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Sample records for file bl stn

  1. Reflective color STN-LCD technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Shingo; Yamaguchi, Hisanori; Mizuno, Hiroaki; Ohtani, Toshiya; Sekime, Tomoaki; Hatanaka, Takayuki; Ogawa, Tetsu

    1998-04-01

    Reflective color STN-LCDs should be one of the most promising devices for mobile business tools (MBT), because the demand such as low cost, low power consumption, light weight and compact size is especially strong for this application. A reflective color STN-LCD with a single polarizer and double retardation films has been investigated. The double retardation films arranged in front of LC-layer enabled the LCD to contain reflective electrodes inside the panel. This configuration achieves the bright image with no parallax. A new construction of a reflective STN-LCD with a single polarizer has been decided by means of our own method in which the color difference (Delta) E* as the optimizing parameter has been used. Further, RGB color filters has been newly designed for our reflective LCD, and the aluminum (Al) layer has been introduced as reflective electrodes. As a result, we have realized 7.8-in.-diagonal refractive color STN-LCD(640 by 480) which has 15% reflectance, 1:14 contrast ratio, 4096 color capability and the sufficient color gamut. It has been confirmed that the single polarizer reflective color STN-LCD has sufficient enough performance for MBT use. We believe that it will be a key device for this application.

  2. The Student Telescope Network (STN) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannahoe, Ryan M.; Stencel, Robert E.; Bisque, Steve; Rice, Mike

    2003-02-01

    support of this effort, and acknowleedge in-kind support from the estate of William Herschel Womble. Details at website www.du.edu/~rstencel/stn.htm.

  3. Stn1-Ten1 is an Rpa2-Rpa3-like complex at telomeres

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jia; Yu, Eun Young; Yang, Yuting; Confer, Laura A; Sun, Steven H; Wan, Ke; Lue, Neal F; Lei, Ming

    2010-09-02

    In budding yeast, Cdc13, Stn1, and Ten1 form a heterotrimeric complex (CST) that is essential for telomere protection and maintenance. Previous bioinformatics analysis revealed a putative oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold at the N terminus of Stn1 (Stn1N) that shows limited sequence similarity to the OB fold of Rpa2, a subunit of the eukaryotic ssDNA-binding protein complex replication protein A (RPA). Here we present functional and structural analyses of Stn1 and Ten1 from multiple budding and fission yeast. The crystal structure of the Candida tropicalis Stn1N complexed with Ten1 demonstrates an Rpa2N-Rpa3-like complex. In both structures, the OB folds of the two components pack against each other through interactions between two C-terminal helices. The structure of the C-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Stn1 (Stn1C) was found to comprise two related winged helix-turn-helix (WH) motifs, one of which is most similar to the WH motif at the C terminus of Rpa2, again supporting the notion that Stn1 resembles Rpa2. The crystal structure of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Stn1N-Ten1 complex exhibits a virtually identical architecture as the C. tropicalis Stn1N-Ten1. Functional analyses of the Candida albicans Stn1 and Ten1 proteins revealed critical roles for these proteins in suppressing aberrant telomerase and recombination activities at telomeres. Mutations that disrupt the Stn1-Ten1 interaction induce telomere uncapping and abolish the telomere localization of Ten1. Collectively, our structural and functional studies illustrate that, instead of being confined to budding yeast telomeres, the CST complex may represent an evolutionarily conserved RPA-like telomeric complex at the 3' overhangs that works in parallel with or instead of the well-characterized POT1-TPP1/TEBP{alpha}-{beta} complex.

  4. STN1 OB Fold Mutation Alters DNA Binding and Affects Selective Aspects of CST Function

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Anukana; Stewart, Jason; Chaiken, Mary; Price, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) participates in multiple aspects of telomere replication and genome-wide recovery from replication stress. CST resembles Replication Protein A (RPA) in that it binds ssDNA and STN1 and TEN1 are structurally similar to RPA2 and RPA3. Conservation between CTC1 and RPA1 is less apparent. Currently the mechanism underlying CST action is largely unknown. Here we address CST mechanism by using a DNA-binding mutant, (STN1 OB-fold mutant, STN1-OBM) to examine the relationship between DNA binding and CST function. In vivo, STN1-OBM affects resolution of endogenous replication stress and telomere duplex replication but telomeric C-strand fill-in and new origin firing after exogenous replication stress are unaffected. These selective effects indicate mechanistic differences in CST action during resolution of different replication problems. In vitro binding studies show that STN1 directly engages both short and long ssDNA oligonucleotides, however STN1-OBM preferentially destabilizes binding to short substrates. The finding that STN1-OBM affects binding to only certain substrates starts to explain the in vivo separation of function observed in STN1-OBM expressing cells. CST is expected to engage DNA substrates of varied length and structure as it acts to resolve different replication problems. Since STN1-OBM will alter CST binding to only some of these substrates, the mutant should affect resolution of only a subset of replication problems, as was observed in the STN1-OBM cells. The in vitro studies also provide insight into CST binding mechanism. Like RPA, CST likely contacts DNA via multiple OB folds. However, the importance of STN1 for binding short substrates indicates differences in the architecture of CST and RPA DNA-protein complexes. Based on our results, we propose a dynamic DNA binding model that provides a general mechanism for CST action at diverse forms of replication stress. PMID:27690379

  5. Synthesis of Double C-Glycoside Analogue of sTn

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Dino K.; Baytas, Sultan N.; Wang, Qun; Muñoz, Eva M.; Tokuzoki, Kazuo; Tomiyama, Hiroshi; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A sTn double C-glycoside, sTn analogue 2, was synthesized using samarium chemistry developed in our laboratory. Complications in the oxidation reaction affording aldehyde acceptor were overcome by double protection of amide and the use of a room-temperature ionic liquid as solvent. Studies are underway to conjugate the sTn double C-glycoside hapten 2 to KLH carrier protein for biological evaluation as a vaccine. PMID:16277348

  6. Comparison of weight changes following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS for advanced PD

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eric M; Kurundkar, Ashish; Cutter, Gary R; Huang, He; Guthrie, Barton L; Watts, Ray L; Walker, Harrison C

    2011-01-01

    Unilateral and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) result in weight gain in the initial postoperative months, but little is known about the changes in weight following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS over longer time intervals. A case–control comparison evaluated weight changes over 2 years in 43 consecutive unilateral STN DBS patients, among whom 25 elected to undergo staged bilateral STN DBS, and 21 age-matched and disease severity matched PD controls without DBS. Regression analyses incorporating age, gender, and baseline weight in case or control were conducted to assess weight changes 2 years after the initial unilateral surgery. Unilateral STN DBS and staged bilateral STN DBS patients gained 3.9 ± 2.0 kg and 5.6 ± 2.1 kg versus their preoperative baseline weight (P < 0.001, respectively) while PD controls without DBS lost 0.8 ± 1.1 kg. Although bilateral STN DBS patients gained 1.7 kg more than unilateral STN DBS patients at 2 years, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.885). Although there was a trend toward greater weight gain in staged bilateral STN DBS patients versus unilateral patients, we found no evidence for an equivalent or synergistic increase in body weight following placement of the second DBS electrode. PMID:22398977

  7. Effects of STN DBS on Memory Guided Force Control in Parkinson’s Disease (June 2007)

    PubMed Central

    Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M.; Rothwell, John C.; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Bakay, Roy A. E.; Vaillancourt, David E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the control of elbow force in nine patients with Parkinson’s disease when visual feedback was available and when visual feedback was removed to determine how medication (Meds) and unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) affect memory guided force control. Patients were examined in each of four treatment conditions: 1) off treatment; 2) Meds; 3) STN DBS; and 4) Meds plus STN DBS. With visual feedback available, there was no difference in force output across treatment conditions. When visual feedback was removed force output drifted under the target in both the off-treatment and the Meds conditions. However, when on STN DBS or Meds plus STN DBS force output drifted above the target. As such, only STN DBS had a significant effect on force output in the vision removed condition. Increased force output when on STN DBS may have occurred due to disruptions in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry. We suggest that modulation of output of the internal segment of the globus pallidus by STN DBS may drive the effect of STN DBS on memory guided force control. PMID:17601184

  8. High Light Induced Disassembly of Photosystem II Supercomplexes in Arabidopsis Requires STN7-Dependent Phosphorylation of CP29

    PubMed Central

    Fristedt, Rikard; Vener, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthetic oxidation of water and production of oxygen by photosystem II (PSII) in thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts is highly affected by changes in light intensities. To minimize damage imposed by excessive sunlight and sustain the photosynthetic activity PSII, organized in supercomplexes with its light harvesting antenna, undergoes conformational changes, disassembly and repair via not clearly understood mechanisms. We characterized the phosphoproteome of the thylakoid membranes from Arabidopsis thaliana wild type, stn7, stn8 and stn7stn8 mutant plants exposed to high light. The high light treatment of the wild type and stn8 caused specific increase in phosphorylation of Lhcb4.1 and Lhcb4.2 isoforms of the PSII linker protein CP29 at five different threonine residues. Phosphorylation of CP29 at four of these residues was not found in stn7 and stn7stn8 plants lacking the STN7 protein kinase. Blue native gel electrophoresis followed by immunological and mass spectrometric analyses of the membrane protein complexes revealed that the high light treatment of the wild type caused redistribution of CP29 from PSII supercomplexes to PSII dimers and monomers. A similar high-light-induced disassembly of the PSII supercomplexes occurred in stn8, but not in stn7 and stn7stn8. Transfer of the high-light-treated wild type plants to normal light relocated CP29 back to PSII supercomplexes. We postulate that disassembly of PSII supercomplexes in plants exposed to high light involves STN7-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the linker protein CP29. Disruption of this adaptive mechanism can explain dramatically retarded growth of the stn7 and stn7stn8 mutants under fluctuating normal/high light conditions, as previously reported. PMID:21915352

  9. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF SEATTLE PM 2.5: A COMPARISON OF IMPROVE AND ENHANCED STN DATA SETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seattle, WA, STN and IMPROVE data sets with STN temperature resolved carbon peaks were analyzed with both the PMF and Unmix receptor models. In addition, the IMPROVE trace element data was combined with the major STN species to examine the role of IMPROVE metals. To compare the ...

  10. Stn1 is critical for telomere maintenance and long-term viability of somatic human cells.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Virginia; Razdan, Neetu; Kaplunov, Jessica; Mundra, Jyoti J; Kimura, Masayuki; Aviv, Abraham; Herbig, Utz

    2015-06-01

    Disruption of telomere maintenance pathways leads to accelerated entry into cellular senescence, a stable proliferative arrest that promotes aging-associated disorders in some mammals. The budding yeast CST complex, comprising Cdc13, Stn1, and Ctc1, is critical for telomere replication, length regulation, and end protection. Although mammalian homologues of CST have been identified recently, their role and function for telomere maintenance in normal somatic human cells are still incompletely understood. Here, we characterize the function of human Stn1 in cultured human fibroblasts and demonstrate its critical role in telomere replication, length regulation, and function. In the absence of high telomerase activity, shRNA-mediated knockdown of hStn1 resulted in aberrant and fragile telomeric structures, stochastic telomere attrition, increased telomere erosion rates, telomere dysfunction, and consequently accelerated entry into cellular senescence. Oxidative stress augmented the defects caused by Stn1 knockdown leading to almost immediate cessation of cell proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of hTERT suppressed some of the defects caused by hStn1 knockdown suggesting that telomerase can partially compensate for hStn1 loss. Our findings reveal a critical role for human Stn1 in telomere length maintenance and function, supporting the model that efficient replication of telomeric repeats is critical for long-term viability of normal somatic mammalian cells.

  11. Articulatory Changes in Vowel Production following STN DBS and Levodopa Intake in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martel Sauvageau, Vincent; Roy, Johanna-Pascale; Cantin, Léo; Prud'Homme, Michel; Langlois, Mélanie; Macoir, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the impact of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) and levodopa intake on vowel articulation in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Vowel articulation was assessed in seven Quebec French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD who underwent STN DBS. Assessments were conducted on- and off-medication, first prior to surgery and then 1 year later. All recordings were made on-stimulation. Vowel articulation was measured using acoustic vowel space and formant centralization ratio. Results. Compared to the period before surgery, vowel articulation was reduced after surgery when patients were off-medication, while it was better on-medication. The impact of levodopa intake on vowel articulation changed with STN DBS: before surgery, levodopa impaired articulation, while it no longer had a negative effect after surgery. Conclusions. These results indicate that while STN DBS could lead to a direct deterioration in articulation, it may indirectly improve it by reducing the levodopa dose required to manage motor symptoms. These findings suggest that, with respect to speech production, STN DBS and levodopa intake cannot be investigated separately because the two are intrinsically linked. Along with motor symptoms, speech production should be considered when optimizing therapeutic management of patients with PD. PMID:26558134

  12. Effects of STN DBS on Rigidity in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Mark B.; Vaillancourt, David E.; Sturman, Molly M.; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Bakay, Roy A. E.; Corcos, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    We quantified the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and medication on Parkinsonian rigidity using an objective measure of work about the elbow joint during a complete cycle of imposed 1-Hz sinusoidal oscillations. Resting and activated rigidity were analyzed in four experimental conditions: 1) off treatment; 2) on DBS; 3) on medication; and 4) on DBS plus medication. Rigidity at the elbow joint was also assessed using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). We tested ten patients who received STN DBS and ten age-matched neurologically healthy control subjects. The activated rigidity condition increased work in both Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients and control subjects. In PD patients, STN DBS reduced both resting and activated rigidity as indicated by work and the UPDRS rigidity score. This is the first demonstration that STN stimulation reduces rigidity using an objective measure such as work. In contrast, the presurgery dose of antiparkinsonian medication did not significantly improve the UPDRS rigidity score and reduced work only in the activated rigidity condition. Our results suggest that STN DBS may be more effective in alleviating rigidity in the upper limb of PD patients than medications administered at presurgery dosage level. PMID:17601186

  13. Structural and resting state functional connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus: identification of motor STN parts and the hyperdirect pathway.

    PubMed

    Brunenberg, Ellen J L; Moeskops, Pim; Backes, Walter H; Pollo, Claudio; Cammoun, Leila; Vilanova, Anna; Janssen, Marcus L F; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle E R M; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Platel, Bram

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease often alleviates the motor symptoms, but causes cognitive and emotional side effects in a substantial number of cases. Identification of the motor part of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as part of the presurgical workup could minimize these adverse effects. In this study, we assessed the STN's connectivity to motor, associative, and limbic brain areas, based on structural and functional connectivity analysis of volunteer data. For the structural connectivity, we used streamline counts derived from HARDI fiber tracking. The resulting tracks supported the existence of the so-called "hyperdirect" pathway in humans. Furthermore, we determined the connectivity of each STN voxel with the motor cortical areas. Functional connectivity was calculated based on functional MRI, as the correlation of the signal within a given brain voxel with the signal in the STN. Also, the signal per STN voxel was explained in terms of the correlation with motor or limbic brain seed ROI areas. Both right and left STN ROIs appeared to be structurally and functionally connected to brain areas that are part of the motor, associative, and limbic circuit. Furthermore, this study enabled us to assess the level of segregation of the STN motor part, which is relevant for the planning of STN DBS procedures. PMID:22768059

  14. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    SciTech Connect

    Lutfi, Zainal; Ahmad, Asmat; Usup, Gires

    2014-09-03

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

  15. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutfi, Zainal; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2014-09-01

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

  16. STN vs. GPi Deep Brain Stimulation: Translating the Rematch into Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nolan R; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    When formulating a deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment plan for a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD), two critical questions should be addressed: 1- Which brain target should be chosen to optimize this patient's outcome? and 2- Should this patient's DBS operation be unilateral or bilateral? Over the past two decades, two targets have emerged as leading contenders for PD DBS; the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus internus (GPi). While the GPi target does have a following, most centers have uniformly employed bilateral STN DBS for all Parkinson's disease cases (Figure 1). This bilateral STN "one-size-fits-all" approach was challenged by an editorial entitled "STN vs. GPi: The Rematch," which appeared in the Archives of Neurology in 2005. Since 2005, a series of well designed clinical trials and follow-up studies have addressed the question as to whether a more tailored approach to DBS therapy might improve overall outcomes. Such a tailored approach would include the options of targeting the GPi, or choosing a unilateral operation. The results of the STN vs. GPi 'rematch' studies support the conclusion that bilateral STN DBS may not be the best option for every Parkinson's disease surgical patient. Off period motor symptoms and tremor improve in both targets, and with either unilateral or bilateral stimulation. Advantages of the STN target include more medication reduction, less frequent battery changes, and a more favorable economic profile. Advantages of GPi include more robust dyskinesia suppression, easier programming, and greater flexibility in adjusting medications. In cases where unilateral stimulation is anticipated, the data favor GPi DBS. This review summarizes the accumulated evidence regarding the use of bilateral vs. unilateral DBS and the selection of STN vs. GPi DBS, including definite and possible advantages of different targets and approaches. Based on this evidence, a more patient-tailored, symptom specific approach will be

  17. STN vs. GPi Deep Brain Stimulation: Translating the Rematch into Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nolan R.; Foote, Kelly D.; Okun, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    When formulating a deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment plan for a patient with Parkinson’s disease (PD), two critical questions should be addressed: 1- Which brain target should be chosen to optimize this patient’s outcome? and 2- Should this patient’s DBS operation be unilateral or bilateral? Over the past two decades, two targets have emerged as leading contenders for PD DBS; the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus internus (GPi). While the GPi target does have a following, most centers have uniformly employed bilateral STN DBS for all Parkinson’s disease cases (Figure 1). This bilateral STN “one-size-fits-all” approach was challenged by an editorial entitled “STN vs. GPi: The Rematch,” which appeared in the Archives of Neurology in 2005. Since 2005, a series of well designed clinical trials and follow-up studies have addressed the question as to whether a more tailored approach to DBS therapy might improve overall outcomes. Such a tailored approach would include the options of targeting the GPi, or choosing a unilateral operation. The results of the STN vs. GPi ‘rematch’ studies support the conclusion that bilateral STN DBS may not be the best option for every Parkinson’s disease surgical patient. Off period motor symptoms and tremor improve in both targets, and with either unilateral or bilateral stimulation. Advantages of the STN target include more medication reduction, less frequent battery changes, and a more favorable economic profile. Advantages of GPi include more robust dyskinesia suppression, easier programming, and greater flexibility in adjusting medications. In cases where unilateral stimulation is anticipated, the data favor GPi DBS. This review summarizes the accumulated evidence regarding the use of bilateral vs. unilateral DBS and the selection of STN vs. GPi DBS, including definite and possible advantages of different targets and approaches. Based on this evidence, a more patient-tailored, symptom specific

  18. Cdc13 OB2 Dimerization Required for Productive Stn1 Binding and Efficient Telomere Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Mark; Wanat, Jennifer J.; Harper, Sandy; Schultz, David C.; Speicher, David W.; Johnson, F. Brad; Skordalakes, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Cdc13 is an essential yeast protein required for telomere length regulation and genome stability. It does so via its telomere capping properties and by regulating telomerase access to the telomeres. The crystal structure of the S. cerevisiae Cdc13 domain located between the recruitment and DNA binding domains reveals an oligonucleotide-oligosaccharide binding fold (OB2) with unusually long loops extending from the core of the protein. These loops are involved in extensive interactions between two Cdc13 OB2 folds leading to stable homo-dimerization. Interestingly, the functionally impaired cdc13-1 mutation inhibits OB2 dimerization. Biochemical assays indicate OB2 is not involved in telomeric DNA or Stn1 binding. However, disruption of the OB2 dimer in full-length Cdc13 affects Cdc13-Stn1 association leading to telomere length deregulation, increased temperature sensitivity and Stn1 binding defects. We therefore propose that dimerization of the OB2 domain of Cdc13 is required for proper Cdc13, Stn1, Ten1 (CST) assembly and productive telomere capping. PMID:23177925

  19. Arabidopsis STN7 kinase provides a link between short- and long-term photosynthetic acclimation.

    PubMed

    Pesaresi, Paolo; Hertle, Alexander; Pribil, Mathias; Kleine, Tatjana; Wagner, Raik; Strissel, Henning; Ihnatowicz, Anna; Bonardi, Vera; Scharfenberg, Michael; Schneider, Anja; Pfannschmidt, Thomas; Leister, Dario

    2009-08-01

    Flowering plants control energy allocation to their photosystems in response to light quality changes. This includes the phosphorylation and migration of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins (state transitions or short-term response) as well as long-term alterations in thylakoid composition (long-term response or LTR). Both responses require the thylakoid protein kinase STN7. Here, we show that the signaling pathways triggering state transitions and LTR diverge at, or immediately downstream from, STN7. Both responses require STN7 activity that can be regulated according to the plastoquinone pool redox state. However, LTR signaling does not involve LHCII phosphorylation or any other state transition step. State transitions appear to play a prominent role in flowering plants, and the ability to perform state transitions becomes critical for photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that are impaired in thylakoid electron transport but retain a functional LTR. Our data imply that STN7-dependent phosphorylation of an as yet unknown thylakoid protein triggers LTR signaling events, whereby an involvement of the TSP9 protein in the signaling pathway could be excluded. The LTR signaling events then ultimately regulate in chloroplasts the expression of photosynthesis-related genes on the transcript level, whereas expression of nuclear-encoded proteins is regulated at multiple levels, as indicated by transcript and protein profiling in LTR mutants. PMID:19706797

  20. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF SEATTLE PM 2.5 USING STN ORGANIC CARBON PEAKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results from the Source Apportionment of Seattle PM2.5 Using STN Organic Carbon Peaks study will be presented at the American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) 24th Annual Conference in Austin, Texas (Oct 17 - 21, 2005). Receptor modeling results from Seattle us...

  1. STN area detection using K-NN classifiers for MER recordings in Parkinson patients during neurostimulator implant surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiaffino, L.; Rosado Muñoz, A.; Guerrero Martínez, J.; Francés Villora, J.; Gutiérrez, A.; Martínez Torres, I.; Kohan, y. D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) applies electric pulses into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improving tremor and other symptoms associated to Parkinson’s disease. Accurate STN detection for proper location and implant of the stimulating electrodes is a complex task and surgeons are not always certain about final location. Signals from the STN acquired during DBS surgery are obtained with microelectrodes, having specific characteristics differing from other brain areas. Using supervised learning, a trained model based on previous microelectrode recordings (MER) can be obtained, being able to successfully classify the STN area for new MER signals. The K Nearest Neighbours (K-NN) algorithm has been successfully applied to STN detection. However, the use of the fuzzy form of the K-NN algorithm (KNN-F) has not been reported. This work compares the STN detection algorithm of K-NN and KNN-F. Real MER recordings from eight patients where previously classified by neurophysiologists, defining 15 features. Sensitivity and specificity for the classifiers are obtained, Wilcoxon signed rank non-parametric test is used as statistical hypothesis validation. We conclude that the performance of KNN-F classifier is higher than K-NN with p<0.01 in STN specificity.

  2. STN-DBS Reduces Saccadic Hypometria but Not Visuospatial Bias in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Petra; Ossandón, José P.; Keyser, Johannes; Gulberti, Alessandro; Wilming, Niklas; Hamel, Wolfgang; Köppen, Johannes; Buhmann, Carsten; Westphal, Manfred; Gerloff, Christian; Moll, Christian K. E.; Engel, Andreas K.; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to its well-established role in alleviating skeleto-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, little is known about the impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on oculomotor control and attention. Eye-tracking data of 17 patients with left-hemibody symptom onset was compared with 17 age-matched control subjects. Free-viewing of natural images was assessed without stimulation as baseline and during bilateral DBS. To examine the involvement of ventral STN territories in oculomotion and spatial attention, we employed unilateral stimulation via the left and right ventralmost contacts respectively. When DBS was off, patients showed shorter saccades and a rightward viewing bias compared with controls. Bilateral stimulation in therapeutic settings improved saccadic hypometria but not the visuospatial bias. At a group level, unilateral ventral stimulation yielded no consistent effects. However, the evaluation of electrode position within normalized MNI coordinate space revealed that the extent of early exploration bias correlated with the precise stimulation site within the left subthalamic area. These results suggest that oculomotor impairments “but not higher-level exploration patterns” are effectively ameliorable by DBS in therapeutic settings. Our findings highlight the relevance of the STN topography in selecting contacts for chronic stimulation especially upon appearance of visuospatial attention deficits. PMID:27199693

  3. STN-DBS Reduces Saccadic Hypometria but Not Visuospatial Bias in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Petra; Ossandón, José P; Keyser, Johannes; Gulberti, Alessandro; Wilming, Niklas; Hamel, Wolfgang; Köppen, Johannes; Buhmann, Carsten; Westphal, Manfred; Gerloff, Christian; Moll, Christian K E; Engel, Andreas K; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to its well-established role in alleviating skeleto-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, little is known about the impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on oculomotor control and attention. Eye-tracking data of 17 patients with left-hemibody symptom onset was compared with 17 age-matched control subjects. Free-viewing of natural images was assessed without stimulation as baseline and during bilateral DBS. To examine the involvement of ventral STN territories in oculomotion and spatial attention, we employed unilateral stimulation via the left and right ventralmost contacts respectively. When DBS was off, patients showed shorter saccades and a rightward viewing bias compared with controls. Bilateral stimulation in therapeutic settings improved saccadic hypometria but not the visuospatial bias. At a group level, unilateral ventral stimulation yielded no consistent effects. However, the evaluation of electrode position within normalized MNI coordinate space revealed that the extent of early exploration bias correlated with the precise stimulation site within the left subthalamic area. These results suggest that oculomotor impairments "but not higher-level exploration patterns" are effectively ameliorable by DBS in therapeutic settings. Our findings highlight the relevance of the STN topography in selecting contacts for chronic stimulation especially upon appearance of visuospatial attention deficits.

  4. STN-DBS Reduces Saccadic Hypometria but Not Visuospatial Bias in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Petra; Ossandón, José P; Keyser, Johannes; Gulberti, Alessandro; Wilming, Niklas; Hamel, Wolfgang; Köppen, Johannes; Buhmann, Carsten; Westphal, Manfred; Gerloff, Christian; Moll, Christian K E; Engel, Andreas K; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to its well-established role in alleviating skeleto-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, little is known about the impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on oculomotor control and attention. Eye-tracking data of 17 patients with left-hemibody symptom onset was compared with 17 age-matched control subjects. Free-viewing of natural images was assessed without stimulation as baseline and during bilateral DBS. To examine the involvement of ventral STN territories in oculomotion and spatial attention, we employed unilateral stimulation via the left and right ventralmost contacts respectively. When DBS was off, patients showed shorter saccades and a rightward viewing bias compared with controls. Bilateral stimulation in therapeutic settings improved saccadic hypometria but not the visuospatial bias. At a group level, unilateral ventral stimulation yielded no consistent effects. However, the evaluation of electrode position within normalized MNI coordinate space revealed that the extent of early exploration bias correlated with the precise stimulation site within the left subthalamic area. These results suggest that oculomotor impairments "but not higher-level exploration patterns" are effectively ameliorable by DBS in therapeutic settings. Our findings highlight the relevance of the STN topography in selecting contacts for chronic stimulation especially upon appearance of visuospatial attention deficits. PMID:27199693

  5. Coordinated reset stimulation in a large-scale model of the STN-GPe circuit

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Martin; Hauptmann, Christian; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Synchronization of populations of neurons is a hallmark of several brain diseases. Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation is a model-based stimulation technique which specifically counteracts abnormal synchrony by desynchronization. Electrical CR stimulation, e.g., for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), is administered via depth electrodes. In order to get a deeper understanding of this technique, we extended the top-down approach of previous studies and constructed a large-scale computational model of the respective brain areas. Furthermore, we took into account the spatial anatomical properties of the simulated brain structures and incorporated a detailed numerical representation of 2 · 104 simulated neurons. We simulated the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus externus (GPe). Connections within the STN were governed by spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). In this way, we modeled the physiological and pathological activity of the considered brain structures. In particular, we investigated how plasticity could be exploited and how the model could be shifted from strongly synchronized (pathological) activity to strongly desynchronized (healthy) activity of the neuronal populations via CR stimulation of the STN neurons. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of specific stimulation parameters especially the electrode position on the stimulation outcome. Our model provides a step forward toward a biophysically realistic model of the brain areas relevant to the emergence of pathological neuronal activity in PD. Furthermore, our model constitutes a test bench for the optimization of both stimulation parameters and novel electrode geometries for efficient CR stimulation. PMID:25505882

  6. Suppression of STN1 enhances the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells by elevating DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Chai, Weihang

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage-inducing agents are among the most effective treatment regimens in clinical chemotherapy. However, drug resistance and severe side effects caused by these agents greatly limit their efficacy. Sensitizing malignant cells to chemotherapeutic agents has long been a goal of chemotherapy. In the present study, suppression of STN1, a gene important for safeguarding genome stability, potentiated the anticancer effect of chemotherapeutic agents in tumor cells. Using multiple cancer cells from a variety of origins, it was observed that downregulation of STN1 resulted in a significant decrease in the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of several conventional anticancer agents. When cells are treated with anticancer agents, STN1 suppression leads to a decline in colony formation and diminished anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, it was additionally observed that STN1 knockdown augmented the levels of DNA damage caused by damage-inducing agents. The present study concluded that suppression of STN1 enhances the cytotoxicity of damage-inducing chemotherapeutic agents by increasing DNA damage in cancer cells. PMID:27446354

  7. Emotion recognition in Parkinson's disease after subthalamic deep brain stimulation: differential effects of microlesion and STN stimulation.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Marilena; Eleopra, Roberto; Lettieri, Christian; Mondani, Massimo; D'Auria, Stanislao; Belgrado, Enrico; Piani, Antonella; De Simone, Luca; Rinaldo, Sara; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has acquired a relevant role in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite being a safe procedure, it may expose patients to an increased risk to experience cognitive and emotional difficulties. Impairments in emotion recognition, mediated both by facial and prosodic expressions, have been reported in PD patients treated with such procedure. However, it is still unclear whether the STN per se is responsible for such changes or whether others factors like the microlesion produced by the electrode implantation may also play a role. In this study we evaluated facial emotions discrimination and emotions recognition using both facial and prosodic expressions in 12 patients with PD and 13 matched controls. Patients' were tested in four conditions: before surgery, both in on and off medication, and after surgery, respectively few days after STN implantation before turning stimulator on and few months after with stimulation on. We observed that PD patients were impaired in discriminating and recognizing facial emotions, especially disgust, even before DBS implant. Microlesion caused by surgical procedure was found to influence patients' performance on the discrimination task and recognition of sad facial expression while, after a few months of STN stimulation, impaired disgust recognition was again prominent. No impairment in emotional prosody recognition was observed both before and after surgery. Our study confirms that PD patients may experience a deficit in disgust recognition and provides insight into the differential effect of microlesion and stimulation of STN on several tasks assessing emotion recognition. PMID:24342106

  8. Emotion recognition in Parkinson's disease after subthalamic deep brain stimulation: differential effects of microlesion and STN stimulation.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Marilena; Eleopra, Roberto; Lettieri, Christian; Mondani, Massimo; D'Auria, Stanislao; Belgrado, Enrico; Piani, Antonella; De Simone, Luca; Rinaldo, Sara; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has acquired a relevant role in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite being a safe procedure, it may expose patients to an increased risk to experience cognitive and emotional difficulties. Impairments in emotion recognition, mediated both by facial and prosodic expressions, have been reported in PD patients treated with such procedure. However, it is still unclear whether the STN per se is responsible for such changes or whether others factors like the microlesion produced by the electrode implantation may also play a role. In this study we evaluated facial emotions discrimination and emotions recognition using both facial and prosodic expressions in 12 patients with PD and 13 matched controls. Patients' were tested in four conditions: before surgery, both in on and off medication, and after surgery, respectively few days after STN implantation before turning stimulator on and few months after with stimulation on. We observed that PD patients were impaired in discriminating and recognizing facial emotions, especially disgust, even before DBS implant. Microlesion caused by surgical procedure was found to influence patients' performance on the discrimination task and recognition of sad facial expression while, after a few months of STN stimulation, impaired disgust recognition was again prominent. No impairment in emotional prosody recognition was observed both before and after surgery. Our study confirms that PD patients may experience a deficit in disgust recognition and provides insight into the differential effect of microlesion and stimulation of STN on several tasks assessing emotion recognition.

  9. Mutation of invH, but Not stn, Reduces Salmonella-Induced Enteritis in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Patricia R.; Galyov, Edouard E.; Paulin, Sue M.; Jones, Philip W.; Wallis, Tim S.

    1998-01-01

    The induction of secretory and inflammatory responses in calves by Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella dublin strains was compared, and the effects of mutations in the invH and stn genes were assessed. S. typhimurium induced greater secretory and inflammatory responses than S. dublin in bovine ileal loops, despite the fact that these serotypes were recovered from bovine ileal mucosa in comparable numbers (P. R. Watson, S. M. Paulin, A. P. Bland, P. W. Jones, and T. S. Wallis, Infect. Immun. 63:2743–2754, 1995). These results implicate serotype-specific factors other than, or in addition to, intestinal invasion in the induction of enteritis. The secretory and inflammatory responses induced by S. typhimurium and S. dublin in bovine ligated ileal loops were not significantly altered by mutation of stn, which suggests that stn does not have a major role in Salmonella-induced enteritis. The invH mutation significantly reduced the secretory and inflammatory responses induced in bovine ileal loops, and this correlated with a reduction in the severity of enteritis following oral inoculation of calves. The attenuation associated with the invH mutation did not appear to be due to an increased susceptibility to the innate host defense mechanisms, because the resistance of S. typhimurium to the bactericidal action of either bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes or bovine serum was not significantly altered. However, lysis of macrophages following infection with S. typhimurium was significantly reduced by the invH mutation. The invH mutation prevented the normal secretion of several proteins, including SipC, by S. typhimurium, indicating that the function of the inv-spa-encoded type III protein secretion system was disrupted. Taken together, these observations implicate inv-spa-dependent effectors in mediation of Salmonella-induced enteritis in cattle. Clearly, however, other undefined serotype-specific virulence factors are also involved in Salmonella-induced enteritis. PMID

  10. Prediction of STN-DBS Electrode Implantation Track in Parkinson's Disease by Using Local Field Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Telkes, Ilknur; Jimenez-Shahed, Joohi; Viswanathan, Ashwin; Abosch, Aviva; Ince, Nuri F.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal electrophysiological placement of the DBS electrode may lead to better long term clinical outcomes. Inter-subject anatomical variability and limitations in stereotaxic neuroimaging increase the complexity of physiological mapping performed in the operating room. Microelectrode single unit neuronal recording remains the most common intraoperative mapping technique, but requires significant expertise and is fraught by potential technical difficulties including robust measurement of the signal. In contrast, local field potentials (LFPs), owing to their oscillatory and robust nature and being more correlated with the disease symptoms, can overcome these technical issues. Therefore, we hypothesized that multiple spectral features extracted from microelectrode-recorded LFPs could be used to automate the identification of the optimal track and the STN localization. In this regard, we recorded LFPs from microelectrodes in three tracks from 22 patients during DBS electrode implantation surgery at different depths and aimed to predict the track selected by the neurosurgeon based on the interpretation of single unit recordings. A least mean square (LMS) algorithm was used to de-correlate LFPs in each track, in order to remove common activity between channels and increase their spatial specificity. Subband power in the beta band (11–32 Hz) and high frequency range (200–450 Hz) were extracted from the de-correlated LFP data and used as features. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method was applied both for the localization of the dorsal border of STN and the prediction of the optimal track. By fusing the information from these low and high frequency bands, the dorsal border of STN was localized with a root mean square (RMS) error of 1.22 mm. The prediction accuracy for the optimal track was 80%. Individual beta band (11–32 Hz) and the range of high frequency oscillations (200–450 Hz) provided prediction accuracies of 72 and 68% respectively. The best

  11. Arabidopsis STN7 Kinase Provides a Link between Short- and Long-Term Photosynthetic Acclimation[W

    PubMed Central

    Pesaresi, Paolo; Hertle, Alexander; Pribil, Mathias; Kleine, Tatjana; Wagner, Raik; Strissel, Henning; Ihnatowicz, Anna; Bonardi, Vera; Scharfenberg, Michael; Schneider, Anja; Pfannschmidt, Thomas; Leister, Dario

    2009-01-01

    Flowering plants control energy allocation to their photosystems in response to light quality changes. This includes the phosphorylation and migration of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins (state transitions or short-term response) as well as long-term alterations in thylakoid composition (long-term response or LTR). Both responses require the thylakoid protein kinase STN7. Here, we show that the signaling pathways triggering state transitions and LTR diverge at, or immediately downstream from, STN7. Both responses require STN7 activity that can be regulated according to the plastoquinone pool redox state. However, LTR signaling does not involve LHCII phosphorylation or any other state transition step. State transitions appear to play a prominent role in flowering plants, and the ability to perform state transitions becomes critical for photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that are impaired in thylakoid electron transport but retain a functional LTR. Our data imply that STN7-dependent phosphorylation of an as yet unknown thylakoid protein triggers LTR signaling events, whereby an involvement of the TSP9 protein in the signaling pathway could be excluded. The LTR signaling events then ultimately regulate in chloroplasts the expression of photosynthesis-related genes on the transcript level, whereas expression of nuclear-encoded proteins is regulated at multiple levels, as indicated by transcript and protein profiling in LTR mutants. PMID:19706797

  12. Compensatory stepping in Parkinson's disease is still a problem after deep brain stimulation randomized to STN or GPi

    PubMed Central

    St George, R. J.; Carlson-Kuhta, P.; King, L. A.; Burchiel, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on balance in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) are not well established. This study examined whether DBS randomized to the subthalamic nucleus (STN; n = 11) or globus pallidus interna (GPi; n = 10) improved compensatory stepping to recover balance after a perturbation. The standing surface translated backward, forcing subjects to take compensatory steps forward. Kinematic and kinetic responses were recorded. PD-DBS subjects were tested off and on their levodopa medication before bilateral DBS surgery and retested 6 mo later off and on DBS, combined with off and on levodopa medication. Responses were compared with PD-control subjects (n = 8) tested over the same timescale and 17 healthy control subjects. Neither DBS nor levodopa improved the stepping response. Compensatory stepping in the best-treated state after surgery (DBS+DOPA) was similar to the best-treated state before surgery (DOPA) for the PD-GPi group and the PD-control group. For the PD-STN group, there were more lateral weight shifts, a delayed foot-off, and a greater number of steps required to recover balance in DBS+DOPA after surgery compared with DOPA before surgery. Within the STN group five subjects who did not fall during the experiment before surgery fell at least once after surgery, whereas the number of falls in the GPi and PD-control groups were unchanged. DBS did not improve the compensatory step response needed to recover from balance perturbations in the GPi group and caused delays in the preparation phase of the step in the STN group. PMID:26108960

  13. Efficient and Specific Detection of Salmonella in Food Samples Using a stn-Based Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method

    PubMed Central

    Srisawat, Mevaree; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2015-01-01

    The Salmonella enterotoxin (stn) gene exhibits high homology among S. enterica serovars and S. bongori. A set of 6 specific primers targeting the stn gene were designed for detection of Salmonella spp. using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. The primers amplified target sequences in all 102 strains of 87 serovars of Salmonella tested and no products were detected in 57 non-Salmonella strains. The detection limit in pure cultures was 5 fg DNA/reaction when amplified at 65°C for 25 min. The LAMP assay could detect Salmonella in artificially contaminated food samples as low as 220 cells/g of food without a preenrichment step. However, the sensitivity was increased 100-fold (~2 cells/g) following 5 hr preenrichment at 35°C. The LAMP technique, with a preenrichment step for 5 and 16 hr, was shown to give 100% specificity with food samples compared to the reference culture method in which 67 out of 90 food samples gave positive results. Different food matrixes did not interfere with LAMP detection which employed a simple boiling method for DNA template preparation. The results indicate that the LAMP method, targeting the stn gene, has great potential for detection of Salmonella in food samples with both high specificity and high sensitivity. PMID:26543859

  14. Optical activity of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V.; Blinov, D.; Konstantinova, T.

    2012-04-01

    We perform optical photometric and R-band polarimetric monitoring of BL Lac using 70-cm AZT-8 (CrAO, Ukraine) and 0.4-m LX-200 (St.Petersburg, Russia) telescopes, as a part of GASP project. As reported in Atel#4028, this blazar was found by Fermi LAT in active state on 2012 April 9. Our data show that a sharp optical maximum was reached on the date 2012-04-08UT02:20, R=13.10, while on 2012-04-11UT01:30 R=13.40.

  15. 26 CFR 53.6071-1 - Time for filing returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Taxes related to black lung benefit trusts. Forms 990-BL and 6069 shall be filed on or before the 15th... expenditures of organizations described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. A Form 4720...

  16. Cognitive and Psychiatric Effects of STN versus GPi Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Ji-Ping; Li, Yong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus interna (GPi) can reduce motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and improve their quality of life. However, the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on cognitive functions and their psychiatric effects remain controversial. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to clarify these issues. Methods We searched the PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Other sources, including internet-based clinical trial registries and grey literature sources, were also searched. After searching the literature, two investigators independently performed literature screens to assess the quality of the included trials and to extract the data. The outcomes included the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on multiple cognitive domains, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Results Seven articles related to four randomized controlled trials that included 521 participants were incorporated into the present meta-analysis. Compared with GPi DBS, STN DBS was associated with declines in selected cognitive domains after surgery, including attention, working memory and processing speed, phonemic fluency, learning and memory, and global cognition. However, there were no significant differences in terms of quality of life or psychiatric effects, such as depression and anxiety, between the two groups. Conclusions A selective decline in frontal-subcortical cognitive functions is observed after STN DBS in comparison with GPi DBS, which should not be ignored in the target selection for DBS treatment in PD patients. In addition, compared to GPi DBS, STN DBS does not affect depression, anxiety, and quality of life. PMID:27248139

  17. Radio outburst of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buemi, C. S.; Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Giroletti, M.; Orienti, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Bach, U.

    2013-04-01

    We report on extremely high radio flux of BL Lacertae at 43 and 8 GHz. Observations at 43 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Noto (Italy) revealed a flux density of 10.5 +/- 0.2 Jy on 2013 April 10.65, while observations at 8 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Medicina (Italy) detected a flux density of 8.2 +/- 0.7 Jy on April 12.22. These extremely high radio fluxes show that the radio activity likely correlated to the strong optical, near-infrared, and gamma-ray activity of 2011-2012 (see ATels #4028, #4031, #4155, #4271, #4277, #4349, #4565, #4600), and X-ray activity of late 2012 (ATels #4557, #4627), is far to be exhausted.

  18. Activation of the Stt7/STN7 Kinase through Dynamic Interactions with the Cytochrome b6f Complex1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shapiguzov, Alexey; Chai, Xin; Fucile, Geoffrey; Longoni, Paolo; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms have the ability to adapt to changes in light quality by readjusting the cross sections of the light-harvesting systems of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). This process, called state transitions, maintains the redox poise of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain and ensures a high photosynthetic yield when light is limiting. It is mediated by the Stt7/STN7 protein kinase, which is activated through the cytochrome b6f complex upon reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Its probable major substrate, the light-harvesting complex of PSII, once phosphorylated, dissociates from PSII and docks to PSI, thereby restoring the balance of absorbed light excitation energy between the two photosystems. Although the kinase is known to be inactivated under high-light intensities, the molecular mechanisms governing its regulation remain unknown. In this study we monitored the redox state of a conserved and essential Cys pair of the Stt7/STN7 kinase and show that it forms a disulfide bridge. We could not detect any change in the redox state of these Cys during state transitions and high-light treatment. It is only after prolonged anaerobiosis that this disulfide bridge is reduced. It is likely to be mainly intramolecular, although kinase activation may involve a transient covalently linked kinase dimer with two intermolecular disulfide bonds. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have mapped one interaction site of the kinase on the Rieske protein of the cytochrome b6f complex. PMID:26941194

  19. Natural variation in phosphorylation of photosystem II proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana: is it caused by genetic variation in the STN kinases?

