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Sample records for filippov type plasma

  1. Current Sheath Dynamics and its Evolution Studies in Sahand Filippov Type Plasma Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, M. A.; Sobhanian, S.; Ghomeishi, M.; Ghareshabani, E.; Moslehi-fard, M.; Lee, S.; Rawat, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    One of the most important factors for optimizing the plasma focus device operation is the dynamics of the plasma. In this paper, we investigated the profile and dynamics of the current sheath by measuring the velocity and distribution of current sheath in Sahand as a Filippov type plasma focus device. For this purpose, the discharge is produced in pure neon gas with capacitor bank stored energies in the range of 14-50 kJ. The current sheath is monitored using two sets of magnetic probes, one with four and other with three equi-distant probe coils. These probes, installed in both radial and axial directions near the edge of the interior electrode (anode), are used for monitoring the distributions and dynamics of the current sheath. The maximum current sheath velocities at radial and axial phase are 4 ± 0.13 and 3.51 ± 0.22 (cm/μs) respectively for 0.25 Torr. The decreasing of CS velocities in going move away from anode surface is one of the our results in this paper. In this paper we conclude that the current sheath velocity at radial phase in Sahand is greater than axial phase. The effect of the neon working gas pressure and working voltage on the current sheath dynamics and its spatial evolution is investigated and presented.

  2. Measurement of the Energy of Nitrogen Ions Produced in Filippov Type Plasma Focus Used for the Nitriding of Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghareshabani, E.; Mohammadi, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper the nitrogen ion properties (maximum energy, current density and the most probable energy) are investigated by using Faraday cup in a time of flight method. These ions are produced in a Filippov type plasma focus (Sahand Facility) device and the Faraday cup was placed in a distance range of 18-24 cm from the top of the anode. Maximum and minimum most probable ion energies are 76 and 8.5 keV for the distance range of 18 and 24 cm, respectively. The displacement from 18 to 24 cm at top of the anode the ion current density varies from 4.5 × 106 to 3.2 × 105 (A m-2). For the investigation of the effect of ions bombardment of materials at different positions, at the optimum working conditions of 14 kV as a working voltage, and 0.25 Torr as a gas pressure, titanium samples are placed in a distance of 21, 22, 23 and 24 cm from the top of the anode (θ = 0) and each sample is put under irradiation for 30 plasma shots. The structure of the nitrided surfaces and their morphologies are characterized by X-ray diffractometry and by scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The average crystallite size deduced for (200) and (222) planes of TiN deposited with 30 shots in different distances are estimate to be from ~13 to ~38 nm.

  3. Angular distribution of energetic argon ions emitted by a 90 kJ Filippov-type plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Pestehe, S. J.; Mohammadnejad, M.

    2015-02-15

    Characteristics of the energetic argon ions emitted by a 90 kJ Filippov-type plasma focus are studied by employing an array of Faraday cups. The Faraday cups are designed to minimize the secondary electron emission effects on their response. Angular distribution of the ions is measured, and the results indicate a highly anisotropic emission with a dip at the device axis and a local maximum at the angle of 7° with respect to the axis. It has been argued that this kind of anisotropic emission may be related to the surfatron acceleration mechanism and shown that this behavior is independent of the working gas pressure. It has been also demonstrated that this mechanism is responsible for the generation of MeV ions. Measuring the total ion number at different working gas pressures gives an optimum pressure of 0.3 Torr. In addition, the energy spectrum of ions is measured by taking into account of the ambient gas effects on the energy and charge of the ions. The current neutralization effect of electrons trapped in the ion beam as well as the effect of conducting boundaries surrounding the beam, on the detected signals are investigated.

  4. Energy spectrum of argon ions emitted from Filippov type Sahand plasma focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadnejad, M.; Pestehe, S. J.; Mohammadi, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    The energy and flux of the argon ions produced in Sahand plasma focus have been measured by employing a well-designed Faraday cup. The secondary electron emission effects on the ion signals are simulated and the dimensions of Faraday cup are optimized to minimize these effects. The measured ion energy spectrum is corrected for the ion energy loss and charge exchange in the background gas. The effects of the capacitor bank voltage and working gas pressure on the ion energy spectrum are also investigated. It has been shown that the emitted ion number per energy increases as the capacitor bank voltage increases. Decreasing the working gas pressure leads to the increase in the number of emitted ion per energy.

  5. Neutron production with mixture of deuterium and krypton in Sahand Filippov type plasma focus facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, M. A.; Sobhanian, S.; Rawat, R. S.

    2011-08-01

    This Letter reports the order of magnitude enhancement in neutron yield from Sahand plasma focus device with krypton seeded deuterium operation. The highest average neutron yield of 2.2×10 neutrons per shot was achieved at 1.00 Torr deuterium with 3% krypton which is higher than the best average neutron yield of 3.18×10 neutrons per shot for pure deuterium operation. Estimation of average neutron energy showed that the maximum and minimum average energies are 2.98±0.6 MeV at 16 kV in 0.25 Torr deuterium with 3% Kr and 2.07±0.2 MeV at 18 kV operation in 0.5 Torr deuterium with 3% Kr, respectively. The anisotropy of neutron emission from Sahand DPF showed that the neutrons are produced mainly by beam-target mechanisms.

  6. Energy spectrum of argon ions emitted from Filippov type Sahand plasma focus.

    PubMed

    Mohammadnejad, M; Pestehe, S J; Mohammadi, M A

    2013-07-01

    The energy and flux of the argon ions produced in Sahand plasma focus have been measured by employing a well-designed Faraday cup. The secondary electron emission effects on the ion signals are simulated and the dimensions of Faraday cup are optimized to minimize these effects. The measured ion energy spectrum is corrected for the ion energy loss and charge exchange in the background gas. The effects of the capacitor bank voltage and working gas pressure on the ion energy spectrum are also investigated. It has been shown that the emitted ion number per energy increases as the capacitor bank voltage increases. Decreasing the working gas pressure leads to the increase in the number of emitted ion per energy.

  7. Energy spectrum of argon ions emitted from Filippov type Sahand plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadnejad, M.; Pestehe, S. J.; Mohammadi, M. A.

    2013-07-15

    The energy and flux of the argon ions produced in Sahand plasma focus have been measured by employing a well-designed Faraday cup. The secondary electron emission effects on the ion signals are simulated and the dimensions of Faraday cup are optimized to minimize these effects. The measured ion energy spectrum is corrected for the ion energy loss and charge exchange in the background gas. The effects of the capacitor bank voltage and working gas pressure on the ion energy spectrum are also investigated. It has been shown that the emitted ion number per energy increases as the capacitor bank voltage increases. Decreasing the working gas pressure leads to the increase in the number of emitted ion per energy.

  8. Increasing of Hardness of Titanium Using Energetic Nitrogen Ions from Sahand as a Filippov Type Plasma Focus Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valipour, M.; Mohammadi, M. A.; Sobhanian, S.; Rawat, R. S.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper a 90 kJ plasma focus facility was used to the bombardment of the titanium substrate using nitrogen ion beams. From x-ray diffraction patterns, we investigated the structure properties of titanium nitride layer has been successfully deposited on the titanium substrate such as grain size microstrain and dislocation density. In this work we observed the growth of in grain size with increasing a number of deposition shots. Decrease in dislocation density and microstrain at higher deposition is the another results we observed in this work. The topography and morphology of TiN samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy images. From SEM micrograph, damage of surface and creation of pits and cracks was reported. The goniometric test indicate increasing in contact angle of water drop for irradiated samples in respect to the unirradiated samples. The Knoop microhardness of the samples is increased about 500%. With increasing of nitrogen ion flux, the microhardness increases.

  9. Neutron Measurements In Sahand Plasma Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhanian, S.; Mohammad, M. A.; Golalikhani, M.; Moslehi-Fard, M.; Khorram, S.

    2010-07-01

    Experimental studies of neutron emission from a Filippov type plasma focus machine is reported here for different pressures and voltages in deuterium gas. The calibration method is discussed and time integrated and time resoled neutron signals and also the angular distribution anisotropy are studied in order to clarify the most probable mechanism for neutron production. The results showing the enhancement of neutron yield in the case of some krypton admixture is also presented.

  10. Classification of boundary equilibrium bifurcations in planar Filippov systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendinning, Paul

    2016-01-01

    If a family of piecewise smooth systems depending on a real parameter is defined on two different regions of the plane separated by a switching surface, then a boundary equilibrium bifurcation occurs if a stationary point of one of the systems intersects the switching surface at a critical value of the parameter. We derive the leading order terms of a normal form for boundary equilibrium bifurcations of planar systems. This makes it straightforward to derive a complete classification of the bifurcations that can occur. We are thus able to confirm classic results of Filippov [Differential Equations with Discontinuous Right Hand Sides (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1988)] using different and more transparent methods, and explain why the `missing' cases of Hogan et al. [Piecewise Smooth Dynamical Systems: The Case of the Missing Boundary Equilibrium Bifurcations (University of Bristol, 2015)] are the only cases omitted in more recent work.

  11. Study of the interrelation between the electrotechnical parameters of the plasma focus discharge circuit and the plasma compression dynamics on the PF-3 and PF-1000 facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Krauz, V. I. E-mail: vkrauz@yandex.ru; Grabovski, E. V.; Myalton, V. V.; Vinogradov, V. P.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M.; Karpiński, L.

    2015-05-15

    The main stages of the plasma current sheath (PCS) dynamics on two plasma focus (PF) facilities with different geometries of the electrode system, PF-3 (Filippov type) and PF-1000 (Mather type), were studied by analyzing the results of the current and voltage measurements. Some dynamic characteristics, such as the PCS velocity in the acceleration phase in the Mather-type facility (PF-1000), the moment at which the PCS reaches the anode end, and the plasma velocity in the radial stage of plasma compression in the PF-3 Filippov-type facility, were determined from the time dependence of the inductance of the discharge circuit with a dynamic plasma load. The energy characteristics of the discharge circuit of the compressing PCS were studied for different working gases (deuterium, argon, and neon) at initial pressures of 1.5–3 Torr in discharges with energies of 0.3–0.6 MJ. In experiments with deuterium, correlation between the neutron yield and the electromagnetic energy deposited directly in the compressed PCS was investigated.

  12. Flow morphing by coaxial type plasma actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoizumi, S.; Aono, H.; Ishikawa, H.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of study is to achieve the fluid drag reduction of a circular disk by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuator (DBD-PA). We here introduced “Flow Morphing” concept that flow around the body was changed by DBD-PA jet, such as the body shape morphing. Coaxial type DBD-PA injected axisymmetric jet, generating the vortex region on the pressure side of the circular disk. The vortex generated by axisymmetric plasma jet and flow around circular disk were visualized by tracer particles method. The fluid drag was measured by compression type load cell. In addition streamwise velocity was measured by an X-type hot wire probe. The extent of fluid drag reduction by coaxial type DBD-PA jet was influenced by the volume of vortex region and the diameter of plasma electrode.

  13. Plasma malondialdehyde in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Gallou, G; Ruelland, A; Legras, B; Maugendre, D; Allannic, H; Cloarec, L

    1993-02-28

    Malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in 117 diabetic patients and 53 controls. Patients were divided into groups and subgroups according to the type of diabetes (type 1 and type 2) and the existence or not of vascular complication (macro- or micro-angiopathy). Results showed that TBARS concentrations were significantly higher in type 1 (P < 0.0001) and type 2 (P < 0.001) diabetic patients than in the control group. The plasma TBARS concentrations in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients did not differ significantly. Among the patients with vascular disease, type 2 diabetic patients with macroangiopathy had significantly higher TBARS concentrations than patients with no vascular complication (P < 0.05). Whichever the type of diabetes, there was no correlation between TBARS concentrations and glycaemic control: glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood glucose. This study confirmed the existence of lipid peroxidation disorders in diabetic patients.

  14. Aerodynamic and Electromagnetic Properties of Plasmas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    function theorem on topological spaces . To appear in Applicable Mathematics. 50. Shui-Hung Hou, On property (Q) and other semicontinuity properties... topological spaces . The author proves here Filippov type implicit function theorems for Carathgodory mappings in general topological spaces . The author...separation in topological spaces . Connection between separation properties of spaces and measurability of graphs of multifunctions are established. - 11

  15. Study of soft X-ray emission during wire array implosion under plasma focus conditions at the PF-3 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dan’ko, S. A.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Krauz, V. I.; Myalton, V. V.; Zhuzhunashvili, A. I.; Vinogradov, V. P.; Kharrasov, A. M.; Anan’ev, S. S.; Vinogradova, Yu. V.; Kalinin, Yu. G.

    2015-11-15

    Results of measurements of soft X-ray emission with photon energies of <1 keV under conditions of a plasma focus (PF) experiment are presented. The experiments were carried out at the world’s largest PF device—the PF-3 Filippov-type facility (I ⩽ 3 MA, T/4 ≈ 15–20 µs, W{sub 0} ⩽ 3 MJ). X-ray emission from both a discharge in pure neon and with a tungsten wire array placed on the axis of the discharge chamber was detected. The wire array imploded under the action of the electric current intercepted from the plasma current sheath of the PF discharge in neon. The measured soft X-ray powers from a conventional PF discharge in gas and a PF discharge in the presence of a wire array were compared for the first time.

  16. The Filippov characteristic flow for the aggregation equation with mildly singular potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, J. A.; James, F.; Lagoutière, F.; Vauchelet, N.

    2016-01-01

    Existence and uniqueness of global in time measure solution for the multidimensional aggregation equation is analyzed. Such a system can be written as a continuity equation with a velocity field computed through a self-consistent interaction potential. In Carrillo et al. (2011) [17], a well-posedness theory based on the geometric approach of gradient flows in measure metric spaces has been developed for mildly singular potentials at the origin under the basic assumption of being λ-convex. We propose here an alternative method using classical tools from PDEs. We show the existence of a characteristic flow based on Filippov's theory of discontinuous dynamical systems such that the weak measure solution is the pushforward measure with this flow. Uniqueness is obtained thanks to a contraction argument in transport distances using the λ-convexity of the potential. Moreover, we show the equivalence of this solution with the gradient flow solution. Finally, we show the convergence of a numerical scheme for general measure solutions in this framework allowing for the simulation of solutions for initial smooth densities after their first blow-up time in Lp-norms.

  17. The effect of helium impurity addition on current sheath speed in argon-operated plasma focus using a tridimensional magnetic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, N.; Mohammadi, M. A.; Hedyeh, S.; Rawat, R. S.; Rawat

    2013-10-01

    Using the tridimensional magnetic probe, the current sheath velocity at 0.25 Torr is studied in Sahand, a Filippov-type plasma focus facility. The current sheath velocity in argon-filled plasma focus with different percentages of helium impurity at different operating voltages was studied. The highest average current sheath velocity of 12.26 +/- 1.51 cm μs-1 at the top of the anode in the axial phase was achieved at 17 kV. Minimum average current sheath velocity is 5.24 +/- 1.18 cm μs-1 at 12 kV with 80% argon + 20% helium as a working gas. The full width at half-maximum of peaks of the magnetic probe was found to be inversely related to the current sheath velocity, i.e. smaller at higher voltages for different impurity and decreased with increasing of impurity.

  18. [The different types of therapeutic plasma are equivalent?].

    PubMed

    Garraud, O; Chavarin, P; Boussoulade, F; Morata, P; Rochette-Eribon, S; Acquart, S; Fabrigli, P; Argaud, C; Bost, V; Cognasse, F

    2014-03-01

    In France, three varieties of therapeutic plasma are being processed, distributed and delivered, currently; however, many more varieties are in use worldwide, which go by the property of labile blood component or plasma derived medicines. For one type of component (one given name), several devices and bags and so on are used to concur to its process, which makes that one type of therapeutic plasma may significantly differ from one production setting to one other. This may affect (more or less) the component properties as well as the possibly reported adverse events. This review aims thus, firstly at stressing on the difficulty in comparing data obtained in different contexts, and secondly at making the point on future directions to process therapeutic plasma.

  19. Plasma bicarbonate and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Ernest I.; Curhan, Gary C.; Hu, Frank B.; Taylor, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several biomarkers of metabolic acidosis, including lower plasma bicarbonate and higher anion gap, have been associated with greater insulin resistance in cross-sectional studies. We sought to examine whether lower plasma bicarbonate is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a prospective study. Methods: We conducted a prospective, nested case–control study within the Nurses’ Health Study. Plasma bicarbonate was measured in 630 women who did not have type 2 diabetes mellitus at the time of blood draw in 1989–1990 but developed type 2 diabetes mellitus during 10 years of follow-up. Controls were matched according to age, ethnic background, fasting status and date of blood draw. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for diabetes by category of baseline plasma bicarbonate. Results: After adjustment for matching factors, body mass index, plasma creatinine level and history of hypertension, women with plasma bicarbonate above the median level had lower odds of diabetes (OR 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60–0.96) compared with women below the median level. Those in the second (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.67–1.25), third (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51–0.97) and fourth (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.54–1.05) quartiles of plasma bicarbonate had lower odds of diabetes compared with those in the lowest quartile (p for trend = 0.04). Further adjustment for C-reactive protein did not alter these findings. Interpretation: Higher plasma bicarbonate levels were associated with lower odds of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus among women in the Nurses’ Health Study. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding in different populations and to elucidate the mechanism for this relation. PMID:22825995

  20. Transition to Chaos by Type I Intermittency in Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitriu, D. G.; Chiriac, S. A.

    2008-03-19

    We report on experimental results that emphasize the development of a scenario of transition to chaos in plasma by type I intermittency, in connection with the nonlinear dynamics of a complex space charge structure. The transition to chaos evolves by increasing the potential applied on the excitation electrode. Regular oscillations interrupted by random bursts were observed in the time series of the current collected by the electrode. At high values of the potential applied on the electrode, the random bursts appear more frequently, the final state of the plasma system dynamics being a chaotic one.

  1. Plasma focus: Present status and potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brzosko, J.S.; Nardi, V.; Powell, C.

    1997-12-01

    Initially, dense plasma focus (DPF) machines were constructed independently by Filippov in Moscow and Mather in Los Alamos at the end of the 1950s. Since then, more than 30 laboratories have carried vigorous DPF programs, oriented mainly toward the studies of physics of ion acceleration and trapping in the plasma focus environment. Applications of the DPF as intense neutron and X-ray sources have been recognized since its discovery but not implemented for various reasons. Recently, some groups (including AES) addressed the issue of DPF applications, and some of them are briefly discussed in this paper.

