only slightly more polarized than the high-frequency peaked ones. Compared to earlier studies, we found a high duty cycle in high polarization (˜ 66+2-14% to be >4% polarized) in high-frequency peaked BL Lac candidates. This may come from our polarization analysis, which minimizes the contamination by host galaxy light. No evidence of radio-quiet BL Lac objects in the sample was found. Our observations show that the probable sample of BL Lac candidates of Collinge et al. (2005) indeed contains a large number of bona fide BL Lac objects. High S/N spectroscopy and deep X-ray observations are required to construct the first luminosity function of optically selected BL Lac objects and to test more stringently for any radio-quiet BL Lac objects in the sample. Based on observations collected with the NTT on La Silla (Chile) operated by the European Southern Observatory in the course of the observing proposal 082.B-0133.Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC).Based on observations

  13. Very Long Baseline Polarimetry of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denn, Grant R.; Mutel, Robert L.; Marscher, Alan P.

    2000-07-01

    We present the results of an extensive observing campaign designed to study the evolution of parsec-scale radio structure in the nucleus of the AGN galaxy BL Lacertae. The observations spanned 17 epochs from 1994.7 to 1998.3. The VLBA observations, made at regular intervals at 15, 22, and 43 GHz, show the ejection and evolution of four highly polarized superluminal components (denoted S7-S10). The trajectories of all components were significantly curved, with the slowest component (S8) exhibiting the most bending. All four components had nearly constant apparent speeds, at least between 1 and 3 mas separation from the core. Extrapolation of the core-component separation to a zero spacing epoch suggests that they may have been created in pairs, with fast and slow counterparts. Each superluminal component was moderately linearly polarized at all observed frequencies. The electric vector position angle (EVPA) was frequency independent but changed with core-component separation for all four components, with total EVPA rotation varying from 30° (S7) to 80° (S8). There was no preferred EVPA orientation with respect to the jet axis when components were young, i.e., close to the core. However, three of the four components' EVPAs rotated to within 20° of the jet direction at later epochs, consistent with emission from transverse shocks. The core was nearly unpolarized at 15 GHz, except when a new superluminal component was just emerging. At higher frequencies (22 and 43 GHz) core fractional polarization was low with a quadratic frequency dependence. We applied Hardee's model of helical twisting on an adiabatically expanding jet to explain the observed bent component trajectories. By searching the parameter space of allowed helical geometries, we found a best-fit set of parameters with fixed opening and line of sight angles for all four components. The preferred helical geometry was described by a line of sight angle Θ~=9deg and a jet half-opening angle Ψ~=2deg

  14. Comparative study of fertilization rates of C57BL/6NKorl and C57BL/6N mice obtained from two other sources

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Woo Bin; Kim, Hye Ryeong; Kim, Ji Eun; Choi, Jun Young; Lee, Mi Rim; Park, Jin Ju; Song, Bo Ram; Jung, Young Suk; Song, Hyun Keun; Cho, Joon Young; Kim, Kil Soo

    2017-01-01

    C57BL/6N is the most widely used inbred mouse strain applied in a wide variety of research areas including cancer, cardiovascular biology, developmental biology, diabetes and obesity, genetics, immunology, neurobiology, and sensorineural research. To compare the fertilization rates of C57BL/6NKorl mice with two commercial C57BL/6N stocks, differences in reproductive organ structures, sperm and egg numbers, fertilization rates, and embryo development rates among C57BL/6NKorl (Korea FDA source), C57BL/6NA (USA source), and C57BL/6NB (Japan source) mice were determined. Among the stocks, no significant differences were detected in organ weight and histological structure of male and female reproductive organs, although body weight was higher in C57BL/6NKorl mice than that in the other groups. The concentration and morphology of sperm and eggs in C57BL/6NKorl mice were similar to those of C57BL/6NA and C57BL/6NB mice. Furthermore, the three stocks had similar in vitro fertilization and embryo development rates, although these rates tended to be higher in C57BL/6NB mice. Pup body weight was higher in C57BL/6NKorl and C57BL/6NB mice than that in C57BL/6NA mice. The results of the present study suggest that C57BL/6NKorl, C57BL/6NA, and C57BL/6NB mice obtained from three different sources have similar fertilization and embryo development rates, although there were slight differences in the magnitude of their responses rates. PMID:28747985

  15. 43 CFR 4.1381 - Who may file; when to file; where to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may file; when to file; where to file... may file; when to file; where to file. (a) Any person who receives a written decision issued by OSM under 30 CFR 773.28 on a challenge to an ownership or control listing or finding may file a request...

  16. Molecular actions of two synthetic brassinosteroids, iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL, which cause altered physiological activities between Arabidopsis and rice

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Shozo; Ito, Shinsaku; Kigawa, Takanori; Shimada, Yukihisa; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yoshida, Shigeo; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Asami, Tadao; Seto, Hideharu; Nakano, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) is an important plant hormone that is perceived by the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) receptor. BRI1 is conserved among dicot and monocot species; however, the molecular mechanism underlying BR perception in monocots is not fully understood. We synthesised two BRs, iso-carbabrassinolide (iso-carbaBL) and 6-deoxoBL, which have different BR activities in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and rice. Our bioassay indicated that iso-carbaBL has relatively strong BR activity in Arabidopsis, but is inactive in rice and competitively inhibits BR activity. The bioactivity of 6-deoxoBL was similar to that of BL in Arabidopsis, but was much lower in rice. Binding experiments using recombinant Arabidopsis and rice BRI1 protein fragments suggested that iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL bind to both receptors. These results showed that iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL act as an antagonist and agonist, respectively, of BRs in rice. A docking simulation analysis suggested that iso-carbaBL fits deeper in the binding pocket to block the binding of active BR to rice BRI1. The simulated binding energy of 6-deoxoBL with rice BRI1 is much lower than that with Arabidopsis BRI1. The possible structural characteristics of rice BRI1 were determined based on the difference in the BR activities of iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL in Arabidopsis and rice. PMID:28369122

  17. Molecular actions of two synthetic brassinosteroids, iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL, which cause altered physiological activities between Arabidopsis and rice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ayako; Tochio, Naoya; Fujioka, Shozo; Ito, Shinsaku; Kigawa, Takanori; Shimada, Yukihisa; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yoshida, Shigeo; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Asami, Tadao; Seto, Hideharu; Nakano, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) is an important plant hormone that is perceived by the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) receptor. BRI1 is conserved among dicot and monocot species; however, the molecular mechanism underlying BR perception in monocots is not fully understood. We synthesised two BRs, iso-carbabrassinolide (iso-carbaBL) and 6-deoxoBL, which have different BR activities in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and rice. Our bioassay indicated that iso-carbaBL has relatively strong BR activity in Arabidopsis, but is inactive in rice and competitively inhibits BR activity. The bioactivity of 6-deoxoBL was similar to that of BL in Arabidopsis, but was much lower in rice. Binding experiments using recombinant Arabidopsis and rice BRI1 protein fragments suggested that iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL bind to both receptors. These results showed that iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL act as an antagonist and agonist, respectively, of BRs in rice. A docking simulation analysis suggested that iso-carbaBL fits deeper in the binding pocket to block the binding of active BR to rice BRI1. The simulated binding energy of 6-deoxoBL with rice BRI1 is much lower than that with Arabidopsis BRI1. The possible structural characteristics of rice BRI1 were determined based on the difference in the BR activities of iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL in Arabidopsis and rice.

  18. Are some BL Lacs artefacts of gravitational lensing?

    PubMed

    Ostriker, J P; Vietri, M

    1990-03-01

    WE suggested in 1985 that a significant fraction of BL Lacertae objects, a kind of lineless quasar, seen in nearby galaxies are in fact images, gravitationally lensed and substantially amplified by stars in the nearby galaxy, of background objects, optically violent variable (OVV) quasars at redshifts z > 1 (ref. 1). This hypothesis was made on the basis of certain general similarities between BL Lacs and O Ws, but for two recently observed BL Lacs(2,3) a strong case can be made that the accompanying elliptical galaxy is a foreground object. In addition, we argue that the distribution of BL Lac redshifts is hard to understand without gravitational lensing, unless we happen to be at a very local maximum of the spatial cosmic distribution of BL Lacs. Our analysis also indicates that the galaxies whose stars are likely to act as microlenses will be found in two peaks, one nearby, with redshift 0.05-0.10, and the other near the distant quasar.

  19. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. Megan; Wandel, Amri

    1990-01-01

    The accretion disk is an attractive model for BL Lac objects because of its preferred axis and high efficiency. While the smooth continuum spectra of BL Lacs do not show large UV bumps, in marked contrast to quasars, high quality simultaneous data do reveal deviations from smoothness. Using detailed calculations of cool accretion disk spectra, the best measured ultraviolet and soft x ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted. The mass and accretion rate required are determined. A hot disk or corona could comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power law spectrum in the 1 to 10 keV range. The dynamic time scales in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft x ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations. The mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard x ray variability.

  20. Spectroscopy of six X-ray-selected BL Lacertae candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Margon, B.; Boroson, T.A.; Chanan, G.A.; Thompson, I.B.; Schneider, D.P.

    1986-11-01

    Results of a continuing program aimed at extending the small list of X-ray-selected BL Lac objects are reported. High-quality spectra have been obtained of six faint blue objects that lie within the positional error boxes of X-ray sources discovered serendipitously by the Einstein Observatory. Three of the objects are found to be previously uncataloged low-red-shift quasi-stellar objects, including one formerly suggested as BL Lac candidate. Two are faint galactic stars, while the final object has a featureless spectrum, and thus remains a candidate. Although X-ray selection may ultimately be an effective means of discovering faint BL Lac objects, such sources are evidently rare at the X-ray flux levels attainable by the Einstein Observatory. 15 references.

  1. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. Megan; Wandel, Amri

    1990-01-01

    The accretion disk is an attractive model for BL Lac objects because of its preferred axis and high efficiency. While the smooth continuum spectra of BL Lacs do not show large UV bumps, in marked contrast to quasars, high quality simultaneous data do reveal deviations from smoothness. Using detailed calculations of cool accretion disk spectra, the best measured ultraviolet and soft x ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted. The mass and accretion rate required are determined. A hot disk or corona could comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power law spectrum in the 1 to 10 keV range. The dynamic time scales in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft x ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations. The mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard x ray variability.

  2. The androgen receptor controls expression of the cancer-associated sTn antigen and cell adhesion through induction of ST6GalNAc1 in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Munkley, Jennifer; Oltean, Sebastian; Vodák, Daniel; Wilson, Brian T.; Livermore, Karen E.; Zhou, Yan; Star, Eleanor; Floros, Vasileios I.; Johannessen, Bjarne; Knight, Bridget; McCullagh, Paul; McGrath, John; Crundwell, Malcolm; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Robson, Craig N.; Leung, Hing Y.; Harries, Lorna W.; Rajan, Prabhakar; Mills, Ian G.; Elliott, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of glycosylation are important in cancer, but the molecular mechanisms that drive changes are often poorly understood. The androgen receptor drives prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression to lethal metastatic castration-resistant disease. Here we used RNA-Seq coupled with bioinformatic analyses of androgen-receptor (AR) binding sites and clinical PCa expression array data to identify ST6GalNAc1 as a direct and rapidly activated target gene of the AR in PCa cells. ST6GalNAc1 encodes a sialytransferase that catalyses formation of the cancer-associated sialyl-Tn antigen (sTn), which we find is also induced by androgen exposure. Androgens induce expression of a novel splice variant of the ST6GalNAc1 protein in PCa cells. This splice variant encodes a shorter protein isoform that is still fully functional as a sialyltransferase and able to induce expression of the sTn-antigen. Surprisingly, given its high expression in tumours, stable expression of ST6GalNAc1 in PCa cells reduced formation of stable tumours in mice, reduced cell adhesion and induced a switch towards a more mesenchymal-like cell phenotype in vitro. ST6GalNAc1 has a dynamic expression pattern in clinical datasets, being significantly up-regulated in primary prostate carcinoma but relatively down-regulated in established metastatic tissue. ST6GalNAc1 is frequently upregulated concurrently with another important glycosylation enzyme GCNT1 previously associated with prostate cancer progression and implicated in Sialyl Lewis X antigen synthesis. Together our data establishes an androgen-dependent mechanism for sTn antigen expression in PCa, and are consistent with a general role for the androgen receptor in driving important coordinate changes to the glycoproteome during PCa progression. PMID:26452038

  3. Text File Display Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrus, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

  4. Standard interface file handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  5. Text File Comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  6. Text File Comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  7. Radio-weak BL Lac Objects in the Fermi Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, F.; Marchesini, E. J.; D'Abrusco, R.; Masetti, N.; Andruchow, I.; Smith, Howard A.

    2017-01-01

    The existence of “radio-weak BL Lac objects” (RWBLs) has been an open question, and has remained unsolved since the discovery that quasars could be radio-quiet or radio-loud. Recently, several groups identified RWBL candidates, mostly found while searching for low-energy counterparts of the unidentified or unassociated gamma-ray sources listed in the Fermi catalogs. Confirming RWBLs is a challenging task since they could be confused with white dwarfs (WDs) or weak emission line quasars (WELQs) when there are not sufficient data to precisely draw their broadband spectral energy distribution, and their classification is mainly based on a featureless optical spectra. Motivated by the recent discovery that Fermi BL Lacs appear to have very peculiar mid-IR emission, we show that it is possible to distinguish between WDs, WELQs, and BL Lacs using the [3.4]-[4.6]-[12] μm color-color plot built using the WISE magnitudes when the optical spectrum is available. On the basis of this analysis, we identify WISE J064459.38+603131 and WISE J141046.00+740511.2 as the first two genuine RWBLs, both potentially associated with Fermi sources. Finally, to strengthen our identification of these objects as true RWBLs, we present multifrequency observations for these two candidates to show that their spectral behavior is indeed consistent with that of the BL Lac population.

  8. Proteomic analysis on acetate metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Man; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Byeoung-Soo; Son, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Young-Mi; Yang, Seung-Ok; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Hur, Sung-Ho; Yum, Jong Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Mass production of glucosamine (GlcN) using microbial cells is a worthy approach to increase added values and keep safety problems in GlcN production process. Prior to set up a microbial cellular platform, this study was to assess acetate metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4 (BL-4) which has produced a polyglucosamine PGB-2. The LC-MS analysis was conducted after protein separation on the 1D-PAGE to accomplish the purpose of this study. 280 proteins were totally identified and 188 proteins were separated as acetate-related proteins in BL-4. Acetate was converted to acetyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA synthetase up-regulated in the acetate medium. The glyoxylate bypass in the acetate medium was up-regulated with over-expression of isocitrate lyases and 2D-PAGE confirmed this differential expression. Using (1)H-NMR analysis, the product of isocitrate lyases, succinate, increased about 15 times in the acetate medium. During acetate metabolism proteins involved in the lipid metabolism and hexosamine biosynthesis were over-expressed in the acetate medium, while proteins involved in TCA cycle, pentose phosphate cycle and purine metabolism were down-regulated. Taken together, the results from the proteomic analysis can be applied to improve GlcN production and to develop metabolic engineering in BL-4.

  9. The gravitational wave spectrum from cosmological B-L breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K.; Schmitz, K. E-mail: valerie.domcke@desy.de E-mail: kai.schmitz@ipmu.jp

    2013-10-01

    Cosmological B-L breaking is a natural and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase drives hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The decays of heavy B-L Higgs bosons and heavy neutrinos generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter and also control the reheating temperature. The different phases in the transition from inflation to the radiation dominated phase produce a characteristic spectrum of gravitational waves. We calculate the complete gravitational wave spectrum due to inflation, preheating and cosmic strings, which turns out to have several features. The production of gravitational waves from cosmic strings has large uncertainties, with lower and upper bounds provided by Abelian Higgs strings and Nambu-Goto strings, implying Ω{sub GW}h{sup 2} ∼ 10{sup −13}–10{sup −8}, much larger than the spectral amplitude predicted by inflation. Forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO, ET, BBO and DECIGO will reach the sensitivity needed to test the predictions from cosmological B-L breaking.

  10. The gravitational wave spectrum from cosmological B-L breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K.; Schmitz, K.

    2013-10-01

    Cosmological B-L breaking is a natural and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase drives hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The decays of heavy B-L Higgs bosons and heavy neutrinos generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter and also control the reheating temperature. The different phases in the transition from inflation to the radiation dominated phase produce a characteristic spectrum of gravitational waves. We calculate the complete gravitational wave spectrum due to inflation, preheating and cosmic strings, which turns out to have several features. The production of gravitational waves from cosmic strings has large uncertainties, with lower and upper bounds provided by Abelian Higgs strings and Nambu-Goto strings, implying ΩGWh2 ~ 10-13-10-8, much larger than the spectral amplitude predicted by inflation. Forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO, ET, BBO and DECIGO will reach the sensitivity needed to test the predictions from cosmological B-L breaking.

  11. Response of lymphosarcoma LS/BL cells to continuous irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Juraskova, V.; Drasil, V.

    1984-12-01

    Mouse lymphosarcoma LS/BL cells growing as an ascites tumor in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL mice were continuously irradiated in vivo at a low exposure rate of 1.2 Gy per day (5 rad/hr). The growth of the ascites tumor evaluated by direct counting of the cells in the peritoneal cavity and their capacity to form colonies in livers declined with increasing time of continuous irradiation. The radiosensitivity and repair ability of LS/BL cells were studied by a serial dilution method using host survival time as the end point and by the liver colony assay. The radiosensitivity of continuously irradiated LS/BL-CI cells showed no remarkable change as measured by the D/sub 0/ values, but from the 150th week of irradiation the inital shoulder on the survival curves appeared and its width increased with time of exposure. The extrapolation number (n) increased from 1.0 to 8.4 after 350 weeks of irradiation. The reappearance of the initial shoulder was proved with the split-dose technique.

  12. Proteomic Analysis on Acetate Metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Man; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Byeoung-Soo; Son, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Young-Mi; Yang, Seung-Ok; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Hur, Sung-Ho; Yum, Jong Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Mass production of glucosamine (GlcN) using microbial cells is a worthy approach to increase added values and keep safety problems in GlcN production process. Prior to set up a microbial cellular platform, this study was to assess acetate metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4 (BL-4) which has produced a polyglucosamine PGB-2. The LC-MS analysis was conducted after protein separation on the 1D-PAGE to accomplish the purpose of this study. 280 proteins were totally identified and 188 proteins were separated as acetate-related proteins in BL-4. Acetate was converted to acetyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA synthetase up-regulated in the acetate medium. The glyoxylate bypass in the acetate medium was up-regulated with over-expression of isocitrate lyases and 2D-PAGE confirmed this differential expression. Using 1H-NMR analysis, the product of isocitrate lyases, succinate, increased about 15 times in the acetate medium. During acetate metabolism proteins involved in the lipid metabolism and hexosamine biosynthesis were over-expressed in the acetate medium, while proteins involved in TCA cycle, pentose phosphate cycle and purine metabolism were down-regulated. Taken together, the results from the proteomic analysis can be applied to improve GlcN production and to develop metabolic engineering in BL-4. PMID:22211106

  13. Properties of optically selected BL Lacertae candidates from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügler, S. D.; Nilsson, K.; Heidt, J.; Esser, J.; Schultz, T.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Deep optical surveys open the avenue for finding large numbers of BL Lac objects that are hard to identify because they lack the unique properties classifying them as such. While radio or X-ray surveys typically reveal dozens of sources, recent compilations based on optical criteria alone have increased the number of BL Lac candidates considerably. However, these compilations are subject to biases and may contain a substantial number of contaminating sources. Aims: In this paper we extend our analysis of 182 optically selected BL Lac object candidates from the SDSS with respect to an earlier study. The main goal is to determine the number of bona fide BL Lac objects in this sample. Methods: We examine their variability characteristics, determine their broad-band radio-UV spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and search for the presence of a host galaxy. In addition we present new optical spectra for 27 targets with improved signal-to-noise ratio with respect to the SDSS spectra. Results: At least 59% of our targets have shown variability between SDSS DR2 and our observations by more than 0.1-0.27 mag depending on the telescope used. A host galaxy was detected in 36% of our targets. The host galaxy type and luminosities are consistent with earlier studies of BL Lac host galaxies. Simple fits to broad-band SEDs for 104 targets of our sample derived synchrotron peak frequencies between 13.5 ≤ log 10(νpeak) ≤ 16 with a peak at log 10 ~ 14.5. Our new optical spectra do not reveal any new redshift for any of our objects. Thus the sample contains a large number of bona fide BL Lac objects and seems to contain a substantial fraction of intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lacs. Based on observations collected with the NTT on La Silla (Chile) operated by the European Southern Observatory under proposal 082.B-0133.Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie and the

  14. The CLASS BL Lac sample: the radio luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchã, M. J. M.; Caccianiga, A.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new sample of BL Lac objects selected from a deep (30 mJy) radio survey of flat spectrum radio sources (the CLASS blazar survey). The sample is one of the largest well-defined samples in the low-power regime with a total of 130 sources of which 55 satisfy the `classical' optical BL Lac selection criteria, and the rest have indistinguishable radio properties. The primary goal of this study is to establish the radio luminosity function (RLF) on firm statistical ground at low radio luminosities where previous samples have not been able to investigate. The gain of taking a peek at lower powers is the possibility to search for the flattening of the luminosity function which is a feature predicted by the beaming model but which has remained elusive to observational confirmation. In this study, we extend for the first time the BL Lac RLF down to very low radio powers ˜1022 W Hz-1, i.e. two orders of magnitude below the RLF currently available in the literature. In the process, we confirm the importance of adopting a broader, and more physically meaningful set of classification criteria to avoid the systematic missing of low-luminosity BL Lacs. Thanks to the good statistics we confirm the existence of weak but significant positive cosmological evolution for the BL Lac population, and we detect, for the first time the flattening of the RLF at L ˜ 1025 W Hz-1 in agreement with the predictions of the beaming model.

  15. 78 FR 59313 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 53 RIN 1545-BL57 Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION...

  16. 78 FR 59228 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 53 RIN 1545-BL58 Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final...

  17. 78 FR 49700 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... 26 CFR Part 53 RIN 1545-BL57 Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the... burden in time or expense. The liability for the section 4959 excise tax is imposed by statute, and not..., notice of the date, time, and place for the public hearing will be published in the Federal Register...

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain BL23▿

    PubMed Central

    Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

  19. 43 CFR 4.1371 - Who may file, where to file, when to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may file, where to file, when to file... Permits § 4.1371 Who may file, where to file, when to file. (a) A permittee that is served with a notice... under 30 CFR 773.23 may file a request for review with the Hearings Division, Office of Hearings...

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Swift and NuSTAR obs. of the BL Lac Mrk 421 (Kapanadze+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, B.; Dorner, D.; Vercellone, S.; Romano, P.; Aller, H.; Aller, M.; Hughes, P.; Reynolds, M.; Kapanadze, S.; Tabagari, L.

    2017-01-01

    We retrieved the Swift-XRT data from the publicly available archive, maintained by HEASARC. We present the results of X-ray observations of the high-energy peaked BL Lac (HBL) source Mrk421 performed by Swift-XRT and NuSTAR during 2013 January-June. Along with the 0.3-10keV and 3-79keV data obtained with the Swift-XRT and NuSTAR instruments, we have processed and analyzed those obtained with the Ultraviolet-Optical Telescope (UVOT) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard Fermi. We have also used the publicly available light curves from the observations performed with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift, Monitor of All Sky X-ray Image (MAXI), MAGIC, First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT), and the OVRO 40m telescope during the 2013 January-June period to draw conclusions about the interband correlations. (8 data files).

  1. Galactic membership of BL Her type variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkovic, M. I.; Stojanovic, M.; Ninkovic, S.

    2016-05-01

    As the RR Lyrae stars evolve on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram they are believed to become short period Type II Cepheids, known as BL Her type (with a pulsation period from 1 to 3-8 days). Assuming that their mass is around 0.5-0.6M_Sol, and that they are low metallicity objects, they were thought to belong to the halo of the Milky Way. We investigated seven Galactic short period Type II Cepheids (BL Her, SW Tau, V553 Cen, DQ And, BD Cas, V383 Cyg, and KT Com) in order to establish their membership within the Galactic structure using the kinematic approach. Gaia should provide us with more data needed to conduct the study of the whole sample.

  2. What powers the most relativistic jets? - I. BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Emma; Done, Chris

    2014-02-01

    The dramatic relativistic jets pointing directly at us in BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects can be well modelled by bulk motion beaming of synchrotron self-Compton emission powered by a low Eddington fraction accretion flow. Nearly 500 of these active galactic nuclei (AGN) are seen in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalogue of AGN. We combine the jet models which describe individual spectra with the expected jet parameter scalings with mass and mass accretion rate to predict the expected number of Fermi detected sources given the number densities of AGN from cosmological simulations. We select only sources with Eddington scaled mass accretion rate <0.01 (i.e. radiatively inefficient flows), and include cooling, orientation effects and the effects of absorption from pair production on the extragalactic infrared background. These models overpredict the number of Fermi detected BL Lacs by a factor of 1000! This clearly shows that one of the underlying assumptions is incorrect, almost certainly that jets do not scale simply with mass and accretion rate. The most plausible additional parameter which can affect the region producing the Fermi emission is black hole spin. We can reproduce the observed numbers of BL Lacs if such relativistic jets are only produced by the highest spin (a* > 0.8) black holes, in agreement with the longstanding spin-jet paradigm. This also requires that high spins are intrinsically rare, as predicted by the cosmological simulations for growing black hole mass via chaotic (randomly aligned) accretion episodes, where only the most massive black holes have high spin due to black hole-black hole mergers.

  3. The Microvariability of BL Lacertae During the 1997 Optical Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balonek, T. J.; Whitman, K.; Davis, S. M.; Beckerman, E.

    1998-12-01

    We report optical R filter CCD photometric observations from Colgate University's Foggy Bottom Observatory of the quasar BL Lacertae during the intense outburst in summer 1997. Throughout 1996 BL Lac hovered around a magnitude of R = 14.7-15.3, with night-to-night variations of several tenths of a magnitude. The 1997 outburst appears to be part of a general increase in activity which began after a minimum of 15.3 in July 1996. On June 23, 1997, BL Lac was observed to be at its brightest in 20 years, after which we commenced our intensive monitoring. BL Lac continued to be active during the next two months, flaring numerous times during this period within the range R = 14.2-12.4. Microvariability was observed on several timescales. First, there are the rises and declines, maxima and minima that occur over the entire night (or longer) of amplitude a magnitude or greater. A variability of 0.3-0.4 magnitudes over a six to eight hour period is most common, but occasionally larger changes occur. The maxima are very sharp, lasting only a matter of minutes with slopes of up to 0.4 magnitudes per hour near the peak, while the minima tend to be much more gradual. Secondly, there is variability of 0.04-0.10 magnitude amplitude on timescales of minutes on top of this night-long variation. The most common of these short-term variations seem to be small flares that last 20 to 40 minutes.

  4. Looking for the least luminous BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capetti, A.; Raiteri, C. M.

    2015-08-01

    Among active galactic nuclei, BL Lac objects show extreme properties that have been interpreted as the effect of relativistic beaming on the emission from a plasma jet oriented close to the line of sight. The Doppler amplification of the jet emission makes them ideal targets for studying jet physics. In particular, low-power BL Lacs (LPBL) are very interesting because they probe the jet formation and emission processes at the lowest levels of accretion. However, they are difficult to identify since their emission is swamped by the radiation from the host galaxy in most observing bands. In this paper we propose a new LPBL selection method based on the mid-infrared emission, in addition to the traditional optical indices. We considered the radio-selected sample of Best & Heckman (2012, MNRAS, 421, 1569) and cross-matched it with the WISE all-sky survey. In a new diagnostic plane including the W2-W3 color and the Dn(4000) index, LPBL are located in a region scarcely populated by other sources. By filtering objects with small emission line equivalent width, we isolated 36 LPBL candidates up to redshift 0.15. Their radio luminosity at 1.4 GHz spans the range log Lr = 39.2-41.5 [erg s-1]. Considering the completeness of our sample, we analyzed the BL Lac luminosity function (RLF), finding a dramatic paucity of LPBL with respect to the extrapolation of the RLF toward low power. This requires a break in the RLF located at log Lr ~ 40.6 [erg s-1]. The consequent peak in the BL Lacs number density is possibly the manifestation of a minimum power required to launch a relativistic jet.

  5. An X-ray survey of BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Bowyer, S.; Jones, T. W.; Davidsen, A.; Mason, K. O.; Sanford, P. W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for X-ray observations and nearly simultaneous photographic photometry of four BL Lacertae objects (BL Lac, W Com, ON 325, and AP Lib). The X-ray data were obtained in the band from 2.5 to 7.5 keV using a collimated proportional counter aboard OAO-C. Although none of the sources was detected above background at a statistically significant level, two-sigma upper limits on the X-ray flux incident at earth are given for each object. The photometric data indicate that all four objects were near the faint end of their visibility ranges during the time of the X-ray observations. The X-ray upper limits and B magnitudes are employed to calculate upper limits on the brightness temperatures and angular sizes of the radio synchrotron sources; upper limits on the distances to the objects are obtained from limits on the physical source sizes deduced from the radio variabilities. The strictest distance limit is 240 Mpc for BL Lac. Substantial evidence is noted for variability of ON 325 on a timescale of hours.

  6. First Ultraviolet Spectropolarimetry of Radio-Selected BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul S.; Allen, Richard G.; Angel, J. R. P.

    1993-01-01

    We present ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of the BL Lac objects OJ 287 and 0754+100 (0I 090.4) acquired with the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope. These are the first such observations of radio-selected BL Lac objects and the polarimetry spans the wavelength range 1580-3300 A in the observer's frame. Neither object exhibited emission-line features in their UV spectra. OJ 287 was very faint during the UV observations (V approximately 16). The UV linear polarization of this object was approximately 20%. There is no indication that the degree of polarization or the polarization position angle varies with wavelength. Nearly simultaneous optical ground-based measurements show that the polarization does not significantly change with wavelength out to approximately 8000 A. The UV and optical polarization of 0754+100 was approximately 8% and also wavelength-independent during the epoch of observation. These observations confirm that the synchrotron emission that dominates the optical continuum also dominates in the ultraviolet in these two BL Lac objects. There is no evidence for significant contributions to the UV/optical flux by other emission components, and we set limits on the brightness of nonsynchrotron continuum components.

  7. Optical polarization of high-energy BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovatta, T.; Lindfors, E.; Blinov, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Nilsson, K.; Kiehlmann, S.; Angelakis, E.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Liodakis, I.; Myserlis, I.; Panopoulou, G. V.; Pursimo, T.