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Pádraic J.; Yin, Lan; Herdean, Andrei; Harbinson, Jeremy; Aarts, Mark G. M.; Spetea, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of photosystem II (PSII) proteins is an important regulatory mechanism that can protect plants from changes in ambient light intensity and quality. We hypothesized that there is natural variation in this process in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and that this results from genetic variation in the STN7 and STN8 kinase genes. To test this, Arabidopsis accessions of diverse geographical origins were exposed to two light regimes, and the levels of phospho-D1 and phospho-light harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins were quantified by western blotting with anti-phosphothreonine antibodies. Accessions were classified as having high, moderate or low phosphorylation relative to Col-0. This variation could not be explained by the abundance of the substrates in thylakoid membranes. In genotypes with atrazine-resistant forms of the D1 protein, low D1 and LHCII protein phosphorylation was observed, which may be due to low PSII efficiency, resulting in reduced activation of the STN kinases. In the remaining genotypes, phospho-D1 levels correlated with STN8 protein abundance in high-light conditions. In growth light, D1 and LHCII phosphorylation correlated with longitude and in the case of LHCII phosphorylation also with temperature variability. This suggests a possible role of natural variation in PSII protein phosphorylation in the adaptation of Arabidopsis to diverse environments. PMID:24591726

  20. Closed-loop stimulation of a delayed neural fields model of parkinsonian STN-GPe network: a theoretical and computational study

    PubMed Central

    Detorakis, Georgios Is.; Chaillet, Antoine; Palfi, Stéphane; Senova, Suhan

    2015-01-01

    Several disorders are related to pathological brain oscillations. In the case of Parkinson's disease, sustained low-frequency oscillations (especially in the β-band, 13–30 Hz) correlate with motor symptoms. It is still under debate whether these oscillations are the cause of parkinsonian motor symptoms. The development of techniques enabling selective disruption of these β-oscillations could contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms, and could be exploited for treatments. A particularly appealing technique is Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). With clinical electrical DBS, electrical currents are delivered at high frequency to a region made of potentially heterogeneous neurons (the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the case of Parkinson's disease). Even more appealing is DBS with optogenetics, which is until now a preclinical method using both gene transfer and deep brain light delivery and enabling neuromodulation at the scale of one given neural network. In this work, we rely on delayed neural fields models of STN and the external Globus Pallidus (GPe) to develop, theoretically validate and test in silico a closed-loop stimulation strategy to disrupt these sustained oscillations with optogenetics. First, we rely on tools from control theory to provide theoretical conditions under which sustained oscillations can be attenuated by a closed-loop stimulation proportional to the measured activity of STN. Second, based on this theoretical framework, we show numerically that the proposed closed-loop stimulation efficiently attenuates sustained oscillations, even in the case when the photosensitization effectively affects only 50% of STN neurons. We also show through simulations that oscillations disruption can be achieved when the same light source is used for the whole STN population. We finally test the robustness of the proposed strategy to possible acquisition and processing delays, as well as parameters uncertainty. PMID:26217171

  1. 76 FR 21946 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 990-BL; Schedule A (Form 990-BL), Form 6069

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 990-BL; Schedule A (Form 990-BL), Form 6069 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... Form 990-BL, Schedule A (Form 990-BL), Information and Initial Excise Tax Return for Black Lung...

  2. Multiband Microvariability of BL Lac During Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Carini, M. T.; Noble, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The blazar BL Lac recently underwent a major outburst. A search for microvariability was made with the 0.76 m telescope at the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory. Nearly 300 CCD observations in V and R were made over ten nights in July. During that time, BL Lac varied by more than 1.5 magnitudes and exhibited substantial microvariability. In fact, it exhibited microvariability each of the eight nights multiple exposures were made, being most active when brightest on July 29. On this night, four mini-flares were seen within 7 hours. During one of these flares, BL Lac brightened by more than 0.5 magnitude in less than 2.5 hours. The variations in V and R were simultaneous within the limits of the observations. However, the V and R magnitudes did not always change at the same rate. On July 3, BL Lac brightened in R faster than in V. Then on July 4, it dimmed in V faster than in R. Yet over the ten nights observed, BL Lac became bluer as it brightened. Another interesting difference between the V and R data was seen on July 4 when a mini-flare was seen in V but not in R. Clearly, while the V and R variations are highly correlated, there are compelling differences. Here we present these observations and discuss them in relation to models intended to explain microvariability. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA grant NCC5-228.

  3. High frequency stimulation of the STN restored the abnormal high-voltage spindles in the cortex and the globus pallidus of 6-OHDA lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Zhang, Jia-Rui; Chen, Lei; Ge, Shun-Nan; Wang, Jue-Lei; Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Jia, Dong; Zhu, Jun-Ling; Gao, Guo-Dong

    2015-05-19

    Many studies showed that abnormal oscillations in the cortical-basal ganglia loop is involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to the well-studied beta synchronization, high-voltage spindles (HVSs), another type of abnormal oscillation observed in PD, are neglected. To explore the role of subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in HVSs regulation, we simultaneously recorded the local field potential (LFP) in the globus pallidus (GP) and electrocorticogram (ECoG) in the primary motor cortex(M1) in freely moving 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned or control rats before, during, and after STN-DBS. Consistent with our previous study, HVSs occurrence, duration, and relative power and coherence between the M1 cortex and GP increased in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. We found that high but not low frequency stimulation restored the abnormal HVSs activity and motor deficit. These results suggest that the STN is involved in the abnormal oscillation between the M1 cortex and GP.

  4. B-L nonconservation and neutron oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Lay-Nam; Chang, Ngee-Pong

    1980-05-01

    We present a general discussion of B-L violation in an SU(5) invariant theory, for a single generation of light fermions. We realize the simplest of such mechanism through the 15 Higgs. Its consequences for neutron oscillation are discussed. Supported in part by NSF-PHY 77-01350 and by City University Research Foundation PSC-BHE.

  5. B-L mediated SUSY breaking with radiative B-L symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Tatsuru; Kubo, Takayuki

    2008-11-23

    We explore a mechanism of radiative B-L symmetry breaking in analogous to the radiative electroweak symmetry breaking. The breaking scale of B-L symmetry is related to the neutrino masses through the see-saw mechanism. Once we incorporate the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry in SUSY models, the U(1){sub B-L} gaugino, Z-tilde{sub B-L} appears, and it can mediate the SUSY breaking (Z-prime mediated SUSY breaking) at around the scale of 10{sup 6} GeV. Then we find a links between the neutrino mass (more precisly the see-saw or B-L scale of order 10{sup 6} GeV) and the Z-prime mediated SUSY breaking scale. It is also very interesting that the gluino at the weak scale becomes relatively light, and almost compressed mass spectra for the gaugino sector can be realized in this scenario, which is very interesting in scope of the LHC.

  6. RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 and Their Complex Proteins Implicated in Many Cellular Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorynia, Sabine; Bandeiras, Tiago M.; Matias, Pedro M.; Pinho, Filipa G.; McVey, Colin E.; Donner, Peter; Carrondo, Maria Arménia

    RuvBL1 and its homolog RuvBL2 belong to the AAA+ family of ATPases and play important roles in chromatin remodeling, in transcriptional regulation, in DNA repair and in the c-Myc and Wnt signaling pathways. Proteins involved in these pathways are often mutated in human cancers. Both RuvBL proteins form a complex and act alone or together in diverse cellular processes. The three-dimensional structures of human RuvBL1 refined using diffraction data to 2.2 Å resolution and of the human RuvBL1/RuvBL2 complex with a truncated domain II at 3 Å resolution are presented. The dodecameric RuvBL1/RuvBL2 complex structure differs from previously described models. It consists of two heterohexameric rings with alternating RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 monomers that interact with each other via domain II. ATPase and helicase activities of RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 were also tested. Interestingly, truncation of domain II resulted not only in a substantial increase of ATP consumption by the RuvBL proteins, but also in stimulation of helicase activity, which was not observed with the full-length proteins.

  7. Multifrequency spectra of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.; Kondo, Y.; Mufson, S. L.; Wandel, A.

    1988-01-01

    A program to obtain simultaneous multifrequency spectra of BL Lacertae objects that are known X-ray sources is discussed. The IUE spectra are generally featureless and well-fitted by power law models. For the faintest exposures, Gaussian extraction of the spectrum can greatly impove the signal-to-noise. Most program objects vary in the ultraviolet, although the time scales are not known because of limited observing time. The broadband spectra of BL Lacs exhibit a range of characteristics but the curvature is always downward and the shape is generally smooth. This can be interpreted as synchrotron emission from a relativistic jet; different jet models are possible, and each allows a range of values for the bulk velocity, magnetic field strength, and electron density. Synchrotron models are not required, however an accretion disk model also gives a good fit to the ultraviolet-through-X-ray continuum.

  8. Optical and radio brightening of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Mirzaqulov, D. O.; Buemi, C. S.; Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Bach, U.

    2012-07-01

    Optical observations at the Mount Maidanak Observatory in the framework of the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) reveal a rapid optical brightening of BL Lacertae. This is one of the 28 blazars for which the GASP performs a long-term, multiwavelength monitoring. The source brightness has recently increased from R = 13.66 +/- 0.01 on July 19.82 to R = 12.60 +/- 0.01 on July 22.97.

  9. Chaos in hydrodynamic BL Herculis models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolec, R.; Moskalik, P.

    2014-06-01

    We present non-linear, convective, BL Her-type hydrodynamic models that show complex variability characteristic for deterministic chaos. The bifurcation diagram reveals a rich structure, with many phenomena detected for the first time in hydrodynamic models of pulsating stars. The phenomena include not only period doubling cascades en route to chaos (detected in earlier studies) but also periodic windows within chaotic band, type-I and type-III intermittent behaviour, interior crisis bifurcation and others. Such phenomena are known in many textbook chaotic systems, from the simplest discrete logistic map, to more complex systems like Lorenz equations. We discuss the physical relevance of our models. Although except of period doubling such phenomena were not detected in any BL Her star, chaotic variability was claimed in several higher luminosity siblings of BL Her stars - RV Tau variables, and also in longer-period, luminous irregular pulsators. Our models may help to understand these poorly studied stars. Particularly interesting are periodic windows which are intrinsic property of chaotic systems and are not necessarily caused by resonances between pulsation modes, as sometimes claimed in the literature.

  10. Design of Beamline BL9 at Saga Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Tooru; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kamada, Masao; Nishio, Mitsuhiro; Guo, Qixin; Masuda, Masataka; Motooka, Teruaki; Kondo, Yuzi; Hayashida, Kazuki; Yoshimura, Daisuke; Setoyama, Hiroyuki; Okajima, Toshihiro

    2007-01-19

    Saga Light Source (SAGA-LS), which has been constructed at Tosu city in Saga prefecture, is a compact synchrotron light source with storage electron energy of 1.4 GeV. A new beamline for the development of advanced materials and processing has been designed, and is now under construction at BL9 of SAGA-LS. This beamline is one of the three bending magnet beamlines (BL9, BL12, and BL15) constructed by Saga Prefectural Government. In this paper, we describe the design and the expected optical performance of the beamline BL9 at SAGA-LS.

  11. Motor and non-motor circuitry activation induced by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson’s disease patients: Intraoperative fMRI for DBS

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Emily J.; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S.; Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Favazza, Christopher P.; Felmlee, Joel P.; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M.; Clayton, Daniel A.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with PD would affect the activity of both motor and non-motor networks, we applied intraoperative fMRI to patients receiving DBS. Patients and Methods Ten patients receiving STN DBS for PD underwent intraoperative 1.5T fMRI during high frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between the dates of January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. Results We observed blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes (FDR<.001) in the motor circuitry, including primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, thalamus, pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), and cerebellum, as well as in the limbic circuitry, including cingulate and insular cortices. Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (p<.001) to our dataset, suggesting that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. Conclusions These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and non-motor networks, and suggest complex mechanisms at the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. With further studies combining the use of real time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning, but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26046412

  12. Decreased HCN2 expression in STN contributes to abnormal high-voltage spindles in the cortex and globus pallidus of freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Zhang, Jia-Rui; Chen, Lei; Ge, Shun-Nan; Wang, Ju-Lei; Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Jia, Dong; Zhu, Jun-Ling; Gao, Guo-Dong

    2015-08-27

    Abnormal oscillation in the cortical-basal ganglia loop is involved in the pathophysiology of parkinsonism. High-voltage spindles (HVSs), one of the main type abnormal oscillations in Parkinson's disease, are regulated by dopamine D2-like receptors but not D1-like receptors. However, little is known about how dopamine D2-like receptors regulate HVSs and the role of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated2 (HCN2) in HVSs regulation. We simultaneously recorded the local field potential (LFP) in globus pallidus (GP) and electrocorticogram (ECoG) in primary motor cortex (M1) in freely moving 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned or control rats. The expression of HCN2 and dopamine D2 receptor in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) was examined by immunochemical staining and Western blotting. We also tested the role of HCN2 in HVSs regulation by using pharmacological and shRNA methodology. We found that dopamine D2-like receptor agonists suppressed the increased HVSs in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. HCN2 was co-expressed with dopamine D2 receptor in the STN, and dopamine depletion decreased the expression of HCN2 as well as dopamine D2 receptor which contribute to the regulation of HVSs. HCN2 was down regulated by HCN2 shRNA, which thereby led to an increase in the HVSs in naïve rats while HCN2 agonist reduced the HVSs in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. These results suggest that HCN2 in the STN is involved in abnormal oscillation regulation between M1 cortex and GP.

  13. BATSE observations of BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect

    Connaughton, V.; Laurent-Muehleisen, S.; McCollough, M.A; Robinson, C.F.

    1998-06-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory has been shown to be sensitive to non-transient hard X-ray sources in our galaxy, down to flux levels of 100 mCrab for daily measurements, 3 mCrab for integrations over several years. We use the continuous BATSE database and the Earth Occultation technique to extract average flux values between 20 and 2OO keV from complete and radio- and X-ray- selected BL Lac samples over a 2 year period.

  14. New BVR Photometry of BL Camelopardalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    New BVR photometry of the SX Phe star BL Camelopardalis has been secured with the 0.9 m reflector at the BYU West Mountain Observatory. The new data have been used to determine times of maximum light, standardize light curves in each of the three filters, and examine the frequencies that are currently detectable in the light curves from a single location.We acknowledge the Brigham Young University College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences as well as the Department of Physics and Astronomy for continued support of this and other research efforts currently being done at the West Mountain Observatory.

  15. The gBL transport equations

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1989-05-01

    The transport equations arising from the ''generalized Balescu- Lenard'' (gBL) collision operator are obtained, and some of their properties examined. The equations contain neoclassical and turbulent transport as two special cases, having the same structure. The resultant theory offers potential explanation for a number of results not well understood, including the anomalous pinch, observed ratios of Q/GAMMAT on TFTR, and numerical reproduction of ASDEX profiles by a model for turbulent transport invoked without derivation, but by analogy to neoclassical theory. The general equations are specialized to consideration of a number of particular transport mechanisms of interest. 10 refs.

  16. 26 CFR 53.6071-1 - Time for filing returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Taxes related to black lung benefit trusts. Forms 990-BL and 6069 shall be filed on or before the 15th... expenditures of organizations described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. A Form 4720 required... of Certain Excise Taxes Under Chapters 41 and 42 of the Internal Revenue Code,” required by §...

  17. Evidence of improved immediate verbal memory and diminished category fluency following STN-DBS in Chinese-Cantonese patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Venus; Zhu, Cannon X L; Chan, Danny; Lau, Claire; Chan, Anne; Mok, Vincent; Yeung, Jonas; Poon, Wai Sang

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the neuropsychological effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) on subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Chinese-Cantonese patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-seven patients were prospectively recruited from the Movement Disorder Clinic at the Hong Kong Prince of Wales Hospital. Neuropsychological evaluations were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 months following the DBS procedure. Assessment battery included standardized tests on global cognitive function, verbal memory, non-verbal memory, confrontation naming, visuospatial organization, attention and executive functions. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were measured by two self-reported questionnaires. Results demonstrated diminished performance on a category fluency task that occurred at 6 months post-operatively and persisted at 12-month re-evaluation; 29.6-33.3 % of patients showed reduction of more than 1 SD (standard deviation) at post-operative measure. Conversely, performance on an immediate recall task in a verbal memory test was found to improve significantly at the same time point and persisted through 12 months after surgery; 22.2-25.9 % showed an improvement (≥1 SD). Psychologically, anxiety symptoms were statistically decreased and the significant reduction occurred at 12 months after surgery. Patients who reported a moderate to severe level of anxiety reduced from 51.9 to 18.5 %. Our findings concurred with most evidences on the effects of STN-DBS on verbal fluency; on the other hand, we demonstrated improvement of immediate verbal memory that warranted further investigation. PMID:25708249

  18. A self-similarity based unification of BL Lacertae objects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georganopoulos, M.; Marscher, A. P.

    1997-12-01

    BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects have been traditionally classified as radio selected BL Lacs (RBLs) or X-ray selected BL Lacs (XBLs) according to the discovery method. The recent discovery of a BL Lac population with observational properties intermediate between those of RBLs and XBLs, strongly suggest that this bimodal classification is misleading, and essentially reflects the two different discovery methods. We propose a unification scheme for BL Lac objects based on the following scenario: the kinetic luminosity of the jet Lambda_ {kin} scales with the size of the jet r, following the relation Lambda_ {kin} ~ r(2) . Additionally, the intensive physical variables that describe the relativistic jet in the BL Lac objects have a small intrinsic range of values. The combination of these two assumptions suggests a unification scheme, where the observed properties of a BL Lac depend mainly on the kinetic luminosity of the jet and the angle between the line of sight and the jet axis. We apply this scheme using the accelerating inner jet model, comparing the predictions of this unification with observational data from complete BL Lac samples. Finally, we briefly address the question of extending this unified scheme to include the family of flat spectrum radio quasars.

  19. Optical and radio variability of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, H.; Gupta, A. C.; Bachev, R.; Strigachev, A.; Semkov, E.; Wiita, P. J.; Volvach, A. E.; Gu, M. F.; Agarwal, A.; Agudo, I.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Peneva, S.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Sigua, L. A.; Tornikoski, M.; Volvach, L. N.

    2015-10-01

    Context. We extensively observed the prototype blazar, BL Lacertae, in optical and radio bands during an active phase in the period 2010-2013 when the source showed several prominent outbursts. We searched for possible correlations and time lags between the optical and radio band flux variations using multi-frequency data to learn about the mechanisms producing variability. Aims: During an active phase of BL Lacertae, we searched for possible correlations and time lags between multi-frequency light curves of several optical and radio bands. We tried to estimate any possible variability timescales and inter-band lags in these bands. Methods: We performed optical observations in B, V, R, and I-bands from seven telescopes in Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, and India and obtained radio data at 36.8, 22.2, 14.5, 8, and 4.8 GHz frequencies from three telescopes in Crimea, Finland, and USA. Results: Significant cross-correlations between optical and radio bands are found in our observations with a delay of cm-fluxes with respect to optical bands of ~250 days. The optical and radio light curves do not show any significant timescales of variability. BL Lacertae showed many optical "mini-flares" on short timescales. Variations on longer term timescales are mildly chromatic with the superposition of many strong optical outbursts. In radio bands, the amplitude of variability is frequency dependent. Flux variations at higher radio frequencies lead the lower frequencies by days or weeks. Conclusions: The optical variations are consistent with being dominated by a geometric scenario where a region of emitting plasma moves along a helical path in a relativistic jet. The frequency dependence of the variability amplitude supports an origin of the observed variations intrinsic to the source. Tables of the light curves are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/582/A103

  20. 78 FR 49681 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... published a notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register (REG-130266-11; 78 FR 20523) containing... 26 CFR Part 53 RIN 1545-BL58 Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the... the tax ] is due, without regard to extensions of time to file the return. Treas. Reg. Sec. Sec....

  1. Intranight Variability During the 1997 Outburst of BL Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Sandra D.; Carini, Michael T.; Noble, John C.

    1998-02-01

    The blazar BL Lac underwent a major outburst this summer. To search for intranight variability during the outburst, observations of BL Lac were made with the 30 inch telescope at the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory. During ten nights in July, nearly 300 CCD observations were made. BL Lac was seen to vary by more than 1.5 magnitudes over those ten nights. Substantial intranight variability was also observed. For example, on July 29, BL Lac increased in brightness by more than 0.5 magnitude in less than 2.5 hours. The observations of BL Lac taken in July are reported here and discussed in relation to the models intended to explain intranight variability.

  2. Near-infrared brightening of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnerero, M. I.; Gonzalez, A. I.; Pulido, J. A. Acosta; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.

    2012-07-01

    Near-infrared observations at the Teide Observatory, in the framework of the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) confirm a rapid brightening of BL Lacertae, as reported by ATel#4271. Here we report on four observations obtained at the Carlos Sanchez Telescope in a week period, according to which the source has increased its brightness by 0.7 mag. On 2012 July 20.14 the source was observed at J=11.25 +/-0.01 (H=10.27+/-0.01 and Ks=9.46+/-0.01), on July 21.15 at J=11.00+/-0.02 (H=10.02+/-0.02, Ks=9.21+/-0,02), on July 24.98 at J=10.72+/-0.01 (H=9.76+/-0.01, Ks=8.94+/-0.01), and on July 26.12 at J=10.57+/-0.01 (H=9.58+/-0.01, Ks=8.77+/-0.01).

  3. On the magnetization of BL Lac jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.

    2016-03-01

    The current paradigm foresees that relativistic jets are launched as magnetically dominated flows, whose magnetic power is progressively converted to kinetic power of the matter of the jet, until equipartition is reached. Therefore, at the end of the acceleration phase, the jet should still carry a substantial fraction (≈half) of its power in the form of a Poynting flux. It has been also argued that, in these conditions, the best candidate particle acceleration mechanism is efficient reconnection of magnetic field lines, for which it is predicted that magnetic field and accelerated relativistic electron energy densities are in equipartition. Through the modelling of the jet non-thermal emission, we explore if equipartition is indeed possible in BL Lac objects, i.e. low-power blazars with weak or absent broad emission lines. We find that one-zone models (for which only one region is involved in the production of the radiation we observe) the particle energy density is largely dominating (by 1-2 orders of magnitude) over the magnetic one. As a consequence, the jet kinetic power largely exceeds the magnetic power. Instead, if the jet is structured (i.e. made by a fast spine surrounded by a slower layer), the amplification of the inverse Compton emission due to the radiative interplay between the two components allows us to reproduce the emission in equipartition conditions.

  4. Behavioral Profiles of Three C57BL/6 Substrains

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Naoki; Takao, Keizo; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Tanda, Koichi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    C57BL/6 inbred strains of mice are widely used in knockout and transgenic research. To evaluate the loss-of-function and gain-of-function effects of the gene of interest, animal behaviors are often examined. However, an issue of C57BL/6 substrains that is not always appreciated is that behaviors are known to be strongly influenced by genetic background. To investigate the behavioral characteristics of C57BL/6 substrains, we subjected C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and C57BL/6C mice to a behavior test battery. We performed both a regular scale analysis, in which experimental conditions were tightly controlled, and large-scale analysis from large number of behavioral data that we have collected so far through the comprehensive behavioral test battery applied to 700–2,200 mice in total. Significant differences among the substrains were found in the results of various behavioral tests, including the open field, rotarod, elevated plus maze, prepulse inhibition, Porsolt forced swim, and spatial working memory version of the eight-arm radial maze. Our results show a divergence of behavioral performance in C57BL/6 substrains, which suggest that small genetic differences may have a great influence on behavioral phenotypes. Thus, the genetic background of different substrains should be carefully chosen, equated, and considered in the interpretation of mutant behavioral phenotypes. PMID:20676234

  5. The cosmic evolution of Fermi BL Lacertae objects

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Romani, R. W.; Shaw, M. S.; Healey, S. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Gasparrini, D.; Bolmer, J.; Cotter, G.; Potter, W. J.; Finke, J.; Greiner, J.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; King, O.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L. E-mail: rwr@astro.stanford.edu E-mail: gasparrini@asdc.asi.it

    2014-01-01

    Fermi has provided the largest sample of γ-ray-selected blazars to date. In this work we use a uniformly selected set of 211 BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects detected by Fermi during its first year of operation. We obtained redshift constraints for 206 out of the 211 BL Lac objects in our sample, making it the largest and most complete sample of BL Lac objects available in the literature. We use this sample to determine the luminosity function of BL Lac objects and its evolution with cosmic time. We find that for most BL Lac classes the evolution is positive, with a space density peaking at modest redshift (z ≈ 1.2). Low-luminosity, high-synchrotron-peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are an exception, showing strong negative evolution, with number density increasing for z ≲ 0.5. Since this rise corresponds to a drop-off in the density of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), a possible interpretation is that these HSPs represent an accretion-starved end state of an earlier merger-driven gas-rich phase. We additionally find that the known BL Lac correlation between luminosity and photon spectral index persists after correction for the substantial observational selection effects with implications for the so-called 'blazar sequence'. Finally, by estimating the beaming corrections to the luminosity function, we find that BL Lac objects have an average Lorentz factor of γ=6.1{sub −0.8}{sup +1.1}, and that most are seen within 10° of the jet axis.

  6. Dark matter in B-L extended MSSM models

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, S.; Okada, H.

    2009-04-15

    We analyze the dark matter problem in the context of the supersymmetric U(1){sub B-L} model. In this model, the lightest neutralino can be the B-L gaugino Z-tilde{sub B-L} or the extra Higgsinos {chi}-tilde{sub 1,2} dominated. We compute the thermal relic abundance of these particles and show that, unlike the lightest neutralino in the MSSM, they can account for the observed relic abundance with no conflict with other phenomenological constraints. The prospects for their direct detection, if they are part of our galactic halo, are also discussed.

  7. The megaparsec-scale environments of BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric P.; O'Dea, C. P.; Baum, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    We compare observations of BL Lac megaparsec-scale clustering environments with those for F-R I radio galaxies V and R image data are used to show that the strengths of the clustering measured via spatial cross-correlation amplitude are similar for the two types of galaxies and are consistent with Abel richness class 0. We discuss the implications this has for the origin of the BL Lac phenomena. We also examine the evolution of clustering environments of F-R I radio galaxies and BL Lac objects with redshift.

  8. Compress Your Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    File compression enables data to be squeezed together, greatly reducing file size. Why would someone want to do this? Reducing file size enables the sending and receiving of files over the Internet more quickly, the ability to store more files on the hard drive, and the ability pack many related files into one archive (for example, all files…

  9. Disparities in auditory physiology and pathology between C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N substrains

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Ann; Schacht, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    C57BL/6 inbred mice are frequently used as models in auditory research, mostly the C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N substrains. Genetic variation and phenotypic disparities between these two substrains have been extensively investigated, but conflicting information exists about differences in their auditory and vestibular phenotypes. Literature-based comparisons are rendered difficult or impossible because most auditory publications do not designate the substrain used. We therefore evaluated commercial C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J mice for their baseline auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds at 3 months of age as well as their susceptibility to noise exposure and aminoglycoside antibiotics. Both substrains have similar thresholds at 4 and 12 kHz, but C57BL/6N show significantly higher baseline thresholds at 24 and 32 kHz. Because of these elevated thresholds, the N substrain is unsuitable as a model for drug ototoxicity, which primarily affects high frequencies. Exposure to 2–20 kHz broadband noise for 2 h at 110 dB produced significantly higher threshold shifts in the J substrain. These results suggest caution in the selection of C57BL/6 substrains for auditory research and indicate the need to specify substrains, age and the breeding source in all publications. PMID:25456090

  10. HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-3bl COLLAPSE ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada and National Security Technologies, LLC

    2006-09-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing.

  11. A comparative phenotypic and genomic analysis of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mouse inbred line C57BL/6J is widely used in mouse genetics and its genome has been incorporated into many genetic reference populations. More recently large initiatives such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) are using the C57BL/6N mouse strain to generate null alleles for all mouse genes. Hence both strains are now widely used in mouse genetics studies. Here we perform a comprehensive genomic and phenotypic analysis of the two strains to identify differences that may influence their underlying genetic mechanisms. Results We undertake genome sequence comparisons of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N to identify SNPs, indels and structural variants, with a focus on identifying all coding variants. We annotate 34 SNPs and 2 indels that distinguish C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N coding sequences, as well as 15 structural variants that overlap a gene. In parallel we assess the comparative phenotypes of the two inbred lines utilizing the EMPReSSslim phenotyping pipeline, a broad based assessment encompassing diverse biological systems. We perform additional secondary phenotyping assessments to explore other phenotype domains and to elaborate phenotype differences identified in the primary assessment. We uncover significant phenotypic differences between the two lines, replicated across multiple centers, in a number of physiological, biochemical and behavioral systems. Conclusions Comparison of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N demonstrates a range of phenotypic differences that have the potential to impact upon penetrance and expressivity of mutational effects in these strains. Moreover, the sequence variants we identify provide a set of candidate genes for the phenotypic differences observed between the two strains. PMID:23902802

  12. Optical observations of BL Lacertae in 2004-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, You-Hong; Bian, Fu-Yan; Li, Jun-Zheng; Shang, Ren-Cheng

    2013-06-01

    We present optical observations of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) in the standard BVRI bands with the 80 cm Tsinghua Centre for Astrophysics-National Astronomical Observatories of China telescope. In 2004, BL Lac was monitored for 25 nights, between September and November, to study its long-term optical variability behaviour. The source initially faded by ΔR ˜ 1 mag in ˜30 d and then brightened by ΔR ˜ 0.8 mag in ˜20 d. It was further monitored for six consecutive nights on 2005 September 3-8, focusing on its intranight variability characteristics. The source continuously brightened by ΔR ˜ 0.7 mag during the six nights, with some visible fluctuations superimposed on to the brightness-increasing trend. The amplitudes of intranight variations tend to increase from I to B wavelengths. BL Lac exhibited strong bluer-when-brighter behaviour for the internight variations, which is less pronounced for some of the intranight variations. The intranight variations between different bands are correlated without measurable time lags in most time, but the flare on 2005 September 6 showed that the R-band variations lagged the B band ones by 1052^{+859}_{-759} s. Our results indicate that the optical variability properties of BL Lac (the prototype of low-energy-peaked BL Lac objects, LBLs) remarkably resemble the X-ray variability properties of high-energy-peaked BL Lac objects (HBLs). The similarities imply common origin of the variations, plausibly the most energetic tails of the synchrotron emission produced by the relativistic electrons in the jets, for both the optical emission of LBLs and the X-ray emission of HBLs.

  13. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  14. Are some BL Lacs artefacts of gravitational lensing?

    PubMed

    Ostriker, J P; Vietri, M

    1990-03-01

    WE suggested in 1985 that a significant fraction of BL Lacertae objects, a kind of lineless quasar, seen in nearby galaxies are in fact images, gravitationally lensed and substantially amplified by stars in the nearby galaxy, of background objects, optically violent variable (OVV) quasars at redshifts z > 1 (ref. 1). This hypothesis was made on the basis of certain general similarities between BL Lacs and O Ws, but for two recently observed BL Lacs(2,3) a strong case can be made that the accompanying elliptical galaxy is a foreground object. In addition, we argue that the distribution of BL Lac redshifts is hard to understand without gravitational lensing, unless we happen to be at a very local maximum of the spatial cosmic distribution of BL Lacs. Our analysis also indicates that the galaxies whose stars are likely to act as microlenses will be found in two peaks, one nearby, with redshift 0.05-0.10, and the other near the distant quasar.

  15. Are some BL Lacs artefacts of gravitational lensing?

    PubMed

    Ostriker, J P; Vietri, M

    1990-03-01

    WE suggested in 1985 that a significant fraction of BL Lacertae objects, a kind of lineless quasar, seen in nearby galaxies are in fact images, gravitationally lensed and substantially amplified by stars in the nearby galaxy, of background objects, optically violent variable (OVV) quasars at redshifts z > 1 (ref. 1). This hypothesis was made on the basis of certain general similarities between BL Lacs and O Ws, but for two recently observed BL Lacs(2,3) a strong case can be made that the accompanying elliptical galaxy is a foreground object. In addition, we argue that the distribution of BL Lac redshifts is hard to understand without gravitational lensing, unless we happen to be at a very local maximum of the spatial cosmic distribution of BL Lacs. Our analysis also indicates that the galaxies whose stars are likely to act as microlenses will be found in two peaks, one nearby, with redshift 0.05-0.10, and the other near the distant quasar. PMID:18278021

  16. Case File: The Spazzoids

    MedlinePlus

    ... classroom activities. More Related Links Healthy Schools Case file: The Spazzzoids Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... your classroom activities. More Related Links Healthy Schools File Formats Help: How do I view different file ...

  17. Imaging redshift estimates for Fermi BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect

    Stadnik, Matt; Romani, Roger W. E-mail: rwr@astro.stanford.edu

    2014-04-01

    We have obtained WIYN and SOAR i' images of BL Lacertae objects and used these to detect or constrain the flux of the host galaxy. Under common standard candle assumptions, these data provide estimates of, or lower bounds on, the redshift. Our targets are a set of flat-spectrum radio counterparts of high flux Fermi Large Area Telescope sources, with sensitive spectral observations showing them to be continuum-dominated BL Lac objects. In this sample, 5 of 11 BL Lac objects yielded significant host detections, with standard candle redshifts z = 0.13-0.58. Our estimates and lower bounds are generally in agreement with other redshifts estimates, although our z = 0.374 estimate for J0543–5532 implies a significantly sub-luminous host.

  18. Statistical analysis of the temporal properties of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yu Cheng; Hu, Shao Ming; Li, Yu Tong; Chen, Xu

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive temporal analysis has been performed on optical light curves of BL Lacertae in the B, V and R bands. The light curves were denoised by Gaussian smoothing and decomposed into individual flares using an exponential profile. The asymmetry, duration, peak flux and equivalent energy output of flares were measured and the frequency distributions presented. Most optical flares of BL Lacertae are highly symmetric, with a weak tendency towards gradual rises and rapid decays. The distribution of flare durations is not random, but consistent with a gamma distribution. Peak fluxes and energy outputs of flares all follow a log-normal distribution. A positive correlation is detected between flare durations and peak fluxes. The temporal properties of BL Lacertae provide evidence of the stochastic magnetohydrodynamic process in the accretion disc and jet.The results presented here can serve as constraints on physical models attempting to interpret blazar variations.

  19. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. Megan; Wandel, Amri

    1990-01-01

    The accretion disk is an attractive model for BL Lac objects because of its preferred axis and high efficiency. While the smooth continuum spectra of BL Lacs do not show large UV bumps, in marked contrast to quasars, high quality simultaneous data do reveal deviations from smoothness. Using detailed calculations of cool accretion disk spectra, the best measured ultraviolet and soft x ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted. The mass and accretion rate required are determined. A hot disk or corona could comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power law spectrum in the 1 to 10 keV range. The dynamic time scales in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft x ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations. The mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard x ray variability.

  20. Gamma-ray observations of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanlon, L.; McBreen, B.; OFlaherty, K.; Metcalfe, L.; Hunter, S.; Tashiro, M.; Wagner, S.; Bouchet, P.; Nicolson, G. D.; Smith, N. J.

    1997-01-01

    The results from observations of a sample of BL Lac objects by the Compton telescope (COMPTEL) and energetic gamma ray experiment telescope (EGRET) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) are presented. The main targets in the sample were selected on the basis of their X-ray brightness and apparent spectral hardening at hard X-ray energies. One of the targets, PKS 0521-365 was detected by EGRET, and these data are presented together with contemporaneous ground-based radio data. Subsequent X-ray observations of this source with the Advanced Satellite for Cosomology and Astrophysics (ASCA) demonstrated that, although originally classified as a BL Lac object, it is better described as a flat spectrum radio quasar. Upper limits on the gamma ray flux from all the non-detected BL lacs are presented.

  1. Lawsuit filed.

    PubMed

    1996-04-19

    Social service providers at a Boston center for Haitian immigrants filed a suit in a U.S. District Court against the Federal government. The suit claims that auditors from the Inspector General's Office in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services demanded the names of clients with AIDS. The auditors explained that this process, conducted to determine whether agencies are properly spending Ryan White CARE Act funds, is appropriate and routine. Attorneys for the social service providers contend that the actions of the auditors breached client confidentiality and privacy.

  2. Diffuse γ-ray emission from unresolved BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect

    Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F.; Lamanna, G.; Sanchez, D. A.

    2014-05-10

    Blazars, active galactic nuclei with a jet pointing toward the Earth, represent the most abundant class of high-energy extragalactic γ-ray sources. The subset of blazars known as BL Lac objects is on average closer to Earth (i.e., younger) and characterized by harder spectra at high energy than the whole sample. The fraction of BL Lacs that is too dim to be detected and resolved by current γ-ray telescopes is therefore expected to contribute to the high-energy isotropic diffuse γ-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB has been recently measured over a wide energy range by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). We present a new prediction of the diffuse γ-ray flux due to the unresolved BL Lac blazar population. The model is built upon the spectral energy distribution and the luminosity function derived from the fraction of BL Lacs detected (and spectrally characterized) in the γ-ray energy range. We focus our attention on the O(100) GeV energy range, predicting the emission up to the TeV scale and taking into account the absorption on the extragalactic background light. In order to better shape the BL Lac spectral energy distribution, we combine the Fermi-LAT data with Imaging Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope measurements of the most energetic sources. Our analysis is carried on separately for low- and intermediate-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacs on the one hand and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacs on the other hand: we find in fact statistically different features for the two. The diffuse emission from the sum of both BL Lac classes increases from about 10% of the measured IGRB at 100 MeV to ∼100% of the data level at 100 GeV. At energies greater than 100 GeV, our predictions naturally explain the IGRB data, accommodating their softening with increasing energy. Uncertainties are estimated to be within of a factor of two of the best-fit flux up to 500 GeV.

  3. 43 CFR 4.1352 - Who may file; where to file; when to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may file; where to file; when to file... Indian Lands) § 4.1352 Who may file; where to file; when to file. (a) The applicant or operator may file... to file a timely request constitutes a waiver of the opportunity for a hearing before OSM makes...

  4. Abundance of the Fanconi anaemia core complex is regulated by the RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 AAA+ ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Rajendra, Eeson; Garaycoechea, Juan I.; Patel, Ketan J.; Passmore, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a genome instability disease caused by defects in the FA DNA repair pathway that senses and repairs damage caused by DNA interstrand crosslinks. At least 8 of the 16 genes found mutated in FA encode proteins that assemble into the FA core complex, a multisubunit monoubiquitin E3 ligase. Here, we show that the RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 AAA+ ATPases co-purify with FA core complex isolated under stringent but native conditions from a vertebrate cell line. Depletion of the RuvBL1-RuvBL2 complex in human cells causes hallmark features of FA including DNA crosslinker sensitivity, chromosomal instability and defective FA pathway activation. Genetic knockout of RuvBL1 in a murine model is embryonic lethal while conditional inactivation in the haematopoietic stem cell pool confers profound aplastic anaemia. Together these findings reveal a function for RuvBL1-RuvBL2 in DNA repair through a physical and functional association with the FA core complex. Surprisingly, depletion of RuvBL1-RuvBL2 leads to co-depletion of the FA core complex in human cells. This suggests that a potential mechanism for the role of RuvBL1-RuvBL2 in maintaining genome integrity is through controlling the cellular abundance of FA core complex. PMID:25428364

  5. New microsatellite polymorphisms identified between C57BL/6, C57BL/10, and C57BL/KsJ inbred mouse strains

    SciTech Connect

    Slingsby, J.H.; Hogarth, M.B.; Walport, M.J.

    1996-06-01

    The C57BL/6 (B6) and C57BL/10 (B10) inbred mouse strains are among the most commonly used in biological research and have provided the genetic background for the construction of many congenic strains. The two substrains were derived from the parental C57BL stock and were separated prior to 1937. Since then, they have been thought to possess a very close genetic relationship. By 1992, 161 loci had been tested, and only three differed between B6 and B10: the minor histocompatibility locus H9, the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus Igh 2 on chromosome 12, and the delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase Lv locus on chromosome 4. B6 and B10 have also been shown to differ over an 8 cM segment on chromosome 4. Due to the differences at the H9 locus, B6 and B10 are not histocompatible. The aim of our study was to identify novel genetic polymorphisms between B6 and B10 mice and to analyze the BKs mouse with genetic markers such that further information can be gathered on the genetic origins of this strain. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Production of superoxide from photosystem II-light harvesting complex II supercomplex in STN8 kinase knock-out rice mutants under photoinhibitory illumination.

    PubMed

    Poudyal, Roshan Sharma; Nath, Krishna; Zulfugarov, Ismayil S; Lee, Choon-Hwan

    2016-09-01

    When phosphorylation of Photosystem (PS) II core proteins is blocked in STN8 knock-out mutants of rice (Oryza sativa) under photoinhibitory illumination, the mobilization of PSII supercomplex is prevented. We have previously proposed that more superoxide (O2(-)) is produced from PSII in the mutant (Nath et al., 2013, Plant J. 76, 675-686). Here, we clarify the type and site for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using both histochemical and fluorescence probes, we observed that, compared with wild-type (WT) leaves, levels of ROS, including O2(-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), were increased when leaves from mutant plants were illuminated with excess light. However, singlet oxygen production was not enhanced under such conditions. When superoxide dismutase was inhibited, O2(-) production was increased, indicating that it is the initial event prior to H2O2 production. In thylakoids isolated from WT leaves, kinase was active in the presence of ATP, and spectrophotometric analysis of nitrobluetetrazolium absorbance for O2(-) confirmed that PSII-driven superoxide production was greater in the mutant thylakoids than in the WT. This contrast in levels of PSII-driven superoxide production between the mutants and the WT plants was confirmed by conducting protein oxidation assays of PSII particles from osstn8 leaves under strong illumination. Those assays also demonstrated that PSII-LHCII supercomplex proteins were oxidized more in the mutant, thereby implying that PSII particles incur greater damage even though D1 degradation during PSII-supercomplex mobilization is partially blocked in the mutant. These results suggest that O2(-) is the major form of ROS produced in the mutant, and that the damaged PSII in the supercomplex is the primary source of O2(-). PMID:27390892

  7. The gravitational wave spectrum from cosmological B-L breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K.; Schmitz, K. E-mail: valerie.domcke@desy.de E-mail: kai.schmitz@ipmu.jp

    2013-10-01

    Cosmological B-L breaking is a natural and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase drives hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The decays of heavy B-L Higgs bosons and heavy neutrinos generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter and also control the reheating temperature. The different phases in the transition from inflation to the radiation dominated phase produce a characteristic spectrum of gravitational waves. We calculate the complete gravitational wave spectrum due to inflation, preheating and cosmic strings, which turns out to have several features. The production of gravitational waves from cosmic strings has large uncertainties, with lower and upper bounds provided by Abelian Higgs strings and Nambu-Goto strings, implying Ω{sub GW}h{sup 2} ∼ 10{sup −13}–10{sup −8}, much larger than the spectral amplitude predicted by inflation. Forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO, ET, BBO and DECIGO will reach the sensitivity needed to test the predictions from cosmological B-L breaking.

  8. The gravitational wave spectrum from cosmological B-L breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K.; Schmitz, K.

    2013-10-01

    Cosmological B-L breaking is a natural and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase drives hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The decays of heavy B-L Higgs bosons and heavy neutrinos generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter and also control the reheating temperature. The different phases in the transition from inflation to the radiation dominated phase produce a characteristic spectrum of gravitational waves. We calculate the complete gravitational wave spectrum due to inflation, preheating and cosmic strings, which turns out to have several features. The production of gravitational waves from cosmic strings has large uncertainties, with lower and upper bounds provided by Abelian Higgs strings and Nambu-Goto strings, implying ΩGWh2 ~ 10-13-10-8, much larger than the spectral amplitude predicted by inflation. Forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO, ET, BBO and DECIGO will reach the sensitivity needed to test the predictions from cosmological B-L breaking.

  9. Nature of intranight optical variability of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Haritma; Gupta, Alok C.; Bachev, R.; Strigachev, A.; Semkov, E.; Böttcher, M.; Wiita, P. J.; de Diego, J. A.; Gu, M. F.; Guo, H.; Joshi, R.; Mihov, B.; Palma, N.; Peneva, S.; Rajasingam, A.; Slavcheva-Mihova, L.

    2015-10-01

    We present the results of extensive multiband intranight optical monitoring of BL Lacertae during 2010-2012. BL Lacertae was very active in this period and showed intense variability in almost all wavelengths. We extensively observed it for a total for 38 nights; on 26 of them, observations were done quasi-simultaneously in B, V, R and I bands (totalling 113 light curves), with an average sampling interval of around 8 min. BL Lacertae showed significant variations on hour-like time-scales in a total of 19 nights in different optical bands. We did not find any evidence for periodicities or characteristic variability time-scales in the light curves. The intranight variability amplitude is generally greater at higher frequencies and decreases as the source flux increases. We found spectral variations in BL Lacertae in the sense that the optical spectrum becomes flatter as the flux increases but in several flaring states, deviates from the linear trend suggesting different jet components contributing to the emission at different times.