  2. Plasma process optimization for N-type doping applications

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, Deven; Persing, Harold; Salimian, Siamak; Lacey, Kerry; Qin Shu; Hu, Jeff Y.; McTeer, Allen

    2012-11-06

    Plasma doping (PLAD) has been adopted across the implant technology space and into high volume production for both conventional DRAM and NAND doping applications. PLAD has established itself as an alternative to traditional ion implantation by beamline implantation. The push for high doping concentration, shallow doping depth, and conformal doping capability expand the need for a PLAD solution to meet such requirements. The unique doping profile and doping characteristics at high dose rates allow for PLAD to deliver a high throughput, differentiated solution to meet the demand of evolving transistor technology. In the PLAD process, ions are accelerated to the wafer as with a negative wafer bias applied to the wafer. Competing mechanisms, such as deposition, sputtering, and etching inherent in plasma doping require unique control and process optimization. In this work, we look at the distinctive process tool control and characterization features which enable an optimized doping process using n-type (PH{sub 3} or AsH{sub 3}) chemistries. The data in this paper will draw the relationship between process optimization through plasma chemistry study to the wafer level result.

  3. An avian-only Filippov model incorporating culling of both susceptible and infected birds in combating avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Chong, Nyuk Sian; Dionne, Benoit; Smith, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Depopulation of birds has always been an effective method not only to control the transmission of avian influenza in bird populations but also to eliminate influenza viruses. We introduce a Filippov avian-only model with culling of susceptible and/or infected birds. For each susceptible threshold level [Formula: see text], we derive the phase portrait for the dynamical system as we vary the infected threshold level [Formula: see text], focusing on the existence of endemic states; the endemic states are represented by real equilibria, pseudoequilibria and pseudo-attractors. We show generically that all solutions of this model will approach one of the endemic states. Our results suggest that the spread of avian influenza in bird populations is tolerable if the trajectories converge to the equilibrium point that lies in the region below the threshold level [Formula: see text] or if they converge to one of the pseudoequilibria or a pseudo-attractor on the surface of discontinuity. However, we have to cull birds whenever the solution of this model converges to an equilibrium point that lies in the region above the threshold level [Formula: see text] in order to control the outbreak. Hence a good threshold policy is required to combat bird flu successfully and to prevent overkilling birds.

  4. Type IIalpha phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase associates with the plasma membrane via interaction with type I isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Hinchliffe, Katherine A; Giudici, Maria Luisa; Letcher, Andrew J; Irvine, Robin F

    2002-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPkins) are a family of enzymes involved in regulating levels of several functionally important inositol phospholipids within cells. The PIPkin family is subdivided into three on the basis of substrate specificity, each subtype presumably regulating levels of different subsets of the inositol lipids. The physiological function of the type II isoforms, which exhibit a preference for phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate, a lipid about which very little is known, is particularly poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate interaction between, and co-immunoprecipitation of, type IIalpha PIPkin with the related, but biochemically and immunologically distinct, type I PIPkin isoforms. Type IIalpha PIPkin interacts with all three known type I PIPkins (alpha, beta and gamma), and in each case co-expression of the type I isoform with type IIalpha results in recruitment of the latter from the cytosol to the plasma membrane of the cell. This change in subcellular localization could result in improved access of the type IIalpha PIPkin to its lipid substrates. PMID:11964157

  5. Dynamic Faraday cup signal analysis and the measurement of energetic ions emitted by plasma focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestehe, S. J.; Mohammadnejad, M.; Irani Mobaraki, S.

    2014-03-01

    A theoretical model is developed to study the signals from a typical dynamic Faraday cup, and using this model the output signals from this structure are obtained. A detailed discussion on the signal structure, using different experimental conditions, is also given. It is argued that there is a possibility of determining the total charge of the generated ion pulse, the maximum velocity of the ions, ion velocity distribution, and the number of ion species for mixed working gases, under certain conditions. In addition, the number of different ionization stages, the number of different pinches in one shot, and the number of different existing acceleration mechanisms can also be determined provided that the mentioned conditions being satisfied. An experiment is carried out on the Filippov type 90 kJ Sahand plasma focus using Ar as the working gas at the pressure of 0.25 Torr. The data from a typical shot are fitted to a signal from the model and the total charge of the related energetic ion pulse is deduced using the values of the obtained fit parameters. Good agreement between the obtained amount of the total charge and the values obtained during other experiments on the same plasma focus device is observed.

  6. Dynamic Faraday cup signal analysis and the measurement of energetic ions emitted by plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Pestehe, S. J. Mohammadnejad, M.; Irani Mobaraki, S.

    2014-03-15

    A theoretical model is developed to study the signals from a typical dynamic Faraday cup, and using this model the output signals from this structure are obtained. A detailed discussion on the signal structure, using different experimental conditions, is also given. It is argued that there is a possibility of determining the total charge of the generated ion pulse, the maximum velocity of the ions, ion velocity distribution, and the number of ion species for mixed working gases, under certain conditions. In addition, the number of different ionization stages, the number of different pinches in one shot, and the number of different existing acceleration mechanisms can also be determined provided that the mentioned conditions being satisfied. An experiment is carried out on the Filippov type 90 kJ Sahand plasma focus using Ar as the working gas at the pressure of 0.25 Torr. The data from a typical shot are fitted to a signal from the model and the total charge of the related energetic ion pulse is deduced using the values of the obtained fit parameters. Good agreement between the obtained amount of the total charge and the values obtained during other experiments on the same plasma focus device is observed.

  7. Damage-free polymer surface modification employing inward-type plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanou, Ryo; Suga, Hiroshi; Utsumi, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Shirayama, Yuya; Watanabe, Norimichi; Petit, Stèphane; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2017-08-01

    Inward-type plasmas, which spread upstream against the gas flow in the capillary tube where the gas is discharged, can react with samples placed near the entrance of such a capillary tube. In this study, surface modification of polymer surfaces is conducted using inward plasma. The modification is also done by conventional microplasma jet, and the modified surfaces with two plasma techniques are characterized by contact angle measurement, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Although inward-plasma-treated surfaces are less hydrophilic than conventional plasma-treated ones, they are still sufficiently hydrophilic for surface coatings. In addition, it turns out that the polymer surfaces irradiated with the inward plasma yield much smoother surfaces than those treated with the conventional plasma jet. Thus, the inward plasma treatment is a viable technique when the surface flatness is crucial, such as for the surface coating of plastic lenses.

  8. A New Type of Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Driven By Magnetowaves

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pisin; Chang, Feng-Yin; Lin, Guey-Lin; Noble, Robert J.; Sydora, Richard; /Alberta U.

    2011-09-12

    We present a new concept for a plasma wakefield accelerator driven by magnetowaves (MPWA). This concept was originally proposed as a viable mechanism for the 'cosmic accelerator' that would accelerate cosmic particles to ultra-high energies in the astrophysical setting. Unlike the more familiar plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) and the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) where the drivers, the charged-particle beam and the laser, are independently existing entities, MPWA invokes the high-frequency and high-speed whistler mode as the driver, which is a medium wave that cannot exist outside of the plasma. Aside from the difference in drivers, the underlying mechanism that excites the plasma wakefield via the ponderomotive potential is common. Our computer simulations show that under appropriate conditions, the plasma wakefield maintains very high coherence and can sustain high-gradient acceleration over many plasma wavelengths. We suggest that in addition to its celestial application, the MPWA concept can also be of terrestrial utility. A proof-of-principle experiment on MPWA would benefit both terrestrial and celestial accelerator concepts.

  9. Analysis of waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.J.; Kou, C.S.

    2005-10-01

    In this study, the dispersion relation has been derived to characterize the propagation of the waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure. The plasma is confined by a quartz plate. Results indicate that there are two different waves in this structure. One is the plasma mode that originates from the plasma surface wave propagating along the interface between the plasma and the quartz plate, and the other is the guide mode that originally travels along the vane-type slow wave structure. In contrast to its original slow wave characteristics, the guide mode becomes a fast wave in the low-frequency portion of the passband, and there exists a cut-off frequency for the guide mode. The vane-type guiding structure has been shown to limit the upper frequency of the passband of the plasma mode, compared with that of the plasma surface wave. In addition, the passband of the plasma mode increases with the plasma density while it becomes narrower for the guide mode. The influences of the parameters of the guiding structure and plasma density on the propagation of waves are also presented.

  10. Dynamics of apokamp-type atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnin, Eduard A.; Panarin, Victor A.; Skakun, Victor S.; Baksht, Evgeny Kh.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2017-02-01

    The paper describes a new discharge source of atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) in air with no gas supply through the discharge region. In this discharge mode, plasma jets develop from the bending point of a bright current channel between two electrodes and are therefore termed an apokamp (from Greek `off' and `bend'). The apokamp can represent single plasma jets of length up 6 cm or several jets, and the temperature of such jets can range from more than 1000 °C at their base to 100-250 °C at their tip. Apokamps are formed at maximum applied voltage of positive polarity, provided that the second electrode is capacitively decoupled with ground. According to high-speed photography with time resolution from several nanoseconds to several tens of nanoseconds, the apokamp consists of a set of plasma bullets moving with a velocity of 100-220 km/s, which excludes the convective mechanism of plasma decay. Estimates on a 100-ns scale show that the near-electrode zones and the zones from which apokamps develop are close in temperature.

  11. Critical Technology Demonstration of Plasma Focus Type MPD Thrusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Plasma thruster, plasma focus, rPP, D - 3He fusion 80 a ~ :7 7- f~ C: 1; ~3::: r,:’,32Z UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED SAR .. . " - "i/ii...of the majority of these facilities is to increase the measured neutron yield Yn, which is an indicator of the fusion reactions occurring. If Yn is...charged fusion products generated by fusion reactions during the pinc 2phase.3 However, the low nr product of gaseous DPF (10 sec/cm ) rules out any

  12. Electron plasma oscillations associated with type III radio emissions and solar electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Frank, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of an extensive search for electron plasma oscillations associated with type III radio noise bursts are presented which were obtained by analyzing 87 type III bursts detected in plasma-wave and charged-particle measurements carried out by IMP 6, 7, and 8. Only one case is found for which plasma oscillations were associated with electrons of solar origin; at least eight events are identified in which no plasma oscillations were detected even though electrons from solar flares were clearly evident. The type III emissions are compared with similar radiation coming from upstream of earth's bow shock at the harmonic of the local electron plasma frequency, and quantitative calculations of the rate of conversion from plasma oscillatory energy to electromagnetic radiation are performed. The results show that electron plasma oscillations are seldom observed in association with solar electron events and type III radio bursts at 1.0 AU and that neither the type III emissions nor the radiation from upstream of the bow shock can be adequately explained by a current model for the coupling of electron plasma oscillations to electromagnetic radiation. Several possible explanations are considered for this discrepancy between theory and observations.

  13. Efficiency of a hybrid-type plasma-assisted fuel reformation system

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Serbin, S.I.; Lux, S.M.

    2008-12-15

    The major advantages of a new plasma-assisted fuel reformation system are its cost effectiveness and technical efficiency. Applied Plasma Technologies has proposed its new highly efficient hybrid-type plasma-assisted system for organic fuel combustion and gasification. The system operates as a multimode multipurpose reactor in a wide range of plasma feedstock gases and turndown ratios. This system also has convenient and simultaneous feeding of several reagents in the reaction zone such as liquid fuels, coal, steam, and air. A special methodology has been developed for such a system in terms of heat balance evaluation and optimization. This methodology considers all existing and possible energy streams, which could influence the system's efficiency. The developed hybrid-type plasma system could be suitable for combustion applications, mobile and autonomous small- to mid-size liquid fuel and coal gasification modules, hydrogen-rich gas generators, waste-processing facilities, and plasma chemical reactors.

  14. Elevated plasma levels of chemerin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengliu; Yang, Gangyi; Dong, Jing; Liu, Ying; Zong, Haihong; Liu, Hua; Boden, Guenther; Li, Ling

    2010-10-01

    Chemerin is a recently discovered metabolic regulator hormone. The pathophysiologic role of this hormone in humans remains unknown. In this study, we have compared plasma chemerin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without hypertension and in control subjects. We also assessed the association of plasma chemerin with body composition and metabolic parameters in these subjects. Plasma chemerin levels were found to be markedly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension as compared with patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal controls (P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, 2-hour plasma insulin after glucose overload, and HbA1c were independently related factors influencing plasma chemerin levels. The present work indicates the potential link of chemerin with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

  15. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Brandi, M.L.; Aurbach, G.D.; Fitzpatrick, L.A.; Quarto, R.; Spiegel, A.M.; Bliziotes, M.M.; Norton, J.A.; Doppman, J.L.; Marx, S.J.

    1986-05-15

    Hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands is a central feature of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. We used cultured bovine parathyroid cells to test for mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with this disorder. Normal plasma stimulated (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation, on the average, to the same extent as it was stimulated in a plasma-free control culture. This contrasted with the results of the tests with plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in which parathyroid mitogenic activity increased 2400 percent over the control value (P less than 0.001). Plasma from these patients also stimulated the proliferation of bovine parathyroid cells in culture, whereas plasma from normal subjects inhibited it. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from the patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was greater than that in plasma from patients with various other disorders, including sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (with adenoma, hyperplasia, or cancer of the parathyroid), sporadic primary hypergastrinemia, sporadic pituitary tumor, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (P less than 0.05). Parathyroid mitogenic activity in the plasma of patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 persisted for up to four years after total parathyroidectomy. The plasma also had far more mitogenic activity in cultures of parathyroid cells than did optimal concentrations of known growth factors or of any parathyroid secretagogue. This mitogenic activity had an apparent molecular weight of 50,000 to 55,000. We conclude that primary hyperparathyroidism in familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may have a humoral cause.

  16. Electron plasma oscillations associated with type 3 radio emissions and solar electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Frank, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive study of the IMP-6 and IMP-8 plasma and radio wave data was performed to try to find electron plasma oscillations associated with type III radio noise bursts and low-energy solar electrons. It is shown that electron plasma oscillations are seldom observed in association with solar electron events and type III radio bursts at 1.0 AU. For the one case in which electron plasma oscillations are definitely produced by the electrons ejected by the solar flare the electric field strength is relatively small. Electromagnetic radiation, believed to be similar to the type III radio emission, is observed coming from the region of the more intense electron plasma oscillations upstream. Quantitative calculations of the rate of conversion of the plasma oscillation energy to electromagnetic radiation are presented for plasma oscillations excited by both solar electrons and electrons from the bow shock. These calculations show that neither the type III radio emissions nor the radiation from upstream of the bow shock can be adequately explained by a current theory for the coupling of electron plasma oscillations to electromagnetic radiation.

  17. Reduced plasma total homocysteine concentrations in Type 1 diabetes mellitus is determined by increased renal clearance.

    PubMed

    Veldman, B A J; Vervoort, G; Blom, H; Smits, P

    2005-03-01

    Elevated plasma levels of total homocysteine are related to the development of vascular complications. Patients with diabetes mellitus are particularly at risk for the development of these complications. Several factors determine plasma total homocysteine including renal function. As early Type 1 diabetes is characterized by a relative glomerular hyperfiltration, increased renal clearance could contribute to decreased levels of homocysteine as observed in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Therefore we investigated the relationship between plasma total homocysteine and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In 92 Type 1 diabetes patients and 44 control subjects, we measured GFR and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) by means of continuous infusion of inulin and p-aminohippurate. Fasting plasma total homocysteine was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. GFR (121 +/- 21 resp. 104 +/- 14 ml/min; P < 0.001) and ERPF (563 +/- 127 resp. 516 +/- 121 ml/min; P = 0.05) were significantly higher in Type 1 diabetes patients as compared with control subjects. Plasma total homocysteine was reduced in Type 1 diabetes patients as compared with control subjects (11.0 +/- 4.5 resp. 13.4 +/- 7 micromol/l; P = 0.01). Plasma total homocysteine was strongly correlated with GFR (Type 1 diabetes patients: r = -0.43, P < 0.001; control subjects: r = -0.39, P = 0.01). GFR is a major determinant of plasma total homocysteine levels in Type 1 diabetes patients as well as control subjects. The reduced plasma total homocysteine levels in diabetes patients can be explained by an increased GFR.

  18. Effect of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine on plasma glucose, plasma insulin and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Muhammad Mazhar; Khan, Muhammad Alamgir; Ahmad, Tausif

    2013-03-01

    To compare the effects of combined and individual supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine on plasma glucose, plasma insulin and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats. The randomised controlled trial was conducted at the Department of Physiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, between October 2010 and April 2011. It comprised 80 healthy Sprague Dawley rats who were divided into four groups (n = 20 each). Rats were fed high-fat diet for 2 weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus. group I served as diabetic control; group II was given cholecalciferol; group III; levo carnitine; and group IV was administered cholecalciferol and levo carnitine together. After 6 days of supplementation, terminal intracardiac blood extraction was done and samples were analysed for fasting plasma glucose and plasma insulin. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in the combined supplementation group compared to the diabetic control and individual supplementation groups. Combined supplementation showed a significant increase in fasting plasma insulin levels when compared with diabetic control and levo carnitine groups (p < 0.001), and the effect of combined supplementation on ameliorating insulin resistance was significantly better (p < 0.001) as compared to the individual supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine. The combined supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine for 6 days markedly improved the glycaemic control, insulin secretion and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats on high-fat diet A prolonged supplementation by both the compounds along with caloric restriction may yield a more promising outcome.

  19. Multicusp type machine for electron cyclotron resonance plasma with reduced dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, H.; Maeda, M.

    1996-03-01

    Plasmas are created in a cusp type magnetic trap using electron cyclotron resonance heating. The magnetic field is generated with permanent magnets forming a 12-pole, whereby the polarity at the ends of the rods has been reversed in order to obtain end plugs and to improve the plasma confinement. In this way, the plasma volume could be reduced such that the cross section was close to or smaller than the cutoff width of a circular waveguide. This increases the microwave power absorbed and gives a high plasma density even above the cutoff value.