    2016-12-01

    Context. We investigate the optical polarization properties of high-energy BL Lac objects using data from the RoboPol blazar monitoring program and the Nordic Optical Telescope. Aims: We wish to understand if there are differences between the BL Lac objects that have been detected with the current-generation TeV instruments and those objects that have not yet been detected. Methods: We used a maximum-likelihood method to investigate the optical polarization fraction and its variability in these sources. In order to study the polarization position angle variability, we calculated the time derivative of the electric vector position angle (EVPA) change. We also studied the spread in the Stokes Q/I-U/I plane and rotations in the polarization plane. Results: The mean polarization fraction of the TeV-detected BL Lacs is 5%, while the non-TeV sources show a higher mean polarization fraction of 7%. This difference in polarization fraction disappears when the dilution by the unpolarized light of the host galaxy is accounted for. The TeV sources show somewhat lower fractional polarization variability amplitudes than the non-TeV sources. Also the fraction of sources with a smaller spread in the Q/I-U/I plane and a clumped distribution of points away from the origin, possibly indicating a preferred polarization angle, is larger in the TeV than in the non-TeV sources. These differences between TeV and non-TeV samples seem to arise from differences between intermediate and high spectral peaking sources instead of the TeV detection. When the EVPA variations are studied, the rate of EVPA change is similar in both samples. We detect significant EVPA rotations in both TeV and non-TeV sources, showing that rotations can occur in high spectral peaking BL Lac objects when the monitoring cadence is dense enough. Our simulations show that we cannot exclude a random walk origin for these rotations. Conclusions: These results indicate that there are no intrinsic differences in the

  8. Hydrogeologic Characterization of the U-3bl Collapse Zone

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Geotechnical Services

    2006-09-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing. Borehole U-3bl-D2 is a 45-degree-angle hole drilled from the edge of the crater under the waste cell to intercept the U-3bl collapse zone, the disturbed alluvium between the crater (surface collapse sink) and the nuclear test cavity. A casing-advance system with an air percussion hammer was used to drill the borehole, and air was used as the drilling fluid. Properties of the U-3bl crater collapse zone were determined from cores collected within the interval, 42.1 to 96.6 meters (138 to 317 feet) below the ground surface. Selected core samples were analyzed for particle density, particle size, bulk density, water retention, hydraulic conductivity, water content, water potential, chloride, carbonate, stable isotopes, and tritium. Physical and hydraulic properties were typical of alluvial valley sediments at the NTS. No visual evidence of preferential pathways for water transport was observed in the core samples. Soil parameters showed no trends with depth. Volumetric water content values ranged from 0.08 to 0.20 cubic meters per cubic meter, and tended to increase with depth. Water-retention relations were typical for soils of similar texture. Water potentials ranged from -1.9 MegaPascals at a depth of 42

  9. Sensitivity Data File Formats

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T.

    2016-04-01

    The format of the TSUNAMI-A sensitivity data file produced by SAMS for cases with deterministic transport solutions is given in Table 6.3.A.1. The occurrence of each entry in the data file is followed by an identification of the data contained on each line of the file and the FORTRAN edit descriptor denoting the format of each line. A brief description of each line is also presented. A sample of the TSUNAMI-A data file for the Flattop-25 sample problem is provided in Figure 6.3.A.1. Here, only two profiles out of the 130 computed are shown.

  10. Register file soft error recovery

    DOEpatents

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  11. Viewing Files | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    In addition to standard HTML webpages, our website contains files in other formats. You may need additional software or browser plug-ins to view some of these files. The following list shows each format along with links to the corresponding freely available plug-ins or viewers. Documents  Adobe Acrobat Reader (.pdf)

  12. Hopper File Management Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J W; O'Neill, N J; Smith, N G; Springmeyer, R R; Remmele, S; Richards, D A; Southon, J

    2004-11-15

    Hopper is a powerful interactive tool that allows users to transfer and manipulate files and directories by means of a graphical user interface. Users can connect to and manage resources using the major file transfer protocols. Implemented in Java, Hopper can be run almost anywhere: from an individual's desktop machine to large production machines. In a high-performance computing environment, managing files can become a difficult and time-consuming task that distracts from scientific work. Users must deal with multiple file transfer protocols, transferring enormous amounts of files between computer platforms, repeated authentication, organizing massive amounts of data, and other detailed but necessary tasks. This is often accomplished with a set of several different tools, each with its own interface and idiosyncrasies. Our goal is to develop tools for a more automated approach to file management that substantially improves users' ability to transfer, organize, search, and operate on collections of files. This paper describes the Hopper tool for advanced file management, including the software architecture, the functionality, and the user interface.

  13. NASA Uniform Files Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This handbook is a guide for the use of all personnel engaged in handling NASA files. It is issued in accordance with the regulations of the National Archives and Records Administration, in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 36, Part 1224, Files Management; and the Federal Information Resources Management Regulation, Subpart 201-45.108, Files Management. It is intended to provide a standardized classification and filing scheme to achieve maximum uniformity and ease in maintaining and using agency records. It is a framework for consistent organization of information in an arrangement that will be useful to current and future researchers. The NASA Uniform Files Index coding structure is composed of the subject classification table used for NASA management directives and the subject groups in the NASA scientific and technical information system. It is designed to correlate files throughout NASA and it is anticipated that it may be useful with automated filing systems. It is expected that in the conversion of current files to this arrangement it will be necessary to add tertiary subjects and make further subdivisions under the existing categories. Established primary and secondary subject categories may not be changed arbitrarily. Proposals for additional subject categories of NASA-wide applicability, and suggestions for improvement in this handbook, should be addressed to the Records Program Manager at the pertinent installation who will forward it to the NASA Records Management Office, Code NTR, for approval. This handbook is issued in loose-leaf form and will be revised by page changes.

  14. JENDL Dosimetry File 99.

    SciTech Connect

    KEIICHI,; SHIBATA,

    2001-01-22

    Version 00 JENDL/D-99 contains information for 47 nuclides and 67 reactions in the SAND-II group structure (although it was observed by RSICC that not all of the processed files are in the SAND-II group structure) and as 0K preprocessed pointwise files.

  15. Functional Analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 Sortases

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

  16. Functional analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 sortases.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Monedero, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent.

  17. Local environments of SNe Ic and Ic-BL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selsing, Jonatan; Christensen, Lise; Thöne, Christina; Modjaz, Maryam

    2015-08-01

    In this project we have observed the local explosion environments of a sample Type Ic and Type Ic-BL Supernove (SNe) selected from both targeted and non-targeted surveys using VLT/VIMOS in IFU-mode. It is believed that by probing the local surroundings of the parent stellar populations of these types of SNe, valuable information can be gained about the physical conditions, which affect the type of SNe produced. The different kinds of SNe produced are determined by the initial mass and metallicity of the stellar progenitor, as well as by the metallicity-dependent mass loss in the stellar winds at the end phase of their evolution and the interaction with a sufficiently close companion star. At the redshift of the galaxies we have selected, we spatially resolve regions ~250 pc across, comparable to the size of HII regions in local galaxies and using strong nebular emission lines as a proxy for the metal content of the stellar population, we can investigate if the conditions for the two types of SNe differ. The connection between long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and broad-lined SNe Ic and the existence of SNe Ic-bl without observed GRBs raises the question of what distinguishes a GRB progenitor from that of an ordinary SN Ic-bl without a GRB and this project will help with the elucidation of this. Moreover, from the HII region ages and stellar mass estimates, we examine the two suggested progenitor models for stripped SNe: single massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars with main-sequence masses of >30M⊙ that have experienced mass loss during the main sequence and WR stages, vs. binaries from lower-mass He stars.

  18. Magnetic compass orientation in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Muheim, Rachel; Edgar, Nicole M; Sloan, Kelly A; Phillips, John B

    2006-11-01

    We report evidence for a robust magnetic compass response in C57BL/6J mice. Mice were trained to build their nests in one of four magnetic directions by creating a light gradient along the long axis of a rectangular cage and positioning a nest box at the opposite (dark) end. The mice were then tested overnight in a circular, visually symmetrical arena in one of four magnetic field alignments. The positions of the nests built in the test arena showed strong unimodal orientation in the magnetic direction coinciding with the dark end of the training cage.

  19. Photometry of BL Lac objects and optically violently variable quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N.; McBreen, B.; Ekins, R.; Grimley, P.

    1989-09-01

    A photon-counting photometer has been used to observe BL Lac objects and optically violently variable (OVV) quasars. The development, construction, and performance of the photometer are discussed and the photometer configuration is illustrated. The observations were made on five nights in September 1986 using a 1-m telescope. Results are presented for observations of seven OVV objects and the star Chi Persei. No statistically significant variation were detected in the sources on timescales ranging from 0.1 sec to 5 days.

  20. A new phytoecdysteroid from the roots of Achyranthes bidentata Bl.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Jiang, Hai; Yan, Mei-Ling; Xing, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Wei, Na; Yang, Bing-You; Wang, Qiu-Hong; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2017-05-01

    A new phytoecdysteroid compound, named Niuxixinsterone D (1), together with two known phytoecdysteroid compounds (2 and 3) were isolated from Achyranthes bidentata Bl.. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by extensive spectral analysis, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR methods. Compounds 1-3 were tested for their inhibitory effects against LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and compound 1 and 3 exhibited anti-neuroinflammatory activity with inhibited 29.7 and 26.0% NO production.

  1. C57BL/6N Mice Are More Resistant to Ehrlich Ascites Tumors Than C57BL/6J Mice: The Role of Macrophage Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Sergey; Lyamina, Svetlana; Chausova, Svetlana; Kochetova, Lada; Malyshev, Yuri; Manukhina, Eugenia; Malyshev, Igor

    2015-10-20

    BACKGROUND Effectiveness of the immune defense formed by the genotype often determines the predisposition to cancer. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages is an important element in this defense. MATERIAL AND METHODS We hypothesized that genetic characteristics of NO generation systems can predetermine the vulnerability to tumor development. The study was conducted on mice of 2 genetic substrains - C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N - with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). NO production in the tumor was changed using ITU, an iNOS inhibitor; c-PTIO, a NO scavenger; and SNP, a NO donor. Macrophage NO production was estimated by nitrite concentration in the culture medium. iNOS content was measured by Western blot analysis. Macrophage phenotype was determined by changes in NO production, iNOS level, and CD markers of the phenotype. RESULTS The lifespan of C57BL/6N mice (n=10) with EAC was 25% longer (p<0.01) than in C57BL/6J mice (n=10). Decreased NO production 23% reduced the survival duration of C57BL/6N mice (p<0.05), which were more resistant to tumors. Elevated NO production 26% increased the survival duration of C57BL/6J mice (p<0.05), which were more susceptible to EAC. Both the NO production and the iNOS level were 1.5 times higher in C57BL/6N than in C57BL/6J mice (p<0.01). CD markers confirmed that C57BL/6N macrophages had the M1 and C57BL/6J macrophages had the M2 phenotype. CONCLUSIONS The vulnerability to the tumor development can be predetermined by genetic characteristics of the NO generation system in macrophages. The important role of NO in anti-EAC immunity should be taken into account in elaboration of new antitumor therapies.

  2. Effect of Crossing C57BL/6 and FVB Mouse Strains on Basal Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Szade, Agata; Nowak, Witold N.; Szade, Krzysztof; Gese, Anna; Czypicki, Ryszard; Waś, Halina; Dulak, Józef; Józkowicz, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    C57BL/6 is the most often used laboratory mouse strain. However, sometimes it is beneficial to cross the transgenic mice on the C57BL/6 background to the other strain, such as FVB. Although this is a common strategy, the influence of crossing these different strains on homeostatic expression of cytokines is not known. Here we have investigated the differences in the expression of selected cytokines between C57BL/6J and C57BL/6JxFVB mice in serum and skeletal muscle. We have found that only few cytokines were altered by crossing of the strains. Concentrations of IL5, IL7, LIF, MIP-2, and IP-10 were higher in serum of C57BL/6J mice than in C57BL/6JxFVB mice, whereas concentration of G-CSF was lower in C57BL/6J. In the skeletal muscle only the concentration of VEGF was higher in C57BL/6J mice than in C57BL/6JxFVB mice. Concluding, the differences in cytokine expression upon crossing C57BL/6 and FVB strain in basal conditions are not profound. PMID:25834307

  3. Registered File Support for Critical Operations Files at SIRTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turek, G.; Handley, T.; Jacobson, J.; Rector, J.

    The SIRTF Science Center's (SSC) Science Operations System (SOS) has to contend with nearly one hundred critical operations files via comprehensive file management services. The management is accomplished via the registered file system (otherwise known as TFS) which manages these files in a registered file repository composed of a virtual file system accessible via a TFS server and a file registration database. The TFS server provides controlled, reliable, and secure file transfer and storage by registering all file transactions and meta-data in the file registration database. An API is provided for application programs to communicate with TFS servers and the repository. A command line client implementing this API has been developed as a client tool. This paper describes the architecture, current implementation, and more importantly, the evolution of these services based on evolving community use cases and emerging information system technology.

  4. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandel, Amri; Urry, C. Megan

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested here that the UV and X-ray emission of BL Lac objects may originate in an accretion disk. Using detailed calculations of accretion disk spectra, the best-measured ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted, and the mass and accretion rate required is determined. The ultraviolet through soft X-ray continuum is well fitted by the spectrum of an accretion disk, but near-Eddington accretion rates are required to produce the soft X-ray excess. A hot disk or corona could Comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power-law spectrum in the 1-10 keV range. The dynamic time scale in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft X-ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations observed in these two wave bands; the mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard X-ray variability.

  5. Simultaneous observations of the BL Lacertae object I Zw 187

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Pollock, J. T.; Pica, A. J.; Smith, A. G.; Webb, J. R.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Rudy, R. J.; Levan, P. D.

    1982-01-01

    Two sets of simultaneous spectra consisting of data obtained with radio, IR, optical, UV and X-ray telescopes were obtained 10 months apart for the X-ray bright BL Lac object IZw 187. In addition, nonsimultaneous observations were made in several of the aforementioned observing bands in order to detect flux variations and galactic light contamination was removed from all observations. The BL Lac component is found to have a weak 3000 A bump superposed on an IR-optical-UV spectrum of slope 0.9. Consistent with the arising of the IR-through-X-ray continuum from a single synchrotron source, the X-ray data fall on or near an extrapolation of this power law. No flux variations have been detected in the flat radio spectrum. Optical and X-ray fluxes are observed to vary by a factor not greater than three, and the shortest variability time scales in these bands are comparable at about one week.

  6. BL3: A Next Generation Beam Neutron Lifetime Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wietfeldt, F. E.; Fomin, N.; Greene, G. L.; Snow, W. M.; Liu, C.-Y.; Crawford, C. B.; Korsch, W.; Plaster, B.; Jones, G. L.; Collett, B.; Dewey, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    BL3 (Beam Lifetime 3) is a proposed next generation neutron lifetime experiment using the beam method. It continues a program, spanning more than three decades, of experiments at the ILL (France) and the NIST Center for Neutron Research that achieved the most precise beam method neutron lifetime measurements to date. A collimated cold neutron beam passes through a quasi-Penning trap where recoil protons from neutron decay are trapped. Periodically the trap is opened and these protons follow a bend in the magnetic field to a silicon detector. The same neutron beam passes through a thin-foil neutron counter that measures the neutron density. The ratio of neutron and proton count rates, along with efficiency factors, gives the neutron lifetime. The main goal of BL3 is to thoroughly investigate and test systematic effects in the beam method in an effort to address the current 4 σ discrepancy between the beam and bottle methods. It will employ a much larger, higher flux neutron beam, a large area position-sensitive proton detector, and an improved magnet design, with a proton trapping rate 100 times higher than past experiments. National Science Foundation, U.S. Dept. of Energy Office of Science.

  7. Transcriptional analysis of oligosaccharide utilization by Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Probiotic bifidobacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates have documented positive effects on human health regarding gastrointestinal disorders and improved immunity, however the selective routes of uptake remain unknown for most candidate prebiotics. The differential transcriptomes of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04, induced by 11 potential prebiotic oligosaccharides were analyzed to identify the genetic loci involved in the uptake and catabolism of α- and β-linked hexoses, and β-xylosides. Results The overall transcriptome was modulated dependent on the type of glycoside (galactosides, glucosides or xylosides) utilized. Carbohydrate transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (induced by gentiobiose and β-galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (upregulated by cellobiose, GOS, isomaltose, maltotriose, melibiose, panose, raffinose, stachyose, xylobiose and β-xylo-oligosaccharides) were differentially upregulated, together with glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 13, 36, 42, 43 and 77. Sequence analysis of the identified solute-binding proteins that determine the specificity of ABC transporters revealed similarities in the breadth and selectivity of prebiotic utilization by bifidobacteria. Conclusion This study identified the differential gene expression for utilization of potential prebiotics highlighting the extensive capabilities of Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04 to utilize oligosaccharides. Results provide insights into the ability of this probiotic microbe to utilize indigestible carbohydrates in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23663691

  8. Transcriptional analysis of oligosaccharide utilization by Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Joakim M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Abou Hachem, Maher; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Goh, Yong Jun; Svensson, Birte; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2013-05-10

    Probiotic bifidobacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates have documented positive effects on human health regarding gastrointestinal disorders and improved immunity, however the selective routes of uptake remain unknown for most candidate prebiotics. The differential transcriptomes of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04, induced by 11 potential prebiotic oligosaccharides were analyzed to identify the genetic loci involved in the uptake and catabolism of α- and β-linked hexoses, and β-xylosides. The overall transcriptome was modulated dependent on the type of glycoside (galactosides, glucosides or xylosides) utilized. Carbohydrate transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (induced by gentiobiose and β-galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (upregulated by cellobiose, GOS, isomaltose, maltotriose, melibiose, panose, raffinose, stachyose, xylobiose and β-xylo-oligosaccharides) were differentially upregulated, together with glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 13, 36, 42, 43 and 77. Sequence analysis of the identified solute-binding proteins that determine the specificity of ABC transporters revealed similarities in the breadth and selectivity of prebiotic utilization by bifidobacteria. This study identified the differential gene expression for utilization of potential prebiotics highlighting the extensive capabilities of Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04 to utilize oligosaccharides. Results provide insights into the ability of this probiotic microbe to utilize indigestible carbohydrates in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Simultaneous spectra and radio properties of BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingaliev, M.; Sotnikova, Yu.; Mufakharov, T.; Nieppola, E.; Tornikoski, M.; Tammi, J.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Udovitskiy, R.; Erkenov, A.

    2017-07-01

    We present the results of nine years of the blazar observing programme at the RATAN-600 radio telescope (2005-2014). The data were obtained at six frequency bands (1.1, 2.3, 4.8, 7.7, 11.2, 21.7 GHz) for 290 blazars, mostly BL Lacs. In addition, we used data at 37 GHz obtained quasi-simultaneously with the Metsahovi radio observatory for some sources. The sample includes blazars of three types: high-synchrotron peaked (HSP), low-synchrotron peaked (LSP), and intermediate-synchrotron peaked (ISP). We present several epochs of flux density measurements, simultaneous radio spectra, spectral indices and properties of their variability. The analysis of the radio properties of different classes of blazars showed that LSP and HSP BL Lac blazars are quite different objects on average. LSPs have higher flux densities, flatter spectra and their variability increases as higher frequencies are considered. On the other hand, HSPs are very faint in radio domain, tend to have steep low frequency spectra, and they are less variable than LSPs at all frequencies. Another result is spectral flattening above 7.7 GHz detected in HSPs, while an average LSP spectrum typically remains flat at both the low and high frequency ranges we considered.

  10. Rapid Tev Gamma-ray Variability Of Bl Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qi

    2011-09-01

    Recent VERITAS observations of BL Lacertae revealed rapid gamma-ray flaring of the object at TeV energies (Ong, 2011, ATel #3459). Here, we present preliminary results from the observations. The flaring activity was observed during a 20-minute exposure, when the flux above 200 GeV reached a peak of about 3x10^-6 m^-2s^-1 (roughly one and a half times the Crab Nebula flux). The light curve shows that the observations missed the rising phase of the flare but covered the decaying phase almost in its entirety. The decay time of the flare is about 4 minutes, making it one of the most rapid gamma-ray flares seen for any TeV blazars. Compared to several other blazars that are known to produce gamma-ray flares on a timescale of minutes, BL Lacertae produces the bulk of its radiation at much lower frequencies. The measured gamma-ray spectrum appears to be as soft as that of the non-flaring state, when compared with the published MAGIC spectrum of the source. We will discuss the implications of the results. VERITAS research is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, by NSERC in Canada, by STFC in the U.K. and by Science Foundation Ireland.

  11. Simultaneous observations of the BL Lacertae object I Zw 187

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Pollock, J. T.; Pica, A. J.; Smith, A. G.; Webb, J. R.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Rudy, R. J.; Levan, P. D.

    1982-01-01

    Two sets of simultaneous spectra consisting of data obtained with radio, IR, optical, UV and X-ray telescopes were obtained 10 months apart for the X-ray bright BL Lac object IZw 187. In addition, nonsimultaneous observations were made in several of the aforementioned observing bands in order to detect flux variations and galactic light contamination was removed from all observations. The BL Lac component is found to have a weak 3000 A bump superposed on an IR-optical-UV spectrum of slope 0.9. Consistent with the arising of the IR-through-X-ray continuum from a single synchrotron source, the X-ray data fall on or near an extrapolation of this power law. No flux variations have been detected in the flat radio spectrum. Optical and X-ray fluxes are observed to vary by a factor not greater than three, and the shortest variability time scales in these bands are comparable at about one week.

  12. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandel, Amri; Urry, C. Megan

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested here that the UV and X-ray emission of BL Lac objects may originate in an accretion disk. Using detailed calculations of accretion disk spectra, the best-measured ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted, and the mass and accretion rate required is determined. The ultraviolet through soft X-ray continuum is well fitted by the spectrum of an accretion disk, but near-Eddington accretion rates are required to produce the soft X-ray excess. A hot disk or corona could Comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power-law spectrum in the 1-10 keV range. The dynamic time scale in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft X-ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations observed in these two wave bands; the mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard X-ray variability.

  13. Exploring the Magnetic Field Configuration in BL Lac Using GMVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Bindu; Krichbaum, Thomas; Hodgson, Jeff; Koyama, Shoko; Zensus, Anton; Fuhramnn, Lars; Marscher, Alan; Jorstad, Svetlana

    2016-09-01

    The high radio frequency polarization imaging of non-thermal emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a direct way to probe the magnetic field strength and structure in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and is crucial in testing the jet-launching scenario. To explore the the magnetic field configuration at the base of jets in blazars, we took advantage of the full polarization capabilities of the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA). With an angular resolution of $\\sim$50 micro-arcseconds ($\\mu$as) at 86 GHz, one could resolve scales up to $\\sim$450 gravitational radii (for a 10$^9$ solar mass black hole at a redshift of 0.1). We present here the preliminary results of our study on the blazar BL~Lac. Our results suggest that on sub-mas scales the core and the central jet of BL Lac are significantly polarized with two distinct regions of polarized intensity. We also noted a great morphological similarity between the 7mm/3mm VLBI images at very similar angular resolution.

  14. Brain damage resulting from postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is reduced in C57BL/6J mice as compared to C57BL/6N mice.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S; Hainz, N; Beckmann, A; Maack, C; Menger, M D; Tschernig, T; Meier, C

    2016-11-01

    Perinatal hypoxia is a critical complication during delivery and is mostly studied in animal models of postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. We here studied the effects of postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in two different sub-strains of C57BL/6 mice, i.e. C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice. These two sub-strains show different metabolic properties, for instance an impaired glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice. Genetically, this was linked to differences in their nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) genes: In C57BL/6J mice, exons 7-11 of the Nnt gene are deleted, resulting in the absence of functional Nnt protein. The mitochondrial Nnt-protein is one of several enzymes that catalyses the generation of NADPH, which in turn is important for the elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As ROS is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of hypoxia-ischemia, the lack of Nnt might indirectly increase ROS levels and therefore result in increased brain damage. We therefore hypothesize that lesion score and lesion size will increase in C57BL/6J mice as compared to C57BL/6N mice. Surprisingly, the results showed exactly the opposite: C57BL/6J mice showed a decrease in lesion score and size, associated with a reduced number of apoptotic cells and activated microglia. In contrast, the number of cells with ROS-induced DNA modifications (detected by 8OHdG) was higher in C57BL/6J than C57BL/6N mice. In conclusion, C57BL/6J mice showed reduced ischemic consequences after postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury compared to C57BL/6N mice, with the exception of the amount of ROS-induced DNA-damage. These differences might relate to the lack of Nnt, but also to a modified metabolic setting (cardiovascular parameters, oxygen and glucose metabolism, immune function) in C57BL/6J mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Construction of file database management

    SciTech Connect

    MERRILL,KYLE J.

    2000-03-01

    This work created a database for tracking data analysis files from multiple lab techniques and equipment stored on a central file server. Experimental details appropriate for each file type are pulled from the file header and stored in a searchable database. The database also stores specific location and self-directory structure for each data file. Queries can be run on the database according to file type, sample type or other experimental parameters. The database was constructed in Microsoft Access and Visual Basic was used for extraction of information from the file header.

  16. Selective File Dumper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassetti, Nanni; Frati, Denis

    During a computer forensics investigation we faced a problem how to get all the interesting files we need fast. We work, mainly, using the Open Source software products and Linux OS, and we consider the Sleuthkit and the Foremost two very useful tools, but for reaching our target they were too complicated and time consuming to use. For this reason we developed the Selective File Dumper, a Linux Bash script which makes it possible to extract all the referenced, deleted and unallocated files and finally to perform a keyword search, in a simple way.

  17. 75 FR 30017 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ..., and for a transition period through September 30, 2010, all tariffs, rate schedules, and... tariff filings related to periods earlier than the baseline filing. Once the Office of the Secretary... required). Electronic Tariff Filings for Periods Earlier Than the Baseline Filing. The electronic tariff...

  18. Autoantibodies to RuvBL1 and RuvBL2: a novel systemic sclerosis-related antibody associated with diffuse cutaneous and skeletal muscle involvement.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Kenzou; Fertig, Noreen; Medsger, Thomas A; Satoh, Takashi; Hoshino, Kana; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Hasegawa, Minoru; Lucas, Mary; Schnure, Andrew; Ogawa, Fumihide; Sato, Shinichi; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Fujimoto, Manabu; Kuwana, Masataka

    2014-04-01

    To identify and characterize a novel systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related autoantibody directed against a complex consisting of RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 (RuvBL1/2) and to assess its clinical correlations. We first analyzed 316 consecutive patients with SSc who were evaluated at Kanazawa University Hospital. Controls included 290 patients with other connective tissue diseases, interstitial lung disease alone, or autoimmune hepatitis, and 50 healthy subjects. Autoantibody specificities were analyzed using RNA and protein immunoprecipitation assays. Autoimmune targets were affinity purified using patients' sera and subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. SSc patients in another institution in Japan and the University of Pittsburgh cohort were also included in analysis for evaluating clinical correlations. By protein immunoprecipitation assay, 6 SSc sera (1.9%) reacted with doublets with molecular weights of ∼50 kd. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of the partially purified autoantigen and additional immunoblot-based analyses revealed that this antibody specificity recognized RuvBL1/2. Anti-RuvBL1/2 antibody was exclusively detected in SSc patients. SSc patients with anti-RuvBL1/2 in both the Japanese and Pittsburgh cohorts consistently had higher frequencies of SSc in overlap with myositis and diffuse skin thickening than those without anti-RuvBL1/2. Compared with other autoantibodies related to SSc/myositis overlap (anti-PM-Scl and anti-Ku), anti-RuvBL1/2 was distinctive in terms of its associations with older age at SSc onset, male sex, and a high frequency of diffuse cutaneous involvement. Anti-RuvBL1/2 antibody is a novel SSc-related autoantibody associated with a unique combination of clinical features, including myositis overlap and diffuse cutaneous involvement. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Different patterns of Epstein-Barr virus latency in endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) lead to distinct variants within the BL-associated gene expression signature.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gemma L; Stylianou, Julianna; Rasaiyaah, Jane; Wei, Wenbin; Thomas, Wendy; Croom-Carter, Deborah; Kohler, Christian; Spang, Rainer; Woodman, Ciaran; Kellam, Paul; Rickinson, Alan B; Bell, Andrew I

    2013-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in all cases of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) but in few European/North American sporadic BLs. Gene expression arrays of sporadic tumors have defined a consensus BL profile within which tumors are classifiable as "molecular BL" (mBL). Where endemic BLs fall relative to this profile remains unclear, since they not only carry EBV but also display one of two different forms of virus latency. Here, we use early-passage BL cell lines from different tumors, and BL subclones from a single tumor, to compare EBV-negative cells with EBV-positive cells displaying either classical latency I EBV infection (where EBNA1 is the only EBV antigen expressed from the wild-type EBV genome) or Wp-restricted latency (where an EBNA2 gene-deleted virus genome broadens antigen expression to include the EBNA3A, -3B, and -3C proteins and BHRF1). Expression arrays show that both types of endemic BL fall within the mBL classification. However, while EBV-negative and latency I BLs show overlapping profiles, Wp-restricted BLs form a distinct subgroup, characterized by a detectable downregulation of the germinal center (GC)-associated marker Bcl6 and upregulation of genes marking early plasmacytoid differentiation, notably IRF4 and BLIMP1. Importantly, these same changes can be induced in EBV-negative or latency I BL cells by infection with an EBNA2-knockout virus. Thus, we infer that the distinct gene profile of Wp-restricted BLs does not reflect differences in the identity of the tumor progenitor cell per se but differences imposed on a common progenitor by broadened EBV gene expression.

  20. Activity of BL Lacertae after Last Great Outburst: Long-Term, Intraday and Intrahour Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolashvili, Maria; Kurtanidze, Omar

    2007-08-01

    We present the results of optical observations of BL Lacertae from 1998 to 2005. The LTV, IDV of BL Lacertae were studied on the bases of more than 600 nights. The maximum LTV in R band equals to 1.82 mag (rms=0.03). It were also demonstrated that BL Lacertae shows IDV within 0.30 (0.02), while IHV within 0.10 (0.01) magnitudes.

  1. Behaviour of BL Lacertae during 1999-2000:Long-Term and Intraday Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtanidze, O. M.; Nikolashvili, M. G.

    We present the results of optical observations of BL Lacertae from August 1999 to October 2000. The LTV, IDV of BL Lacertae were studied on the bases of 107 and 119 nights, respectively. The maximum LTV in R band equals to 1.82 mag (rms=0.03). It is also demonstrated that BL Lacertae shows IDV within 0.30 (0.02), while IHV within 0.10 (0.01) magnitudes.

  2. Dark Matter in Supersymmetric U(1){sub B-L} Model

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, S.; Okada, H.

    2009-04-17

    We analyze the dark matter problem in the context of supersymmetric, U(1){sub B-L} model. In this model, the lightest neutalino can be B-L gaugino Z-tilde{sub B-L} or Higgsinos {chi}-tilde{sub 1,2} dominated. We examine the thermal relic abundance of these particles and discuss the prospects for their direct detection if they form part of our galactic halo.

  3. Effects of Electroacupuncture at BL60 on Formalin-Induced Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung-Ha; Won, Ran; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture was used to treat symptoms of pain in the ancient orient. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at the BL60 acupoint on male Sprague-Dawley rats. Each rat received EA at BL60 acupoint before formalin injection. Behavioral responses were recorded using a video camera and c-Fos immunohistochemistry was performed thereafter. Treatment of EA at BL60 significantly inhibited flinching behavior and c-fos expression induced by formalin injection into the paw, compared to a control group. These results suggest that electroacupuncture at BL60 acupoint may be effective in relieving inflammatory pain. PMID:22550540

  4. Does Black Hole Spin Play a Key Role in the Fsrq/bl Lac Dichotomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2015-01-01

    It is believed that jets emerging from blazars (flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacs) are almost aligned to the line-of-sight. BL Lacs usually exhibit lower luminosity and harder power law spectra at gamma-ray energies than FSRQs. It was argued previously that the difference in accretion rates is mainly responsible for the large observed luminosity mismatch between them. However, when intrinsic luminosities are derived by correcting for beaming effects, this mismatch is significantly reduced. We show that spin plays an important role to reveal the dichotomy of luminosity distributions between BL Lacs and FSRQs, suggesting BL Lacs to be low luminous and slow rotators compared to FSRQs.

  5. MAWST file generator (MFG)

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, P.W.; Hurdle, S.; Hafer, J.F.

    1993-12-01

    The software program MAWST was developed as a tool to deal with common materials accounting problems. The key to successful usage of this program is in the generation of input files for measurement values, measurement errors, and measurement methods. The program MFG was developed as an aid to creating input files for MAWST. MFG contains three commonly used measurements -- nondestructive assay, (G-T)*C, and V*C -- and a GENERIC measurement as models for data entry for the measurement value file. Sufficient data is collected from the user to produce the measurement error and measurement method files. This report is written as a tutorial presenting and explaining all the options available in MFG by giving examples of execution and the resulting screens that MFG produces.