  10. Properties of optically selected BL Lacertae candidates from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügler, S. D.; Nilsson, K.; Heidt, J.; Esser, J.; Schultz, T.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Deep optical surveys open the avenue for finding large numbers of BL Lac objects that are hard to identify because they lack the unique properties classifying them as such. While radio or X-ray surveys typically reveal dozens of sources, recent compilations based on optical criteria alone have increased the number of BL Lac candidates considerably. However, these compilations are subject to biases and may contain a substantial number of contaminating sources. Aims: In this paper we extend our analysis of 182 optically selected BL Lac object candidates from the SDSS with respect to an earlier study. The main goal is to determine the number of bona fide BL Lac objects in this sample. Methods: We examine their variability characteristics, determine their broad-band radio-UV spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and search for the presence of a host galaxy. In addition we present new optical spectra for 27 targets with improved signal-to-noise ratio with respect to the SDSS spectra. Results: At least 59% of our targets have shown variability between SDSS DR2 and our observations by more than 0.1-0.27 mag depending on the telescope used. A host galaxy was detected in 36% of our targets. The host galaxy type and luminosities are consistent with earlier studies of BL Lac host galaxies. Simple fits to broad-band SEDs for 104 targets of our sample derived synchrotron peak frequencies between 13.5 ≤ log 10(νpeak) ≤ 16 with a peak at log 10 ~ 14.5. Our new optical spectra do not reveal any new redshift for any of our objects. Thus the sample contains a large number of bona fide BL Lac objects and seems to contain a substantial fraction of intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lacs. Based on observations collected with the NTT on La Silla (Chile) operated by the European Southern Observatory under proposal 082.B-0133.Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie and the

  11. Report filing in histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Blenkinsopp, W K

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of alternative methods of filing histopathology report forms in alphabetical order showed that orthodox card index filing is satisfactory up to about 100000 reports but, because of the need for long-term retrieval, when the reports filed exceed this number they should be copied on jacketed microfilm and a new card index file begun. PMID:591645

  12. Common file formats.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Shonda A; Littlejohn, Timothy G; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2007-01-01

    This appendix discusses a few of the file formats frequently encountered in bioinformatics. Specifically, it reviews the rules for generating FASTA files and provides guidance for interpreting NCBI descriptor lines, commonly found in FASTA files. In addition, it reviews the construction of GenBank, Phylip, MSF and Nexus files. PMID:18428774

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain BL23▿

    PubMed Central

    Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

  14. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain BL23.

    PubMed

    Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2010-05-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

  15. A Catalogue of XMM-Newton BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racero, E.; De la Calle, I.; Rouco Escorial, A.

    2015-05-01

    A catalogue of XMM-Newton BL Lac is presented based on a cross-correlation with the 1374 BL Lac objects listed in the 13th edition of the Veron-Cetty and Veron (2010) catalogue. X-ray counterparts were searched for in the field of view of more than 10000 pointed observations available in the XMM-Newton Archive (XSA) that were public before June 2012. The cross-correlation yielded around 250 XMM-Newton observations, which correspond to 162 different sources. X-ray data from the three EPIC cameras and Optical Monitor data were uniformly analyzed using the latest XMM-Newton Science Analysis System (SAS) version. The catalogue collects X-ray spectral properties, including flux variability, of the sample in the 0.2--10 KeV energy band. All the catalogue products will be made publicly available to the scientific community.

  16. Galactic membership of BL Her type variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkovic, M. I.; Stojanovic, M.; Ninkovic, S.

    2016-05-01

    As the RR Lyrae stars evolve on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram they are believed to become short period Type II Cepheids, known as BL Her type (with a pulsation period from 1 to 3-8 days). Assuming that their mass is around 0.5-0.6M_Sol, and that they are low metallicity objects, they were thought to belong to the halo of the Milky Way. We investigated seven Galactic short period Type II Cepheids (BL Her, SW Tau, V553 Cen, DQ And, BD Cas, V383 Cyg, and KT Com) in order to establish their membership within the Galactic structure using the kinematic approach. Gaia should provide us with more data needed to conduct the study of the whole sample.

  17. Optical follow-up of ongoing flaring of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, S.; Ganesh, S.; Baliyan, K. S.; Ahmad, N.; Jain, J. K.; Rajpurohit, G. S.

    2013-11-01

    We report the optical photometry of blazar BL Lacertae and confirm its ongoing flaring activity. This object was reported with flux enhancements in H band observations (ATel #5518, Carrasco et al). Later observations reported by many other groups present an increasing trend in NIR/Optical flux starting from mid October, 2013 (ATel 5550,5558). Historical peak flux was reported by Larionov et al. (ATel:#5597, R~12.34 mag) on 23rd November 2013.

  18. Long-term optical and radio variability of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y. C.; Hu, S. M.; Xu, C.; Liu, C. Y.; Chen, X.; Guo, D. F.; Meng, F. Y.; Xu, M. T.; Xu, J. Q.

    2015-04-01

    Well-sampled optical and radio light curves of BL Lacertae in B, V, R, I bands and 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 GHz from 1968 to 2014 were presented in this paper. A possible 1.26 ± 0.05 yr period in optical bands and a 7.50 ± 0.15 yr period in radio bands were detected based on discrete correlation function, structure function as well as Jurkevich method. Correlations among different bands were also analyzed and no reliable time delay was found between optical bands. Very weak correlations were detected between V band and radio bands. However, in radio bands the variation at low frequency lagged that at high frequency obviously. The spectrum of BL Lacertae turned mildly bluer when the object turned brighter, and stronger bluer-when-brighter trends were found for short flares. A scenario including a precessing helical jet and periodic shocks was put forward to interpret the variation characteristics of BL Lacertae.

  19. BL Herculis stars - Theoretical models for field variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, R.; Stothers, R.

    1982-01-01

    Type II Cepheids with periods between 1 and 3 days, commonly designated as Bl Herculis stars, have been modeled here with the aim of interpreting the wide variety of light curves observed among the field variables. Previously modeled globular cluster members are used as standard calibration objects. The major finding is that only a small range of luminosities is capable of generating a large variety of light curve types at a given period. For a mass of approximately 0.60 solar mass, the models are able to reproduce the observed mean luminosities, dispersion of mean luminosities, periods, light amplitudes, light asymmetries, and phases of secondary features in the light curves of known BL Her stars. It is possible that the metal-rich variables (which are found only in the field) have luminosities lower than those of most metal-poor variables. The present revised mass for BL Her, a metal-rich object, is not significantly different from the mean mass of the metal-poor variables.

  20. 78 FR 49700 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... 26 CFR Part 53 RIN 1545-BL57 Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the... burden in time or expense. The liability for the section 4959 excise tax is imposed by statute, and not..., notice of the date, time, and place for the public hearing will be published in the Federal...

  1. Hydrogeologic Characterization of the U-3bl Collapse Zone

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Geotechnical Services

    2006-09-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing. Borehole U-3bl-D2 is a 45-degree-angle hole drilled from the edge of the crater under the waste cell to intercept the U-3bl collapse zone, the disturbed alluvium between the crater (surface collapse sink) and the nuclear test cavity. A casing-advance system with an air percussion hammer was used to drill the borehole, and air was used as the drilling fluid. Properties of the U-3bl crater collapse zone were determined from cores collected within the interval, 42.1 to 96.6 meters (138 to 317 feet) below the ground surface. Selected core samples were analyzed for particle density, particle size, bulk density, water retention, hydraulic conductivity, water content, water potential, chloride, carbonate, stable isotopes, and tritium. Physical and hydraulic properties were typical of alluvial valley sediments at the NTS. No visual evidence of preferential pathways for water transport was observed in the core samples. Soil parameters showed no trends with depth. Volumetric water content values ranged from 0.08 to 0.20 cubic meters per cubic meter, and tended to increase with depth. Water-retention relations were typical for soils of similar texture. Water potentials ranged from -1.9 MegaPascals at a depth of 42

  2. Text File Display Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrus, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

  3. Standard interface file handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  4. Text File Comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  5. The Vertical File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czopek, Vanessa

    The process of establishing the vertical file for a new branch library is traced; suggestions for making the vertical file a better resource are offered; and guidelines covering the general objective, responsibility for selection and maintenance, principles of selection, and scope of the collection for vertical files are presented. A four-item…

  6. Understanding BL Lacertae objects. Structural and kinematic mode changes in the BL Lac object PKS 0735+178

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britzen, S.; Witzel, A.; Gong, B. P.; Zhang, J. W.; Gopal-Krishna; Goyal, A.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Zensus, J. A.

    2010-06-01

    Context. We present evidence that parsec-scale jets in BL Lac objects may be significantly distinct in kinematics from their counterparts in quasars. We argued this previously for the BL lac sources 1803+784 and 0716+714 and report here a similar pattern for another well-known BL Lac object, PKS 0735+178, whose nuclear jet is found to exhibit kinematics atypical of quasars. Aims: By analyzing the pc-scale jet morphology and its changes in 0735+178 we seek to understand the emission processes in BL Lac objects and to decipher their differences from quasars. A detailed study of the jet components' motion reveals that the standard AGN paradigm of apparent superluminal motion does not always describe the kinematics in BL Lac objects. We study 0735+178 here to augment and improve the understanding of the peculiar motions in the jets of BL Lac objects as a class. Methods: We analyzed 15 GHz VLBA (Very Long Baseline Array) observations (2 cm/MOJAVE survey) performed at 23 epochs between 1995.27 and 2008.91. Multiple Gaussians were fitted to the derived VLBA data, to trace the kinematical and flux density evolution of the individual VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) components in the nuclear jet. We then compared the jet kinematics with the optical and radio light curves available for this BL Lac object and point out some striking correlations between the properties of the radio knots and the features in the light curves. Results: We found a drastic structural mode change in the VLBI jet of 0735+178, between 2000.4 and 2001.8 when its twice sharply bent trajectory turned into a linear shape. We further found that this jet had undergone a similar transition sometime between December 1981 and June 1983. A mode change, occurring in the reverse direction (between mid-1992 and mid-1995) has already been reported in the literature. These structural mode changes are found to be reflected in changed kinematical behavior of the nuclear jet, manifested as an apparent

  7. 43 CFR 4.1381 - Who may file; when to file; where to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... may file; when to file; where to file. (a) Any person who receives a written decision issued by OSM under 30 CFR 773.28 on a challenge to an ownership or control listing or finding may file a request for... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may file; when to file; where to...

  8. Functional Analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 Sortases

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

  9. Functional analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 sortases.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Monedero, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent.

  10. Functional analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 sortases.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Monedero, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

  11. Effect of crossing C57BL/6 and FVB mouse strains on basal cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Szade, Agata; Nowak, Witold N; Szade, Krzysztof; Gese, Anna; Czypicki, Ryszard; Waś, Halina; Dulak, Józef; Józkowicz, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    C57BL/6 is the most often used laboratory mouse strain. However, sometimes it is beneficial to cross the transgenic mice on the C57BL/6 background to the other strain, such as FVB. Although this is a common strategy, the influence of crossing these different strains on homeostatic expression of cytokines is not known. Here we have investigated the differences in the expression of selected cytokines between C57BL/6J and C57BL/6JxFVB mice in serum and skeletal muscle. We have found that only few cytokines were altered by crossing of the strains. Concentrations of IL5, IL7, LIF, MIP-2, and IP-10 were higher in serum of C57BL/6J mice than in C57BL/6JxFVB mice, whereas concentration of G-CSF was lower in C57BL/6J. In the skeletal muscle only the concentration of VEGF was higher in C57BL/6J mice than in C57BL/6JxFVB mice. Concluding, the differences in cytokine expression upon crossing C57BL/6 and FVB strain in basal conditions are not profound.

  12. Effect of Crossing C57BL/6 and FVB Mouse Strains on Basal Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Szade, Agata; Nowak, Witold N.; Szade, Krzysztof; Gese, Anna; Czypicki, Ryszard; Waś, Halina; Dulak, Józef; Józkowicz, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    C57BL/6 is the most often used laboratory mouse strain. However, sometimes it is beneficial to cross the transgenic mice on the C57BL/6 background to the other strain, such as FVB. Although this is a common strategy, the influence of crossing these different strains on homeostatic expression of cytokines is not known. Here we have investigated the differences in the expression of selected cytokines between C57BL/6J and C57BL/6JxFVB mice in serum and skeletal muscle. We have found that only few cytokines were altered by crossing of the strains. Concentrations of IL5, IL7, LIF, MIP-2, and IP-10 were higher in serum of C57BL/6J mice than in C57BL/6JxFVB mice, whereas concentration of G-CSF was lower in C57BL/6J. In the skeletal muscle only the concentration of VEGF was higher in C57BL/6J mice than in C57BL/6JxFVB mice. Concluding, the differences in cytokine expression upon crossing C57BL/6 and FVB strain in basal conditions are not profound. PMID:25834307

  13. PHOTOMETRICALLY TRIGGERED KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF FERMI BL LACERTAE OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.

    2013-11-01

    We report on Keck spectra of 10 Fermi blazars. J0622+3326, previously unobserved, is shown to be a flat-spectrum radio quasar at redshift z = 1.062. The others are known BL Lac type objects that have resisted previous attempts to secure redshifts. Using a photometric monitoring campaign with the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope at Lick Observatory, we identified epochs when the relativistic jet emission was fainter than usual, thus triggering the Keck spectroscopy. This strategy gives improved sensitivity to stars and ionized gas in the host galaxy, thereby providing improved redshift constraints for seven of these sources.

  14. Simultaneous observations of the BL Lacertae object I Zw 187

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Pollock, J. T.; Pica, A. J.; Smith, A. G.; Webb, J. R.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Rudy, R. J.; Levan, P. D.

    1982-01-01

    Two sets of simultaneous spectra consisting of data obtained with radio, IR, optical, UV and X-ray telescopes were obtained 10 months apart for the X-ray bright BL Lac object IZw 187. In addition, nonsimultaneous observations were made in several of the aforementioned observing bands in order to detect flux variations and galactic light contamination was removed from all observations. The BL Lac component is found to have a weak 3000 A bump superposed on an IR-optical-UV spectrum of slope 0.9. Consistent with the arising of the IR-through-X-ray continuum from a single synchrotron source, the X-ray data fall on or near an extrapolation of this power law. No flux variations have been detected in the flat radio spectrum. Optical and X-ray fluxes are observed to vary by a factor not greater than three, and the shortest variability time scales in these bands are comparable at about one week.

  15. Photoperiod modulates melanoma growth in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Lang, Roland; Hintner, Helmut; Hermann, Anton; Brandstaetter, Roland

    2003-08-01

    Seasonal variations can be found in almost any parameter of an organism's biochemistry, physiology, endocrinology, and behaviour. This phenomenon, generally called photoperiodism, results from one of the major functions of the circadian system, i.e. the translation of environmental information into rhythmic intraorganismic signals, which then regulate or influence physiology and pathology. We induced melanoma in three groups of syngeneic C57BL/6 mice synchronised to different photoperiods (8, 12, or 18 h of light within 24-h days) by subcutaneous injections of HFH18 melanoma cell suspensions. All animals from all three photoperiodic groups developed exponentially growing tumors. The average tumor volume on day 31 post injection was significantly smaller in animals exposed to light/dark conditions (LD) 8 : 16 h as compared with animals held in LD 18 : 6 h and intermediate in animals from the equinox group. These results indicate that C57BL/6 mice react to photoperiod, which can exert a significant effect on tumor growth. PMID:12930310

  16. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandel, Amri; Urry, C. Megan

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested here that the UV and X-ray emission of BL Lac objects may originate in an accretion disk. Using detailed calculations of accretion disk spectra, the best-measured ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted, and the mass and accretion rate required is determined. The ultraviolet through soft X-ray continuum is well fitted by the spectrum of an accretion disk, but near-Eddington accretion rates are required to produce the soft X-ray excess. A hot disk or corona could Comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power-law spectrum in the 1-10 keV range. The dynamic time scale in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft X-ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations observed in these two wave bands; the mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard X-ray variability.

  17. Dark Matter in Supersymmetric U(1){sub B-L} Model

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, S.; Okada, H.

    2009-04-17

    We analyze the dark matter problem in the context of supersymmetric, U(1){sub B-L} model. In this model, the lightest neutalino can be B-L gaugino Z-tilde{sub B-L} or Higgsinos {chi}-tilde{sub 1,2} dominated. We examine the thermal relic abundance of these particles and discuss the prospects for their direct detection if they form part of our galactic halo.

  18. Network file-storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, W.W.; Devaney, M.J.; Willbanks, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Common File System (CFS) is a file management and mass storage system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's computer network. The CFS is organized as a hierarchical storage system: active files are stored on fast-access storage devices, larger, less active files are stored on slower, less expensive devices, and archival files are stored offline. Files are automatically moved between the various classes of storage by a file migration program that analyzes file activity, file size and storage device capabilities. This has resulted in a cost-effective system that provides both fast access and large data storage capability (over five trillion bits currently stored).

  19. The androgen receptor controls expression of the cancer-associated sTn antigen and cell adhesion through induction of ST6GalNAc1 in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Munkley, Jennifer; Oltean, Sebastian; Vodák, Daniel; Wilson, Brian T.; Livermore, Karen E.; Zhou, Yan; Star, Eleanor; Floros, Vasileios I.; Johannessen, Bjarne; Knight, Bridget; McCullagh, Paul; McGrath, John; Crundwell, Malcolm; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Robson, Craig N.; Leung, Hing Y.; Harries, Lorna W.; Rajan, Prabhakar; Mills, Ian G.; Elliott, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of glycosylation are important in cancer, but the molecular mechanisms that drive changes are often poorly understood. The androgen receptor drives prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression to lethal metastatic castration-resistant disease. Here we used RNA-Seq coupled with bioinformatic analyses of androgen-receptor (AR) binding sites and clinical PCa expression array data to identify ST6GalNAc1 as a direct and rapidly activated target gene of the AR in PCa cells. ST6GalNAc1 encodes a sialytransferase that catalyses formation of the cancer-associated sialyl-Tn antigen (sTn), which we find is also induced by androgen exposure. Androgens induce expression of a novel splice variant of the ST6GalNAc1 protein in PCa cells. This splice variant encodes a shorter protein isoform that is still fully functional as a sialyltransferase and able to induce expression of the sTn-antigen. Surprisingly, given its high expression in tumours, stable expression of ST6GalNAc1 in PCa cells reduced formation of stable tumours in mice, reduced cell adhesion and induced a switch towards a more mesenchymal-like cell phenotype in vitro. ST6GalNAc1 has a dynamic expression pattern in clinical datasets, being significantly up-regulated in primary prostate carcinoma but relatively down-regulated in established metastatic tissue. ST6GalNAc1 is frequently upregulated concurrently with another important glycosylation enzyme GCNT1 previously associated with prostate cancer progression and implicated in Sialyl Lewis X antigen synthesis. Together our data establishes an androgen-dependent mechanism for sTn antigen expression in PCa, and are consistent with a general role for the androgen receptor in driving important coordinate changes to the glycoproteome during PCa progression. PMID:26452038

  20. Medical image file formats.

    PubMed

    Larobina, Michele; Murino, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Image file format is often a confusing aspect for someone wishing to process medical images. This article presents a demystifying overview of the major file formats currently used in medical imaging: Analyze, Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (Nifti), Minc, and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (Dicom). Concepts common to all file formats, such as pixel depth, photometric interpretation, metadata, and pixel data, are first presented. Then, the characteristics and strengths of the various formats are discussed. The review concludes with some predictive considerations about the future trends in medical image file formats.

  1. Medical image file formats.

    PubMed

    Larobina, Michele; Murino, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Image file format is often a confusing aspect for someone wishing to process medical images. This article presents a demystifying overview of the major file formats currently used in medical imaging: Analyze, Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (Nifti), Minc, and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (Dicom). Concepts common to all file formats, such as pixel depth, photometric interpretation, metadata, and pixel data, are first presented. Then, the characteristics and strengths of the various formats are discussed. The review concludes with some predictive considerations about the future trends in medical image file formats. PMID:24338090

  2. Coordinated observations of X-ray bright BL lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous multifrequency observations of the BL Lac object Mkn421 covering radio through X-ray wavelengths were performed. Composite multifrequency spectra of the central nonthermal component were obtained at the two epochs after subtracting the optical and infrared light of the underlying galaxy. Physical parameters of Mkn421 are discussed in terms of the synchrotron self-Compton model. Taking the spectral turnover between infrared and radio for synchrotrom self absorption, the radio emmision originates in a more extended region than the infrared to X-ray emission, the source size of which should be less than .01 milliarcseconds. Relativistic beaming is required if the angular size is smaller than a few times .001 milliarcseconds. A possible explanation of the spectral change during the two epochs is also discussed.

  3. The 1987 outburst of the BL Lacertid AO 0235 + 164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, J. R.; Smith, A. G.

    1989-08-01

    The violently variable BL Lacertid AO 0235 + 164 displayed a 3.24 magnitude outburst in early 1987. This outburst was observed intensively from Rosemary Hill Observatory in three colors. Long term monitoring observations made at Rosemary Hill are examined in an effort to find any recurring timescales associated with this outburst and previous large amplitude outbursts. The energetics of the 1987 outburst are analyzed in terms of the Shields and Wheeler model of a magnetized accretion disk. The timescales identified in the power spectrum (2.8 and 1.6 yr) are input into the model as the storage timescales. Since the emitted energy calculated from the optical burst cannot be stored in a magnetized disk at an allowable radius, it is concluded that either the storage timescales are longer than those identified in the power spectrum, or relativistic beaming effects must be considered, with a Doppler factor of 1.3 to 1.6.

  4. X-ray observations of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. A.; Pravdo, S. H.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.; Rothschild, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The BL Lac objects MK501 and MK421 were observed with OSO-8 and HEAO-1 X-ray detectors in the 2-60 keV band. Their spectra are similar with best fitting power laws having energy index -.4 alpha 4. A soft X-ray excess is indicated in their spectra. There was no detectable X-ray absorption with implied column densities N sub H 1.5 x 10 to the 22d power at sq cm. MK421 was a factor 6 weaker in November 1977 than in May 1977. An identification of PKS0548-322 with a new source H0548,-32 is suggested.

  5. Register file soft error recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  6. Thirteen new BL Lacertae objects discovered by an efficient x ray/radio/optical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan F.; Stocke, John T.; Perlman, Eric; Elvis, Martin S.; Luu, Jane; Huchra, John P.; Humphreys, Roberta; Remillard, Ron; Wallin, John

    1992-01-01

    The discovery of 13 serendipitous BL Lac objects in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey by means of x ray/radio vs. x ray/optical color-color diagrams and confirmation by optical spectroscopy are reported. These 13 BL Lacs were discovered using a technique which exploits the characteristic broad band spectra of BL Lacs. New VLA detections provide accurate fluxes (f(6 cm) is approximately 0.5 mJy) and 2 in. positions, facilitating the determination of an optical counterpart. All 13 new BL Lacs show essentially featureless optical spectra. Nine of these lie within the range of colors of known x ray selected BL Lacs. Of the remaining four, one is apparently x ray louder (by a factor of 1.5) or optically quieter (by 0.8 mags); and three are optically louder (by 1-1.3 mags) than x ray selected BL Lacs. Approximately 50 new BL Lacs in total are expected from VLA work and upcoming Australia Telescope observations, yielding a complete Slew Survey sample of approximately 90 BL Lacs.

  7. The environment of x ray selected BL Lacs: Host galaxies and galaxy clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtz, Ron; Stocke, John T.; Ellingson, Erica; Yee, Howard K. C.

    1993-01-01

    Using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we have imaged a complete, flux-limited sample of Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey BL Lacertae objects in order to study the properties of BL Lac host galaxies and to use quantitative methods to determine the richness of their galaxy cluster environments.

  8. Swift confirms flare in BL Lacertae in the Optical/UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupe, Dirk; Lackey-Stewart, Aaron

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the most recent Swift observation of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) and confirm the flare seen in the NIR as reported by Carrasco et al. (ATEL 8311). The flare already started around 2015-October-13 (MJD 57308; target ID 30720, segment 189).

  9. Gene expression profiling in response to the histone deacetylase inhibitor BL1521 in neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ruijter, Annemieke J.M. de; Kemp, Stephan . E-mail: a.b.vankuilenburg@amc.uva.nl

    2005-10-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor with a poor survival in advanced stage disease despite intensive chemotherapeutic regimes. The new histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor BL1521 has shown promising results in neuroblastoma. Inhibition of HDAC resulted in a decrease in proliferation and metabolic activity, induction of apoptosis and differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. In order to elucidate the mechanism mediating the effects of BL1521 on neuroblastoma cells, we investigated the gene expression profile of an MYCN single copy (SKNAS) and an MYCN amplified (IMR32) neuroblastoma cell line after treatment with BL1521 using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide array U133A. An altered expression of 255 genes was observed in both neuroblastoma cell lines. The majority of these genes were involved in gene expression, cellular metabolism, and cell signaling. We observed changes in the expression of vital genes belonging to the cell cycle (cyclin D1 and CDK4) and apoptosis (BNIP3, BID, and BCL2) pathway in response to BL1521. The expression of 37 genes was altered by both BL1521 and Trichostatin A, which could indicate a common gene set regulated by different HDAC inhibitors. BL1521 treatment changed the expression of a number of MYCN-associated genes. Several genes in the Wnt and the Delta/Notch pathways were changed in response to BL1521 treatment, suggesting that BL1521 is able to induce the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells into a more mature phenotype.

  10. JENDL Dosimetry File 99.

    2001-01-22

    Version 00 JENDL/D-99 contains information for 47 nuclides and 67 reactions in the SAND-II group structure (although it was observed by RSICC that not all of the processed files are in the SAND-II group structure) and as 0K preprocessed pointwise files.

  11. Hopper File Management Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J W; O'Neill, N J; Smith, N G; Springmeyer, R R; Remmele, S; Richards, D A; Southon, J

    2004-11-15

    Hopper is a powerful interactive tool that allows users to transfer and manipulate files and directories by means of a graphical user interface. Users can connect to and manage resources using the major file transfer protocols. Implemented in Java, Hopper can be run almost anywhere: from an individual's desktop machine to large production machines. In a high-performance computing environment, managing files can become a difficult and time-consuming task that distracts from scientific work. Users must deal with multiple file transfer protocols, transferring enormous amounts of files between computer platforms, repeated authentication, organizing massive amounts of data, and other detailed but necessary tasks. This is often accomplished with a set of several different tools, each with its own interface and idiosyncrasies. Our goal is to develop tools for a more automated approach to file management that substantially improves users' ability to transfer, organize, search, and operate on collections of files. This paper describes the Hopper tool for advanced file management, including the software architecture, the functionality, and the user interface.

  12. Electroacupuncture at points Baliao and Huiyang (BL35) for post-stroke detrusor overactivity★

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Luran; Wang, Xiaomin

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is used extensively in China for the treatment of stroke and other neurological disorders. The National Institutes of Health recommends acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy for stroke recovery. This study included patients with post-stroke detrusor overactivity who were treated in the Department of Neurology, Fourth Hospital of Harbin Medical University, China. Subjects received either electroacupuncture or sham electroacupuncture at points Baliao [including bilateral Shangliao (BL31), bilateral Ciliao (BL32), bilateral Zhongliao (BL33), and bilateral Xialiao (BL34)] and Huiyang (BL35). Our results showed that electroacupuncture significantly improved cystometric capacity and bladder compliance, decreased detrusor leak point pressure, ameliorated lower urinary tract symptoms, and decreased the risk of upper urinary tract damage. These findings indicate that electroacupuncture at points Baliao and Huiyang is an effective treatment for post-stroke detrusor overactivity. PMID:25206463

  13. The Lack of Torus Emission from BL Lacertae Objects: An Infrared View of Unification with WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Markoff, Sera; Shemmer, Ohad; Wu, Jianfeng

    2012-02-01

    We use data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to perform a statistical study on the mid-infrared (IR) properties of a large number (~102) of BL Lac objects—low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with a jet beamed toward the Earth. As expected, many BL Lac objects are so highly beamed that their jet synchrotron emission dominates their IR spectral energy distributions. In other BL Lac objects, however, the jet is not strong enough to completely dilute the rest of the AGN emission. We do not see observational signatures of the dusty torus from these weakly beamed BL Lac objects. The lack of observable torus emission is consistent with suggestions that BL Lac objects are fed by radiatively inefficient accretion disks. Implications for the "nature versus nurture" debate for FR I and FR II radio galaxies are briefly discussed. Our study supports the notion that, beyond orientation, accretion rate plays an important role in AGN unification.

  14. On the hadronic cascade scenario for extreme BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2014-03-01

    The peculiar high-energy emission spectrum of the so-called extreme BL Lacs (EHBL) challenges the standard emission models of blazars. Among the possible solutions, the so-called hadronic cascade scenario assumes that the observed high-energy radiation is produced in the intergalactic space through photo-hadronic reactions by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies up to 1019-20 eV beamed by the blazar jet. Under the assumption - implicit in this model - that the intrinsic high-energy synchrotron self-Compton emission of the blazar does not substantially contribute to the observed γ-ray spectrum, we derive constraints to the basic physical quantities of the jet and we compare them with the requirements of the hadronic cascade scenario. We found that, for a plausible range of relativistic jet Doppler factors (δ = 10-50), the maximum achievable energy of the accelerated protons can exceed 2 × 1019 eV with jet powers of the order of ≈1044 erg s-1, parameters compatible with the requests of the hadronic scenario even if EHBL are embedded in magnetic fields of cosmic filaments. We also discuss the consequences of our results for the possibility that local EHBL contribute to the observed UHECR.

  15. The optical-gamma correlation in BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiteri, Claudia M.; Villata, Massimo; D'Ammando, Filippo; Larionov, Valeri M.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Mirzaqulov, Davron O.; Smith, Paul S.; Carnerero, Maria Isabel

    2013-12-01

    We present multifrequency light curves of BL Lacertae from February 2008 to October 2012. Lowenergy data (optical and millimetre) were acquired in the framework of a GASP-WEBT project. High-energy data (ultraviolet, X-ray, and γ-ray) come from observations of the Swift, RXTE, and Fermi satellites. After a period of moderate activity, in May 2011 the source suddenly started to flare at γ and optical-UV frequencies. Activity at millimetre wavelengths and X rays began 3-4 months later. This behaviour offered a good opportunity to study the correlation among flux variability in different bands, in particular between the best-sampled optical and γ-ray light curves. However, even in this fortuitous case, we can only define a general correlation with likely no time lag, but with a lag uncertainty of ±1 day. Indeed, the data reveal a complex relationship between the γ and optical fluxes, which cannot be unveiled because of the small gaps in the sampling of this extremely variable source.

  16. Construction of file database management

    SciTech Connect

    MERRILL,KYLE J.

    2000-03-01

    This work created a database for tracking data analysis files from multiple lab techniques and equipment stored on a central file server. Experimental details appropriate for each file type are pulled from the file header and stored in a searchable database. The database also stores specific location and self-directory structure for each data file. Queries can be run on the database according to file type, sample type or other experimental parameters. The database was constructed in Microsoft Access and Visual Basic was used for extraction of information from the file header.

  17. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METHANOL: PATHOGENESIS IN CD-1 AND C57BL/6J MICE EXPOSED IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol causes axial skeleton and craniofacial defects in both CD-1 and C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation, but C57BL/6J embryos are more severely affected. We evaluated methanol-induced pathogenesis in CD-1 and C57BL/6J embryos exposed during gastrulation in whole em...

  18. 75 FR 30017 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed Tariffs May 21, 2010. Take Notice that the attached document ``Filing Procedures...

  19. Gauge B-L model of radiative neutrino mass with multipartite dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ernest; Pollard, Nicholas; Popov, Oleg; Zakeri, Mohammadreza

    2016-08-01

    We propose an extension of the Standard Model of quarks and leptons to include gauge B-L symmetry with an exotic array of neutral fermion singlets for anomaly cancellation. With the addition of suitable scalars also transforming under U(1)B-L, this becomes a model of radiative seesaw neutrino mass with possible multipartite dark matter. If leptoquark fermions are added, necessarily also transforming under U(1)B-L, the diphoton excess at 750 GeV, recently observed at the Large Hadron Collider, may also be explained.

  20. The nature of X-ray emission in BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    The 77% of TeV extragalactic sources are BL Lacs. They belong to the High frequency peaked BL Lacs (HBLs) subclass characterized by a low-energy component with power peaking between the UV and the X-rays. We propose xmm~observations of a selected sample of HBLs, to study the spectral behavior of their optical to X-ray component. In addition, on the basis of our previous X-ray analyses of TeV e non TeV HBLs, these proposed xmm~observations will allow us to identify BL Lac candidates for future TeV observations.

  1. X ray constraints on the beaming hypothesis for BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovani, P.; Urry, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    BL Lacertae objects may be Fanaroff-Riley type I (FR I) galaxies with a relativistic jet roughly parallel to the line of sight. The ratio of parent objects (FR Is) to beamed objects (BL Lacs) depends only on the jet velocity. Recently this ratio become observable. X-ray-flux-limited samples are used to demonstrate the viability of the beaming hypothesis. In the process, the X-ray luminosity functions of FR I galaxies and BL Lac objects are derived. Their respective contributions to the cosmic X-ray background radiation are calculated.

  2. Converting CSV Files to RKSML Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Liebersbach, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A computer program converts, into a format suitable for processing on Earth, files of downlinked telemetric data pertaining to the operation of the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD), which is a robot arm on either of the Mars Explorer Rovers (MERs). The raw downlinked data files are in comma-separated- value (CSV) format. The present program converts the files into Rover Kinematics State Markup Language (RKSML), which is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) format that facilitates representation of operations of the IDD and enables analysis of the operations by means of the Rover Sequencing Validation Program (RSVP), which is used to build sequences of commanded operations for the MERs. After conversion by means of the present program, the downlinked data can be processed by RSVP, enabling the MER downlink operations team to play back the actual IDD activity represented by the telemetric data against the planned IDD activity. Thus, the present program enhances the diagnosis of anomalies that manifest themselves as differences between actual and planned IDD activities.

  3. A discussion of Bl conservation on a two dimensional magnetic field plane in watt balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shisong; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Songling

    2016-05-01

    The watt balance is an experiment being pursued in national metrology institutes for precision determination of the Planck constant h. In watt balances, the 1/r magnetic field, expected to generate a geometrical factor Bl independent to any coil horizontal displacement, can be created by a strict two dimensional, symmetric (horizontal r and vertical z) construction of the magnet system. In this paper, we present an analytical understanding of magnetic field distribution when the r symmetry of the magnet is broken and the establishment of the Bl conservation is shown. By using either Gauss’s law on magnetism with monopoles or conformal transformations, we extend the Bl conservation to arbitrary two dimensional magnetic planes where the vertical magnetic field component equals zero. The generalized Bl conservation allows a relaxed physical alignment criteria for watt balance magnet systems.

  4. PATHOGENESIS OF METHANOL-INDUCED CRANIOFACIAL DEFECTS IN C57BL/6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol administered to C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation causes severe craniofacial dysmorphology. We describe dysmorphogenesis, cell death, cell cycle assessment, and effects on development of cranial ganglia and nerves observed following administration of methanol...

  5. Postnatal Development of the Craniofacial Skeleton in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    C57BL/6J is one of the most commonly used inbred mouse strains in biomedical research, including studies of craniofacial development and teratogenic studies of craniofacial malformation. The current study quantitatively assessed the development of the skull in male C57BL/6J mice by using high-resolution 3D imaging of 55 landmarks from 48 male mice over 10 developmental time points from postnatal day 0 to 90. The growth of the skull plateaued at approximately postnatal day 60, and the shape of the skull did not change markedly thereafter. The amount of asymmetry in the craniofacial skeleton seemed to peak at birth, but considerable variation persisted in all age groups. For C57BL/6J male mice, postnatal day 60 is the earliest time point at which the skull achieves its adult shape and proportions. In addition, C57BL/6J male mice appear to have an inherent susceptibility to craniofacial malformation. PMID:27025802

  6. In vivo administration of BL-3050: highly stable engineered PON1-HDL complexes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme involved in organophosphate (OP) degradation and prevention of atherosclerosis. PON1 comprises a potential candidate for in vivo therapeutics, as an anti-atherogenic agent, and for detoxification of pesticides and nerve agents. Because human PON1 exhibits limited stability, engineered, recombinant PON1 (rePON1) variants that were designed for higher reactivity, solubility, stability, and bacterial expression, are candidates for treatment. This work addresses the feasibility of in vivo administration of rePON1, and its HDL complex, as a potentially therapeutic agent dubbed BL-3050. Methods For stability studies we applied different challenges related to the in vivo disfunctionalization of HDL and PON1 and tested for inactivation of PON1's activity. We applied acute, repetitive administrations of BL-3050 in mice to assess its toxicity and adverse immune responses. The in vivo efficacy of recombinant PON1 and BL-3050 were tested with an animal model of chlorpyrifos-oxon poisoning. Results Inactivation studies show significantly improved in vitro lifespan of the engineered rePON1 relative to human PON1. Significant sequence changes relative to human PON1 might hamper the in vivo applicability of BL-3050 due to adverse immune responses. However, we observed no toxic effects in mice subjected to repetitive administration of BL-3050, suggesting that BL-3050 could be safely used. To further evaluate the activity of BL-3050 in vivo, we applied an animal model that mimics human organophosphate poisoning. In these studies, a significant advantages of rePON1 and BL-3050 (>87.5% survival versus <37.5% in the control groups) was observed. Furthermore, BL-3050 and rePON1 were superior to the conventional treatment of atropine-2-PAM as a prophylactic treatment for OP poisoning. Conclusion In vitro and in vivo data described here demonstrate the potential advantages of rePON1 and BL-3050 for

  7. VERITAS observations of low- and intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, T.; VERITAS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    We present highlights of long-term monitoring of low- and intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lac objects with the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory carried out in 2010, 2011 and 2012. These include the key results obtained from observations of a bright VHE flare in BL Lacertae in June 2011, as well as preliminary results of monitoring observations of five northern blazars. Two IBLs-3C 66A and W Comae-are detected in low flux states for the first time.

  8. [Prooxidant and cytotoxic action of N-acetylcysteine and glutathione combined with vitamin Bl2b].

    PubMed

    Solov'eva, M E; Solov'ev, V V; Faskhutdinova, A A; Kudriavtsev, A A; Akatov, V S

    2007-01-01

    We studied the prooxidant and cytotoxic action of thiols N-acetylcystein (NAC) and glutathione (GSH) combined with vitamin Bl2b. The synergism of action of the thiols and Bl2b resulted in human carcinoma cell damage was found. It was shown that GSH and NAC in physiological doses combined with Bl2b caused the initiation of apoptosis. It was established that prooxidant action of the thiols combined with vitamin Bl2b, i. e. generation and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in culture medium, led to intracellular oxidative stress and injury of cell redox system. These effects were completely abolished by nonthiol antioxidants catalase and pyruvate. The chelators of iron phenanthroline and deferoxamine did not suppress the H2O2 accumulation in culture medium but significantly inhibited the cell death induced by the thiols combined with Bl2b. Therefore, the thiols GSH and NAC widely used as antioxidants, in combination with vitamin Bl2b show prooxidant characteristics and induce, with the participation of intracellular iron, apoptotic HEp-2 cell death.

  9. Radio constraints on the nature of BL Lacertae objects and their parent population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollgaard, R. I.; Wardle, J. F. C.; Roberts, D. H.; Gabuzda, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    5 GHz VLA observations of 17 BL Lac objects with bright radio cores at both high and low resolution are reported. Extended emission is detected around most objects. None of the sources observed at low resolution show evidence of giant halos on the scale of tens of arcmin. In general, the sources with the most luminous extended emission exhibit FR II characteristics in both morphology and polarization, and less luminous sources exhibit FR I characteristics. Thus, the parent population of the BL Lac objects contains both FR I and FR II radio sources. No BL Lac objects are found that clearly exhibit quasarlike polarization at milliarcsec resolution. This argues against the view that the more luminous BL Lac objects are simply an extension of the quasar/OVV population, or that most BL Lac objects are gravitationally microlensed images of distant quasars. Other properties are generally consistent with the view the BL Lac objects are normal radio galaxies whose jets make a small angle to the line of sight.

  10. Evolutionary behaviour of AGN: Investigations on BL Lac objects and Seyfert II galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, V.

    2000-12-01

    The evolution and nature of AGN is still one of the enigmatic questions in astrophysics. While large and complete Quasar samples are available, special classes of AGN, like BL Lac objects and Seyfert II galaxies, are still rare objects. In this work I present two new AGN samples. The first one is the HRX-BL Lac survey, resulting in a sample of X-ray selected BL Lac objects. This sample results from 223 BL Lac candidates based on a correlation of X-ray sources with radio sources. The identification of this sample is 98% complete. 77 objects have been identified as BL Lac objects and form the HRX-BL Lac complete sample, the largest homogeneous sample of BL Lac objects existing today. For this sample, redshifts are now known for 62 objects (81 %). In total I present 101 BL Lac objects in the enlarged HRX-BL Lac survey, for which redshift information is available for 84 objects. During the HRX-BL Lac survey I found several objects of special interest. 1ES 1517+656 turned out to be the brightest known BL Lac object in the universe. 1ES 0927+500 could be the first BL Lac object with a line detected in the X-ray region. RX J1211+2242 is probably the the counterpart of the up to now unidentified gamma-ray source 3EG J1212+2304. Additionally I present seven candidates for ultra high frequency peaked BL Lac objects. RX J1054+3855 and RX J1153+3517 are rare high redshift X-ray bright QSO or accreting binary systems with huge magnetic fields. For the BL Lac objects I suggest an unified scenario in which giant elliptical galaxies, formed by merging events of spiral galaxies at z > 2, start as powerful, radio dominated BL Lacs. As the jet gets less powerful, the BL Lacs start to get more X-ray dominated, showing less total luminosities (for z < 1). This effect is seen in the different evolutionary behavior detected in high and low frequency cut off BL Lac objects (HBL and LBL, respectively). The model of negative evolution is supported by assumptions about the energetic effects

  11. Finding the rarest objects in the universe: A new, efficient method for discovering BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, John; Perlman, Eric; Granados, Arno; Schachter, Jonathan; Elvis, Martin; Urry, Meg; Impey, Chris; Smith, Paul

    1993-01-01

    We present a new, efficient method for discovering new BL Lac Objects based upon the results of the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS). We have found that all x-ray selected BL Lacs are radio emitters, and further, that in a 'color-color' diagram (radio/optical and optical/x-ray) the BL Lac Objects occupy an area distinct from both radio loud quasars and the radio quiet QSOs and Seyferts which dominate x-ray selected samples. After obtaining radio counterparts via VLA 'snapshot' observations of a large sample of unidentified x-ray sources, the list of candidates is reduced. These candidates then can be confirmed with optical spectroscopy and/or polarimetry. Since greater than 70 percent of these sources are expected to be BL Lacs, the optical observations are very efficient. We have tested this method using unidentified sources found in the Einstein Slew Survey. The 162 Slew Survey x-ray source positions were observed with the VLA in a mixed B/C configuration at 6 cm resulting in 60 detections within 1.5 position error circle radii. These x-ray/optical/radio sources were then plotted, and 40 BL Lac candidates were identified. To date, 10 candidates have been spectroscopically observed resulting in 10 new BL Lac objects! Radio flux, optical magnitude, and polarization statistics (obtained in white light with the Steward Observatory 2.3 m CCD polarimeter) for each are given.

  12. DSSTOX MASTER STRUCTURE-INDEX FILE: SDF FILE AND DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DSSTox Master Structure-Index File serves to consolidate, manage, and ensure quality and uniformity of the chemical and substance information spanning all DSSTox Structure Data Files, including those in development but not yet published separately on this website.

  13. 76 FR 53676 - Combined Notice of Filings; Filings Instituting Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    .... Eastern Time on Monday, August 29, 2011. Docket Numbers: RP11-2387-000. Applicants: Sabine Pipe Line LLC. Description: Sabine Pipe Line LLC submits tariff filing per 154.402: Sabine Pipe Line LLC 2011 ACA Filing...

  14. 76 FR 54460 - Combined Notice of Filings; Filings Instituting Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Numbers: RP11-2414-000. Applicants: Pine Needle LNG Company, LLC. Description: Pine Needle LNG Company, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.402: Pine Needle LNG Company 2011 ACA Filing to be effective...