  20. Clinical Implication of Plasma Hydrogen Sulfide Levels in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kunihiro; Sagara, Masaaki; Aoki, Chie; Tanaka, Seiichi; Aso, Yoshimasa

    2017-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to investigate the plasma hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, as the plasma H2S levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes remain unclear. Methods The plasma H2S levels were measured in 154 outpatients with type 2 diabetes and 66 outpatients without diabetes. All blood samples were collected in the outpatient department from 09:00 to 10:00. The patients had fasted from 21:00 the previous evening and had not consumed alcohol or caffeine or smoked until sample collection. The plasma H2S levels were measured using the methylene blue assay. The plasma H2S levels were determined in triplicate, and the average concentrations were calculated against a calibration curve of sodium sulfide. Results The patients with type 2 diabetes showed a progressive reduction in the plasma H2S levels (45.1±15.5 μM versus 54.0±26.4 μM, p<0.05), which paralleled poor glycemic control. There was a significant correlation between a reduction in the plasma H2S levels and the HbA1c levels (β=-0.505, p<0.01), Furthermore, a reduction in the plasma H2S levels was found to be related to a history of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes (39.9±13.8 μM versus 47.5±15.9 μM, p<0.01). Conclusion Collectively, the plasma H2S levels were reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, which may have implications in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN no. #000020549). PMID:28049995

  1. Investigation on Plasma Jet Flow Phenomena During DC Air Arc Motion in Bridge-Type Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Guofu; Bo, Kai; Chen, Mo; Zhou, Xue; Qiao, Xinlei

    2016-05-01

    Arc plasma jet flow in the air was investigated under a bridge-type contacts in a DC 270 V resistive circuit. We characterized the arc plasma jet flow appearance at different currents by using high-speed photography, and two polished contacts were used to search for the relationship between roughness and plasma jet flow. Then, to make the nature of arc plasma jet flow phenomena clear, a simplified model based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory was established and calculated. The simulated DC arc plasma was presented with the temperature distribution and the current density distribution. Furthermore, the calculated arc flow velocity field showed that the circular vortex was an embodiment of the arc plasma jet flow progress. The combined action of volume force and contact surface was the main reason of the arc jet flow. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51307030, 51277038)

  2. Inverse association of plasma vanadium levels with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Taoping; Liu, Jun; Shan, Zhilei; Jin, Yilin; Chen, Sijing; Bao, Wei; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2014-08-15

    Vanadium compounds have been proposed to have beneficial effects on the pathogenesis and complications of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the association between plasma vanadium levels and type 2 diabetes. We performed a case-control study involving 1,598 Chinese subjects with or without newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (December 2004-December 2007). Cases and controls were frequency-matched by age and sex. Plasma vanadium concentrations were measured and compared between groups. Analyses showed that plasma vanadium concentrations were significantly lower in cases with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes than in controls (P = 0.001). Mean plasma vanadium levels in participants with and without diabetes were 1.0 μg/L and 1.2 μg/L, respectively. Participants in the highest quartile of plasma vanadium concentration had a notably lower risk of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 0.26, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.35; P < 0.001), compared with persons in the lowest quartile. The trend remained significant after adjustment for known risk factors and in further stratification analyses. Our results suggested that plasma vanadium concentrations were inversely associated with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in this Chinese population.

  3. Study of Current Sheath Velocity and Its Distribution Using Tridimensional Magnetic Probe in Sahand Plasma Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Mohammadi, M.; Hedyeh, S.

    2015-05-01

    The current sheath velocity in 0.25 Torr gas pressure of Filippov type plasma focus is studied experimentally. By using two tridimensional magnetic probes on top of the anode surface, the current sheath velocity is measured for argon, oxygen and nitrogen. Additionally, the effect of charging voltage on the current sheath velocity is studied in both axial and radial phases. We found that, the maximum current sheath velocities at both radial and axial phases are respectively 4.33 ± 0.28 (cm/μs) and 3.92 ± 0.75 (cm/μs) with argon as the working gas at 17 kV. Also, the minimum values of current sheath velocity are 1.48 ± 0.15 (cm/μs) at the radial phase and 1.14 ± 0.09 (cm/μs) at the axial phase with oxygen at 12 kV. The current sheath velocity at the radial phase is higher than that at the axial phase for all gases and voltages. In this study, variation of the full width half maximum (FWHM) of magnetic probe signals with voltage is investigated for different gases at radial and axial phases.

  4. Evaluation of random plasma glucose for assessment of glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ain, Qurratul; Latif, Atif; Jaffar, Syed Raza; Ijaz, Aamir

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of random plasma glucose in outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for assessing glycaemic control. This comparative, cross-sectional study was conducted at the chemical pathology department of PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, from August 2015 to March 2016, and comprised data of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who reported for evaluation of glycaemic control in non-fasting state. All blood samples were analysed for random plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin. Random plasma glucose was compared as an index test with glycated haemoglobin considering it as reference standard at a value of less than 7% for good glycaemic control. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 222 subjects, 93(42%) had good glycaemic control. Random plasma glucose showed strong positive correlation with glycated haemoglobin (p=0.000).Area under curve for random plasma glucose as determined by plotting receiver operating characteristic curve against glycated haemoglobin value of 7% was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.849-0.930). Random plasma glucose at cut-off value of 150 mg/dl was most efficient for ruling out poor glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with 90.7% sensitivity and69.9% specificity and Youden's index of 0.606. Random plasma glucose may be used to reflect glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in areas where glycated haemoglobin is not feasible.

  5. Gallium ion extraction from a plasma sputter-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, M. Jr.; Imakita, S.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.; Maeno, S.

    2010-02-15

    A broad mixed ion beam containing positive ions of gallium (Ga) was produced with a plasma sputter-type ion source. Liquid Ga was suspended on a tungsten reservoir to be sputtered and postionized in argon (Ar) plasma excited by a radio frequency (rf) power at 13.56 MHz. Optical emission spectra from the plasma near the Ga sputtering target had indicated that the release of Ga into plasma increased with increasing negative bias to the sputtering target. The ratio of Ga{sup +} current to Ar{sup +} current was measured to be about 1% with a quadrupole mass analyzer at 100 V extraction voltage for incident rf power as low as 30 W. Ions in the plasma were extracted through a pair of multiaperture electrodes. The homogeneity of Ga flux was examined by making a Ga deposition pattern on a glass substrate located behind the extractor electrodes.

  6. Pulsed floating-type Langmuir probe for measurements of electron energy distribution function in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ikjin; Kim, Aram; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2017-01-01

    A floating type Langmuir probe was studied to measure the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in plasmas. This method measures the current (I)-voltage (V) curve with rising and falling variations based on a floating potential by using charge-discharge characteristics of the series capacitor when a square-pulse voltage is applied. In addition, this method measures the EEDF by using the alternating current (ac) superposition method. The measured EEDFs were in good agreement with results from a conventional single Langmuir probe. This technique could be applied as a plasma diagnostic method in the capacitively coupled plasma where the plasma potential is extremely high or the processing plasma where the deposition gas is used.

  7. Plasma exchange in the treatment of thyroid storm secondary to type II amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Zainudin, Sueziani Binte; Kaushik, Manish; Khor, Li Yan; Chng, Chiaw Ling

    2016-01-01

    Type II amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) is an uncommon cause of thyroid storm. Due to the rarity of the condition, little is known about the role of plasma exchange in the treatment of severe AIT. A 56-year-old male presented with thyroid storm 2months following cessation of amiodarone. Despite conventional treatment, his condition deteriorated. He underwent two cycles of plasma exchange, which successfully controlled the severe hyperthyroidism. The thyroid hormone levels continued to fall up to 10h following plasma exchange. He subsequently underwent emergency total thyroidectomy and the histology of thyroid gland confirmed type II AIT. Management of thyroid storm secondary to type II AIT can be challenging as patients may not respond to conventional treatments, and thyroid storm may be more harmful in AIT patients owing to the underlying cardiac disease. If used appropriately, plasma exchange can effectively reduce circulating hormones, to allow stabilisation of patients in preparation for emergency thyroidectomy. Type II AIT is an uncommon cause of thyroid storm and may not respond well to conventional thyroid storm treatment.Prompt diagnosis and therapy are important, as patients may deteriorate rapidly.Plasma exchange can be used as an effective bridging therapy to emergency thyroidectomy.This case shows that in type II AIT, each cycle of plasma exchange can potentially lower free triiodothyronine levels for 10h.Important factors to consider when planning plasma exchange as a treatment for thyroid storm include timing of each session, type of exchange fluid to be used and timing of surgery.

  8. Plasma exchange in the treatment of thyroid storm secondary to type II amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Zainudin, Sueziani Binte; Kaushik, Manish; Khor, Li Yan; Chng, Chiaw Ling

    2016-01-01

    Summary Type II amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) is an uncommon cause of thyroid storm. Due to the rarity of the condition, little is known about the role of plasma exchange in the treatment of severe AIT. A 56-year-old male presented with thyroid storm 2months following cessation of amiodarone. Despite conventional treatment, his condition deteriorated. He underwent two cycles of plasma exchange, which successfully controlled the severe hyperthyroidism. The thyroid hormone levels continued to fall up to 10h following plasma exchange. He subsequently underwent emergency total thyroidectomy and the histology of thyroid gland confirmed type II AIT. Management of thyroid storm secondary to type II AIT can be challenging as patients may not respond to conventional treatments, and thyroid storm may be more harmful in AIT patients owing to the underlying cardiac disease. If used appropriately, plasma exchange can effectively reduce circulating hormones, to allow stabilisation of patients in preparation for emergency thyroidectomy. Learning points Type II AIT is an uncommon cause of thyroid storm and may not respond well to conventional thyroid storm treatment. Prompt diagnosis and therapy are important, as patients may deteriorate rapidly. Plasma exchange can be used as an effective bridging therapy to emergency thyroidectomy. This case shows that in type II AIT, each cycle of plasma exchange can potentially lower free triiodothyronine levels for 10h. Important factors to consider when planning plasma exchange as a treatment for thyroid storm include timing of each session, type of exchange fluid to be used and timing of surgery. PMID:27398220

  9. Increased blood plasma hydrolysis of acetylsalicylic acid in type 2 diabetic patients: a role of plasma esterases.

    PubMed

    Gresner, Peter; Dolník, Martin; Waczulíková, Iveta; Bryszewska, Maria; Sikurová, Libusa; Watala, Cezary

    2006-02-01

    Hydrolysis of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin), an antiplatelet drug commonly used in the prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction, seems to play a crucial role in its pharmacological action. Thirty-eight healthy volunteers and 38 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled to test the hypothesis that the enhanced plasma degradation and lowered bioavailability of ASA in diabetic patients is associated with the attenuation of platelet response. Aspirin esterase activities were tested at pH 7.4 and 5.5. A significantly higher overall aspirin esterase activity was noted at pH 7.4 in the diabetic patients (P<0.003), corresponding to faster ASA hydrolysis (P<0.006). This increased activity was attributable to butyrylcholinesterase and probably to albumin, because it was effectively inhibited by eserine and 4-bis-nitrophenyl phosphate (P<0.01). No significant differences between control and diabetic subjects were found at pH 5.5 in either enzymatic activities or ASA hydrolysis rates. The enhanced plasma ASA degradation in diabetic subjects was significantly associated with the refractoriness of blood platelets to ASA (P<0.05) and modulated by plasma cholesterol (P<0.01). No direct effects of plasma pH or albumin were observed. In conclusion, higher aspirin esterase activity contributes to the lowered response of diabetic platelets to ASA-mediated antiplatelet therapy.

  10. Increased CXCR3 Expression of Infiltrating Plasma Cells in Hunner Type Interstitial Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshiyuki; Morikawa, Teppei; Maeda, Daichi; Shintani, Yukako; Niimi, Aya; Nomiya, Akira; Nakayama, Atsuhito; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Fukayama, Masashi; Homma, Yukio

    2016-06-24

    An up-regulated CXCR3 pathway and affluent plasma cell infiltration are characteristic features of Hunner type interstitial cystitis (HIC). We further examined these two features using bladder biopsy samples taken from 27 patients with HIC and 15 patients with non-IC cystitis as a control. The number of CD3-positive T lymphocytes, CD20-positive B lymphocytes, CD138-positive plasma cells, and CXCR3-positive cells was quantified by digital image analysis. Double-immunofluorescence for CXCR3 and CD138 was used to detect CXCR3 expression in plasma cells. Correlations between CXCR3 positivity and lymphocytic and plasma cell numbers and clinical parameters were explored. The density of CXCR3-positive cells showed no significant differences between HIC and non-IC cystitis specimens. However, distribution of CXCR3-positivity in plasma cells indicated co-localization of CXCR3 with CD138 in HIC specimens, but not in non-IC cystitis specimens. The number of CXCR3-positive cells correlated with plasma cells in HIC specimens alone. Infiltration of CXCR3-positive cells was unrelated to clinical parameters of patients with HIC. These results suggest that infiltration of CXCR3-positive plasma cells is a characteristic feature of HIC. The CXCR3 pathway and specific immune responses may be involved in accumulation/retention of plasma cells and pathophysiology of the HIC bladder.

  11. Development of a New-type of Plasma Jet by using a Modified Pseudospark Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masayuki; Kamada, Takaharu; Mizutani, Akihide; Murakami, Yukimasa; Nagasawa, Atsushi; Minoru, Itagaki

    1999-11-01

    A new type of plasma jet by using a modified pseudospark discharge(PSD) is proposed. The PSD is a low-pressure gas discharge with a pair of parallel disk electrode. In this discharge, the single plane cathode is replaced by a cathode with a circular hole on the axis. The cathode electrode has a cylindrical cavity behind the circular hole. PSD is characterized as follows: (i) Discharge is formed through the electrode holes. (ii) Breakdown voltage is a function of plasma pressure. (Paschen'law-like relation) (iii) In the hollow cathode discharge, the current is lager than that for the parallel plane gap (hollow cathode effect). (iv) High current glow discharge is formed. For our plasma jet experiment, geometry of electrode is modified. The force of plasma acceleration is Lorentz force (j\\x81 B), similar to MPD arc jet. The difference between MPD arc jet and our plasma jet is the mode of discharge. The discharge of our plasma jet is not an arc mode but a high current glow mode, as a result, the impurity production into the plasma is low and lifetime of electrodes is long. As the high current discharge and its pinch effect, high temperature and low impurity plasma is formed and spouted from the anode hole.

  12. Plasma kininogen and kininogen fragments are biomarkers of progressive renal decline in type-1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Michael L.; Niewczas, Monika; Ficociello, Linda H.; Lukenbill, Janice; Wilkey, Daniel W.; Li, Ming; Khundmiri, Syed J.; Warram, James H.; Krolewski, Andrzej S.; Klein, Jon B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of microalbuminuria to predict early progressive renal function decline in type-1 diabetic patients has been questioned. To resolve this, we determined the plasma proteome differences between microalbuminuric patients with type-1 diabetes and stable renal function (controls) and patients at risk for early progressive renal function decline (cases) and asked whether these differences have value as surrogate biomarkers. Mass spectrometry was used to analyze small (less than 3 kDa) plasma peptides isolated from well-matched case and control plasma obtained at the beginning of an 8-12 year follow-up period. Spearman analysis of plasma peptide abundance and the rate of renal function decline during follow-up identified seven masses with a significant negative correlation with early progressive renal function decline. Tandem mass spectrometry identified three fragments of high molecular weight kininogen. Increased plasma high molecular weight kininogen in the cases was confirmed by immunoblot. One peptide, des-Arg9-BK(1-8), induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation when added apically to two proximal tubular cell lines grown on permeable inserts. Thus, we have identified plasma protein fragments, some of which have biological activity with moderate to strong correlation, with early progressive renal function decline in microalbuminuric patients with type-1 diabetes. Other peptides are candidates for validation as candidate biomarkers of diabetes-associated renal dysfunction. PMID:23466993

  13. A new type of plasma knife and its effect on biological issues--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Justan, I; Tichý, F; Slavícek, P

    2010-01-01

    Currently, several types of plasma discharge devices have become established for performing surgical procedures or superficial sterilization. Our goal is to introduce a brand new type of plasma discharge device with different characteristics, which we have used for two experiments involving thermal damage to biological tissues. A plasma discharge device with the following characteristics was used for all incisions in plasma group: radio frequency barrier discharger at atmospheric pressure with a working frequency of 13.56 MHz. The working gas was Argon. We used a Cesar 136 generator with typical power 100-150W and with a working gas flow rate between 0.5 and 3 litres per minute. The inner diameter of the end of the nozzle was 0.4mm. A standard Martin electrotome was used for all comparative incisions in the electrotome group. We used two experimental fresh rat cadavers, employing their skin, tails, lungs, livers, kidneys and spleens to make a comparative study between incisions made with a plasma discharge knife and those made with a standard electrotome device. All samples underwent histological verification. Our experiment showed slight differences in the impact on incision edges made by the plasma knife and the electrotome. The most interesting effect is on the skin: the plasma knife does not damage hair bulbs, and it results in less thermal damage. The plasma discharge knife is a promising device for cutting various biological tissues. Its effect can be compared with a standard electrotome, while in some tissues it causes less harm then an electrotome. Moreover, we can adjust its therapeutic effect. However, we do not consider the plasma knife a better choice at present, because maneuvering it is unwieldy.

  14. Comparing transfusion reaction rates for various plasma types: a systematic review and meta-analysis/regression.

    PubMed

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van Hout, Fabienne M A; Schipperus, Martin R; le Cessie, Saskia; Middelburg, Rutger A; Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2017-09-01

    We estimated rates for common plasma-associated transfusion reactions and compared reported rates for various plasma types. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed articles that reported plasma transfusion reaction rates. Random-effects pooled rates were calculated and compared between plasma types. Meta-regression was used to compare various plasma types with regard to their reported plasma transfusion reaction rates. Forty-eight studies reported transfusion reaction rates for fresh-frozen plasma (FFP; mixed-sex and male-only), amotosalen INTERCEPT FFP, methylene blue-treated FFP, and solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma. Random-effects pooled average rates for FFP were: allergic reactions, 92/10(5) units transfused (95% confidence interval [CI], 46-184/10(5) units transfused); febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs), 12/10(5) units transfused (95% CI, 7-22/10(5) units transfused); transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), 6/10(5) units transfused (95% CI, 1-30/10(5) units transfused); transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), 1.8/10(5) units transfused (95% CI, 1.2-2.7/10(5) units transfused); and anaphylactic reactions, 0.8/10(5) units transfused (95% CI, 0-45.7/10(5) units transfused). Risk differences between plasma types were not significant for allergic reactions, TACO, or anaphylactic reactions. Methylene blue-treated FFP led to fewer FNHTRs than FFP (risk difference = -15.3 FNHTRs/10(5) units transfused; 95% CI, -24.7 to -7.1 reactions/10(5) units transfused); and male-only FFP led to fewer cases of TRALI than mixed-sex FFP (risk difference = -0.74 TRALI/10(5) units transfused; 95% CI, -2.42 to -0.42 injuries/10(5) units transfused). Meta-regression demonstrates that the rate of FNHTRs is lower for methylene blue-treated compared with FFP, and the rate of TRALI is lower for male-only than for mixed-sex FFP; whereas no significant differences are observed between plasma types for allergic

  15. Fasting reduces plasma proprotein convertase, subtilisin/kexin type 9 and cholesterol biosynthesis in humans

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Jeffrey D.; Horton, Jay D.