  6. X-ray observations of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. A.; Pravdo, S. H.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.; Rothschild, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The BL Lac objects MK501 and MK421 were observed with OSO-8 and HEAO-1 X-ray detectors in the 2-60 keV band. Their spectra are similar with best fitting power laws having energy index -.4 alpha 4. A soft X-ray excess is indicated in their spectra. There was no detectable X-ray absorption with implied column densities N sub H 1.5 x 10 to the 22d power at sq cm. MK421 was a factor 6 weaker in November 1977 than in May 1977. An identification of PKS0548-322 with a new source H0548,-32 is suggested.

  7. Coordinated observations of X-ray bright BL lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous multifrequency observations of the BL Lac object Mkn421 covering radio through X-ray wavelengths were performed. Composite multifrequency spectra of the central nonthermal component were obtained at the two epochs after subtracting the optical and infrared light of the underlying galaxy. Physical parameters of Mkn421 are discussed in terms of the synchrotron self-Compton model. Taking the spectral turnover between infrared and radio for synchrotrom self absorption, the radio emmision originates in a more extended region than the infrared to X-ray emission, the source size of which should be less than .01 milliarcseconds. Relativistic beaming is required if the angular size is smaller than a few times .001 milliarcseconds. A possible explanation of the spectral change during the two epochs is also discussed.

  8. The 1987 outburst of the BL Lacertid AO 0235 + 164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, J. R.; Smith, A. G.

    1989-08-01

    The violently variable BL Lacertid AO 0235 + 164 displayed a 3.24 magnitude outburst in early 1987. This outburst was observed intensively from Rosemary Hill Observatory in three colors. Long term monitoring observations made at Rosemary Hill are examined in an effort to find any recurring timescales associated with this outburst and previous large amplitude outbursts. The energetics of the 1987 outburst are analyzed in terms of the Shields and Wheeler model of a magnetized accretion disk. The timescales identified in the power spectrum (2.8 and 1.6 yr) are input into the model as the storage timescales. Since the emitted energy calculated from the optical burst cannot be stored in a magnetized disk at an allowable radius, it is concluded that either the storage timescales are longer than those identified in the power spectrum, or relativistic beaming effects must be considered, with a Doppler factor of 1.3 to 1.6.

  9. The effects of electromagnetic fields on B16-BL6 cells are dependent on their spatial and temporal character.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Carly A; Buckner, Alison L; Koren, Stan A; Persinger, Michael A; Lafrenie, Robert M

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to low intensity, low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) has effects on several biological systems. Spatiotemporal characteristics of these EMFs are critical. The effect of several complex EMF patterns on the proliferation of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells was tested. Exposure to one of these patterns, the Thomas-EMF, inhibited cell proliferation and promoted calcium uptake. The Thomas-EMF is coded from a digital-to-analog file comprised of 849 points, which provides power to solenoids and can be set to alter timing, intensity, and duration of variable EMF. Setting the point duration to 3 ms generated a time-varying EMF pattern which began at 25 Hz and slowed to 6 Hz over a 2.5 s repeat. Exposing B16-BL6 cells to Thomas-EMF set to 3 ms for 1 h/day inhibited cell proliferation by 40% after 5 days, while setting the point duration to 1, 2, 4, or 5 ms had no effect on cell proliferation. Similarly, exposing cells to Thomas-EMF set to 3 ms promoted a three-fold increase in calcium uptake after 1 h, while the other timings had no effect. Exposure to Thomas-EMF for as short as 15 min/day slowed cell proliferation, but exposure for 1 h/day was optimal. This corresponded to the effect on calcium uptake where uptake was detected after 15 min exposure and was maximal by 1 h of treatment. Studies show that the specific spatiotemporal character of EMF is critical in mediating their biological activities. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:165-174, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Converting CSV Files to RKSML Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Liebersbach, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A computer program converts, into a format suitable for processing on Earth, files of downlinked telemetric data pertaining to the operation of the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD), which is a robot arm on either of the Mars Explorer Rovers (MERs). The raw downlinked data files are in comma-separated- value (CSV) format. The present program converts the files into Rover Kinematics State Markup Language (RKSML), which is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) format that facilitates representation of operations of the IDD and enables analysis of the operations by means of the Rover Sequencing Validation Program (RSVP), which is used to build sequences of commanded operations for the MERs. After conversion by means of the present program, the downlinked data can be processed by RSVP, enabling the MER downlink operations team to play back the actual IDD activity represented by the telemetric data against the planned IDD activity. Thus, the present program enhances the diagnosis of anomalies that manifest themselves as differences between actual and planned IDD activities.

  11. 76 FR 54460 - Combined Notice of Filings; Filings Instituting Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Numbers: RP11-2414-000. Applicants: Pine Needle LNG Company, LLC. Description: Pine Needle LNG Company, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.402: Pine Needle LNG Company 2011 ACA Filing to be effective 10/1...

  12. DSSTOX MASTER STRUCTURE-INDEX FILE: SDF FILE AND DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DSSTox Master Structure-Index File serves to consolidate, manage, and ensure quality and uniformity of the chemical and substance information spanning all DSSTox Structure Data Files, including those in development but not yet published separately on this website.

  13. DSSTOX MASTER STRUCTURE-INDEX FILE: SDF FILE AND DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DSSTox Master Structure-Index File serves to consolidate, manage, and ensure quality and uniformity of the chemical and substance information spanning all DSSTox Structure Data Files, including those in development but not yet published separately on this website.

  14. Nlrp12 mutation causes C57BL/6J strain-specific defect in neutrophil recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ulland, Tyler K.; Jain, Nidhi; Hornick, Emma E.; Elliott, Eric I.; Clay, Gwendolyn M.; Sadler, Jeffrey J.; Mills, Kathleen A. M.; Janowski, Ann M.; Volk, A. Paige Davis; Wang, Kai; Legge, Kevin L.; Gakhar, Lokesh; Bourdi, Mohammed; Ferguson, Polly J.; Wilson, Mary E.; Cassel, Suzanne L.; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.

    2016-01-01

    The inbred mouse strain C57BL/6J is widely used in models of immunological and infectious diseases. Here we show that C57BL/6J mice have a defect in neutrophil recruitment to a range of inflammatory stimuli compared with the related C57BL/6N substrain. This immune perturbation is associated with a missense mutation in Nlrp12 in C57BL/6J mice. Both C57BL/6J and NLRP12-deficient mice have increased susceptibility to bacterial infection that correlates with defective neutrophil migration. C57BL/6J and NLRP12-deficient macrophages have impaired CXCL1 production and the neutrophil defect observed in C57BL/6J and NLRP12-deficient mice is rescued by restoration of macrophage NLRP12. These results demonstrate that C57BL/6J mice have a functional defect in NLRP12 and that macrophages require NLRP12 expression for effective recruitment of neutrophils to inflammatory sites. PMID:27779193

  15. The environment of x ray selected BL Lacs: Host galaxies and galaxy clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtz, Ron; Stocke, John T.; Ellingson, Erica; Yee, Howard K. C.

    1993-01-01

    Using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we have imaged a complete, flux-limited sample of Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey BL Lacertae objects in order to study the properties of BL Lac host galaxies and to use quantitative methods to determine the richness of their galaxy cluster environments.

  16. Thirteen new BL Lacertae objects discovered by an efficient x ray/radio/optical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan F.; Stocke, John T.; Perlman, Eric; Elvis, Martin S.; Luu, Jane; Huchra, John P.; Humphreys, Roberta; Remillard, Ron; Wallin, John

    1992-01-01

    The discovery of 13 serendipitous BL Lac objects in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey by means of x ray/radio vs. x ray/optical color-color diagrams and confirmation by optical spectroscopy are reported. These 13 BL Lacs were discovered using a technique which exploits the characteristic broad band spectra of BL Lacs. New VLA detections provide accurate fluxes (f(6 cm) is approximately 0.5 mJy) and 2 in. positions, facilitating the determination of an optical counterpart. All 13 new BL Lacs show essentially featureless optical spectra. Nine of these lie within the range of colors of known x ray selected BL Lacs. Of the remaining four, one is apparently x ray louder (by a factor of 1.5) or optically quieter (by 0.8 mags); and three are optically louder (by 1-1.3 mags) than x ray selected BL Lacs. Approximately 50 new BL Lacs in total are expected from VLA work and upcoming Australia Telescope observations, yielding a complete Slew Survey sample of approximately 90 BL Lacs.

  17. Gene expression profiling in response to the histone deacetylase inhibitor BL1521 in neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ruijter, Annemieke J.M. de; Kemp, Stephan . E-mail: a.b.vankuilenburg@amc.uva.nl

    2005-10-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor with a poor survival in advanced stage disease despite intensive chemotherapeutic regimes. The new histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor BL1521 has shown promising results in neuroblastoma. Inhibition of HDAC resulted in a decrease in proliferation and metabolic activity, induction of apoptosis and differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. In order to elucidate the mechanism mediating the effects of BL1521 on neuroblastoma cells, we investigated the gene expression profile of an MYCN single copy (SKNAS) and an MYCN amplified (IMR32) neuroblastoma cell line after treatment with BL1521 using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide array U133A. An altered expression of 255 genes was observed in both neuroblastoma cell lines. The majority of these genes were involved in gene expression, cellular metabolism, and cell signaling. We observed changes in the expression of vital genes belonging to the cell cycle (cyclin D1 and CDK4) and apoptosis (BNIP3, BID, and BCL2) pathway in response to BL1521. The expression of 37 genes was altered by both BL1521 and Trichostatin A, which could indicate a common gene set regulated by different HDAC inhibitors. BL1521 treatment changed the expression of a number of MYCN-associated genes. Several genes in the Wnt and the Delta/Notch pathways were changed in response to BL1521 treatment, suggesting that BL1521 is able to induce the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells into a more mature phenotype.

  18. DSSTOX MASTER STRUCTURE-INDEX FILE: SDF FILE AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The DSSTox Master Structure-Index File serves to consolidate, manage, and ensure quality and uniformity of the chemical and substance information spanning all DSSTox Structure Data Files, including those in development but not yet published separately on this website. The DSSTox Master Structure-Index File serves to consolidate, manage, and ensure quality and uniformity of the chemical and substance information spanning all DSSTox Structure Data Files, including those in development but not yet published separately on this website.

  19. 76 FR 348 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Transmission, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.204: AGT Modifications for Bobcat's Link Implementation Filing... Transmission, L.L.C. submits tariff filing per 154.204: Modifications for Bobcat's LINK Implementation Filing... Transmission, LP submits tariff filing per 154.204: TETLP Filing for Bobcat's Link Implementation to...

  20. The Lack of Torus Emission from BL Lacertae Objects: An Infrared View of Unification with WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Markoff, Sera; Shemmer, Ohad; Wu, Jianfeng

    2012-02-01

    We use data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to perform a statistical study on the mid-infrared (IR) properties of a large number (~102) of BL Lac objects—low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with a jet beamed toward the Earth. As expected, many BL Lac objects are so highly beamed that their jet synchrotron emission dominates their IR spectral energy distributions. In other BL Lac objects, however, the jet is not strong enough to completely dilute the rest of the AGN emission. We do not see observational signatures of the dusty torus from these weakly beamed BL Lac objects. The lack of observable torus emission is consistent with suggestions that BL Lac objects are fed by radiatively inefficient accretion disks. Implications for the "nature versus nurture" debate for FR I and FR II radio galaxies are briefly discussed. Our study supports the notion that, beyond orientation, accretion rate plays an important role in AGN unification.

  1. The REX survey as a Tool to Test the Beaming Model for BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccianiga, A.; della Ceca, R.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.; Wolter, A.

    We present the preliminary properties of the BL Lacs discovered in the REX survey (Caccianiga et al. 1998). In particular, we discuss a few sources with optical spectral properties ``intermediate'' between those of BL Lacs and those of elliptical galaxies. These objects could harbour weak (in the optical band) sources of non-thermal continuum in their nuclei and, if confirmed, they could represent the faint tail of the BL Lac population. The existence of such ``weak'' BL Lacs is matter of discussion in recent literature (e.g. Marcha et al. 1996) and could lead to a revision of the defining criteria of a BL Lac and, consequently, of their cosmological and statistical properties.

  2. Electroacupuncture at points Baliao and Huiyang (BL35) for post-stroke detrusor overactivity★

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Luran; Wang, Xiaomin

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is used extensively in China for the treatment of stroke and other neurological disorders. The National Institutes of Health recommends acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy for stroke recovery. This study included patients with post-stroke detrusor overactivity who were treated in the Department of Neurology, Fourth Hospital of Harbin Medical University, China. Subjects received either electroacupuncture or sham electroacupuncture at points Baliao [including bilateral Shangliao (BL31), bilateral Ciliao (BL32), bilateral Zhongliao (BL33), and bilateral Xialiao (BL34)] and Huiyang (BL35). Our results showed that electroacupuncture significantly improved cystometric capacity and bladder compliance, decreased detrusor leak point pressure, ameliorated lower urinary tract symptoms, and decreased the risk of upper urinary tract damage. These findings indicate that electroacupuncture at points Baliao and Huiyang is an effective treatment for post-stroke detrusor overactivity. PMID:25206463

  3. XML Files: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spanish topic groups. Files generated on October 11, 2017 MedlinePlus Health Topic XML (26957 K) ( DTD , 5 ... DTD , 3 K) Files generated on October 10, 2017 MedlinePlus Health Topic XML (26942 K) ( DTD , 5 ...

  4. A Handbook on File Structuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Robert M.; And Others

    An initial attempt at presenting a coherent approach to the design and analysis of file structures include a discussion of the relative effeciency of different file implementations as a function of usage statistics. The fundamental differences between item and descriptor-organized files are discussed in terms of input-output requirements.…

  5. Optical Variability of the BL Lac Object 1418+546

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balonek, T. J.; Schirmer, A. F.; Kern, J. S.; Tremonti, C. A.

    1996-12-01

    The BVRI variability of the BL Lacertae type quasar 1418+546 over a two year time period is presented. CCD observations were obtained of the 1418+546 field on 136 nights in four filters from January, 1995, to July, 1996, using the Colgate University Foggy Bottom Observatory 16-inch telescope. BVRI and color index light curves were obtained from the nearly 1400 images. There is a base level (about magnitude 15.5 in R) from which the quasar frequently flared to around 14th magnitude. Although the outbursts have different amplitudes and durations, several outbursts exhibit similar profiles and color changes. There exists a strong correlation between the brightness in R and the color indices R-I and V-R, with the color indices decreasing as the source brightens (R-I = 0.55 at R = 15.5; R-I = 0.35 at R = 13.9). Assuming that the minimum brightness we observed during this two year interval corresponds to that of a long-term stable component, we remove this contribution from the total brightness and model the evolution of the individual outbursts.

  6. Current status of BL-2B at photon factory

    SciTech Connect

    Nambu, Akira Ueda, Kazuhiro; Horiba, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kimichika; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Amemiya, Kenta

    2016-07-27

    A new soft x-ray beamline BL-2B at Photon Factory of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK-PF) covers energy range from vacuum ultraviolet (30 eV) to soft x-ray (4000 eV). This wide energy range could be achieved by employing two undulators and two monochromators. Two different energy range undulators were installed tandem to a 9-meter straight section of PF storage ring. The 1{sup st} undulator is for VUV (30 eV) to SX (280 eV), while the other one is for SX (280 eV) to HX (4000 eV). It is also necessary to be equipped with two different monochrometors for energy above and under 2000 eV; grating monochrometor and double crystal monochrometor. One of the main purposes of this bemaline is spectroscopic study of light elements contained in several functional materials. The beamline is designed for photoemission spectroscopy (PES), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and other types of experiments. The performance of the new beamline is reported and typical examples of its application to material science are demonstrated.

  7. Simultaneous multifrequency observations of the BL Lacertae object Markarian 421

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makino, F.; Tanaka, Y.; Matsuoka, M.; Koyama, K.; Inoue, H.; Makishima, K.; Hoshi, R.; Hayakawa, S.; Kondo, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous multifrequency observations of the BL Lac object Mrk 421 covering radio through X-ray wavelengths were performed on two occasions separated by 5 weeks in January and March 1984, and each observation was coordinated for about 1 week. Composite multifrequency spectra of the central nonthermal component were obtained at the two epochs after subtracting the optical and infrared light of the underlying galaxy. The spectra show the gradual steepening toward high frequency; the power law indices are about 0.1, about 0.6, and about 1.0 for radio, infrared-optical, and UV bands, respectively. The UV and optical-infrared fluxes decreased by about 20 percent in 5 weeks, while the radio flux remained stable. The X-ray flux decreased by a factor of about 2, and the change was more pronounced at hard X-rays, which suggest that X-ray emission possibly consists of two components. The degree of polarization at the optical band varied on the time scale of a few days, while the position angle remained unchanged. Physical parameters of Mrk 421 are discussed in terms of the synchrotron self-Compton model.

  8. Simultaneous multifrequency observations of the BL Lacertae object Markarian 421

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makino, F.; Tanaka, Y.; Matsuoka, M.; Koyama, K.; Inoue, H.; Makishima, K.; Hoshi, R.; Hayakawa, S.; Kondo, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous multifrequency observations of the BL Lac object Mrk 421 covering radio through X-ray wavelengths were performed on two occasions separated by 5 weeks in January and March 1984, and each observation was coordinated for about 1 week. Composite multifrequency spectra of the central nonthermal component were obtained at the two epochs after subtracting the optical and infrared light of the underlying galaxy. The spectra show the gradual steepening toward high frequency; the power law indices are about 0.1, about 0.6, and about 1.0 for radio, infrared-optical, and UV bands, respectively. The UV and optical-infrared fluxes decreased by about 20 percent in 5 weeks, while the radio flux remained stable. The X-ray flux decreased by a factor of about 2, and the change was more pronounced at hard X-rays, which suggest that X-ray emission possibly consists of two components. The degree of polarization at the optical band varied on the time scale of a few days, while the position angle remained unchanged. Physical parameters of Mrk 421 are discussed in terms of the synchrotron self-Compton model.

  9. NASA Thesaurus Data File

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized NASA subject terms used to index and retrieve materials in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database (NA&SD) and NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS). The scope of this controlled vocabulary includes not only aerospace engineering, but all supporting areas of engineering and physics, the natural space sciences (astronomy, astrophysics, planetary science), Earth sciences, and the biological sciences. The NASA Thesaurus Data File contains all valid terms and hierarchical relationships, USE references, and related terms in machine-readable form. The Data File is available in the following formats: RDF/SKOS, RDF/OWL, ZThes-1.0, and CSV/TXT.

  10. NASA Thesaurus Data File

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized NASA subject terms used to index and retrieve materials in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database (NA&SD) and NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS). The scope of this controlled vocabulary includes not only aerospace engineering, but all supporting areas of engineering and physics, the natural space sciences (astronomy, astrophysics, planetary science), Earth sciences, and the biological sciences. The NASA Thesaurus Data File contains all valid terms and hierarchical relationships, USE references, and related terms in machine-readable form. The Data File is available in the following formats: RDF/SKOS, RDF/OWL, ZThes-1.0, and CSV/TXT.

  11. Perfluorooctanoic Acid–Induced Immunomodulation in Adult C57BL/6J or C57BL/6N Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    DeWitt, Jamie C.; Copeland, Carey B.; Strynar, Mark J.; Luebke, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an environmentally persistent compound of regulatory concern, has been reported to reduce antibody responses in mice at a single dose. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate PFOA effects on humoral and cellular immunity using standard assays for assessing immune function, and to derive dose–response data. Methods C57BL/6J mice received 0 or 30 mg PFOA/kg/day for 10 days; half of the exposed groups were switched to vehicle and half continued on PFOA for five days. C57BL/6N mice received 0–30 mg/kg/day of PFOA in drinking water for 15 days. Mice were immunized with sheep red blood cells or sensitized to bovine serum albumin in Freund’s complete adjuvant on day 10 of exposure; immune responses were determined 1 day post-exposure. Results We found that 30 mg PFOA/kg/day given for 10 or 15 days reduced IgM synthesis; serum collected 1 day postexposure contained 8.4 × 104 or 2.7 × 105 ng PFOA/mL, respectively. IgM synthesis was suppressed at exposures ≥ 3.75 mg PFOA/kg/day in a dose-dependent manner, and IgG titers were elevated at 3.75 and 7.5 mg PFOA/kg/day. Serum PFOA at 3.75 mg/kg/day was 7.4 × 104 ng/mL 1 day postexposure, or 150-fold greater than the levels reported in individuals living near a PFOA production site. Using a second-degree polynomial model, we calculated a benchmark dose of 3 mg/kg/day, with a lower bound (95% confidence limit) of 1.75 mg/kg/day. Cell-mediated function was not affected. Conclusions IgM antibodies were suppressed after PFOA exposure. The margin of exposure for reduced IgM antibody synthesis was approximately 150 for highly exposed human populations. PMID:18470313

  12. A study of BL Lacertae-type objects with Exosat. I - Flux correlations, luminosity variability, and spectral variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giommi, P.; Barr, P.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Garilli, B.; Maccagni, D.

    1990-06-01

    Results are presented on a systematic analysis of more than 200 X-ray observations on 36 BL Lac objects, obtained from the Exosat archive, providing further strong evidence that the population of currently known BL Lac objects can be divided into two subclasses, Q-BL Lacs and X-BL Lacs. The subclass Q-BL Lacs includes most of the classical radio-discovered BL objects which are characterized by a continuum energy distribution, from radio to X-rays, similar to that of flat-radio-spectrum QSOs, highly polarized quasars, and optically violent variable QSOs. The subclass X-BL Lacs includes all the BL Lac objects which were detected in high-frequency surveys (i.e., optical and X-ray). This subclass is characterized by a very smooth energy distribution from radio to X-rays, which is often considered to be the signature of synchrotron emission.

  13. Accessing files in an internet - The Jade file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Herman C.; Peterson, Larry L.

    1993-01-01

    Jade is a new distribution file system that provides a uniform way to name and access files in an internet environment. It makes two important contributions. First, Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where heterogeneous means that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Jade is designed under the restriction that the underlying file system may not be modified. Second, rather than providing a global name space, Jade permits each user to define a private name space. These private name spaces support two novel features: they allow multiple file systems to be mounted under one directory, and they allow one logical name space to mount other logical name spaces. A prototype of the Jade File System was implemented on Sun Workstations running Unix. It consists of interfaces to the Unix file system, the Sun Network File System, the Andrew File System, and FTP. This paper motivates Jade's design, highlights several aspects of its implementation, and illustrates applications that can take advantage of its features.

  14. Accessing files in an Internet: The Jade file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Larry L.; Rao, Herman C.

    1991-01-01

    Jade is a new distribution file system that provides a uniform way to name and access files in an internet environment. It makes two important contributions. First, Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where heterogeneous means that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Jade is designed under the restriction that the underlying file system may not be modified. Second, rather than providing a global name space, Jade permits each user to define a private name space. These private name spaces support two novel features: they allow multiple file systems to be mounted under one directory, and they allow one logical name space to mount other logical name spaces. A prototype of the Jade File System was implemented on Sun Workstations running Unix. It consists of interfaces to the Unix file system, the Sun Network File System, the Andrew File System, and FTP. This paper motivates Jade's design, highlights several aspects of its implementation, and illustrates applications that can take advantage of its features.

  15. 11 CFR 100.19 - File, filed or filing (2 U.S.C. 434(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be filed under 11 CFR parts 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, and 109, and any modifications or...) Except for documents electronically filed under paragraph (c) of this section, a document is timely filed upon delivery to the Federal Election Commission, 999 E Street, NW., Washington, DC 20463; or...

  16. 11 CFR 100.19 - File, filed or filing (2 U.S.C. 434(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to be filed under 11 CFR parts 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, and 109, and any modifications or...) Except for documents electronically filed under paragraph (c) of this section, a document is timely filed upon delivery to the Federal Election Commission, 999 E Street, NW., Washington, DC 20463; or...

  17. 11 CFR 100.19 - File, filed or filing (2 U.S.C. 434(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to be filed under 11 CFR parts 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, and 109, and any modifications or...) Except for documents electronically filed under paragraph (c) of this section, a document is timely filed upon delivery to the Federal Election Commission, 999 E Street, NW., Washington, DC 20463; or...

  18. 78 FR 17394 - Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that on April 16, 2013,...

  19. [Study on identification of Gastrodia elata Bl. by Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ze-Feng; Xu, Rui; Cheng, Cun-Gui

    2007-09-01

    In the present article the FTIR spectra of the wild and planting Gastrodia elata Bl. from different habitats and its confusable varieties such as Canna edulis Ker-Gawl, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Solanum tuberosum L. were obtained by horizontal attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (HATR-FTIR), and were all transformed by Fourier self-deconvolution. The authors investigated the discrepancy extent of Fourier self-deconvolution of Gastrodia elata Bl and confusable varieties under various bandwidth and enhancement, and found that the discrepancy extent of Gastrodia elata Bl and confusable varieties was the most obvious when the bandwidth was between 75.0 and 76.0 and enhancement was 3.2. By adopting Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy (FSD-IR) analytical method the samples were studied in detail. The results showed that we could find out the difference among them by means of Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy, although it was very difficult to find out the difference in FSD-IR spectra of wild and planting Gastrodia elata Bl., and asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction Gastrodia elata Bl. The difference in FSD-IR spectra between Gastrodia elata Bl. and its confusable varieties is also very great. Therefore, this method can be used to recognize different Gastrodia elata Bl. and its confusable varieties simply, rapidly and accurately.

  20. "The Bean Files."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Krystyna; Longnecker, Nancy; Hickey, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes classroom use and effectiveness of "The Bean Files," an internet package that uses humorous stories to introduce students to life on a wheat-sheep farm in the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia. The focus of the program is on the role of legume-cereal rotations in the farming system and the science underpinning this…

  1. "The Bean Files."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Krystyna; Longnecker, Nancy; Hickey, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes classroom use and effectiveness of "The Bean Files," an internet package that uses humorous stories to introduce students to life on a wheat-sheep farm in the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia. The focus of the program is on the role of legume-cereal rotations in the farming system and the science underpinning this…

  2. The Global File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, Steven R.; Ruwart, Thomas M.; OKeefe, Matthew T.

    1996-01-01

    The global file system (GFS) is a prototype design for a distributed file system in which cluster nodes physically share storage devices connected via a network-like fiber channel. Networks and network-attached storage devices have advanced to a level of performance and extensibility so that the previous disadvantages of shared disk architectures are no longer valid. This shared storage architecture attempts to exploit the sophistication of storage device technologies whereas a server architecture diminishes a device's role to that of a simple component. GFS distributes the file system responsibilities across processing nodes, storage across the devices, and file system resources across the entire storage pool. GFS caches data on the storage devices instead of the main memories of the machines. Consistency is established by using a locking mechanism maintained by the storage devices to facilitate atomic read-modify-write operations. The locking mechanism is being prototyped in the Silicon Graphics IRIX operating system and is accessed using standard Unix commands and modules.

  3. The New Resource File

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the resource file is a common experience in teacher preparation programs. The author examines strategies for transforming what has been a project composed of physical resources to one emphasizing digital resources. Methods for finding, tagging, storing and retrieving resources are explored.

  4. Master File Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, William A.

    The three purposes for which this study was conducted involved collection and summarization of otherwise unavailable data on student characteristics and aspirations, editing and summarization of reading test data collected over the past six years, and testing of the feasibility and utility of a computerized master file combining student data…

  5. Illegal File Sharing 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

  6. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METHANOL: PATHOGENESIS IN CD-1 AND C57BL/6J MICE EXPOSED IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol causes axial skeleton and craniofacial defects in both CD-1 and C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation, but C57BL/6J embryos are more severely affected. We evaluated methanol-induced pathogenesis in CD-1 and C57BL/6J embryos exposed during gastrulation in whole em...

  7. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METHANOL: PATHOGENESIS IN CD-1 AND C57BL/6J MICE EXPOSED IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol causes axial skeleton and craniofacial defects in both CD-1 and C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation, but C57BL/6J embryos are more severely affected. We evaluated methanol-induced pathogenesis in CD-1 and C57BL/6J embryos exposed during gastrulation in whole em...

  8. SPring-8 BL36XU: Catalytic Reaction Dynamics for Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekizawa, O.; Uruga, T.; Takagi, Y.; Nitta, K.; Kato, K.; Tanida, H.; Uesugi, K.; Hoshino, M.; Ikenaga, E.; Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, S.; Sano, M.; Aoyagi, H.; Watanabe, A.; Nariyama, N.; Ohashi, H.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Senba, Y.; Takeuchi, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Ohata, T.; Matsushita, T.; Ishizawa, Y.; Kudo, T.; Kimura, H.; Yamazaki, H.; Tanaka, T.; Bizen, T.; Seike, T.; Goto, S.; Ohno, H.; Takata, M.; Kitamura, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Tada, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Iwasawa, Y.

    2016-05-01

    A tapered undulator beamline BL36XU was constructed at SPring-8 to conduct structural and electronic analysis of dynamic events on polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) cathode catalysts for the development of next-generation PEFCs. BL36XU provides various time and spatially resolved XAFS techniques in an energy range from 4.5 to 35 keV for investigating PEFCs under the operating conditions. In addition, we developed in-situ complementary measurement systems, such as in-situ time-resolved XAFS/XRD and ambient pressure HAXPES systems. This report describes the performance and present status of the BL36XU.

  9. Toyota beamline (BL33XU) at SPring-8

    SciTech Connect

    Nonaka, T. Dohmae, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nagai, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Araki, T.; Tanaka, T.; Kitamura, H.; Uruga, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Yumoto, H.; Ohashi, H.; Goto, S.

    2016-07-27

    The Toyota beamline (BL33XU) at SPring-8 is an undulator beamline developed to assist in the study of various automotive-related materials. The light source is a tapered in-vacuum undulator that provides a variable energy band width as well as a high brilliance X-ray beam. Two different optical arrangements are available: Optics 1 and Optics 2. Optics 1 is dedicated to time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAFS), and consists of two channel-cut crystal monochromators and four water-cooled flat Si mirrors. The Si(111) and Si(220) monochromator crystals cover an energy range of 4.0–46.0 keV and are driven by high-speed AC servo motors. These monochromators, in conjunction with the tapered undulator, enable high-quality XAFS data acquisition with a temporal resolution of 10 ms. Optics 2 is optimized for X-ray diffraction, scattering and imaging and includes a recently installed double crystal monochromator, two water-cooled flat Si mirrors and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) focusing mirrors. The monochromator incorporates parallel mounted Si(111) and Si(311) crystals and covers an energy range of 4.5–70 keV. The beamline provides two experimental stations: Exp. Hutch 2 and Exp. Hutch 3. The gas supply system and mass spectrometers installed in Exp. Hutch 2 allow in-operando measurements under various atmospheres. The scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (scanning 3DXRD) microscopy instrumentation developed and installed in Exp. Hutch 3 enables non-destructive orientation and stress mapping of 1 mm-thick steel specimens using a high energy microbeam.