  15. Generic file format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felgate, Nick

    2002-11-01

    The Generic File Format (GFF) is a file format developed within the UK ASW community for the interchange and storage of underwater sonar data. Originally developed for the interchange of time-series data between analysis systems, it has been extended to provide for storage of processed acoustic data (e.g., power and DEMON spectrum, lofargram grey-scale), nonacoustic data (e.g., own-ship dynamics, sensor configuration) and event data (e.g., tracker output, sonar intercepts). The format employs the chunk concept, as used in the WAV and AIFF file formats, to provide extendability (including local variants) while providing a measure of backward compatability. However, the basic concept has been adapted to allow for the mixing in the one file of multiple channels of different sample-rates and data-types through the inclusion of a data frame concept and multiple data blocks. Chunk cross-referencing has been employed to ensure data consistency. A provision is made in the header of the file to store details of the sensor and processing for the data (e.g., the number of hydrophones, beam direction, FFT size) so that an analysis system does not need to know about the sensor or other system from which the data originated.

  16. Clinical Chemistry Reference Intervals for C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and C3HeB/FeJ Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Otto, Gordon P; Rathkolb, Birgit; Oestereicher, Manuela A; Lengger, Christoph J; Moerth, Corinna; Micklich, Kateryna; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Wolf, Eckhard; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Although various mouse inbred strains are widely used to investigate disease mechanisms and to establish new therapeutic strategies, sex-specific reference intervals for laboratory diagnostic analytes that are generated from large numbers of animals have been unavailable. In this retrospective study, we screened data from more than 12,000 mice phenotyped in the German Mouse Clinic from January 2006 through June 2014 and selected animals with the genetic background of C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, or C3HeB/FeJ. In addition, we distinguished between the C57BL/6NTac substrain and C57BL/6N mice received from other vendors. The corresponding data sets of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, inorganic phosphate), lipids (cholesterol, triglyceride), and enzyme activities (ALT, AST, ALP, α-amylase) and urea, albumin, and total protein levels were analyzed. Significant effects of age and sex on these analytes were identified, and strain- or substrain- and sex-specific reference intervals for 90- to 135-d-old mice were calculated. In addition, we include an overview of the literature that reports clinical chemistry values for wild-type mice of different strains. Our results support researchers interpreting clinical chemistry values from various mouse mutants and corresponding wild-type controls based on the examined strains and substrains. PMID:27423143

  17. Clinical Chemistry Reference Intervals for C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and C3HeB/FeJ Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Otto, Gordon P; Rathkolb, Birgit; Oestereicher, Manuela A; Lengger, Christoph J; Moerth, Corinna; Micklich, Kateryna; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Wolf, Eckhard; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Although various mouse inbred strains are widely used to investigate disease mechanisms and to establish new therapeutic strategies, sex-specific reference intervals for laboratory diagnostic analytes that are generated from large numbers of animals have been unavailable. In this retrospective study, we screened data from more than 12,000 mice phenotyped in the German Mouse Clinic from January 2006 through June 2014 and selected animals with the genetic background of C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, or C3HeB/FeJ. In addition, we distinguished between the C57BL/6NTac substrain and C57BL/6N mice received from other vendors. The corresponding data sets of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, inorganic phosphate), lipids (cholesterol, triglyceride), and enzyme activities (ALT, AST, ALP, α-amylase) and urea, albumin, and total protein levels were analyzed. Significant effects of age and sex on these analytes were identified, and strain- or substrain- and sex-specific reference intervals for 90- to 135-d-old mice were calculated. In addition, we include an overview of the literature that reports clinical chemistry values for wild-type mice of different strains. Our results support researchers interpreting clinical chemistry values from various mouse mutants and corresponding wild-type controls based on the examined strains and substrains.

  18. XML Files: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/xml.html MedlinePlus XML Files To use the sharing features on this page, ... information on all English and Spanish topic groups. Files generated on November 05, 2016 MedlinePlus Health Topic ...

  19. 76 FR 50210 - Combined Notice of Filings #

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... 35.13(a)(2)(iii: Filing of Notice of Succession to be effective 10/5/2011. Filed Date: 08/05/2011....13(a)(2)(iii: Filing of Notice of Succession to be effective 10/5/2011. Filed Date: 08/05/2011....13(a)(2)(iii: Filing of Notice of Succession to be effective 10/5/2011. Filed Date:...

  20. NASA Thesaurus Data File

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized NASA subject terms used to index and retrieve materials in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database (NA&SD) and NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS). The scope of this controlled vocabulary includes not only aerospace engineering, but all supporting areas of engineering and physics, the natural space sciences (astronomy, astrophysics, planetary science), Earth sciences, and the biological sciences. The NASA Thesaurus Data File contains all valid terms and hierarchical relationships, USE references, and related terms in machine-readable form. The Data File is available in the following formats: RDF/SKOS, RDF/OWL, ZThes-1.0, and CSV/TXT.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Multiwavelength obs. of BL Lac in 2012-2013 (Wehrle+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrle, A. E.; Grupe, D.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Gurwell, M.; Balokovic, M.; Hovatta, T.; Madejski, G. M.; Harrison, F. H.; Stern, D.

    2016-03-01

    Our Herschel target of opportunity observations began on 2012 October 29 (MJD 56229) and continued for the three-month visibility window. We arranged for daily Swift pointings starting on 2012 October 27 through 2013 February 1. We also arranged for two intense periods of every-orbit Swift monitoring on 2012 December 11-12 and 2013 January 11-12. We obtained target of opportunity observations with NuSTAR on 2012 December 11-12. Observations of BL Lac every two to four days were carried out at the SMA on Mauna Kea, HI during the Herschel observation window, and intermittently thereafter. Monitoring observations with CARMA at 3mm were already underway. VLBA monitoring continued throughout the time range reported here as part of the ongoing Boston University (BU) γ-ray blazar monitoring program. Observations at other wavebands were already underway by other collaborations, e.g., the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope. In addition, roughly weekly Swift observations have been carried out for several years by A. Falcone and M. Stroh (Stroh & Falcone 2013ApJS..207...28S). Herschel SPIRE and PACS FIR observations of BL Lac are presented in table 1 and sections 2.2 and 2.5. SMA millimeter and submillimeter observations are presented in tables 1, 2 and 3 and sections 2.3 and 2.5. Millimeter observations with CARMA are presented in table 4 and sections 2.4 and 2.5. Swift optical, UV and X-ray observations are presented in tables 5 and 6 and section 2.6. Hard X-ray observations with NuSTAR are presented in section 2.7. γ-ray observations with Fermi are presented in section 2.8. The 7mm band observations are presented in section 2.9. The BU group obtained 2.4-10keV X-ray fluxes with the RXTE PCA three times per week from 2005 March 3 to 2011 December 31; see table 10 and Appendix. (7 data files).

  2. Optically Selected BL Lacertae Candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Hall, Patrick B.; Kimball, Amy E.; Richmond, Michael W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shemmer, Ohad; Voges, Wolfgang; York, Donald G.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Snedden, Stephanie; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2010-02-01

    We present a sample of 723 optically selected BL Lac candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) spectroscopic database encompassing 8250 deg2 of sky; our sample constitutes one of the largest uniform BL Lac samples yet derived. Each BL Lac candidate has a high-quality SDSS spectrum from which we determine spectroscopic redshifts for ~60% of the objects. Redshift lower limits are estimated for the remaining objects utilizing the lack of host galaxy flux contamination in their optical spectra; we find that objects lacking spectroscopic redshifts are likely at systematically higher redshifts. Approximately 80% of our BL Lac candidates match to a radio source in FIRST/NVSS, and ~40% match to a ROSAT X-ray source. The homogeneous multiwavelength coverage allows subdivision of the sample into 637 radio-loud BL Lac candidates and 86 weak-featured radio-quiet objects. The radio-loud objects broadly support the standard paradigm unifying BL Lac objects with beamed radio galaxies. We propose that the majority of the radio-quiet objects may be lower-redshift (z < 2.2) analogs to high-redshift weak line quasars (i.e., active galactic nucleus with unusually anemic broad emission line regions). These would constitute the largest sample of such objects, being of similar size and complementary in redshift to the samples of high-redshift weak line quasars previously discovered by the SDSS. However, some fraction of the weak-featured radio-quiet objects may instead populate a rare and extreme radio-weak tail of the much larger radio-loud BL Lac population. Serendipitous discoveries of unusual white dwarfs, high-redshift weak line quasars, and broad absorption line quasars with extreme continuum dropoffs blueward of rest-frame 2800 Å are also briefly described.

  3. A Handbook on File Structuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Robert M.; And Others

    An initial attempt at presenting a coherent approach to the design and analysis of file structures include a discussion of the relative effeciency of different file implementations as a function of usage statistics. The fundamental differences between item and descriptor-organized files are discussed in terms of input-output requirements.…

  4. Multimedia File Literacy for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William H.; Baker, Gary D.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that instructors can help to alleviate students' fears regarding different multimedia techniques by taking time to give some basic file explanations. Discusses a few of the most common multimedia file types in Windows (graphic, audio, and video), as well as compressed files. Uses slide show software as a base because of its widespread use…

  5. Accessing files in an Internet: The Jade file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Larry L.; Rao, Herman C.

    1991-01-01

    Jade is a new distribution file system that provides a uniform way to name and access files in an internet environment. It makes two important contributions. First, Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where heterogeneous means that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Jade is designed under the restriction that the underlying file system may not be modified. Second, rather than providing a global name space, Jade permits each user to define a private name space. These private name spaces support two novel features: they allow multiple file systems to be mounted under one directory, and they allow one logical name space to mount other logical name spaces. A prototype of the Jade File System was implemented on Sun Workstations running Unix. It consists of interfaces to the Unix file system, the Sun Network File System, the Andrew File System, and FTP. This paper motivates Jade's design, highlights several aspects of its implementation, and illustrates applications that can take advantage of its features.

  6. Accessing files in an internet - The Jade file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Herman C.; Peterson, Larry L.

    1993-01-01

    Jade is a new distribution file system that provides a uniform way to name and access files in an internet environment. It makes two important contributions. First, Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where heterogeneous means that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Jade is designed under the restriction that the underlying file system may not be modified. Second, rather than providing a global name space, Jade permits each user to define a private name space. These private name spaces support two novel features: they allow multiple file systems to be mounted under one directory, and they allow one logical name space to mount other logical name spaces. A prototype of the Jade File System was implemented on Sun Workstations running Unix. It consists of interfaces to the Unix file system, the Sun Network File System, the Andrew File System, and FTP. This paper motivates Jade's design, highlights several aspects of its implementation, and illustrates applications that can take advantage of its features.

  7. MPI File Tree Walk

    2007-04-30

    MPI-FTW is a scalable MPI based software application that navigates a directory tree by dynamically allocating processes to navigate sub-directories found. Upon completion, MPI-FTW provides statistics on the number of directories found, files found, and time to complete. Inaddition, commands can be executed at each directory level.

  8. The New Resource File

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the resource file is a common experience in teacher preparation programs. The author examines strategies for transforming what has been a project composed of physical resources to one emphasizing digital resources. Methods for finding, tagging, storing and retrieving resources are explored.

  9. "The Bean Files."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Krystyna; Longnecker, Nancy; Hickey, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes classroom use and effectiveness of "The Bean Files," an internet package that uses humorous stories to introduce students to life on a wheat-sheep farm in the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia. The focus of the program is on the role of legume-cereal rotations in the farming system and the science underpinning this agricultural…

  10. Illegal File Sharing 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

  11. The Global File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, Steven R.; Ruwart, Thomas M.; OKeefe, Matthew T.

    1996-01-01

    The global file system (GFS) is a prototype design for a distributed file system in which cluster nodes physically share storage devices connected via a network-like fiber channel. Networks and network-attached storage devices have advanced to a level of performance and extensibility so that the previous disadvantages of shared disk architectures are no longer valid. This shared storage architecture attempts to exploit the sophistication of storage device technologies whereas a server architecture diminishes a device's role to that of a simple component. GFS distributes the file system responsibilities across processing nodes, storage across the devices, and file system resources across the entire storage pool. GFS caches data on the storage devices instead of the main memories of the machines. Consistency is established by using a locking mechanism maintained by the storage devices to facilitate atomic read-modify-write operations. The locking mechanism is being prototyped in the Silicon Graphics IRIX operating system and is accessed using standard Unix commands and modules.

  12. 43 CFR 4.1371 - Who may file, where to file, when to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of proposed suspension or rescission under 30 CFR 773.22 or a notice of suspension or rescission under 30 CFR 773.23 may file a request for review with the Hearings Division, Office of Hearings and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may file, where to file, when to...

  13. 11 CFR 100.19 - File, filed or filing (2 U.S.C. 434(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be filed under 11 CFR parts 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, and 109, and any modifications or... required by 11 CFR part 105, by the close of business on the prescribed filing date. (b) Timely filed. (1... and in 11 CFR 104.5, (i) Overnight delivery service means a private delivery service business...

  14. 11 CFR 100.19 - File, filed or filing (2 U.S.C. 434(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a facsimile machine or by electronic mail if the reporting entity is not required to file... statement of electioneering communications may be filed using a facsimile machine or by electronic mail if... to be filed under 11 CFR parts 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, and 109, and any modifications...

  15. U(1)B-L symmetry restoration and effective neutrino species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2014-06-01

    The U(1)B-L symmetry could be restored during inflation, since the BICEP2 results suggest a GUT-scale inflation with the Hubble parameter, Hinf≃1014 GeV, close to the U(1)B-L breaking scale. We consider a scenario in which the B-L Higgs field dominates the Universe after inflation, and mainly decays into the U(1)B-L gauge bosons, whose subsequent decays reheat the Universe. Interestingly, if one of the right-handed neutrinos is extremely light and behaves as dark radiation or hot dark matter, its abundance is determined by the B-L charge assignment and the relativistic degree of freedom in plasma. We find that ΔNeff takes discrete values between 0.188 and 0.220 in the standard model plus three right-handed neutrinos, depending on whether the decay into heavier right-handed neutrinos is kinematically accessible or not. In the fiveness U(1)5 case, we find that ΔNeff takes discrete values between 0.313 and 0.423. The tension between BICEP2 and Planck can be partially relaxed by dark radiation.

  16. Hypolipidemic effect of young persimmon fruit in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the hypolipidemic effects of young persimmon fruit (YP) on apolipoprotein E-deficient C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. These mice exhibited higher plasma cholesterols, except for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lower plasma HDL cholesterol than C57BL/6.Cr mice that had the same genetic background as the C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. Male C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice (n=5) were fed a diet supplemented with dry YP, Hachiya-kaki, at a concentration of 5% (w/w) for 10 weeks. YP treatment significantly lowered plasma chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, and triglyceride, and this response was accompanied by an elevation of fecal bile acid excretion. In the liver, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 gene expression was significantly higher in mice fed YP, while the mRNA and protein levels of the LDL receptor did not change. These results indicate that acceleration of fecal bile acid excretion is a major mechanism of the hypolipidemic effect induced by YP in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. PMID:18838807

  17. Does black hole spin play a key role in the FSRQ/BL Lac dichotomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Debbijoy; Sreekumar, Parameswaran; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Tomar, Ishan

    2016-04-01

    Blazars are characterized by large intensity and spectral variations across the electromagnetic spectrum It is believed that jets emerging from them are almost aligned with the line-of-sight. The majority of identified extragalactic sources in γ-ray catalogs of EGRET and Fermi are blazars. Observationally, blazars can be divided into two classes: flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacs. BL Lacs usually exhibit lower γ-ray luminosity and harder power law spectra at γ-ray energies than FSRQs. We attempt to explain the high energy properties of FSRQs and BL Lacs from Fermi γ-ray space telescope observations. It was argued previously that the difference in accretion rates is mainly responsible for the large mismatch in observed luminosity in γ-ray. However, when intrinsic luminosities are derived by correcting for beaming effects, this difference in γ-ray luminosity between the two classes is significantly reduced. In order to explain this difference in intrinsic luminosities, we propose that spin plays an important role in the luminosity distribution dichotomy of BL Lacs and FSRQs. As the outflow power of a blazar increases with increasing spin of a central black hole, we suggest that the spin plays a crucial role in making BL Lac sources low luminous and slow rotators compared to FSRQ sources.

  18. THE LACK OF TORUS EMISSION FROM BL LACERTAE OBJECTS: AN INFRARED VIEW OF UNIFICATION WITH WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Wu Jianfeng; Shemmer, Ohad

    2012-02-15

    We use data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to perform a statistical study on the mid-infrared (IR) properties of a large number ({approx}10{sup 2}) of BL Lac objects-low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with a jet beamed toward the Earth. As expected, many BL Lac objects are so highly beamed that their jet synchrotron emission dominates their IR spectral energy distributions. In other BL Lac objects, however, the jet is not strong enough to completely dilute the rest of the AGN emission. We do not see observational signatures of the dusty torus from these weakly beamed BL Lac objects. The lack of observable torus emission is consistent with suggestions that BL Lac objects are fed by radiatively inefficient accretion disks. Implications for the 'nature versus nurture' debate for FR I and FR II radio galaxies are briefly discussed. Our study supports the notion that, beyond orientation, accretion rate plays an important role in AGN unification.

  19. Ajoene inhibits both primary tumor growth and metastasis of B16/BL6 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter; Noriega, Raquel; Farah, Carla; Abad, María-Jesús; Arsenak, Miriam; Apitz, Rafael

    2006-08-01

    Ajoene is an organosulphur compound derived from garlic with important effects on several membrane-associated processes such as platelet aggregation, as well as being cytotoxic for tumor cell lines in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ajoene on different cell types in vitro, as well as its inhibitory effects on both primary tumors and metastasis in a mouse model. We found ajoene to inhibit tumor cell growth in vitro, but also to inhibit strongly metastasis to lung in the B16/BL6 melanoma tumor model in C57BL/6 mice. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of the anti-metastatic effect of ajoene. Ajoene also inhibited tumor-endothelial cell adhesion, as well as the in vivo TNF-alpha response to lipopolysaccharide. Possible mechanisms of its antitumoral activity are discussed in the light of these results.

  20. Inhibitory effects of sweet cherry anthocyanins on the obesity development in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Tang, Qiong; Yu, Zhuoping; Gao, Zichun; Hu, Hao; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, purified sweet cherry anthocyanins (CACN) were evaluated to determine their inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and their anti-obesity properties in male C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). CACN prevented HFD-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. In vivo experiment revealed that 40 and 200 mg/kg of CACN in food reduced the body weight by 5.2% and 11.2%, respectively. CACN supplementation could also reduce the size of adipocytes, leptin secretion, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and liver triglycerides. Furthermore, CACN could effectively reduce the expression levels of IL-6 and TNFα genes, markedly increase the SOD and GPx activity. Our results indicated that CACN slowed down the development of HFD-induced obesity in male C57BL/6 mice. PMID:24224922

  1. Minimal gauged U(1) B-L model with spontaneous R parity violation.

    PubMed

    Barger, Vernon; Pérez, Pavel Fileviez; Spinner, Sogee

    2009-05-01

    We study the minimal gauged U(1) B-L supersymmetric model and show that it provides an attractive theory for spontaneous R-parity violation. Both U(1) B-L and R parity are broken by the vacuum expectation value of the right-handed sneutrino (proportional to the soft supersymmetry masses), thereby linking the B-L and soft SUSY scales. In this context we find a consistent mechanism for generating neutrino masses and a realistic mass spectrum, all without extending the Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetry standard model. We discuss the most relevant collider signals and the connection between the Z' gauge boson and R-parity violation. PMID:19518859

  2. Bovine leucosis virus challenge infection of calves following application of BL-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Ristau, E; Wittmann, W; Starick, E; Kluge, K H

    1989-01-01

    8 calves were vaccinated 3 times with 1.5.10(7) BL-3 cells. 2 and 6 weeks, respectively, after the 3rd vaccination each 4 calves were subjected to a challenge infection with 2.5.10(5) blood lymphocytes of a BLV-infected cow. For control a challenge infection was performed on 3 non-vaccinated calves. The vaccination caused in all calves the appearance of complement-dependent cytotoxic antibodies against BL-3 cells but not of antibodies against BLV-gp51. After the challenge infection there occurred in the sera of all vaccinated calves and of all non-vaccinated control animals antibodies against gp51, and BLV could be demonstrated in the cultivated blood lymphocytes of all animals. Consequently, the application of BL-3 cells had no protective effect against the BLV infection. PMID:2549903

  3. Postnatal Hematopoiesis and Gut Microbiota in NOD Mice Deviate from C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Damlund, Dina Silke Malling; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Hasselby, Jane Preuss; Wiese, Maria; Lundsager, Mia; Buschard, Karsten Stig; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal studies in different mouse strains reveal that early life colonization affects the development of adaptive immunity in mice. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes, but neonatal studies of NOD mice are lacking. We hypothesized that NOD mice deviate from another much used mouse strain, C57BL/6, with respect to postnatal microbiota and/or hematopoiesis and compared this in newborn mice of dams housed under the same conditions. A distinct bacteria profile rich in staphylococci was found at postnatal days (PND) 1–4 in NOD mice. Furthermore, a distinct splenic cell profile high in a granulocytic phenotype was evident in the neonatal NOD mice whereas neonatal C57BL/6 mice showed a profile rich in monocytes. Neonatal expression of Reg3g and Muc2 in the gut was deviating in NOD mice and coincided with fewer bacteria attaching to the Mucosal surface in NOD compared to C57BL/6 mice. PMID:26783537

  4. Spectroscopy of optically selected BL Lac objects and their γ-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A.; Farina, E. P.; Landoni, M.; Falomo, R.; Foschini, L.; Sbarufatti, B.

    2013-12-01

    We present Very Large Telescope optical spectroscopy of nine BL Lac objects of unknown redshift belonging to the list of optically selected radio-loud BL Lac candidates. We explore their spectroscopic properties and possible link with gamma-ray emission. From the new observations we determine the redshifts of four objects from faint emission lines or from absorption features of their host galaxies. In three cases we find narrow intervening absorptions from which a lower limit to the redshift is inferred. For the remaining two featureless sources, lower limits to the redshift are deduced from the absence of spectral lines. A search for γ counterpart emission shows that six out of the nine candidates are Fermi γ-ray emitters and we find two new detections. Our analysis suggests that most of the BL Lac objects still lacking redshift information are most likely located at high redshifts.

  5. Ultraviolet and X-ray observations of the BL Lac object PKS 05 8-322

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Hackney, K. R. H.; Hackney, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of the BL Lac object PKS 0548-322 were made with ultraviolet and X-ray instruments on the IUE and HEAO-2 satellites. Two observations in each spectral region, one set of which was obtained simultaneously are presented. A power law of energy index approximately 1.0 gives a good description of the data from ultraviolet through X-ray frequencies. This source is reported to be variable on short timescales (Gilmore 1980); the implications of the spectral properties and apparent variability are discussed in light of a relativistic jet model. Findings support the jet picture of BL Lac objects.

  6. SSC Model Fits to Simultaneous Fermi and CAO observations of Bl Lac's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Tyler; Macomb, Daryl J.; Hand, Jared; Norris, Jay P.; Long, Min

    2016-01-01

    The Challis Astronomical Observatory (CAO) has been surveying a sample of blazar-type AGN since 2010. The CAO blazar sample includes4 3 sources - comprising 30 FSRQs, 15 BL Lacs, one radio galaxy and four unclassified sources - covering a redshift range 0.02 < z < 2. Observations are carried out in BVRI filters. Here we describe photometric results on a small sample emphasizing BL Lacs. We combine the CAO data with Fermi/LAT data and explore the suitability of fits to the data using the uniform conical jet model of Potter and Cotter (MNRAS, 2012, 423, 756-765).

  7. H1722 + 119 - A highly polarized X-ray-selected BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, R. J. V.; Tuohy, I. R.; Remillard, R. A.; Schwartz, D. A.; Hertz, P. L.

    1990-01-01

    A 15th-mag, X-ray-selected BL Lac object, H1722 + 119, has been discovered to possess a steep X-ray spectrum with power-law energy index near 1.3; radio measurements indicate a variable, compact source with 1.4-4.9 GHz power-law energy index of 0.04. The optical-IR polarization of H1722 + 119 reaches a maximum of 17 percent, which is much higher than other X-ray-selected BL Lac objects. The degree of polarization is found to be wavelength-dependent, decreasing monotonically toward the IR.

  8. Is 1308+326 A BL Lacertae object or a quasar?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabuzda, D. C.; Kollgaard, R. I.; Roberts, D. H.; Wardle, J. F. C.

    1993-01-01

    The active galaxy 1308+326 (z = 0.996) has been classified as a BL Lacertae object because of its nearly featureless optical continuum and high and variable polarization. New VLBI polarization images of 1308+326, however, show both VLBI polarization structure and tentative superluminal motions that are characteristic of quasars rather than BL Lacertae objects. These data strongly suggest that this source is simply a quasar with emission lines of small equivalent width. We discuss the possibility that the optical continuum is enhanced by microlensing in a foreground galaxy, as suggested by Stickel et al.

  9. TeV-scale gauged B-L symmetry with inverse seesaw mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Shaaban

    2010-10-01

    We propose a modified version of the TeV-scale B-L extension of the standard model, where neutrino masses are generated through the inverse seesaw mechanism. We show that heavy neutrinos in this model can be accessible via clean signals at the LHC. The search for the extra gauge boson Z{sub B-L}{sup '} through the decay into dileptons or two dileptons plus missing energy is studied. We also show that the B-L extra Higgs boson can be directly probed at the LHC via a clean dilepton and missing energy signal.

  10. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, M. K. Singh, A. K. Das, Gangadhar Chowdhury, Anupam Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-24

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  11. Are BL Lac-type objects nearby black holes. [gas accretion model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, S. L.; Elliot, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that isolated black holes accreting interstellar gas can account for the characteristic properties of the Lacertids. Emission spectra for various interstellar gas densities and black hole masses are compared with the data plotted by Strittmatter et al. (1972) for the BL Lac-type objects. Rough estimates indicate that there may indeed be a finite number of stellar-mass black holes close to the earth as required by the theory. If it is determined that the BL Lac-type objects lie outside of the galactic disk a black hole accretion model may still apply if certain conditions are satisfied.

  12. MERRA-2: File Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, M. G.; Lucchesi, R.; Suarez, M.

    2015-01-01

    The second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) is a NASA atmospheric reanalysis that begins in 1980. It replaces the original MERRA reanalysis (Rienecker et al., 2011) using an upgraded version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system. The file collections for MERRA-2 are described in detail in this document, including some important changes from those of the MERRA dataset (Lucchesi, 2012).

  13. Permanent-File-Validation Utility Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derry, Stephen D.

    1988-01-01

    Errors in files detected and corrected during operation. Permanent File Validation (PFVAL) utility computer program provides CDC CYBER NOS sites with mechanism to verify integrity of permanent file base. Locates and identifies permanent file errors in Mass Storage Table (MST) and Track Reservation Table (TRT), in permanent file catalog entries (PFC's) in permit sectors, and in disk sector linkage. All detected errors written to listing file and system and job day files. Program operates by reading system tables , catalog track, permit sectors, and disk linkage bytes to vaidate expected and actual file linkages. Used extensively to identify and locate errors in permanent files and enable online correction, reducing computer-system downtime.

  14. Ageing single file motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, R.; Sanders, L.; Lomholt, M. A.; Lizana, L.; Fogelmark, K.; Ambjörnsson, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The mean squared displacement of a tracer particle in a single file of identical particles with excluded volume interactions shows the famed Harris scaling ≃ K1/2t1/2 as function of time. Here we study what happens to this law when each particle of the single file interacts with the environment such that it is transiently immobilised for times τ with a power-law distribution ψ(τ) ≃ (τ★)α, and different ranges of the exponent α are considered. We find a dramatic slow-down of the motion of a tracer particle from Harris' law to an ultraslow, logarithmic time evolution ≃ K0 log 1/2(t) when 0 < α < 1. In the intermediate case 1 < α < 2, we observe a power-law form for the mean squared displacement, with a modified scaling exponent as compared to Harris' law. Once α is larger than two, the Brownian single file behaviour and thus Harris' law are restored. We also point out that this process is weakly non-ergodic in the sense that the time and ensemble averaged mean squared displacements are disparate.

  15. Large File System Backup: NERSC Global File System Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhtarani, Akbar; Andrews, Matthew; Hick, Jason; Kramer, William

    2008-10-23

    NERSC's Global File system (NGF), accessible from all compute systems at NERSC, holds files and data from many scientific projects. A full backup of this file system to our High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is performed periodically. Disk storage usage by projects at NERSC has grown seven fold over a two year period, from ~;;20TB in June 2006 to ~;;140 TB in June 2008. The latest full backup took about 13 days and more than 200 T10k tape cartridges (.5 TB capacity). Petabyte file systems are becoming a reality in the next few years and the existing utilities are already strained in handling backup tasks.

  16. 77 FR 35370 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    .... Description: El Paso Natural Gas Company's 2011 (Jan-Mar) Penalty Credit Report. Filed Date: 5/31/12... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket...-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY,...

  17. 77 FR 71790 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket... Credit Response Filing to be effective 12/31/9998. Filed Date: 11/26/12. Accession Number: 20121126-5216.../filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-...

  18. 77 FR 1927 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings...: Reservation Credit Compliance to RP12-15 to be effective 1/12/2012. Filed Date: 1/4/12. Accession Number.../docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For...

  19. 48 CFR 4.802 - Contract files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract files. 4.802... MATTERS Government Contract Files 4.802 Contract files. (a) A contract file should generally consist of— (1) The contracting office contract file, that documents the basis for the acquisition and the...

  20. Break up a File with EDLIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koga, James S.

    Online searchers who download large amounts of data into a single ASCII file often have difficulty fitting that large file into their MS-DOS word processors for post-processing. This paper gives step-by-step instructions for using EDLIN, a text editor for DOS files, to break up a large downloaded file into smaller files. (1 reference) (Author/EW)

  1. 48 CFR 4.802 - Contract files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATTERS Government Contract Files 4.802 Contract files. (a) A contract file should generally consist of— (1) The contracting office contract file, that documents the basis for the acquisition and the award... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract files....

  2. 48 CFR 4.802 - Contract files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATTERS Government Contract Files 4.802 Contract files. (a) A contract file should generally consist of— (1) The contracting office contract file, that documents the basis for the acquisition and the award... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract files....

  3. 12 CFR 5.4 - Filing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Rules of General Applicability § 5.4 Filing required. (a) Filing. A depository institution shall file an application or notice with the OCC to engage in corporate activities and... advise an applicant through a pre-filing communication to send the filing or submission directly to...

  4. The Galley Parallel File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David

    1996-01-01

    As the I/O needs of parallel scientific applications increase, file systems for multiprocessors are being designed to provide applications with parallel access to multiple disks. Many parallel file systems present applications with a conventional Unix-like interface that allows the application to access multiple disks transparently. The interface conceals the parallelism within the file system, which increases the ease of programmability, but makes it difficult or impossible for sophisticated programmers and libraries to use knowledge about their I/O needs to exploit that parallelism. Furthermore, most current parallel file systems are optimized for a different workload than they are being asked to support. We introduce Galley, a new parallel file system that is intended to efficiently support realistic parallel workloads. We discuss Galley's file structure and application interface, as well as an application that has been implemented using that interface.

  5. The Galley Parallel File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David

    1996-01-01

    Most current multiprocessor file systems are designed to use multiple disks in parallel, using the high aggregate bandwidth to meet the growing I/0 requirements of parallel scientific applications. Many multiprocessor file systems provide applications with a conventional Unix-like interface, allowing the application to access multiple disks transparently. This interface conceals the parallelism within the file system, increasing the ease of programmability, but making it difficult or impossible for sophisticated programmers and libraries to use knowledge about their I/O needs to exploit that parallelism. In addition to providing an insufficient interface, most current multiprocessor file systems are optimized for a different workload than they are being asked to support. We introduce Galley, a new parallel file system that is intended to efficiently support realistic scientific multiprocessor workloads. We discuss Galley's file structure and application interface, as well as the performance advantages offered by that interface.

  6. 43 CFR 4.1362 - Where to file; when to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where to file; when to file. 4.1362... file; when to file. (a) The request for review shall be filed with the Hearings Division, Office of... bear the expense for this service. (b) Failure to file a request for review within the time...

  7. Unification and mass spectrum in a B-L extended MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Pinto, R. J.; Perez-Lorenzana, A.

    2009-04-20

    The simplest B-L extension of the minimum supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) may change some of the conceptions about the path for gauge unification as well as to affect the predicted spectrum of the supersymmetric particles at low energy. We present our results for the running of gauge coupling constants and mass parameter in this context.

  8. SPECTROSCOPY OF THE LARGEST EVER {gamma}-RAY-SELECTED BL LAC SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G.

    2013-02-20

    We report on spectroscopic observations covering most of the 475 BL Lacs in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Including archival measurements (correcting several erroneous literature values) we now have spectroscopic redshifts for 44% of the BL Lacs. We establish firm lower redshift limits via intervening absorption systems and statistical lower limits via searches for host galaxies for an additional 51% of the sample leaving only 5% of the BL Lacs unconstrained. The new redshifts raise the median spectroscopic z-tilde from 0.23 to 0.33 and include redshifts as large as z = 2.471. Spectroscopic redshift minima from intervening absorbers have z-tilde = 0.70, showing a substantial fraction at large z and arguing against strong negative evolution. We find that detected BL Lac hosts are bright ellipticals with black hole masses M {sub .} {approx} 10{sup 8.5} - 10{sup 9}, substantially larger than the mean of optical AGNs and LAT Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar samples. A slow increase in M {sub .} with z may be due to selection bias. We find that the power-law dominance of the optical spectrum extends to extreme values, but this does not strongly correlate with the {gamma}-ray properties, suggesting that strong beaming is the primary cause of the range in continuum dominance.

  9. Tree-level unitarity bounds for the minimal B-L model

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, L.; Belyaev, A.; Moretti, S.; Pruna, G. M.

    2010-05-01

    We have derived the unitarity bounds in the high energy limit for the minimal B-L extension of the standard model by analyzing the full class of Higgs and would-be Goldstone boson two-to-two scatterings at tree level. Moreover, we have investigated how these limits could vary at some lower critical value of the energy.

  10. The inhibitory efficacy of methylseleninic acid against colon cancer xenografts in C57BL/6 mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data indicate that methylselenol is a critical selenium (Se) metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo. We tested the hypoththesis that oral dosing methylseleninic acid (MSeA), a methylselenol precursor, inhibits the growth of colon cancer xenografts in C57BL/6 mice fed a Se adequate diet. In this...

  11. CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENITE IN DRINKING WATER IMPAIRS GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examines in vivo diabetogenic effects of iAs in an animal model. Here, weanling male C57BL/6 mice received deionized water containing iAs(III) (25 ...

  12. X-ray Crystal Structure of the B Component of Hemolysin BL from Bacillus cereus

    SciTech Connect

    Madegowda,M.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus cereus Hemolysin BL enterotoxin, a ternary complex of three proteins, is the causative agent of food poisoning and requires all three components for virulence. The X-ray structure of the binding domain of HBL suggests that it may form a pore similar to other soluble channel forming proteins. A putative pathway of pore formation is discussed.

  13. Veritas Observations of Relativistic Outflows in - and Intermediate-Frequency BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoph, Heike

    2014-03-01

    The majority of blazars detected at very high energies (VHE; E > 100 GeV) are high-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects (HBLs). Low- and intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (LBLs/IBLs with synchrotron-peak frequencies in the infrared and optical regime) are generally more powerful, more luminous, and have a richer jet environment than HBLs. However, only a handful of these IBL and LBLs have been detected by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes, typically during high-flux states. The VERITAS array has been monitoring five known VHE LBLs/IBLs since 2009: 3C 66A, W Comae, PKS 1424+240, S5 0716+714 and BL Lacertae, with typical exposures of 5-10 hours per year. The results of these long-term observations are presented, including a bright, subhour-scale VHE flare of BL Lacertae in June 2011, the first low-state detections of 3C 66A and W Comae, and the detection and characterization of the IBL B2 1215+30.

  14. A remarkable new Awas Löbl from southern China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Shen, Jia-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new distinctive species of the rare Oriental goniacerine genus Awas Löbl, Awas gigas sp. n., is described and illustrated, based on three males and fourteen females taken at the Daoyao Shan Natural Reserve in the southern Chinese province of Guangxi. All specimens were collected from colonies of the ant genus Pachycondyla F. Smith nesting in decomposing woods. PMID:26448721

  15. Macrophage-dependent clearance of systemically administered B16BL6-derived exosomes from the blood circulation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Takafumi; Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Kato, Kana; Morishita, Masaki; Yamashita, Takuma; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Charoenviriyakul, Chonlada; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies using B16BL6-derived exosomes labelled with gLuc–lactadherin (gLuc-LA), a fusion protein of Gaussia luciferase (a reporter protein) and lactadherin (an exosome-tropic protein), showed that the exosomes quickly disappeared from the systemic circulation after intravenous injection in mice. In the present study, the mechanism of rapid clearance of intravenously injected B16BL6 exosomes was investigated. gLuc-LA-labelled exosomes were obtained from supernatant of B16BL6 cells after transfection with a plasmid DNA encoding gLuc-LA. Labelling was stable when the exosomes were incubated in serum. By using B16BL6 exosomes labelled with PKH26, a lipophilic fluorescent dye, it was demonstrated that PKH26-labelled B16BL6 exosomes were taken up by macrophages in the liver and spleen but not in the lung, while PKH26-labelled exosomes were taken up by the endothelial cells in the lung. Subsequently, gLuc-LA-labelled B16BL6 exosomes were injected into macrophage-depleted mice prepared by injection with clodronate-containing liposomes. The clearance of the intravenously injected B16BL6 exosomes from the blood circulation was much slower in macrophage-depleted mice than that in untreated mice. These results indicate that macrophages play important roles in the clearance of intravenously injected B16BL6 exosomes from the systemic circulation. PMID:25669322

  16. Terminology Extraction from Log Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saneifar, Hassan; Bonniol, Stéphane; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal; Roche, Mathieu

    The log files generated by digital systems can be used in management information systems as the source of important information on the condition of systems. However, log files are not exhaustively exploited in order to extract information. The classical methods of information extraction such as terminology extraction methods are irrelevant to this context because of the specific characteristics of log files like their heterogeneous structure, the special vocabulary and the fact that they do not respect a natural language grammar. In this paper, we introduce our approach Exterlog to extract the terminology from log files. We detail how it deals with the particularity of such textual data.

  17. Analyses of the Light Variations of OJ 287, 0716+714 and BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-tao; Pan, Yan-ping

    2013-01-01

    OJ 287 is a BL Lac object which exhibits intense activities of low peak-frequencies. Its energy spectrum in low frequency band is quite similar with those of two other TeV BL Lac objects (i.e., 0716+714 and BL Lacertae). However, the Cerenkov telescope did not detect its TeV rays. By using the observational data of these three heavenly bodies and comparing the discrepan- cies of their minimal periods of light variations and delays at 22 GHz, 37 GHz and B-waveband, we have further investigated the possible reason why the TeV gamma-rays of OJ 287 have not been observed. The results of analyses are as fol- lows. (1) For the minimal periods of light variations, the periods of OJ 287 at 37 GHZ and B-waveband are short. At 22 GHz the results of OJ 287 and 0716+714 are comparable, but the period of OJ 287 is much shorter in comparison with that of BL Lacertae, and this shows that its activity is more intense. However, the TeV gamma-rays of OJ 287 have not been detected, which implies that the radiation of OJ 287 in TeV waveband may have no connection with the minimal periods of light variations in these three low-energy wavebands. (2) In respect of delays, the delay of OJ 287 in the B waveband with respect to 37 GHz is longer than that of 0716+714, but shorter than that of BL Lacertae. Its delay at 37 GHz in respect to 22 GHz is shorter than that of 0716+714. Meanwhile, the delay of BL Lacertae at 37 GHz in respect to 22 GHz is negative, which implies that 22 GHz precedes 37 GHz. Via the comparison and analysis of delays, no obvious differences between OJ 287 and 0716+714 as well as BL Lacertae have been found. On the side of energy spectra, it is quite possible that due to the steep energy spectrum of OJ 287 in TeV waveband, the Cerenkov telescope has not detected the gamma radiation of OJ 287. However, nowadays it is still not clear whether the steep energy spectrum in TeV energy range has some influence on the light variations in low energy realm.

  18. Identification of a subset of normal B cells with a Burkitt's lymphoma (BL)-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gregory, C D; Tursz, T; Edwards, C F; Tetaud, C; Talbot, M; Caillou, B; Rickinson, A B; Lipinski, M

    1987-07-01

    Fresh biopsy cells from cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) display a homogeneous cell surface phenotype. The cells were found to be reactive with the pan B cell marker B1, and consistently co-expressed the BL-associated glycolipid antigen, BLA, and the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen, CALLA, but lacked the B cell "activation" antigens characteristically expressed on EB virus-transformed normal B cells. Microscopic and cell sorter analysis of cells isolated from a series of fresh normal tonsils have identified a subpopulation of normal B cells carrying the same cell surface markers. That BLA and CALLA could be co-expressed on individual B cells was demonstrated by two-color immunofluorescence (IF) of tonsils in suspension, and immunoperoxidase (IP) staining of serial tonsil sections. These BLA+, CALLA+, "activation" antigen- cells were further characterized as B1+, sIgM+, sIgD-, C3d/EB virus receptor+ and were susceptible to virus-induced transformation in vitro. IF studies on Percoll-fractionated tonsillar cell populations and direct examination of IP-stained tonsil semi-thin sections indicated that the BLA+, CALLA+ cells were localized in germinal centers. Their morphological characteristics matched those of BL cells, and their location within germinal centers was consistent both with the known phenotype of germinal center tonsillar B cells and with the description of BL as a proliferation of centroblasts. We suggest that this population of tonsillar germinal center B cells provides the normal counterpart of BL tumor cells. PMID:2953817

  19. Comparison between TeV and non-TeV BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao; Fan, Jun-Hui

    2016-07-01

    BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) are the dominant population of TeV emitting blazars. In this work, we investigate whether there are any special observational properties associated with TeV sources. To do so, we will compare the observational properties of TeV detected BL Lacs (TeV BLs) with non-TeV detected BL Lac objects (non-TeV BLs). From the 3rd Fermi/LAT source catalog (3FGL), we can obtain 662 BL Lacs, out of which 47 are TeV BLs and 615 are non-TeV BLs. Their multi-wavelength flux densities (F R, F O, F X and F γ), photon spectral indexes (αX ph and αph γ), and effective spectral indexes (αRO and αOX) are compiled from the available literature. Then the luminosities (log vL R, log vL O, log vL X, log vL γ) are calculated. From comparisons, we find that TeV BLs are different from low synchrotron peaked BLs and intermediate synchrotron peaked BLs, but TeV BLs show similar properties to high synchrotron peaked (HSP) BLs. Therefore, we concentrated on a comparison between TeV HSP BLs and non-TeV HSP BLs. Analysis results suggest that TeV HSP BLs and non-TeV HSP BLs exhibit some differences in their αRO and αγ ph, but their other properties are quite similar.

  20. 75 FR 67357 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    .... Applicants: ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC. Description: ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.203: Tiger FTSA Non-Conforming Agreement Filing to be effective 12/ 1/2010. Filed Date: 10/25/2010....

  1. Converting Inhouse Subject Card Files to Electronic Keyword Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culmer, Carita M.

    The library at Phoenix College developed the Controversial Issues Files (CIF), a "home made" card file containing references pertinent to specific ongoing assignments. Although the CIF had proven itself to be an excellent resource tool for beginning researchers, it was cumbersome to maintain in the card format, and was limited to very general…

  2. The DNA Files

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-09

    The DNA Files is a radio documentary which disseminates genetics information over public radio. The documentaries explore subjects which include the following: How genetics affects society. How human life began and how it evolved. Could new prenatal genetic tests hold the key to disease prevention later in life? Would a national genetic data base sacrifice individual privacy? and Should genes that may lead to the cure for cancer be privately owned? This report serves as a project update for the second quarter of 1998. It includes the spring/summer 1998 newsletter, the winter 1998 newsletter, the program clock, and the latest flyer.

  3. 49 CFR 106.60 - Filing comments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Participating in the Rulemaking Process Written Comments § 106.60 Filing comments. Anyone may file...