    2010-01-01

    Proprotein convertase, subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a key regulator of plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) and cardiovascular risk, is produced in liver and secreted into plasma where it binds hepatic LDL receptors (LDLR), leading to their degradation. PCSK9 is transcriptionally activated by sterol response element-binding protein (SREBP)-2, a transcription factor that also activates all genes for cholesterol synthesis as well as the LDLR. Here we investigated the relationship between plasma PCSK9 levels and the lathosterol-to-cholesterol ratio, a marker of cholesterol biosynthesis, in 18 healthy subjects during a 48 h fast. In all individuals, plasma PCSK9 levels declined steadily during the fasting period, reaching a nadir at 36 h that was ∼58% lower than levels measured in the fed state (P < 0.001). Similarly, the lathosterol-to-cholesterol ratio declined in parallel with plasma PCSK9 concentrations during the fast, reaching a nadir at 36 h that was ∼28% lower than that measured in the fed state (P = 0.024). In summary, fasting has a marked effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations, which is mirrored by measures of cholesterol synthesis in humans. Inasmuch as cholesterol synthesis and PCSK9 are both regulated by SREBP-2, these results suggest that plasma PCSK9 levels may serve as a surrogate marker of hepatic SREBP-2 activity in humans. PMID:20716520

  16. On the Characteristics of Coaxial-Type Microwave Excited Linear Plasma: a Simple Numerical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Longwei; Meng, Yuedong; Zuo, Xiao; Ren, Zhaoxing; Wu, Kenan; Wang, Shuai

    2015-05-01

    To unveil the characteristics and available propagation mechanism of coaxial-type microwave excited line-shape plasma, the effects of parameters including microwave power, working pressure, dielectric constant, and external magnetic field on the plasma distribution were numerically investigated by solving a coupled system of Maxwell's equations and continuity equations. Numerical results indicate that high microwave power, relatively high working pressure, low dielectric constant, and shaped magnetic field profiles will help produce a high-density and uniform plasma source. Exciting both ends by microwave contributed to the high-density and uniform plasma source as well. Possible mechanisms were analyzed by using the polarization model of low temperature plasma. The generation and propagation processes of the line-shape plasma mainly depend on the interaction of three aspects, i.e. the transmitted part, penetration part and absorptive part of the electromagnetic field. The numerical results were qualitatively consistent with available experimental results from literature. More elaborate descriptions of the three aspects and corresponding interactions among them need to be investigated further to improve the properties of the line-shape plasma. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11205201 and 61205139), and the Scientific Foundation of Ministry of Education of China (No. N130405008)

  17. A Compact Disk Type Plasma Propulsion System with Modulated Magnetic Field for Nanoscale Space Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Ueda, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Yukihiro; Inomoto, Michiaki

    2008-12-31

    A compact 5 mm disk type plasma thruster simply composed of only a set of antenna windings and bias field coil which produces significant thrust of 0.74 mN with rotating magnetic field has been proposed and successfully developed for future applications to low altitude nanosatellites. The key technology issue is that the rotating speed is set above the ion plasma frequency but far below the electron plasma frequency, in order to produce the electron drag current and axial electric field as a consequence of the interaction with the bias field. The formation of axial electric field was confirmed and the produced plasma density was >6x10{sup 18} m{sup -3}, whereas the power consumption is 500 W in the inductively coupled mode of operation. The anticipated thrust density and specific thrust could potentially be extended to 7.64 Nm{sup -2} and 850 s, respectively, which is comparable to conventional Hall effect thrusters.

  18. Plasma kinetics in ethanol/water/air mixture in a 'tornado'-type electrical discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levko, D.; Shchedrin, A.; Chernyak, V.; Olszewski, S.; Nedybaliuk, O.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental study of plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol into molecular hydrogen in a modified 'tornado'-type electrical discharge. Numerical modelling clarifies the nature of non-thermal conversion and explains the kinetic mechanism of non-equilibrium plasma chemical transformations in the gas-liquid system and the evolution of hydrogen during the reforming as a function of discharge parameters and ethanol-to-water ratio in the mixture. We also propose a scheme of chemical reactions for plasma kinetics description. It is shown that some characteristics of the investigated reactor are at least not inferior to the characteristics of other plasma chemical reactors.

  19. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; p<0.001). It was found that in individuals who consumed 1 unit of foods containing high dietary glycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  20. Dechuck Operation of Coulomb Type and Johnsen-Rahbek Type of Electrostatic Chuck Used in Plasma Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Gyu Il; Sugai, Hideo

    Comparative study on Coulomb type and Johnsen-Rahbek type of electrostatic chuck used for holding a silicon wafer in plasma processing is presented. The remarkable differences between the two types are found in dechuck operation where a high voltage applied to the chuck electrode is turned off to release the wafer from the chuck stage. In case of the Coulomb type, an instantaneous large short-circuit current flows exponentially decreasing with a short time constant (τ = 0.14 ms). In case of the J-R type, a non-exponentially decaying small current is sustained for much longer time (˜1000 ms), thus giving rise to the considerable delay of wafer dechuck. The mechanism of such decay is explained by a microscopic bi-layer model where the interfacial layer is divided into three distinct regions having their own capacitance and surface resistance.

  1. Aerobic and resistance training do not influence plasma carnosinase content or activity in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stegen, Sanne; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P; Khandwala, Farah; Yard, Benito; De Heer, Emile; Baelde, Hans; Peersman, Wim; Derave, Wim

    2015-10-01

    A particular allele of the carnosinase gene (CNDP1) is associated with reduced plasma carnosinase activity and reduced risk for nephropathy in diabetic patients. On the one hand, animal and human data suggest that hyperglycemia increases plasma carnosinase activity. On the other hand, we recently reported lower carnosinase activity levels in elite athletes involved in high-intensity exercise compared with untrained controls. Therefore, this study investigates whether exercise training and the consequent reduction in hyperglycemia can suppress carnosinase activity and content in adults with type 2 diabetes. Plasma samples were taken from 243 males and females with type 2 diabetes (mean age = 54.3 yr, SD = 7.1) without major microvascular complications before and after a 6-mo exercise training program [4 groups: sedentary control (n = 61), aerobic exercise (n = 59), resistance exercise (n = 63), and combined exercise training (n = 60)]. Plasma carnosinase content and activity, hemoglobin (Hb) A1c, lipid profile, and blood pressure were measured. A 6-mo exercise training intervention, irrespective of training modality, did not decrease plasma carnosinase content or activity in type 2 diabetic patients. Plasma carnosinase content and activity showed a high interindividual but very low intraindividual variability over the 6-mo period. Age and sex, but not Hb A1c, were significantly related to the activity or content of this enzyme. It can be concluded that the beneficial effects of exercise training on the incidence of diabetic complications are probably not related to a lowering effect on plasma carnosinase content or activity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Negative interference by rheumatoid factor of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wen; Xu, Lei; Xie, Liangcai; Yang, Decai; Liu, Xuezheng; Zhang, Jiajun; Li, Yirong; Yi, Cunjian

    2014-01-01

    The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) is widely used for the quantitative determination of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in human ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is usually thought to result in a positive interference in immunoassays, but it is not clear whether its presence in plasma can lead to interferences in the CMIA of BNP. The estimation of BNP recovery was carried out by diluting high-concentration BNP samples with RF-positive or RF-negative plasma at a ratio of 1:9. The diluted samples were then tested using the ARCHITECT i2000 System and ARCHITECT BNP Reagent Kits and the recovery was then calculated. When the RF level ranged from 48 to 1420 IU/mL, the average recovery of BNP was 79.29% and 91.61% in the RF-positive and RF-negative plasma samples, respectively, and was thus significantly lower in the group of RF-positive plasma samples than in the group of RF-negative plasma samples. At a dilution of 1:16, the measured BNP level increased by >36% in six of the seven RF-positive plasma samples. The recovery of BNP increased significantly in the RF-positive plasma samples after pretreatment with IgG-sensitive latex particles. In addition, The BNP recovery was not significantly related to the plasma RF at concentrations ranging from 48 to 2720 IU/mL. Measurement of BNP by CMIA is susceptible to interference from RF leading to predominantly (but not exclusively) lower results. Pretreatment of samples with blocking reagents is advisable prior to the initiation of denying patient's necessary treatment.

  3. Negative Interference by Rheumatoid Factor of Plasma B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liangcai; Yang, Decai; Liu, Xuezheng; Zhang, Jiajun; Li, Yirong; Yi, Cunjian

    2014-01-01

    Background The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) is widely used for the quantitative determination of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in human ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is usually thought to result in a positive interference in immunoassays, but it is not clear whether its presence in plasma can lead to interferences in the CMIA of BNP. Methods The estimation of BNP recovery was carried out by diluting high-concentration BNP samples with RF-positive or RF-negative plasma at a ratio of 1∶9. The diluted samples were then tested using the ARCHITECT i2000 System and ARCHITECT BNP Reagent Kits and the recovery was then calculated. Results When the RF level ranged from 48 to 1420 IU/mL, the average recovery of BNP was 79.29% and 91.61% in the RF-positive and RF-negative plasma samples, respectively, and was thus significantly lower in the group of RF-positive plasma samples than in the group of RF-negative plasma samples. At a dilution of 1∶16, the measured BNP level increased by >36% in six of the seven RF-positive plasma samples. The recovery of BNP increased significantly in the RF-positive plasma samples after pretreatment with IgG-sensitive latex particles. In addition, The BNP recovery was not significantly related to the plasma RF at concentrations ranging from 48 to 2720 IU/mL. Conclusions Measurement of BNP by CMIA is susceptible to interference from RF leading to predominantly (but not exclusively) lower results. Pretreatment of samples with blocking reagents is advisable prior to the initiation of denying patient's necessary treatment. PMID:25144685

  4. Experimental measurement of plasma parameters and electron energy distribution in ferrite-core side type Ar/He inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Duksun; Bang, Jin-Young; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2012-10-01

    Spatial distributions of a plasma density and an effective electron temperature (Teff) were studied from the measurement of an electron energy probability function (EEPF) in the side type ferrite-core inductively coupled plasma with an argon-helium mixture. As the helium gas was diluted at the fixed total gas pressure of 5 mTorr in an argon discharge, the distribution of the plasma density was changed from a concave to a flat, and finally became a convex, while all spatial profiles of Teff were the hollow shapes with the helium dilution. This evolution of the plasma uniformity with the helium gas could be explained by the increased energy relaxation length and the changed plasma potential, indicating the transition of the electron kinetics from the local to non-local kinetics. From this result, it is expected that the addition of helium gas could be applied as a method to control the plasma uniformity in a large area plasma processing.

  5. Type 2 diabetes associated changes in the plasma non-esterified fatty acids, oxylipins and endocannabinoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has profound effects on metabolism that can be detected in plasma. While increases in circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are well described in T2D, effects on circulating signaling lipids have received little attention. Oxylipins and endocannabinoids are classes of ...

  6. Electromagnetic field distributions in waveguide-based axial-type microwave plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowska, H.; Jasiński, M.; Mizeraczyk, J.

    2009-08-01

    We present results from simulations of 2D distributions of the electromagnetic field inside a waveguide-based axial-type microwave plasma source (MPS) used for hydrogen production via methane reforming. The studies are aimed at optimization of discharge processes and hydrogen production. We derive equations for determining electromagnetic field distributions and next determine the electromagnetic field distributions for two cases - without and with plasma inside the MPS. For the first case, we examine the influence of the length of the inner conductor of the coaxial line on electromagnetic field distributions. We have obtained standing wave patterns along the coaxial line and found resonances for certain positions of the coaxial line inner conductor. For the case with plasma inside the MPS, we perform calculations assuming that distributions of plasma parameters are known. Simulations are done for several values of maximum electron density. We have found that for values of electron density greater than 3× 10^{18} m^{-3} strong skin effect in the plasma is observed. Consequently, plasma may be treated as an extension of the inner conductor of the coaxial line. We have used FlexPDE software for the calculations.

  7. Effective ex vivo neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in plasma by recombinant immunoglobulin molecules.

    PubMed

    Gauduin, M C; Allaway, G P; Maddon, P J; Barbas, C F; Burton, D R; Koup, R A

    1996-04-01

    We tested the ability of human monoclonal antibodies (immunoglobulin G1b12 [IgG1b12] and 19b) and CD4-based molecules (CD4-IgG2 and soluble CD4 [sCD4]) to neutralize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 directly from the plasma of seropositive donors in an ex vivo neutralization assay. IgG1b12 and CD4-IgG2, at concentrations from 1 to 25 micrograms/ml, were found to be effective at reducing the HIV-1 titer in most plasma samples. When viruses recovered from plasma samples were expanded to produce virus stocks, no correlation between the neutralization sensitivities to IgG1b12 and CD4-IgG2 of the in vitro passaged stocks and those of the ex vivo neutralizations performed directly on the plasma was observed. These differences could be due to changes in neutralization sensitivity that occur after one passage of the virus in vitro, or they could be related to the presence of complement or antibodies in the plasma. Furthermore, differences in expression of adhesion molecules on plasma-derived and phytohemagglutinin-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived viruses could be involved. These studies suggest that IgG1b12 and CD4-IgG2 have broad and potent neutralizing activity in both in vitro and ex vivo neutralization assays and should be considered for use as potential immunoprophylactic or therapeutic agents.

  8. Phospholipid flippase activities and substrate specificities of human type IV P-type ATPases localized to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Gaku; Segawa, Katsumori; Suzuki, Jun; Nagata, Shigekazu; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Shin, Hye-Won

    2014-11-28

    Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) are believed to translocate aminophospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflets of cellular membranes. The yeast P4-ATPases, Drs2p and Dnf1p/Dnf2p, flip nitrobenzoxadiazole-labeled phosphatidylserine at the Golgi complex and nitrobenzoxadiazole-labeled phosphatidylcholine (PC) at the plasma membrane, respectively. However, the flippase activities and substrate specificities of mammalian P4-ATPases remain incompletely characterized. In this study, we established an assay for phospholipid flippase activities of plasma membrane-localized P4-ATPases using human cell lines stably expressing ATP8B1, ATP8B2, ATP11A, and ATP11C. We found that ATP11A and ATP11C have flippase activities toward phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine but not PC or sphingomyelin. By contrast, ATPase-deficient mutants of ATP11A and ATP11C did not exhibit any flippase activity, indicating that these enzymes catalyze flipping in an ATPase-dependent manner. Furthermore, ATP8B1 and ATP8B2 exhibited preferential flippase activities toward PC. Some ATP8B1 mutants found in patients of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1), a severe liver disease caused by impaired bile flow, failed to translocate PC despite their delivery to the plasma membrane. Moreover, incorporation of PC mediated by ATP8B1 can be reversed by simultaneous expression of ABCB4, a PC floppase mutated in PFIC3 patients. Our findings elucidate the flippase activities and substrate specificities of plasma membrane-localized human P4-ATPases and suggest that phenotypes of some PFIC1 patients result from impairment of the PC flippase activity of ATP8B1. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Isolation and characterization of plasma membranes from wild type Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Bowman, E J; Bowman, B J; Slayman, C W

    1981-12-10

    A method has been developed to isolate plasma membranes with high ATPase activity from wild type Neurospora. Cells are treated with snail enzyme to weaken their cell walls, disrupted by gentle homogenization in a medium designed to keep mitochondria and other organelles intact, and fractionated by differential centrifugation. After removal of mitochondria, several higher speed particulate fractions (particularly one sedimenting at 40,000 X g) contain an ATPase that can be identified as the plasma membrane enzyme on the basis of sensitivity to vanadate and kinetic properties. Its [S]0.5 for Mg.ATP, specificity for nucleotides and divalent cations, and pH optimum are virtually identical with those reported previously for plasma membrane ATPase from the slime mutant of Neurospora (Bowman, B. J., and Slayman, C. W. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 3357-3363). By contrast, ATPase specific activities in the wild type plasma membranes are much higher than in slime, ranging up to 7.3 mumol/min/mg of protein (the highest value yet reported for Neurospora). The best preparations appear homogeneous upon sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and band at an equilibrium density of 1.15 g/cm3. Two other markers, chitin synthetase and [acetyl-3H] concanavalin A binding, show approximate co-purification with the plasma membrane ATPase through membrane fractionation and sucrose gradient centrifugation.

  10. Impurity shielding criteria for steady state hydrogen plasmas in the LHD, a heliotron-type device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Yoshimura, S.; Tamura, N.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tanaka, K.; Suzuki, C.; Peterson, B. J.; Sakamoto, R.; Morisaki, T.; the LHD Experiment Group

    2014-07-01

    Impurity behavior has so far been investigated in steady state hydrogen plasmas in the Large Helical Device, which is a heliotron-type device and excellent for steady state operation. There was always found to be an impurity accumulation window, as observed before (Nakamura et al 2002 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44 2121, Nakamura et al 2003 Nucl. Fusion 43 219). To clarify the boundary conditions, the dependences of impurity transport on edge plasma parameters are investigated with a database of steady state hydrogen discharges, and the boundary conditions for the impurity accumulation window are discussed. It is found that two different types of impurity screening effects are essential for preventing intrinsic impurities from entering the core plasma. One of them is due to positive radial electric field at the plasma edge on the low collisionality side and the other is impurity retention caused by friction force in the ergodic layer on the high collisionality side. The classification of steady state discharges on n-T space shows that the impurity behavior can be predicted by the impurity shielding criteria based on each empirical scaling.