  10. Respiratory toxicity of diacetyl in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Daniel L; Flake, Gordon P; Kirby, Patrick J; Palmer, Scott M

    2008-05-01

    Diacetyl, a component of artificial butter flavoring, is a potential etiological agent of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB); however, the toxic dose and mechanisms of toxicity remain controversial. We evaluated the respiratory toxicity of diacetyl in a murine model using several exposure profiles relevant to workplace conditions at microwave popcorn packaging plants. Male C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to inhaled diacetyl across several concentrations and duration profiles, or by direct oropharyngeal aspiration. Effects of diacetyl on the respiratory tract were evaluated by histopathology and BALF analyses. Subacute exposure to 200 or 400 ppm diacetyl for 5 days caused deaths, necrotizing rhinitis, necrotizing laryngitis and bronchitis. Reducing the exposure to 1 h/day (100, 200, 400 ppm) for 4 weeks resulted in less nasal and laryngeal toxicity, but led to peribronchial and peribronchiolar lymphocytic inflammation. A similar pattern was observed with intermittent high-dose exposures at 1200 ppm (15 min, twice a day, 4 weeks). Subchronic exposures to 100 ppm (6 h/day, 12 weeks) caused moderate nasal injury, and peribronchial lymphocytic inflammation accompanied by epithelial atrophy, denudation, and regeneration. Treatment with 400 mg/kg by oropharyngeal aspiration to bypass the nose caused foci of fibrohistiocytic proliferation with little or no inflammation at the junction of the terminal bronchiole and alveolar duct. Depending on the route and duration of exposure, diacetyl causes significant epithelial injury, peribronchial lymphocytic inflammation, or fibrohistiocytic lesions in the terminal bronchioles. Collectively these results indicate that clinically relevant diacetyl exposures result in a pattern of injury that replicates features of human OB.

  11. X-Ray Variability of BL Lacertae Objects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William Albert

    We have searched for X-ray emission from 63 optically active extragalactic objects using the A-1 detectors on the HEAO 1 spacecraft. Most of these sources are classified as BL Lacertae objects, and display one or more of the following properties: a high optical polarization, rapid optical variability, or a featureless (line free) optical spectrum. Fourteen objects are detected as sources of significant X-ray emission, eight of which were initially discovered with the A-1 detectors. Significant X-ray intensity variability is detected in all but three sources (and in these three objects only one observation is currently available, so that their X-ray behavior has yet to be determined). In somes cases (MRK 421, MRK 501, PKS 0548-322, and IZW 187) variations on monthly time scales are observed, while other sources (PKS 0521-365, PKS 0537-441, 1218+304, 3C 371, and PKS 2155-152) appear to vary on weekly (and in some cases, daily) time scales. In one source, PKS 2155-304, random factor of 2 variations in intensity are observed over time periods as short as 6 hours. A study of the X-ray variations observed in 3C 371 suggests that changes at these wavelengths result from either a succession (and partial superposition) of discrete events, or a variable injection rate. In those sources where X-ray emission is observed, the nonthermal optical flux extrapolates extremely well into the X-ray region, suggesting that emissions in these wavelength bands share a common origin. We show that both the variability and spectral form observed at X-ray wavelengths can be explained if (as suggested by the highly polarized optical flux) the emission is synchrotron radiation. It is necessary, however, that the synchrotron emitters move at relativistic velocities, in order to avoid excessive inverse-Compton losses that otherwise occur.

  12. X-ray variability of BL Lacertae objects

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray emission from 63 optically active extragalactic objects has been searched for using the A-1 detectors on the HEAO 1 spacecraft. Most of these sources are classified as BL Lacertae objects, and display one or more of the following properties: a high optical polarizaton, rapid optical variability, or a featureless (line free) optical spectrum. Fourteen objects are detected as sources of significant X-ray emission, eight of which were initially discovered with the A-1 detectors. Significant X-ray intensity variability is detected in all but three sources (and in these three objects only one observation is currently available, so that their X-ray behavior has yet to be determined). In some cases (MRK 421, MRK 501, PKS 0548-322, and IZW 187) variations on monthly time scales are observed, while other sources (PKS 0521-365, PKS 0537-441, 1218 + 304, 3C 371, and PKS 2155-152) appear to vary on weekly (and in some cases daily) time scales. In one surce, PKS 2155-304, random factor of 2 variations in intensity are observed over time periods as short as 6 hours. A study of the X-ray variations observed in 3C 371 suggests that changes at these wavelenghts result from either a succession (and partial superposition) of discrete events, or a variable injection rate. In those sources where X-ray emission is observed, the nonthermal optical flux extrapolates extremely well into the X-ray region, suggesting that emissions in these wavelength bands share a common origin. It is shown that both the variability and spectral form observed at X-ray wavelengths can be explained if (as suggested by the highly polarized optical flux) the emission is synchrotron radiation. It is necessary, however, that the synchrotron emitters move at relativistic velocities, in order to avoid excessive inverse-Compton losses that otherwise occur.

  13. Permanent-File-Validation Utility Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derry, Stephen D.

    1988-01-01

    Errors in files detected and corrected during operation. Permanent File Validation (PFVAL) utility computer program provides CDC CYBER NOS sites with mechanism to verify integrity of permanent file base. Locates and identifies permanent file errors in Mass Storage Table (MST) and Track Reservation Table (TRT), in permanent file catalog entries (PFC's) in permit sectors, and in disk sector linkage. All detected errors written to listing file and system and job day files. Program operates by reading system tables , catalog track, permit sectors, and disk linkage bytes to vaidate expected and actual file linkages. Used extensively to identify and locate errors in permanent files and enable online correction, reducing computer-system downtime.

  14. A discussion of Bl conservation on a two dimensional magnetic field plane in watt balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shisong; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Songling

    2016-05-01

    The watt balance is an experiment being pursued in national metrology institutes for precision determination of the Planck constant h. In watt balances, the 1/r magnetic field, expected to generate a geometrical factor Bl independent to any coil horizontal displacement, can be created by a strict two dimensional, symmetric (horizontal r and vertical z) construction of the magnet system. In this paper, we present an analytical understanding of magnetic field distribution when the r symmetry of the magnet is broken and the establishment of the Bl conservation is shown. By using either Gauss’s law on magnetism with monopoles or conformal transformations, we extend the Bl conservation to arbitrary two dimensional magnetic planes where the vertical magnetic field component equals zero. The generalized Bl conservation allows a relaxed physical alignment criteria for watt balance magnet systems.

  15. PATHOGENESIS OF METHANOL-INDUCED CRANIOFACIAL DEFECTS IN C57BL/6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol administered to C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation causes severe craniofacial dysmorphology. We describe dysmorphogenesis, cell death, cell cycle assessment, and effects on development of cranial ganglia and nerves observed following administration of methanol...

  16. The complete sample of 1 Jansky BL Lacertae objects. I - Summary properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickel, M.; Fried, J. W.; Kuehr, H.; Padovani, P.; Urry, C. M.

    1991-01-01

    The first well-defined, homogeneous radio sample of 34 BL Lac objects selected from a large-area survey of sources brighter than 1 Jy at 5 GHz is presented. Extensive optical spectroscopy reveals weak emission lines in roughly 3/4 of the 34 BL Lac objects in the sample. Optical imaging reveals that the nearby BL Lac objects are not stellar, and that the surface brightness distribution of the surrounding fuzz is consistent with the host galaxies being bright ellipticals. The results suggest that gravitational lensing may affect three of the 17 high-redshift BL Lac objects in the sample. The observations do not support a microlensing scenario for the low-redshift objects.

  17. PATHOGENESIS OF METHANOL-INDUCED CRANIOFACIAL DEFECTS IN C57BL/6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol administered to C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation causes severe craniofacial dysmorphology. We describe dysmorphogenesis, cell death, cell cycle assessment, and effects on development of cranial ganglia and nerves observed following administration of methanol...

  18. In vivo administration of BL-3050: highly stable engineered PON1-HDL complexes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme involved in organophosphate (OP) degradation and prevention of atherosclerosis. PON1 comprises a potential candidate for in vivo therapeutics, as an anti-atherogenic agent, and for detoxification of pesticides and nerve agents. Because human PON1 exhibits limited stability, engineered, recombinant PON1 (rePON1) variants that were designed for higher reactivity, solubility, stability, and bacterial expression, are candidates for treatment. This work addresses the feasibility of in vivo administration of rePON1, and its HDL complex, as a potentially therapeutic agent dubbed BL-3050. Methods For stability studies we applied different challenges related to the in vivo disfunctionalization of HDL and PON1 and tested for inactivation of PON1's activity. We applied acute, repetitive administrations of BL-3050 in mice to assess its toxicity and adverse immune responses. The in vivo efficacy of recombinant PON1 and BL-3050 were tested with an animal model of chlorpyrifos-oxon poisoning. Results Inactivation studies show significantly improved in vitro lifespan of the engineered rePON1 relative to human PON1. Significant sequence changes relative to human PON1 might hamper the in vivo applicability of BL-3050 due to adverse immune responses. However, we observed no toxic effects in mice subjected to repetitive administration of BL-3050, suggesting that BL-3050 could be safely used. To further evaluate the activity of BL-3050 in vivo, we applied an animal model that mimics human organophosphate poisoning. In these studies, a significant advantages of rePON1 and BL-3050 (>87.5% survival versus <37.5% in the control groups) was observed. Furthermore, BL-3050 and rePON1 were superior to the conventional treatment of atropine-2-PAM as a prophylactic treatment for OP poisoning. Conclusion In vitro and in vivo data described here demonstrate the potential advantages of rePON1 and BL-3050 for

  19. 77 FR 20810 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Sequent 39754 & 39755 Capacity Release Negotiated Rate Agreement filing to be effective 5/1/2012. Filed... Capacity Release Negotiated Rate Agreement filing to be effective 4/1/2012. Filed Date: 3/30/12. Accession...: Bison Pipeline LLC. Description: Bison Pipeline LLC Company Use Gas Annual Report. Filed Date: 3/30/12...

  20. 48 CFR 4.802 - Contract files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract files. 4.802... MATTERS Government Contract Files 4.802 Contract files. (a) A contract file should generally consist of— (1) The contracting office contract file, that documents the basis for the acquisition and the...

  1. 48 CFR 4.802 - Contract files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract files. 4.802... MATTERS Government Contract Files 4.802 Contract files. (a) A contract file should generally consist of— (1) The contracting office contract file, that documents the basis for the acquisition and the award...

  2. Break up a File with EDLIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koga, James S.

    Online searchers who download large amounts of data into a single ASCII file often have difficulty fitting that large file into their MS-DOS word processors for post-processing. This paper gives step-by-step instructions for using EDLIN, a text editor for DOS files, to break up a large downloaded file into smaller files. (1 reference) (Author/EW)

  3. 75 FR 50757 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ..., Inc. submits tariff filing per 154.204: DTI--Non-Conforming Service Agreements to be effective 8/30... Line Company, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.403: S-2 Tracker Filing to be effective 8/1/2010. Filed.... Description: Transwestern Pipeline Company, LLC submits its baseline tariff filing of its FERC Gas...

  4. 12 CFR 5.4 - Filing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Rules of General Applicability § 5.4 Filing required. (a) Filing. A depository institution shall file an application or notice with the OCC to engage in corporate activities and... advise an applicant through a pre-filing communication to send the filing or submission directly to...

  5. 77 FR 53882 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    .... Filed Date: 8/23/12. Accession Number: 20120823-5123. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 9/4/12. Docket Numbers... Release Filing to be effective 9/25/2012. Filed Date: 8/24/12. Accession Number: 20120824-5042. Comments...: http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676...

  6. 78 FR 76291 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C. Description: Revise System Map to be effective 1/1/2014. Filed Date: 12/4/13... Approval of Stipulation and Agreement. Filed Date: 12/4/13. Accession Number: 20131204-5130. Comments Due... qualifying facilities filings can be found at: http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For...

  7. High fat feeding unmasks variable insulin responses in male C57BL/6 mouse substrains.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rebecca L; Willard, Joshua R; Struck, Matthias D; Barrow, Breanne M; Brar, Gurkirat S; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Zraika, Sakeneh

    2017-04-01

    Mouse models are widely used for elucidating mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes. Genetic background profoundly affects metabolic phenotype; therefore, selecting the appropriate model is critical. Although variability in metabolic responses between mouse strains is now well recognized, it also occurs within C57BL/6 mice, of which several substrains exist. This within-strain variability is poorly understood and could emanate from genetic and/or environmental differences. To better define the within-strain variability, we performed the first comprehensive comparison of insulin secretion from C57BL/6 substrains 6J, 6JWehi, 6NJ, 6NHsd, 6NTac and 6NCrl. In vitro, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion correlated with Nnt mutation status, wherein responses were uniformly lower in islets from C57BL/6J vs C57BL/6N mice. In contrast, in vivo insulin responses after 18 weeks of low fat feeding showed no differences among any of the six substrains. When challenged with a high-fat diet for 18 weeks, C57BL/6J substrains responded with a similar increase in insulin release. However, variability was evident among C57BL/6N substrains. Strikingly, 6NJ mice showed no increase in insulin release after high fat feeding, contributing to the ensuing hyperglycemia. The variability in insulin responses among high-fat-fed C57BL/6N mice could not be explained by differences in insulin sensitivity, body weight, food intake or beta-cell area. Rather, as yet unidentified genetic and/or environmental factor(s) are likely contributors. Together, our findings emphasize that caution should be exercised in extrapolating data from in vitro studies to the in vivo situation and inform on selecting the appropriate C57BL/6 substrain for metabolic studies. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Ultraviolet polarimetry and spectroscopy of the BL Lacertae object PKS 2155-304

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Richard G.; Smith, Paul S.; Angel, J. R. P.; Miller, Bryan W.; Anderson, Scott F.; Margon, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    HST and Faint Object Spectrograph spectropolarimetry is presented for the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304; attention is given to the wavelength dependence of the UV linear polarization in a BL Lac object. The UV polarimetry yields evidence that the UV polarized flux is generated by the synchrotron mechanism responsible for optical polarization. Both the UV and optical emission are produced in the same region of the source.

  9. Behavioral changes in aging female C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Fahlström, Andreas; Yu, Qian; Ulfhake, Brun

    2011-10-01

    Using a range of tests we have studied alterations in behavior with advancing age in female C57BL/6 (of Jackson origin), the golden standard on which most genetically engineered mice are back-crossed. In parallel, growth and survival data were collected. In a protected environment the 90% and 75% cohort survival age was 20 and 25 months, respectively, and the 50% cohort survival was 32 months. In mice, body weight increases continuously until 15-20 months of age, while in advanced age whole body weight drops. The body mass loss in senescence is associated with emergence of other aged phenotype features such as kyphosis, balding and loss of fur-color. Our behavioral data show that aging modulates certain aspects of basic behavior in a continuous manner, like explorative and locomotor activities. Advanced age associates with an acceleration of behavioral impairments evident in most of the tests used, including motor skill acquisition and memory consolidation. However, certain domains of mouse behavior were well preserved also in advanced age such as thermal noxious threshold and working memory as assessed by an object recognition task. The decreased drive to explore is suggested to be a key factor underlying many aspects of reduced performance including cognitive capacity during aging. Behavioral aging affects genetically closely related individuals housed under strictly standardized conditions differentially (Collier, T.J., Coleman, P.D., 1991. Divergence of biological and chronological aging: evidence from rodent studies. Neurobiol. Aging, 12, 685-693; Ingram, D.K., 1988. Motor performance variability during aging in rodents. Assessment of reliability and validity of individual differences. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 515, 70-96). Consistent with this a subpopulation of the 28-month-old mice showed an explorative activity similar to young-adult mice and a significantly stronger preference for a novel object than aged mice with a less explorative behavior. Thus, subtle

  10. 43 CFR 4.1362 - Where to file; when to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where to file; when to file. 4.1362... file; when to file. (a) The request for review shall be filed with the Hearings Division, Office of... bear the expense for this service. (b) Failure to file a request for review within the time...

  11. Radio constraints on the nature of BL Lacertae objects and their parent population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollgaard, R. I.; Wardle, J. F. C.; Roberts, D. H.; Gabuzda, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    5 GHz VLA observations of 17 BL Lac objects with bright radio cores at both high and low resolution are reported. Extended emission is detected around most objects. None of the sources observed at low resolution show evidence of giant halos on the scale of tens of arcmin. In general, the sources with the most luminous extended emission exhibit FR II characteristics in both morphology and polarization, and less luminous sources exhibit FR I characteristics. Thus, the parent population of the BL Lac objects contains both FR I and FR II radio sources. No BL Lac objects are found that clearly exhibit quasarlike polarization at milliarcsec resolution. This argues against the view that the more luminous BL Lac objects are simply an extension of the quasar/OVV population, or that most BL Lac objects are gravitationally microlensed images of distant quasars. Other properties are generally consistent with the view the BL Lac objects are normal radio galaxies whose jets make a small angle to the line of sight.

  12. The Jet-Disk Symbiosis in Blazar and Unified Model of FSRQs and BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhao Hua; Li, Zhang

    2012-04-01

    Using multi-wave band data for a large sample of 70 blazars, including 38 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and 32 BL Lac Objeces, we studied the correlations for both the flux and luminosity of the broad-line emission (FBLR) with the near-infrared flux (FK), X-ray flux (FX) and radio flux at 5 GHz (FR), respectively. We could see that there is always a strong correlation between the broad-line and multi-wave bands for a sample of 70 blazars; also, the slopes of the corresponding linear-regression equations are close to 1, which is consistent with the theoretical results. These results provide some new experimental evidence about coupling of the accretion disk and the jet of blazars. Simultaneously, we also indicated that the relative location of BL Lacs and FSRQs are quite separated, and that the luminosity of the the broad-line emission for BL Lacs is much less for FSRQs, which can prove that FSRQs and BL Lacs could be considered as a single population, or FSRQs and BL Lacs should be regarded as a class. But they are in different evolutionary stages of blazars, and have different types of accretion disks with different line-to-continuum ratios. Finally, the unified model of FSRQs and BL Lacs is also discussed.

  13. TeV BL Lac objects at the dawn of the Fermi era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Foschini, L.; Maraschi, L.

    2010-01-01

    We reconsider the emission properties of BL Lac objects emitting in the high-energy γ-ray band, by exploiting the information in the MeV-GeV band obtained by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope in its first three months of operation. To this aim we construct the spectral energy distribution of all the BL Lacs revealed by LAT and of the known TeV BL Lacs not detected by LAT, also including data from the Swift satellite, and model them with a simple one-zone leptonic model. The analysis shows that the BL Lacs detected by LAT (whether or not already detected in the TeV band) share similar physical parameters. While some of the TeV BL Lacs not revealed by LAT have spectral energy distributions and physical parameters very similar to the LAT BL Lacs, one group of objects displays peculiar properties (larger electron energies and smaller magnetic fields), suggesting different physical conditions in the emission region. Finally, we discuss possible criteria to select in an effective manner good new candidates for the Cherenkov telescopes among the LAT sources, presenting a list of predicted fluxes in the very high-energy band calculated including the effects of absorption by extragalactic background light.

  14. Properties of the EMSS Sample of X-Ray-Selected BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rector, T. A.; Stocke, J. T.; Perlman, E. S.; Morris, S. L.; Gioia, I. M.

    1998-12-01

    We present updated, complete radio, optical and X-ray data for BL Lacs in the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS). The complete ``M91" sample first presented in Morris et al. (1991) is updated; and we define a new, virtually complete sample consisting of 40 EMSS BL Lacs (the ``D40" sample). New high signal-to-noise, arcsecond-resolution VLA maps are also presented for ten EMSS BL Lacs, completing VLA observations of the M91 sample. The addition of four new objects and updated X-ray flux and redshift information has increased the < V/Vmax >\\ value for the M91 sample to 0.399+/-0.057; and < V/Vmax >\\ = 0.416+/-0.046 for the newly defined D40 sample. In conjunction with the results of Bade et al. (1998) these results strongly establish negative evolution for X-ray-selected BL Lac Objects. The positive evolution seen in radio-selected BL Lacs poses a significant problem for the unified model. Also, our VLA observations of the M91 sample confirm that X-ray-selected BL Lacs are too core-dominated to be consistent with a beamed population of FR-1s seen at an intermediate angles for the moderate outflow velocities (gamma ~ 5) suggested for XBL emitting regions. The observed spectral and radio properties of XBLs, however, are completely consistent with XBLs being the beamed population of low-luminosity, FR-1 radio galaxies.

  15. Evolutionary behaviour of AGN: Investigations on BL Lac objects and Seyfert II galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, V.

    2000-12-01

    The evolution and nature of AGN is still one of the enigmatic questions in astrophysics. While large and complete Quasar samples are available, special classes of AGN, like BL Lac objects and Seyfert II galaxies, are still rare objects. In this work I present two new AGN samples. The first one is the HRX-BL Lac survey, resulting in a sample of X-ray selected BL Lac objects. This sample results from 223 BL Lac candidates based on a correlation of X-ray sources with radio sources. The identification of this sample is 98% complete. 77 objects have been identified as BL Lac objects and form the HRX-BL Lac complete sample, the largest homogeneous sample of BL Lac objects existing today. For this sample, redshifts are now known for 62 objects (81 %). In total I present 101 BL Lac objects in the enlarged HRX-BL Lac survey, for which redshift information is available for 84 objects. During the HRX-BL Lac survey I found several objects of special interest. 1ES 1517+656 turned out to be the brightest known BL Lac object in the universe. 1ES 0927+500 could be the first BL Lac object with a line detected in the X-ray region. RX J1211+2242 is probably the the counterpart of the up to now unidentified gamma-ray source 3EG J1212+2304. Additionally I present seven candidates for ultra high frequency peaked BL Lac objects. RX J1054+3855 and RX J1153+3517 are rare high redshift X-ray bright QSO or accreting binary systems with huge magnetic fields. For the BL Lac objects I suggest an unified scenario in which giant elliptical galaxies, formed by merging events of spiral galaxies at z > 2, start as powerful, radio dominated BL Lacs. As the jet gets less powerful, the BL Lacs start to get more X-ray dominated, showing less total luminosities (for z < 1). This effect is seen in the different evolutionary behavior detected in high and low frequency cut off BL Lac objects (HBL and LBL, respectively). The model of negative evolution is supported by assumptions about the energetic effects

  16. Large File System Backup: NERSC Global File System Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhtarani, Akbar; Andrews, Matthew; Hick, Jason; Kramer, William

    2008-10-23

    NERSC's Global File system (NGF), accessible from all compute systems at NERSC, holds files and data from many scientific projects. A full backup of this file system to our High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is performed periodically. Disk storage usage by projects at NERSC has grown seven fold over a two year period, from ~;;20TB in June 2006 to ~;;140 TB in June 2008. The latest full backup took about 13 days and more than 200 T10k tape cartridges (.5 TB capacity). Petabyte file systems are becoming a reality in the next few years and the existing utilities are already strained in handling backup tasks.

  17. MERRA-2: File Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, M. G.; Lucchesi, R.; Suarez, M.

    2015-01-01

    The second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) is a NASA atmospheric reanalysis that begins in 1980. It replaces the original MERRA reanalysis (Rienecker et al., 2011) using an upgraded version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system. The file collections for MERRA-2 are described in detail in this document, including some important changes from those of the MERRA dataset (Lucchesi, 2012).

  18. Secure Distributed File Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    practicality and applicability of one such system, Trusted Ficus File System ( TRUFFLES ), in the DoD infrastructure. Integrated into this research are...discussions of Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM), which is currently an integral part of the TRUFFLES implementation. This thesis concludes with a discussion of the...actual installation of a PEM reference implementation, and future requirements for the TRUFFLES installation at the Naval Postgraduate School. 14

  19. The Galley Parallel File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David

    1996-01-01

    As the I/O needs of parallel scientific applications increase, file systems for multiprocessors are being designed to provide applications with parallel access to multiple disks. Many parallel file systems present applications with a conventional Unix-like interface that allows the application to access multiple disks transparently. The interface conceals the parallelism within the file system, which increases the ease of programmability, but makes it difficult or impossible for sophisticated programmers and libraries to use knowledge about their I/O needs to exploit that parallelism. Furthermore, most current parallel file systems are optimized for a different workload than they are being asked to support. We introduce Galley, a new parallel file system that is intended to efficiently support realistic parallel workloads. We discuss Galley's file structure and application interface, as well as an application that has been implemented using that interface.

  20. The Galley Parallel File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David

    1996-01-01

    Most current multiprocessor file systems are designed to use multiple disks in parallel, using the high aggregate bandwidth to meet the growing I/0 requirements of parallel scientific applications. Many multiprocessor file systems provide applications with a conventional Unix-like interface, allowing the application to access multiple disks transparently. This interface conceals the parallelism within the file system, increasing the ease of programmability, but making it difficult or impossible for sophisticated programmers and libraries to use knowledge about their I/O needs to exploit that parallelism. In addition to providing an insufficient interface, most current multiprocessor file systems are optimized for a different workload than they are being asked to support. We introduce Galley, a new parallel file system that is intended to efficiently support realistic scientific multiprocessor workloads. We discuss Galley's file structure and application interface, as well as the performance advantages offered by that interface.

  1. Clinical Chemistry Reference Intervals for C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and C3HeB/FeJ Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Otto, Gordon P; Rathkolb, Birgit; Oestereicher, Manuela A; Lengger, Christoph J; Moerth, Corinna; Micklich, Kateryna; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Wolf, Eckhard; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Although various mouse inbred strains are widely used to investigate disease mechanisms and to establish new therapeutic strategies, sex-specific reference intervals for laboratory diagnostic analytes that are generated from large numbers of animals have been unavailable. In this retrospective study, we screened data from more than 12,000 mice phenotyped in the German Mouse Clinic from January 2006 through June 2014 and selected animals with the genetic background of C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, or C3HeB/FeJ. In addition, we distinguished between the C57BL/6NTac substrain and C57BL/6N mice received from other vendors. The corresponding data sets of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, inorganic phosphate), lipids (cholesterol, triglyceride), and enzyme activities (ALT, AST, ALP, α-amylase) and urea, albumin, and total protein levels were analyzed. Significant effects of age and sex on these analytes were identified, and strain- or substrain- and sex-specific reference intervals for 90- to 135-d-old mice were calculated. In addition, we include an overview of the literature that reports clinical chemistry values for wild-type mice of different strains. Our results support researchers interpreting clinical chemistry values from various mouse mutants and corresponding wild-type controls based on the examined strains and substrains.

  2. Ageing single file motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, R.; Sanders, L.; Lomholt, M. A.; Lizana, L.; Fogelmark, K.; Ambjörnsson, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The mean squared displacement of a tracer particle in a single file of identical particles with excluded volume interactions shows the famed Harris scaling ≃ K1/2t1/2 as function of time. Here we study what happens to this law when each particle of the single file interacts with the environment such that it is transiently immobilised for times τ with a power-law distribution ψ(τ) ≃ (τ★)α, and different ranges of the exponent α are considered. We find a dramatic slow-down of the motion of a tracer particle from Harris' law to an ultraslow, logarithmic time evolution ≃ K0 log 1/2(t) when 0 < α < 1. In the intermediate case 1 < α < 2, we observe a power-law form for the mean squared displacement, with a modified scaling exponent as compared to Harris' law. Once α is larger than two, the Brownian single file behaviour and thus Harris' law are restored. We also point out that this process is weakly non-ergodic in the sense that the time and ensemble averaged mean squared displacements are disparate.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Multiwavelength obs. of BL Lac in 2012-2013 (Wehrle+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrle, A. E.; Grupe, D.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Gurwell, M.; Balokovic, M.; Hovatta, T.; Madejski, G. M.; Harrison, F. H.; Stern, D.

    2016-03-01

    Our Herschel target of opportunity observations began on 2012 October 29 (MJD 56229) and continued for the three-month visibility window. We arranged for daily Swift pointings starting on 2012 October 27 through 2013 February 1. We also arranged for two intense periods of every-orbit Swift monitoring on 2012 December 11-12 and 2013 January 11-12. We obtained target of opportunity observations with NuSTAR on 2012 December 11-12. Observations of BL Lac every two to four days were carried out at the SMA on Mauna Kea, HI during the Herschel observation window, and intermittently thereafter. Monitoring observations with CARMA at 3mm were already underway. VLBA monitoring continued throughout the time range reported here as part of the ongoing Boston University (BU) γ-ray blazar monitoring program. Observations at other wavebands were already underway by other collaborations, e.g., the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope. In addition, roughly weekly Swift observations have been carried out for several years by A. Falcone and M. Stroh (Stroh & Falcone 2013ApJS..207...28S). Herschel SPIRE and PACS FIR observations of BL Lac are presented in table 1 and sections 2.2 and 2.5. SMA millimeter and submillimeter observations are presented in tables 1, 2 and 3 and sections 2.3 and 2.5. Millimeter observations with CARMA are presented in table 4 and sections 2.4 and 2.5. Swift optical, UV and X-ray observations are presented in tables 5 and 6 and section 2.6. Hard X-ray observations with NuSTAR are presented in section 2.7. γ-ray observations with Fermi are presented in section 2.8. The 7mm band observations are presented in section 2.9. The BU group obtained 2.4-10keV X-ray fluxes with the RXTE PCA three times per week from 2005 March 3 to 2011 December 31; see table 10 and Appendix. (7 data files).

  4. 77 FR 35370 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    .... Description: El Paso Natural Gas Company's 2011 (Jan-Mar) Penalty Credit Report. Filed Date: 5/31/12... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket...

  5. 18 CFR 34.7 - Filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SECURITIES OR THE ASSUMPTION OF LIABILITIES § 34.7 Filing requirements. Applications must be filed with the Secretary of the Commission in accordance with filing procedures posted on the Commission's Web site at http...

  6. 18 CFR 34.7 - Filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SECURITIES OR THE ASSUMPTION OF LIABILITIES § 34.7 Filing requirements. Applications must be filed with the Secretary of the Commission in accordance with filing procedures posted on the Commission's Web site at...

  7. 76 FR 48836 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Line Company, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.403: S-2 Tracker Filing to be effective 8/1/2011. Filed...-000. Applicants: Cimarron River Pipeline, LLC. Description: 2011 Annual Report of Cash Out Activity...

  8. 78 FR 55694 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ....ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free...--September 2013--Tenaska Attachment A to be effective 12/31/9998. Filed Date: 9/4/13. Accession Number...

  9. Cytoscape file of chemical networks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The maximum connectivity scores of pairwise chemical conditions summarized from Cmap results in a file with Cytoscape format (http://www.cytoscape.org/). The figures in the publication were generated from this file. The Cytoscape file is formed from importing the eight text file therein.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Wang , R., A. Biales , N. Garcia-Reyero, E. Perkins, D. Villeneuve, G. Ankley, and D. Bencic. Fish Connectivity Mapping: Linking Chemical Stressors by Their MOA-Driven Transcriptomic Profiles. BMC Genomics. BioMed Central Ltd, London, UK, 17(84): 1-20, (2016).

  10. The Internet Toolkit: File Compression and Archive Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Erik

    1993-01-01

    Describes utility programs available for posttransfer processing files that have been downloaded from the Internet. Highlights include file compression; viewing graphics files; converting binary files to ASCII files; and how to find utility programs. (LRW)

  11. Electroweak vacuum stability in classically conformal B-L extension of the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arindam; Okada, Nobuchika; Papapietro, Nathan

    2017-02-01

    We consider the minimal U(1)_{B-L} extension of the standard model (SM) with the classically conformal invariance, where an anomaly-free U(1)_{B-L} gauge symmetry is introduced along with three generations of right-handed neutrinos and a U(1)_{B-L} Higgs field. Because of the classically conformal symmetry, all dimensional parameters are forbidden. The B-L gauge symmetry is radiatively broken through the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism, generating the mass for the U(1)_{B-L} gauge boson (Z^' boson) and the right-handed neutrinos. Through a small negative coupling between the SM Higgs doublet and the B-L Higgs field, the negative mass term for the SM Higgs doublet is generated and the electroweak symmetry is broken. In this model context, we investigate the electroweak vacuum instability problem in the SM. It is well known that in the classically conformal U(1)_{B-L} extension of the SM, the electroweak vacuum remains unstable in the renormalization group analysis at the one-loop level. In this paper, we extend the analysis to the two-loop level, and perform parameter scans. We identify a parameter region which not only solve the vacuum instability problem, but also satisfy the recent ATLAS and CMS bounds from search for Z^' boson resonance at the LHC Run-2. Considering self-energy corrections to the SM Higgs doublet through the right-handed neutrinos and the Z^' boson, we derive the naturalness bound on the model parameters to realize the electroweak scale without fine-tunings.