  4. The Internet Toolkit: File Compression and Archive Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Erik

    1993-01-01

    Describes utility programs available for posttransfer processing files that have been downloaded from the Internet. Highlights include file compression; viewing graphics files; converting binary files to ASCII files; and how to find utility programs. (LRW)

  5. Portable File Format (PFF) specifications.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.,

    2015-02-01

    Created at Sandia National Laboratories, the Portable File Format (PFF) allows binary data transfer across computer platforms. Although this capability is supported by many other formats, PFF files are still in use at Sandia, particularly in pulsed power research. This report provides detailed PFF specifications for accessing data without relying on legacy code.

  6. Aerospell Supplemental Spell Check File

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospell is a supplemental spell check file that can be used as a resource for researchers, writers, editors, students, and others who compose scientific and technical texts. The file extends the general spell check dictionaries of word processors by adding more than 13,000 words used in a broad range of aerospace and related disciplines.

  7. Storing files in a parallel computing system using list-based index to identify replica files

    DOEpatents

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M.; Tzelnic, Percy; Zhang, Zhenhua; Grider, Gary

    2015-07-21

    Improved techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using a list-based index to identify file replicas. A file and at least one replica of the file are stored in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. An index for the file comprises at least one list comprising a pointer to a storage location of the file and a storage location of the at least one replica of the file. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and one or more sub-files. The index may also comprise a checksum value for one or more of the file and the replica(s) of the file. The checksum value can be evaluated to validate the file and/or the file replica(s). A query can be processed using the list.

  8. The Student Telescope Network (STN) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stencel, R. E.; Harland, H. A.; Hannahoe, R.; Bisque, S. T. M. D.; Rice, M.

    2002-05-01

    Several factors make observational astronomy difficult for pre-college students and teachers: (1) school happens during the day and observing is normally a night-time activity; (2) not many schools have teachers comfortable with astronomy equipment; (3) the scourge of light pollution has hidden the stars from many students living in or near cities; (4) there is a general lack of access to expertise when needed. Electronic access to computer-controlled telescopes equipped with digital cameras can solve some these difficulties by enabling students and their teachers to access internet-controllable telescopes, and consult more readily with experts. We report on a happy convergence of technical solutions to internet-control of telescopes by Software Bisque (www.bisque.com), the opening of New Mexico Skies guest observatory (www.nmskies.com) and outreach by the Youth Astronomy Committee of the Astronomical League. Recognizing the opportunity, we jointly proposed to the Institute for Connecting Science Research to the Classroom, to conduct a pilot program allowing high school students to access a CCD-equipped, accurately pointing and tracking telescope, controllable over the web, with a user-friendly sky-map browser tool. As we have demonstrated with Australian and Eurasian student participants, that suitably placed telescopes worldwide can make observing from the classroom/home in daylight feasible. In this and a related poster, we report on a three month pilot project conducted Feb-May 2002, including user interest and statistics, lessons learned, and ideas on how to enhance student participation in the research process. We thank the Institute for Connecting Science Research to the Classroom for a grant to the University of Denver in partial support of this effort.

  9. Sensing of HIV-1 Infection in Tzm-bl Cells with Reconstituted Expression of STING

    PubMed Central

    Trotard, Maud; Tsopoulidis, Nikolaos; Tibroni, Nadine; Willemsen, Joschka; Binder, Marco; Ruggieri, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Production of proinflammatory cytokines indicative of potent recognition by the host innate immune system has long been recognized as a hallmark of the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. The first components of the machinery by which primary HIV target cells sense infection have recently been described; however, the mechanistic dissection of innate immune recognition and viral evasion would be facilitated by an easily accessible cell line model. Here we describe that reconstituted expression of the innate signaling adaptor STING enhanced the ability of the well-established HIV reporter cell line Tzm-bl to sense HIV infection and to convert this information into nuclear translocation of IRF3 as well as expression of cytokine mRNA. STING-dependent immune sensing of HIV-1 required virus entry and reverse transcription but not genome integration. Particularly efficient recognition was observed for an HIV-1 variant lacking expression of the accessory protein Vpr, suggesting a role of the viral protein in circumventing STING-mediated immune signaling. Vpr as well as STING significantly impacted the magnitude and breadth of the cytokine mRNA expression profile induced upon HIV-1 infection. However, cytoplasmic DNA sensing did not result in detectable cytokine secretion in this cell system, and innate immune recognition did not affect infection rates. Despite these deficits in eliciting antiviral effector functions, these results establish Tzm-bl STING and Tzm-bl STING IRF3.GFP cells as useful tools for studies aimed at dissecting mechanisms and regulation of early innate immune recognition of HIV infection. IMPORTANCE Cell-autonomous immune recognition of HIV infection was recently established as an important aspect by which the host immune system attempts to fend off HIV-1 infection. Mechanistic studies on host cell recognition and viral evasion are hampered by the resistance of many primary HIV target cells to detailed experimental manipulation. We describe here

  10. Efficient algorithms for multi-file caching

    SciTech Connect

    Otoo, Ekow J.; Rotem, Doron; Seshadri, Sridhar

    2004-03-15

    Multi-File Caching issues arise in applications where a set of jobs are processed and each job requests one or more input files. A given job can only be started if all its input files are preloaded into a disk cache. Examples of applications where Multi-File caching may be required are scientific data mining, bit-sliced indexes, and analysis of sets of vertically partitioned files. The difference between this type of caching and traditional file caching systems is that in this environment, caching and replacement decisions are made based on ''combinations of files (file bundles),'' rather than single files. In this work we propose new algorithms for Multi-File caching and analyze their performance. Extensive simulations are presented to establish the effectiveness of the Multi-File caching algorithm in terms of job response time and job queue length.

  11. Effect of chronic corticosterone application on depression-like behavior in C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Sturm, M; Becker, A; Schroeder, A; Bilkei-Gorzo, A; Zimmer, A

    2015-03-01

    Many studies using genetic mouse models are performed with animals on either one of the two closely related genetic backgrounds, C57BL/6J or C57BL/6N. These strains differ only in a few genetic loci, but have some phenotypic differences that also affect behavior. In order to determine the effects of chronic stress hormone exposure, which is relevant for the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, we investigated here the behavioral manifestations of long-term increase in corticosterone levels. Thus, male mice from both sub-strains were subcutaneously implanted with corticosterone (20 mg) or placebo pellets that released the hormone for a period of 21 days and resulted in significantly elevated plasma corticosterone levels. Corticosterone significantly increased food intake in B6N, but not in B6J mice. At various time points after pellet implantation, we performed tests relevant to activity and emotional behaviors. B6J mice displayed a generally higher activity in the home cage and the open field. Corticosterone decreased the activity. In B6N mice, corticosterone also decreased sucrose preference, worsened the coat state and increased forced swim immobility, while it had no effect in the B6J strain. Altogether, these results indicate that B6N mice are more sensitive to some of the effects of chronic corticosterone treatment than B6J mice.

  12. TrmBL2 from Pyrococcus furiosus Interacts Both with Double-Stranded and Single-Stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wierer, Sebastian; Daldrop, Peter; Ud Din Ahmad, Misbha; Boos, Winfried; Drescher, Malte; Welte, Wolfram; Seidel, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    In many hyperthermophilic archaea the DNA binding protein TrmBL2 or one of its homologues is abundantly expressed. TrmBL2 is thought to play a significant role in modulating the chromatin architecture in combination with the archaeal histone proteins and Alba. However, its precise physiological role is poorly understood. It has been previously shown that upon binding TrmBL2 covers double-stranded DNA, which leads to the formation of a thick and fibrous filament. Here we investigated the filament formation process as well as the stabilization of DNA by TrmBL2 from Pyroccocus furiosus in detail. We used magnetic tweezers that allow to monitor changes of the DNA mechanical properties upon TrmBL2 binding on the single-molecule level. Extended filaments formed in a cooperative manner and were considerably stiffer than bare double-stranded DNA. Unlike Alba, TrmBL2 did not form DNA cross-bridges. The protein was found to bind double- and single-stranded DNA with similar affinities. In mechanical disruption experiments of DNA hairpins this led to stabilization of both, the double- (before disruption) and the single-stranded (after disruption) DNA forms. Combined, these findings suggest that the biological function of TrmBL2 is not limited to modulating genome architecture and acting as a global repressor but that the protein acts additionally as a stabilizer of DNA secondary structure. PMID:27214207

  13. Distinct granuloma responses in C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice in response to pristane

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaiyong; Liao, Dongmei; Cain, Derek; McLeod, Ian; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Guan, Ziqiang; Raetz, Christian; Kelsoe, Garnett

    2010-01-01

    Granuloma formation is an inflammatory response of the host against invading pathogens or indigestible substances. We generated mesenteric oil granulomas by injecting pristane into the peritoneal cavity (PC) of mice, and compared oil granuloma formation in the C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ strains of mice. The formation and kinetics of oil granulomas were distinct between the two strains. In C57BL/6J mice, injected pristane induced oil granuloma formation at both the mesenteric centers (MG) and margins (SG). MG was resolving by 11 weeks, and SG persisted. In BALB/cByJ mice, MG developed slower but persisted longer than in C57BL/6J mice, and SG resolved sooner than in C57BL/6J mice. Injection of India ink revealed that phagocytes were localised mainly to the SG in C57BL/6J mice, but were located diffusely in both MG and SG of BALB/cByJ mice. SG cells expressed more monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA than MG cells in C57BL/6J mice, but there was no difference in MCP-1 expression between the MG and SG in BALB/cByJ mice. These observations suggest that the recruitment of inflammatory leucocytes under the direction of chemokines differentiates the patterns of granuloma responses to pristane in C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice. PMID:20681981

  14. TrmBL2 from Pyrococcus furiosus Interacts Both with Double-Stranded and Single-Stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Wierer, Sebastian; Daldrop, Peter; Ud Din Ahmad, Misbha; Boos, Winfried; Drescher, Malte; Welte, Wolfram; Seidel, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    In many hyperthermophilic archaea the DNA binding protein TrmBL2 or one of its homologues is abundantly expressed. TrmBL2 is thought to play a significant role in modulating the chromatin architecture in combination with the archaeal histone proteins and Alba. However, its precise physiological role is poorly understood. It has been previously shown that upon binding TrmBL2 covers double-stranded DNA, which leads to the formation of a thick and fibrous filament. Here we investigated the filament formation process as well as the stabilization of DNA by TrmBL2 from Pyroccocus furiosus in detail. We used magnetic tweezers that allow to monitor changes of the DNA mechanical properties upon TrmBL2 binding on the single-molecule level. Extended filaments formed in a cooperative manner and were considerably stiffer than bare double-stranded DNA. Unlike Alba, TrmBL2 did not form DNA cross-bridges. The protein was found to bind double- and single-stranded DNA with similar affinities. In mechanical disruption experiments of DNA hairpins this led to stabilization of both, the double- (before disruption) and the single-stranded (after disruption) DNA forms. Combined, these findings suggest that the biological function of TrmBL2 is not limited to modulating genome architecture and acting as a global repressor but that the protein acts additionally as a stabilizer of DNA secondary structure.

  15. 78 FR 17394 - Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    .... 770, 77 FR 71288 (Nov. 30, 2012), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,338 (cross-referenced at 141 FERC ] 61,120... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to...

  16. Gene Transfer in Leptolyngbya sp. Strain BL0902, a Cyanobacterium Suitable for Production of Biomass and Bioproducts

    PubMed Central

    Taton, Arnaud; Lis, Ewa; Adin, Dawn M.; Dong, Guogang; Cookson, Scott; Kay, Steve A.; Golden, Susan S.; Golden, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Current cyanobacterial model organisms were not selected for their growth traits or potential for the production of renewable biomass, biofuels, or other products. The cyanobacterium strain BL0902 emerged from a search for strains with superior growth traits. Morphology and 16S rRNA sequence placed strain BL0902 in the genus Leptolyngbya. Leptolyngbya sp. strain BL0902 (hereafter Leptolyngbya BL0902) showed robust growth at temperatures from 22°C to 40°C and tolerated up to 0.5 M NaCl, 32 mM urea, high pH, and high solar irradiance. Its growth rate under outdoor conditions rivaled Arthrospira (“pirulina” strains. Leptolyngbya BL0902 accumulated higher lipid content and a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids than Arthrospira strains. In addition to these desirable qualities, Leptolyngbya BL0902 is amenable to genetic engineering that is reliable, efficient, and stable. We demonstrated conjugal transfer from Escherichia coli of a plasmid based on RSF1010 and expression of spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance and yemGFP reporter transgenes. Conjugation efficiency was investigated in biparental and triparental matings with and without a “elper”plasmid that carries DNA methyltransferase genes, and with two different conjugal plasmids. We also showed that Leptolyngbya BL0902 is amenable to transposon mutagenesis with a Tn5 derivative. To facilitate genetic manipulation of Leptolyngbya BL0902, a conjugal plasmid vector was engineered to carry a trc promoter upstream of a Gateway recombination cassette. These growth properties and genetic tools position Leptolyngbya BL0902 as a model cyanobacterial production strain. PMID:22292073

  17. Characterization of inhibition of M2 ion channel activity by BL-1743, an inhibitor of influenza A virus.

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Q; Pinto, L H; Luo, G; Shaughnessy, M A; Mullaney, D; Kurtz, S; Krystal, M; Lamb, R A

    1996-01-01

    The influenza A virus M2 integral membrane protein has ion channel activity that can be inhibited by the antiviral drug amantadine. Recently, a spirene-containing compound, BL-1743 (2-[3-azaspiro (5,5)undecanol]-2-imidazoline), that inhibits influenza virus growth was identified (S. Kurtz, G. Lao, K. M. Hahnenberger, C. Brooks, O. Gecha, K. Ingalls, K.-I. Numata, and M. Krystal, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:2204-2209, 1995). We have examined the ability of BL-1743 to inhibit the M2 ion channel when expressed in oocytes of Xenopus laevis. BL-1743 inhibition is complete as far as can be measured by electrophysiological methods and is reversible, with a reverse reaction rate constant of 4.0 x 10(-3) s(-1). In contrast, amantadine inhibition is irreversible within the time frame of the experiment. However, BL-1743 inhibition and amantadine inhibition have similar properties. The majority of isolated influenza viruses resistant to BL-1743 are also amantadine resistant. In addition, all known amino acid changes which result in amantadine resistance also confer BL-1743 resistance. However, one BL-1743-resistant virus isolated, designated M2-I35T, contained the change Ile-35-->Thr. This virus is >70-fold more resistant to BL-1743 and only 10-fold more resistant to amantadine than the wild-type virus. When the ion channel activity of M2-I35T was examined in oocytes, it was found that M2-I35T is BL-1743 resistant but is reversibly inhibited by amantadine. These findings suggest that these two drugs interact differently with the M2 protein transmembrane pore region. PMID:8676445

  18. Estudio de variabilidad del blazar BL Lacertae: desde radio hasta rayos gamma (2008-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichel, A.; Rovero, A. C.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to study the blazar BL Lacertae during extended periods (greater than weeks), by characterizing the changes in flux and polarization at optical, radio, X-rays and gamma rays; also to investigate the possible correlations between different bands. We look for periodicity in the flux variations in different bands, looking for criteria to predict high activity states of the source. We use multi-frequency observations of BL Lacertae obtained during the years 2008--2015, from radio to very-high-energy gamma rays. During this period, the source remained mainly in a low state of activity at the high energy bands, with several episodes of high activity (flares) in different bands, some of them observed simultaneously in several bands.

  19. Possible links between BL Lacertae objects and quasars from very long baseline interferometry radio data.

    PubMed

    Gabuzda, D C

    1995-12-01

    Systematic differences in the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio polarization structure and average VLBI component speeds of BL Lacertae objects and quasars support the view that the observational distinction between these classes, based in large part on the strength of their optical line emission, is meaningful; in other words, this distinction reflects significant differences in the physical conditions in these sources. Possible models providing a link between the optical and VLBI properties of BL Lacertae objects and quasars are discussed. Most VLBI polarization observations to date have been global observations made at 6 cm; recent results suggest that the VLBI polarization structure of some sources may change dramatically on scales smaller than those probed by these 6-cm observations.

  20. Possible links between BL Lacertae objects and quasars from very long baseline interferometry radio data.

    PubMed Central

    Gabuzda, D C

    1995-01-01

    Systematic differences in the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio polarization structure and average VLBI component speeds of BL Lacertae objects and quasars support the view that the observational distinction between these classes, based in large part on the strength of their optical line emission, is meaningful; in other words, this distinction reflects significant differences in the physical conditions in these sources. Possible models providing a link between the optical and VLBI properties of BL Lacertae objects and quasars are discussed. Most VLBI polarization observations to date have been global observations made at 6 cm; recent results suggest that the VLBI polarization structure of some sources may change dramatically on scales smaller than those probed by these 6-cm observations. PMID:11607606

  1. VERITAS observations and spectral energy distribution of H 1426+428 BL Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khassen, Y.

    2014-07-01

    The VERITAS array of 12-m atmospheric-Cherenkov telescopes in southern Arizona is one of the world's most sensitive detectors of astrophysical very high energy (VHE) γ-rays above 100 GeV. We present results from VERITAS observations of the BL Lac object H 1426+428. The VERITAS array has been monitoring this source since 2007 and has accumulated over 35 hours of data. The source was first detected in the VHE range by the Whipple 10-m γ-ray telescope in 2002 during a flaring state. It is classified as an extreme high-frequency peaked BL Lac (HBL), with the peak of the synchrotron emission lying above 100 keV, even during low states. The spectral energy distribution of H 1426+428, including contemporaneous VERITAS, Fermi-LAT, Swift XRT/UVOT and optical data, will be presented.

  2. Radio morphology and parent population of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.; Kollgaard, R. I.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Feigelson, E. D.

    1993-01-01

    High-dynamic range (typically 1700:1) radio maps of 15 X-ray BL Lac (XBL) objects from the HEAO-1 Large Area Sky Survey are presented. Morphological characteristics of these sources are compared with Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class I radio galaxies in the context of unified schemes, with reference to one-sided kiloparsec-scale emission. Evidence that cluster membership of XBLs is significantly higher than previously thought is also presented. It is shown that the extended radio powers, X-ray emission, core-to-lobe ratios, and linear sizes of the radio selected BL Lac (RBL) and XBL populations are consistent with an FR I radio galaxy parent population. A source list and VLA observing log and map parameters are provided.

  3. Minimal B-L model naturally realized at the TeV scale

    SciTech Connect

    Iso, Satoshi; Orikasa, Yuta; Okada, Nobuchika

    2009-12-01

    In a previous paper [S. Iso, N. Okada, and Y. Orikasa, Phys. Lett. B 676, 81 (2009).], we have proposed the minimal B-L extended standard model as a phenomenologically viable model that realizes the Coleman-Weinberg-type breaking of the electroweak symmetry. Assuming the classical conformal invariance and stability up to the Planck scale, we will show in this paper that the model naturally predicts TeV scale B-L breaking as well as a light standard-model singlet Higgs boson and light right-handed neutrinos around the same energy scale. We also study phenomenology and detectability of the model at the Large Hadron Collider and the International Linear Collider.

  4. Proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of the response to bile stress of Lactobacillus casei BL23.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cristina; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2012-05-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, and some strains are used as probiotics. The ability of probiotic strains to survive the passage through the gastrointestinal tract is considered a key factor for their probiotic action. Therefore, tolerance to bile salts is a desirable feature for probiotic strains. In this study we have characterized the response of L. casei BL23 to bile by a transcriptomic and proteomic approach. The analysis revealed that exposure to bile induced changes in the abundance of 52 proteins and the transcript levels of 67 genes. The observed changes affected genes and proteins involved in the stress response, fatty acid and cell wall biosynthesis, metabolism of carbohydrates, transport of peptides, coenzyme levels, membrane H(+)-ATPase, and a number of uncharacterized genes and proteins. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms that enable L. casei BL23 to cope with bile stress. PMID:22322960

  5. Resonant leptogenesis in the minimal B-L extended standard model at TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Iso, Satoshi; Orikasa, Yuta; Okada, Nobuchika

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the resonant leptogenesis scenario in the minimal B-L extended standard model with the B-L symmetry breaking at the TeV scale. Through detailed analysis of the Boltzmann equations, we show how much the resultant baryon asymmetry via leptogenesis is enhanced or suppressed, depending on the model parameters, in particular, the neutrino Dirac-Yukawa couplings and the TeV scale Majorana masses of heavy degenerate neutrinos. In order to consider a realistic case, we impose a simple ansatz for the model parameters and analyze the neutrino oscillation parameters and the baryon asymmetry via leptogenesis as a function of only a single CP phase. We find that for a fixed CP phase all neutrino oscillation data and the observed baryon asymmetry of the present Universe can be simultaneously reproduced.

  6. Upper limits from hard X-ray observations of five BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezler, M.; Gruber, D. E.; Rothschild, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from hard X-ray observations of the five brightest X-ray BL Lacertae objects: PKS 0548-322, Mrk 421 (=1101+384), 2A 1219+305, Mrk 501 (=1652+398), and PKS 2155-304. The observations covered the energy range 15-165 keV from August 1977 to December 1978. The results are compared with previous studies.

  7. Contemporaneous Broadband Observations of Three High-redshift BL LAC Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; An, H.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonino, R.; Bregeon, J.; Britto, R. J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Costanza, F.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Domínguez, A.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Finke, J.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Horan, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; Katsuragawa, M.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mirabal, N.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okada, C.; Orlando, E.; Paneque, D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, O.; Rau, A.; Romani, R. W.; Schady, P.; Sgrò, C.; Simone, D.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stern, D.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.

    2016-03-01

    We have collected broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three BL Lac objects 3FGL J0022.1-1855 (z = 0.689), 3FGL J0630.9-2406 (z\\quad ≳ 1.239), and 3FGL J0811.2-7529 (z = 0.774), detected by Fermi with relatively flat gigaelectronvolt spectra. By observing simultaneously in the near-infrared to hard X-ray band, we can well characterize the high end of the synchrotron component of the SED. Thus, fitting the SEDs to synchro-Compton models of the dominant emission from the relativistic jet, we can constrain the underlying particle properties and predict the shape of the gigaelectronvolt Compton component. Standard extragalactic background light (EBL) models explain the high-energy absorption well, with poorer fits for high-ultraviolet models. The fits show clear evidence for EBL absorption in the Fermi spectrum of our highest-redshift source 3FGL J0630.9-2406. While synchrotron self-Compton models adequately describe the SEDs, the situation may be complicated by possible external Compton components. For 3FGL J0811.2-7529, we also discover a nearby serendipitous source in the X-ray data, which is almost certainly another lower synchrotron peak frequency ({ν }{{pk}}{{sy}}) BL Lac, that may contribute flux in the Fermi band. Since our sources are unusual high-luminosity, moderate {ν }{{pk}}{{sy}} BL Lacs, we compare these quantities and the Compton dominance, the ratio of peak inverse Compton to peak synchrotron luminosities ({L}{{pk}}{{IC}}/{L}{{pk}}{{sy}}), with those of the full Fermi BL Lac population.

  8. Minimal flavor violation in the minimal U(1)B-L model and resonant leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Nobuchika; Orikasa, Yuta; Yamada, Toshifumi

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the resonant leptogenesis scenario in the minimally U(1)B-L extended standard model with minimal flavor violation. In our model, the U(1)B-L gauge symmetry is broken at the TeV scale and standard model singlet neutrinos gain Majorana masses of order TeV. In addition, we introduce a flavor symmetry on the singlet neutrinos at a scale higher than TeV. The flavor symmetry is explicitly broken by the neutrino Dirac Yukawa coupling, which induces splittings in the singlet neutrino Majorana masses at lower scales through renormalization group evolutions. We call this setup minimal flavor violation. The mass splittings are proportional to the tiny Dirac Yukawa coupling, and hence they automatically enhance the CP asymmetry parameter necessary for the resonant leptogenesis mechanism. In this paper, we calculate the baryon number yield by solving the Boltzmann equations, including the effects of U(1)B-L gauge boson that also has TeV scale mass and causes washing-out of the singlet neutrinos in the course of thermal leptogenesis. The Dirac Yukawa coupling for neutrinos is fixed in terms of neutrino oscillation data and an arbitrary 3×3 complex-valued orthogonal matrix. We show that the right amount of baryon number asymmetry can be achieved through thermal leptogenesis in the context of the minimal flavor violation with singlet neutrinos and U(1)B-L gauge boson at the TeV scale. These particles can be discovered at the LHC in the near future.

  9. Commissioning of BL 7.2, the new diagnostic beam line at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Baum, Dennis; Biocca, Alan; Kelez, Nicholas; Nishimura, Toshiro; Scarvie, Tom; Williams, Eric; Holldack, Karsten

    2004-06-29

    BL 7.2 is a new beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) dedicated to electron beam diagnostics. The system, which is basically a hard x-ray pinhole camera, was installed in the storage ring in August 2003 and commissioning with the ALS electron beam followed immediately after. In this paper the commissioning results are presented together with the description of the relevant measurements performed for the beamline characterization.

  10. Radar Imaging of Binary Near-Earth Asteroid (357439) 2004 BL86

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Lance AM; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D.; Jao, Joseph S.; Lee, Clement G.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Howell, Ellen S.; Busch, Michael W.; Ford, H. Alyson; Ghigo, Frank; Nolan, Michael C.; Slade, Martin A.; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Richardson, James E.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Rozek, Agata

    2015-08-01

    We report radar observations of near-Earth asteroid 2004 BL86 obtained during 2015 Jan. 26-31 at the 70 m and 34 m Goldstone facilities, Arecibo, Green Bank, and elements of the Very Long Baseline Array. 2004 BL86 approached within 0.0080 au (3.1 lunar distances) on Jan. 26, the closest known approach by any object with an absolute magnitude brighter than ~19 until 2027. Prior to the encounter, virtually nothing was known about its physical properties other than its absolute magnitude of 19, which suggested a diameter within a factor of two of 500 m. Due to its size and the extremely close approach, 2004 BL86 was a very strong radar target that provided an outstanding opportunity for radar imaging and physical characterization. The radar images confirmed photometric results reported by Pravec et al. (2015, CBET 4063) that 2004 BL86 is a binary system. This is the 43rd near-Earth asteroid binary detected by radar. Delay-Doppler images placed thousands of 3.75 m-resolution pixels on the object and reveal a rounded and oblate primary with an equatorial diameter of ~300 m, suggesting it is optically-bright, evidence for ridges, small-scale topography including boulders, and a large angular feature near one of the poles. A preliminary estimate for the diameter of the secondary is ~70 m. The images hint that the secondary’s rotation is synchronous with its orbital period. The observations also yielded the first detection of an asteroid with a new 80 kW C-band radar (7190 MHz, 4.2 cm) at the 34 m DSS-13 antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex. This new radar can achieve a range resolution up to 1.875 m/pixel that is twice as fine as the highest resolution previously achievable.

  11. Virtual file system for PSDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnels, Tyson D.

    1993-01-01

    This is a case study. It deals with the use of a 'virtual file system' (VFS) for Boeing's UNIX-based Product Standards Data System (PSDS). One of the objectives of PSDS is to store digital standards documents. The file-storage requirements are that the files must be rapidly accessible, stored for long periods of time - as though they were paper, protected from disaster, and accumulative to about 80 billion characters (80 gigabytes). This volume of data will be approached in the first two years of the project's operation. The approach chosen is to install a hierarchical file migration system using optical disk cartridges. Files are migrated from high-performance media to lower performance optical media based on a least-frequency-used algorithm. The optical media are less expensive per character stored and are removable. Vital statistics about the removable optical disk cartridges are maintained in a database. The assembly of hardware and software acts as a single virtual file system transparent to the PSDS user. The files are copied to 'backup-and-recover' media whose vital statistics are also stored in the database. Seventeen months into operation, PSDS is storing 49 gigabytes. A number of operational and performance problems were overcome. Costs are under control. New and/or alternative uses for the VFS are being considered.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Íria Márcia; LIMA, Sarah Buzaim; FREITAS, Aline de Araújo; VINAUD, Marina Clare; JUNIOR, Ruy de Souza LINO

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis. PMID:27410915

  13. β-Aminopropionitrile monofumarate induces thoracic aortic dissection in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Weihong; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xuerui; Jia, Lixin; Piao, Chunmei; Lan, Feng; Du, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is a catastrophic disease with high mortality and morbidity, characterized by fragmentation of elastin and loss of smooth muscle cells. However, the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease remain elusive because there are no appropriate animal models, limiting discovery of effective therapeutic strategies. We treated mice on C57BL/6 and FVB genetic backgrounds with β-aminopropionitrile monofumarate (BAPN), an irreversible inhibitor of lysyl oxidase, for 4 wk, followed by angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion for 24 h. We found that the BAPN plus Ang II treatment induced formation of aortic dissections in 100% of mice on both genetic backgrounds. BAPN without Ang II caused dissections in few FVB mice, but caused 87% of C57BL/6 mice to develop TAD, with 37% dying from rupture of the aortic dissection. Moreover, a lower dose of BAPN induced TAD formation and rupture earlier with fewer effects on body weight. Therefore, we have generated a reliable and convenient TAD model in C57BL/6 mice for studying the pathological process and exploring therapeutic targets of TAD. PMID:27329825

  14. Intra-night optical multiband variability of BL Lacertae during the 2011 outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, M.; Wei, J. Y.

    2012-02-01

    Aims: We present our optical multiband (B and R) observations of BL Lacertae, which were acquired over 20 nights from May 26 to August 3, 2011, and analyse our data to study the optical emission variability properties of BL Lac. Methods: The simultaneous photometric observations were carried out using the 0.8 m Tsinghua-NAOC Telescope (TNT) at the Xinglong Observatory of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC). TNT is equipped with the Princeton Instrument CCD and standard Johnson-Cousin UBVRI filters. Exposure times were well chosen to make a good compromise between high precision and high temporal density. Results: A multipeak outburst was observed in 2011 observing season. The brightest magnitudes for BL Lac during our observations were B = 14.48 mag and R = 12.89 mag at JD = 2 455 709.2810 (May 27). One of the most rapid variations was detected on July 9, when a flux increase of about 0.34 mag occurred over 2.8 h. In general, both the amplitude of variability and the variation rate are higher at the shorter wavelength. A colour analysis shows that the colour variability processes are apparently complicated. A bluer-when-brighter trend was detected during the outburst. These trends may be the interactive contribution from a "mildly-chromatic" component and a "strongly-chromatic" one. Meanwhile, intra-night variability in B and R bands was found to be correlated, without any time delay exceeding 2.5 min.

  15. Classically scale-invariant B-L model and conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    We consider a coupling of conformal gravity to the classically scale-invariant B-L extended standard model which has been recently proposed as a phenomenologically viable model realizing the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism of breakdown of the electroweak symmetry. As in a globally scale-invariant dilaton gravity, it is also shown in a locally scale-invariant conformal gravity that without recourse to the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism, the B-L gauge symmetry is broken in the process of spontaneous symmetry breakdown of the local scale invariance (Weyl invariance) at the tree level and as a result the B-L gauge field becomes massive via the Higgs mechanism. As a bonus of conformal gravity, the massless dilaton field does not appear and the parameters in front of the non-minimal coupling of gravity are completely fixed in the present model. This observation clearly shows that the conformal gravity has a practical application even if the scalar field does not possess any dynamical degree of freedom owing to the local scale symmetry.

  16. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of BL Hyi and EF Eri in High and Intermediate States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanad, M. R.; Abdel-Sabour, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present the first phase-resolved ultraviolet spectroscopy of two polar systems, BL Hyi and EF Eri, in high and intermediate states from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) during the periods between 1982–1995 and 1979–1991, respectively. The flux curves for the C iv and He ii emission lines for both systems showing variations in their fluxes at different orbital phases are presented. The emission lines are produced in the accretion stream. The reddening for the two polars is found to be 0.00. Our results show that there are variations of the line fluxes with time, similar to the light curves found for both BL Hyi and EF Eri in the optical, infrared, ultraviolet, and X-ray bands. IUE observations support a radiative shock model of BL Hyi with the heating of matter by radiation from the accretion shock and cooling by the electrons scattering off ultraviolet photons from the surface of the white dwarf. EF Eri observations support a two-temperature white dwarf model producing sufficient ultraviolet flux for orbital modulations.

  17. STRUCTURED JETS IN BL LAC OBJECTS: EFFICIENT PeV NEUTRINO FACTORIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Guetta, Dafne

    2014-09-20

    The origin of high-energy neutrinos (0.1–1 PeV range) detected by IceCube remains a mystery. In this work, we explore the possibility that efficient neutrino production can occur in structured jets of BL Lac objects, characterized by a fast inner spine surrounded by a slower layer. This scenario has been widely discussed in the framework of the high-energy emission models for BL Lac objects and radio galaxies. One of the relevant consequences of a velocity structure is the enhancement of the inverse Compton emission caused by the radiative coupling of the two zones. We show that a similar boosting could occur for the neutrino output of the spine through the photo-meson reaction of high-energy protons scattering off the amplified soft target photon field of the layer. Assuming the local density and the cosmological evolution of γ-ray BL Lac object derived from Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we calculate the expected diffuse neutrino intensity, which can match the IceCube data for a reasonable choice of parameters.

  18. Color Variations of Two Blazars: BL Lac and PKS 0736+017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.

    2002-12-01

    Multi-night campaigns to monitor sources for microvariability were undertaken in the summer of 1997 for BL Lac and in early 2002 for PKS 0736+017. BL Lac was observed at Rosemary Hill Observatory in Bronson, Florida and PKS 0736+017 was observed with the SARA telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona. Both sources underwent dramatic flares and exhibited substantial microvariability. During each campaign, the source was observed alternately through V and R filters so that color variations could be monitored as well. The most commonly reported behavior for such objects is that they become redder when fainter. This is observed in the BL Lac data. These data do not indicate that the point source varies in color however. Instead, they support the notion that the underlying host galaxy contributes a larger fraction of the total flux when the source is faint than when it is bright. More unusual was the observation that PKS 0736+017 was observed to be redder when brighter. The data support the notion that the observed color variation may be related more to the nature of the variation (flaring, subsiding, or quiescent) than to the flux level.

  19. Identification of mutations through dominant screening for obesity using C57BL/6 substrains

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Sarowar; Asano, Fuyuki; Fujiyama, Tomoyuki; Miyoshi, Chika; Sato, Makito; Ikkyu, Aya; Kanno, Satomi; Hotta, Noriko; Kakizaki, Miyo; Honda, Takato; Kim, Staci J.; Komiya, Haruna; Miura, Ikuo; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kimio; Kaneda, Hideki; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Wakana, Shigeharu; Funato, Hiromasa; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of leptin substantiated the usefulness of a forward genetic approach in elucidating the molecular network regulating energy metabolism. However, no successful dominant screening for obesity has been reported, which may be due to the influence of quantitative trait loci between the screening and counter strains and the low fertility of obese mice. Here, we performed a dominant screening for obesity using C57BL/6 substrains, C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N, with the routine use of in vitro fertilization. The screening of more than 5000 mutagenized mice established two obese pedigrees in which single nucleotide substitutions in Mc4r and Sim1 genes were identified through whole-exome sequencing. The mutation in the Mc4r gene produces a premature stop codon, and the mutant SIM1 protein lacks transcriptional activity, showing that the haploinsufficiency of SIM1 and MC4R results in obesity. We further examined the hypothalamic neuropeptide expressions in the mutant pedigrees and mice with diet-induced obesity, which showed that each obesity mouse model has distinct neuropeptide expression profiles. This forward genetic screening scheme is useful and applicable to any research field in which mouse models work. PMID:27585985

  20. Variation in airway responsiveness of male C57BL/6 mice from 5 vendors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Herng-Yu Sucie; Mitzner, Wayne; Watson, Julie

    2012-07-01

    Mice are now the most commonly used animal model for the study of asthma. The mouse asthma model has many characteristics of the human pathology, including allergic sensitization and airway hyperresponsiveness. Inbred strains are commonly used to avoid variations due to genetic background, but variations due to rearing environment are not as well recognized. After a change in mouse vendors and a switch from C57BL/6J mice to C57BL/6N mice, we noted significant differences in airway responsiveness between the substrains. To further investigate the effect of vendor, we tested C57BL/6N mice from 3 other vendors and found significant differences between several of the substrains. To test whether this difference was due to genetic drift or rearing environment, we purchased new groups of mice from all 5 vendors, bred them in separate vendor-specific groups under uniform environmental conditions, and tested male first generation (F1) offspring at 8 to 10 wk of age. These F1 mice showed no significant differences in airway responsiveness, indicating that the rearing environment rather than genetic differences was responsible for the initial variation in pulmonary phenotype. The environmental factors that caused the phenotypic variation are unknown. However, differences between vendor in feed components, bedding type, or microbiome could have contributed. Whatever the basis, investigators using mouse models of asthma should be cautious in comparing data from mice obtained from different vendors.

  1. Identification of mutations through dominant screening for obesity using C57BL/6 substrains.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Sarowar; Asano, Fuyuki; Fujiyama, Tomoyuki; Miyoshi, Chika; Sato, Makito; Ikkyu, Aya; Kanno, Satomi; Hotta, Noriko; Kakizaki, Miyo; Honda, Takato; Kim, Staci J; Komiya, Haruna; Miura, Ikuo; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kimio; Kaneda, Hideki; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S; Wakana, Shigeharu; Funato, Hiromasa; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of leptin substantiated the usefulness of a forward genetic approach in elucidating the molecular network regulating energy metabolism. However, no successful dominant screening for obesity has been reported, which may be due to the influence of quantitative trait loci between the screening and counter strains and the low fertility of obese mice. Here, we performed a dominant screening for obesity using C57BL/6 substrains, C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N, with the routine use of in vitro fertilization. The screening of more than 5000 mutagenized mice established two obese pedigrees in which single nucleotide substitutions in Mc4r and Sim1 genes were identified through whole-exome sequencing. The mutation in the Mc4r gene produces a premature stop codon, and the mutant SIM1 protein lacks transcriptional activity, showing that the haploinsufficiency of SIM1 and MC4R results in obesity. We further examined the hypothalamic neuropeptide expressions in the mutant pedigrees and mice with diet-induced obesity, which showed that each obesity mouse model has distinct neuropeptide expression profiles. This forward genetic screening scheme is useful and applicable to any research field in which mouse models work. PMID:27585985

  2. Investigations on the physiological controls of water and saline intake in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph F; Beltz, Terry G; Thunhorst, Robert L; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2003-08-01

    To examine the behavioral and neural control of body fluid homeostasis, water and saline intake of C57BL/6 mice was monitored under ad libitum conditions, after treatments that induce water or salt intake, and after ablation of the periventricular tissue of the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V). Mice have nocturnal drinking that is most prevalent after the offset and before the onset of lights. When given ad libitum choice, C57BL/6 mice show no preference for saline over water at concentrations up to 0.9% NaCl and a progressive aversion to saline above that concentration. Systemic hypertonic saline, isoproterenol, and polyethylene glycol treatments are dipsogenic; however, systemic ANG II is not. Intracerebroventricular injections of both hypertonic saline and ANG II are dipsogenic, and diuretic treatment followed by a short period of sodium deprivation induces salt intake. After ablation of the AV3V, mice can be nursed to recovery from initial adipsia and, similar to rats, show chronic deficits to dipsogenic treatments. Taken together, the data indicate that mechanisms controlling thirst in response to cellular dehydration in C57BL/6 mice are similar to rats, but there are differences in the efficacy of extracellular dehydration-related mechanisms, especially for systemic ANG II, controlling thirst and salt appetite.

  3. H 0323 + 022 - A new BL Lacertae object with extremely rapid variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Bradt, H.; McClintock, J.; Remillard, R.; Urry, C. M.; Tapia, S.; Geldzahler, B.; Johnston, K.; Romanishin, W.; Wehinger, P. A.; Wyckoff, S.; Madejski, G.; Schwartz, D. A.; Thorstensen, J.; Schaefer, B. E.

    1986-03-01

    H0323+022 is a highly variable X-ray source discovered in the HEAO 1 all-sky survey coincident with a 16th mag stellar object. Optical nebulosity around the object strongly suggests that it is a BL Lac object. This paper presents the results of a multiband, multiepoch series of observations that demonstrate beyond reasonable doubt that H0323+022 is a remarkably variable BL Lac object. The optical nebulosity around the stellar object is confirmed, the stellar optical radiation is polarized, and the radio characteristics and the overall electromagnetic spectrum resemble those of other BL Lac objects. Variability is seen in all bands, including radio and broad-band optical variations in days, optical polarization changes on time scales of tens of minutes, and X-ray changes on time scales of ≡30 s. H0323+022 is thus an active galactic nucleus with much of the observed emission emerging from a region ⪉1012 - 1014cm in size.

  4. Surface and interface analysis of nanomaterials at microfocus beamline (BL-16) of Indus-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Gangadhar; Khooha, Ajay; Kane, S. R.; Singh, A. K.; Tiwari, M. K.

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of chemical nature and electronic structure at the interface of a thin film medium is important in many technological applications as well as to understand overall efficiency of a thin film device. Synchrotron radiation based x-ray spectroscopy is a promising technique to study interface nature of the nanomaterials with atomic resolutions. A combined x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence measurement facility has been recently constructed at the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2 synchrotron facility to accomplish surface-interface microstructural characterization of thin layered materials. It is also possible to analyze contaminates or adsorbed ad-atoms on the surface of the thin nanostructure materials. The BL-16 beamline also provides an attractive platform to perform a variety of analytical research activities especially in the field of micro x-ray fluorescence and ultra-trace elements analysis using Synchrotron radiation. We describe various salient features of the BL-16 reflectometer experimental station and the detailed description of its capabilities through the measured results, obtained for various thin layered nanomaterials.

  5. Parsec-scale magnetic field structures in HEAO-1 BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharb, P.; Gabuzda, D.; Shastri, P.

    2008-02-01

    We present very long baseline interferometry polarization images of an X-ray-selected sample of BL Lacertae objects belonging to the first HEAO-1 and the ROSAT-Green Bank (RGB) surveys. These are primarily high-energy-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs) and exhibit core-jet radio morphologies on pc scales. They show moderately polarized jet components, similar to those of low-energy-peaked BL Lacs (LBLs). The fractional polarization in the unresolved cores of the HBLs is, on average, lower than in the LBLs, while the fractional polarizations in the pc-scale jets of HBLs and LBLs are comparable. However, a difference is observed in the orientation of the inferred jet magnetic fields - while LBL jets are well known to preferentially exhibit transverse magnetic fields, the HBL jets tend to display longitudinal magnetic fields. Although a `spine-sheath' jet velocity structure, along with larger viewing angles for HBLs could produce the observed magnetic field configuration, differences in other properties of LBLs and HBLs, such as their total radio power, cannot be fully reconciled with the different-angle scenario alone. Instead it appears that LBLs and HBLs differ intrinsically, perhaps in the spin rates of their central black holes.

  6. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of BL Hyi and EF Eri in High and Intermediate States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanad, M. R.; Abdel-Sabour, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present the first phase-resolved ultraviolet spectroscopy of two polar systems, BL Hyi and EF Eri, in high and intermediate states from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) during the periods between 1982-1995 and 1979-1991, respectively. The flux curves for the C iv and He ii emission lines for both systems showing variations in their fluxes at different orbital phases are presented. The emission lines are produced in the accretion stream. The reddening for the two polars is found to be 0.00. Our results show that there are variations of the line fluxes with time, similar to the light curves found for both BL Hyi and EF Eri in the optical, infrared, ultraviolet, and X-ray bands. IUE observations support a radiative shock model of BL Hyi with the heating of matter by radiation from the accretion shock and cooling by the electrons scattering off ultraviolet photons from the surface of the white dwarf. EF Eri observations support a two-temperature white dwarf model producing sufficient ultraviolet flux for orbital modulations.