  11. U-Shaped Association between Plasma Manganese Levels and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shan, Zhilei; Chen, Sijing; Sun, Taoping; Luo, Cheng; Guo, Yanjun; Yu, Xuefeng; Yang, Wei; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2016-12-01

    Manganese is both an essential element and a known toxicant, and it plays important roles in many mechanisms in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, epidemiological studies of this relationship are rare. We investigated the association between plasma manganese and newly diagnosed T2D as well as whether the association could be modified by manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) polymorphisms. We conducted a case-control study of 3,228 participants in China: 1,614 T2D patients and 1,614 controls. Concentrations of plasma magnesium were measured, and all participants were genotyped for the MnSOD Val16Ala polymorphism (rs4880). A U-shaped association was observed between plasma manganese and T2D, with increased odds ratios (ORs) in relation to either low or high plasma manganese levels. Compared with the middle tertile, the multivariate-adjusted ORs [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of T2D associated with the lowest tertile and the highest tertile of plasma manganese were 1.89 (1.53, 2.33) and 1.56 (1.23, 1.97), respectively. In spline analysis, the U-shaped association was consistently indicated, with the lowest odds of T2D at the plasma manganese concentration of 4.95 μg/L. Minor allele frequencies (C allele) of the MnSOD Val16Ala polymorphism (rs4880) in the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and the T2D groups were 13.57% and 14.50%, respectively. The MnSOD rs4880 polymorphism was not associated with T2D, and no interaction was found between plasma manganese and the MnSOD rs4880 polymorphism in relation to T2D. Our results suggested a U-shaped association between plasma manganese and T2D; both low and high levels of plasma manganese were associated with higher odds of newly diagnosed T2D. The U-shaped association was not modified by the MnSOD rs4880 polymorphism. Citation: Shan Z, Chen S, Sun T, Luo C, Guo Y, Yu X, Yang W, Hu FB, Liu L. 2016. U-shaped association between plasma manganese levels and type 2 diabetes. Environ Health Perspect 124:1876-1881;

  12. Increased plasma N-glycome complexity is associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Keser, Toma; Gornik, Ivan; Vučković, Frano; Selak, Najda; Pavić, Tamara; Lukić, Edita; Gudelj, Ivan; Gašparović, Hrvoje; Biočina, Bojan; Tilin, Therese; Wennerström, Annika; Männistö, Satu; Salomaa, Veikko; Havulinna, Aki; Wang, Wei; Wilson, James F; Charutvedi, Nishi; Perola, Markus; Campbell, Harry; Lauc, Gordan; Gornik, Olga

    2017-09-13

    Better understanding of type 2 diabetes and its prevention is a pressing need. Changes in human plasma N-glycome are associated with many diseases and represent promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Variations in glucose metabolism directly affect glycosylation through the hexosamine pathway but studies of plasma glycome in type 2 diabetes are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether plasma protein N-glycome is changed in individuals who are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Using a chromatographic approach, we analysed N-linked glycans from plasma proteins in two populations comprising individuals with registered hyperglycaemia during critical illness (increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes) and individuals who stayed normoglycaemic during the same condition: AcuteInflammation (59 cases vs 49 controls) and AcuteInflammation Replication (52 cases vs 14 controls) populations. N-glycome was also studied in individuals from FinRisk (37 incident cases of type 2 diabetes collected at baseline vs 37 controls), Orkney Complex Disease Study (ORCADES; 94 individuals with HbA1c > 6.5% [47.5 mmol/mol] vs 658 controls) and Southall and Brent Revisited (SABRE) cohort studies (307 individuals with HbA1c > 6.5% [47.5 mmol/mol] vs 307 controls). Individuals with increased risk for diabetes type 2 development (AcuteInflammation and AcuteInflammation Replication populations), incident cases of type 2 diabetes collected at baseline (FinRisk population) and individuals with elevated HbA1c (ORCADES and SABRE populations) all presented with increased branching, galactosylation and sialylation of plasma protein N-glycans and these changes were of similar magnitude. Increased complexity of plasma N-glycan structures is associated with higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and poorer regulation of blood glucose levels. Although further research is needed, this finding could offer a potential new approach for improvement in prevention

  13. The Type of Fat Ingested at Breakfast Influences the Plasma Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Morillas-Ruiz, J. M.; Delgado-Alarcon, J. M.; Rubio-Perez, J. M.; Albaladejo Oton, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil) separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD. PMID:25136625

  14. Formation of high heat resistant coatings by using gas tunnel type plasma spraying.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A; Ando, Y; Kurokawa, K

    2012-06-01

    Zirconia sprayed coatings are widely used as thermal barrier coatings (TBC) for high temperature protection of metallic structures. However, their use in diesel engine combustion chamber components has the long run durability problems, such as the spallation at the interface between the coating and substrate due to the interface oxidation. Although zirconia coatings have been used in many applications, the interface spallation problem is still waiting to be solved under the critical conditions such as high temperature and high corrosion environment. The gas tunnel type plasma spraying developed by the author can make high quality ceramic coatings such as Al2O3 and ZrO2 coating compared to other plasma spraying method. A high hardness ceramic coating such as Al2O3 coating by the gas tunnel type plasma spraying, were investigated in the previous study. The Vickers hardness of the zirconia (ZrO2) coating increased with decreasing spraying distance, and a higher Vickers hardness of about Hv = 1200 could be obtained at a shorter spraying distance of L = 30 mm. ZrO2 coating formed has a high hardness layer at the surface side, which shows the graded functionality of hardness. In this study, ZrO2 composite coatings (TBCs) with Al2O3 were deposited on SS304 substrates by gas tunnel type plasma spraying. The performance such as the mechanical properties, thermal behavior and high temperature oxidation resistance of the functionally graded TBCs was investigated and discussed. The resultant coating samples with different spraying powders and thickness are compared in their corrosion resistance with coating thickness as variables. Corrosion potential was measured and analyzed corresponding to the microstructure of the coatings. High Heat Resistant Coatings, Gas Tunnel Type Plasma Spraying, Hardness,

  15. Plasma proteome analysis of patients with type 1 diabetes with diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As part of a clinical proteomics program focused on diabetes and its complications we are looking for new and better protein biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy. The search for new and better biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy has, with a few exceptions, previously focused on either hypothesis-driven studies or urinary based investigations. To date only two studies have investigated the proteome of blood in search for new biomarkers, and these studies were conducted in sera from patients with type 2 diabetes. This is the first reported in depth proteomic study where plasma from type 1 diabetic patients was investigated with the goal of finding improved candidate biomarkers to predict diabetic nephropathy. In order to reach lower concentration proteins in plasma a pre-fractionation step, either hexapeptide bead-based libraries or anion exchange chromatography, was performed prior to surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Results Proteomic analysis of plasma from a cross-sectional cohort of 123 type 1 diabetic patients previously diagnosed as normoalbuminuric, microalbuminuric or macroalbuminuric, gave rise to 290 peaks clusters of which 16 were selected as the most promising biomarker candidates based on statistical performance, including independent component analysis. Four of the peaks that were discovered have been identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein C1 and cystatin C. Several yet unidentified proteins discovered by this novel approach appear to have more potential as biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion These results demonstrate the capacity of proteomic analysis of plasma, by confirming the presence of known biomarkers as well as revealing new biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy in plasma in type 1 diabetic patients. PMID:20205888

  16. Theory of type 3b solar radio bursts. [plasma interaction and electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.; Delanoee, J.

    1975-01-01

    During the initial space-time evolution of an electron beam injected into the corona, the strong beam-plasma interaction occurs at the head of the beam, leading to the amplification of a quasi-monochromatic large-amplitude plasma wave that stabilizes by trapping the beam particles. Oscillation of the trapped particles in the wave troughs amplifies sideband electrostatic waves. The sidebands and the main wave subsequently decay to observable transverse electromagnetic waves through the parametric decay instability. This process gives rise to the elementary striation bursts. Owing to velocity dispersion in the beam and the density gradient of the corona, the entire process may repeat at a finite number of discrete plasma levels, producing chains of elementary bursts. All the properties of the type IIIb bursts are accounted for in the context of the theory.

  17. Changes in plasma leptin concentration during different types of exercises performed by horses.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, W

    2014-09-01

    Leptin is a tissue-derivative adipokine that regulates appetite, food intake and energy expenditure. It is still not clear how exercise affects plasma leptin concentration in horses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of exercise intensity and duration on plasma leptin levels in working horses. A total of 38 horses were prospectively included in the study and grouped according to the type of exercise they performed: dressage (six stallions, group D), jumping (12 stallions, group J), race (12 Thoroughbred horses, six stallions and six mares, group R) and harness (10 light draft stallions, group H). Blood samples were taken both before and after routine exercise (immediately after the exercise, 30 min and 24 h after). Blood lactic acid (LA) and plasma concentration of leptin, cortisol, uric acid, triacylglycerols, glycerol and free fatty acids were determined. Immediately after exercise, group R had the highest level of LA, whereas groups D and J had the lowest levels. A significant increase in plasma leptin concentration was stated only in group H in samples taken immediately after the end of the exercise period and 30 min after the exercise period, as compared with the values obtained at rest. A significant increase in plasma cortisol concentration was found immediately after the end of the exercise period in groups R and H. Leptin exercise-to-rest ratio was significantly correlated with cortisol exercise-to-rest ratio (r=0.64; P<0.001). The increase in plasma leptin concentration in exercised horses was related to the increased plasma cortisol concentration and took place only during long-lasting exercise, which was not intensive.

  18. Air-water ‘tornado’-type microwave plasmas applied for sugarcane biomass treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundaleska, N.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Lino da Silva, M.; Ferreira, C. M.; Amorim, J.

    2014-02-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane biomass is an attractive alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Pretreatment is needed to separate the cellulosic material, which is packed with hemicellulose and lignin in cell wall of sugarcane biomass. A microwave ‘tornado’-type air-water plasma source operating at 2.45 GHz and atmospheric pressure has been applied for this purpose. Samples of dry and wet biomass (˜2 g) have been exposed to the late afterglow plasma stream. The experiments demonstrate that the air-water highly reactive plasma environment provides a number of long-lived active species able to destroy the cellulosic wrapping. Scanning electron microscopy has been applied to analyse the morphological changes occurring due to plasma treatment. The effluent gas streams have been analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Optical emission spectroscopy and FT-IR have been applied to determine the gas temperature in the discharge and late afterglow plasma zones, respectively. The optimal range of the operational parameters is discussed along with the main active species involved in the treatment process. Synergistic effects can result from the action of singlet O2(a 1Δg) oxygen, NO2, nitrous acid HNO2 and OH hydroxyl radical.

  19. Carbonylated plasma proteins as potential biomarkers of obesity induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bollineni, Ravi Chand; Fedorova, Maria; Blüher, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2014-11-07

    Protein carbonylation is a common nonenzymatic oxidative post-translational modification, which is often considered as biomarker of oxidative stress. Recent evidence links protein carbonylation also to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), though the protein targets of carbonylation in human plasma have not been identified. In this study, we profiled carbonylated proteins in plasma samples obtained from lean individuals and obese patients with or without T2DM. The plasma samples were digested with trypsin, carbonyl groups were derivatized with O-(biotinylcarbazoylmethyl)hydroxylamine, enriched by avidin affinity chromatography, and analyzed by RPC-MS/MS. Signals of potentially modified peptides were targeted in a second LC-MS/MS analysis to retrieve the peptide sequence and the modified residues. A total of 158 unique carbonylated proteins were identified, of which 52 were detected in plasma samples of all three groups. Interestingly, 36 carbonylated proteins were detected only in obese patients with T2DM, whereas 18 were detected in both nondiabetic groups. The carbonylated proteins originated mostly from liver, plasma, platelet, and endothelium. Functionally, they were mainly involved in cell adhesion, signaling, angiogenesis, and cytoskeletal remodeling. Among the identified carbonylated proteins were several candidates, such as VEGFR-2, MMP-1, argin, MKK4, and compliment C5, already connected before to diabetes, obesity and metabolic diseases.

  20. Effect of Zr on microstructure of metallic glass coatings prepared by gas tunnel type plasma spraying.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A; Kuroda, T; Kimura, H; Inoue, A

    2012-06-01

    Metallic glass is one of the most attractive advanced materials, and many researchers have conducted various developmental research works. Metallic glass is expected to be used as a functional material because of its excellent physical and chemical functions such as high strength and high corrosion resistance. However, the application for small size parts has been carried out only in some industrial fields. In order to widen the industrial application fields, a composite material is preferred for the cost performance. In the coating processes of metallic glass with the conventional deposition techniques, there is a difficulty to form thick coatings due to their low deposition rate. Thermal spraying method is one of the potential candidates to produce metallic glass composites. Metallic glass coatings can be applied to the longer parts and therefore the application field can be widened. The gas tunnel plasma spraying is one of the most important technologies for high quality ceramic coating and synthesizing functional materials. As the gas tunnel type plasma jet is superior to the properties of other conventional type plasma jets, this plasma has great possibilities for various applications in thermal processing. In this study, the gas tunnel type plasma spraying was used to form the metallic glass coatings on the stainless-steel substrate. The microstructure and surface morphology of the metallic glass coatings were examined using Fe-based metallic glass powder and Zr-based metallic glass powder as coating material. For the mechanical properties the Vickers hardness was measured on the cross section of both the coatings and the difference between the powders was compared.

  1. Method for generating extreme ultraviolet with mather-type plasma accelerators for use in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hassanein, Ahmed; Konkashbaev, Isak

    2006-10-03

    A device and method for generating extremely short-wave ultraviolet electromagnetic wave uses two intersecting plasma beams generated by two plasma accelerators. The intersection of the two plasma beams emits electromagnetic radiation and in particular radiation in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength. In the preferred orientation two axially aligned counter streaming plasmas collide to produce an intense source of electromagnetic radiation at the 13.5 nm wavelength. The Mather type plasma accelerators can utilize tin, or lithium covered electrodes. Tin, lithium or xenon can be used as the photon emitting gas source.

  2. Floating-Gate Type Organic Memory with Organic Insulator Thin Film of Plasma Polymerized Methyl Methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee-sung; Lee, Boong-Joo; Kim, Gun-Su; Shin, Paik-Kyun

    2013-02-01

    To fabricate organic memory device by entirely dry process, plasma polymerized methyl methacrylate (ppMMA) thin films were prepared and they were used as both tunneling layer and gate insulator layer in a floating-gate type organic memory device. The ppMMA thin films were prepared with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source combined with stabilized monomer vapor control. The ppMMA gate insulator thin film revealed dielectric constant of 3.75 and low leakage current of smaller than 10-9 A/cm. The floating-gate type organic memory device showed promising memory characteristics such as memory window value of 12 V and retention time of over 2 h, where 60 V of writing voltage and -30 V of erasing voltage were applied, respectively.

  3. Diagnosis of type III hyperlipoproteinemia by chromatography of plasma lipoproteins on columns containing agarose.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J; Packard, C J; Dryburgh, F J; Third, J L

    1975-12-01

    Agarose column chromatography has been used to separate plasma lipoproteins into very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Applied to the diagnosis of primary type III hyperlipoproteinemia, the procedure is capable of demonstrating three characteristic and specific changes from normality in the elution pattern of lipoproteins from patients with this condition. In the type III profile there is (a) incomplete separation of VLDL from putative LDL material, (b) early elution of the type III LDL with respect to a normal LDL marker, and (c) relative deficiency of type III LDL with elution characteristics of normal LDL. We advocate the use of this method in the diagnosis of type III hyperlipoproteinemia.

  4. Impacts of the Callipyge Mutation on Ovine Plasma Metabolites and Muscle Fibre Type

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Greenwood, Paul L.; Cockett, Noelle E.; Hadfield, Tracy S.; Vuocolo, Tony; Byrne, Keren; White, Jason D.; Tellam, Ross L.; Schirra, Horst Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The ovine Callipyge mutation causes postnatal muscle hypertrophy localized to the pelvic limbs and torso, as well as body leanness. The mechanism underpinning enhanced muscle mass is unclear, as is the systemic impact of the mutation. Using muscle fibre typing immunohistochemistry, we confirmed muscle specific effects and demonstrated that affected muscles had greater prevalence and hypertrophy of type 2X fast twitch glycolytic fibres and decreased representation of types 1, 2C, 2A and/or 2AX fibres. To investigate potential systemic effects of the mutation, proton NMR spectra of plasma taken from lambs at 8 and 12 weeks of age were measured. Multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolite profiles demonstrated effects of development and genotype but not gender. Plasma from Callipyge lambs at 12 weeks of age, but not 8 weeks, was characterized by a metabolic profile consistent with contributions from the affected hypertrophic fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibres. Microarray analysis of the perirenal adipose tissue depot did not reveal a transcriptional effect of the mutation in this tissue. We conclude that there is an indirect systemic effect of the Callipyge mutation in skeletal muscle in the form of changes of blood metabolites, which may contribute to secondary phenotypes such as body leanness. PMID:24937646

  5. Frequent intratype neutralization by plasma immunoglobulin a identified in HIV type 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Özkaya Şahin, Gülşen; Månsson, Fredrik; Palm, Angelica A; Vincic, Elzbieta; da Silva, Zacarias; Medstrand, Patrik; Norrgren, Hans; Fenyö, Eva Maria; Jansson, Marianne

    2013-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is less transmissible and less pathogenic compared to HIV-1 and, when matched for CD4(+) T cell count, the plasma viral load in HIV-2-infected individuals is approximately one log lower than in HIV-1-infected individuals. The explanation for these observations is elusive, but differences in virus controlling immunity generated in the two infections may be contributing factors. In the present study, we investigated neutralization by immunoglobulin A (IgA), in parallel with IgG, purified from plasma of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually (HIV-D) infected individuals. Neutralization was analyzed against HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates using a plaque reduction assay. In HIV-2 infection, intratype-specific neutralization by IgA was frequently detected, although at a lesser magnitude then the corresponding IgG neutralizing titers. In contrast, neutralization by IgA could rarely be demonstrated in HIV-1 infection despite similar plasma IgA levels in both infections. In addition, IgA and IgG of HIV-D plasma neutralized the HIV-2 isolate more potently than the HIV-1 isolate, suggesting that the difference between neutralizing activity of plasma IgA and IgG depends on the virus itself. Taken together, these findings suggest that both IgA and IgG add to the potent intratype neutralizing activity detected in HIV-2 plasma, which may contribute to virus control in HIV-2 infection.

  6. Frequent Intratype Neutralization by Plasma Immunoglobulin A Identified in HIV Type 2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Månsson, Fredrik; Palm, Angelica A.; Vincic, Elzbieta; da Silva, Zacarias; Medstrand, Patrik; Norrgren, Hans; Fenyö, Eva Maria; Jansson, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is less transmissible and less pathogenic compared to HIV-1 and, when matched for CD4+ T cell count, the plasma viral load in HIV-2-infected individuals is approximately one log lower than in HIV-1-infected individuals. The explanation for these observations is elusive, but differences in virus controlling immunity generated in the two infections may be contributing factors. In the present study, we investigated neutralization by immunoglobulin A (IgA), in parallel with IgG, purified from plasma of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually (HIV-D) infected individuals. Neutralization was analyzed against HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates using a plaque reduction assay. In HIV-2 infection, intratype-specific neutralization by IgA was frequently detected, although at a lesser magnitude then the corresponding IgG neutralizing titers. In contrast, neutralization by IgA could rarely be demonstrated in HIV-1 infection despite similar plasma IgA levels in both infections. In addition, IgA and IgG of HIV-D plasma neutralized the HIV-2 isolate more potently than the HIV-1 isolate, suggesting that the difference between neutralizing activity of plasma IgA and IgG depends on the virus itself. Taken together, these findings suggest that both IgA and IgG add to the potent intratype neutralizing activity detected in HIV-2 plasma, which may contribute to virus control in HIV-2 infection. PMID:23088167

  7. Type 2 diabetes associated changes in the plasma non-esterified fatty acids, oxylipins and endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Grapov, Dmitry; Adams, Sean H; Pedersen, Theresa L; Garvey, W Timothy; Newman, John W

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes has profound effects on metabolism that can be detected in plasma. While increases in circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are well-described in diabetes, effects on signaling lipids have received little attention. Oxylipins and endocannabinoids are classes of bioactive fatty acid metabolites with many structural members that influence insulin signaling, adipose function and inflammation through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine mechanisms. To link diabetes-associated changes in plasma NEFA and signaling lipids, we quantitatively targeted >150 plasma lipidome components in age- and body mass index-matched, overweight to obese, non-diabetic (n = 12) and type 2 diabetic (n = 43) African-American women. Diabetes related NEFA patterns indicated ∼60% increase in steroyl-CoA desaturase activity and ∼40% decrease in very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid chain shortening, patterns previously associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Further, epoxides and ketones of eighteen carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids were elevated >80% in diabetes and strongly correlated with changes in NEFA, consistent with their liberation during adipose lipolysis. Endocannabinoid behavior differed by class with diabetes increasing an array of N-acylethanolamides which were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory 5-lipooxygenase-derived metabolites, while monoacylglycerols were negatively correlated with body mass. These results clearly show that diabetes not only results in an increase in plasma NEFA, but shifts the plasma lipidomic profiles in ways that reflect the biochemical and physiological changes of this pathological state which are independent of obesity associated changes.