  12. OPTICALLY SELECTED BL LACERTAE CANDIDATES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE SEVEN

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, Scott F.; Kimball, Amy E.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Hall, Patrick B.; Richmond, Michael W.; Shemmer, Ohad; Voges, Wolfgang; York, Donald G.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Snedden, Stephanie; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike E-mail: anderson@astro.washington.edu

    2010-02-15

    We present a sample of 723 optically selected BL Lac candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) spectroscopic database encompassing 8250 deg{sup 2} of sky; our sample constitutes one of the largest uniform BL Lac samples yet derived. Each BL Lac candidate has a high-quality SDSS spectrum from which we determine spectroscopic redshifts for {approx}60% of the objects. Redshift lower limits are estimated for the remaining objects utilizing the lack of host galaxy flux contamination in their optical spectra; we find that objects lacking spectroscopic redshifts are likely at systematically higher redshifts. Approximately 80% of our BL Lac candidates match to a radio source in FIRST/NVSS, and {approx}40% match to a ROSAT X-ray source. The homogeneous multiwavelength coverage allows subdivision of the sample into 637 radio-loud BL Lac candidates and 86 weak-featured radio-quiet objects. The radio-loud objects broadly support the standard paradigm unifying BL Lac objects with beamed radio galaxies. We propose that the majority of the radio-quiet objects may be lower-redshift (z < 2.2) analogs to high-redshift weak line quasars (i.e., active galactic nucleus with unusually anemic broad emission line regions). These would constitute the largest sample of such objects, being of similar size and complementary in redshift to the samples of high-redshift weak line quasars previously discovered by the SDSS. However, some fraction of the weak-featured radio-quiet objects may instead populate a rare and extreme radio-weak tail of the much larger radio-loud BL Lac population. Serendipitous discoveries of unusual white dwarfs, high-redshift weak line quasars, and broad absorption line quasars with extreme continuum dropoffs blueward of rest-frame 2800 A are also briefly described.

  13. Optically Selected BL Lacertae Candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Hall, Patrick B.; Kimball, Amy E.; Richmond, Michael W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shemmer, Ohad; Voges, Wolfgang; York, Donald G.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Snedden, Stephanie; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2010-02-01

    We present a sample of 723 optically selected BL Lac candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) spectroscopic database encompassing 8250 deg2 of sky; our sample constitutes one of the largest uniform BL Lac samples yet derived. Each BL Lac candidate has a high-quality SDSS spectrum from which we determine spectroscopic redshifts for ~60% of the objects. Redshift lower limits are estimated for the remaining objects utilizing the lack of host galaxy flux contamination in their optical spectra; we find that objects lacking spectroscopic redshifts are likely at systematically higher redshifts. Approximately 80% of our BL Lac candidates match to a radio source in FIRST/NVSS, and ~40% match to a ROSAT X-ray source. The homogeneous multiwavelength coverage allows subdivision of the sample into 637 radio-loud BL Lac candidates and 86 weak-featured radio-quiet objects. The radio-loud objects broadly support the standard paradigm unifying BL Lac objects with beamed radio galaxies. We propose that the majority of the radio-quiet objects may be lower-redshift (z < 2.2) analogs to high-redshift weak line quasars (i.e., active galactic nucleus with unusually anemic broad emission line regions). These would constitute the largest sample of such objects, being of similar size and complementary in redshift to the samples of high-redshift weak line quasars previously discovered by the SDSS. However, some fraction of the weak-featured radio-quiet objects may instead populate a rare and extreme radio-weak tail of the much larger radio-loud BL Lac population. Serendipitous discoveries of unusual white dwarfs, high-redshift weak line quasars, and broad absorption line quasars with extreme continuum dropoffs blueward of rest-frame 2800 Å are also briefly described.

  14. Converting Inhouse Subject Card Files to Electronic Keyword Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culmer, Carita M.

    The library at Phoenix College developed the Controversial Issues Files (CIF), a "home made" card file containing references pertinent to specific ongoing assignments. Although the CIF had proven itself to be an excellent resource tool for beginning researchers, it was cumbersome to maintain in the card format, and was limited to very…

  15. 76 FR 53676 - Combined Notice of Filings; Filings Instituting Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings; Filings Instituting Proceedings Take... Northern's FERC Gas Tariff to resolve a prior period imbalance with the high Monthly Index Price...

  16. Converting Inhouse Subject Card Files to Electronic Keyword Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culmer, Carita M.

    The library at Phoenix College developed the Controversial Issues Files (CIF), a "home made" card file containing references pertinent to specific ongoing assignments. Although the CIF had proven itself to be an excellent resource tool for beginning researchers, it was cumbersome to maintain in the card format, and was limited to very…

  17. Storing files in a parallel computing system using list-based index to identify replica files

    DOEpatents

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M.; Tzelnic, Percy; Zhang, Zhenhua; Grider, Gary

    2015-07-21

    Improved techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using a list-based index to identify file replicas. A file and at least one replica of the file are stored in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. An index for the file comprises at least one list comprising a pointer to a storage location of the file and a storage location of the at least one replica of the file. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and one or more sub-files. The index may also comprise a checksum value for one or more of the file and the replica(s) of the file. The checksum value can be evaluated to validate the file and/or the file replica(s). A query can be processed using the list.

  18. The School Library Vertical File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the maintenance of vertical files in the school library. Topics covered include circulation, weeding, using materials for special displays, acquiring materials, policies on advertising and controversial issues, cross-references, subject headings, introducing students to vertical files, beginning a collection, and preservation. (MES)

  19. Software for Managing Personal Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundeen, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the special characteristics of personal file management software and compares four microcomputer software packages: Notebook II with Bibliography and Convert, Pro-Cite with Biblio-Links, askSam, and Reference Manager. Each package is evaluated in terms of the user interface, file maintenance, retrieval capabilities, output, and…

  20. Portable File Format (PFF) specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.

    2015-02-01

    Created at Sandia National Laboratories, the Portable File Format (PFF) allows binary data transfer across computer platforms. Although this capability is supported by many other formats, PFF files are still in use at Sandia, particularly in pulsed power research. This report provides detailed PFF specifications for accessing data without relying on legacy code.

  1. Efficient algorithms for multi-file caching

    SciTech Connect

    Otoo, Ekow J.; Rotem, Doron; Seshadri, Sridhar

    2004-03-15

    Multi-File Caching issues arise in applications where a set of jobs are processed and each job requests one or more input files. A given job can only be started if all its input files are preloaded into a disk cache. Examples of applications where Multi-File caching may be required are scientific data mining, bit-sliced indexes, and analysis of sets of vertically partitioned files. The difference between this type of caching and traditional file caching systems is that in this environment, caching and replacement decisions are made based on ''combinations of files (file bundles),'' rather than single files. In this work we propose new algorithms for Multi-File caching and analyze their performance. Extensive simulations are presented to establish the effectiveness of the Multi-File caching algorithm in terms of job response time and job queue length.

  2. The DNA Files

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-09

    The DNA Files is a radio documentary which disseminates genetics information over public radio. The documentaries explore subjects which include the following: How genetics affects society. How human life began and how it evolved. Could new prenatal genetic tests hold the key to disease prevention later in life? Would a national genetic data base sacrifice individual privacy? and Should genes that may lead to the cure for cancer be privately owned? This report serves as a project update for the second quarter of 1998. It includes the spring/summer 1998 newsletter, the winter 1998 newsletter, the program clock, and the latest flyer.

  3. Mechanistic platform knowledge of concomitant sugar uptake in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strains

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, David J.; Hausjell, Johanna; Ulonska, Sophia; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    When producing recombinant proteins, the use of Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) in combination with the T7-based pET-expression system is often the method of choice. In a recent study we introduced a mechanistic model describing the correlation of the specific glucose uptake rate (qs,glu) and the corresponding maximum specific lactose uptake rate (qs,lac,max) for a pET-based E. coli BL21(DE3) strain producing a single chain variable fragment (scFv). We showed the effect of qs,lac,max on productivity and product location underlining its importance for recombinant protein production. In the present study we investigated the mechanistic qs,glu/qs,lac,max correlation for four pET-based E. coli BL21(DE3) strains producing different recombinant products and thereby proved the mechanistic model to be platform knowledge for E. coli BL21(DE3). However, we found that the model parameters strongly depended on the recombinant product. Driven by this observation we tested different dynamic bioprocess strategies to allow a faster investigation of this mechanistic correlation. In fact, we succeeded and propose an experimental strategy comprising only one batch cultivation, one fed-batch cultivation as well as one dynamic experiment, to reliably determine the mechanistic model for qs,glu/qs,lac,max and get trustworthy model parameters for pET-based E. coli BL21(DE3) strains which are the basis for bioprocess development. PMID:28332595

  4. THE LACK OF TORUS EMISSION FROM BL LACERTAE OBJECTS: AN INFRARED VIEW OF UNIFICATION WITH WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Wu Jianfeng; Shemmer, Ohad

    2012-02-15

    We use data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to perform a statistical study on the mid-infrared (IR) properties of a large number ({approx}10{sup 2}) of BL Lac objects-low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with a jet beamed toward the Earth. As expected, many BL Lac objects are so highly beamed that their jet synchrotron emission dominates their IR spectral energy distributions. In other BL Lac objects, however, the jet is not strong enough to completely dilute the rest of the AGN emission. We do not see observational signatures of the dusty torus from these weakly beamed BL Lac objects. The lack of observable torus emission is consistent with suggestions that BL Lac objects are fed by radiatively inefficient accretion disks. Implications for the 'nature versus nurture' debate for FR I and FR II radio galaxies are briefly discussed. Our study supports the notion that, beyond orientation, accretion rate plays an important role in AGN unification.

  5. Hypolipidemic effect of young persimmon fruit in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the hypolipidemic effects of young persimmon fruit (YP) on apolipoprotein E-deficient C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. These mice exhibited higher plasma cholesterols, except for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lower plasma HDL cholesterol than C57BL/6.Cr mice that had the same genetic background as the C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. Male C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice (n=5) were fed a diet supplemented with dry YP, Hachiya-kaki, at a concentration of 5% (w/w) for 10 weeks. YP treatment significantly lowered plasma chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, and triglyceride, and this response was accompanied by an elevation of fecal bile acid excretion. In the liver, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 gene expression was significantly higher in mice fed YP, while the mRNA and protein levels of the LDL receptor did not change. These results indicate that acceleration of fecal bile acid excretion is a major mechanism of the hypolipidemic effect induced by YP in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice.

  6. Can BL Lacertae emission explain the neutrinos above 0.2 PeV?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, Andrea; Vissani, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Context. Multi-messenger astronomy can help to investigate the sources of the high-energy neutrinos observed by the high-energy neutrino telescope IceCube. Aims: We consider the hypothesis that the highest energy neutrinos are produced by BL Lacs, arguing that this is not contradicted severely by any known fact. Methods: We check the BL Lac hypothesis by searching for correlations between the through-going muon events of IceCube and the BL Lacs of the second catalog of Fermi-LAT (2FHL). Results: We expect 10.2 ± 2.4 correlated events but we find that just 1 event has a BL Lac as counterpart. We also assess the probability of observing one multiplet from the same source, finding that the present null result is not yet of critical significance. Conclusions: We conclude that the hypothesis that the BL Lacs are the main emitters of the highest-energy neutrinos observed by IceCube is disfavored at 3.7σ. We discuss implications and possible ways out; for example, this could work if the angular resolution was 4°, which is much more than expected.

  7. Characterization of a fibronectin-binding protein from Lactobacillus casei BL23.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Provencio, D; Pérez-Martínez, G; Monedero, V

    2010-03-01

    To characterize the functionality of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 fbpA gene encoding a putative fibronectin-binding protein. Adhesion tests showed that L. casei BL23 binds immobilized and soluble fibronectin in a protease-sensitive manner. A mutant with inactivated fbpA showed a decrease in binding to immobilized fibronectin and a strong reduction in the surface hydrophobicity as reflected by microbial adhesion to solvents test. However, minor effects were seen on adhesion to the human Caco-2 or HT-29 cell lines. Purified 6X(His)FbpA bound to immobilized fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot experiments with FbpA-specific antibodies showed that FbpA could be extracted from the cell surface by LiCl treatment and that protease digestion of the cells reduced the amount of extracted FbpA. Furthermore, surface exposition of FbpA was detected in other L. casei strains by LiCl extraction and whole-cell ELISA. FbpA can be found at the L. casei BL23 surface and participates in cell attachment to immobilized fibronectin. We showed that FbpA is an important, but not the only, factor contributing to fibronectin binding in BL23 strain. This is the first report showing the involvement of FbpA in fibronectin binding in L. casei BL23 and represents a new contribution to the study of attachment factors in probiotic bacteria.

  8. Does black hole spin play a key role in the FSRQ/BL Lac dichotomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Debbijoy; Sreekumar, Parameswaran; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Tomar, Ishan

    2016-04-01

    Blazars are characterized by large intensity and spectral variations across the electromagnetic spectrum It is believed that jets emerging from them are almost aligned with the line-of-sight. The majority of identified extragalactic sources in γ-ray catalogs of EGRET and Fermi are blazars. Observationally, blazars can be divided into two classes: flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacs. BL Lacs usually exhibit lower γ-ray luminosity and harder power law spectra at γ-ray energies than FSRQs. We attempt to explain the high energy properties of FSRQs and BL Lacs from Fermi γ-ray space telescope observations. It was argued previously that the difference in accretion rates is mainly responsible for the large mismatch in observed luminosity in γ-ray. However, when intrinsic luminosities are derived by correcting for beaming effects, this difference in γ-ray luminosity between the two classes is significantly reduced. In order to explain this difference in intrinsic luminosities, we propose that spin plays an important role in the luminosity distribution dichotomy of BL Lacs and FSRQs. As the outflow power of a blazar increases with increasing spin of a central black hole, we suggest that the spin plays a crucial role in making BL Lac sources low luminous and slow rotators compared to FSRQ sources.

  9. Behavioural and neuroanatomical divergence between two sublines of C57BL/6J inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Crusio, W E; Schwegler, H; van Abeelen, J H

    1991-01-31

    Male mice of strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J differ reproducibly in a number of behaviours displayed in an open-field. In particular, C57BL/6J mice show a higher rearing-up frequency than do DBA/2J animals. Recently, a marked drop occurred in the frequency with which this behaviour is displayed by the C57BL/6J//Nmg (N) subline, that has been separated from the original C57BL/6J line over 62 generations. Comparison of our animals with the C57BL/6J//Kun(K) subline, separated from the Jackson parent over at least 40 generations, showed a significant strain difference for rearing. Since both a positive additive-genetic correlation between rearing and the size of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fibre terminal field (iipMF) and a correlated response in the size of the iipMF to selection for rearing have been found previously, we expected to find smaller iipMF in N, as compared with K. After processing for Timm's stain, this predicted difference was indeed found. Skin grafting demonstrated that the two sublines were still completely histocompatible, excluding a possible genetic contamination of N. This provides very strong support for the hypothesis that both the behavioural and the neuroanatomical differences between these sublines are caused by a single spontaneous mutation in the N line and strengthens the idea of a functional relationship between the structural and the behavioural variable.

  10. Simultaneous multifrequency observations of BL Lac objects and violently variable quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra simultaneous with radio, infrared, optical, and X-ray measurements were obtained for three BL Lac objects and one violently variable quasar during several epochs (0735+178, BL Lac, IZw-187, and 3C446). A feature common to these objects is that the radio-mm continuum must steepen in the far-infrared region in order to connect smoothly to the IR-UV continuum. This indicates that synchrotron emission becomes optically thick in the mm or far-infrared region. The continuum of 3C446 and BL Lac steepen quite rapidly between the IR and UV spectra with slopes near unity. The X-ray emission in BL Lac, 3C446, and 0735+178 has a different origin from the IR-UV radiation, probably from the inverse Compton process. However, the synchrotron radiation is the probable source of X-ray emission in the X-ray bright BL Lac object IZw-187. In IZw-187, most of the energy emerges in the UV - X-ray region, while for the other sources, most of the energy emerges in the far infrared region.

  11. 11 CFR 100.19 - File, filed or filing (2 U.S.C. 434(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to be filed under 11 CFR parts 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, and 109, and any modifications or...) Where to deliver reports. Except for documents electronically filed under paragraph (c) of this section...., Washington, DC 20463; or the Secretary of the United States Senate, Office of Public Records, 119 D Street...

  12. Relativistic beaming effects in BL Lacertae objects: Evidence for RBL/XBL dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odo, F. C.; Chukwude, A. E.; Ubachukwu, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we review the predictions of the popular relativistic beaming model for the unification of radio- and X-ray selected BL Lac (RBL and XBL) populations. Using results of recent analyses, we compare the detailed predictions against observational data and find that RBL-XBL orientation sequence is somewhat questionable. However, FSRQs and BL Lac populations can be unified via luminosity evolution with XBLs and RBLs representing different, but not continuous, stages in the evolution of FSRQs. RBLs, XBLs and FSRQs independently show significant anti-correlation (r ≥ 0.6) between core-to-lobe luminosity ratio and extended radio luminosity, suggestive that they are different representatives of a spectral sequence formed by similar underlying physical phenomenon. These results suggest that there are some fundamental differences between the two BL Lac populations, although orientation effect can also be playing a significant role.

  13. The Radio-optical Spectra of BL Lacs and Possible Relatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennett-Thorpe, J.

    I consider the suggestion that, in a complete sample of flat-spectrum radio sources with available optical spectra (Marcha et al 1996), the strong emission line objects, or those with passive elliptical spectra are close relatives of the BL Lacs. New observations at four frequencies from 8 to 43GHz are presented, together with evidence for radio variability. Combined with other radio and optical data from the literature, we are able to construct the non-thermal SEDs and use these to address the questions: are the optically passive objects potentially `unrecognised' BL Lacs (either intrinsically weak and/or hidden by starlight)? What is the relationship between the surprising number of strong emission-line objects and the BL Lacs?

  14. The radio structure source of X-ray-selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Stocke, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Arcsecond-size radio structure for a complete sample of 14 X-ray-selected BL Lac objects (XBLs) from the Einstein Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey is presented. Most objects possess radio morphologies which are similar to those of nearby Fanaroff-Riley type 1 (FR 1) radio galaxies once the effects of surface brightness dimming and beam dilution as a function of redshift are taken into account. In order to test the beamed FR 1 hypothesis for BL Lac objects, the core and extended power levels are determined for these sources and compared with samples of radio-selected BL Lac objects (RBLs) and FR 1 from galaxies from the literature. RBLs and XBLs are found to possess extended (and thus unbeamed) power levels and the largest angular sizes similar to those of the FR 1 galaxies both supporting the beaming hypothesis and a common parent population for XBLs and RBLs.

  15. Postnatal Hematopoiesis and Gut Microbiota in NOD Mice Deviate from C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Damlund, Dina Silke Malling; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Hasselby, Jane Preuss; Wiese, Maria; Lundsager, Mia; Buschard, Karsten Stig; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal studies in different mouse strains reveal that early life colonization affects the development of adaptive immunity in mice. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes, but neonatal studies of NOD mice are lacking. We hypothesized that NOD mice deviate from another much used mouse strain, C57BL/6, with respect to postnatal microbiota and/or hematopoiesis and compared this in newborn mice of dams housed under the same conditions. A distinct bacteria profile rich in staphylococci was found at postnatal days (PND) 1–4 in NOD mice. Furthermore, a distinct splenic cell profile high in a granulocytic phenotype was evident in the neonatal NOD mice whereas neonatal C57BL/6 mice showed a profile rich in monocytes. Neonatal expression of Reg3g and Muc2 in the gut was deviating in NOD mice and coincided with fewer bacteria attaching to the Mucosal surface in NOD compared to C57BL/6 mice. PMID:26783537

  16. Spectroscopy of optically selected BL Lac objects and their γ-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A.; Farina, E. P.; Landoni, M.; Falomo, R.; Foschini, L.; Sbarufatti, B.

    2013-12-01

    We present Very Large Telescope optical spectroscopy of nine BL Lac objects of unknown redshift belonging to the list of optically selected radio-loud BL Lac candidates. We explore their spectroscopic properties and possible link with gamma-ray emission. From the new observations we determine the redshifts of four objects from faint emission lines or from absorption features of their host galaxies. In three cases we find narrow intervening absorptions from which a lower limit to the redshift is inferred. For the remaining two featureless sources, lower limits to the redshift are deduced from the absence of spectral lines. A search for γ counterpart emission shows that six out of the nine candidates are Fermi γ-ray emitters and we find two new detections. Our analysis suggests that most of the BL Lac objects still lacking redshift information are most likely located at high redshifts.

  17. X-ray Emission of Low-Energy-Peaked BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Jill M.; Perlman, Eric S.

    2009-12-01

    Presented here is an analysis of X-ray observations of the following seven low-energy-peaked BL Lacertae objects: BL Lacertae, S5 0716+71, W Comae, 3C 66A, S4 0954+65, OJ 287, and AO 0235+16. The spectral data for these objects were taken from observations by the XMM-Newton and/or Chandra X-ray observatories. These objects are being analyzed in an effort to reanalyze all XMM-Newton and Chandra data of low-energy BL Lacs, similar to the efforts of Perlman et al. [4] for high energy BL Lacs. The objects were studied in an effort to understand the nature of the X-ray and multi-waveband emissions in these objects, study the shape of the spectra, and compare the observations of low-energy-peaked BL Lacs to previous observations of these objects and also to observations of high-energy-peaked BL Lacs. Light curves and spectra were analyzed to look for evidence of spectral variability in the objects and as a comparison to previous research on these objects. Most data shows both synchrotron and Inverse-Compton emission, though only little correlation was seen between the emission strength and the spectral slope. Our data is generally well-fitted to a broken power law model with distinct bimodality seen in the first spectral index (six observations with Γ1~0.4 and four observations with Γ1~3.0), a break in energy between 0.6 and 1.4 keV, and a second spectral index Γ2~2.0. None of the observations showed spectral lines, which is consistent with past results. For S5 0716+71 the XMM-Newton X-ray and optical data, along with radio data obtained from the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO), a spectral energy distribution was created and peak frequencies were estimated.

  18. 25 CFR 580.5 - What happens if I file late or fail to file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens if I file late or fail to file? 580.5 Section 580.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPEAL PROCEEDINGS... What happens if I file late or fail to file? (a) Failure to file an appeal within the time provided...

  19. 48 CFR 204.802 - Contract files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract files. 204.802... OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Files 204.802 Contract files. Official contract files shall consist of— (1) Only original, authenticated or conformed copies of contractual...

  20. 10 CFR 603.1020 - File documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false File documents. 603.1020 Section 603.1020 Energy... Reporting Information About the Award § 603.1020 File documents. The award file should include an analysis..., the file must document the analysis required (see § 603.560) to set the fixed level of Federal...

  1. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer Product File Readers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Brendan M.

    2010-01-01

    TES Product File Reader software extracts data from publicly available Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) HDF (Hierarchical Data Format) product data files using publicly available format specifications for scientific analysis in IDL (interactive data language). In this innovation, the software returns data fields as simple arrays for a given file. A file name is provided, and the contents are returned as simple IDL variables.

  2. 18 CFR 1308.27 - Appeal files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeal files. 1308.27... Board of Contract Appeals § 1308.27 Appeal files. (a) Notices of appeal shall be filed as provided in... an appeal file consisting of: (1) The Contracting Officer's decision, if any, from which the...

  3. 50 CFR 20.155 - Public file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public file. 20.155 Section 20.155... § 20.155 Public file. (a) Establishment. A public file will be established for each rulemaking to which.... 552, a public file established pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section will contain: (1) The...

  4. 47 CFR 1.1704 - Station files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station files. 1.1704 Section 1.1704... System (COALS) § 1.1704 Station files. Applications, notifications, correspondence, electronic filings.... These files constitute the official records for these stations and supersede any other records,...

  5. 77 FR 56197 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket Numbers: RP11-2473-000. Applicants: Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP. Description: Annual Cash-In/Cash-Out Filing--2012. Filed Date: 8/31/12. Accession Number: 20120831-5044. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET...

  6. 48 CFR 1404.802 - Contract files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract files. 1404.802 Section 1404.802 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Files 1404.802 Contract files. In addition to the requirements in FAR 4.802, files shall...

  7. 12 CFR 11.4 - Filing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing fees. 11.4 Section 11.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT DISCLOSURE RULES § 11.4 Filing fees. (a) The OCC may require filing fees to accompany certain filings made under...

  8. 76 FR 1421 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... filing per 154.203: Annual Flowthrough Crediting Mechanism to be effective N/ A. Filed Date: 12/30/2010... Transmission Company, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.203: Annual Accounting Report to be effective N/A.... Description: National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation submits tariff filing per 154.204: 2011 January IG Rate to...

  9. 76 FR 79169 - Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... filing per 35.13(a)(2)(iii): Corn Belt Agreements to be effective 2/13/2012. Filed Date: 12/12/11....ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll...

  10. 12 CFR 622.18 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Formal Hearings § 622.18 Filing. (a) Filing. Papers required or permitted to be filed with the Board shall be filed with the Chairman of the Board, FCA, 1501 Farm Credit Drive, McLean, VA 22102-5090 or... testimony and exhibits), unless otherwise specifically provided by the Board. ...

  11. 12 CFR 1102.24 - Filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing requirements. 1102.24 Section 1102.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL APPRAISER REGULATION Rules of Practice for Proceedings § 1102.24 Filing requirements. (a) Filing. All papers filed with the ASC in...

  12. 12 CFR 303.121 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing procedures. 303.121 Section 303.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Activities of Insured State Banks § 303.121 Filing procedures. (a) Where to file. A notice...

  13. 12 CFR 303.201 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing procedures. 303.201 Section 303.201 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Prompt Corrective Action § 303.201 Filing procedures. Applications shall be filed with...

  14. 78 FR 27372 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... 2013 Filing to be effective 8/ 1/2013. Filed Date: 5/1/13. Accession Number: 20130501-5062. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 5/13/13. Docket Numbers: RP13-863-000. Applicants: Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC. Description: FOSA Modifications May 2013 Filing to be effective 8/ 1/2013. Filed Date: 5/1/13. Accession...

  15. 76 FR 6611 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    .... Description: Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company submits tariff filing per 154.204: Non-Conforming... tariff filing per 154.204: Non-Conforming Agreement--Chevron 1-26-11 to be effective 2/1/2011. Filed Date... tariff filing per 154.204: Incorporation of Previously Accepted Tariff Provisions to be effective...

  16. 76 FR 1422 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... has received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Docket Numbers: RP11... submits tariff filing per 154.312: General Section 4 Rate Case to be effective 2/1/ 2011. Filed Date: 12...: Iroquois Gas Transmission System, L.P. submits tariff filing per 154.204: 12/30/10 Negotiated...

  17. 30 CFR 40.3 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filing procedures. 40.3 Section 40.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS REPRESENTATIVE OF MINERS § 40.3 Filing procedures. (a) The following information shall be filed by...

  18. 30 CFR 40.3 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Filing procedures. 40.3 Section 40.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS REPRESENTATIVE OF MINERS § 40.3 Filing procedures. (a) The following information shall be filed by...

  19. 5 CFR 2422.5 - Filing petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing petitions. 2422.5 Section 2422.5... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY REPRESENTATION PROCEEDINGS § 2422.5 Filing petitions. (a) Where to file. Petitions must be filed with the Regional Director for the region in which the unit or employee(s) affected...

  20. 77 FR 27044 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Pipeline Company, LP submits tariff filing per 154.204: HK 37731 to Sequent 39880 Capacity Release... Capacity Release Negotiated Rate Agreement filing to be effective 5/1/2012. Filed Date: 4/30/12. Accession....204: HK 37731 to Texla 39887 Capacity Release Negotiated Rate Agreement filing to be effective...

  1. 78 FR 8119 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Revenue Report. Filed Date: 1/22/13. Accession Number: 20130122-5241. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 2/4/13... Scheduling Priorities to be effective 4/1/ 2013. Filed Date: 1/24/13. Accession Number: 20130124-5072...: http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676...

  2. 77 FR 63809 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ....ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free... Total Penalty Revenue Credits of CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC. Filed Date: 10/4/12... Revenue Credits of CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC. ] Filed Date: 10/4/12. Accession...

  3. 78 FR 36181 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call.... Description: RP13-189 Compliance Filing to be effective 4/28/2013. Filed Date: 6/5/13. Accession Number...

  4. 75 FR 47296 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...: Negative Rate 2010-07-28 to be effective 8/1/2010. Filed Date: 07/28/2010. Accession Number: 20100728-5157... has received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Docket Numbers: RP10....203: Baseline Filing and Amendment to Non-Conf Agmt and Negotiated Rate Agmt Filing to be effective...

  5. Effect of ketamine on exploratory behaviour in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Akillioglu, Kubra; Melik, Emine Babar; Melik, Enver; Boga, Ayper

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of ketamine on exploratory locomotion behaviours in the Balb/c and C57BL/6 strains of mice, which differ in their locomotion behaviours. Intraperitoneal administration of ketamine at three different doses (1, 5 or 10 mg/kg, 0.1 ml/10 gr body weight) was performed on adult male Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice. The same volume of saline was applied to the control group. The open-field and elevated plus maze apparatus were used to evaluate exploratory locomotion. In the open-field test, Balb/c mice less spend time in the centre of the field and was decreased locomotor activity compared to C57BL/6 mice (p<0.01). Ketamine treatment of Balb/c mice at 10 mg/kg dose caused an increase in locomotor activity and an increase in the amount of time spent in the centre in the open-field test, compared to the control group (p<0.05). In C57BL/6 mice, ketamine treatment (1 and 10 mg/kg) decreased locomotor activity (p<0.05). In C57BL/6 mice, the three different doses of ketamine application each caused a decrease in the frequency of centre crossing (p<0.001) and the spent time in the centre (p<0.05). In the elevated plus maze, the number of open-arm entries, the percentage of open-arm time and total arm entries were decreased in Balb/c mice compared to C57BL/6 mice (p<0.001). Ketamine treatment of Balb/c mice at 10 mg/kg dose caused an increase in the open-arm activity (p<0.001). Ketamine application (10 mg/kg) decreased the open-arm activity in C57BL/6 mice (p<0.05). A subanaesthetic dose of ketamine increased exploratory locomotion in Balb/c mice. In contrast, a subanaesthetic dose of ketamine decreased exploratory locomotion in C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, hereditary factors may play an important role in ketamine-induced responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A ubiquitous absorption feature in the X-ray spectra of BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madejski, Greg M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Weaver, Kimberly A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Urry, C. Megan

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the broadband (0.5-20-keV) X-ray spectra of five X-ray bright BL Lac objects observed with the Einstein Observatory Solid State Spectrometer (SSS) and Monitor Proportional Counter (MPC) detectors. The combination of moderate energy resolution and broad spectral coverage makes it possible to confirm the presence of an absorption feature at an energy of 650 eV in the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304, originally reported by Canizares and Kruper (1984) based on higher resolution Einstein Objective Grating Spectrometer (OGS) data.