  7. The mass spectra, hierarchy and cosmology of B-L MSSM heterotic compactifications

    DOE PAGES

    Ambroso, Michael; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2011-04-10

    The matter spectrum of the MSSM, including three right-handed neutrino supermultiplets and one pair of Higgs-Higgs conjugate superfields, can be obtained by compactifying the E₈ x E₈ heterotic string and M-theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds with specific SU(4) vector bundles. These theories have the standard model gauge group augmented by an additional gauged U(1)B-L. Their minimal content requires that the B-L gauge symmetry be spontaneously broken by a vacuum expectation value of at least one right-handed neutrino. In previous papers, we presented the results of a quasi-analytic renormalization group analysis showing that B-L gauge symmetry is indeed radiatively broken with anmore » appropriate B-L/electroweak hierarchy. In this paper, we extend these results by 1) enlarging the initial parameter space and 2) explicitly calculating all renormalization group equations numerically. The regions of the initial parameter space leading to realistic vacua are presented and the B-L/electroweak hierarchy computed over these regimes. At representative points, the mass spectrum for all particles and Higgs fields is calculated and shown to be consistent with present experimental bounds. Some fundamental phenomenological signatures of a non-zero right-handed neutrino expectation value are discussed, particularly the cosmology and proton lifetime arising from induced lepton and baryon number violating interactions.« less

  8. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Íria Márcia; Lima, Sarah Buzaim; Freitas, Aline de Araújo; Vinaud, Marina Clare; Junior, Ruy de Souza Lino

    2016-07-11

    Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis. PMID:27410915

  9. 12 CFR 303.201 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing procedures. 303.201 Section 303.201 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Prompt Corrective Action § 303.201 Filing procedures. Applications shall be filed with...

  10. 12 CFR 303.21 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Deposit Insurance § 303.21 Filing procedures. (a) Applications for deposit insurance shall be filed with.... (b) An application for deposit insurance for an interim depository institution shall be filed...

  11. 12 CFR 303.21 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Deposit Insurance § 303.21 Filing procedures. (a) Applications for deposit insurance shall be filed with.... (b) An application for deposit insurance for an interim depository institution shall be filed...

  12. 12 CFR 303.201 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing procedures. 303.201 Section 303.201 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Prompt Corrective Action § 303.201 Filing procedures. Applications shall be filed with...

  13. 77 FR 61587 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ..., LLC. Description: 2012 Fuel Tracker Filing to be effective 11/1/2012. Filed Date: 10/1/12. Accession...-5380. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 10/15/12. Docket Numbers: RP13-86-000. Applicants: Southern Star Central.... Description: Fuel Tracker Filing October 1, 2012 to be effective 11/1/2012. Filed Date: 10/1/12....

  14. 76 FR 52652 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Gas Company submits tariff filing per 154.204: DPA Definition Changes to be effective 9/14/2011. Filed.... Description: Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation submits tariff filing per 154.402: 2011 Annual Charge... KPC Pipeline, LLC. Description: PostRock KPC Pipeline, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.313:...

  15. 76 FR 12950 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ...: ANR Pipeline Company. Description: ANR Pipeline Company submits tariff filing per 154.403(d)(2): Fuel...: Cimarron River Pipeline, LLC. Description: Cimarron River Pipeline, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.403(d... tariff filing per 154.203: Compliance with CP09-17-000 to be effective 4/1/ 2011. Filed Date:...

  16. 18 CFR 1308.27 - Appeal files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeal files. 1308.27... Board of Contract Appeals § 1308.27 Appeal files. (a) Notices of appeal shall be filed as provided in... an appeal file consisting of: (1) The Contracting Officer's decision, if any, from which the...

  17. 50 CFR 20.155 - Public file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public file. 20.155 Section 20.155... § 20.155 Public file. (a) Establishment. A public file will be established for each rulemaking to which.... 552, a public file established pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section will contain: (1) The...

  18. 48 CFR 1404.802 - Contract files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract files. 1404.802 Section 1404.802 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Files 1404.802 Contract files. In addition to the requirements in FAR 4.802, files...

  19. 10 CFR 603.1020 - File documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false File documents. 603.1020 Section 603.1020 Energy... Reporting Information About the Award § 603.1020 File documents. The award file should include an analysis..., the file must document the analysis required (see § 603.560) to set the fixed level of Federal...

  20. 48 CFR 204.802 - Contract files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract files. 204.802... OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Files 204.802 Contract files. Official contract files shall consist of— (1) Only original, authenticated or conformed copies of contractual...

  1. 47 CFR 1.1704 - Station files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station files. 1.1704 Section 1.1704... System (COALS) § 1.1704 Station files. Applications, notifications, correspondence, electronic filings.... These files constitute the official records for these stations and supersede any other records,...

  2. 78 FR 716 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Accounting Report filing on 12/28/12 to be effective N/A. Filed Date: 12/28/12. Accession Number: 20121228.... Description: Environmental Filing 2012 to be effective 2/1/2013. Filed Date: 12/28/12. Accession...

  3. 78 FR 20908 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Numbers: RP13-725-000. Applicants: Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company, LP. Description: Flow Through of Cash-Out Revenues filed on 3-28-13. Filed Date: 3/28/13. Accession Number: 20130328-5022. Comments Due.... Description: Flow Through of Penalty Revenues Report filed on 3-28- 13. Filed Date: 3/28/13. Accession...

  4. 77 FR 27044 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...: Sabine Pipe Line LLC. Description: Sabine Tariff Filing to be effective 6/1/2012. Filed Date: 4/30/12...: Sabine Pipe Line LLC. Description: Sabine Tariff Filing to be effective 6/1/2012. Filed Date: 4/30/12...: Sabine Pipe Line LLC. Description: Sabine Revises its Forms of Service Agreements to be effective...

  5. 77 FR 68760 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket...-001. ] Applicants: El Paso Natural Gas Company, L.L.C. Description: Non-Conforming Agreement Amendment.... Description: NWP NAESB 2.0 Compliance Filing--Second Substitute Sheet to be effective 12/1/2012. Filed...

  6. 75 FR 65469 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... be effective 11/8/2010. Filed Date: 10/13/2010. Accession Number: 20101013-5089. Comment Date: 5 p.m... 2 to be effective 12/1/2010. Filed Date: 10/13/2010. Accession Number: 20101013-5094. Comment Date...-434-000 Latigo Compliance Filing to be effective 10/ 1/2010. Filed Date: 10/13/2010. Accession...

  7. Hazardous Material Data File (HMDF), quarterly update. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Hazardous Materiel Data File (HMDF) purpose is to provide storage and transportation information on chemical, radioactive and ammunition items in the Army inventory. Data is taken from the Army Central Logistics Data Bank (ACLDB).

  8. Hazardous Materiel Data File (HMDF), quarterly update. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    The Hazardous Materiel Data File (HMDF) purpose is to provide storage and transportation information on chemical, radioactive and ammunition items in the Army inventory. Data are taken from the Army Central Logistics Data Bank (ACLDB).

  9. Characterization of (357439) 2004 BL86 on its close approach to Earth in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birlan, M.; Popescu, M.; Nedelcu, D. A.; Turcu, V.; Pop, A.; Dumitru, B.; Stevance, F.; Vaduvescu, O.; Moldovan, D.; Rocher, P.; Sonka, A.; Mircea, L.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) (357439) 2004 BL86 grazed Earth on January 26, 2015 at a distance of about 1.2 million km. This favorable geometry allowed observing it to derive its physical and dynamical parameters. (357439) 2004 BL86 was previously estimated to be a 500-m body. We study it also considering possible mechanisms that might mitigate the effect of asteroids that might become dangerous for Earth. Aims: Physical and dynamical investigations of this peculiar object were performed to be able to characterize this object. Methods: We used spectral observations obtained in the visible (V) using the Isaac Newton Telescope and in the near-infrared (NIR) using the InfraRed Telescope Facility. A complementary photometric survey during two nights was also provided by the Astronomical Observatory Cluj-Feleacu station in Romania. We anlyzed the data using reliable mathematical tools that were previously published under the acronym M4AST. Results: VNIR spectral observations classify (357439) 2004 BL86 as V-type asteroid. The mineralogical analysis reveals its similarities to howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites. The band analysis reveals that the object is more similar to a eucritic and howarditic composition, and that it originated from the crust of a large parent body. The analysis yields a mineralogical solution of Wo17Fs39 with an error bar of 4%. Based on the average value of the thermal albedo for V-type objects, its diameter was re-estimated to a value of 290 ± 30 m. The dynamical analysis shows a chaotical behavior of (357439) 2004 BL86. The statistics on meteorite falls show that (357439) 2004 BL86 does not appear to significantly contribute to the current howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorite flux. For the two photometrical observing runs the following values of the rotational period and peak-to-peak amplitude were estimated for the light curves: 2.637 ± 0.024 h, 0.105 ± 0.007 mag, and 2.616 ± 0.061 h, 0.109 ± 0.018 mag

  10. Efficient gene-driven germ-line point mutagenesis of C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Edward J; Culiat, Cymbeline T; Klebig, Mitchell L; Barker, Paul E; Cain, KT; Carpenter, Debra J; Easter, Lori L; Foster, Carmen M; Gardner, Alysyn W; Guo, ZY; Houser, Kay J; Hughes, Lori A; Kerley, Marilyn K; Liu, Zhaowei; Olszewski, Robert E; Pinn, Irina; Shaw, Ginger D; Shinpock, Sarah G; Wymore, Ann M; Rinchik, Eugene M; Johnson, Dabney K

    2005-01-01

    Background Analysis of an allelic series of point mutations in a gene, generated by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis, is a valuable method for discovering the full scope of its biological function. Here we present an efficient gene-driven approach for identifying ENU-induced point mutations in any gene in C57BL/6J mice. The advantage of such an approach is that it allows one to select any gene of interest in the mouse genome and to go directly from DNA sequence to mutant mice. Results We produced the Cryopreserved Mutant Mouse Bank (CMMB), which is an archive of DNA, cDNA, tissues, and sperm from 4,000 G1 male offspring of ENU-treated C57BL/6J males mated to untreated C57BL/6J females. Each mouse in the CMMB carries a large number of random heterozygous point mutations throughout the genome. High-throughput Temperature Gradient Capillary Electrophoresis (TGCE) was employed to perform a 32-Mbp sequence-driven screen for mutations in 38 PCR amplicons from 11 genes in DNA and/or cDNA from the CMMB mice. DNA sequence analysis of heteroduplex-forming amplicons identified by TGCE revealed 22 mutations in 10 genes for an overall mutation frequency of 1 in 1.45 Mbp. All 22 mutations are single base pair substitutions, and nine of them (41%) result in nonconservative amino acid substitutions. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of cryopreserved spermatozoa into B6D2F1 or C57BL/6J ova was used to recover mutant mice for nine of the mutations to date. Conclusions The inbred C57BL/6J CMMB, together with TGCE mutation screening and ICSI for the recovery of mutant mice, represents a valuable gene-driven approach for the functional annotation of the mammalian genome and for the generation of mouse models of human genetic diseases. The ability of ENU to induce mutations that cause various types of changes in proteins will provide additional insights into the functions of mammalian proteins that may not be detectable by knockout mutations. PMID:16300676

  11. The Properties of the Radio-Selected 1 Jy Sample of BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rector, Travis A.; Stocke, John T.

    2001-08-01

    We present new optical and near-IR spectroscopy, as well as new high dynamic range, arcsecond-resolution VLA radio maps, of BL Lacertae objects from the complete radio-selected ``1 jansky'' (1 Jy) sample (RBLs) for which such data were not previously available. Redshift information is now available for all but six of the 37 BL Lac objects in the 1 Jy sample. Of the 31 with redshift information, four redshifts are only minimum values based on absorption lines, and four other objects have uncertain redshifts based on the detection of only a single emission line. Unlike BL Lac objects from the complete X-ray-selected Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) sample (XBLs), most RBLs possess weak but moderately luminous emission lines. The emission-line luminosities of RBLs are several orders of magnitude lower than flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs); however, there is significant overlap in the luminosity distributions of the two classes. All but one object in the 1 Jy sample has now been observed with the VLA, and extended flux was detected for all but three of the observed objects. Whereas nearly all XBLs have extended power levels consistent with FR 1s, more than half of the RBLs have extended radio power levels too luminous to be beamed FR 1 radio galaxies. In fact, we find evidence for and examples of three distinct mechanisms for creating the BL Lac phenomenon in the 1 Jy sample: beamed FR 1s, beamed FR 2s, and possibly a few gravitationally lensed quasars. The value determined for the 1 Jy sample is 0.614+/-0.047, which is markedly different from the negative evolution seen in the EMSS and other XBL samples. A correlation between logarithmic X-ray-to-radio flux ratio and value is observed across the EMSS and 1 Jy samples from negative evolution in the more extreme XBLs to positive evolution in the more extreme RBLs. There is evidence that the selection criteria chosen by Stickel et al. eliminates some BL Lac objects from the 1 Jy sample

  12. Efficient gene-driven germ-line point mutagenesis of C57BL/6J mice

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud III, Edward J; Culiat, Cymbeline T; Klebig, Mitch; Barker, Gene; Cain, K T; Carpenter, Debra J S; Easter, Lori L; Foster, Carmen M; Gardner, Alysyn Wallace; Guo, ZY; Houser, Kay J; Hughes, Lori A; Kerley, Marilyn K; Liu, Zhaowei; Olszewski, Robert Edward; Pinn, Irina; Shaw, Ginger D; Shinpock, Sarah G; Wymore, Ann; Rinchik, Eugene M; Johnson, Dabney K

    2005-01-01

    Background: Analysis of an allelic series of point mutations in a gene, generated by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis, is a valuable method for discovering the full scope of its biological function. Here we present an efficient gene-driven approach for identifying ENU-induced point mutations in any gene in C57BL/6J mice. The advantage of such an approach is that it allows one to select any gene of interest in the mouse genome and to go directly from DNA sequence to mutant mice. Results: We produced the Cryopreserved Mutant Mouse Bank (CMMB), which is an archive of DNA, cDNA, tissues, and sperm from 4,000 G1 male offspring of ENU-treated C57BL/6J males mated to untreated C57BL/6J females. Each mouse in the CMMB carries a large number of random heterozygous point mutations throughout the genome. High-throughput Temperature Gradient Capillary Electrophoresis (TGCE) was employed to perform a 32-Mbp sequence-driven screen for mutations in 38 PCR amplicons from 11 genes in DNA and/or cDNA from the CMMB mice. DNA sequence analysis of heteroduplex-forming amplicons identified by TGCE revealed 22 mutations in 10 genes for an overall mutation frequency of 1 in 1.45 Mbp. All 22 mutations are single base pair substitutions, and nine of them (41%) result in nonconservative amino acid substitutions. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of cryopreserved spermatozoa into B6D2F1 or C57BL/6J ova was used to recover mutant mice for nine of the mutations to date. Conclusions: The inbred C57BL/6J CMMB, together with TGCE mutation screening and ICSI for the recovery of mutant mice, represents a valuable gene-driven approach for the functional annotation of the mammalian genome and for the generation of mouse models of human genetic diseases. The ability of ENU to induce mutations that cause various types of changes in proteins will provide additional insights into the functions of mammalian proteins that may not be detectable by knockout mutations.

  13. 47 CFR 61.14 - Method of filing publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) TARIFFS Rules for Electronic Filing § 61.14 Method of filing publications. (a) Publications filed... Electronic Tariff Filing System will accept filings 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The official filing date of a publication received by the Electronic Tariff Filing System will be determined by the...

  14. ESO Very Large Telescope Optical Spectroscopy of BL Lacertae Objects. IV. New Spectra and Properties of the Full Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landoni, M.; Falomo, R.; Treves, A.; Sbarufatti, B.; Barattini, M.; Decarli, R.; Kotilainen, J.

    2013-04-01

    We present the last chapter of a spectroscopy program aimed at deriving the redshift or a lower limit to the redshift of BL Lac objects using medium-resolution spectroscopy. Here we report new spectra for 33 BL Lac object candidates obtained in 2008-2009, confirming the BL Lac nature of 25 sources and obtaining new redshifts for 5 objects. These new observations are combined with our previous data in order to construct a homogeneous sample of ~70 BL Lac objects with high-quality spectroscopy. All these spectra can be accessed at the Web site http://www.oapd.inaf.it/zbllac/. The average spectrum, beaming properties of the full sample, discussion of intervening systems, and future perspectives are addressed.

  15. Observations of low and intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacs above 100 GeV with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errando, M.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the ~ 50 blazars detected to date at TeV energies (E > 0.1 TeV) are high-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs). Only a handful episodic detections of low- and intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (LBL/IBLs, with synchrotron peak frequencies in the infrared and optical regime) have been reported by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes, typically during high-flux states. The VERITAS array located in southern Arizona has observed five known TeV LBL/IBLs since 2009: 3C 66A, WComae, PKS 1424+240, S5 0716+714 and BL Lacertae, with exposures of 5-10 hours/year, which so far resulted in the detection of a bright, sub-hour timescale gamma-ray flare of BL Lacertae in June 2011. We also report the detection and characterization of two new IBLs: VER J0521+211 and B2 1215+30.

  16. Discovery of a new BL Lacertae object /1E 1402.3 + 0416/ with the Einstein Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, J.; Liebert, J.; Stockman, H.; Danziger, J.; Lub, J.; Maccacaro, T.; Griffiths, R.; Giommi, P.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that only one BL Lac object, designated 1E 1402.3 + 0416, has so far been discovered as part of an optical identification program for a complete sample of faint X-ray sources detected with the Einstein Observatory. Consistent with previously X-ray-discovered BL Lacs, this object is blue and radio weak (17 mJy at 6 cm). It is pointed out that the percentage of BL Lacs in the faint extragalactic X-ray sample (2%) is smaller than the percentage at higher X-ray fluxes (6%). Over the same range in X-ray flux, the percentage of emission-line active galaxy nuclei (QSO + Seyferts) rises from 40% to 74%). This is seen as suggesting that BL Lacs do not evolve in a manner similar to quasars and are, therefore, not substantial contributors to the X-ray background.

  17. 76 FR 62092 - Filing Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... filed with the Commission, reduce Commission expenditures, and conform agency processes to federal government initiatives. DATES: Effective Date: November 7, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James...

  18. Crystal Structure of Crataeva tapia Bark Protein (CrataBL) and Its Effect in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Joana Gasperazzo; Silva, Mariana Cristina Cabral; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire Aparecida; Mentele, Reinhard; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Bertolin, Thiago Carlos; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2013-01-01

    A protein isolated from the bark of Crataeva tapia (CrataBL) is both a Kunitz-type plant protease inhibitor and a lectin. We have determined the amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure of CrataBL, as well as characterized its selected biochemical and biological properties. We found two different isoforms of CrataBL isolated from the original source, differing in positions 31 (Pro/Leu); 92 (Ser/Leu); 93 (Ile/Thr); 95 (Arg/Gly) and 97 (Leu/Ser). CrataBL showed relatively weak inhibitory activity against trypsin (Kiapp = 43 µM) and was more potent against Factor Xa (Kiapp = 8.6 µM), but was not active against a number of other proteases. We have confirmed that CrataBL contains two glycosylation sites and forms a dimer at high concentration. The high-resolution crystal structures of two different crystal forms of isoform II verified the β-trefoil fold of CrataBL and have shown the presence of dimers consisting of two almost identical molecules making extensive contacts (∼645 Å2). The structure differs from those of the most closely related proteins by the lack of the N-terminal β-hairpin. In experiments aimed at investigating the biological properties of CrataBL, we have shown that addition of 40 µM of the protein for 48 h caused maximum growth inhibition in MTT assay (47% of DU145 cells and 43% of PC3 cells). The apoptosis of DU145 and PC3 cell lines was confirmed by flow cytometry using Annexin V/FITC and propidium iodide staining. Treatment with CrataBL resulted in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and in the activation of caspase-3 in DU145 and PC3 cells. PMID:23823708

  19. File servers, networking, and supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    1991-01-01

    One of the major tasks of a supercomputer center is managing the massive amount of data generated by application codes. A data flow analysis of the San Diego Supercomputer Center is presented that illustrates the hierarchical data buffering/caching capacity requirements and the associated I/O throughput requirements needed to sustain file service and archival storage. Usage paradigms are examined for both tightly-coupled and loosely-coupled file servers linked to the supercomputer by high-speed networks.

  20. File servers, networking, and supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major tasks of a supercomputer center is managing the massive amount of data generated by application codes. A data flow analysis of the San Diego Supercomputer Center is presented that illustrates the hierarchical data buffering/caching capacity requirements and the associated I/O throughput requirements needed to sustain file service and archival storage. Usage paradigms are examined for both tightly-coupled and loosely-coupled file servers linked to the supercomputer by high-speed networks.

  1. Directory of astronomical data files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This Directory of Astronomical Data Files was prepared by the Data Task Force of the Interagency Coordination Committee for Astronomy (ICCA) in cooperation with the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The purpose of the Directory is to provide a listing which will enable a user to locate stellar and extragalactic data sources keyed along with sufficient descriptive information to permit him to assess the value of the files for his use as well as the status and availability of the compilations.

  2. Attention to Background Strain Is Essential for Metabolic Research: C57BL/6 and the International Knockout Mouse Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Danielle A; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2016-01-01

    The International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) introduces its targeted constructs into C57BL/6N embryonic stem cells. However, breeding with a Cre-recombinase and/or Flp-recombinase mouse is required for the generation of a null allele with the IKMC cassette. Many recombinase strains are in the C57BL/6J background, resulting in knockout animals on a mixed strain background. This can lead to variability in metabolic data and the use of improper control groups. While C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J are derived from the same parental C57BL/6 strain, there are key genotypic and phenotypic differences between these substrains. Many researchers may not even be aware of these differences, as the shorthand C57BL/6 is often used to describe both substrains. We found that 58% of articles involving genetically modified mouse models did not completely address background strain. This review will describe these two substrains and highlight the importance of separate consideration in mouse model development. Our aim is to increase awareness of this issue in the diabetes research community and to provide practical strategies to enable researchers to avoid mixed strain animals when using IKMC knockout mice. PMID:26696638

  3. Identification of riboflavin: revealing different metabolic characteristics between Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinran; Wang, Qian; Qi, Qingsheng

    2015-06-01

    There are many physiological differences between Escherichia coli B and K-12 strains, owing to their different origins. Deeper insight into the metabolic and regulative mechanisms of these strains will inform improved usage of these industrial workhorses. In the present study, we observed that BL21 fermentation broth gradually turned yellow during cultivation. By spectral analysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identification, we confirmed for the first time that the yellow substance accumulated in the fermentation broth is riboflavin. Comparing the enzyme sequences involved in riboflavin metabolism between BL21 and MG1655, we identified a site mutation on the 115 residue of bifunctional riboflavin kinase/FMN adenylyltransferase (RibF) in BL21. This His115Leu mutation was found to reduce enzyme activity to 55% of that of MG1655, which is probably one reason for riboflavin accumulation in BL21. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that genes of the entire branch of the riboflavin and FAD biosynthesis pathways in BL21 were up-regulated. Several physiological and metabolic characteristics of BL21 and MG1655 were found to be different, and may also be related to the riboflavin accumulation.

  4. Identification of riboflavin: revealing different metabolic characteristics between Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinran; Wang, Qian; Qi, Qingsheng

    2015-06-01

    There are many physiological differences between Escherichia coli B and K-12 strains, owing to their different origins. Deeper insight into the metabolic and regulative mechanisms of these strains will inform improved usage of these industrial workhorses. In the present study, we observed that BL21 fermentation broth gradually turned yellow during cultivation. By spectral analysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identification, we confirmed for the first time that the yellow substance accumulated in the fermentation broth is riboflavin. Comparing the enzyme sequences involved in riboflavin metabolism between BL21 and MG1655, we identified a site mutation on the 115 residue of bifunctional riboflavin kinase/FMN adenylyltransferase (RibF) in BL21. This His115Leu mutation was found to reduce enzyme activity to 55% of that of MG1655, which is probably one reason for riboflavin accumulation in BL21. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that genes of the entire branch of the riboflavin and FAD biosynthesis pathways in BL21 were up-regulated. Several physiological and metabolic characteristics of BL21 and MG1655 were found to be different, and may also be related to the riboflavin accumulation. PMID:25926527

  5. Attention to Background Strain Is Essential for Metabolic Research: C57BL/6 and the International Knockout Mouse Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Danielle A; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2016-01-01

    The International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) introduces its targeted constructs into C57BL/6N embryonic stem cells. However, breeding with a Cre-recombinase and/or Flp-recombinase mouse is required for the generation of a null allele with the IKMC cassette. Many recombinase strains are in the C57BL/6J background, resulting in knockout animals on a mixed strain background. This can lead to variability in metabolic data and the use of improper control groups. While C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J are derived from the same parental C57BL/6 strain, there are key genotypic and phenotypic differences between these substrains. Many researchers may not even be aware of these differences, as the shorthand C57BL/6 is often used to describe both substrains. We found that 58% of articles involving genetically modified mouse models did not completely address background strain. This review will describe these two substrains and highlight the importance of separate consideration in mouse model development. Our aim is to increase awareness of this issue in the diabetes research community and to provide practical strategies to enable researchers to avoid mixed strain animals when using IKMC knockout mice.

  6. Multimedia electronic teaching file

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Krishnaprasad, Vidhya; Staab, Edward V.

    1994-05-01

    To make images and data available to all the radiologists, fellows, and residents at the University of Florida an electronic teaching file was required that was accessible to a wide range of people in a number of locations and could display not only data about cases, but the relevant images to go with the case. The multimedia electronic teaching system (METS) uses Oracle as its database management system with addresses of images stored in the tables. To avoid tedious data entry, a connection to the medical center's radiology information system was made. Findings, diagnosis and ACR codes are entered at the data entry screen along with the image numbers of the relevant images for CT, MRI, and US. These images are retrieved from the PACS system for storage on the METS disks. The user interface to the retrieval and display operation allows a search of any or all of the fields in the database through a query by example facility. Simple image manipulation is possible. A Sun workstation was used to implement the system. The user interface was initially written using the MOTIF window manager that could be run over the network on any other Sun workstation. An upgrade uses a MOSAIC with forms to implement data entry and query facilities.

  7. Zebra: A striped network file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, John H.; Ousterhout, John K.

    1992-01-01

    The design of Zebra, a striped network file system, is presented. Zebra applies ideas from log-structured file system (LFS) and RAID research to network file systems, resulting in a network file system that has scalable performance, uses its servers efficiently even when its applications are using small files, and provides high availability. Zebra stripes file data across multiple servers, so that the file transfer rate is not limited by the performance of a single server. High availability is achieved by maintaining parity information for the file system. If a server fails its contents can be reconstructed using the contents of the remaining servers and the parity information. Zebra differs from existing striped file systems in the way it stripes file data: Zebra does not stripe on a per-file basis; instead it stripes the stream of bytes written by each client. Clients write to the servers in units called stripe fragments, which are analogous to segments in an LFS. Stripe fragments contain file blocks that were written recently, without regard to which file they belong. This method of striping has numerous advantages over per-file striping, including increased server efficiency, efficient parity computation, and elimination of parity update.

  8. Attenuation of Colitis by Lactobacillus casei BL23 Is Dependent on the Dairy Delivery Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bokyung; Yin, Xiaochen; Griffey, Stephen M; Marco, Maria L

    2015-09-01

    The role of the food delivery matrix in probiotic performance in the intestine is not well understood. Because probiotics are often provided to consumers in dairy products, we investigated the contributions of milk to the health-benefiting performance of Lactobacillus casei BL23 in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine model of ulcerative colitis. L. casei BL23 protected against the development of colitis when ingested in milk but not in a nutrient-free buffer simulating consumption as a nutritional supplement. Consumption of (acidified) milk alone also provided some protection against weight loss and intestinal inflammation but was not as effective as L. casei and milk in combination. In contrast, L. casei mutants deficient in DltD (lipoteichoic acid d-alanine transfer protein) or RecA (recombinase A) were unable to protect against DSS-induced colitis, even when consumed in the presence of milk. Mice fed either L. casei or milk contained reduced quantities of colonic proinflammatory cytokines, indicating that the L. casei DltD(-) and RecA(-) mutants as well as L. casei BL23 in nutrient-free buffer were effective at modulating immune responses. However, there was not a direct correlation between colitis and quantities of these cytokines at the time of sacrifice. Identification of the cecal microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that L. casei in milk enriched for Comamonadaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae; however, the consumption of neither L. casei nor milk resulted in the restoration of the microbiota to resemble that of healthy animals. These findings strongly indicate that probiotic strain efficacy can be influenced by the food/supplement delivery matrix.

  9. Early chronic lead exposure reduces exploratory activity in young C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Research has suggested that chronic low-level lead exposure diminishes neurocognitive function in children. Tests that are sensitive to behavioral effects at lowest levels of lead exposure are needed for the development of animal models. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic low-level lead exposure on exploratory activity (unbaited nose poke task), exploratory ambulation (open field task) and motor coordination (Rotarod task) in pre-adolescent mice. C57BL/6J pups were exposed to 0 ppm (controls), 30 ppm (low-dose) or 230 ppm (high-dose) lead acetate via dams' drinking water administered from birth to postnatal day 28, to achieve a range of blood lead levels (BLLs) from not detectable to 14.84 µg dl(-1) ). At postnatal day 28, mice completed behavioral testing and were killed (n = 61). BLLs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The effects of lead exposure on behavior were tested using generalized linear mixed model analyses with BLL, sex and the interaction as fixed effects, and litter as the random effect. BLL predicted decreased exploratory activity and no threshold of effect was apparent. As BLL increased, nose pokes decreased. The C57BL/6J mouse is a useful model for examining effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure on behavior. In the C57BL/6J mouse, the unbaited nose poke task is sensitive to the effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure. This is the first animal study to show behavioral effects in pre-adolescent lead-exposed mice with BLL below 5 µg dl(-1).

  10. The C57BL/6 genetic background confers cardioprotection in iron-overloaded mice

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Sestili, Paola; Massimi, Alessia; Corritore, Elisa; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic transfusion therapy causes a progressive iron overload that damages many organs including the heart. Recent evidence suggests that L-type calcium channels play an important role in iron uptake by cardiomyocytes under conditions of iron overload. Given that beta-adrenergic stimulation significantly enhances L-type calcium current, we hypothesised that beta-adrenergic blocking drugs could reduce the deleterious effects of iron overload on the heart. Methods Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in male C57bl/6 mice, while propranolol was administered in drinking water at the dose of 40 mg/kg/day. Cardiac function and ventricular remodelling were evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. Results As compared to placebo, iron injection caused cardiac iron deposition. Surprisingly, despite iron overload, myocardial function and ventricular geometry in the iron-treated mice resulted unchanged as compared to those in the placebo-treated mice. Administration of propranolol increased cardiac performance in iron-overloaded mice. Specifically, as compared to the values in the iron-overloaded group, in iron-overloaded animals treated with propranolol left ventricular fractional shortening increased (from 31.6% to 44.2%, P =0.01) whereas left ventricular end-diastolic diameter decreased (from 4.1±0.1 mm to 3.5±0.1 mm, P =0.03). Propranolol did not alter cardiac systolic function or left ventricular sizes in the placebo group. Conclusions These results demonstrate that C57bl/6 mice are resistant to iron overload-induced myocardial injury and that treatment with propranolol is able to increase cardiac performance in iron-overloaded mice. However, since C57bl/6 mice were resistant to iron-induced injury, it remains to be evaluated further whether propranolol could prevent iron-overload cardiomyopathy. PMID:22790263

  11. Early chronic lead exposure reduces exploratory activity in young C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Research has suggested that chronic low-level lead exposure diminishes neurocognitive function in children. Tests that are sensitive to behavioral effects at lowest levels of lead exposure are needed for the development of animal models. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic low-level lead exposure on exploratory activity (unbaited nose poke task), exploratory ambulation (open field task) and motor coordination (Rotarod task) in pre-adolescent mice. C57BL/6J pups were exposed to 0 ppm (controls), 30 ppm (low-dose) or 230 ppm (high-dose) lead acetate via dams' drinking water administered from birth to postnatal day 28, to achieve a range of blood lead levels (BLLs) from not detectable to 14.84 µg dl(-1) ). At postnatal day 28, mice completed behavioral testing and were killed (n = 61). BLLs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The effects of lead exposure on behavior were tested using generalized linear mixed model analyses with BLL, sex and the interaction as fixed effects, and litter as the random effect. BLL predicted decreased exploratory activity and no threshold of effect was apparent. As BLL increased, nose pokes decreased. The C57BL/6J mouse is a useful model for examining effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure on behavior. In the C57BL/6J mouse, the unbaited nose poke task is sensitive to the effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure. This is the first animal study to show behavioral effects in pre-adolescent lead-exposed mice with BLL below 5 µg dl(-1). PMID:25219894

  12. Identification of a Gene Cluster Enabling Lactobacillus casei BL23 To Utilize myo-Inositol▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Yebra, María Jesús; Zúñiga, Manuel; Beaufils, Sophie; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Deutscher, Josef; Monedero, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Genome analysis of Lactobacillus casei BL23 revealed that, compared to L. casei ATCC 334, it carries a 12.8-kb DNA insertion containing genes involved in the catabolism of the cyclic polyol myo-inositol (MI). Indeed, L. casei ATCC 334 does not ferment MI, whereas strain BL23 is able to utilize this carbon source. The inserted DNA consists of an iolR gene encoding a DeoR family transcriptional repressor and a divergently transcribed iolTABCDG1G2EJK operon, encoding a complete MI catabolic pathway, in which the iolK gene probably codes for a malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase. The presence of iolK suggests that L. casei has two alternative pathways for the metabolism of malonic semialdehyde: (i) the classical MI catabolic pathway in which IolA (malonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) catalyzes the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A from malonic semialdehyde and (ii) the conversion of malonic semialdehyde to acetaldehyde catalyzed by the product of iolK. The function of the iol genes was verified by the disruption of iolA, iolT, and iolD, which provided MI-negative strains. By contrast, the disruption of iolK resulted in a strain with no obvious defect in MI utilization. Transcriptional analyses conducted with different mutant strains showed that the iolTABCDG1G2EJK cluster is regulated by substrate-specific induction mediated by the inactivation of the transcriptional repressor IolR and by carbon catabolite repression mediated by the catabolite control protein A (CcpA). This is the first example of an operon for MI utilization in lactic acid bacteria and illustrates the versatility of carbohydrate utilization in L. casei BL23. PMID:17449687

  13. Identification of a gene cluster enabling Lactobacillus casei BL23 to utilize myo-inositol.

    PubMed

    Yebra, María Jesús; Zúñiga, Manuel; Beaufils, Sophie; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Deutscher, Josef; Monedero, Vicente

    2007-06-01

    Genome analysis of Lactobacillus casei BL23 revealed that, compared to L. casei ATCC 334, it carries a 12.8-kb DNA insertion containing genes involved in the catabolism of the cyclic polyol myo-inositol (MI). Indeed, L. casei ATCC 334 does not ferment MI, whereas strain BL23 is able to utilize this carbon source. The inserted DNA consists of an iolR gene encoding a DeoR family transcriptional repressor and a divergently transcribed iolTABCDG1G2EJK operon, encoding a complete MI catabolic pathway, in which the iolK gene probably codes for a malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase. The presence of iolK suggests that L. casei has two alternative pathways for the metabolism of malonic semialdehyde: (i) the classical MI catabolic pathway in which IolA (malonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) catalyzes the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A from malonic semialdehyde and (ii) the conversion of malonic semialdehyde to acetaldehyde catalyzed by the product of iolK. The function of the iol genes was verified by the disruption of iolA, iolT, and iolD, which provided MI-negative strains. By contrast, the disruption of iolK resulted in a strain with no obvious defect in MI utilization. Transcriptional analyses conducted with different mutant strains showed that the iolTABCDG1G2EJK cluster is regulated by substrate-specific induction mediated by the inactivation of the transcriptional repressor IolR and by carbon catabolite repression mediated by the catabolite control protein A (CcpA). This is the first example of an operon for MI utilization in lactic acid bacteria and illustrates the versatility of carbohydrate utilization in L. casei BL23. PMID:17449687

  14. Effects of housing density and cage floor space on C57BL/6J mice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, A.L.; Mabus, S.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Muir, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (the Guide) is widely accepted as the housing standard by most Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees. The recommendations are based on best professional judgment rather than experimental data. Current efforts are directed toward replacing these guidelines with data-driven, species-appropriate standards. Our studies were undertaken to determine the optimum housing density for C57BL/6J mice, the most commonly used inbred mouse strain. Four-week-old mice were housed for 8 weeks at four densities (the recommended ???12 in2 [ca. 77.4 cm 2]/mouse down to 5.6 in2 [ca. 36.1 cm2]/mouse) in three cage types with various amounts of floor space. Housing density did not affect a variety of physiologic parameters but did affect certain micro-environmental parameters, although these remained within accepted ranges. A second study was undertaken housing C57BL/6J mice with as little as 3.2 in2/mouse (ca. 20.6 cm2). The major effect was elevated ammonia concentrations that exceeded limits acceptable in the workplace at increased housing densities; however, the nasal passages and eyeballs of the mice remained microscopically normal. On the basis of these results, we conclude that C57BL/6J mice as large as 29 g may be housed with 5.6 in2 of floor space per mouse. This area is approximately half the floor space recommended in the Guide. The role of the Guide is to ensure that laboratory animals are well treated and housed in a species-appropriate manner. Our data suggest that current policies could be altered in order to provide the optimal habitation conditions matched to this species' social needs. Copyright 2004 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  15. Attenuation of Colitis by Lactobacillus casei BL23 Is Dependent on the Dairy Delivery Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bokyung; Yin, Xiaochen; Griffey, Stephen M; Marco, Maria L

    2015-09-01

    The role of the food delivery matrix in probiotic performance in the intestine is not well understood. Because probiotics are often provided to consumers in dairy products, we investigated the contributions of milk to the health-benefiting performance of Lactobacillus casei BL23 in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine model of ulcerative colitis. L. casei BL23 protected against the development of colitis when ingested in milk but not in a nutrient-free buffer simulating consumption as a nutritional supplement. Consumption of (acidified) milk alone also provided some protection against weight loss and intestinal inflammation but was not as effective as L. casei and milk in combination. In contrast, L. casei mutants deficient in DltD (lipoteichoic acid d-alanine transfer protein) or RecA (recombinase A) were unable to protect against DSS-induced colitis, even when consumed in the presence of milk. Mice fed either L. casei or milk contained reduced quantities of colonic proinflammatory cytokines, indicating that the L. casei DltD(-) and RecA(-) mutants as well as L. casei BL23 in nutrient-free buffer were effective at modulating immune responses. However, there was not a direct correlation between colitis and quantities of these cytokines at the time of sacrifice. Identification of the cecal microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that L. casei in milk enriched for Comamonadaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae; however, the consumption of neither L. casei nor milk resulted in the restoration of the microbiota to resemble that of healthy animals. These findings strongly indicate that probiotic strain efficacy can be influenced by the food/supplement delivery matrix. PMID:26162873

  16. Attenuation of Colitis by Lactobacillus casei BL23 Is Dependent on the Dairy Delivery Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bokyung; Yin, Xiaochen; Griffey, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the food delivery matrix in probiotic performance in the intestine is not well understood. Because probiotics are often provided to consumers in dairy products, we investigated the contributions of milk to the health-benefiting performance of Lactobacillus casei BL23 in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine model of ulcerative colitis. L. casei BL23 protected against the development of colitis when ingested in milk but not in a nutrient-free buffer simulating consumption as a nutritional supplement. Consumption of (acidified) milk alone also provided some protection against weight loss and intestinal inflammation but was not as effective as L. casei and milk in combination. In contrast, L. casei mutants deficient in DltD (lipoteichoic acid d-alanine transfer protein) or RecA (recombinase A) were unable to protect against DSS-induced colitis, even when consumed in the presence of milk. Mice fed either L. casei or milk contained reduced quantities of colonic proinflammatory cytokines, indicating that the L. casei DltD− and RecA− mutants as well as L. casei BL23 in nutrient-free buffer were effective at modulating immune responses. However, there was not a direct correlation between colitis and quantities of these cytokines at the time of sacrifice. Identification of the cecal microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that L. casei in milk enriched for Comamonadaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae; however, the consumption of neither L. casei nor milk resulted in the restoration of the microbiota to resemble that of healthy animals. These findings strongly indicate that probiotic strain efficacy can be influenced by the food/supplement delivery matrix. PMID:26162873

  17. Design Concept and Performance of the Soft X-ray Beamline HiSOR-BL14

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, M.; Namatame, H.; Yaji, K.; Nagira, M.; Kimura, A.; Taniguchi, M.

    2007-01-19

    The soft X-ray beamline HiSOR-BL14 has been constructed at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, aimed at absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy with linearly and circularly polarized light. The beamline layout is based on a Dragon-type design with a spherical grating monochromator. The beamline is able to accept synchrotron radiation from the bending magnet part of the HiSOR ring with a wide solid angle. The large horizontal angular acceptance and vertical one contribute to high photon flux and controllability of light polarization, respectively. Our performance test indicates that high resolving power has been achieved with sufficient photon flux to carry out spectroscopic experiments.

  18. The New X-Ray Lithography Beamline BL1 At DELTA

    SciTech Connect

    Lietz, D.; Paulus, M.; Sternemann, C.; Berges, U.; Hippert, B.; Tolan, M.

    2010-06-23

    Lithography using synchrotron radiation in the x-ray regime provides a powerful method to produce mechanical components of sub-millimeter size with a very good quality for microtechnological applications. In recent years the demand for x-ray lithography beamtime for industrial production of microparts increased rapidly resulting in the development of new experimental endstations at synchrotron radiation sources dedicated for the production of micromechanical devices. We present in this work the layout of the new x-ray lithography beamline BL1 at the synchrotron radiation source DELTA in Dortmund and discuss first results of exposure tests.

  19. Total glucosides of peony attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiling; Ma, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Dong Liang; Chen, Li; Jiang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Cen, Lei; Pi, Rongbiao; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-07-15

    Total glucosides of peony (TGP), an active compound extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has wide pharmacological effects on nervous system. Here we examined the effects of TGP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The results showed that TGP can reduce the severity and progression of EAE in C57 BL/6 mice. In addition, TGP also down-regulated the Th1/Th17 inflammatory response and prevented the reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase of EAE. These findings suggest that TGP could be a potential therapeutic agent for MS.

  20. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS THAT BL LACERTAE OBJECTS ARE QSO REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, E. F.

    2014-11-20

    We evaluate with numerical simulations the hypothesis that BL Lacertae objects (BLLs) are the remnants of quasi-stellar objects. This hypothesis is based on their highly peculiar redshift evolution. They have a comoving space density that increases with decreasing redshift, contrary to all other active galactic nuclei. We assume that relativistic jets are below detection in young radio-quiet quasars and increase in strength with cosmic time so that they eventually are detected as BLLs. Our numerical simulations fit very well the observed redshift distributions of BLLs. There are strong indications that only the high-synchrotron-peaked BLLs could be QSO remnants.

  1. Phenomenology of the minimal B-L extension of the standard model: The Higgs sector

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, Lorenzo; Moretti, Stefano; Pruna, Giovanni Marco

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of the Higgs sector of the minimal B-L extension of the standard model. We present results for both the foreseen energy stages of the Large Hadron Collider ({radical}(s)=7 and 14 TeV). We show that in such a scenario several novel production and decay channels involving the two physical Higgs states could be accessed at such a machine. Amongst these, several Higgs signatures have very distinctive features with respect to those of other models with an enlarged Higgs sector, as they involve interactions of Higgs bosons between themselves, with Z{sup '} bosons as well as with heavy neutrinos.

  2. Radar imaging of binary near-Earth asteroid (357439) 2004 BL86

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Howell, Ellen S.; Busch, Michael W.; Nolan, Michael C.; Jao, Joseph S.; Lee, Clement G.; Ford, H. Alyson; Ghigo, Frank D.