  8. Serum iron, total iron binding capacity, plasma copper and hemoglobin types in anemic and poikilocytic calves.

    PubMed Central

    McGillivray, S R; Searcy, G P; Hirsch, V M

    1985-01-01

    Ninety-eight calves were studied to determine if anemia and poikilocytosis were related to iron or copper status or hemoglobin type. No significant differences were found in serum iron, total iron binding capacity, marrow iron, plasma copper or hemoglobin type between affected and normal calves. Poikilocytes were strongly inversely correlated (-0.9177) with age. Calves less than six weeks of age had more poikilocytes, lower serum iron, higher total iron binding capacity, less adult hemoglobin and more neonatal and fetal hemoglobin than calves greater than six weeks of age. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2412677

  9. Current-driven plasma instabilities and auroral-type particle acceleration at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.; Brace, L. H.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Stewart, A. I. F.

    1985-01-01

    Above the ionosphere of Venus, several instruments on the Pioneer Orbiter detect correlated wave, field and particle phenomena suggestive of current-driven anomalous resistivity and auroral-type particle acceleration. In localized regions the plasma wave instrument measures intense mid-frequency turbulence levels together with strong field-aligned currents. Here the local parameters indicate that there is marginal stability for ion acoustic waves, and the electron temperature probe finds evidence that energetic primaries are present. This suggests an auroral-type energy deposition into the upper atmosphere of Venus. These results appear to be consistent with the direct measurements of auroral emissions from the Pioneer-Venus ultraviolet imaging spectrometer.

  10. Comparative characteristics of electron energy spectrum in PIG and arc type discharge plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanyuk, L. I.; Suavilnyy, N. Y.

    1978-01-01

    The electron distribution functions relative to the velocity component directed along the magnetic field are compared for PIG and arc type discharges. The identity of these functions for the plasma region pierced by the primary electron beam and their difference in the peripheral part of the discharge are shown. It is concluded that the electron distribution function in the PIG type discharge is formed during one transit of the primary electron through the discharge gap. The mechanisms of electron energy spectrum formation in both the axis region and the peripheral region of the discharge are discussed.

  11. Plasma Homocysteine and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Type 1 Diabetes: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Julie A.; Thorpe, Suzanne R.; Klein, Richard L.; Lopes-Virella, Maria F.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Plasma homocysteine (tHcy) has been positively associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in non-diabetic populations and in a few cross-sectional studies of diabetic patients. We investigated cross-sectional and prospective associations of a single measure of tHcy with common and internal carotid IMT over a 6-year period in type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS tHcy levels were measured once, in plasma obtained in 1997-1999 from patients (n=599) in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, the observational follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Common and internal carotid IMT were determined twice, in EDIC “Year 6” (1998-2000) and “Year 12” (2004-2006), using B-mode ultra-sonography. RESULTS After adjustment, plasma tHcy [median (interquartile range): 6.2 (5.1, 7.5) μmol/L] was significantly correlated with age, diastolic blood pressure, renal dysfunction, and smoking (all p<0.05). In an unadjusted model only, increasing quartiles of tHcy correlated with common and internal carotid IMT, again at both EDIC time-points (p<0.01). However, multivariate logistic regression revealed no significant associations between increasing quartiles of tHcy and the 6-year change in common and internal carotid IMT (highest vs. lowest quintile) when adjusted for conventional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS In a type 1 diabetes cohort from the EDIC study, plasma tHcy measured in samples drawn in 1997-1999 was associated with measures of common and internal carotid IMT measured both one and seven years later, but not with IMT progression between the two time-points. The data do not support routine measurement of tHcy in people with Type 1 diabetes. PMID:25063949

  12. Tryptamine levels are low in plasma of chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Giovanni; D'Amico, Domenico; Bussone, Gennaro; Bolner, Andrea; Aguggia, Marco; Saracco, Maria Gabriella; Galloni, Elisabetta; De Riva, Valentina; D'Arrigo, Antonello; Colavito, Davide; Leon, Alberta; Perini, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this study (TA-CH, Tryptophan Amine in Chronic Headache) was to investigate a possible role of tryptophan (TRP) metabolism in chronic migraine (CM) and chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). It is not known if TRP metabolism plays any role in CM and/or CTTH. Plasma levels of serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), metabolite of 5-HT, and tryptamine (TRY) were tested in 73 patients with CM, 15 patients with CTTH and 37 control subjects. Of these, plasmatic TRY was significantly lower in CM (p < 0.001) and in CTTH (p < 0.002) patients with respect to control subjects, while 5-HIAA levels in plasma were within the same range in all groups. 5-HT was undetectable in the plasma of almost all subjects. Our results support the hypothesis that TRP metabolism is altered in CM and CTTH patients, leading to a reduction in plasma TRY. As TRY modulates the function of pain matrix serotonergic system, this may affect modulation of incoming nociceptive inputs from the trigeminal endings and posterior horns of the spinal cord. We suggest that these biochemical abnormalities play a role in the chronicity of CM and CTTH.

  13. Plasma coenzyme Q10 levels in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Orhan; Bilen, Habip; Keles, Sadullah; Alp, H. Hakan; Keleş, Mevlüt Sait; Yıldırım, Kenan; Öndaş, Osman; Pınar, L. Can; Civelekler, Mustafa; Baykal, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    AIM To determine the relationship between proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDRP) and plasma coenzyme Q10(CoQ10) concentration. METHODS Patients with type 2 diabetes and PDRP were determined to be the case group (n=50). The control group was consist of healthy individuals (n=50). Plasma CoQ10 and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in both groups. RESULTS Ubiquinone-10 (Coenzyme Q10) levels in PDRP and control subjects are 3.81±1.19µmol/L and 1.91±0.62µmol/L, respectively. Plasma MDA levels in PDRP and control subjects were 8.16±2µmol/L and 3.44±2.08µmol/L, respectively. Ratio of Ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 in PDRP and control subjects were 0.26±0.16 and 1.41±0.68, respectively. CONCLUSION The ratio of ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 is found lower in patients with PDRP. High levels of plasma ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 ratio indicate the protective effect on diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24195048

  14. Computational model of collisional-radiative nonequilibrium plasma in an air-driven type laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Yousuke; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2010-05-06

    A thrust power of a gas-driven laser-propulsion system is obtained through interaction with a propellant gas heated by a laser energy. Therefore, understanding the nonequilibrium nature of laser-produced plasma is essential for increasing available thrust force and for improving energy conversion efficiency from a laser to a propellant gas. In this work, a time-dependent collisional-radiative model for air plasma has been developed to study the effects of nonequilibrium atomic and molecular processes on population densities for an air-driven type laser propulsion. Many elementary processes are considered in the number density range of 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 3}<=N<=10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} and the temperature range of 300 K<=T<=40,000 K. We then compute the unsteady nature of pulsively heated air plasma. When the ionization relaxation time is the same order as the time scale of a heating pulse, the effects of unsteady ionization are important for estimating air plasma states. From parametric computations, we determine the appropriate conditions for the collisional-radiative steady state, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and corona equilibrium models in that density and temperature range.

  15. Hydrogenated ZnO thin film with p-type surface conductivity from plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurylev, V.; Useinov, A.; Hsieh, P. Y.; Su, C. Y.; Perng, T. P.

    2017-06-01

    Fabrication of a ZnO p-n homojunction within a single structure by a simple process is a challenging task. In this work, an intrinsic p-type surface conductive layer of ZnO with a controlled concentration of holes over n-type conductive bulk was obtained by a one-step room-temperature process via hydrogen plasma treatment. Non-contact surface sensitive techniques, such as Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive force atomic microscopy, confirmed the existence of surface p-type conductivity through analyzing the distribution and concentration of charge carriers on the topmost surface of hydrogenated ZnO. A theoretical framework was constructed to provide a rationale of the p-type surface conductivity and justify its relation to the treatment time. It is believed that this finding will open a new possibility for the fabrication of ZnO based p-n junction devices.

  16. Increased chitotriosidase activity in plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Knapik-Kordecka, Maria; Rorbach-Dolata, Anna; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is a chitinolytic enzyme involved mainly in the immune and inflammatory response. It shows increased activity in many pathologies, including in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to investigate this enzyme's activity in plasma of patients with ongoing T2D and indicate factors related to the increased activity of this enzyme. Material and methods Ninety-one patients and 46 control subjects without abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism and inflammatory states were enrolled in the study. Plasma CHIT1 activity was measured by a spectrofluorometric method. Routine laboratory parameters such as blood glucose, total cholesterol and HDL fraction, triglyceride, glycated hemoglobin, white blood cell count and C-reactive protein were measured by standard methods. Results We found that the chitotriosidase activity was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in type 2 diabetic patients and positively associated with parameters of glycemic control (levels of glucose and glycated hemoglobin) and blood pressure. Plasma glucose level and systolic blood pressure were independent determinants of increased CHIT1 activity in T2D patients, even after adjustment for disease duration, body mass index, parameters of inflammation and lipid metabolism. We also found that increased CHIT1 activity was associated with occurrence of diabetic angiopathies. Conclusions This investigation indicates a possible role of chitotriosidase in the course of T2D, especially in relation to development of diabetic angiopathies. PMID:27695487

  17. NOx removal using a wet type plasma reactor based on a three-electrode device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolibois, J.; Takashima, K.; Mizuno, A.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a wet type plasma reactor based on a three electrode device is investigated experimentally in order to remove NO and NOx at low flow rate. First, a comparison of cleaning performances of gas exhaust has been performed when the surface discharge operates in DBD or SD modes. From these previous results, the second part of study has consisted to improve the electrochemical conversion of the wet type plasma reactor by adding a coil between the AC HV power supply and the surface discharge. The parametric study has been performed with 100 ppm of NO content in gas flow at room temperature and atmospheric pressure for a flow rate of 1 L/min. For each electrical parameter tested, an electric characterization and measurement of NOx content via FT-IR has been conducted. The results highlight a better cleaning of gas exhaust when the surface discharge operates in DBD mode. Moreover, the presence of solution promotes the arc transition when the operating mode is SD, resulting a reliability reduction of plasma device. In addition, the measurements show that the insertion of coil in the electrical circuit improves the NOx removal at a given power consumption for the DBD operating mode.

  18. Plasma Signature of Neurological Disease in the Monogenetic Disorder Niemann-Pick Type C*

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md. Suhail; Getz, Michelle; Yi, Sue; Kurkewich, Jeffrey; Safeukui, Innocent; Haldar, Kasturi

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of neurological disorders would greatly improve their management and treatment. A major hurdle is that inflammatory products of cerebral disease are not easily detected in blood. Inflammation in multiple organs and heterogeneity in disease present additional challenges in distinguishing the extent to which a blood-based marker reflects disease in brain or other afflicted organs. Murine models of the monogenetic disorder Niemann-Pick Type C present aggressive forms of cerebral and liver inflammatory disease. Microarray analyses previously revealed age-dependent changes in innate immunity transcripts in the mouse brain. We have now validated four putative secretory inflammatory markers that are also elevated in mouse liver. We include limited, first time analysis of human Niemann-Pick Type C liver and cerebellum. Furthermore, we utilized 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD, an emerging therapeutic) administered intraperitoneally in mice, which abrogates inflammatory pathology in the liver but has limited effect on the brain. By analyzing the corresponding effects on inflammatory plasma proteins, we identified cathepsin S as a lead indicator of liver disease. In contrast, lysozyme was a marker of both brain and liver disease. 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin had no effect on transcripts of neuron-specific 24-hydroxylase, and its product 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol was not a useful indicator in mouse plasma. Our data suggest that dual analysis of levels of the inflammatory markers lysozyme and cathepsin S may enable detection of multiple distinct states of neurodegeneration in plasma. PMID:24488491

  19. TYPE III RADIO BURSTS IN CORONAL PLASMAS WITH KAPPA PARTICLE DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2013-02-01

    We present the first simulations of type III bursts produced in the corona with suprathermal non-Maxwellian background particles, as inferred from solar wind data and proposed by theories for the corona and solar wind. The coronal background particles are assumed to follow kappa ({kappa}) distributions. The predicted f{sub p} emission of type III bursts is sensitive via the {kappa} index to the presence of suprathermal background particles, where f{sub p} is the local plasma frequency. The simulations show that (1) the speeds v{sub b} of type III beams are much larger (e.g., v{sub b} Almost-Equal-To 0.58c for {kappa} = 5) and so type III bursts drift much faster for low {kappa} ({<=}5) background plasmas than for Maxwellian backgrounds (producing v{sub b} < 0.3c), and (2) f{sub p} emission generated in a {kappa}-distributed background corona has a larger total bandwidth than in a Maxwellian background, for similar onset frequencies. Type III beams are thus more persistent, i.e., extending over larger distances, in {kappa}-distributed corona. Consequently, observations of fast-drifting coronal type III bursts and associated fast electron beams suggest that the ambient electrons in the corona are {kappa}-distributed, at least when such bursts are observed. These results support, from the new viewpoint of nonthermal radio emission, the occasional presence of suprathermal background electrons in the corona and the associated mechanisms (e.g., 'velocity filtration') for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. The new results also help resolve longstanding issues regarding the speeds and persistence of type III beams, and the production of remotely observable levels of f{sub p} emission despite severe losses during propagation.

  20. Diagnostics of ion beam generated from a Mather type plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, L. K. Ngoi, S. K. Wong, C. S. Yap, S. L.

    2014-03-05

    Diagnostics of ion beam emission from a 3 kJ Mather-type plasma focus device have been performed for deuterium discharge at low pressure regime. Deuterium plasma focus was found to be optimum at pressure of 0.2 mbar. The energy spectrum and total number of ions per shot from the pulsed ion beam are determined by using biased ion collectors, Faraday cup, and solid state nuclear track detector CR-39. Average energy of the ion beam obtained is about 60 keV. Total number of the ions has been determined to be in the order of 10{sup 11} per shot. Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) CR39 are employed to measure the particles at all angular direction from end on (0°) to side on (90°). Particle tracks are registered by SSNTD at 30° to 90°, except the one at the end-on 0°.

  1. RICHTMYER-MESHKOV-TYPE INSTABILITY OF A CURRENT SHEET IN A RELATIVISTICALLY MAGNETIZED PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2012-11-20

    The linear stability of a current sheet that is subject to an impulsive acceleration due to shock passage with the effect of a guide magnetic field is studied. We find that a current sheet embedded in relativistically magnetized plasma always shows a Richtmyer-Meshkov-type instability, while the stability depends on the density structure in the Newtonian limit. The growth of the instability is expected to generate turbulence around the current sheet, which can induce the so-called turbulent reconnection, the rate of which is essentially free from plasma resistivity. Thus, the instability can be applied as a triggering mechanism for rapid magnetic energy release in a variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena such as pulsar wind nebulae, gamma-ray bursts, and active galactic nuclei, where the shock wave is thought to play a crucial role.

  2. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the electrical characteristics of Pt/n-type Si Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardhanam, V.; Jyothi, I.; Yuk, Shim-Hoon; Choi, Chel-Jong; Lee, Sung-Nam; Reddy, V. Rajagopal

    2016-10-01

    The electrical properties of Pt/n-type Si Schottky diodes fabricated from n-type Si wafers subjected to an oxygen (O2) plasma treatment were investigated as a function of the power of the O2 plasma. The Pt/n-type Si Schottky diode with an O2 plasma treatment at a power of 100 W showed better rectifying characteristics with increasing barrier height and decreasing ideality factor compared to the conventional Pt/n-type Si Schottky diodes. This could be attributed to an improvement in the interface homogeneity associated with damage-free surface smoothing driven by the O2 plasma treatment at a power of 100 W. On the other hand, with increasing power of the O2 plasma for powers above 150 W, the barrier height decreased and the leakage current increased, indicating degradation of the device performance. The degradation in the rectifying properties after the O2 plasma treatment at a higher plasma power in excess of 150 W could be associated with increases in the series resistance and the interface state density caused by plasma-induced damage to the Si surface.

  3. Serum cathepsin B and plasma urokinase-type plasminogen activator levels in gastrointestinal tract cancers.

    PubMed

    Herszényi, László; István, Gábor; Cardin, Romilda; De Paoli, Massimo; Plebani, Mario; Tulassay, Zsolt; Farinati, Fabio

    2008-10-01

    Cathepsin B (CATB) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (UPA) play an important part in cancer invasion and metastasis. The behavior of CATB and UPA has not been evaluated in the same experimental setting in different gastrointestinal tumors and in precancerous lesions. Serum CATB and plasma UPA levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay and their sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy have been calculated in patients with colorectal (n=72), gastric (n=30), hepatocellular (n=28), and pancreatic cancer (n=15) as well as in gastric epithelial dysplasia (n=25), colorectal adenomas (n=30), and tumor-free control patients (n=44). Serum CATB and plasma UPA antigen concentrations were significantly higher in patients with cancer than in controls. When all tumors were considered, the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of CATB (89, 86, and 89%) were higher than that of UPA (76, 70, and 74%). CATB demonstrated in all types of tumors a better diagnostic accuracy than UPA. The positive predictive values of CATB (95%) and UPA (89%) may suggest their use in the evaluation of patients with a suspicion of malignancy. CATB and UPA were significantly higher in patients with gastric epithelial dysplasia and colorectal adenomas than in controls. Antigen levels of CATB and UPA were significantly correlated in both cancers and precancerous lesions. At the time of clinical presentation, serum CATB and plasma UPA antigen levels are sensitive indicators of gastrointestinal malignancies. Determination of serum CATB and plasma UPA levels may be useful to identify patients at a higher risk for progression to cancer, who could be subjected to a more strict follow-up protocol.

  4. Identification of carriers of a variant plasma prealbumin (transthyretin) associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy type I.

    PubMed Central

    Benson, M D; Dwulet, F E

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for detecting carriers of a variant plasma prealbumin that is associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) type I. It is based on the finding of an extra methionine in the variant prealbumin, at position 30 from the amino terminals. Since normal prealbumin has only one methionine (position 13), treatment with cyanogen bromide (CNBr), which cleaves only at methionines, results in two peptides. CNBr treatment of the variant prealbumin gives three peptides. The extra can then be detected in two ways: by HPLC using a reverse phase C18 column, and by sequential Edman degradation. Each method can detect as little as 1% variant prealbumin in isolated plasma prealbumin, and therefore, can identify carriers of the gene for the variant protein. Since FAP type I usually is not manifest until after the childbearing years, this method to identify carriers of the gene offers a new approach for genetic counseling of families with this disease. To date, kindreds with hereditary amyloidosis that could benefit from these studies include those with FAP type I of Swedish, Japanese, and Portuguese origins. PMID:2981253

  5. Plasma properties of a new-type surface wave-sustained plasma source under the conditions of depositing DLC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junqi; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Noritsugu; Diao, Dongfeng

    2006-01-01

    Surface wave-sustained plasma (SWP) is one of the low-pressure, high- density plasma. Applying this technique, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with excellent characteristics can be prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. However, the films' application is restricted in some degree, because it is difficult to control the film properties. In this paper, SWP was excited along a conductive rod at a frequency of 2.45 GHz without magnetic fields around the chamber wall. The fundamental theories of plasma diagnostic were presented and plasma properties were studied with a Langmuir probe under the conditions of depositing DLC films by PVD method with a graphite target. Plasma density, electron temperature, plasma potential and target current were measured at difference technique parameters such as gas pressure, microwave power, and so on. As a result, it was proved that plasma properties are greatly affected by microwave power, target voltage and argon gas pressure in chamber. The gas mass flow rate had almost no effect on plasma characters. At the same time, the results indicated that electron density is up to 10 11-10 12cm -3 even at the low pressure of 1 Pa.