  7. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, M. K. Singh, A. K. Das, Gangadhar Chowdhury, Anupam Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-24

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  8. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, M. K.; Singh, A. K.; Das, Gangadhar; Chowdhury, Anupam; Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-01

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  9. SSC Model Fits to Simultaneous Fermi and CAO observations of Bl Lac's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Tyler; Macomb, Daryl J.; Hand, Jared; Norris, Jay P.; Long, Min

    2016-01-01

    The Challis Astronomical Observatory (CAO) has been surveying a sample of blazar-type AGN since 2010. The CAO blazar sample includes4 3 sources - comprising 30 FSRQs, 15 BL Lacs, one radio galaxy and four unclassified sources - covering a redshift range 0.02 < z < 2. Observations are carried out in BVRI filters. Here we describe photometric results on a small sample emphasizing BL Lacs. We combine the CAO data with Fermi/LAT data and explore the suitability of fits to the data using the uniform conical jet model of Potter and Cotter (MNRAS, 2012, 423, 756-765).

  10. Are BL Lac-type objects nearby black holes. [gas accretion model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, S. L.; Elliot, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that isolated black holes accreting interstellar gas can account for the characteristic properties of the Lacertids. Emission spectra for various interstellar gas densities and black hole masses are compared with the data plotted by Strittmatter et al. (1972) for the BL Lac-type objects. Rough estimates indicate that there may indeed be a finite number of stellar-mass black holes close to the earth as required by the theory. If it is determined that the BL Lac-type objects lie outside of the galactic disk a black hole accretion model may still apply if certain conditions are satisfied.

  11. Environmental Enrichment Reduces the Likelihood of Alopecia in Adult C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison; Meagher, Rebecca; Mason, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Barbering (incessant grooming) is an abnormal behavior causing alopecia and commonly affects various strains of laboratory mice, including C57BL/6J. Barbering-induced alopecia is a potential symptom of brain impairment and can indicate a stressful environment. We compared alopecia prevalence and severity in mice housed in enriched or standard cages. Providing an enriched environment delayed the onset and reduced the prevalence and overall severity of alopecia in C57BL/6J mice. Husbandry methods that reduce adult alopecia are likely to promote the wellbeing of the animals. We suggest that environmental enrichment is a simple and economic way to reduce alopecia in mouse colonies. PMID:21439209

  12. TeV-scale gauged B-L symmetry with inverse seesaw mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Shaaban

    2010-10-01

    We propose a modified version of the TeV-scale B-L extension of the standard model, where neutrino masses are generated through the inverse seesaw mechanism. We show that heavy neutrinos in this model can be accessible via clean signals at the LHC. The search for the extra gauge boson Z{sub B-L}{sup '} through the decay into dileptons or two dileptons plus missing energy is studied. We also show that the B-L extra Higgs boson can be directly probed at the LHC via a clean dilepton and missing energy signal.

  13. Hard synchrotron BL lacs: The case of 1ES 1101-232

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Anna; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Tagliaferri, Gainpiero; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Caccianiga, Alessandro

    2001-12-01

    The bright X-ray selected BL Lac object 1ES1101-232 shows a flat X-ray spectrum, making it detectable with high statistics over the wide BeppoSAX energy range. We have observed it in two different epochs with BeppoSAX, and found a variation of the flux of about 30% that can be explained by a change in the spectral index above the synchrotron peak. We present here the data and infer limits on the strength of the magnetic field based on models of emission for High-frequency peaked BL Lacs. .

  14. (M, N)-Soft Intersection BL-Algebras and Their Congruences

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xueling

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a foundation for providing a new soft algebraic tool in considering many problems containing uncertainties. In order to provide these new soft algebraic structures, we discuss a new soft set-(M, N)-soft intersection set, which is a generalization of soft intersection sets. We introduce the concepts of (M, N)-SI filters of BL-algebras and establish some characterizations. Especially, (M, N)-soft congruences in BL-algebras are concerned. PMID:24977197

  15. Virtual file system for PSDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnels, Tyson D.

    1993-01-01

    This is a case study. It deals with the use of a 'virtual file system' (VFS) for Boeing's UNIX-based Product Standards Data System (PSDS). One of the objectives of PSDS is to store digital standards documents. The file-storage requirements are that the files must be rapidly accessible, stored for long periods of time - as though they were paper, protected from disaster, and accumulative to about 80 billion characters (80 gigabytes). This volume of data will be approached in the first two years of the project's operation. The approach chosen is to install a hierarchical file migration system using optical disk cartridges. Files are migrated from high-performance media to lower performance optical media based on a least-frequency-used algorithm. The optical media are less expensive per character stored and are removable. Vital statistics about the removable optical disk cartridges are maintained in a database. The assembly of hardware and software acts as a single virtual file system transparent to the PSDS user. The files are copied to 'backup-and-recover' media whose vital statistics are also stored in the database. Seventeen months into operation, PSDS is storing 49 gigabytes. A number of operational and performance problems were overcome. Costs are under control. New and/or alternative uses for the VFS are being considered.

  16. 29 CFR 4007.3 - Filing requirement; method of filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... site (www.pbgc.gov). Subject to the provisions of § 4007.13, the plan administrator of each covered... does not apply to information filed to comply with a PBGC request under (4007.10(c) (dealing with...

  17. Hazardous Materiel Data File (HMDF), quarterly update. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The Hazardous Materiel Data File's purpose is to provide storage and transportation information on chemical, radioactive, and ammunition items in the Army inventory. Data are taken from the Army Central Logistics Data Bank.

  18. Hazardous Materiel Data File (HMDF), quarterly update. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    The Hazardous Materiel Data File (HMDF) purpose is to provide storage and transportation information on chemical, radioactive and ammunition items in the Army inventory. Data are taken from the Army Central Logistics Data Bank (ACLDB).

  19. 78 FR 75554 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ...-Conforming to be effective 1/1/2014. Filed Date: 11/27/13. Accession Number: 20131127-5063. Comments Due: 5 p.... Description: Clean-up Filing to be effective 1/1/2014. Filed Date: 11/27/13. Accession Number: 20131127-5076... Company, Ltd. Description: Young Fuel Reimbursement Filing to be effective 1/1/ 2014. Filed Date: 11/27/13...

  20. 77 FR 25713 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Interstate Company, L.L.C. Description: Permanent Release Filing to be effective 5/24/2012. Filed Date: 4/23... be effective 5/21/2012. Filed Date: 4/20/12. Accession Number: 20120420-5235. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET... Negotiated Rate Agreement 31033 filing to be effective 4/1/2012. Filed Date: 4/23/12. Accession Number...

  1. 77 FR 34376 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    .../docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY... Sequent 39962 Cap Rel Neg Rate Agmt filing to be effective 6/2/2012. Filed Date: 6/4/12. Accession Number.../1/2010. Filed Date: 6/4/12. Accession Number: 20120604-5095. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 6/18/12. Any...

  2. The Hubble Space Telescope Survey of BL Lacertae Objects. IV. Infrared Imaging of Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Urry, C. Megan; Padovani, Paolo; Calzetti, Daniela; O'Dowd, Matthew

    2000-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Camera 2 was used for H-band imaging of 12 BL Lacertae objects taken from the larger sample observed with the WFPC2 in the R band by Urry and coworkers and Scarpa and coworkers. Ten of the 12 BL Lacs are clearly resolved, and the detected host galaxies are large, bright ellipticals with average absolute magnitude =-26.2+/-0.45 mag and effective radius =10+/-5 kpc. The rest-frame integrated color of the host galaxies is on average =2.3+/-0.3, consistent with the value for both radio galaxies and normal, nonactive elliptical galaxies and indicating that the dominant stellar population is old. The host galaxies tend to be bluer in their outer regions than in their cores, with average color gradient Δ(R-H)/Δlogr=-0.2 mag, again consistent with results for normal nonactive elliptical galaxies. The infrared Kormendy relation, derived for the first time for BL Lac host galaxies, is μe=3.8logre+14.8, fully in agreement with the relation for normal ellipticals. The close similarity between BL Lac host galaxies and normal ellipticals suggests that the active nucleus has surprisingly little effect on the host galaxy. This supports a picture in which all elliptical galaxies harbor black holes that can be actively accreting for some fraction of their lifetime.

  3. Comparison of adrenocortical zonation in C57BL/6J and DDD mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, S; Matsuzawa, A

    1995-10-01

    Adrenal weights and adrenocortical zonation were compared in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and DDD, which are different in both origin and genetic background. Clear strain and sex differences were observed in the adrenal weight and the morphology of the zona fasciculata, z. reticularis and X zone. DDD adrenals were larger than C57BL/6J ones regardless of sex. The z. fasciculata was thicker in female than male DDD mice. The z. reticularis of DDD males developed nodules at 70 days of age, followed by an increase in size with age, while that of C57BL/6J males did not. Parous females experiencing pregnancy, gestation and lactation also developed similar nodules, but virgins did not. The X zone degeneration occurred earlier in males than in females. This zone disappeared before 5 weeks of age in males but gradually decreased in thickness with age in DDD virgins. The female X zone was thicker and degenerated with vacuolation in DDD, while it was thinner and degenerated without vacuolation in C57BL/6J. Such clear strain differences in the inner cortices, z. reticularis and X zone, suggested that their morphology might be regulated primarily by genetics and modified by endocrinology.

  4. Fatty acid production from amino acids and alpha-keto acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C

    2004-11-01

    Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and alpha-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of alpha-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and alpha-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from alpha-keto acids only. BL2 also converted alpha-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and alpha-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event.

  5. Unification and mass spectrum in a B-L extended MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Pinto, R. J.; Perez-Lorenzana, A.

    2009-04-20

    The simplest B-L extension of the minimum supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) may change some of the conceptions about the path for gauge unification as well as to affect the predicted spectrum of the supersymmetric particles at low energy. We present our results for the running of gauge coupling constants and mass parameter in this context.

  6. Project Based Learning (PjBL) Practices at Politeknik Kota Bharu, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Md. Baharuddin Haji Abdul; Daud, Khairul Azhar Mat; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Ghani, Nik Azida Abd

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the utilization of Project-based Learning module in the subject of project development for the Mechanical Engineering students at Politeknik Kota Bharu. This study focuses on the development of the PjBL module based on socio-constructivist approach. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of the utilization of…

  7. CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENITE IN DRINKING WATER IMPAIRS GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examines in vivo diabetogenic effects of iAs in an animal model. Here, weanling male C57BL/6 mice received deionized water containing iAs(III) (25 ...

  8. Mechanistic study of bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP).

    PubMed

    Solis, David; Paul, Aniruddha; Chang, Wei-Shun; Link, Stephan

    2013-04-25

    Bleach-imaged plasmon propagation, BlIPP, is a far-field microscopy technique developed to characterize the propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons in metallic waveguides. To correctly extract the propagation length from the measured photobleach intensity, it is necessary to understand the mechanism by which dye photobleaching occurs. In particular, 1- vs 2-photon bleaching reactions yield different propagation lengths based on a kinetic model for BlIPP. Because a number of studies have reported on the importance of 2-photon processes for dye photobleaching, we investigate here the nature of the photobleaching step in BlIPP. We are able to demonstrate that only 1-photon absorption is relevant for typical BlIPP conditions as tested here for a thin film of indocyanine green fluorescent dye molecules coated over gold nanowires and excited at a wavelength of 785 nm. These results are obtained by directly measuring the excitation intensity dependence of the photobleaching rate constant of the dye in the presence of the metallic waveguide.

  9. A remarkable new Awas Löbl from southern China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Shen, Jia-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new distinctive species of the rare Oriental goniacerine genus Awas Löbl, Awas gigas sp. n., is described and illustrated, based on three males and fourteen females taken at the Daoyao Shan Natural Reserve in the southern Chinese province of Guangxi. All specimens were collected from colonies of the ant genus Pachycondyla F. Smith nesting in decomposing woods. PMID:26448721

  10. Spectroscopy of the Largest Ever γ-Ray-selected BL Lac Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Cotter, Garret; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G.; Potter, William J.

    2013-02-01

    We report on spectroscopic observations covering most of the 475 BL Lacs in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Including archival measurements (correcting several erroneous literature values) we now have spectroscopic redshifts for 44% of the BL Lacs. We establish firm lower redshift limits via intervening absorption systems and statistical lower limits via searches for host galaxies for an additional 51% of the sample leaving only 5% of the BL Lacs unconstrained. The new redshifts raise the median spectroscopic \\tilde{z} from 0.23 to 0.33 and include redshifts as large as z = 2.471. Spectroscopic redshift minima from intervening absorbers have \\tilde{z}= 0.70, showing a substantial fraction at large z and arguing against strong negative evolution. We find that detected BL Lac hosts are bright ellipticals with black hole masses M • ~ 108.5 - 109, substantially larger than the mean of optical AGNs and LAT Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar samples. A slow increase in M • with z may be due to selection bias. We find that the power-law dominance of the optical spectrum extends to extreme values, but this does not strongly correlate with the γ-ray properties, suggesting that strong beaming is the primary cause of the range in continuum dominance.

  11. SPring-8 BL44XU, beamline designed for structure analysis of large biological macromolecular assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiura, Akifumi Yamashita, Eiki; Yoshimura, Masato; Hasegawa, Kazuya; Furukawa, Yukito; Kumasaka, Takashi; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2016-07-27

    Beamline BL44XU at SPring-8 is operated by the Institute for Protein Research of Osaka University. The beamline is designed for X-ray crystallography of large biological macromolecular assemblies. Here we show its detailed performances, results, and the ongoing upgrade plans.

  12. X-ray Crystal Structure of the B Component of Hemolysin BL from Bacillus cereus

    SciTech Connect

    Madegowda,M.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus cereus Hemolysin BL enterotoxin, a ternary complex of three proteins, is the causative agent of food poisoning and requires all three components for virulence. The X-ray structure of the binding domain of HBL suggests that it may form a pore similar to other soluble channel forming proteins. A putative pathway of pore formation is discussed.

  13. CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENITE IN DRINKING WATER IMPAIRS GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examines in vivo diabetogenic effects of iAs in an animal model. Here, weanling male C57BL/6 mice received deionized water containing iAs(III) (25 ...

  14. The Einstein Observatory extended medium sensitivity survey sample of BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, John T.; Morris, Simon L.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, Tommaso; Schild, R. E.; Wolter, A.

    1988-01-01

    We present new results on BL Lacertae Objects discovered in an extensive X-ray survey of the high galactic latitude sky performed by the Einstein satellite. While BL Lacs have been found primarily in high frequency radio surveys, we show that X-ray emission is an efficient new method for finding such objects and will offer an outstanding opportunity to find many of these objects in the near future using the ROSAT all-sky survey. It is also shown that X-ray selected BL Lac objects have somewhat different optical and radio properties than their radio selected counterparts. Using a complete, flux limited sample of 16 X-ray selected BL Lacs, we show that their number counts differ decisively from those of X-ray selected QSOs. Moreover, using the few red shifts available for these objects and limits on red shift determined from resolving the optical images of most of the remainder of the sample, a preliminary V/Vmax = 0.37 +/- 0.06. This value suggests an evolution in luminosity and/or density opposite in sense to that of QSOs.

  15. Tree-level unitarity bounds for the minimal B-L model

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, L.; Belyaev, A.; Moretti, S.; Pruna, G. M.

    2010-05-01

    We have derived the unitarity bounds in the high energy limit for the minimal B-L extension of the standard model by analyzing the full class of Higgs and would-be Goldstone boson two-to-two scatterings at tree level. Moreover, we have investigated how these limits could vary at some lower critical value of the energy.

  16. Structural basis for arabinoxylo-oligosaccharide capture by the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04.

    PubMed

    Ejby, Morten; Fredslund, Folmer; Vujicic-Zagar, Andreja; Svensson, Birte; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2013-12-01

    Glycan utilization plays a key role in modulating the composition of the gut microbiota, but molecular insight into oligosaccharide uptake by this microbial community is lacking. Arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) are abundant in the diet, and are selectively fermented by probiotic bifidobacteria in the colon. Here we show how selectivity for AXOS uptake is established by the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04. The binding protein BlAXBP, which is associated with an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that mediates the uptake of AXOS, displays an exceptionally broad specificity for arabinosyl-decorated and undecorated xylo-oligosaccharides, with preference for tri- and tetra-saccharides. Crystal structures of BlAXBP in complex with four different ligands revealed the basis for this versatility. Uniquely, the protein was able to recognize oligosaccharides in two opposite orientations, which facilitates the optimization of interactions with the various ligands. Broad substrate specificity was further enhanced by a spacious binding pocket accommodating decorations at different mainchain positions and conformational flexibility of a lid-like loop. Phylogenetic and genetic analyses show that BlAXBP is highly conserved within Bifidobacterium, but is lacking in other gut microbiota members. These data indicate niche adaptation within Bifidobacterium and highlight the metabolic syntrophy (cross-feeding) among the gut microbiota.

  17. The inhibitory efficacy of methylseleninic acid against colon cancer xenografts in C57BL/6 mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Data indicate that methylselenol is a critical selenium (Se) metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo. We tested the hypoththesis that oral dosing methylseleninic acid (MSeA), a methylselenol precursor, inhibits the growth of colon cancer xenografts in C57BL/6 mice fed a Se adequate diet. In this...

  18. FRS Geospatial Return File Format

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Geospatial Return File Format describes format that needs to be used to submit latitude and longitude coordinates for use in Envirofacts mapping applications. These coordinates are stored in the Geospatail Reference Tables.

  19. 76 FR 39757 - Filing Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... deemed signed by that registered user. (4) Upon learning of the potential compromise of the... tool, embedded files, embedded sounds or other multimedia); forms actions; JavaScript actions; external...

  20. 76 FR 62092 - Filing Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... filed with the Commission, reduce Commission expenditures, and conform agency processes to federal government initiatives. DATES: Effective Date: November 7, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James...

  1. 43 CFR 4.1391 - Who may file; where to file; when to file; filing of administrative record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., 801 N. Quincy Street, Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22203 (telephone 703-235-3750). OSM shall file the complete administrative record of the determination under review with the Board as soon as practicable....

  2. BL Lacertae: X-ray spectral evolution and a black-hole mass estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2017-06-01

    We present an analysis of the spectral properties observed in X-rays from active galactic nucleus BL Lacertae using RXTE, Suzaku, ASCA, BeppoSAX, and Swift observations. The total time covered by these observations is approximately 20 yr. We show strong observational evidence that this source undergoes X-ray spectral transitions from the low hard state (LHS) through the intermediate state (IS) to the high soft state (HSS) during these observations. During the RXTE observations (1997-2001, 180 ks, for a total 145 datasets), the source was approximately 75%, 20% and only 5% of the time in the IS, LHS, and HSS, respectively. We also used Swift observations (470 datasets, for a total 800 ks), which occurred during 12 yr (2005-2016), the broadband (0.3-200 keV) data of BeppoSAX (1997-2000, 160 ks), and the low X-ray energy (0.3-10 keV) data of ASCA (1995-1999, 160 ks). Two observations of Suzaku (2006, 2013; 50 ks) in combinations with long-term RXTE and Swift data-sets fortunately allow us to describe all spectral states of BL Lac. The spectra of BL Lac are well fitted by the so-called bulk motion Comptonization (BMC) model for all spectral states. We have established the photon index saturation level, Γsat = 2.2 ± 0.1, in the Γ versus mass accretion rate (Ṁ) correlation. This Γ - Ṁ correlation allows us to estimate the black-hole (BH) mass in BL Lac to be MBH 3 × 107M⊙ for a distance of 300 Mpc. For the BH mass estimate, we use the scaling method taking stellar-mass Galactic BHs 4U 1543-47 and GX 339-4 as reference sources. The Γ - Ṁ correlation revealed in BL Lac is similar to those in a number of stellar-mass Galactic BHs and two recently studied intermediate-mass extragalactic BHs. It clearly shows the correlation along with the very extended Γ saturation at 2.2. This is robust observational evidence for the presence of a BH in BL Lac. We also reveal that the seed (disk) photon temperatures are relatively low, of order of 100 eV, which are consistent

  3. File servers, networking, and supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major tasks of a supercomputer center is managing the massive amount of data generated by application codes. A data flow analysis of the San Diego Supercomputer Center is presented that illustrates the hierarchical data buffering/caching capacity requirements and the associated I/O throughput requirements needed to sustain file service and archival storage. Usage paradigms are examined for both tightly-coupled and loosely-coupled file servers linked to the supercomputer by high-speed networks.

  4. File servers, networking, and supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    1991-01-01

    One of the major tasks of a supercomputer center is managing the massive amount of data generated by application codes. A data flow analysis of the San Diego Supercomputer Center is presented that illustrates the hierarchical data buffering/caching capacity requirements and the associated I/O throughput requirements needed to sustain file service and archival storage. Usage paradigms are examined for both tightly-coupled and loosely-coupled file servers linked to the supercomputer by high-speed networks.

  5. Files in an Interactive Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    programs that exploit the existing file system and leaves the limitations to be dealt with by the user. In contrast, in the VM/ CMS environment, almost all...described here have been implemented using SIMULA-67 in the VM/ CMS operating system . The code con- sists of approximately 1500 lines of SIMULA of which...the SIMULA run time system code which is inadequate in this environment and the SIMULA code makes it possible to associate CMS DD names with CMS files

  6. Directory of astronomical data files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This Directory of Astronomical Data Files was prepared by the Data Task Force of the Interagency Coordination Committee for Astronomy (ICCA) in cooperation with the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The purpose of the Directory is to provide a listing which will enable a user to locate stellar and extragalactic data sources keyed along with sufficient descriptive information to permit him to assess the value of the files for his use as well as the status and availability of the compilations.

  7. Macrophage-dependent clearance of systemically administered B16BL6-derived exosomes from the blood circulation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Takafumi; Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Kato, Kana; Morishita, Masaki; Yamashita, Takuma; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Charoenviriyakul, Chonlada; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies using B16BL6-derived exosomes labelled with gLuc–lactadherin (gLuc-LA), a fusion protein of Gaussia luciferase (a reporter protein) and lactadherin (an exosome-tropic protein), showed that the exosomes quickly disappeared from the systemic circulation after intravenous injection in mice. In the present study, the mechanism of rapid clearance of intravenously injected B16BL6 exosomes was investigated. gLuc-LA-labelled exosomes were obtained from supernatant of B16BL6 cells after transfection with a plasmid DNA encoding gLuc-LA. Labelling was stable when the exosomes were incubated in serum. By using B16BL6 exosomes labelled with PKH26, a lipophilic fluorescent dye, it was demonstrated that PKH26-labelled B16BL6 exosomes were taken up by macrophages in the liver and spleen but not in the lung, while PKH26-labelled exosomes were taken up by the endothelial cells in the lung. Subsequently, gLuc-LA-labelled B16BL6 exosomes were injected into macrophage-depleted mice prepared by injection with clodronate-containing liposomes. The clearance of the intravenously injected B16BL6 exosomes from the blood circulation was much slower in macrophage-depleted mice than that in untreated mice. These results indicate that macrophages play important roles in the clearance of intravenously injected B16BL6 exosomes from the systemic circulation. PMID:25669322

  8. Comparison between TeV and non-TeV BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao; Fan, Jun-Hui

    2016-07-01

    BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) are the dominant population of TeV emitting blazars. In this work, we investigate whether there are any special observational properties associated with TeV sources. To do so, we will compare the observational properties of TeV detected BL Lacs (TeV BLs) with non-TeV detected BL Lac objects (non-TeV BLs). From the 3rd Fermi/LAT source catalog (3FGL), we can obtain 662 BL Lacs, out of which 47 are TeV BLs and 615 are non-TeV BLs. Their multi-wavelength flux densities (F R, F O, F X and F γ), photon spectral indexes (αX ph and αph γ), and effective spectral indexes (αRO and αOX) are compiled from the available literature. Then the luminosities (log vL R, log vL O, log vL X, log vL γ) are calculated. From comparisons, we find that TeV BLs are different from low synchrotron peaked BLs and intermediate synchrotron peaked BLs, but TeV BLs show similar properties to high synchrotron peaked (HSP) BLs. Therefore, we concentrated on a comparison between TeV HSP BLs and non-TeV HSP BLs. Analysis results suggest that TeV HSP BLs and non-TeV HSP BLs exhibit some differences in their αRO and αγ ph, but their other properties are quite similar.

  9. Reduction of fear-potentiated startle by benzodiazepines in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kiersten S.; Meloni, Edward G.; Myers, Karyn M.; Veer, Ashlee Van't; Carlezon, William A.; Rudolph, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Anxiety disorders affect 18% of the United States adult population annually. Recent surges in the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from combat-exposed veterans have prompted an urgent need to understand the pathophysiology underlying this debilitating condition. Objectives Anxiety and fear responses are partly modulated by gamma aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition; benzodiazepines potentiate GABAergic inhibition and are effective anxiolytics. Many genetically modified mouse lines are generated and/or maintained on the C57BL/6J background, a strain where manipulation of anxiety-like behavior using benzodiazepines is difficult. Fear-potentiated startle (FPS), a test of conditioned fear, is a useful preclinical tool to study PTSD-like responses but has been difficult to establish in C57BL/6J mice. Methods We modified several FPS experimental parameters and developed a paradigm to assess conditioned fear in C57BL/6J mice. The 6-day protocol consisted of three startle Acclimation days, a Pre-Test day followed by Training and Testing for FPS. Subject responses to the effects of three benzodiazepines were also examined. Results C57BL/6J mice had low levels of unconditioned fear assessed during Pre-Test (15–18%) but showed robust FPS (80–120%) during the Test session. Conditioned fear responses extinguished over repeated test sessions. Administration of the benzodiazepines alprazolam (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.), chlordiazepoxide (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), and diazepam (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced FPS to Pre-Test levels. Conclusions We used a modified and pharmacologically-validated paradigm to assess FPS in mice thereby providing a powerful tool to examine the neurobiology of PTSD in genetic models of anxiety generated on the C57BL/6J background. PMID:20922362

  10. Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C deficient C57BL/6 mice develop a severe hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Lena; Schäfer, Julia; Liebner, Stefan; Mittelbronn, Michel; Deutsch, Urban; Enzmann, Gaby; Adams, Ralf H; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Plate, Karl H; Imhof, Beat A; Engelhardt, Britta

    2012-01-01

    The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C is a widely expressed adhesion molecule regulating cell adhesion, cell polarity and inflammation. JAM-C expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS) has been poorly characterized to date. Here we show that JAM-C(-/-) mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 genetic background developed a severe hydrocephalus. An in depth immunohistochemical study revealed specific immunostaining for JAM-C in vascular endothelial cells in the CNS parenchyma, the meninges and in the choroid plexus of healthy C57BL/6 mice. Additional JAM-C immunostaining was detected on ependymal cells lining the ventricles and on choroid plexus epithelial cells. Despite the presence of hemorrhages in the brains of JAM-C(-/-) mice, our study demonstrates that development of the hydrocephalus was not due to a vascular function of JAM-C as endothelial re-expression of JAM-C failed to rescue the hydrocephalus phenotype of JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation within the ventricular system of JAM-C(-/-) mice excluded occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct as the cause of hydrocephalus development but showed the acquisition of a block or reduction of CSF drainage from the lateral to the 3(rd) ventricle in JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study suggests that JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice model the important role for JAM-C in brain development and CSF homeostasis as recently observed in humans with a loss-of-function mutation in JAM-C.

  11. The transition between BL Lac objects and flat spectrum radio quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Foschini, L.; Ghirlanda, G.

    2011-07-01

    We study the BL Lac objects detected in the 1-year all-sky survey of the Fermi satellite, with an energy spectral slope αγ in the 0.1-100 GeV band greater than 1.2. In the αγ versus γ-ray luminosity plane, these BL Lacs occupy the region populated by flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Studying the properties of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and of their emitting lines, we find that several of these BL Lacs have an SED similar to FSRQs and that they do have broad lines of large equivalent width (EW), and should be reclassified as FSRQs even adopting the current phenomenological definition (i.e. EW of the emitting line greater than 5 Å). In other cases, even if the EW is small, the emitting lines can be as luminous as in quasars, and again their SED is similar to the SED of FSRQs. Sources classified as BL Lacs with an SED appearing as intermediate between BL Lacs and FSRQs also have relatively weak broad emission lines and small EW, and can be considered as transition sources. These properties are confirmed also by model fitting that allows us to derive the relevant intrinsic jet parameters and the jet power. This study leads us to propose a physical distinction between the two classes of blazars, based on the luminosity of the broad-line region measured in Eddington units. The dividing line is of the order of LBLR/LEdd˜ 5 × 10-4, in good agreement with the idea that the presence of strong emitting lines is related to a transition in the accretion regime, becoming radiatively inefficient below a disc luminosity of the order of 1 per cent of the Eddington one.

  12. Junctional Adhesion Molecule (JAM)-C Deficient C57BL/6 Mice Develop a Severe Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Liebner, Stefan; Mittelbronn, Michel; Deutsch, Urban; Enzmann, Gaby; Adams, Ralf H.; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Plate, Karl H.; Imhof, Beat A.; Engelhardt, Britta

    2012-01-01

    The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C is a widely expressed adhesion molecule regulating cell adhesion, cell polarity and inflammation. JAM-C expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS) has been poorly characterized to date. Here we show that JAM-C−/− mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 genetic background developed a severe hydrocephalus. An in depth immunohistochemical study revealed specific immunostaining for JAM-C in vascular endothelial cells in the CNS parenchyma, the meninges and in the choroid plexus of healthy C57BL/6 mice. Additional JAM-C immunostaining was detected on ependymal cells lining the ventricles and on choroid plexus epithelial cells. Despite the presence of hemorrhages in the brains of JAM-C−/− mice, our study demonstrates that development of the hydrocephalus was not due to a vascular function of JAM-C as endothelial re-expression of JAM-C failed to rescue the hydrocephalus phenotype of JAM-C−/− C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation within the ventricular system of JAM-C−/− mice excluded occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct as the cause of hydrocephalus development but showed the acquisition of a block or reduction of CSF drainage from the lateral to the 3rd ventricle in JAM-C−/− C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study suggests that JAM-C−/− C57BL/6 mice model the important role for JAM-C in brain development and CSF homeostasis as recently observed in humans with a loss-of-function mutation in JAM-C. PMID:23029139

  13. Zebra: A striped network file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, John H.; Ousterhout, John K.

    1992-01-01

    The design of Zebra, a striped network file system, is presented. Zebra applies ideas from log-structured file system (LFS) and RAID research to network file systems, resulting in a network file system that has scalable performance, uses its servers efficiently even when its applications are using small files, and provides high availability. Zebra stripes file data across multiple servers, so that the file transfer rate is not limited by the performance of a single server. High availability is achieved by maintaining parity information for the file system. If a server fails its contents can be reconstructed using the contents of the remaining servers and the parity information. Zebra differs from existing striped file systems in the way it stripes file data: Zebra does not stripe on a per-file basis; instead it stripes the stream of bytes written by each client. Clients write to the servers in units called stripe fragments, which are analogous to segments in an LFS. Stripe fragments contain file blocks that were written recently, without regard to which file they belong. This method of striping has numerous advantages over per-file striping, including increased server efficiency, efficient parity computation, and elimination of parity update.