    2015-11-01

    We report radar imaging of near-Earth asteroid 2004 BL86 obtained at Goldstone, Arecibo, Green Bank, and elements of the Very Long Baseline Array between 2015 January 26-31. 2004 BL86 approached within 0.0080 au on January 26, the closest known approach by any object with an absolute magnitude brighter than ~19 until 2027. Prior to the encounter, virtually nothing was known about its physical properties other than its absolute magnitude of 19, which suggested a diameter within a factor of two of 500 m. 2004 BL86 was a very strong radar target that provided an outstanding opportunity for radar imaging and physical characterization. Delay-Doppler images with range resolutions as fine as 3.75 m placed thousands of pixels on the object and confirmed photometric results reported by Pravec et al. (2015, CBET 4063) that 2004 BL86 is a binary system. During the observations, the asteroid moved more than 90 deg and provided a range of viewing geometries. The bandwidth was relatively narrow on Jan. 26, reached a maximum on Jan. 27, and then narrowed on Jan. 28, a progression indicating that the subradar latitude moved across the equator during those days. The images reveal a rounded primary with an equatorial diameter of ~350 m, evidence for ridges, possible boulders, and a pronounced angular feature ~100 m in diameter near one of the poles. Images from Jan. 26 show arcs of radar-bright pixels on the approaching and receding limbs that extend well behind the trailing edge in the middle of the echo. This is the delay-Doppler signature of an oblate shape seen at least a few tens of degrees off the equator. A rough estimate for the diameter of the secondary is ~70 m and its narrow bandwidth is consistent with the 14-h orbital period reported by Pravec et al. (2015). The images are suitable for 3D shape, pole, orbit, and mass estimation. The observations utilized new data taking equipment at Green Bank to receive X-band (8560 MHz, 3.5 cm) transmissions from the 70 m DSS-14

  3. The New Structural Materials Science Beamlines BL8A and 8B at Photon Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Nakao, A.; Sugiyama, H.; Koyama, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2010-06-23

    BL8A and 8B are new beamlines for structural materials science at Photon Factory. The primary characteristics of both beamlines are similar. The incident beam is monochromatized by the Si(111) double-flat crystal monochromator and focused at the sample position by a Rh-coated bent cylindrical quartz mirror. The Weissenberg-camera-type imaging-plate (IP) diffractometers were installed. The X-ray diffraction experiments for structural studies of strongly correlated materials, such as transition metals, molecular conductors, endohedral fullerenes, nano-materials, etc, are conducted at these stations.

  4. The long-term color variability of the BL Lac object OQ 530

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing-Kai; Zhang, Kai-Yin; Yu, Li-Zhi; Dai, Ben-Zhong; Zhang, Li; Zha, Min; Cao, Zhen

    2011-12-01

    The optical light curve of the BL Lac object OQ 530 is constructed based on published data. Diagrams showing the correlations of fluxes in different wavelength ranges are constructed and used to analyze the color variations. The relative spectral energy distribution of the variable source in the optical can be represented by a power law that is stable on long time scales. The average spectral index is -1.15±0.02, indicating that the radiation of the variable source probably has a synchrotron nature.

  5. Fermi LAT Detection of a Gamma-ray Flare from the BL Lac Object ON 246

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Josefa

    2015-06-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has observed increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object ON 246 (RA=187.55871 deg, Dec=25.30198 deg, J2000, Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13; with redshift z=0.135, Nass et al. 1996, A&A, 309, 419), also known as S3 1227+25 and 3FGL J1230.3+2519 (3FGL; Acero et al. 2015, arXiv:1501.02003).

  6. The Long-term Light Variation of BL Lac Object 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yu-hai; Liu, Fu-qing

    2014-07-01

    According to the data of optical observations of the Tuorla Observatory in Finland, using the power spectrum method, DCF (Discrete Correlation Function) method, and Jurkevich method, respectively, we analyzed the periodicity of the long-term light variation of the BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650, and obtained its light period to be P =1.4±0.3 yr. Assuming that the origin of the periodicity is concerned with the accretion disk, we obtained the region where the instability of this source occurs being R =9.65 Rg, here Rg represents the Schwarzschild radius.

  7. Total glucosides of peony attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiling; Ma, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Dong Liang; Chen, Li; Jiang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Cen, Lei; Pi, Rongbiao; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-07-15

    Total glucosides of peony (TGP), an active compound extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has wide pharmacological effects on nervous system. Here we examined the effects of TGP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The results showed that TGP can reduce the severity and progression of EAE in C57 BL/6 mice. In addition, TGP also down-regulated the Th1/Th17 inflammatory response and prevented the reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase of EAE. These findings suggest that TGP could be a potential therapeutic agent for MS. PMID:26025060

  8. Usage analysis of user files in UNIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Murthy V.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a user-oriented analysis of short term file usage in a 4.2 BSD UNIX environment. The key aspect of this analysis is a characterization of users and files, which is a departure from the traditional approach of analyzing file references. Two characterization measures are employed: accesses-per-byte (combining fraction of a file referenced and number of references) and file size. This new approach is shown to distinguish differences in files as well as users, which cam be used in efficient file system design, and in creating realistic test workloads for simulations. A multi-stage gamma distribution is shown to closely model the file usage measures. Even though overall file sharing is small, some files belonging to a bulletin board system are accessed by many users, simultaneously and otherwise. Over 50% of users referenced files owned by other users, and over 80% of all files were involved in such references. Based on the differences in files and users, suggestions to improve the system performance were also made.

  9. The KEA image file format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunting, Peter; Gillingham, Sam

    2013-08-01

    There are a large number of image formats already in use within the remote sensing community but currently there is no format that provides the features of: compression, support for large file sizes, ground control points, raster attribute tables and inbuilt image pyramids. Therefore, a new image format, named KEA, after the New Zealand bird, has been proposed. The KEA format provides a full implementation of the GDAL data model and is implemented within a HDF5 file. A software library with a GDAL driver have been freely provided to the community allowing use through any GDAL based software. The new format has comparable performance with existing formats while producing smaller file sizes and is already within active use for a number of projects within Landcare Research, New Zealand, and the wider community.

  10. Effects of Excess Energy Intake on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jing; Xi, Chao; Huang, Xiuqing; Cui, Ju; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Tiemei

    2016-01-01

    Excess energy intake correlates with the development of metabolic disorders. However, different energy-dense foods have different effects on metabolism. To compare the effects of a high-fat diet, a high-fructose diet and a combination high-fat/high-fructose diet on glucose and lipid metabolism, male C57BL/6 mice were fed with one of four different diets for 3 months: standard chow; standard diet and access to fructose water; a high fat diet; and a high fat diet with fructose water. After 3 months of feeding, the high-fat and the combined high-fat/high-fructose groups showed significantly increased body weights, accompanied by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance; however, the high-fructose group was not different from the control group. All three energy-dense groups showed significantly higher visceral fat weights, total cholesterol concentrations, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations compared with the control group. Assays of basal metabolism showed that the respiratory quotient of the high-fat, the high-fructose, and the high-fat/high-fructose groups decreased compared with the control group. The present study confirmed the deleterious effect of high energy diets on body weight and metabolism, but suggested that the energy efficiency of the high-fructose diet was much lower than that of the high-fat diet. In addition, fructose supplementation did not worsen the detrimental effects of high-fat feeding alone on metabolism in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:26745179

  11. Red ginseng delays age-related hearing and vestibular dysfunction in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunjie; Kim, Yeon Ju; Lim, Hye Jin; Kim, Young Sun; Park, Hun Yi; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Since Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been proven to protect against gentamicin-induced vestibular and hearing dysfunction, the effects of KRG on age-related inner ear disorder in C57BL/6 mice were investigated. While age-related hearing loss was detected at the age of 6months (32kHz) and 9months (16kHz) in the control group, it was significantly delayed (p<0.05) in the 150mg/kg KRG-treated group. Vestibular dysfunction was observed in the tail-hanging and swimming tests, with significantly different severity scores and swimming times detected between the control and 150mg/kg KRG-treated group at the age of 12months (p<0.05). Mice treated with 500mg/kg KRG exhibited irritability and aggravated inner ear dysfunction. Histological observation supported the findings of hearing and vestibular function defects. In conclusion, C57BL/6 mice showed early-onset hearing loss and progressive vestibular dysfunction with aging, which were delayed by treatment with 150mg/kg KRG. However, 500mg/kg KRG treatment may induce aggressive behavior. PMID:24952098

  12. POWERFUL HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION OF THE REMARKABLE BL Lac OBJECT S5 0716+714

    SciTech Connect

    Vittorini, V.; Chen, A. W.; Ferrari, A.; Tavani, M.; D'Ammando, F.; Donnarumma, I.; Pacciani, L.; Pucella, G.; Bulgarelli, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Giommi, P.

    2009-12-01

    BL Lac objects of the intermediate subclass (IBLs) are known to emit a substantial fraction of their power in the energy range 0.1-10 GeV. Detecting gamma-ray emission from such sources provides therefore a direct probe of the emission mechanisms and of the underlying powerhouse. The gamma-ray satellite, AGILE, detected the remarkable IBL S5 0716+714 (z approx = 0.3) during a high state in the period from 2007 September-October, marked by two very intense flares reaching peak fluxes of 200 x 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 100 MeV, with simultaneous optical and X-ray observations. We present here a theoretical model for the two major flares and discuss the overall energetics of the source. We conclude that 0716+714 is among the brightest BL Lac's ever detected at gamma-ray energies. Because of its high power and lack of signs for ongoing accretion or surrounding gas, the source is an ideal candidate to test the maximal power extractable from a rotating supermassive black hole via the pure Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism. We find that during the 2007 gamma-ray flares 0716+714 approached or just exceeded the upper limit set by BZ for a black hole of mass 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}.

  13. Effects of Excess Energy Intake on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiuqing; Cui, Ju; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Tiemei

    2016-01-01

    Excess energy intake correlates with the development of metabolic disorders. However, different energy-dense foods have different effects on metabolism. To compare the effects of a high-fat diet, a high-fructose diet and a combination high-fat/high-fructose diet on glucose and lipid metabolism, male C57BL/6 mice were fed with one of four different diets for 3 months: standard chow; standard diet and access to fructose water; a high fat diet; and a high fat diet with fructose water. After 3 months of feeding, the high-fat and the combined high-fat/high-fructose groups showed significantly increased body weights, accompanied by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance; however, the high-fructose group was not different from the control group. All three energy-dense groups showed significantly higher visceral fat weights, total cholesterol concentrations, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations compared with the control group. Assays of basal metabolism showed that the respiratory quotient of the high-fat, the high-fructose, and the high-fat/high-fructose groups decreased compared with the control group. The present study confirmed the deleterious effect of high energy diets on body weight and metabolism, but suggested that the energy efficiency of the high-fructose diet was much lower than that of the high-fat diet. In addition, fructose supplementation did not worsen the detrimental effects of high-fat feeding alone on metabolism in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:26745179

  14. Maternal behavior and offspring resiliency to maternal separation in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Own, Lawrence S; Patel, Paresh D

    2013-03-01

    Adverse early life experience, such as childhood abuse, neglect, and trauma, increases lifetime risk for mental illness. To investigate underlying mechanisms, the maternal separation (MS) paradigm was developed and validated as an animal model of early adversity in rats, reliably effecting long-term changes to anxiety, gene expression, and stress response. However, across-species validation of core findings in mice has met with limited success. To re-visit parameters governing the effectiveness of MS in mice, this study investigated the effect of MS on maternal care, offspring behavior, and offspring stress-induced corticosterone response in the c57bl/6 mouse strain. The results from this study suggest that: (i) levels of maternal care increase as a function of separation duration immediately after daily MS, but long-term care remains unchanged; and (ii) c57bl/6 mice are resilient to MS, exhibiting subtle decreases in anxiety and unchanged stress-induced corticosterone response as adults, irrespective of separation duration. PMID:23195752

  15. The nature of optical and near-infrared variability of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.

    2010-02-01

    Context. Since 1997, BL Lacertae has undergone a phase of high optical activity, with the occurrence of several prominent outbursts. Starting in 1999, the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) consortium has organised various multifrequency campaigns on this blazar, collecting tens of thousands of data points. One of the main issues in the analysis of this huge dataset has been the study of colour variability. Aims: The immense amount of optical and near-infrared data collected during the campaigns enables us to perform a thorough analysis of multiband data, with the aim to understand the flux variability mechanisms. Methods: We use a new approach for the analysis of these data, focusing on the source spectral evolution. Results: We show that the overall behaviour of the BL Lacertae light and colour curves can be explained in terms of a changing viewing angle of a moving, discrete emitting region, which causes variable Doppler boosting of the corresponding radiation. Conclusions: A fractal helical structure is suggested to be at the origin of the different time scales of variability. Based on data taken and assembled by the WEBT collaboration and stored in the WEBT archive at the Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino - INAF (http://www.oato.inaf.it/blazars/webt/).

  16. An Analysis of Periodic Components in BL Lac Object S5 0716 +714 with MUSIC Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithms are introduced to the estimation of the period of variation of BL Lac objects.The principle of MUSIC spectral analysis method and theoretical analysis of the resolution of frequency spectrum using analog signals are included. From a lot of literatures, we have collected a lot of effective observation data of BL Lac object S5 0716 + 714 in V, R, I bands from 1994 to 2008. The light variation periods of S5 0716 +714 are obtained by means of the MUSIC spectral analysis method and periodogram spectral analysis method. There exist two major periods: (3.33±0.08) years and (1.24±0.01) years for all bands. The estimation of the period of variation of the algorithm based on the MUSIC spectral analysis method is compared with that of the algorithm based on the periodogram spectral analysis method. It is a super-resolution algorithm with small data length, and could be used to detect the period of variation of weak signals.

  17. Lack of Evidence for Neonatal Misoprostol Neurodevelopmental Toxicity in C57BL6/J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Claire M.; Walker, Cheryl K.; Qi, Lihong; Pessah, Isaac N.; Berman, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 that is administered to women at high doses to induce uterine contractions for early pregnancy termination and at low doses to aid in cervical priming during labor. Because of the known teratogenic effects of misoprostol when given during gestation and its effects on axonal growth in vitro, we examined misoprostol for its potential as a neurodevelopmental toxicant when administered to neonatal C57BL6/J mice. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 0.4, 4 or 40 µg/kg misoprostol on postnatal day 7, the approximate developmental stage in mice of human birth, after which neonatal somatic growth, and sensory and motor system development were assessed. These doses were selected to span the range of human exposure used to induce labor. In addition, adult mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism including tests for anxiety, stereotyped behaviors, social communication and interactions, and learning and memory. No significant effects of exposure were found for any measure of development or behavioral endpoints. In conclusion, the results of the present study in C57BL/6J mice do not provide support for neurodevelopmental toxicity after misoprostol administration approximating human doses and timed to coincide with the developmental stage of human birth. PMID:22719983

  18. VERITAS and multiwavelength observations of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 1741+196

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Flinders, A.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Huetten, M.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Brien, S.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Pelassa, V.; Petrashyk, A.; Petry, D.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Ratliff, G.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Reynolds, K.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rulten, C.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2016-07-01

    We present results from multiwavelength observations of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 1741 + 196, including results in the very high energy γ-ray regime using the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). The VERITAS time-averaged spectrum, measured above 180 GeV, is well modelled by a power law with a spectral index of 2.7 ± 0.7stat ± 0.2syst. The integral flux above 180 GeV is (3.9 ± 0.8stat ± 1.0syst) × 10-8 m-2 s-1, corresponding to 1.6 per cent of the Crab nebula flux on average. The multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of the source suggests that 1ES 1741+196 is an extreme-high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object. The observations analysed in this paper extend over a period of six years, during which time no strong flares were observed in any band. This analysis is therefore one of the few characterizations of a blazar in a non-flaring state.

  19. Brain plasticity and cognitive functions after ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Stragier, E; Martin, V; Davenas, E; Poilbout, C; Mongeau, R; Corradetti, R; Lanfumey, L

    2015-01-01

    Acute or chronic administrations of high doses of ethanol in mice are known to produce severe cognitive deficits linked to hippocampal damage. However, we recently reported that chronic and moderate ethanol intake in C57BL/6J mice induced chromatin remodeling within the Bdnf promoters, leading to both enhanced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and hippocampal neurogenesis under free-choice protocol. We performed here a series of cellular and behavioral studies to analyze the consequences of these modifications. We showed that a 3-week chronic free-choice ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice led to a decrease in DNA methylation of the Bdnf gene within the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus, and upregulated hippocampal BDNF signaling pathways mediated by ERK, AKT and CREB. However, this activation did not affect long-term potentiation in the CA1. Conversely, ethanol intake impaired learning and memory capacities analyzed in the contextual fear conditioning test and the novel object recognition task. In addition, ethanol increased behavioral perseveration in the Barnes maze test but did not alter the mouse overall spatial capacities. These data suggested that in conditions of chronic and moderate ethanol intake, the chromatin remodeling leading to BDNF signaling upregulation is probably an adaptive process, engaged via epigenetic regulations, to counteract the cognitive deficits induced by ethanol. PMID:26670281

  20. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on cholesterol gallstone formation in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soo-Min; Park, Jin-A; Kim, Na-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Soon; Zhang, Dan; Yi, Hee; Cho, Hee-Jung; Kim, Ja Kyung; Lee, Dong Ki; Kim, Jin-Suk; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the preventive effect of ω-3 fatty acids against cholesterol gallstone (CG) formation. CG formation was induced in C57BL/6J mice using a lithogenic diet (LD). The mice were divided into four treatment groups: i) LD, ii) LD plus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), iii) LD plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and iv) LD plus EPA plus DHA. Subsequent to feeding the mice the LD for four weeks, EPA and/or DHA (70 mg/kg/day) were orally administered for eight weeks. The mice in the EPA treatment groups exhibited significantly less gallstone formation than those in the LD group. By contrast, DHA treatment only slightly suppressed gallstone formation. The expression of mucin 2, 5AC, 5B and 6 was significantly decreased in the gallbladders of mice in the EPA groups (70-90%) and the LD plus DHA group (30-50%), compared with that in the mice in the LD group. In addition, the mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase was significantly decreased in the livers of mice in the EPA treatment group compared with that in the livers of mice in the LD group. In conclusion, EPA was found to have a dominant anti-lithogenic effect in C57BL/6J mice. PMID:25333303

  1. Brain plasticity and cognitive functions after ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Stragier, E; Martin, V; Davenas, E; Poilbout, C; Mongeau, R; Corradetti, R; Lanfumey, L

    2015-01-01

    Acute or chronic administrations of high doses of ethanol in mice are known to produce severe cognitive deficits linked to hippocampal damage. However, we recently reported that chronic and moderate ethanol intake in C57BL/6J mice induced chromatin remodeling within the Bdnf promoters, leading to both enhanced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and hippocampal neurogenesis under free-choice protocol. We performed here a series of cellular and behavioral studies to analyze the consequences of these modifications. We showed that a 3-week chronic free-choice ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice led to a decrease in DNA methylation of the Bdnf gene within the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus, and upregulated hippocampal BDNF signaling pathways mediated by ERK, AKT and CREB. However, this activation did not affect long-term potentiation in the CA1. Conversely, ethanol intake impaired learning and memory capacities analyzed in the contextual fear conditioning test and the novel object recognition task. In addition, ethanol increased behavioral perseveration in the Barnes maze test but did not alter the mouse overall spatial capacities. These data suggested that in conditions of chronic and moderate ethanol intake, the chromatin remodeling leading to BDNF signaling upregulation is probably an adaptive process, engaged via epigenetic regulations, to counteract the cognitive deficits induced by ethanol. PMID:26670281

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus increases lung cellular bioenergetics in neonatal C57BL/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Alsuwaidi, Ahmed R.; Albawardi, Alia; Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Benedict, Sheela; Othman, Aws R.; Hartwig, Stacey M.; Varga, Steven M.; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2014-04-15

    We have previously reported that lung cellular bioenergetics (cellular respiration and ATP) increased in 4–10 week-old BALB/c mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study examined the kinetics and changes in cellular bioenergetics in ≤2-week-old C57BL/6 mice following RSV infection. Mice (5–14 days old) were inoculated intranasally with RSV and the lungs were examined on days 1–10 post-infection. Histopathology and electron microscopy revealed preserved pneumocyte architectures and organelles. Increased lung cellular bioenergetics was noted from days 1–10 post-infection. Cellular GSH remained unchanged. These results indicate that the increased lung cellular respiration (measured by mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption) and ATP following RSV infection is independent of either age or genetic background of the host. - Highlights: • RSV infection increases lung cellular respiration and ATP in neonatal C57BL/6 mice. • Increased lung cellular bioenergetics is a biomarker of RSV infection. • Lung cellular glutathione remains unchanged in RSV infection.

  3. Codonopsis lanceolata Extract Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kim, Young-Hyun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Shin, Gi-Hae; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Bong Kyun; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Codonopsis lanceolata extract (CLE) has been used in traditional medicine in the Asian-Pacific region for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with CLE. To investigate whether CLE could have preventative effects on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, male C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal chow diet, 60% HFD, or a HFD supplemented with CLE (60, 180, and 360 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. CLE decreased body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat weights in HFD-induced obese mice. CLE group mice showed lower fat accumulation and a smaller adipocyte area in the adipose tissue compared with the HFD group mice. CLE group mice exhibited lower serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose, and insulin compared with the HFD group mice. In addition, CLE decreased liver weight and lowered the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in HFD-induced obese mice. These results indicate that CLE can inhibit the development of diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:25353662

  4. FXR agonist GW4064 increases plasma glucocorticoid levels in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Menno; van der Sluis, Ronald J; Li, Zhaosha; Oosterveer, Maaike H; Groen, Albert K; Van Berkel, Theo J C

    2012-10-15

    Since high expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been detected in glucocorticoid-producing adrenocortical cells, we evaluated the potential role of FXR in adrenal glucocorticoid production. FXR agonist GW4064 increased fasting plasma corticosterone levels (+45%; P<0.01) in C57BL/6 mice, indicative of enhanced adrenal steroidogenesis. GW4064 treatment did not affect plasma ACTH levels, adrenal weight, or adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes. Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) mRNA and protein expression, respectively, increased 1.9-fold (P<0.01) and 1.5-fold, which suggests a stimulated lipoprotein-associated cholesterol uptake into the adrenals upon GW4064 treatment. In line with an enhanced flux of cellular cholesterol into the steroidogenic pathway, adrenal unesterified and esterified cholesterol stores were 21-41% decreased (P<0.01) upon GW4064 treatment. In conclusion, we have shown that the FXR agonist GW4064 stimulates plasma corticosterone levels in C57BL/6 mice. Our findings suggest a novel role for FXR in the modulation of adrenal cholesterol metabolism and glucocorticoid synthesis in mice.

  5. Brain plasticity and cognitive functions after ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Stragier, E; Martin, V; Davenas, E; Poilbout, C; Mongeau, R; Corradetti, R; Lanfumey, L

    2015-01-01

    Acute or chronic administrations of high doses of ethanol in mice are known to produce severe cognitive deficits linked to hippocampal damage. However, we recently reported that chronic and moderate ethanol intake in C57BL/6J mice induced chromatin remodeling within the Bdnf promoters, leading to both enhanced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and hippocampal neurogenesis under free-choice protocol. We performed here a series of cellular and behavioral studies to analyze the consequences of these modifications. We showed that a 3-week chronic free-choice ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice led to a decrease in DNA methylation of the Bdnf gene within the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus, and upregulated hippocampal BDNF signaling pathways mediated by ERK, AKT and CREB. However, this activation did not affect long-term potentiation in the CA1. Conversely, ethanol intake impaired learning and memory capacities analyzed in the contextual fear conditioning test and the novel object recognition task. In addition, ethanol increased behavioral perseveration in the Barnes maze test but did not alter the mouse overall spatial capacities. These data suggested that in conditions of chronic and moderate ethanol intake, the chromatin remodeling leading to BDNF signaling upregulation is probably an adaptive process, engaged via epigenetic regulations, to counteract the cognitive deficits induced by ethanol.

  6. Home improvement: C57BL/6J mice given more naturalistic nesting materials build better nests.

    PubMed

    Hess, Sarah E; Rohr, Stephanie; Dufour, Brett D; Gaskill, Brianna N; Pajor, Edmond A; Garner, Joseph P

    2008-11-01

    Environmental enrichment of laboratory mice can improve the quality of research, but debate arises over the means of enrichment and its ability to be used in a sterile environment. One important form of enrichment is nesting material. Mice in the wild build dome-shaped, complex, multilayered nests, but this behavior is not seen in the laboratory, perhaps due to inappropriate nesting material rather than the nest-building ability of the mice. Here we focus on the use of naturalistic nesting materials to test whether they improve nest quality through the use of a 'naturalistic nest score' system; we also focus on materials that can be sterilized and easily used in existing housing systems. We first determined whether C57BL/6J mice build naturalistic nests when given shredded paper strips. We then compared these shredded paper strips with other commonly used nesting enrichments (facial tissues and compressed cotton squares). Nests were scored for 6 d. We found that the shredded paper strips allowed the mice to build higher quality nests than those built with any of the other materials. Nests built with tissues were of intermediate quality, and nests built with compressed cotton squares were of poor quality, similar to those built by the control group. These results suggest that C57BL/6J mice given appropriate nesting materials can build nests similar to those built by their wild counterparts.

  7. The mass spectra, hierarchy and cosmology of B-L MSSM heterotic compactifications

    SciTech Connect

    Ambroso, Michael; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2011-04-10

    The matter spectrum of the MSSM, including three right-handed neutrino supermultiplets and one pair of Higgs-Higgs conjugate superfields, can be obtained by compactifying the E₈ x E₈ heterotic string and M-theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds with specific SU(4) vector bundles. These theories have the standard model gauge group augmented by an additional gauged U(1)B-L. Their minimal content requires that the B-L gauge symmetry be spontaneously broken by a vacuum expectation value of at least one right-handed neutrino. In previous papers, we presented the results of a quasi-analytic renormalization group analysis showing that B-L gauge symmetry is indeed radiatively broken with an appropriate B-L/electroweak hierarchy. In this paper, we extend these results by 1) enlarging the initial parameter space and 2) explicitly calculating all renormalization group equations numerically. The regions of the initial parameter space leading to realistic vacua are presented and the B-L/electroweak hierarchy computed over these regimes. At representative points, the mass spectrum for all particles and Higgs fields is calculated and shown to be consistent with present experimental bounds. Some fundamental phenomenological signatures of a non-zero right-handed neutrino expectation value are discussed, particularly the cosmology and proton lifetime arising from induced lepton and baryon number violating interactions.

  8. The 1997 Outburst of BL Lacertae and Detection of a 0.6-mag Rapid Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Katsura; Kato, Taichi; Nogami, Daisaku; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Kinnunen, Timo; Poyner, Gary

    1999-04-01

    Photometric observations of BL Lac were carried out during the large optical and X-ray outburst in 1997. Time-resolved photometry on 1997 August 2 revealed a rapid increase of brightness by about 0.6 mag within 40 min. This large-amplitude, short-time variation is the most active one among known variability of blazars in the optical wavelength. By considering a model based on the ``synchrotron self-Compton model'' of the relativistic jets of blazars, the size of the variable source should be R ~ 7.2 x 10^{{14}} cm from the 40 min variation. The power-density spectrum of the light curve on the night yielded a dependence of the power to the frequency f^{{-1.0}} for timescales of the variabilities and down to a possible minimum timescale of around 10 min. The clear difference between the observed f^{{-1.0}} dependence from the canonical f^{{-1.5}} --f^{{-1.8}} power indices observed in X-ray variations of radio-loud AGNs suggests that different mechanisms are responsible for short-term optical variability between BL Lacs and radio-loud AGNs.

  9. Multi-walled carbon nanotube instillation impairs pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are widely used in many disciplines due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, some concerns about the possible human health and environmental impacts of manufactured MWCNTs are rising. We hypothesized that instillation of MWCNTs impairs pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice due to development of lung inflammation and fibrosis. Methods MWCNTs were administered to C57BL/6 mice by oropharyngeal aspiration (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg) and we assessed lung inflammation and fibrosis by inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen content, and histological assessment. Pulmonary function was assessed using a FlexiVent system and levels of Ccl3, Ccl11, Mmp13 and IL-33 were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results Mice administered MWCNTs exhibited increased inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen deposition and granuloma formation in lung tissue, which correlated with impaired pulmonary function as assessed by increased resistance, tissue damping, and decreased lung compliance. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs induced an inflammatory signature marked by cytokine (IL-33), chemokine (Ccl3 and Ccl11), and protease production (Mmp13) that promoted the inflammatory and fibrotic changes observed within the lung. Conclusions These results further highlight the potential adverse health effects that may occur following MWCNT exposure and therefore we suggest these materials may pose a significant risk leading to impaired lung function following environmental and occupational exposures. PMID:21851604

  10. Optical Variability of BL Lacertae During the Major Outburst of 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, K. K.; Ramsey, B. D.; Sadun, A. C.; Soundarajaperumal, S.; Wang, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have undertaken an investigation of recent flux variability in BL Lac. We present optical observations taken over 12 nights documenting major as well as minor outbursts. This has been combined, for purposes of multifrequency analysis, with published X-ray and gamma ray data taken for an additional single night. On two nights in particular, which includes the night of the X-ray observations, a major outburst of about a full magnitude of variation was recorded. All the data have been analyzed with theoretical models. Attempts were made to use synchrotron self-Compton and external Comptonization models to explain the data; however both classes of models were found lacking. More satisfactory results were obtained using an analytical model proposed by Wang et al. that involves the evolution of synchrotron spectra in a homogeneous jet due to the injection of relativistic electrons, taking into account radiation losses during the outbursts. It is hoped that the results of this study of BL Lac, an archetype for the class of blazars in general, represent a more generic phenomenon applicable to the entire class.

  11. Optical Variability of BL Lacertae During the Major Outburst of 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, K. K.; Ramsey, B. D.; Sadun, A. C.; Soundararajaperumal, S.; Wang, J.

    2000-01-01

    We have undertaken an investigation of recent flux variability in BL Lac. We present optical observations taken over 22 nights documenting major as well as minor outbursts. This has been combined, for purposes of multifrequency analysis, with published X-ray and T-ray data taken for an additional single night, On two nights in particular, including the night of the X-ray observations, a major outburst of about a full magnitude of variation was recorded. All the data have been analyzed with theoretical models. Attempts were made to use synchrotron self-Compton and external Comptonization models to explain the data; however, both classes of models were found lacking. More satisfactory results were obtained using an analytical model proposed by Wang et al. that involves the evolution of synchrotron spectra in a homogeneous jet due to the injection of relativistic electrons, taking into account radiation losses during the outbursts. It is hoped that the results of this study of BL Lac, an archetype for the class of blazars in general, represent a more generic phenomenon applicable to the entire class.

  12. Computer program BL2D for solving two-dimensional and axisymmetric boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Venkit

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the formulation, validation, and user's manual for the computer program BL2D. The program is a fourth-order-accurate solution scheme for solving two-dimensional or axisymmetric boundary layers in speed regimes that range from low subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers. A basic implementation of the transition zone and turbulence modeling is also included. The code is a result of many improvements made to the program VGBLP, which is described in NASA TM-83207 (February 1982), and can effectively supersede it. The code BL2D is designed to be modular, user-friendly, and portable to any machine with a standard fortran77 compiler. The report contains the new formulation adopted and the details of its implementation. Five validation cases are presented. A detailed user's manual with the input format description and instructions for running the code is included. Adequate information is presented in the report to enable the user to modify or customize the code for specific applications.

  13. Computer program BL2D for solving two-dimensional and axisymmetric boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Venkit

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the formulation, validation, and user's manual for the computer program BL2D. The program is a fourth-order-accurate solution scheme for solving two-dimensional or axisymmetric boundary layers in speed regimes that range from low subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers. A basic implementation of the transition zone and turbulence modeling is also included. The code is a result of many improvements made to the program VGBLP, which is described in NASA TM-83207 (February 1982), and can effectively supersede it. The code BL2D is designed to be modular, user-friendly, and portable to any machine with a standard fortran77 compiler. The report contains the new formulation adopted and the details of its implementation. Five validation cases are presented. A detailed user's manual with the input format description and instructions for running the code is included. Adequate information is presented in the report to enable the user to modify or customize the code for specific applications.

  14. 76 FR 68437 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    .... Description: National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation submits tariff filing per 154.204: IG Rate for November 2011..., but intervention is necessary to become a party to the proceeding. Filings in Existing...

  15. 77 FR 67355 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... intervene or protest in any of the above proceedings must file in accordance with Rules 211 and 214 of the... person desiring to protest in any the above proceedings must file in accordance with Rule 211 of...

  16. 78 FR 25071 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ....m. ET 5/1/13. Any person desiring to intervene or protest in any of the above proceedings must file... desiring to protest in any the above proceedings must file in accordance with Rule 211 of the...

  17. 78 FR 49494 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ..., LLC. Description: Big Sandy Fuel Filing effective 9-1-2013. Filed Date: 7/31/13. Accession Number... Gas Transmission, L. Description: Neg Rate 2013-07-31 Green Plains fka Choice Ethanol to be...

  18. Fail-over file transfer process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semancik, Susan K. (Inventor); Conger, Annette M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a fail-over file transfer process to handle data file transfer when the transfer is unsuccessful in order to avoid unnecessary network congestion and enhance reliability in an automated data file transfer system. If a file cannot be delivered after attempting to send the file to a receiver up to a preset number of times, and the receiver has indicated the availability of other backup receiving locations, then the file delivery is automatically attempted to one of the backup receiving locations up to the preset number of times. Failure of the file transfer to one of the backup receiving locations results in a failure notification being sent to the receiver, and the receiver may retrieve the file from the location indicated in the failure notification when ready.

  19. 47 CFR 1.1704 - Station files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Cable Operations and Licensing System (COALS) § 1.1704 Station files. Applications, notifications, correspondence, electronic filings... relating to each system in the Multichannel Video and Cable Television Services (MVCTS) and the...

  20. 75 FR 67356 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    .... Docket Numbers: RP11-1420-000. Applicants: ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC. Description: ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.203: Tiger NAESB Version 1.9 Compliance Filing to be effective 12/...

  1. 75 FR 66749 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    .... Docket Numbers: RP11-1420-000. Applicants: ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC. Description: ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.203: Tiger NAESB Version 1.9 Compliance Filing to be effective 12/...

  2. 78 FR 58533 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings... Docket Numbers: CP13-548-000 Applicants: Montana-Dakota Utilities Co. Description: Application for...

  3. 12 CFR 303.221 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES Section 19 of the FDI Act (Consent to Service of Persons Convicted of Certain Criminal Offenses) § 303.221 Filing procedures. (a) Where to file. An application under section 19 of the FDI Act shall...

  4. 77 FR 506 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Express, LLC. Filing Party: Wade S. Hooker, Esq.; 211 Central Park W; New York, NY 10024. Synopsis: The... Interoceanica, S.A and Hamburg Sudamerikanische Dampfschiffahrts-Gesellschaft KG. Filing Party: Wade S....

  5. 78 FR 76624 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... & Logistic GmbH & Co. KG; Industrial Maritime Carriers LLC; Seaboard Marine, Ltd. Filing Party: Wade S...H & Cie. KG. Filing Party: Wade S. Hooker, Esq.; 211 Central Park W; New York, NY 10024....

  6. 77 FR 60433 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Express, Inc. and Great White Fleet Liner Services Ltd. Filing Party: Wade S. Hooker, Esq., 211 Central... White Fleet Liner Services Ltd. and Crowley Latin American Services, LLC. Filing Party: Wade S....

  7. 77 FR 13604 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...-Linie GmbH & Cie. KG. Filing Party: Wade S. Hooker, Esquire; 211 Central Park W.; New York, NY 10024.... Parties: Great White Fleet (US) Ltd. and Agriculture Investment Export, Inc. Filing Party: Wade S....

  8. File-based data processing on MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupiarz, Christopher J.; Artis, David A.; Calloway, Andrew B.; Frangos, Constantine M.; Heggestad, Brian K.; Holland, Douglas B.; Stratton, William C.

    2006-10-01

    As part of the system software, MESSENGER will be using a file-based system for the transfer and processing of instrument and spacecraft data. The flow of files within the MESSENGER software architecture begins with the receipt of science data by the main processor and the creation of files containing these data by the flight software. The files are then autonomously selected for downlink via a priority-based algorithm, packaged for transmittal via the CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP), and radiated to the ground. The ground software reconstructs the files via its implementation of CFDP, performs further processing on the file, and sends it to the operations data archive and the Science Operations Center. The MESSENGER spacecraft operations team manages the overall handling of these files through interaction with both the flight and ground systems.

  9. File-based data processing on MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupiarz, Christopher J.; Artis, David A.; Calloway, Andrew B.; Frangos, Constantine M.; Heggestad, Brian K.; Holland, Douglas B.; Stratton, William C.

    2003-11-01

    As part of the system software, MESSENGER will be using a file-based system for the transfer and processing of instrument and spacecraft data. The flow of files within the MESSENGER software architecture begins with the receipt of science data by the main processor and the creation of files containing these data by the flight software. The files are then autonomously selected for downlink via a priority-based algorithm, packaged for transmittal via the CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP), and radiated to the ground. The ground software reconstructs the files via its implementation of CFDP, performs further processing on the file, and sends it to the operations data archive and the Science Operations Center. The MESSENGER spacecraft operations team manages the overall handling of these files through interaction with both the flight and ground systems.

  10. 78 FR 46935 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...: 20130725-5032. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 8/6/13. Docket Numbers: RP13-1098-000. Applicants: Bison Pipeline LLC. Description: Bison Pipeline LLC submits tariff filing per 154.203: ACA Filing 2013 to...

  11. 77 FR 56197 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Pipeline Company, LLC. Description: Hurricane Surcharge Filing on 8-31-12 to be effective 10/1/2012. Filed...: RP12-999-000. Applicants: Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC. Description: NegRate Pass-through Process to...

  12. 75 FR 79362 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...-000. Applicants: Bobcat Gas Storage. Description: Bobcat Gas Storage submits tariff filing per 154.204...-000. Applicants: Bobcat Gas Storage. Description: Bobcat Gas Storage submits tariff filing per...

  13. 75 FR 57754 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... 22, 2010. Docket Numbers: RP10-1289-000. Applicants: Bobcat Gas Storage. ] Description: Bobcat Gas Storage submits tariff filing per 154.203: Bobcat Baseline Tariff Filing to be effective 9/10/2010....

  14. 76 FR 33748 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ..., LP. Description: Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP submits tariff filing per 154.204: DCP-LNG Import... Cove Point LNG, LP. Description: Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP submits tariff filing per 154.312:...

  15. Improving File System Performance by Striping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Terance L.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This document discusses the performance and advantages of striped file systems on the SGI AD workstations. Performance of several striped file system configurations are compared and guidelines for optimal striping are recommended.

  16. 78 FR 20906 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Storage Company, LLC. Description: RAM 2013 to be effective 5/1/2013. Filed Date: 4/1/13. Accession Number... submits tariff filing per 154.204: VPEM 510295 Permanent Capacity Release to be effective 4/ 1/2013....

  17. 75 FR 31438 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Lines Joint Service Agreement. Filing Party: Tara L. Leiter, Esq.; Blank Rome, LLP; Watergate; 600 New... Service Agreement. Filing Party: Tara L. Leiter, Esq.; Blank Rome, LLP; Watergate; 600 New...

  18. 75 FR 24702 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Line, Ltd. Filing Party: Wayne R. Rohde, Esq.; Sher & Blackwell LLP; 1850 M Street, NW.; Suite 900... Authority. Filing Parties: Greg Lovelace, Director Cargo & Cruise Marketing; Tampa Port Authority;...

  19. 77 FR 74655 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    .... ] Applicants: Leaf River Energy Center LLC. Description: Leaf River Energy Center LLC submits tariff filing per 154.203: Leaf River Energy Center LLC--Compliance with Order Accepting 587-V Filing to be effective...

  20. 75 FR 42732 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ..., July 26, 2010. Docket Numbers: RP10-967-000. Applicants: Garden Banks Gas Pipeline, LLC. Description: Garden Banks Gas Pipeline, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.203: Baseline Filing to be effective...

  1. 37 CFR 1.54 - Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt. 1.54 Section 1.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... will be informed of the application number and filing date by a filing receipt, unless the...

  2. 37 CFR 1.54 - Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt. 1.54 Section 1.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... will be informed of the application number and filing date by a filing receipt, unless the...

  3. 37 CFR 1.54 - Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt. 1.54 Section 1.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... will be informed of the application number and filing date by a filing receipt, unless the...

  4. 12 CFR 1780.9 - Filing of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing of papers. 1780.9 Section 1780.9 Banks... papers. (a) Filing. Any papers required to be filed shall be addressed to the presiding officer and filed... Director or the presiding officer. All papers filed by electronic media shall also concurrently be filed...

  5. 12 CFR 1780.9 - Filing of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing of papers. 1780.9 Section 1780.9 Banks... papers. (a) Filing. Any papers required to be filed shall be addressed to the presiding officer and filed... Director or the presiding officer. All papers filed by electronic media shall also concurrently be filed...

  6. Evaluated nuclear structure data file

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuli, J. K.

    The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) contains the evaluated nuclear properties of all known nuclides. These properties are derived both from nuclear reaction and radioactive decay measurements. All experimental data are evaluated to create the adopted properties for each nuclide. ENSDF, together with other numeric and biographic files, can be accessed on-line through the INTERNET or modem. Some of the databases are also available on the World Wide Web. The structure and the scope of ENSDF are presented along with the on-line access system of the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  7. Evaluated nuclear structure data file

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuli, J. K.

    1996-02-01

    The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) contains the evaluated nuclear properties of all known nuclides, as derived both from nuclear reaction and radioactive decay measurements. All experimental data are evaluated to create the adopted properties for each nuclide. ENSDF, together with other numeric and bibliographic files, can be accessed on-line through the INTERNET or modem, and some of the databases are also available on the World Wide Web. The structure and the scope of ENSDF are presented along with the on-line access system of the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  8. Registered File Support for Critical Operations Files at (Space Infrared Telescope Facility) SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turek, G.; Handley, Tom; Jacobson, J.; Rector, J.

    2001-01-01

    The SIRTF Science Center's (SSC) Science Operations System (SOS) has to contend with nearly one hundred critical operations files via comprehensive file management services. The management is accomplished via the registered file system (otherwise known as TFS) which manages these files in a registered file repository composed of a virtual file system accessible via a TFS server and a file registration database. The TFS server provides controlled, reliable, and secure file transfer and storage by registering all file transactions and meta-data in the file registration database. An API is provided for application programs to communicate with TFS servers and the repository. A command line client implementing this API has been developed as a client tool. This paper describes the architecture, current implementation, but more importantly, the evolution of these services based on evolving community use cases and emerging information system technology.

  9. Adolescent Fertility: National File [Machine-Readable Data File].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; And Others

    This computer file contains recent cross sectional data on adolescent fertility in the United States for 1960, 1965, 1970, 1975 and 1980-85. The following variables are included: (1) births; (2) birth rates; (3) abortions; (4) non-marital childbearing; (5) infant mortality; and (6) low birth weight. Data for both teenagers and women aged 20-24 are…

  10. Adolescent Fertility: State File [Machine-Readable Data File].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; And Others

    This computer file contains recent cross sectional data on adolescent fertility by state for 1960, 1965, 1970, 1975 and 1980-85. The following variables are included: (1) births; (2) birth rates; (3) abortions; (4) non-marital childbearing; (5) infant mortality; and (6) low birth weight. Data for both teenagers and women aged 20-24 years are…

  11. 29 CFR 4007.3 - Filing requirement; method of filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Web site (http://www.pbgc.gov). Subject to the provisions of § 4007.13, the plan administrator of each covered plan is responsible for filing prescribed premium information and payments. No later than the applicable due date(s) specified in this part, a plan's required premium payment(s) and related...

  12. 29 CFR 4007.3 - Filing requirement; method of filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Web site (http://www.pbgc.gov). Subject to the provisions of § 4007.13, the plan administrator of each covered plan is responsible for filing prescribed premium information and payments. No later than the applicable due date(s) specified in this part, a plan's required premium payment(s) and related...

  13. 29 CFR 4007.3 - Filing requirement; method of filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Web site (http://www.pbgc.gov). Subject to the provisions of § 4007.13, the plan administrator of each covered plan is responsible for filing prescribed premium information and payments. No later than the applicable due date(s) specified in this part, a plan's required premium payment(s) and related...

  14. Possible Role of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate (ACC) Deaminase Activity of Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 on Symbiosis with Mung Bean and Determinate Nodule Senescence.

    PubMed

    Tittabutr, Panlada; Sripakdi, Sudarat; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Teaumroong, Neung

    2015-01-01

    Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 forms symbiotic interactions with mung bean (Vigna radiata) and contains lrpL-acdS genes, which encode the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase enzyme that cleaves ACC, a precursor of plant ethylene synthesis. Since ethylene interferes with nodule formation in some legumes and plays a role in senescence in plant cells, BL3-enhancing ACC deaminase activity (BL3(+)) and defective mutant (BL3(-)) strains were constructed in order to investigate the effects of this enzyme on symbiosis and nodule senescence. Nodulation competitiveness was weaker in BL3(-) than in the wild-type, but was stronger in BL3(+). The inoculation of BL3(-) into mung bean resulted in less plant growth, a lower nodule dry weight, and smaller nodule number than those in the wild-type, whereas the inoculation of BL3(+) had no marked effects. However, similar nitrogenase activity was observed with all treatments; it was strongly detected 3 weeks after the inoculation and gradually declined with time, indicating senescence. The rate of plant nodulation by BL3(+) increased in a time-dependent manner. Nodules occupied by BL3(-) formed smaller symbiosomes, and bacteroid degradation was more prominent than that in the wild-type 7 weeks after the inoculation. Changes in biochemical molecules during nodulation were tracked by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy, and the results obtained confirmed that aging processes differed in nodules occupied by BL3 and BL3(-). This is the first study to show the possible role of ACC deaminase activity in senescence in determinate nodules. Our results suggest that an increase in ACC deaminase activity in this strain does not extend the lifespan of nodules, whereas the lack of this activity may accelerate nodule senescence.