  6. Plasma interleukin-22 levels are associated with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jizhong; Fang, Yun; Zhu, Huaijun; Ge, Weihong

    2017-02-07

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between plasma interleukin-22 (IL-22) levels and prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, and search the relevance between plasma concentrations of IL-22 and selected diabetes risk factors in Chinese people. The Han Chinese origin men and women participants were recruited in our study during a conventional medical checkup. Fasting plasma IL-22 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and their relevance with selected diabetes risk factors was explored. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the odds ratio of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes according to plasma IL-22 level. Compared with normal glucose participants (250 pg/mL [interquartile range 154-901]), the plasma IL-22 levels in IFG participants (185 pg/mL [interquartile range 145-414]) and type 2 diabetes participants (162 pg/mL [interquartile range 128-266]) were significantly lower (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, respectively). Correlation analysis showed that plasma concentrations of IL-22 were negatively associated with some diabetes risk factors, including body mass index, glucose, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and triglyceride. Furthermore, the plasma concentrations of IL-22 showed a highly significant association with IFG and type 2 diabetes. In Chinese subjects, the plasma concentration of IL-22 is profoundly associated with susceptibility to IFG and type 2 diabetes, and decreased plasma IL-22 level is a potential trigger of IFG and type 2 diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Obliquely propagating electrostatic waves in a magnetized plasma for different types of anisotropic kappa distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, M. F.; Yoon, P. H.; Murtaza, G.; Aqeel, D.; Javed, S.; Zahra, M.

    2015-12-01

    By using the kinetic theory, the dispersion relation of obliquely propagating electrostatic waves are discussed for three types of kappa distribution function: 1) loss-cone-bi-kappa-Maxwellian distribution, 2) current carrying Bi-kappa-Maxwellian distribution and 3) product-bi-kappa distribution. The effects of kappa-index, loss-cone index, streaming velocity and the temperature anisotropy on the Harris instability is highlighted for their possible application to explain the banded emissions observed in the terrestrial magnetosphere and in the magnetospheres of other planets, e.g., Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and in Io's plasma torus.

  8. Preparation and magnetic properties of Co-Cr films by toroidal plasma (TP) type sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, T. ); Nao, M. )

    1989-09-01

    The authors describe a new type of sputtering apparatus which can form a stable toroidal plasma developed in order to deposit magnetic films with a homogeneous and dense structure and excellent properties under the conditions of low argon gas pressure, low applied voltage and low substrate temperature around 30 {sup 0}C. All Co-Cr films deposited by this apparatus were composed of hcp phase crystallites with c-axis orientation {Delta}{theta}/sub 50/ ranging from 8 to 13{sup 0}. The saturation magnetization Ms varied from 380 to 780 emu/cc and perpendicular coercivity Hc varied from 100 to 300 Oe.

  9. Plume and Discharge Plasma Measurements of an NSTAR-type Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    The success of the NASA Deep Space I spacecraft has demonstrated that ion propulsion is a viable option for deep space science missions. More aggressive missions such as Comet Nuclear Sample Return and Europa lander will require higher power, higher propellant throughput and longer thruster lifetime than the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) engine. Presented here are thruster plume and discharge plasma measurements of an NSTAR-type thruster operated from 0.5 kW to 5 kW. From Faraday plume sweeps, beam divergence was determined. From Langmuir probe plume measurements on centerline, low energy ion production on axis due to charge-exchange and direct ionization was assessed. Additionally, plume plasma potential measurements made on axis were used to determine the upper energy limits at which ions created on centerline could be radially accelerated. Wall probes flush-mounted to the thruster discharge chamber anode were used to assess plasma conditions. Langmuir probe measurements at the wall indicated significant differences in the electron temperature in the cylindrical and conical sections of the discharge chamber.

  10. Characteristics of evolutionary-type plasma bubbles observed from Equatorial Atmosphere Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajith, K. K.; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Tulasiram, S.

    2016-07-01

    Using the fan sector backscatter maps of 47 MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang (0.2°S geographic latitude, 100.3°E geographic longitude, and 10.4°S geomagnetic latitude), Indonesia, the spatial and temporal evolution of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were examined to classify the evolutionary-type EPBs from those which formed elsewhere and drifted into the field of view of radar. A total of 535 EPBs were observed during the low to moderate solar activity years 2010-2012, out of which about 210 (~39%) are of evolving type and the remaining 325 (~61%) are drifting-in EPBs. In general, both the evolving-type and drifting-in EPBs exhibit predominance during the post-sunset hours of equinoxes and December solstices. Interestingly, during June solstice the occurrence of evolving-type EPBs exhibits a clear secondary peak around midnight (2300-0100 LT). Further, the occurrence of evolving-type EPBs exhibits a clear secondary peak around midnight (2300-0100 LT), primarily, due to higher rate of occurrence during the post-midnight hours of June solstices. A significant number (~33%) of post-midnight EPBs generated during June solstices did not exhibited any clear zonal drift, while about 14% of EPBs drifted westward. Also, the westward drifting EPBs are confined only to June solstices. In the present study, we calculated the vertical bubble rise velocity of evolutionary-type EPBs during 2010-2012.

  11. Differential association of basal and postprandial plasma ghrelin with leptin, insulin, and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Johannes; Lippl, Florian; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schusdziarra, Volker

    2005-05-01

    To gain further insight into the regulatory role of insulin and leptin on plasma ghrelin, 56 normal weight, 128 normoinsulinemic obese, 121 hyperinsulinemic obese, and 30 type 2 diabetic normoinsulinemic and 75 type 2 diabetic hyperinsulinemic obese patients were examined. In the obese subjects, basal hyperinsulinemia was associated with significantly lower ghrelin independent of BMI, age, and leptin. In normoinsulinemic (normal weight and normoinsulinemic obese) subjects, ghrelin was inversely related to stepwise increasing leptin. Multiple regression analysis and matching for insulin revealed a significant negative interaction of ghrelin with leptin but not insulin. In type 2 diabetic normoinsulinemic subjects, ghrelin was significantly lower compared with that in normoinsulinemic obese subjects. In type 2 diabetic hyperinsulinemic subjects, ghrelin was significantly lower than in normoinsulinemic subjects, whereas no further reduction was observed compared with hyperinsulinemic obese subjects. The postprandial decrease was significantly attenuated in normoinsulinemic obese and hyperinsulinemic obese subjects (-214.8 +/- 247 pg/ml [normal weight], -137.6 +/- 107 pg/ml [normoinsulinemic obese], -85.5 +/- 69 pg/ml [hyperinsulinemic obese], P < 0.001; mean +/- SD), whereas type 2 diabetes had no independent postprandial effect. In conclusion, the present data support the concept that leptin could be of importance for suppression of basal ghrelin during moderate weight gain in normoinsulinemic subjects, whereas hyperinsulinemia but not leptin is responsible in more severe obesity. Postprandial suppression of ghrelin is attenuated by as yet unknown mechanisms that are related to body weight but not to insulin or type 2 diabetes.

  12. Plasma uric acid effects on glomerular haemodynamic profile of patients with uncomplicated Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lytvyn, Y; Škrtić, M; Yang, G K; Lai, V; Scholey, J W; Yip, P M; Perkins, B A; Cherney, D Z I

    2016-08-01

    Increased plasma uric acid (PUA) levels are associated with impaired renal function in patients with Type 1 diabetes, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Our aim was to evaluate whether higher PUA levels are associated with increased afferent arteriolar resistance in patients with Type 1 diabetes vs. healthy controls, thereby influencing renal function. PUA, GFR (inulin) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF; para-aminohippurate) were measured in 70 otherwise healthy patients with Type 1 diabetes and 60 healthy controls. Gomez's equations were used to estimate afferent (RA ) and efferent (RE ) arteriolar resistances, glomerular hydrostatic pressure (PGLO ) and filtration pressure (ΔPF ). The relationships between PUA and glomerular haemodynamic parameters were evaluated by univariable linear regression correlation coefficients. In patients with Type 1 diabetes, higher PUA correlated with lower PGLO (P = 0.002) and ΔPF (P = 0.0007), with higher RA (P = 0.001), but not with RE (P = 0.55). These associations were accompanied by correlations between higher PUA with lower GFR (P = 0.0007), ERPF (P = 0.008), RBF (P = 0.047) and higher RVR (P = 0.021). There were no significant correlations between PUA and renal haemodynamic parameters in the healthy controls. The association between higher PUA with lower GFR and lower ERPF in patients with Type 1 diabetes is driven by alterations in the estimated RA . PUA-mediated RA may be caused by increased tone or thickening of the afferent renal arteriole, which might potentiate renal injury by causing ischaemia to the renal microcirculation. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  13. Plasma thyroid hormone concentration is associated with hepatic triglyceride content in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bril, Fernando; Kadiyala, Sushma; Portillo Sanchez, Paola; Sunny, Nishanth E; Biernacki, Diane; Maximos, Maryann; Kalavalapalli, Srilaxmi; Lomonaco, Romina; Suman, Amitabh; Cusi, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are unclear. Since the thyroid hormone regulates mitochondrial function in the liver, we designed this study in order to establish the association between plasma free T4 levels and hepatic triglyceride accumulation and histological severity of liver disease in patients with T2DM and NAFLD. This is a cross-sectional study including a total of 232 patients with T2DM. All patients underwent a liver MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to quantify hepatic triglyceride content, and an oral glucose tolerance test to estimate insulin resistance. A liver biopsy was performed in patients with a diagnosis of NAFLD. Patients were divided into 5 groups according to plasma free T4 quintiles. We observed that decreasing free T4 levels were associated with an increasing prevalence of NAFLD (from 55% if free T4≥1.18 ng/dL to 80% if free T4<0.80 ng/dL, p=0.016), and higher hepatic triglyceride accumulation by (1)H-MRS (p<0.001). However, lower plasma free T4 levels were not significantly associated with more insulin resistance or more severe liver histology (ie, inflammation, ballooning, or fibrosis). Decreasing levels of plasma free T4 are associated with a higher prevalence of NAFLD and increasing levels of hepatic triglyceride content in patients with T2DM. These results suggest that thyroid hormone may play a role in the regulation of hepatic steatosis and support the notion that hypothyroidism may be associated with NAFLD. No NCT number required. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  14. Noninvasive measurement of plasma glucose from exhaled breath in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Minh, Timothy D C; Oliver, Stacy R; Ngo, Jerry; Flores, Rebecca; Midyett, Jason; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K; Rowland, F Sherwood; Blake, Donald R; Galassetti, Pietro R

    2011-06-01

    Effective management of diabetes mellitus, affecting tens of millions of patients, requires frequent assessment of plasma glucose. Patient compliance for sufficient testing is often reduced by the unpleasantness of current methodologies, which require blood samples and often cause pain and skin callusing. We propose that the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath can be used as a novel, alternative, noninvasive means to monitor glycemia in these patients. Seventeen healthy (9 females and 8 males, 28.0 ± 1.0 yr) and eight type 1 diabetic (T1DM) volunteers (5 females and 3 males, 25.8 ± 1.7 yr) were enrolled in a 240-min triphasic intravenous dextrose infusion protocol (baseline, hyperglycemia, euglycemia-hyperinsulinemia). In T1DM patients, insulin was also administered (using differing protocols on 2 repeated visits to separate the effects of insulinemia on breath composition). Exhaled breath and room air samples were collected at 12 time points, and concentrations of ~100 VOCs were determined by gas chromatography and matched with direct plasma glucose measurements. Standard least squares regression was used on several subsets of exhaled gases to generate multilinear models to predict plasma glucose for each subject. Plasma glucose estimates based on two groups of four gases each (cluster A: acetone, methyl nitrate, ethanol, and ethyl benzene; cluster B: 2-pentyl nitrate, propane, methanol, and acetone) displayed very strong correlations with glucose concentrations (0.883 and 0.869 for clusters A and B, respectively) across nearly 300 measurements. Our study demonstrates the feasibility to accurately predict glycemia through exhaled breath analysis over a broad range of clinically relevant concentrations in both healthy and T1DM subjects.

  15. Evidence for Gently Sloping Plasma Density Profiles in the Deep Corona: Type III Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, P. A.; Warmuth, A.; Mann, G.; Gorgutsa, R. V.; Fomichev, V. V.

    2010-12-01

    Type III radio bursts are produced near the local electron plasma frequency fp and near its harmonic 2fp by fast electrons ejected from the solar active regions and moving through the corona and solar wind. The coronal bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency rapidly falling with time, the typical duration being about 1-3 s. In the present paper, 37 well-defined coronal type III radio bursts (25-450 MHz) are analyzed. The results obtained substantiate an earlier statement that the dependence of the central frequency of the emission on time can be fitted to a power-law model, f(t) vprop (t - t 0)-α, where α can be as low as 1. In the case of negligible plasma acceleration and conical flow, it means that the electron number density within about 1 solar radius above the photosphere will decrease as r -2, like in the solar wind. For the data set chosen, the index α varies in the range from 0.2 to 7 or bigger, with mean and median values of 1.2 and 0.5, respectively. A surprisingly large fraction of events, 84%, have α <= 1.2. These results provide strong evidence that in the type III source regions the electron number density scales as n(r) vprop (r - r 0)-β, with minimum, mean, and median β = 2α of 0.4, 2.4, and 1.0, respectively. Hence, the typical density profiles are more gently sloping than those given by existing empirical coronal models. Several events are found with a wind-like dependence of burst frequency on time. Smaller power-law indices could result from the effects of non-conical geometry of the plasma flow tubes, deceleration of coronal plasma, and/or the curvature of the magnetic field lines. The last effect is shown to be too weak to explain such low power-law indices. A strong tendency is found for bursts from the same group to have similar power-law indices, thereby favoring the hypothesis that they are usually produced by the same source region.

  16. Evidence for Gently Sloping Plasma Density Profiles in the Deep Corona: Type III Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Lobzin, V.; Robinson, P. A.; Warmuth, A.; Mann, G. J.; Gorgutsa, R.; Fomichev, V.

    2010-12-01

    Type III radio bursts are produced near the local electron plasma frequency fp and near its harmonic 2fp by fast electrons ejected from the solar active regions and moving through the corona and solar wind. These bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency rapidly falling with time, the typical duration of the coronal burst being about 1--3 seconds. In the present paper, 37 well-defined coronal type III radio bursts (25--450 MHz) are analyzed. It is found that the dependence of the central frequency of the emission on time can be fitted to a power-law model, f(t) ∝ (t-t0)-α . The index α varies in the range 0.2 to ∞ , with mean and median values of 1.2 and 0.5, respectively. A surprisingly large fraction of events, 84%, has α ≤1.2. Assuming a constant speed of the electron beam, these results provide strong evidence that in the type III source regions within about 1 solar radius above the photosphere the electron number density scales as n(r) ∝ (r-r0)-β , with minimum, mean, and median β =2α of 0.4, 2.4, and 1.0, respectively. Hence, the typical density profiles are more gently sloping than could be expected from the existing empirical coronal models. In the case of negligible plasma acceleration and conical flow, from conservation of the number of electrons it follows that the electron number density will decrease as r-2 with α =1, like in the solar wind. Several events are found with such a wind-like dependence of burst frequency on time. Smaller power-law indices could result from the effects of non-conical geometry of the plasma flow tubes, deceleration of coronal plasma, and/or the curvature of the magnetic field lines. The effects of curvature of the magnetic field lines are shown to be too weak to explain such low power-law indices. A strong tendency is found for bursts from the same group to have similar power-law indices, thereby favoring the hypothesis that they are usually produced by the same source region.

  17. Plasma membrane-associated superstructure: Have we overlooked a new type of organelle in eukaryotic cells?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fernández, José Luis; de Lacoba, Mario García

    2015-09-07

    A variety of intriguing plasma membrane-associated regions, including focal adhesions, adherens junctions, tight junctions, immunological synapses, neuromuscular junctions and the primary cilia, among many others, have been described in eukaryotic cells. Emphasizing their importance, alteration in their molecular structures induces or correlates with different pathologies. These regions display surface proteins connected to intracellular molecules, including cytoskeletal component, which maintain their cytoarchitecture, and signalling proteins, which regulate their organization and functions. Based on the molecular similarities and other common features observed, we suggest that, despite differences in external appearances, all these regions are just the same superstructure that appears in different locations and cells. We hypothesize that this superstructure represents an overlooked new type of organelle that we call plasma membrane-associated superstructure (PMAS). Therefore, we suggest that eukaryotic cells include classical organelles (e.g. mitochondria, Golgi and others) and also PMAS. We speculate that this new type of organelle might be an innovation associated to the emergence of eukaryotes. Finally we discuss the implications of the hypothesis proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Glycaemic control influences the relationship between plasma PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Laugier-Robiolle, Stéphanie; Vergès, Bruno; Le Bras, Maëlle; Gand, Elise; Bouillet, Benjamin; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Le May, Cédric; Pichelin, Matthieu; Maréchaud, Richard; Petit, Jean-Michel; Hadjadj, Samy; Cariou, Bertrand

    2017-03-01

    Pro-protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a critical regulator of LDL cholesterol metabolism. Little is known, however, about the regulation of PCSK9 in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). In the present study, we aimed to determine the relationship between circulating PCSK9 and metabolic variables in T1D. Plasma PCSK9 levels were measured in 195 people with T1D (mean age 38.8 years, mean diabetes duration 17.2 years, mean glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] 8.3%), who were free of any lipid-lowering agent. Plasma PCSK9 was positively correlated with LDL cholesterol (P = .0007), triglycerides (P = .004), apolipoprotein B (P = .005), HbA1c (P = .003), systolic (P = .003) and diastolic (P = .001) blood pressure and body mass index (0.02). In multivariate analysis, PCSK9 concentration was independently associated with HbA1c (P = .02) and LDL cholesterol (P = .03). After classifying patients according to HbA1c tertile, the correlation between PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol was only observed in the highest tertile (P = .0006; Rho = 0.43), whereas no correlation was found in the lowest and intermediate tertiles. This study suggests that good glycaemic control abolishes the positive relationship between PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol in patients with T1D; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be established.

  19. Cold plasma selectivity in the interaction with various types of the cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volotskova, Olga; Stepp, Mary Ann; Keidar, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Present research in the area of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) demonstrates great potential in various areas including medicine and biology. Depending on their configuration they can be used for wound healing, sterilization, targeted cell/tissue removal, and cancer treatments. Here we explore potential mechanisms by which CAP alters cell migration and influences cell adhesion. The migration studies are focused on the CAP interaction with fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells. Data show that various types of cells have different thresholds (treatment times) required to achieve maximum inhibition of cell migration which is around ~30-40%. Studies to assess the impact of CAP treatment on the activation state of integrins and focal adhesion size by immunofluorescence showed more active b1 integrin on the cell surface and large focal adhesions after CAP treatment. Based on these data, a thermodynamic model is presented to explain how CAP leads to integrin activation and focal adhesion assembly. Also responses of the various types of the cells to the cold plasma treatment on the example of the epithelial keratinocytes, papilloma and carcinoma cells are studied. Cell cycle, migration and cell vitality analysis were performed. The goal of this study is to understand the mechanism by which the CAP jet alters cell migration, influences adhesion and cell survival.