  14. A Direct Comparison of Metabolic Responses to High-Fat Diet in C57BL/6J and C57BL/6NJ Mice.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Ryan, Terence E; Smith, Cody D; Gilliam, Laura A A; Lin, Chien-Te; Reese, Lauren R; Torres, Maria J; Neufer, P Darrell

    2016-11-01

    Although nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT)-deficient C57BL/6J (6J) mice are known to be highly susceptible to diet-induced metabolic disease, this notion stems primarily from comparisons of 6J mice to other inbred strains. To date, very few studies have directly compared metabolic disease susceptibility between NNT-deficient 6J mice and NNT-competent C57BL/6 substrains. In this study, comprehensive profiling of the metabolic response to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFD) were compared across time in 6J and C57BL/6NJ (6N) mice. Given that increased peroxide exposure drives insulin resistance, coupled with the fact that NNT regulates peroxide detoxification, it was hypothesized that 6J mice would experience greater derangements in redox homeostasis/metabolic disease upon HFD exposure. Contrary to this, both lines were found to be highly susceptible to diet-induced metabolic disease, as evidenced by impairments in glucose tolerance as early as 24 h into the HFD. Moreover, various markers of the metabolic syndrome, as well as peroxide stress, were actually blunted, rather than exacerbated, in the 6J mice, likely reflecting compensatory increases in alterative redox-buffering pathways. Together, these data provide evidence that the susceptibility to HFD-induced metabolic disease is similar in the 6J and 6N substrains. Given the numerous genetic variances in the 6J stain, including loss of NNT function, these findings suggest that the 6N substrain is the more logical and representative genetic background model for metabolic studies. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. Differences in bone structure and unloading-induced bone loss between C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Jeyantt S; Varshney, Manasvi; Judex, Stefan

    2017-09-14

    The C57BL/6 mouse, the most frequently utilized animal model in biomedical research, is in use as several substrains, all of which differ by a small array of genomic differences. Two of these substrains, C57BL/6J (B6J) and C57BL/6N (B6N), are commonly used but it is unclear how phenotypically similar or different they are. Here, we tested whether adolescent B6N mice have a bone phenotype and respond to the loss of weightbearing differently than B6J. At 9 weeks of age, normally ambulating B6N had lower trabecular bone volume fraction but greater bone formation rates and osteoblast surfaces than corresponding B6J. At 11 weeks of age, differences in trabecular indices persisted between the substrains but differences in cellular activity had ceased. Cortical bone indices were largely similar between the two substrains. Hindlimb unloading (HLU) induced similar degeneration of trabecular architecture and cellular activity in both substrains when comparing 11-week-old HLU mice to 11-week-old controls. However, unloaded B6N mice had smaller cortices than B6J. When comparing HLU to 9 weeks baseline control mice, deterioration in trabecular separation, osteoblast indices, and endocortical variables was significantly greater in B6N than B6J. These data indicate specific developmental differences in bone formation and morphology between B6N and B6J mice, giving rise to a differential response to mechanical unloading that may be modulated, in part, by the genes Herc2, Myo18b, and Acan. Our results emphasize that these substrains cannot be used interchangeably at least for investigations in which the phenotypic makeup and its response to extraneous stimuli are of interest.

  16. 77 FR 48511 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...: New York Independent System Operator, Inc. Description: NYISO Compliance Filing--Buyer-side Market... qualifying facilities filings can be found at: http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf ....

  17. 75 FR 42435 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... and CBR Baseline Filing to be effective 7/14/2010. Filed Date: 07/14/2010. Accession Number: 20100714... filing per 35.12: MBR and CBR Baseline Filing to be effective 7/14/ 2010. Filed Date: 07/14/2010... filing per 35.12: MBR and CBR Baseline Filing to be effective 7/14/2010. Filed Date: 07/14/2010...

  18. Anatomical relationship between BL23 and the posterior ramus of the L2 spinal nerve.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, Kanae; Saito, Toshiyuki; Naito, Munekazu; Hayashi, Shogo; Yakura, Tomiko; Steinke, Hanno; Nakano, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The acupuncture point BL23 is located in the region of the posterior ramus of the second lumbar spinal nerve (L2) and has historically been used to treat conditions such as lower back pain, pollakiuria, erectile dysfunction, dysmenorrhoea, tinnitus, and vertigo. Some of these treatment effects have been hypothesised to be mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. It was recently discovered that the posterior ramus of the spinal nerve (PRSN) at L2 forms not two but three branches. To examine the relationship between the acupuncture point BL23 and the L2 PRSN in order to consider the pathways possibly affected by BL23 acupuncture. Acupuncture needles were inserted through the skin at BL23 to a depth of 3 cm a total of 13 times in eight donor cadavers (seven right-sided, six left-sided). Leaving the needle in place, ventral dissection was performed to determine the PRSN anatomy between the L1 and L3 spinal segments. In four cadavers, the relationship between the L2 spinal nerve and sympathetic branches was additionally evaluated. Following dissection, three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired using a photo scanner and 3D structural images were created using 3D computer graphics software. One additional (female) cadaver was studied without insertion of an acupuncture needle (due to significant scoliosis). The L2 PRSN was divided into medial, intermediate and lateral branches. The needle inserted at BL23 came to lie in the region of the intermediate or lateral branches in all cases. Rami communicantes were found between the L2 spinal nerve and sympathetic trunk with fibres going on to supply the superior hypogastric plexus. Our findings suggest that acupuncture needles inserted at BL23 come into close proximity with the intermediate or lateral branch of the L2 PRSN, which could result in stimulation of both the somatic and sympathetic nervous systems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  19. Sensing of HIV-1 Infection in Tzm-bl Cells with Reconstituted Expression of STING.

    PubMed

    Trotard, Maud; Tsopoulidis, Nikolaos; Tibroni, Nadine; Willemsen, Joschka; Binder, Marco; Ruggieri, Alessia; Fackler, Oliver T

    2015-12-09

    Production of proinflammatory cytokines indicative of potent recognition by the host innate immune system has long been recognized as a hallmark of the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. The first components of the machinery by which primary HIV target cells sense infection have recently been described; however, the mechanistic dissection of innate immune recognition and viral evasion would be facilitated by an easily accessible cell line model. Here we describe that reconstituted expression of the innate signaling adaptor STING enhanced the ability of the well-established HIV reporter cell line Tzm-bl to sense HIV infection and to convert this information into nuclear translocation of IRF3 as well as expression of cytokine mRNA. STING-dependent immune sensing of HIV-1 required virus entry and reverse transcription but not genome integration. Particularly efficient recognition was observed for an HIV-1 variant lacking expression of the accessory protein Vpr, suggesting a role of the viral protein in circumventing STING-mediated immune signaling. Vpr as well as STING significantly impacted the magnitude and breadth of the cytokine mRNA expression profile induced upon HIV-1 infection. However, cytoplasmic DNA sensing did not result in detectable cytokine secretion in this cell system, and innate immune recognition did not affect infection rates. Despite these deficits in eliciting antiviral effector functions, these results establish Tzm-bl STING and Tzm-bl STING IRF3.GFP cells as useful tools for studies aimed at dissecting mechanisms and regulation of early innate immune recognition of HIV infection. Cell-autonomous immune recognition of HIV infection was recently established as an important aspect by which the host immune system attempts to fend off HIV-1 infection. Mechanistic studies on host cell recognition and viral evasion are hampered by the resistance of many primary HIV target cells to detailed experimental manipulation. We describe here that expression of

  20. Sensing of HIV-1 Infection in Tzm-bl Cells with Reconstituted Expression of STING

    PubMed Central

    Trotard, Maud; Tsopoulidis, Nikolaos; Tibroni, Nadine; Willemsen, Joschka; Binder, Marco; Ruggieri, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Production of proinflammatory cytokines indicative of potent recognition by the host innate immune system has long been recognized as a hallmark of the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. The first components of the machinery by which primary HIV target cells sense infection have recently been described; however, the mechanistic dissection of innate immune recognition and viral evasion would be facilitated by an easily accessible cell line model. Here we describe that reconstituted expression of the innate signaling adaptor STING enhanced the ability of the well-established HIV reporter cell line Tzm-bl to sense HIV infection and to convert this information into nuclear translocation of IRF3 as well as expression of cytokine mRNA. STING-dependent immune sensing of HIV-1 required virus entry and reverse transcription but not genome integration. Particularly efficient recognition was observed for an HIV-1 variant lacking expression of the accessory protein Vpr, suggesting a role of the viral protein in circumventing STING-mediated immune signaling. Vpr as well as STING significantly impacted the magnitude and breadth of the cytokine mRNA expression profile induced upon HIV-1 infection. However, cytoplasmic DNA sensing did not result in detectable cytokine secretion in this cell system, and innate immune recognition did not affect infection rates. Despite these deficits in eliciting antiviral effector functions, these results establish Tzm-bl STING and Tzm-bl STING IRF3.GFP cells as useful tools for studies aimed at dissecting mechanisms and regulation of early innate immune recognition of HIV infection. IMPORTANCE Cell-autonomous immune recognition of HIV infection was recently established as an important aspect by which the host immune system attempts to fend off HIV-1 infection. Mechanistic studies on host cell recognition and viral evasion are hampered by the resistance of many primary HIV target cells to detailed experimental manipulation. We describe here

  1. Usage analysis of user files in UNIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Murthy V.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a user-oriented analysis of short term file usage in a 4.2 BSD UNIX environment. The key aspect of this analysis is a characterization of users and files, which is a departure from the traditional approach of analyzing file references. Two characterization measures are employed: accesses-per-byte (combining fraction of a file referenced and number of references) and file size. This new approach is shown to distinguish differences in files as well as users, which cam be used in efficient file system design, and in creating realistic test workloads for simulations. A multi-stage gamma distribution is shown to closely model the file usage measures. Even though overall file sharing is small, some files belonging to a bulletin board system are accessed by many users, simultaneously and otherwise. Over 50% of users referenced files owned by other users, and over 80% of all files were involved in such references. Based on the differences in files and users, suggestions to improve the system performance were also made.

  2. 29 CFR 24.103 - Filing of retaliation complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... complaint may be filed in any language. (c) Place of Filing. The complaint should be filed with the OSHA...://www.osha.gov. (d) Time for Filing. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, within... considered the date of filing. The time for filing a complaint may be tolled for reasons warranted by...

  3. 29 CFR 24.103 - Filing of retaliation complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... complaint may be filed in any language. (c) Place of Filing. The complaint should be filed with the OSHA...://www.osha.gov. (d) Time for Filing. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, within... considered the date of filing. The time for filing a complaint may be tolled for reasons warranted by...

  4. 29 CFR 24.103 - Filing of retaliation complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... complaint may be filed in any language. (c) Place of Filing. The complaint should be filed with the OSHA...://www.osha.gov. (d) Time for Filing. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, within... considered the date of filing. The time for filing a complaint may be tolled for reasons warranted by...

  5. 12 CFR 1780.9 - Filing of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing of papers. 1780.9 Section 1780.9 Banks... papers. (a) Filing. Any papers required to be filed shall be addressed to the presiding officer and filed... Director or the presiding officer. All papers filed by electronic media shall also concurrently be filed in...

  6. 78 FR 2979 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Biomass Power Ltd. Description: MBR Deficiency Filing to be effective 10/29/2012. Filed Date: 1/7/13...: DTE Stoneman, LLC. Description: MBR Deficiency Filing to be effective 10/29/2012. Filed Date: 1/7/13...: DTE Pontiac North, LLC. Description: MBR Deficiency Filing to be effective 10/29/2012. Filed Date: 1/7...

  7. 76 FR 59673 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Services, LLC submits tariff filing per 35.1: Major Energy Electric Services, LLC MBR Re-file to be.... Description: Respond Power, LLC submits tariff filing per 35.1: Respond Power, LLC MBR Re-file to be effective...., submits tariff filing per 35.1: Alternate Power Source, Inc. MBR Re-file to be effective 9/16/ 2011 under...

  8. 77 FR 35371 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    .... Description: MBR Filing to be effective 10/1/2012. Filed Date: 6/5/12. Accession Number: 20120605-5113.... Description: MBR Filing to be effective 10/1/2012. Filed Date: 6/5/12. Accession Number: 20120605-5115.... Description: MBR Filing to be effective 10/1/2012. Filed Date: 6/5/12. Accession Number: 20120605-5116...

  9. 76 FR 63291 - Combined Notice Of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... II,LLC. submits tariff filing per 35: MBR Tariff to be effective 9/23/2011. Filed Date: 09/23/2011... Electric Development Corp. submits tariff filing per 35: MBR Tariff to be effective 9/23/2011. Filed Date... Eastern Generating Corp. submits tariff filing per 35: MBR Tariff to be effective 9/23/2011. Filed Date...

  10. 75 FR 53289 - Combined Notice of Filings No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Electric Corporation submits tariff filing per 35.12: RG&E MBR Baseline eTariff Filing to be effective 8....P. submits tariff filing per 35.12: Covanta Delaware Valley MBR Baseline eTariff Filing to be.... Description: Covanta Essex Company submits tariff filing per 35.12: Covanta Essex MBR Baseline eTariff Filing...

  11. 12 CFR 1780.9 - Filing of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing of papers. 1780.9 Section 1780.9 Banks... papers. (a) Filing. Any papers required to be filed shall be addressed to the presiding officer and filed... Director or the presiding officer. All papers filed by electronic media shall also concurrently be filed...

  12. 75 FR 12540 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference March 9, 2010. As... electronic tariff filing's data elements is the Type of Filing Code. \\1\\ Electronic Tariff Filings, Order No... addressed the tariff filing definitions used for electronic filings and the attachments that are required...

  13. Distinct granuloma responses in C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice in response to pristane

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaiyong; Liao, Dongmei; Cain, Derek; McLeod, Ian; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Guan, Ziqiang; Raetz, Christian; Kelsoe, Garnett

    2010-01-01

    Granuloma formation is an inflammatory response of the host against invading pathogens or indigestible substances. We generated mesenteric oil granulomas by injecting pristane into the peritoneal cavity (PC) of mice, and compared oil granuloma formation in the C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ strains of mice. The formation and kinetics of oil granulomas were distinct between the two strains. In C57BL/6J mice, injected pristane induced oil granuloma formation at both the mesenteric centers (MG) and margins (SG). MG was resolving by 11 weeks, and SG persisted. In BALB/cByJ mice, MG developed slower but persisted longer than in C57BL/6J mice, and SG resolved sooner than in C57BL/6J mice. Injection of India ink revealed that phagocytes were localised mainly to the SG in C57BL/6J mice, but were located diffusely in both MG and SG of BALB/cByJ mice. SG cells expressed more monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA than MG cells in C57BL/6J mice, but there was no difference in MCP-1 expression between the MG and SG in BALB/cByJ mice. These observations suggest that the recruitment of inflammatory leucocytes under the direction of chemokines differentiates the patterns of granuloma responses to pristane in C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice. PMID:20681981

  14. TrmBL2 from Pyrococcus furiosus Interacts Both with Double-Stranded and Single-Stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wierer, Sebastian; Daldrop, Peter; Ud Din Ahmad, Misbha; Boos, Winfried; Drescher, Malte; Welte, Wolfram; Seidel, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    In many hyperthermophilic archaea the DNA binding protein TrmBL2 or one of its homologues is abundantly expressed. TrmBL2 is thought to play a significant role in modulating the chromatin architecture in combination with the archaeal histone proteins and Alba. However, its precise physiological role is poorly understood. It has been previously shown that upon binding TrmBL2 covers double-stranded DNA, which leads to the formation of a thick and fibrous filament. Here we investigated the filament formation process as well as the stabilization of DNA by TrmBL2 from Pyroccocus furiosus in detail. We used magnetic tweezers that allow to monitor changes of the DNA mechanical properties upon TrmBL2 binding on the single-molecule level. Extended filaments formed in a cooperative manner and were considerably stiffer than bare double-stranded DNA. Unlike Alba, TrmBL2 did not form DNA cross-bridges. The protein was found to bind double- and single-stranded DNA with similar affinities. In mechanical disruption experiments of DNA hairpins this led to stabilization of both, the double- (before disruption) and the single-stranded (after disruption) DNA forms. Combined, these findings suggest that the biological function of TrmBL2 is not limited to modulating genome architecture and acting as a global repressor but that the protein acts additionally as a stabilizer of DNA secondary structure. PMID:27214207

  15. CrataBL, a lectin and Factor Xa inhibitor, plays a role in blood coagulation and impairs thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Salu, Bruno R; Ferreira, Rodrigo S; Brito, Marlon V; Ottaiano, Tatiana F; Cruz, José Walber M C; Silva, Mariana Cristina C; Correia, Maria Tereza S; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Maffei, Francisco Humberto A; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2014-09-01

    Arterial thrombosis is an important complication of diabetes and cancer, being an important target for therapeutic intervention. Crataeva tapia bark lectin (CrataBL) has been previously shown to have hypoglycemiant effect and also to induce cancer cell apoptosis. It also showed inhibitory activity against Factor Xa (Kiapp=8.6 μm). In the present study, we evaluated the anti-thrombotic properties of CrataBL in arterial thrombosis model. CrataBL prolongs the activated partial thromboplastin time on human and mouse plasma, and it impairs the heparin-induced potentiation of antithrombin III and heparin-induced platelet activation in the presence of low-dose ADP. It is likely that the dense track of positive charge on CrataBL surface competes with the heparin ability to bind to antithrombin III and to stimulate platelets. In the photochemically induced thrombosis model in mice, in the groups treated with 1.25, 5.0, or 10 mg/kg CrataBL, prior to the thrombus induction, the time of total artery occlusion was prolonged by 33.38%, 65%, and 66.11%, respectively, relative to the time of the control group. In contrast to heparin, the bleeding time in CrataBL-treated mice was no longer than in the control. In conclusion, CrataBL was effective in blocking coagulation and arterial thrombus formation, without increasing bleeding time.

  16. Identification of hemolysin BL-producing Bacillus cereus isolates by a discontinuous hemolytic pattern in blood agar.

    PubMed Central

    Beecher, D J; Wong, A C

    1994-01-01

    Bacillus cereus causes distinct exotoxin-mediated diarrheal and emetic food poisoning syndromes and a variety of nongastrointestinal infections. Evidence is accumulating that hemolysin BL is a major B. cereus virulence factor. We describe two methods for detection of hemolysin BL in crude samples and on primary culture media. In the first method, the highly unusual discontinuous hemolysis pattern that is characteristic of pure hemolysin BL was produced in sheep and calf blood agar around wells filled with crude culture supernatant from hemolysin BL-producing strains. In the second method, the pattern was formed surrounding colonies of hemolysin BL-producing strains grown on media consisting of nutrient agar, 0.15 M NaCl, 2% calf serum, and sheep or calf blood. Hemolysin BL production was detected with these methods in 41 of 62 (66%) previously identified B. cereus isolates and in 46 of 136 (34%) presumptive B. cereus isolates from soil. All nine isolates tested that were associated with diarrhea or nongastrointestinal illness were positive for hemolysin BL. The methods presented here are specific, simple, inexpensive, and applicable to the screening of large numbers of samples or isolates. Images PMID:8017944

  17. OTS: a program for converting Noldus Observer data files to SDIS files.

    PubMed

    Bakeman, R; Quera, V

    2000-02-01

    A program for converting Noldus Observer data files (ODF) to sequential data interchange standard (SDIS) files is described. Observer users who convert their data files can then take advantage of various flexible and powerful data modification and computational procedures available in the Generalized Sequential Querier, a program that assumes SDIS-formatted files.

  18. 27 CFR 26.275 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Records and Reports of Liquors From the Virgin Islands Filing and Retention of Records and Reports § 26.275 Filing. (a) All...

  19. 27 CFR 26.275 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Records and Reports of Liquors From the Virgin Islands Filing and Retention of Records and Reports § 26.275 Filing. (a) All...

  20. 76 FR 12096 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    .... Description: Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. submits tariff filing per 154.204: Elk City Tariff Sheet... link to log on and submit the intervention or protests. Persons unable to file electronically...

  1. Fail-over file transfer process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semancik, Susan K. (Inventor); Conger, Annette M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a fail-over file transfer process to handle data file transfer when the transfer is unsuccessful in order to avoid unnecessary network congestion and enhance reliability in an automated data file transfer system. If a file cannot be delivered after attempting to send the file to a receiver up to a preset number of times, and the receiver has indicated the availability of other backup receiving locations, then the file delivery is automatically attempted to one of the backup receiving locations up to the preset number of times. Failure of the file transfer to one of the backup receiving locations results in a failure notification being sent to the receiver, and the receiver may retrieve the file from the location indicated in the failure notification when ready.

  2. 75 FR 66749 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    .... Docket Numbers: RP11-1420-000. Applicants: ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC. Description: ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.203: Tiger NAESB Version 1.9 Compliance Filing to be effective 12/ 1/2010...

  3. 75 FR 67356 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    .... Docket Numbers: RP11-1420-000. Applicants: ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC. Description: ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.203: Tiger NAESB Version 1.9 Compliance Filing to be effective 12/ 1/2010...

  4. 76 FR 12962 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  1. 12 CFR 303.221 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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  12. Gene Transfer in Leptolyngbya sp. Strain BL0902, a Cyanobacterium Suitable for Production of Biomass and Bioproducts

    PubMed Central

    Taton, Arnaud; Lis, Ewa; Adin, Dawn M.; Dong, Guogang; Cookson, Scott; Kay, Steve A.; Golden, Susan S.; Golden, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Current cyanobacterial model organisms were not selected for their growth traits or potential for the production of renewable biomass, biofuels, or other products. The cyanobacterium strain BL0902 emerged from a search for strains with superior growth traits. Morphology and 16S rRNA sequence placed strain BL0902 in the genus Leptolyngbya. Leptolyngbya sp. strain BL0902 (hereafter Leptolyngbya BL0902) showed robust growth at temperatures from 22°C to 40°C and tolerated up to 0.5 M NaCl, 32 mM urea, high pH, and high solar irradiance. Its growth rate under outdoor conditions rivaled Arthrospira (“pirulina” strains. Leptolyngbya BL0902 accumulated higher lipid content and a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids than Arthrospira strains. In addition to these desirable qualities, Leptolyngbya BL0902 is amenable to genetic engineering that is reliable, efficient, and stable. We demonstrated conjugal transfer from Escherichia coli of a plasmid based on RSF1010 and expression of spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance and yemGFP reporter transgenes. Conjugation efficiency was investigated in biparental and triparental matings with and without a “elper”plasmid that carries DNA methyltransferase genes, and with two different conjugal plasmids. We also showed that Leptolyngbya BL0902 is amenable to transposon mutagenesis with a Tn5 derivative. To facilitate genetic manipulation of Leptolyngbya BL0902, a conjugal plasmid vector was engineered to carry a trc promoter upstream of a Gateway recombination cassette. These growth properties and genetic tools position Leptolyngbya BL0902 as a model cyanobacterial production strain. PMID:22292073

  13. Characterization of inhibition of M2 ion channel activity by BL-1743, an inhibitor of influenza A virus.

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Q; Pinto, L H; Luo, G; Shaughnessy, M A; Mullaney, D; Kurtz, S; Krystal, M; Lamb, R A

    1996-01-01

    The influenza A virus M2 integral membrane protein has ion channel activity that can be inhibited by the antiviral drug amantadine. Recently, a spirene-containing compound, BL-1743 (2-[3-azaspiro (5,5)undecanol]-2-imidazoline), that inhibits influenza virus growth was identified (S. Kurtz, G. Lao, K. M. Hahnenberger, C. Brooks, O. Gecha, K. Ingalls, K.-I. Numata, and M. Krystal, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:2204-2209, 1995). We have examined the ability of BL-1743 to inhibit the M2 ion channel when expressed in oocytes of Xenopus laevis. BL-1743 inhibition is complete as far as can be measured by electrophysiological methods and is reversible, with a reverse reaction rate constant of 4.0 x 10(-3) s(-1). In contrast, amantadine inhibition is irreversible within the time frame of the experiment. However, BL-1743 inhibition and amantadine inhibition have similar properties. The majority of isolated influenza viruses resistant to BL-1743 are also amantadine resistant. In addition, all known amino acid changes which result in amantadine resistance also confer BL-1743 resistance. However, one BL-1743-resistant virus isolated, designated M2-I35T, contained the change Ile-35-->Thr. This virus is >70-fold more resistant to BL-1743 and only 10-fold more resistant to amantadine than the wild-type virus. When the ion channel activity of M2-I35T was examined in oocytes, it was found that M2-I35T is BL-1743 resistant but is reversibly inhibited by amantadine. These findings suggest that these two drugs interact differently with the M2 protein transmembrane pore region. PMID:8676445

  14. Identification of amino acids involved in the hydrolytic activity of lipase LipBL from Marinobacter lipolyticus.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Dolores; Kovacic, Filip; Wilhelm, Susanne; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; García, María Teresa; Ventosa, Antonio; Mellado, Encarnación

    2012-08-01

    The lipolytic enzyme family VIII currently includes only seven members but represents a group of lipolytic enzymes with interesting properties. Recently, we identified a gene encoding the family VIII lipase LipBL from the halophilic bacterium Marinobacter lipolyticus. This enzyme, like most lipolytic enzymes from family VIII, possesses two possible nucleophilic serines located in an S-X-X-K β-lactamase motif and a G-X-S-X-G lipase motif. The serine in the S-X-X-K motif is a catalytic residue, but the role of serine within the common lipase consensus sequence G-X-S-X-G has not yet been systematically studied. Here, the previously reported time-intensive procedure for purification of recombinant LipBL was replaced by one-step metal-affinity chromatography purification in the presence of ATP. Heterologous co-expression of His(6)-tagged LipBL with the cytoplasmic molecular chaperones GroEL/GroES was necessary to obtain catalytically active LipBL. Site-directed mutagenesis performed to map the active site of LipBL revealed that mutation of serine and lysine in the β-lactamase motif (S(72)-M-T-K(75)) to alanine abolished the enzyme activity of LipBL, in contrast to mutation of the serine in the lipase consensus motif (S321A). Furthermore, mutagenesis was performed to understand the role of the G-X-S-X-G motif and other amino acids that are conserved among family VIII esterases. We describe how mutations in the conserved G-X-S-X-G motif altered the biochemical properties and substrate specificity of LipBL. Molecular modelling results indicate the location of the G-X-S(321)-X-G motif in a loop close to the catalytic centre of LipBL, presumably representing a substrate-binding site of LipBL.

  15. Radio morphology and parent population of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.; Kollgaard, R. I.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Feigelson, E. D.

    1993-01-01

    High-dynamic range (typically 1700:1) radio maps of 15 X-ray BL Lac (XBL) objects from the HEAO-1 Large Area Sky Survey are presented. Morphological characteristics of these sources are compared with Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class I radio galaxies in the context of unified schemes, with reference to one-sided kiloparsec-scale emission. Evidence that cluster membership of XBLs is significantly higher than previously thought is also presented. It is shown that the extended radio powers, X-ray emission, core-to-lobe ratios, and linear sizes of the radio selected BL Lac (RBL) and XBL populations are consistent with an FR I radio galaxy parent population. A source list and VLA observing log and map parameters are provided.

  16. Creating reference gene annotation for the mouse C57BL6/J genome assembly.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Jonathan M; Harrow, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Annotation on the reference genome of the C57BL6/J mouse has been an ongoing project ever since the draft genome was first published. Initially, the principle focus was on the identification of all protein-coding genes, although today the importance of describing long non-coding RNAs, small RNAs, and pseudogenes is recognized. Here, we describe the progress of the GENCODE mouse annotation project, which combines manual annotation from the HAVANA group with Ensembl computational annotation, alongside experimental and in silico validation pipelines from other members of the consortium. We discuss the more recent incorporation of next-generation sequencing datasets into this workflow, including the usage of mass-spectrometry data to potentially identify novel protein-coding genes. Finally, we will outline how the C57BL6/J genebuild can be used to gain insights into the variant sites that distinguish different mouse strains and species.

  17. Radio morphology and parent population of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.; Kollgaard, R. I.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Feigelson, E. D.

    1993-01-01

    High-dynamic range (typically 1700:1) radio maps of 15 X-ray BL Lac (XBL) objects from the HEAO-1 Large Area Sky Survey are presented. Morphological characteristics of these sources are compared with Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class I radio galaxies in the context of unified schemes, with reference to one-sided kiloparsec-scale emission. Evidence that cluster membership of XBLs is significantly higher than previously thought is also presented. It is shown that the extended radio powers, X-ray emission, core-to-lobe ratios, and linear sizes of the radio selected BL Lac (RBL) and XBL populations are consistent with an FR I radio galaxy parent population. A source list and VLA observing log and map parameters are provided.

  18. Segmentation of the C57BL/6J mouse cerebellum in magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Keller, Marianne D; Watson, Charles; Janke, Andrew L; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Yang, Zhengyi; Richards, Kay; Paxinos, George; Egan, Gary F; Petrou, Steven; Bartlett, Perry; Galloway, Graham J; Reutens, David C

    2012-09-01

    The C57BL mouse is the centerpiece of efforts to use gene-targeting technology to understand cerebellar pathology, thus creating a need for a detailed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas of the cerebellum of this strain. In this study we present a methodology for systematic delineation of the vermal and hemispheric lobules of the C57BL/6J mouse cerebellum in magnetic resonance images. We have successfully delineated 38 cerebellar and cerebellar-related structures. The higher signal-to-noise ratio achieved by group averaging facilitated the identification of anatomical structures. In addition, we have calculated average region volumes and created probabilistic maps for each structure. The segmentation method and the probabilistic maps we have created will provide a foundation for future studies of cerebellar disorders using transgenic mouse models.

  19. Resonant leptogenesis in the minimal B-L extended standard model at TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Iso, Satoshi; Orikasa, Yuta; Okada, Nobuchika

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the resonant leptogenesis scenario in the minimal B-L extended standard model with the B-L symmetry breaking at the TeV scale. Through detailed analysis of the Boltzmann equations, we show how much the resultant baryon asymmetry via leptogenesis is enhanced or suppressed, depending on the model parameters, in particular, the neutrino Dirac-Yukawa couplings and the TeV scale Majorana masses of heavy degenerate neutrinos. In order to consider a realistic case, we impose a simple ansatz for the model parameters and analyze the neutrino oscillation parameters and the baryon asymmetry via leptogenesis as a function of only a single CP phase. We find that for a fixed CP phase all neutrino oscillation data and the observed baryon asymmetry of the present Universe can be simultaneously reproduced.

  20. Redshift Determination of BL Lac Objects as from Detection of Their Host Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Zafra, J.; Cellone, S. A.; Andruchow, I.; Buzzoni, A.; Portilla Barbosa, J. G.

    2017-07-01

    BL Lac objects are a subclass of blazars showing strong, non-thermal variable emission from radio to TeV energies. Their properties are usually attributed to beamed emission from a relativistic jet which is close to the line of sight. The lack of emission and/or absorption features in the optical spectra of these objects, makes the accurate determination of their redshifts very uncertain or even impossible. Since these sources are typically hosted by elliptical galaxies that are associated with groups or poor clusters, the detection of one of these structures in their close environment, serves as an estimator of their possible redshift. For this reason we perform a spectrophotometric study of the close environments of a sample of three BL Lac objects with unknown redshift: 3C 66A, PG 1553+113 and PKS 0332-403.

  1. 33 CFR 148.246 - When is a document considered filed and where should I file it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... filed and where should I file it? 148.246 Section 148.246 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Formal Hearings § 148.246 When is a document considered filed and where should I file it? (a) If a document to be filed is submitted by mail, it is considered filed on the date it is postmarked. If a...

  2. 33 CFR 148.246 - When is a document considered filed and where should I file it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... filed and where should I file it? 148.246 Section 148.246 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Formal Hearings § 148.246 When is a document considered filed and where should I file it? (a) If a document to be filed is submitted by mail, it is considered filed on the date it is postmarked. If...

  3. 78 FR 23244 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ....ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free...--RP12-1021 & RP13-584. Filed Date: 4/10/13. Accession Number: 20130410-5105. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 4...) to be effective 4/9/2013. Filed Date: 4/9/13. Accession Number: 20130409-5095. Comments Due: 5 p.m...

  4. 77 FR 1927 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    .../docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY...: Removal of Expired Agreements to be effective 2/4/ 2012. Filed Date: 1/4/12. Accession Number: 20120104... effective 1/1/2012. Filed Date: 1/4/12. Accession Number: 20120104-5144. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 1/17/12...