  15. Possible Role of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate (ACC) Deaminase Activity of Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 on Symbiosis with Mung Bean and Determinate Nodule Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Tittabutr, Panlada; Sripakdi, Sudarat; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Teaumroong, Neung

    2015-01-01

    Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 forms symbiotic interactions with mung bean (Vigna radiata) and contains lrpL-acdS genes, which encode the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase enzyme that cleaves ACC, a precursor of plant ethylene synthesis. Since ethylene interferes with nodule formation in some legumes and plays a role in senescence in plant cells, BL3-enhancing ACC deaminase activity (BL3+) and defective mutant (BL3−) strains were constructed in order to investigate the effects of this enzyme on symbiosis and nodule senescence. Nodulation competitiveness was weaker in BL3− than in the wild-type, but was stronger in BL3+. The inoculation of BL3− into mung bean resulted in less plant growth, a lower nodule dry weight, and smaller nodule number than those in the wild-type, whereas the inoculation of BL3+ had no marked effects. However, similar nitrogenase activity was observed with all treatments; it was strongly detected 3 weeks after the inoculation and gradually declined with time, indicating senescence. The rate of plant nodulation by BL3+ increased in a time-dependent manner. Nodules occupied by BL3− formed smaller symbiosomes, and bacteroid degradation was more prominent than that in the wild-type 7 weeks after the inoculation. Changes in biochemical molecules during nodulation were tracked by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy, and the results obtained confirmed that aging processes differed in nodules occupied by BL3 and BL3−. This is the first study to show the possible role of ACC deaminase activity in senescence in determinate nodules. Our results suggest that an increase in ACC deaminase activity in this strain does not extend the lifespan of nodules, whereas the lack of this activity may accelerate nodule senescence. PMID:26657304

  16. Inverted File Compression through Document Identifier Reassignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Chen, Tien-Fu; Shann, Jean Jyh-Jiun; Chung, Chung-Ping

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the use of inverted files in information retrieval systems and proposes a document identifier reassignment method to reduce the average gap values in an inverted file. Highlights include the d-gap technique; document similarity; heuristic algorithms; file compression; and performance evaluation from a simulation environment. (LRW)

  17. 78 FR 8119 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket Numbers: RP13-459-000. Applicants: Trailblazer Pipeline Company LLC. Description: 4Q 2012 Penalty Credit Revenue Report. Filed Date: 1/22/13. Accession Number: 20130122-5241. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET...

  18. 76 FR 80358 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket... Numbers: RP12-235-000 Applicants: Gas Transmission Northwest LLC Description: Reservation Charge Credit.../filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-...

  19. 77 FR 63809 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket Numbers: RP13-130-000. Applicants: CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Comp. Description: Annual Report of Total Penalty Revenue Credits of CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC. Filed Date:...

  20. Computer Batch Files Shorten Many Complicated Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deppa, Joan

    1987-01-01

    Defines "batch files," claiming that they can shorten many complicated computer procedures. Describes how batch file was created using the computer program "PC-Write" to streamline the process of creating a work disk and increase students' computer literacy. Lists and discusses each element in the file. Provides references for more information.…

  1. 75 FR 76719 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... filing per 154.203: DTI--Notice of Gathering Service Termination to be effective N/A. Filed Date: 11/30... Fuel Gas Supply Corporation submits tariff filing per 154.204: IG Rate--December 2010 to be effective... specified comment date. It is not necessary to separately intervene again in a subdocket related to...

  2. 76 FR 353 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    .... Description: Gulf Crossing Pipeline Company LLC submits tariff filing per 154.204: Correct Title IDs to be... IDs to be effective 2/1/2011. Filed Date: 12/20/2010. Accession Number: 20101220-5024. Comment Date: 5... IDs to be effective 2/1/2011. Filed Date: 12/20/2010. Accession Number: 20101220-5041. Comment Date:...

  3. 77 FR 1064 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket Numbers: RP12-261-000....

  4. 42 CFR 93.510 - Filing motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filing motions. 93.510 Section 93.510 Public Health... Process § 93.510 Filing motions. (a) Parties must file all motions and requests for an order or ruling... legal authority relied upon, and state the facts alleged. (b) All motions must be in writing except...

  5. 78 FR 79432 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket Numbers: RP14-293-000....

  6. 77 FR 66973 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket Numbers: CP13-9-000. Applicants: Dominion Transmission, Inc. Description: Application to Abandon Gas Transportation with NSTAR of Dominion Transmission, Inc. Filed Date: 10/25/12. Accession Number:...

  7. 77 FR 69448 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket Numbers: CP13-9-000. Applicants: Dominion Transmission, Inc. Description: Application to Abandon Gas Transportation with NSTAR of Dominion Transmission, Inc. Filed Date: 10/25/12. Accession Number:...

  8. 75 FR 53285 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... service for Laurens, SC and Shelby, NC. Filed Date: 08/16/2010. Accession Number: 201008165121. Comment... will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact for an intervenor must create and validate an eRegistration account using the eRegistration link. Select the eFiling link to log on and submit...

  9. 40 CFR 78.4 - Filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Filings. 78.4 Section 78.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPEAL PROCEDURES § 78.4 Filings. (a)(1) All original filings made under this part shall be signed by the person...

  10. 76 FR 6611 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    .... Description: Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company submits tariff filing per 154.204: Pre-Certification Cost.... Description: Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. submits tariff filing per 154.204: Dredging Surcharge Cost... tariff filing per 154.204: Incorporation of Previously Accepted Tariff Provisions to be effective...

  11. 78 FR 76142 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket Numbers: RP14-254-000....

  12. 78 FR 8507 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket Numbers: CP13-57-000 Applicants:...

  13. 76 FR 5798 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Commission has received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Docket Numbers... submits tariff filing per 154.204: Negotiated Rate 2011-01-07 Concord and Noble Americas to be effective 1...--Gas Quality to be effective 3/1/2011. Filed Date: 01/10/2011. Accession Number: 20110110-5100....

  14. 10 CFR 501.35 - Public file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public file. 501.35 Section 501.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Hearings and Conferences During Administrative Proceedings § 501.35 Public file. (a) Contents. The public file shall consist of the rule, order, or petition, with supporting data and supplemental...

  15. 24 CFR 17.67 - Claims files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims files. 17.67 Section 17.67... files. Each claims collection officer is responsible for obtaining current credit data about each person against whom a claim is pending in his office. The file shall be kept reasonably up to date by...

  16. 37 CFR 1.251 - Unlocatable file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unlocatable file. 1.251 Section 1.251 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.251 Unlocatable file. (a) In the event that the Office cannot locate the file of an...

  17. 40 CFR 720.95 - Public file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public file. 720.95 Section 720.95... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 720.95 Public file. All..., will become part of the public file for that notice, unless such materials are claimed confidential....

  18. 36 CFR 703.20 - File copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false File copies. 703.20 Section... Is Not a Party § 703.20 File copies. The Office of the General Counsel will maintain the official file of copies of all demands served on the Library and deciding officials' responses....

  19. 21 CFR 211.198 - Complaint files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complaint files. 211.198 Section 211.198 Food and... files. (a) Written procedures describing the handling of all written and oral complaints regarding a...) A written record of each complaint shall be maintained in a file designated for drug...

  20. 21 CFR 820.198 - Complaint files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complaint files. 820.198 Section 820.198 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.198 Complaint files. (a) Each manufacturer shall maintain complaint files. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures for receiving, reviewing,...

  1. 47 CFR 1.911 - Station files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station files. 1.911 Section 1.911... Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.911 Station files. Applications... maintained by the Commission in ULS. These files constitute the official records for these stations...

  2. 7 CFR 989.23 - File.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false File. 989.23 Section 989.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.23 File. File means transmit or deliver to...

  3. 21 CFR 225.115 - Complaint files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complaint files. 225.115 Section 225.115 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records and Reports § 225.115 Complaint files. (a... feed manufacturer shall maintain on the premises a file which contains the following information:...

  4. 21 CFR 1271.320 - Complaint file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complaint file. 1271.320 Section 1271.320 Food and... CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.320 Complaint file. (a) Procedures... the investigation of complaints as appropriate. (b) Complaint file. You must maintain a record...

  5. 46 CFR 502.161 - Commission's files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commission's files. 502.161 Section 502.161 Shipping...; Presiding Officers; Evidence § 502.161 Commission's files. Where any matter contained in a tariff, report, or other document on file with the Commission is offered in evidence, such document need not...

  6. 40 CFR 725.95 - Public file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public file. 725.95 Section 725.95... Public file. All information submitted, including any health and safety study of a microorganism and other supporting documentation, will become part of the public file for that submission, unless...

  7. 10 CFR 603.1020 - File documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false File documents. 603.1020 Section 603.1020 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Executing the Award Reporting Information About the Award § 603.1020 File documents. The award file should include an...

  8. 10 CFR 603.1020 - File documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false File documents. 603.1020 Section 603.1020 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Executing the Award Reporting Information About the Award § 603.1020 File documents. The award file should include an...

  9. 10 CFR 603.1020 - File documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false File documents. 603.1020 Section 603.1020 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Executing the Award Reporting Information About the Award § 603.1020 File documents. The award file should include an...

  10. 10 CFR 603.1020 - File documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false File documents. 603.1020 Section 603.1020 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Executing the Award Reporting Information About the Award § 603.1020 File documents. The award file should include an...

  11. 75 FR 81594 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... filing per 154.204: RP11-20 TOC Update to be effective 10/1/2010. Filed Date: 12/16/2010. Accession... TOC Update to be effective 11/1/2010. Filed Date: 12/16/2010. Accession Number: 20101216-5127....

  12. 8 CFR 245a.33 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Filing. 245a.33 Section 245a.33 Aliens and... ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.33 Filing. (a) General. An application for Family Unity benefits under section 1504 of the LIFE Act Amendments must be filed on a Form...

  13. 8 CFR 245a.33 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Filing. 245a.33 Section 245a.33 Aliens and... ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.33 Filing. (a) General. An application for Family Unity benefits under section 1504 of the LIFE Act Amendments must be filed on a Form...

  14. 8 CFR 245a.33 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing. 245a.33 Section 245a.33 Aliens and... NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.33 Filing. (a) General. An application for Family Unity benefits under section 1504 of the LIFE Act Amendments must be filed on a Form...

  15. 8 CFR 245a.33 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing. 245a.33 Section 245a.33 Aliens and... ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.33 Filing. (a) General. An application for Family Unity benefits under section 1504 of the LIFE Act Amendments must be filed on a Form...

  16. 8 CFR 245a.33 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing. 245a.33 Section 245a.33 Aliens and... NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.33 Filing. (a) General. An application for Family Unity benefits under section 1504 of the LIFE Act Amendments must be filed on a Form...

  17. 18 CFR 34.7 - Filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION FOR AUTHORIZATION OF THE ISSUANCE OF SECURITIES OR THE ASSUMPTION OF LIABILITIES § 34.7 Filing requirements. Applications must be filed with the Secretary of the Commission in accordance with filing procedures posted on the Commission's Web site at...

  18. 77 FR 56832 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Agreement--CP and L to be effective 11/1/2012. Filed Date: 9/6/12. Accession Number: 20120906-5038. Comments.../docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For...

  19. 76 FR 348 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ....204: Tenaska Marketing Negotiated Rate Filing to be effective 1/1/2011. Filed Date: 12/27/2010... Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who.... The filings in the above proceedings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking...

  20. 76 FR 34222 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ...: RP11-2149-000. Applicants: Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC. Description: Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.204: Big Sandy Negotiated Rate Service Agreement Filing to be effective 6/1/2011. Filed... Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access...

  1. 7 CFR 15.72 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION Rules of Practice and Procedure for Hearings, Decisions and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Form, Execution, Filing and Service of Documents § 15.72 Filing. All documents relating to a proceeding under this subpart shall be filed in an original and...

  2. 7 CFR 15.72 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION Rules of Practice and Procedure for Hearings, Decisions and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Form, Execution, Filing and Service of Documents § 15.72 Filing. All documents relating to a proceeding under this subpart shall be filed in an original and...

  3. 12 CFR 19.100 - Filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing documents. 19.100 Section 19.100 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedural Rules for OCC Adjudications § 19.100 Filing documents. All materials required to be filed with...

  4. 78 FR 41049 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket Numbers: RP13-995-000. Applicants: Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America. Description: Natural Gas... effective 7/ 1/2013. Filed Date: 06/25/2013. Accession Number: 20130625-5059. Comment Date: 5:00...

  5. 78 FR 59663 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket Numbers: RP09-427-000. Applicants: Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C. Description: Report/Form of Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C. Filed Date: 9/3/13. Accession Number: 20130903-5037. Comments Due: 5...

  6. 47 CFR 76.1701 - Political file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Political file. 76.1701 Section 76.1701... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Documents to be Maintained for Inspection § 76.1701 Political file. (a) Every... (political file) of all requests for cablecast time made by or on behalf of a candidate for public...

  7. 47 CFR 73.1943 - Political file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Political file. 73.1943 Section 73.1943... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1943 Political file. (a) Every licensee shall keep and permit public inspection of a complete and orderly record (political file) of all requests for...

  8. 47 CFR 73.1943 - Political file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Political file. 73.1943 Section 73.1943... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1943 Political file. (a) Every licensee shall keep and permit public inspection of a complete and orderly record (political file) of all requests for...

  9. 47 CFR 73.1943 - Political file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Political file. 73.1943 Section 73.1943... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1943 Political file. (a) Every licensee shall keep and permit public inspection of a complete and orderly record (political file) of all requests for...

  10. 47 CFR 73.1943 - Political file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Political file. 73.1943 Section 73.1943... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1943 Political file. (a) Every licensee shall keep and permit public inspection of a complete and orderly record (political file) of all requests for...

  11. 47 CFR 76.1701 - Political file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Political file. 76.1701 Section 76.1701... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Documents to be Maintained for Inspection § 76.1701 Political file. (a) Every... (political file) of all requests for cablecast time made by or on behalf of a candidate for public...

  12. 47 CFR 76.1701 - Political file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Political file. 76.1701 Section 76.1701... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Documents to be Maintained for Inspection § 76.1701 Political file. (a) Every... (political file) of all requests for cablecast time made by or on behalf of a candidate for public...

  13. 47 CFR 76.1701 - Political file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Political file. 76.1701 Section 76.1701... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Documents to be Maintained for Inspection § 76.1701 Political file. (a) Every... (political file) of all requests for cablecast time made by or on behalf of a candidate for public...

  14. 47 CFR 76.1701 - Political file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Political file. 76.1701 Section 76.1701... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Documents to be Maintained for Inspection § 76.1701 Political file. (a) Every... (political file) of all requests for cablecast time made by or on behalf of a candidate for public...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1943 - Political file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Political file. 73.1943 Section 73.1943... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1943 Political file. (a) Every licensee shall keep and permit public inspection of a complete and orderly record (political file) of all requests for...

  16. Glue: Linked data visualizations across multiple files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Chris; Robitaille, Thomas; Borkin, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    Glue, written in Python, links visualizations of scientific datasets across many files, allowing for interactive, linked statistical graphics of multiple files. It supports many file formats including common image formats (jpg, tiff, png), ASCII tables, astronomical image and table formats (FITS, VOT, IPAC), and HDF5. Custom data loaders can also be easily added. Glue is highly scriptable and extendable.

  17. 76 FR 53674 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    .... Applicants: Sabine Pipe Line LLC. Description: Sabine Pipe Line LLC submits tariff filing per 154.205(b): Sabine Pipe Line LLC Amendment to 2011 ACA Filing to be effective 10/1/2011. Filed Date: 08/18/2011... Numbers: RP11-2387-002. Applicants: Sabine Pipe Line LLC. Description: Sabine Pipe Line LLC submits...

  18. 39 CFR 3060.31 - Initial filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial filing. 3060.31 Section 3060.31 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.31 Initial filing. The due date for filing the initial Statement...

  19. 76 FR 62798 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...: Midwestern Gas Transmission Company submits tariff filing per 154.204: NonConforming Agreements--BP, et al to.... Description: ANR Pipeline Company submits tariff filing per 154.601: Wisconsin Non-Conforming Agreements to be... Pipeline Company submits tariff filing per 154.204: Negotiated Non-Conforming ETQ Energy--Line 300...

  20. 78 FR 29750 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ...: NAESB Copyright Waiver 2 to be effective 6/ 13/2013. Filed Date: 5/13/13. Accession Number: 20130513... System, L.L.C. Description: NAESB Copyright Waiver 2 to be effective 6/ 13/2013. Filed Date: 5/13/13... Copyright Waiver 2 to be effective 6/ 13/2013. Filed Date: 5/13/13. Accession Number:...

  1. Creating Graphics Files for SGML Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunemann, Rhonda S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that, when creating graphics files for documents in a Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) environment, technical writers should consider the differences between bitmapped and vector file formats; be familiar with available file formats; determine which graphics format best meets the needs; and incorporate the graphic into the SGML…

  2. 47 CFR 1.1405 - File numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false File numbers. 1.1405 Section 1.1405... Procedures § 1.1405 File numbers. Each complaint which appears to be essentially complete under § 1.1404 will be accepted and assigned a file number. Such assignment is for administrative purposes only and...

  3. 18 CFR 375.105 - Filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Filings. 375.105 Section 375.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 375.105 Filings. (a) Filings...

  4. 18 CFR 375.105 - Filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filings. 375.105 Section 375.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 375.105 Filings. (a) Filings...

  5. The Extensive Reading File: Let's Be Honest!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Ayelet

    2000-01-01

    To find out whether her students really read all the books in their extensive reading files, one English-as-a-foreign-language teacher in Israel developed a questionnaire that examined how much the students read, whether the reading file should remain as it is, and whether students enjoyed preparing the reading files. Overall, the results were…

  6. 76 FR 79169 - Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Filings 1 Take notice that the Commission received the following... Section 203(a)(1). Filed Date: 12/13/11. Accession Number: 20111213-5018. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 1/3/12... 1/2/12. Take notice that the Commission received the following electric rate filings: Docket...

  7. 78 FR 71597 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket Numbers: PR14-7-000. Applicants: Lee...

  8. 33 CFR 148.246 - When is a document considered filed and where should I file it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... filed and where should I file it? 148.246 Section 148.246 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Formal Hearings § 148.246 When is a document considered filed and where should I file it? (a) If a document to be filed is submitted by mail, it is considered filed on the date it is postmarked. If...

  9. Characterization of age-associated changes in peripheral organ and brain region weights in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Lessard-Beaudoin, Mélissa; Laroche, Mélissa; Demers, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guillaume; Graham, Rona K

    2015-03-01

    In order to further understand age-related physiological changes and to have in depth reference values for C57BL/6 mice, we undertook a study to assess the effects of aging on peripheral organ weights, and brain region weights in wild type C57BL/6 male mice. Peripheral organs, body and brain region weights were collected from young (3-4 months), mid (12 months), old (23-28 months) and very old (>30 months) mice. Significant increases are observed with aging in body, liver, heart, kidney and spleen organ weights. A decrease in organ weight is observed with aging in liver and kidney only in the very old mice. In contrast, testes weight decreases with age. Within the brain, hippocampi, striata and olfactory bulbs weight decreases with age. These data further our knowledge of the anatomical and biological changes that occur with aging and provide reference values for physiological-based pharmacokinetic studies in C57BL/6 mice.

  10. Photometric Studies of Three Neglected Short-period Contact Binaries GN Bootis, BL Leonis, and V1918 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Dai, H.-F.

    2013-03-01

    We present new photometry for three short-period contact binaries, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg, observed from 2008 December to 2012 April using several small telescopes in China. Photometric models were deduced from new observations using the updated Wilson-Devinney Code. The results show that GN Boo and BL Leo are W-type contact binaries, while V1918 Cyg is an A-type one. The mass ratios and fill-out factors are q = 0.320(± 0.002) and f = 5.8(± 0.1)% for GN Boo, q = 0.476(± 0.005) and f = 21.3(± 1.1)% for BL Leo, q = 0.264(± 0.002), and f = 49.7(± 0.7)% for V1918 Cyg, respectively. From the (O - C) curves, it is discovered that the orbital periods of three binaries have varied in a complicated way, i.e., cyclic oscillation for GN Boo, long-term period decrease for BL Leo, and both for V1918 Cyg. The cyclic variations for GN Boo and V1918 Cyg may probably be attributed to the magnetic activity of the primary component or light-time effect due to the third body. Meanwhile, the secular period decreases for BL Leo and V1918 Cyg may result from mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, accompanying the mass and angular momentum loss from the central system. Finally, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg will evolve into deep contact binaries. Additionally, a statistical study of 37 contact binaries with decreasing periods is given. We obtained the relations of q - f and q - dln P/dt, and preliminarily determined the mass loss rate of dln M/dt from the binary system.

  11. Registering Researchers in Authority Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Yoshimura, Karen; Altman, Micah; Conlon, Michael; Cristán, Ana Lupe; Dawson, Laura; Dunham, Joanne; Hickey, Thom; Hook, Daniel; Horstmann, Wolfram; MacEwan, Andrew; Schreur, Philip; Smart, Laura; Wacker, Melanie; Woutersen, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Written by OCLC Research Program Officer Karen Smith-Yoshimura and the 13 members of the Registering Researchers in Authority Files Task Group comprised of specialists from the US, UK, and the Netherlands, this report summarizes their research into approaches to providing authoritative researcher identifiers. Registering researchers in some type…

  12. Open File: Professionalism in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy, Ed.; Lo, Leslie N. K., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on professionalism in teaching. It begins with an article in Viewpoints/Controversies titled "A Renewed Sense for the Purposes of Schooling: The Challenges of Education and Social Cohesion in Asia, Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Central Asia" (Stephen P. Heyneman; Sanja Todoric-Bebic). In Open File: Professionalism in…

  13. 76 FR 39757 - Filing Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Friday, excepting Saturdays, Sundays, Federal legal holidays and other days and times when the Commission... contain all necessary metadata about a filing. (8) ``Electronic receipt'' means that an electronic... to an employee of the registered user's firm, such as a paralegal, legal assistant, or...

  14. Single file diffusion in microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew; Farrell, Spencer; Brown, Aidan

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a confined tubular geometry, such as luminal diffusion of proteins inside microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no effect on particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually-tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0 , tracked particles display super-diffusive effective exponents just after they enter the system and trends towards diffusive exponents at later times. Equivalently, if diffusive exponents are assumed the effective diffusivity is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times through a logarithmic factor logN , where N is the number of particles in the tube. When we number each particle from the first (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of the effective diffusivity for all n. Techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching, will exhibit single-file effects.

  15. Open File: Education in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, Victor, Ed.; Maclean, Rupert, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This collection of scholarly essays on comparative education is divided into four sections. The first section, Viewpoints/Controversies, contains the essay "Educational Policies and Contents in Developing Countries" (Jacques Hallak). The second section, Open File: Education in Asia, contains the following essays: "Some Current Issues, Concerns and…

  16. Beyond a Terabyte File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Alan K.

    1994-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation Facility's (NAS) CRAY C916/1024 accesses a "virtual" on-line file system, which is expanding beyond a terabyte of information. This paper will present some options to fine tuning Data Migration Facility (DMF) to stretch the online disk capacity and explore the transitions to newer devices (STK 4490, ER90, RAID).

  17. When Husbands File for Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Ruth B.; Weitzman, Lenore J.

    1982-01-01

    Explores the effects of no-fault divorce laws on the motivations of husbands who file for divorce. Tested a resource model and a normative model on divorce records of couples receiving final decrees in California. Husbands' motives were more clearly revealed in their requests for divorce settlements, particularly child custody. (Author/RC)

  18. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    1994-01-19

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-90) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation. It also contains selected recommended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. This library supersedes all earlier versions of IRDF.

  19. Comparative genomic analyses of the cyanobacterium, Lyngbya aestuarii BL J, a powerful hydrogen producer

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Ankita; Vaughn, Michael; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Lyngbya aestuarii is an important contributor to marine intertidal microbial mats system worldwide. The recent isolate L. aestuarii BL J, is an unusually powerful hydrogen producer. Here we report a morphological, ultrastructural, and genomic characterization of this strain to set the basis for future systems studies and applications of this organism. The filaments contain circa 17 μm wide trichomes, composed of stacked disk-like short cells (2 μm long), encased in a prominent, laminated exopolysaccharide sheath. Cellular division occurs by transversal centripetal growth of cross-walls, where several rounds of division proceed simultaneously. Filament division occurs by cell self-immolation of one or groups of cells (necridial cells) at the breakage point. Short, sheath-less, motile filaments (hormogonia) are also formed. Morphologically and phylogenetically L. aestuarii belongs to a clade of important cyanobacteria that include members of the marine Trichodesmiun and Hydrocoleum genera, as well as terrestrial Microcoleus vaginatus strains, and alkalyphilic strains of Arthrospira. A draft genome of strain BL J was compared to those of other cyanobacteria in order to ascertain some of its ecological constraints and biotechnological potential. The genome had an average GC content of 41.1%. Of the 6.87 Mb sequenced, 6.44 Mb was present as large contigs (>10,000 bp). It contained 6515 putative protein-encoding genes, of which, 43% encode proteins of known functional role, 26% corresponded to proteins with domain or family assignments, 19.6% encode conserved hypothetical proteins, and 11.3% encode apparently unique hypothetical proteins. The strain's genome reveals its adaptations to a life of exposure to intense solar radiation and desiccation. It likely employs the storage compounds, glycogen, and cyanophycin but no polyhydroxyalkanoates, and can produce the osmolytes, trehalose, and glycine betaine. According to its

  20. High-energy proton irradiation of C57Bl6 mice under hindlimb unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonca, Marc; Todd, Paul; Orschell, Christie; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Farr, Jonathan; Klein, Susan; Sokol, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Solar proton events (SPEs) pose substantial risk for crewmembers on deep space missions. It has been shown that low gravity and ionizing radiation both produce transient anemia and immunodeficiencies. We utilized the C57Bl/6 based hindlimb suspension model to investigate the consequences of hindlimb-unloading induced immune suppression on the sensitivity to whole body irradiation with modulated 208 MeV protons. Eight-week old C57Bl/6 female mice were conditioned by hindlimb-unloading. Serial CBC and hematocrit assays by HEMAVET were accumulated for the hindlimb-unloaded mice and parallel control animals subjected to identical conditions without unloading. One week of hindlimb-unloading resulted in a persistent, statistically significant 10% reduction in RBC count and a persistent, statistically significant 35% drop in lymphocyte count. This inhibition is consistent with published observations of low Earth orbit flown mice and with crewmember blood analyses. In our experiments the cell count suppression was sustained for the entire six-week period of observation and persisted for at least 7 days beyond the period of active hindlimb-unloading. C57Bl/6 mice were also irradiated with 208 MeV Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) protons at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. We found that at 8.5 Gy hindlimb-unloaded mice were significantly more radiation sensitive with 35 lethalities out of 51 mice versus 15 out of 45 control (non-suspended) mice within 30 days of receiving 8.5 Gy of SOBP protons (p =0.001). Both control and hindlimb-unloaded stocktickerCBC analyses of 8.5 Gy proton irradiated and control mice by HEMAVET demonstrated severe reductions in WBC counts (Lymphocytes and PMNs) by day 2 post-irradiation, followed a week to ten days later by reductions in platelets, and then reductions in RBCs about 2 weeks post-irradiation. Recovery of all blood components commenced by three weeks post-irradiation. CBC analyses of 8

  1. GB6 J1058+5628: A New Quasi-periodic BL Lac Object from the Asiago Plate Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesci, R.

    2010-06-01

    We present the historic photographic light curves of three little known blazars (two BL Lac objects and one FSRQ), GB6 J1058+5628, GB6 J1148+5254, and GB6 J1209+4119, spanning a time interval of about 50 years, mostly built using the Asiago plate archive. All objects show evident long-term variability, over which short-term variations are superposed. One source, GB6 J1058+5628, showed a marked quasi-periodic variability of 1 mag on timescale of about 6.3 years, making it one of the few BL Lac objects with a quasi-periodic behavior.

  2. GB6 J1058+5628: A NEW QUASI-PERIODIC BL LAC OBJECT FROM THE ASIAGO PLATE ARCHIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Nesci, R.

    2010-06-15

    We present the historic photographic light curves of three little known blazars (two BL Lac objects and one FSRQ), GB6 J1058+5628, GB6 J1148+5254, and GB6 J1209+4119, spanning a time interval of about 50 years, mostly built using the Asiago plate archive. All objects show evident long-term variability, over which short-term variations are superposed. One source, GB6 J1058+5628, showed a marked quasi-periodic variability of 1 mag on timescale of about 6.3 years, making it one of the few BL Lac objects with a quasi-periodic behavior.

  3. Data on morphometric analysis of the pancreatic islets from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Thiago Aparecido; Lemes, Robertha Mariana; Oliveira, Carlo Jose Freire; Almeida, Aline da Silva; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo

    2016-09-01

    The endocrine portion of the pancreas, which is characterized by pancreatic islets, has been widely investigated among different species. The BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice are extensively used in experimental research, and the morphometric differences in the pancreatic islets of these animals have not been evaluated so far. Thus, our data have a comparative perspective related to the morphometric analysis of area, diameters, circularity, and density of pancreatic islets from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. The data presented here are focused to evaluate the differences in morphology of pancreatic islets of two common laboratory mouse strains.

  4. Site Characterization Data from the U3ax/bl Exploratory Boreholes at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-08-01

    This report provides qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations of hydrogeologic data obtained from two 45-degree, slanted exploratory boreholes drilled within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site. Borehole UE-3bl-D1 was drilled beneath the U3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit, and Borehole UE-3bl-U1 was drilled in undisturbed alluvium adjacent to the disposal unit. The U3ax/bl disposal unit is located within two conjoined subsidence craters, U3ax and U3bl, which were created by underground nuclear testing. Data from these boreholes were collected to support site characterization activities for the U3ax/bl disposal unit and the entire Area 3 RWMS. Site characterization at disposal units within the Area 3 RWMS must address the possibility that subsidence craters and associated disturbed alluvium of the chimneys beneath the craters might serve as pathways for contaminant migration. The two boreholes were drilled and sampled to compare hydrogeologic properties of alluvium below the waste disposal unit with those of adjacent undisturbed alluvium. Whether Borehole UE-3bl-D1 actually penetrated the chimney of the U3bl crater is uncertain. Analyses of core samples showed little difference in hydrogeologic properties between the two boreholes. Important findings of this study include the following: No hazardous or radioactive constituents of waste disposal concern were found in the samples obtained from either borehole. No significant differences in physical and hydrogeologic properties between boreholes is evident, and no evidence of significant trends with depth for any of these properties was observed. The values observed are typical of sandy materials. The alluvium is dry, with volumetric water content ranging from 5.6 to 16.2 percent. Both boreholes exhibit a slight increase in water content with depth, the only such trend observed. Water potential measurements on core samples from both boreholes show a large positive

  5. Modulation of renal superoxide dismutase by telmisartan therapy in C57BL/6-Ins2Akita diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Hiroki; Fujishima, Hiromi; Morii, Tsukasa; Sakamoto, Takuya; Komatsu, Koga; Hosoba, Mihoko; Narita, Takuma; Takahashi, Keiko; Takahashi, Takamune; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2012-01-01

    Renal superoxide excess, which is induced by an imbalance of the superoxide-producing enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase and the superoxide-scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) under hyperglycemia, increases oxidative stress and contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we treated non-obese and hypoinsulinemic C57BL/6-Ins2Akita (C57BL/6-Akita) diabetic mice with telmisartan (5 mg kg−1 per day), an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, or amlodipine (5 mg kg−1 per day), a calcium channel blocker, for 4 weeks and compared the effects of these two anti-hypertensive drugs on renal NAD(P)H oxidase, SOD and transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2), which is known to upregulate several antioxidant enzymes including SOD. Vehicle-treated C57BL/6-Akita mice exhibited higher renal NAD(P)H oxidase and lower renal SOD activity with increased levels of renal superoxide than the C57BL/6-wild-type non-diabetic mice. Interestingly, telmisartan treatment not only reduced NAD(P)H oxidase activity but also enhanced SOD activity in C57BL/6-Akita mouse kidneys, leading to a reduction of renal superoxide levels. Furthermore, telmisartan-treated C57BL/6-Akita mice increased the renal protein expression of SOD and Nrf2. In parallel with the reduction of renal superoxide levels, a reduction of urinary albumin levels and a normalization of elevated glomerular filtration rate were observed in telmisartan-treated C57BL/6-Akita mice. In contrast, treatment with amlodipine failed to modulate renal NAD(P)H oxidase, SOD and Nrf2. Finally, treatment of C57BL/6-Akita mice with apocynin, an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, also increased the renal protein expression of SOD and Nrf2. Collectively, our data suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase negatively regulates renal SOD, possibly by downregulation of Nrf2, and that telmisartan could upregulate renal SOD by the suppression of NAD(P)H oxidase and subsequent upregulation of Nrf2, leading to the amelioration of

  6. A KPC-scale X-ray jet in the BL LAC Source S5 2007+777

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, Rita; Maraschi, Laura; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The BL Lac S3 2007++777, a classical radio-selected BL Lac from the sample of Stirkel et al. exhibiting an extended (19") radio jet. was observed with Chandra revealing an X-ray jet with simi1ar morphology. The hard X-ray spectrum and broad band SED is consistent with an IC/CMB origin for the X-ray emission, implying a highly relativistic flow at small angle to the line of sight with an unusually large deprojected length, 300 kpc. A structured jet consisting of a fast spine and slow wall is consistent with the observations.

  7. A Glimpse at Different File Formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortridge, K.

    2015-09-01

    The image display program AAOGlimpse has recently been extended to provide support for files using both HDF5 and NDF/HDS formats. Loosely defined formats present problems. Given an input file, what should be displayed? A FITS file may contain multiple images, and for the more flexible hierarchical formats things are even less clear: which of the many arrays in a structure actually represents the data of interest? Where is the wavelength or other WCS data? With HDF5 files, this becomes quite complex. This paper describes the way AAOGlimpse handles these questions, and emphasises the importance of agreeing conventions for how file formats are used.

  8. File concepts for parallel I/O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1989-01-01

    The subject of input/output (I/O) was often neglected in the design of parallel computer systems, although for many problems I/O rates will limit the speedup attainable. The I/O problem is addressed by considering the role of files in parallel systems. The notion of parallel files is introduced. Parallel files provide for concurrent access by multiple processes, and utilize parallelism in the I/O system to improve performance. Parallel files can also be used conventionally by sequential programs. A set of standard parallel file organizations is proposed, organizations are suggested, using multiple storage devices. Problem areas are also identified and discussed.

  9. A Metadata-Rich File System

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, S; Gokhale, M B; Maltzahn, C

    2009-01-07

    Despite continual improvements in the performance and reliability of large scale file systems, the management of file system metadata has changed little in the past decade. The mismatch between the size and complexity of large scale data stores and their ability to organize and query their metadata has led to a de facto standard in which raw data is stored in traditional file systems, while related, application-specific metadata is stored in relational databases. This separation of data and metadata requires considerable effort to maintain consistency and can result in complex, slow, and inflexible system operation. To address these problems, we have developed the Quasar File System (QFS), a metadata-rich file system in which files, metadata, and file relationships are all first class objects. In contrast to hierarchical file systems and relational databases, QFS defines a graph data model composed of files and their relationships. QFS includes Quasar, an XPATH-extended query language for searching the file system. Results from our QFS prototype show the effectiveness of this approach. Compared to the defacto standard, the QFS prototype shows superior ingest performance and comparable query performance on user metadata-intensive operations and superior performance on normal file metadata operations.

  10. CALCEPH: Planetary ephemeris files access code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastineau, M.; Laskar, J.; Manche, H.; Fienga, A.

    2015-05-01

    CALCEPH accesses binary planetary ephemeris files, including INPOPxx, JPL DExxx ,and SPICE ephemeris files. It provides a C Application Programming Interface (API) and, optionally, a Fortran 77 or 2003 interface to be called by the application. Two groups of functions enable the access to the ephemeris files, single file access functions, provided to make transition easier from the JPL functions, such as PLEPH, to this library, and many ephemeris file at the same time. Although computers have different endianess (order in which integers are stored as bytes in computer memory), CALCEPH can handles the binary ephemeris files with any endianess by automatically swaps the bytes when it performs read operations on the ephemeris file.

  11. Deceit: A flexible distributed file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Alex; Birman, Kenneth; Marzullo, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Deceit, a distributed file system (DFS) being developed at Cornell, focuses on flexible file semantics in relation to efficiency, scalability, and reliability. Deceit servers are interchangeable and collectively provide the illusion of a single, large server machine to any clients of the Deceit service. Non-volatile replicas of each file are stored on a subset of the file servers. The user is able to set parameters on a file to achieve different levels of availability, performance, and one-copy serializability. Deceit also supports a file version control mechanism. In contrast with many recent DFS efforts, Deceit can behave like a plain Sun Network File System (NFS) server and can be used by any NFS client without modifying any client software. The current Deceit prototype uses the ISIS Distributed Programming Environment for all communication and process group management, an approach that reduces system complexity and increases system robustness.

  12. Blueberry and Mulberry Juice Prevent Obesity Development in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Tang, Qiong; Gao, Zichun; Yu, Zhuoping; Song, Haizhao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish whether blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) and mulberry (Morus australis Poir) juice, anthocyanin rich fruit juice, may help counteract obesity. Design And Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without blueberry and mulberry juice for 12 weeks. Body weight, serum and hepatic lipids, liver and adipose tissues morphology, insulin and leptin were assessed. Results Mice fed HFD exhibited increased body weight, insulin resistance, serum and hepatic lipids. In comparison, blueberry and mulberry juice inhibited body weight gain, decreased the serum cholesterol, reduced the resistance to insulin, attenuated lipid accumulation and decreased the leptin secretin. Conclusion These results indicate that blueberry and mulberry juice may help counteract obesity. PMID:24143244

  13. New Soft X-ray Beamline (BL10) at the SAGA Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, D.; Setoyama, H.; Okajima, T.

    2010-06-23

    A new soft X-ray beamline (BL10) at the SAGA Light Source (SAGA-LS) was constructed at the end of 2008. Commissioning of this new beamline started at the beginning of 2009. Synchrotron radiation from a variably polarizing undulator (APPLE-II) can be used in this beamline. The obtained light is monochromatized by a varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator with the variable included angle mechanism. Its designed resolving power and photon flux are 3,000-10,000 and 10{sup 12}-10{sup 9} photons/s at 300 mA, respectively. The performance test results were generally satisfactory. An overview of the optical design of the beamline and the current status of commissioning are reported.

  14. Soft x-ray beamline BL7A at the UVSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, T. ); Matsukawa, T. ); Naoe, S. ); Horigome, T.; Matsudo, O.; Watanabe, M. )

    1992-01-01

    A vacuum-compatible double-crystal monochromator with constant exit-beam height has been installed and operated for several years at beamline BL7A at the UVSOR facility at the Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan, The beamline is used both for the photons from a normal bending-magnet section and those from a 4 T superconducting three-pole horizontal wiggler. Various pairs of monochromator crystals are being used with sufficient intensity and signal to noise ratio of the output signal. Basic structure of the beamline, the mechanism of the monochromator, and some typical spectra of materials with absorption edges between 850 eV and 4 keV are reported.

  15. L/M sub-shell measurements on INDUS-2 beam line BL16

    SciTech Connect

    Singla, Raj Mittal

    2015-06-24

    Beamline BL-16 on INDUS-2 at RRCAT, Indore has been employed for M sub shell measurements on Pt, Au, Hg, Pb, Th and U at 8 and 10 keV photon energies to determine M sub-shell X-ray emission cross-sections and for L sub-shell measurements on Dy, Ho, Er, Lu, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Hg, Pb and Bi with selective creation of electron vacancies in individual sub-shells to derive L Coster-Kronig (CK) yield values. The cross sections have been measured for the first time. The determined L sub-shell CK yields were used to explore some details of CK transitions.

  16. A Study of Magnetic Accretion in VV Pup and BL Hyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula

    We will use a long (250ks) observation with the EUVE spectrometer of the magnetic cataclysmic variable system VV Pup to confirm the presence of OVI edges tentatively identified in a short observation obtained during Episode 1. The presence of oxygen enrichment by a factor of 10 over solar has implications for magnetic accretion scenarios. A second 40ks observation of the higher temperature white dwarf in the magnetic binary BL Hyi, which has a similar accretion geometry to VV Pup, will allow the study of the temperature parameter on magnetic accretion, as well as a contrasting study to the existing data on a similar temperature white dwarf in a disk/boundary layer geometry (VW Hyi). These results will have applications fro the long term evolution of close binary stars and the physics of the entire accretion process onto compact objects.

  17. L/M sub-shell measurements on INDUS-2 beam line BL16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, Raj Mittal

    2015-06-01

    Beamline BL-16 on INDUS-2 at RRCAT, Indore has been employed for M sub shell measurements on Pt, Au, Hg, Pb, Th and U at 8 and 10 keV photon energies to determine M sub-shell X-ray emission cross-sections and for L sub-shell measurements on Dy, Ho, Er, Lu, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Hg, Pb and Bi with selective creation of electron vacancies in individual sub-shells to derive L Coster-Kronig (CK) yield values. The cross sections have been measured for the first time. The determined L sub-shell CK yields were used to explore some details of CK transitions.

  18. An improved Flp deleter mouse in C57Bl/6 based on Flpo recombinase.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Andrea; Fu, Jun; Duerschke, Kristin; Weidlich, Stefanie; Naumann, Ronald; Stewart, A Francis; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos

    2010-08-01

    Recently, a codon improved version of the Flpe site specific recombinase, termed Flpo, was reported as having greatly improved performance in mammalian cell applications. However, the degree of improvement could not be estimated because essentially no Flpe activity was observed. Here, we compare Flpe and Flpo accurately in a mammalian cell assay to estimate that Flpo is about five times more active than Flpe and similar to Cre and Dre. Consequently, we generated a Flpo deleter mouse line from the JM8 C57Bl/6 ES cells used in the EUCOMM and KOMP systematic knock-out programs. In breeding experiments, we show that the Flpo deleter delivers complete recombination using alleles that are incompletely recombined by a commonly used Flpe deleter. This indicates that the Flpo deleter is more efficient. PMID:20506501

  19. X-ray collimation by the parabolic cylinder mirror in SPring-8/BL29XUL.

    PubMed

    Takei, Dai; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    A combination of plane and threefold-shape X-ray mirrors was installed in SPring-8 BL29XUL. The second mirror has parabolic cylinder surfaces that collimate X-rays in the vertical direction. A performance test was conducted, yielding highly collimated 8 keV photon beams with an effective angular divergence of 0.4 µrad, below only 5% of that of the original beams. The double-mirror system preserved 70% of the total incident flux and nearly tripled the flux density at 988 m from the light source. The values of the observations were almost similar to those of our ray-tracing simulation. Based on the results a discussion of future prospects of the mirror system is included.

  20. Ultrahigh resolution soft x-ray emission spectrometer at BL07LSU in SPring-8.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Masaki; Niwa, Hideharu; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Tokushima, Takashi; Horikawa, Yuka; Shin, Shik; Oshima, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    An extremely high resolution flat field type slit less soft x-ray emission spectrometer has been designed and constructed for the long undulator beamline BL07LSU in SPring-8. By optimizing the ruling parameters of two cylindrical gratings, a high energy resolution ΔE < 100 meV and/or an E∕ΔE ~ 10 000 are expected for the energy range of 350 eV - 750 eV taking into account the broadening by the spatial resolution (25 μm) of a CCD detector. A coma-free operation mode proposed by Strocov et al., is also applied to eliminate both defocus and coma aberrations. The spectrometer demonstrated experimentally that E/ΔE = 10 050 and 8046 for N 1s (402.1 eV) and Mn 2p (641.8 eV) edges, respectively.