  5. Sociability and brain development in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Fairless, Andrew H; Dow, Holly C; Kreibich, Arati Sadalge; Torre, Matthew; Kuruvilla, Mariyam; Gordon, Elliot; Morton, Elizabeth A; Tan, Junhao; Berrettini, Wade H; Li, Hongzhe; Abel, Ted; Brodkin, Edward S

    2012-03-17

    Sociability--the tendency to seek social interaction--propels the development of social cognition and social skills, but is disrupted in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains are useful models of low and high levels of juvenile sociability, respectively, but the neurobiological and developmental factors that account for the strains' contrasting sociability levels are largely unknown. We hypothesized that BALB/cJ mice would show increasing sociability with age but that C57BL/6J mice would show high sociability throughout development. We also hypothesized that littermates would resemble one another in sociability more than non-littermates. Finally, we hypothesized that low sociability would be associated with low corpus callosum size and increased brain size in BALB/cJ mice. Separate cohorts of C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice were tested for sociability at 19-, 23-, 31-, 42-, or 70-days-of-age, and brain weights and mid-sagittal corpus callosum area were measured. BALB/cJ sociability increased with age, and a strain by age interaction in sociability between 31 and 42 days of age suggested strong effects of puberty on sociability development. Sociability scores clustered according to litter membership in both strains, and perinatal litter size and sex ratio were identified as factors that contributed to this clustering in C57BL/6J, but not BALB/cJ, litters. There was no association between corpus callosum size and sociability, but smaller brains were associated with lower sociability in BALB/cJ mice. The associations reported here will provide directions for future mechanistic studies of sociability development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sociability and brain development in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Fairless, Andrew H.; Dow, Holly C.; Kreibich, Arati Sadalge; Torre, Matthew; Kuruvilla, Mariyam; Gordon, Elliot; Morton, Elizabeth A.; Tan, Junhao; Berrettini, Wade H.; Li, Hongzhe; Abel, Ted; Brodkin, Edward S.

    2012-01-01

    Sociability—the tendency to seek social interaction–propels the development of social cognition and social skills, but is disrupted in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains are useful models of low and high levels of juvenile sociability, respectively, but the neurobiological and developmental factors that account for the strains’ contrasting sociability levels are largely unknown. We hypothesized that BALB/cJ mice would show increasing sociability with age but that C57BL/6J mice would show high sociability throughout development. We also hypothesized that littermates would resemble one another in sociability more than non-littermates. Finally, we hypothesized that low sociability would be associated with low corpus callosum size and increased brain size in BALB/cJ mice. Separate cohorts of C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice were tested for sociability at 19-, 23-, 31-, 42-, or 70-days-of-age, and brain weights and mid-sagittal corpus callosum area were measured. BALB/cJ sociability increased with age, and a strain by age interaction in sociability between 31 and 42 days of age suggested strong effects of puberty on sociability development. Sociability scores clustered according to litter membership in both strains, and perinatal litter size and sex ratio were identified as factors that contributed to this clustering in C57BL/6J, but not BALB/cJ, litters. There was no association between corpus callosum size and sociability, but smaller brains were associated with lower sociability in BALB/cJ mice. The associations reported here will provide directions for future mechanistic studies of sociability development. PMID:22178318

  7. Commissioning of BL 7.2, the new diagnostic beam line at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Baum, Dennis; Biocca, Alan; Kelez, Nicholas; Nishimura, Toshiro; Scarvie, Tom; Williams, Eric; Holldack, Karsten

    2004-06-29

    BL 7.2 is a new beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) dedicated to electron beam diagnostics. The system, which is basically a hard x-ray pinhole camera, was installed in the storage ring in August 2003 and commissioning with the ALS electron beam followed immediately after. In this paper the commissioning results are presented together with the description of the relevant measurements performed for the beamline characterization.

  8. Upper limits from hard X-ray observations of five BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezler, M.; Gruber, D. E.; Rothschild, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from hard X-ray observations of the five brightest X-ray BL Lacertae objects: PKS 0548-322, Mrk 421 (=1101+384), 2A 1219+305, Mrk 501 (=1652+398), and PKS 2155-304. The observations covered the energy range 15-165 keV from August 1977 to December 1978. The results are compared with previous studies.

  9. Optically Identified BL Lacertae Objects From the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    386 BL Lacertae candidates identified from 2860 deg2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ( SDSS ) spectroscopic database. The candidates are primarily...selected to have quasi-featureless optical spectra and low proper motions as measured from SDSS and USNO-B positions; however, our ability to separate...Sky Survey ( SDSS ; York et al. 2000) and the Two-Degree Field QSO Red- shift Survey (2QZ; Boyle et al. 2000), have the potential to reveal new

  10. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis BL-09, a probiotic strain isolated from naturally fermented congee.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pengfei; Yao, Guoqiang; Bao, Weichen; Li, Jing; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Wenyi

    2015-07-20

    Bacillus licheniformis BL-09 is a probiotic strain isolated from naturally fermented congee in Inner Mongolia of China. The genome of this strain contains a 4.39 Mb circular chromosome with an average GC content of 45.9%. The analysis of the genome revealed two gene clusters that are related to the peptide biosynthesis. The available genetic information of these peptides makes it possible to construct an improved strain for the industrial production of antimicrobial agents.

  11. Is BZB J1450+5201 the most distant gamma-ray BL Lacertae object?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Neng-Hui; Bai, Jin-Ming; Wang, Jian-Guo; Liu, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Jiu-Jia; Jiang, Ning; Yuan, Zun-Li; Chen, Liang

    2015-03-01

    BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects at high redshifts (z ≥ 2) are rarely detected. Through careful analysis of its Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum, BZB J1450+5201 is confirmed to be a high-z BL Lac object with z ≥ 2.471 by identifying the Lyα 1216 and CIV 1548/1550 absorption lines. This indicates that BZB J1450+5201 is the most distant BL Lac object discovered to date. Careful analysis of the five-year Fermi-LAT data of 2FGL J1451.0+5159 shows that its γ-ray emission is robust with a confidence level of 6.2σ at 1-3 GeV and 6.7σ at 3-10 GeV. This analysis with the five-year data overcomes confusion with its bright neighbor, which is a problem when analyzing the two-year data. In addition, 2FGL J1451.0+5159 is confirmed to be associated with BZB J1450+5201 using the five-year data. The analysis of multiwavelength data, from radio to γ-ray energies, indicates that BZB J1450+5201 is an intermediate synchrotron peaked (ISP) source. Its multiwavelength properties are consistent with distributions of other ISP sources at lower redshifts in the second Fermi-LAT AGN catalog. The pure synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model seems to be disfavored, but the scattering of weak external emission plus the SSC process can provide a satisfactory description of the broadband emission. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  12. Minimal flavor violation in the minimal U(1)B-L model and resonant leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Nobuchika; Orikasa, Yuta; Yamada, Toshifumi

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the resonant leptogenesis scenario in the minimally U(1)B-L extended standard model with minimal flavor violation. In our model, the U(1)B-L gauge symmetry is broken at the TeV scale and standard model singlet neutrinos gain Majorana masses of order TeV. In addition, we introduce a flavor symmetry on the singlet neutrinos at a scale higher than TeV. The flavor symmetry is explicitly broken by the neutrino Dirac Yukawa coupling, which induces splittings in the singlet neutrino Majorana masses at lower scales through renormalization group evolutions. We call this setup minimal flavor violation. The mass splittings are proportional to the tiny Dirac Yukawa coupling, and hence they automatically enhance the CP asymmetry parameter necessary for the resonant leptogenesis mechanism. In this paper, we calculate the baryon number yield by solving the Boltzmann equations, including the effects of U(1)B-L gauge boson that also has TeV scale mass and causes washing-out of the singlet neutrinos in the course of thermal leptogenesis. The Dirac Yukawa coupling for neutrinos is fixed in terms of neutrino oscillation data and an arbitrary 3×3 complex-valued orthogonal matrix. We show that the right amount of baryon number asymmetry can be achieved through thermal leptogenesis in the context of the minimal flavor violation with singlet neutrinos and U(1)B-L gauge boson at the TeV scale. These particles can be discovered at the LHC in the near future.

  13. Upper limits from hard X-ray observations of five BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezler, M.; Gruber, D. E.; Rothschild, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from hard X-ray observations of the five brightest X-ray BL Lacertae objects: PKS 0548-322, Mrk 421 (=1101+384), 2A 1219+305, Mrk 501 (=1652+398), and PKS 2155-304. The observations covered the energy range 15-165 keV from August 1977 to December 1978. The results are compared with previous studies.

  14. Radar Imaging of Binary Near-Earth Asteroid (357439) 2004 BL86

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Lance AM; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D.; Jao, Joseph S.; Lee, Clement G.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Howell, Ellen S.; Busch, Michael W.; Ford, H. Alyson; Ghigo, Frank; Nolan, Michael C.; Slade, Martin A.; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Richardson, James E.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Rozek, Agata

    2015-08-01

    We report radar observations of near-Earth asteroid 2004 BL86 obtained during 2015 Jan. 26-31 at the 70 m and 34 m Goldstone facilities, Arecibo, Green Bank, and elements of the Very Long Baseline Array. 2004 BL86 approached within 0.0080 au (3.1 lunar distances) on Jan. 26, the closest known approach by any object with an absolute magnitude brighter than ~19 until 2027. Prior to the encounter, virtually nothing was known about its physical properties other than its absolute magnitude of 19, which suggested a diameter within a factor of two of 500 m. Due to its size and the extremely close approach, 2004 BL86 was a very strong radar target that provided an outstanding opportunity for radar imaging and physical characterization. The radar images confirmed photometric results reported by Pravec et al. (2015, CBET 4063) that 2004 BL86 is a binary system. This is the 43rd near-Earth asteroid binary detected by radar. Delay-Doppler images placed thousands of 3.75 m-resolution pixels on the object and reveal a rounded and oblate primary with an equatorial diameter of ~300 m, suggesting it is optically-bright, evidence for ridges, small-scale topography including boulders, and a large angular feature near one of the poles. A preliminary estimate for the diameter of the secondary is ~70 m. The images hint that the secondary’s rotation is synchronous with its orbital period. The observations also yielded the first detection of an asteroid with a new 80 kW C-band radar (7190 MHz, 4.2 cm) at the 34 m DSS-13 antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex. This new radar can achieve a range resolution up to 1.875 m/pixel that is twice as fine as the highest resolution previously achievable.

  15. Investigations on the physiological controls of water and saline intake in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph F; Beltz, Terry G; Thunhorst, Robert L; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2003-08-01

    To examine the behavioral and neural control of body fluid homeostasis, water and saline intake of C57BL/6 mice was monitored under ad libitum conditions, after treatments that induce water or salt intake, and after ablation of the periventricular tissue of the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V). Mice have nocturnal drinking that is most prevalent after the offset and before the onset of lights. When given ad libitum choice, C57BL/6 mice show no preference for saline over water at concentrations up to 0.9% NaCl and a progressive aversion to saline above that concentration. Systemic hypertonic saline, isoproterenol, and polyethylene glycol treatments are dipsogenic; however, systemic ANG II is not. Intracerebroventricular injections of both hypertonic saline and ANG II are dipsogenic, and diuretic treatment followed by a short period of sodium deprivation induces salt intake. After ablation of the AV3V, mice can be nursed to recovery from initial adipsia and, similar to rats, show chronic deficits to dipsogenic treatments. Taken together, the data indicate that mechanisms controlling thirst in response to cellular dehydration in C57BL/6 mice are similar to rats, but there are differences in the efficacy of extracellular dehydration-related mechanisms, especially for systemic ANG II, controlling thirst and salt appetite.

  16. Variability on Decaparsec scales of a number of BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, R.; Gabuzda, D.

    We present 18cm Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) polarisation observations of the 4 BL Lac objects 0735+178, 0954+658, 1803+784 and BL Lac at two epochs 4 1 years apart ( Jul 1999 and 2 Jan 2004). These results are part of an ongoing analysis of 18cm VLBA observations of the 34 1 Jy BL Lac objects in the complete sample defined by Kühr & Schmidt[4]. The 2004 observations were made at four distinct wavelengths between 18 and 22cm, allowing for the investigation of the intrinsic Faraday rotation in each source. The 4 sources each display a spine-sheath polarisation structure in the VLBI jet, consistent with the presence of helical magnetic (B) fields [2]. The jet morphology, polarisation structure and degree of linear polarisation are compared for the two epochs and shown to be very stable on the scales probed by these observations. Some rotation measure (RM) maps from the 2004 data display transverse gradients in the inner jet, interpreted as further evidence for the presence of helical B fields in the jet. The fractional polarisation maps also display gradients increasing away from the core and towards the jet edges, again consistent with helical jet B fields [5].

  17. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Íria Márcia; Lima, Sarah Buzaim; Freitas, Aline de Araújo; Vinaud, Marina Clare; Junior, Ruy de Souza Lino

    2016-07-11

    Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis.

  18. Umbelliprenin induced both anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines in C57/BL6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Khaghanzadeh, Narges; Samiei, Afshin; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Ramezani, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Umbelliprenin is a prenyloxy-coumarin with pharmacologically polyvalent activity. Several studies have shown Several studies have been shown its anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic activities. However, the exact mechanism of action of this compound on the immune response has not yet been shown. Here, we investigated umbelliprenin effects on the predominance of Th1 and Th2 responses in normal C57/BL6 mice. Materials and Methods: Umbelliprenin (2.5 mg/200 µl IP) were administered to six C57/BL6 mice every other day for 8 days. Paraffin and PBS-injected mice were enrolled as solvent and control groups, respectively (n=6 mice/group). IL-10, IFN-γ, and IL-4 levels were determined in sera and also in splenocytes culture supernatants in the presence of Con A (3 µg/ml) after 72 hr. H&E staining of paraffin embedded blocks was performed for lung and liver tissues of mice. Results: Umbelliprenin could significantly increase the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-4 in sera and IL-10 in splenocytes cultures. Comparison of IFN-γ/IL-4 in the sera and splenocytes culture supernatants showed lower ratios in umbelliprenin treated mice than in solvent and untreated groups. Conclusion: The in vivo study showed that umbelliprenin could induce anti-inflammatory responses via the predominance of Th2 cells and some regulatory responses in C57/BL6 mice. PMID:28852449

  19. Lycopene pretreatment improves hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Ana Carla Balthar; da Silva, Rafaella Cecília; Rossoni, Joamyr Victor; Figueiredo, Vivian Paulino; Talvani, André; Cangussú, Silvia Dantas; Bezerra, Frank Silva; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2017-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is an antipyretic and analgesic drug that, in high doses, leads to severe liver injury and potentially death. Oxidative stress is an important event in APAP overdose. Researchers are looking for natural antioxidants with the potential to mitigate the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species in different models. Lycopene has been widely studied for its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of lycopene pretreatment in APAP-induced liver injury in C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 male mice were divided into the following groups: control (C); sunflower oil (CO); acetaminophen 500mg/kg (APAP); acetaminophen 500mg/kg+lycopene 10mg/kg (APAP+L10), and acetaminophen 500mg/kg+lycopene 100mg/kg (APAP+L100). Mice were pretreated with lycopene for 14 consecutive days prior to APAP overdose. Analyses of blood serum and livers were performed. Lycopene was able to improve redox imbalance, decrease thiobarbituric acid reactive species level, and increase CAT and GSH levels. In addition, it decreased the IL-1β expression and the activity of MMP-2. This study revealed that preventive lycopene consumption in C57BL/6 mice can attenuate the effects of APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, by improving the redox state, and thus indicating its potential antioxidant effect, lycopene was also shown to have an influence on inflammatory events.

  20. Photometric Redshifts of High-z BL Lacs from 3FGL Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, A.; Rau, Arne; Ajello, Marco; Paliya, Vaidehi; Hartmann, Dieter; Greiner, Jochen; Bolmer, Jan; Schady, Patricia

    2017-08-01

    Determining redshifts for BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects using the traditional spectroscopic method is challenging due to the absence of strong emission lines in their optical spectra. We employ the photometric dropout technique to determine redshifts for this class of blazars using the combined 13 broad-band filters from Swift-UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG 2.2 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. The wavelength range covered by these 13 filters extends from far ultraviolet to the near-Infrared. We report results on 40 new Fermi detected BL Lacs with the photometric redshifts determinations for 5 sources, with 3FGL J1918.2-4110 being the most distance in our sample at z=2.16. Reliable upper limits are provided for 20 sources in this sample. Using the highest energy photons for these Fermi-LAT sources, we evaluate the consistency with the Gamma-ray horizon due to the extragalactic background light.

  1. The mass spectra, hierarchy and cosmology of B-L MSSM heterotic compactifications

    DOE PAGES

    Ambroso, Michael; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2011-04-10

    The matter spectrum of the MSSM, including three right-handed neutrino supermultiplets and one pair of Higgs-Higgs conjugate superfields, can be obtained by compactifying the E₈ x E₈ heterotic string and M-theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds with specific SU(4) vector bundles. These theories have the standard model gauge group augmented by an additional gauged U(1)B-L. Their minimal content requires that the B-L gauge symmetry be spontaneously broken by a vacuum expectation value of at least one right-handed neutrino. In previous papers, we presented the results of a quasi-analytic renormalization group analysis showing that B-L gauge symmetry is indeed radiatively broken with anmore » appropriate B-L/electroweak hierarchy. In this paper, we extend these results by 1) enlarging the initial parameter space and 2) explicitly calculating all renormalization group equations numerically. The regions of the initial parameter space leading to realistic vacua are presented and the B-L/electroweak hierarchy computed over these regimes. At representative points, the mass spectrum for all particles and Higgs fields is calculated and shown to be consistent with present experimental bounds. Some fundamental phenomenological signatures of a non-zero right-handed neutrino expectation value are discussed, particularly the cosmology and proton lifetime arising from induced lepton and baryon number violating interactions.« less

  2. STRUCTURED JETS IN BL LAC OBJECTS: EFFICIENT PeV NEUTRINO FACTORIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Guetta, Dafne

    2014-09-20

    The origin of high-energy neutrinos (0.1–1 PeV range) detected by IceCube remains a mystery. In this work, we explore the possibility that efficient neutrino production can occur in structured jets of BL Lac objects, characterized by a fast inner spine surrounded by a slower layer. This scenario has been widely discussed in the framework of the high-energy emission models for BL Lac objects and radio galaxies. One of the relevant consequences of a velocity structure is the enhancement of the inverse Compton emission caused by the radiative coupling of the two zones. We show that a similar boosting could occur for the neutrino output of the spine through the photo-meson reaction of high-energy protons scattering off the amplified soft target photon field of the layer. Assuming the local density and the cosmological evolution of γ-ray BL Lac object derived from Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we calculate the expected diffuse neutrino intensity, which can match the IceCube data for a reasonable choice of parameters.

  3. Surface and interface analysis of nanomaterials at microfocus beamline (BL-16) of Indus-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Gangadhar; Khooha, Ajay; Kane, S. R.; Singh, A. K.; Tiwari, M. K.

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of chemical nature and electronic structure at the interface of a thin film medium is important in many technological applications as well as to understand overall efficiency of a thin film device. Synchrotron radiation based x-ray spectroscopy is a promising technique to study interface nature of the nanomaterials with atomic resolutions. A combined x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence measurement facility has been recently constructed at the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2 synchrotron facility to accomplish surface-interface microstructural characterization of thin layered materials. It is also possible to analyze contaminates or adsorbed ad-atoms on the surface of the thin nanostructure materials. The BL-16 beamline also provides an attractive platform to perform a variety of analytical research activities especially in the field of micro x-ray fluorescence and ultra-trace elements analysis using Synchrotron radiation. We describe various salient features of the BL-16 reflectometer experimental station and the detailed description of its capabilities through the measured results, obtained for various thin layered nanomaterials.

  4. Variation in Airway Responsiveness of Male C57BL/6 Mice from 5 Vendors

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Herng-Yu Sucie; Mitzner, Wayne; Watson, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Mice are now the most commonly used animal model for the study of asthma. The mouse asthma model has many characteristics of the human pathology, including allergic sensitization and airway hyperresponsiveness. Inbred strains are commonly used to avoid variations due to genetic background, but variations due to rearing environment are not as well recognized. After a change in mouse vendors and a switch from C57BL/6J mice to C57BL/6N mice, we noted significant differences in airway responsiveness between the substrains. To further investigate the effect of vendor, we tested C57BL/6N mice from 3 other vendors and found significant differences between several of the substrains. To test whether this difference was due to genetic drift or rearing environment, we purchased new groups of mice from all 5 vendors, bred them in separate vendor-specific groups under uniform environmental conditions, and tested male first generation (F1) offspring at 8 to 10 wk of age. These F1 mice showed no significant differences in airway responsiveness, indicating that the rearing environment rather than genetic differences was responsible for the initial variation in pulmonary phenotype. The environmental factors that caused the phenotypic variation are unknown. However, differences between vendor in feed components, bedding type, or microbiome could have contributed. Whatever the basis, investigators using mouse models of asthma should be cautious in comparing data from mice obtained from different vendors. PMID:23043804

  5. X-Ray Spectral Variability Signatures of Flares in BL Lac Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettcher, Markus; Chiang, James; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We are presenting a detailed parameter study of the time-dependent electron injection and kinematics and the self-consistent radiation transport in jets of intermediate and low-frequency peaked BL Lac objects. Using a time-dependent, combined synchrotron-self-Compton and external-Compton jet model, we study the influence of variations of several essential model parameters, such as the electron injection compactness, the relative contribution of synchrotron to external soft photons to the soft photon compactness, the electron- injection spectral index, and the details of the time profiles of the electron injection episodes giving rise to flaring activity. In the analysis of our results, we focus on the expected X-ray spectral variability signatures in a region of parameter space particularly well suited to reproduce the broadband spectral energy distributions of intermediate and low-frequency peaked BL Lac objects. We demonstrate that SSC- and external-Compton dominated models for the gamma-ray emission from blazars are producing significantly different signatures in the X-ray variability, in particular in the soft X-ray light curves and the spectral hysteresis at soft X-ray energies, which can be used as a powerful diagnostic to unveil the nature of the high-energy emission from BL Lac objects.

  6. Color Variations of Two Blazars: BL Lac and PKS 0736+017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.

    2002-12-01

    Multi-night campaigns to monitor sources for microvariability were undertaken in the summer of 1997 for BL Lac and in early 2002 for PKS 0736+017. BL Lac was observed at Rosemary Hill Observatory in Bronson, Florida and PKS 0736+017 was observed with the SARA telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona. Both sources underwent dramatic flares and exhibited substantial microvariability. During each campaign, the source was observed alternately through V and R filters so that color variations could be monitored as well. The most commonly reported behavior for such objects is that they become redder when fainter. This is observed in the BL Lac data. These data do not indicate that the point source varies in color however. Instead, they support the notion that the underlying host galaxy contributes a larger fraction of the total flux when the source is faint than when it is bright. More unusual was the observation that PKS 0736+017 was observed to be redder when brighter. The data support the notion that the observed color variation may be related more to the nature of the variation (flaring, subsiding, or quiescent) than to the flux level.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Íria Márcia; LIMA, Sarah Buzaim; FREITAS, Aline de Araújo; VINAUD, Marina Clare; JUNIOR, Ruy de Souza LINO

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis. PMID:27410915

  8. New High-z Fermi BL Lacs with the Photometric Dropout Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, A.; Rau, A.; Ajello, M.; Greiner, J.; Hartmann, D. H.; Paliya, V. S.; Domínguez, A.; Bolmer, J.; Schady, P.

    2017-01-01

    Determining redshifts for BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects using the traditional spectroscopic method is challenging due to the absence of strong emission lines in their optical spectra. We employ the photometric dropout technique to determine redshifts for this class of blazars using the combined 13 broadband filters from Swift-UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG 2.2 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. The wavelength range covered by these 13 filters extends from far-ultraviolet to the near-infrared. We report results on 40 new Fermi-detected BL Lacs with the photometric redshift determinations for five sources, with 3FGL J1918.2–4110 being the most distant in our sample at z = 2.16. Reliable upper limits are provided for 20 sources in this sample. Using the highest energy photons for these Fermi-LAT sources, we evaluate the consistency with the gamma-ray horizon due to the extragalactic background light.

  9. New High-z Fermi BL Lacs with the Photometric Dropout Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, A.; Rau, Arne; Ajello, Marco; Hartmann, Dieter; Paliya, Vaidehi; Bolmer, Jan; Greiner, Jochen; Schady, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Determining redshifts for BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects using the traditional spectroscopic method is challenging due to the absence of strong emission lines in their optical spectra. We employ the photometric dropout technique to determine redshifts for this class of blazars using the combined 13 broad-band filters from Swift-UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG 2.2 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. The wavelength range covered by these 13 filters extends from far ultraviolet to the near-Infrared. We report results on 40 new Fermi detected BL Lacs with the photometric redshifts determinations for 5 sources, with 3FGL J1918.2-4110 being the most distance in our sample at z=2.16. Reliable upper limits are provided for 20 sources in this sample. Using the highest energy photons for these Fermi-LAT sources, we evaluate the consistency with the Gamma-ray horizon due to the extragalactic background light.

  10. 78 FR 79432 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket Numbers: RP14-293-000....

  11. 40 CFR 78.4 - Filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filings. 78.4 Section 78.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPEAL PROCEDURES § 78.4 Filings. (a) All original filings made under this part shall be signed by the person making the...

  12. 40 CFR 78.4 - Filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Filings. 78.4 Section 78.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPEAL PROCEDURES § 78.4 Filings. (a)(1) All original filings made under this part shall be signed by the person making...

  13. 78 FR 49494 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    .... Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 8/12/13. Docket Numbers: RP13-1134-000. Applicants: Panther Interstate Pipeline Energy, LLC. Description: Panther Order No. 776 Compliance Filing to be effective 10/1/2013. Filed Date...-000. Applicants: Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC. Description: ACA Compliance Filing on...

  14. 47 CFR 1.1405 - File numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false File numbers. 1.1405 Section 1.1405... Procedures § 1.1405 File numbers. Each complaint which appears to be essentially complete under § 1.1404 will be accepted and assigned a file number. Such assignment is for administrative purposes only and...

  15. 47 CFR 1.911 - Station files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station files. 1.911 Section 1.911... Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.911 Station files. Applications... maintained by the Commission in ULS. These files constitute the official records for these stations...

  16. 21 CFR 211.198 - Complaint files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complaint files. 211.198 Section 211.198 Food and... files. (a) Written procedures describing the handling of all written and oral complaints regarding a...) A written record of each complaint shall be maintained in a file designated for drug...

  17. 37 CFR 1.251 - Unlocatable file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unlocatable file. 1.251 Section 1.251 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.251 Unlocatable file. (a) In the event that the Office cannot locate the file of an...

  18. 36 CFR 703.20 - File copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false File copies. 703.20 Section... Is Not a Party § 703.20 File copies. The Office of the General Counsel will maintain the official file of copies of all demands served on the Library and deciding officials' responses....

  19. 21 CFR 225.115 - Complaint files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complaint files. 225.115 Section 225.115 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records and Reports § 225.115 Complaint files. (a... feed manufacturer shall maintain on the premises a file which contains the following information:...

  20. 46 CFR 502.161 - Commission's files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commission's files. 502.161 Section 502.161 Shipping...; Presiding Officers; Evidence § 502.161 Commission's files. Where any matter contained in a tariff, report, or other document on file with the Commission is offered in evidence, such document need not...

  1. 10 CFR 501.35 - Public file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public file. 501.35 Section 501.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Hearings and Conferences During Administrative Proceedings § 501.35 Public file. (a) Contents. The public file shall consist of the rule, order, or petition, with supporting data and supplemental...

  2. 21 CFR 1271.320 - Complaint file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complaint file. 1271.320 Section 1271.320 Food and... CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.320 Complaint file. (a) Procedures... the investigation of complaints as appropriate. (b) Complaint file. You must maintain a record...

  3. 47 CFR 73.1943 - Political file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Political file. 73.1943 Section 73.1943... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1943 Political file. (a) Every licensee shall keep and permit public inspection of a complete and orderly record (political file) of all requests for...

  4. 24 CFR 17.67 - Claims files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims files. 17.67 Section 17.67... files. Each claims collection officer is responsible for obtaining current credit data about each person against whom a claim is pending in his office. The file shall be kept reasonably up to date by...

  5. 78 FR 76291 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket... Numbers: RP14-252-000. Applicants: Enable Gas Transmission, LLC. Description: Negotiated Rate Filing...: 20131205-5115. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 12/17/13. Docket Numbers: RP14-253-000. Applicants: Algonquin...

  6. 76 FR 62798 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    .... Docket Numbers: RP11-2648-000. Applicants: PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC. Description: PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.204: Revision to Adopt Section for the... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings...

  7. 76 FR 41778 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ...: RP11-2258-000. Applicants: PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC. Description: PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.204: Filing of Revised Tariff Records to be effective 8... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Docket Numbers: RP11-2256-000....

  8. 77 FR 31346 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Numbers: RP12-732-000. Applicants: Golden Triangle Storage, Inc. Description: Revisions to Request for.... Description: Negotiated Rate Service Agreement--Rice to be effective 5/16/2012. Filed Date: 5/15/12. Accession....ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free...

  9. 19 CFR 10.2011 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Filing procedures. 10.2011 Section 10.2011 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Post-Importation Duty Refund Claims § 10.2011 Filing procedures. (a) Place of filing. A post...

  10. 76 FR 26802 - Application Filing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Application Filing Requirements AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... collection. Title of Proposal: Application Filing Requirements. OMB Number: 1550-0056. Form Number: N/A. Description: OTS regulations require that applications, notices, or other filings must be submitted to the...

  11. 76 FR 41331 - Application Filing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Application Filing Requirements AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS.... Title of Proposal: Application Filing Requirements. OMB Number: 1550-0056. Form Number: N/A. Description: OTS regulations require that applications, notices, or other filings must be submitted to the...

  12. Creating Graphics Files for SGML Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunemann, Rhonda S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that, when creating graphics files for documents in a Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) environment, technical writers should consider the differences between bitmapped and vector file formats; be familiar with available file formats; determine which graphics format best meets the needs; and incorporate the graphic into the SGML…

  13. 47 CFR 1.1405 - File numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false File numbers. 1.1405 Section 1.1405... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1405 File numbers. Each complaint which appears to be essentially complete under § 1.1404 will be accepted and assigned a file number. Such assignment is for administrative...

  14. 47 CFR 1.1405 - File numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false File numbers. 1.1405 Section 1.1405... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1405 File numbers. Each complaint which appears to be essentially complete under § 1.1404 will be accepted and assigned a file number. Such assignment is for administrative...

  15. 47 CFR 1.1405 - File numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false File numbers. 1.1405 Section 1.1405... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1405 File numbers. Each complaint which appears to be essentially complete under § 1.1404 will be accepted and assigned a file number. Such assignment is for administrative...

  16. 75 FR 70732 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... under Section 311 of ] the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (``NGPA''). Any person desiring to participate... must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene, as appropriate. Such notices, motions, or protests must be filed on or before the date as indicated below. Anyone filing an intervention or protest...

  17. 75 FR 74706 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA). Any person desiring to participate in this rate proceeding must file a... to the proceeding. Any person wishing to become a party must file a notice of intervention or motion... as indicated below. Anyone filing an intervention or protest must serve a copy of that document on...

  18. Developing Progress Files: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Heather; Davenport, Elizabeth S.; Woodman, Theresa; Pee, Barbel

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a progress file, a tool to promote learning, planning and the recording of achievement, for dental therapists in training and professional practice. Progress files are to become obligatory in higher education in the United Kingdom. The aims of the file, its development and the naturalistic approach taken to…

  19. 12 CFR 5.4 - Filing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing required. 5.4 Section 5.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR... advise an applicant through a pre-filing communication to send the filing or submission directly to...

  20. 42 CFR 93.510 - Filing motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filing motions. 93.510 Section 93.510 Public Health... Process § 93.510 Filing motions. (a) Parties must file all motions and requests for an order or ruling... legal authority relied upon, and state the facts alleged. (b) All motions must be in writing except for...