  20. Plasma adipokine and inflammatory marker concentrations are altered in obese, as opposed to non-obese, type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dominique; Dendale, Paul; Beelen, Milou; Jonkers, Richard A M; Mullens, Annelies; Corluy, Luk; Meeusen, Romain; van Loon, Luc J C

    2010-06-01

    Elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA), inflammatory marker, and altered adipokine concentrations have been observed in obese type 2 diabetes patients. It remains unclear whether these altered plasma concentrations are related to the diabetic state or presence of obesity. In this cross-sectional observational study, we compare basal plasma FFA, inflammatory marker, and adipokine concentrations between obese and non-obese type 2 diabetes patients and healthy, non-obese controls. A total of 20 healthy, normoglycemic males (BMI <30 kg/m(2)), 20 non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m(2)) and 20 obese (BMI >35 kg/m(2)) type 2 diabetes patients were selected to participate in this study. Groups were matched for age and habitual physical activity level. Body composition, glycemic control, and exercise performance capacity were assessed. Basal blood samples were collected to determine plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and FFA concentrations. Plasma FFA, inflammatory marker (hsCRP, IL-6, TNFalpha), adipokine (adiponectin, resistin, leptin), and triglyceride concentrations did not differ between non-obese diabetes patients and healthy, normoglycemic controls. Plasma FFA, IL-6, hsCRP, leptin, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the obese diabetes patients when compared with the healthy normoglycemic controls (P < 0.05). Furthermore, plasma hsCRP and leptin levels were significantly higher in the obese versus non-obese diabetes patients (P < 0.05). Significant correlations between plasma parameters and glycemic control were observed, but disappeared after adjusting for trunk adipose tissue mass. Elevated plasma leptin, hsCRP, IL-6, and FFA concentrations are associated with obesity and not necessarily with the type 2 diabetic state.

  1. Demonstration of high-performance p-type tin oxide thin-film transistors using argon-plasma surface treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sang-Dae; Kwon, Soo-Hun; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of low-temperature argon (Ar)-plasma surface treatments on the physical and chemical structures of p-type tin oxide thin-films and the electrical performance of p-type tin oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). From the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement, we found that SnO was the dominant phase in the deposited tin oxide thin-film, and the Ar-plasma treatment partially transformed the tin oxide phase from SnO to SnO2 by oxidation. The resistivity of the tin oxide thin-film increased with the plasma-treatment time because of the reduced hole concentration. In addition, the root-mean-square roughness of the tin oxide thin-film decreased as the plasma-treatment time increased. The p-type oxide TFT with an Ar-plasma-treated tin oxide thin-film exhibited excellent electrical performance with a high current on-off ratio (5.2 × 106) and a low off-current (1.2 × 10-12 A), which demonstrates that the low-temperature Ar-plasma treatment is a simple and effective method for improving the electrical performance of p-type tin oxide TFTs.

  2. Frequency and type of seafood consumed influence plasma (n-3) fatty acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyoju; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Barr, R Graham; Tsai, Michael Y; Tracy, Russell P; Siscovick, David S

    2008-12-01

    Few studies have adequately considered the type of seafood and background dietary factors when evaluating diet-biomarker and diet-disease associations. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between different seafood meals and long-chain (n-3) fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] biomarkers in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with white, Chinese-American, black, and Hispanic participants. Dietary intake from a FFQ and plasma phospholipid fatty acids were assessed in 900 MESA participants who were not taking fish oil supplements. When simultaneously adjusting for all seafood groups, concentrations of EPA and DHA in plasma phospholipids were positively correlated with nonfried fish consumption in all 4 ethnic groups (r = 0.24-0.46; P < 0.01) but not with nonfried shellfish, fried fish, or fish in mixed dishes. The magnitude of this correlation was attenuated by up to 67% when type of seafood was not taken into account. After further adjusting for demographic characteristics and other dietary characteristics in multivariate regression models, the association of nonfried fish consumption remained significant (P-trend < 0.001). Data were suggestive of a plateau effect at a nonfried fish intake of about twice weekly. The association of nonfried fish consumption was not modified by intake of (n-6) PUFA or alpha-linolenic acid. This study highlights the importance of cooking methods (nonfried vs. fried fish), types of seafood (fish vs. shellfish), and the overall seafood consumption when assessing health effects of long-chain (n-3) fatty acids of seafood consumption.

  3. Hepatocyte growth factor activator is a potential target proteinase for Kazal-type inhibitor in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Słowińska, Mariola; Bukowska, Joanna; Hejmej, Anna; Bilińska, Barbara; Kozłowski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Jan; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2015-08-01

    A peculiar characteristic of turkey seminal plasma is the increased activity of serine proteinases. It is of interest if the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor controls the activity of turkey seminal plasma proteinases. Pure preparations of the Kazal-type inhibitor and anti-Kazal-type inhibitor monospecific immunoglobulin Gs were used as ligands in affinity chromatography for proteinase isolation from turkey seminal plasma. Gene expression and the immunohistochemical detection of the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor in the reproductive tract of turkey toms are described. The hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) was identified in the binding fraction in affinity chromatography. Hepatocyte growth factor activator activity was inhibited by the Kazal-type inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. This protease was a primary physiological target for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. Numerous proteoforms of HGFA were present in turkey seminal plasma, and phosphorylation was the primary posttranslational modification of HGFA. In addition to HGFA, acrosin was a target proteinase for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. In seminal plasma, acrosin was present only in complexes with the Kazal-type inhibitor and was not present as a free enzyme. The single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor was specific for the reproductive tract. The germ cell-specific expression of Kazal-type inhibitors in the testis indicated an important function in spermatogenesis; secretion by the epithelial cells of the epididymis and the ductus deferens indicated that the Kazal-type inhibitor was an important factor involved in the changes in sperm membranes during maturation and in the maintenance of the microenvironment in which sperm maturation occurred and sperm was stored. The role of HGFA in these processes remains to be established.

  4. Changes in glycosylation of human blood plasma chitotriosidase in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Żurawska-Płaksej, Ewa; Kratz, Ewa Maria; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Mirosława; Knapik-Kordecka, Maria; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Human blood plasma chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is a glycoprotein with chitinolytic activity with not fully elucidated biological function. Its increased level is observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is associated with development of diabetic complications. The CHIT1 glycosylation profile and degree is still poorly studied and never investigated in T2DM. Therefore the aim of the present study was to examine the association between glycosylation profile and degree and diabetes with accompanying nephropathy. In blood plasma of 28 patients with T2DM and 11 healthy subjects the CHIT1 concentration and specific activity were examined. The profile and degree of CHIT1 glycosylation were determined by lectin-ELISA using lectins specific to O-glycans (Jacalin, MPL, VVL) and sialo-specific SNA and MAA. We revealed that both concentration and specific activity of CHIT1 significantly increased in T2DM, especially in nephropathy with elevated albuminuria. The relative reactivities with lectins, except Jacalin, decreased progressively with T2DM occurrence and albuminuria progression. The most significant differences were observed between control vs. albuminuric group (Micro and Macro). It is also possible that the observed differences in immunoblotting pattern in molecular masses of CHIT1 bands between T2DM patients and healthy subjects may be caused by the differences in degree of CHIT1 glycosylation. The analysis of CHIT1 glycosylation status and the determination of CHIT1 concentration together with its enzymatic activity in blood plasma might constitute additional valuable diagnosis tools for the evaluation the T2DM patients with accompanying nephropathy. Extension of the lectin panel specific to O-glycans occurs useful for the further research using microarray formats, which are expected to accelerate “lectin-based glycan profiling” of glycoproteins.

  5. Thermal Design of a Bitter-Type Electromagnet for Dusty Plasma Experiments: Prototype Design and Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmingham, W. J.; Bates, E. M.; Romero-Talamás, Carlos; Rivera, W. F.

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of analyzing magnetized dusty plasma at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) Dusty Plasma Laboratory, we are designing a resistive water cooled Bitter-Type electromagnet. When completed, the magnet will be programmable to generate fields of up to 10 T for at least 10 seconds and up to several minutes. An analytic thermal design method was developed for establishing the location of elongated axial cooling passages. Comparisons with finite element analysis (FEA) data reveals that the thermal design method was capable of generating cooling channel patterns which establish manageable temperature profiles within the magnet. With our analytic method, cooling hole patterns can be generated in seconds instead of hours with FEA software. To further validate our thermal analysis as well as manufacturing techniques of our magnet design, we are now constructing a prototype electromagnet. The prototype is designed to operate continuously at 1 T with a current of 750 A, and has four diagnostic ports that can accommodate thermocouples and optical access to the water flow. A 1.25 inch diameter bore allows for axial field measurements and provides space for small scale experiments. Thermal analysis and specifics of the electromagnet design are presented.

  6. Validation of plasma microRNAs as biomarkers for myotonic dystrophy type 1

    PubMed Central

    Perfetti, A.; Greco, S.; Cardani, R.; Fossati, B.; Cuomo, G.; Valaperta, R.; Ambrogi, F.; Cortese, A.; Botta, A.; Mignarri, A.; Santoro, M.; Gaetano, C.; Costa, E.; Dotti, M. T.; Silvestri, G.; Massa, R.; Meola, G.; Martelli, F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive and simple to measure biomarkers are still an unmet need for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Indeed, muscle biopsies can be extremely informative, but their invasive nature limits their application. Extracellular microRNAs are emerging humoral biomarkers and preliminary studies identified a group of miRNAs that are deregulated in the plasma or serum of small groups of DM1 patients. Here we adopted very stringent selection and normalization criteria to validate or disprove these miRNAs in 103 DM1 patients and 111 matched controls. We confirmed that 8 miRNAs out of 12 were significantly deregulated in DM1 patients: miR-1, miR-27b, miR-133a, miR-133b, miR-206, miR-140-3p, miR-454 and miR-574. The levels of these miRNAs, alone or in combination, discriminated DM1 from controls significantly, and correlated with both skeletal muscle strength and creatine kinase values. Interestingly, miR-133b levels were significantly higher in DM1 female patients. Finally, the identified miRNAs were also deregulated in the plasma of a small group (n = 30) of DM2 patients. In conclusion, this study proposes that miRNAs might be useful as DM1 humoral biomarkers. PMID:27905532

  7. Plasma markers of inflammation and prediction of cardiovascular disease and mortality in African Americans with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Roy, Monique S; Janal, Malvin N; Crosby, Juan; Donnelly, Robert

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether plasma levels of markers of inflammation are predictive of the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, or mortality in African Americans with type 1 diabetes mellitus. A total of 484 African Americans with type 1 diabetes were included. At baseline and 6-year follow-up, a clinical interview and examination were conducted to document CVD and systemic hypertension. Venous blood for glycated hemoglobin and cholesterol was obtained and albumin excretion rate measured. Mortality was assessed annually between baseline and 6-year follow-up by review of the social security death index. Baseline plasma levels of 28 inflammatory biomarkers were measured using multiplex bead analysis system. After adjusting for baseline age and other confounders, African Americans with type 1 diabetes in the highest quartile of plasma interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) were three times more likely to develop CVD than those in the lowest quartile. African Americans with type 1 diabetes in the lowest quartiles of plasma stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) had a 75% higher risk of death than patients in the highest quartile, independently of age, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, hypertension, and albuminuria. In African Americans with type 1 diabetes, high plasma IP-10 is an independent predictor for incident CVD and low SDF-1 an independent predictor for mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood-type and age affect human plasma levels of histidine-rich glycoprotein in a large population.

    PubMed

    Drasin, T; Sahud, M

    1996-11-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an alpha2-glycoprotein that was first described by Heimberger, et al, in 1972. Today, HRG is generally regarded as a mild prothrombotic protein. Blood samples of 585 individuals were collected with the aid of the Alameda-Contra Costa Medical Association (ACCMA) Blood Bank, Oakland, CA. Sex, age, ethnic origin, and blood-type information were available for each sample. The blood was processed to isolate the cell free plasma, and plasma HRG concentration was measured relative to that of a normal pool through a modified Laurell technique. Among Caucasian individuals, the mean HRG level of blood-type AB subjects, 125 +/- 28%, was found to be significantly greater than the means for subjects with A and O blood-types, 103 +/- 35% and 105 +/- 30% respectively (P = .0246). In addition, the average HRG level appears to increase linearly with age. The mean plasma level of HRG in subjects 50-59 years old was significantly greater than the level in subjects 30-39 years old (P = .0020). The correlation observed between blood-type and plasma HRG level in this study supports previously reported results that indicate significant genetic control over the plasma level of this protein. The age and blood-type based correlations observed in this study raise the question of whether these variables need be addressed if HRG level were to be employed in a clinical setting as a diagnostic tool.

  9. Plasma ghrelin concentrations are negatively correlated with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojun; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Qingzhu; Wu, Lina; Wang, Zhimin; Ma, Xiaokun; Ren, Gaofei; Zhang, Yinghui; Li, Zhizhen; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang; Qin, Guijun

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with a decrease in appetite, energy intake and glucose tolerance. Experimental studies have suggested that ghrelin and obestatin play a role in glucose homeostasis and in the regulation of energy metabolism. However, few studies have been performed on the role of ghrelin and obestatin in middle-aged and old adults. In the present study, we investigated the plasma concentrations of ghrelin and obestatin in middle-aged (41-64 years) and old (65-76 years) subjects with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (NDD) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). We also characterized the relationship among plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels and glucose/lipid metabolism. The fasting plasma ghrelin and obestatin concentrations were analyzed using enzyme immunoassay method. Plasma obestatin concentrations in diabetic subjects were significantly lower than those in NGT subjects. Plasma ghrelin were negatively associated with fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, plasma obestatin level was correlated negatively with systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and total cholesterol. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis indicated that UACR was a significantly independent predictor of fasting plasma ghrelin levels. Collectively, ghrelin and obestatin levels may be markers reflecting glucose and lipid conditions in NDD. The lower ghrelin levels may be a potential indicator for renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Multiharmonic cubic-nonlinear theory of plasma-beam superheterodyne free-electron lasers of the dopplertron type

    SciTech Connect

    Kulish, V. V.; Lysenko, A. V.; Koval, V. V.

    2010-12-15

    A multiharmonic cubic-nonlinear theory of a plasma-beam superheterodyne free-electron laser of the dopplertron type is constructed. A retarded electromagnetic wave propagating in the magnetized plasma-beam system toward the electron beam is used for pumping. The multiharmonic interaction of waves which plays an important role is taken into account. Saturation levels and mechanisms are analyzed. The promising application of such systems for generating high-power electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter wavelength range is demonstrated.

  11. Beam-plasma instability in the presence of low-frequency turbulence. [during type 3 solar emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, M. V.; Dubois, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    General equations are derived for a linear beam-plasma instability in the presence of low-frequency turbulence. Within a 'quasi-linear' statistical approximation, these equations contain Langmuir wave scattering, diffusion, resonant and nonresonant anomalous absorption, and a 'plasma laser' effect. It is proposed that naturally occurring density irregularities in the solar wind may stabilize the beam-unstable Langmuir waves which occur during type III solar emissions.

  12. Bioimpedance analysis and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide assay may cooperate in diagnosing and managing heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tamagno, Gianluca; Guzzon, Samuele

    2006-06-01

    We describe the case of an obese patient presenting leg oedema, progressive oliguria, orthopnoea and mild increased B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) provided additional data for the interpretation of the plasma BNP values, contributing to the diagnosis of heart failure and the appropriate management of the patient. In our mind, BIA could represent a useful tool for integrating the plasma BNP assay in both diagnosis and management of heart failure.

  13. Modeling and experimental validation of a 1.2 MW DC transferred well-type plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, S. W.; Hsu, K. L.; Lin, D. L.; Chen, J. S.; Tzeng, C. C.

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the numerical modeling and experimental validation of a 1.2 MW DC transferred plasma torch, which is equipped with a well-type cathode (WTC). In order to investigate the complicated thermal and flow characteristics due to the interaction between the working gas and electric arc, the flow filed inside the plasma torch is modeled by the magnetic-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The governing equations are solved numerically using a finite volume discretization for both cold and hot flow simulations. The numerical simulations are then validated by experimental measurements at a specific operation condition. The predicted results successfully reflect some important features of the studied transferred WTC plasma torch.

  14. Plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Arman; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Khera, Amit V; Qasim, Atif; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P

    2015-08-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have emerged as causal risk factors for developing coronary heart disease independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) modulates triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Mutations causing loss-of-function of ApoC-III lower triglycerides and reduce coronary heart disease risk, suggestive of a causal role for ApoC-III. Little data exist about the relationship of ApoC-III, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we examined the relationships between plasma ApoC-III, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in patients with T2DM. Plasma ApoC-III levels were measured in a cross-sectional study of 1422 subjects with T2DM but without clinically manifest coronary heart disease. ApoC-III levels were positively associated with total cholesterol (Spearman r=0.36), triglycerides (r=0.59), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.16), fasting glucose (r=0.16), and glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.12; P<0.0001 for all). In age, sex, and race-adjusted analysis, ApoC-III levels were positively associated with coronary artery calcification (Tobit regression ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.50 per SD increase in ApoC-III; P<0.001). As expected for an intermediate mediator, these findings were attenuated when adjusted for both triglycerides (Tobit regression ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-2.18; P=0.086) and separately for very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Tobit regression ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.71; P=0.53). In persons with T2DM, increased plasma ApoC-III is associated with higher triglycerides, less favorable cardiometabolic phenotypes, and higher coronary artery calcification, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therapeutic inhibition of ApoC-III may thus be a novel strategy for reducing plasma

  15. Experiments on a reflex-type sheet plasma negative-ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, A.; Kuroda, T.; Oka, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Karita, A.; Kawamoto, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Negative hydrogen ions are extracted from a reflex-type sheet plasma. Electron density and temperature profiles are measured with changing the filling gas pressure, and they are optimized to the H{sup {minus}} production at the optimum gas pressure. The optimum gas pressure is 5 mTorr for the discharge current {ital I}{sub {ital d}} =2 A. As the discharge current {ital I}{sub {ital d}} increases, H{sup {minus}} current increases linearly corresponding to the density increase in the center region, but saturates above {ital I}{sub {ital d}} =40 A. The maximum extracted H{sup {minus}} current density of 4 mA/cm{sup 2} is obtained at {ital I}{sub {ital d}}=100 A.

  16. Ion Implantation of Silver Nanoparticles on Electrodeposited Polycarbazole Via Plasma Sputter Type Negative Ion Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, M. C.; Mascarinas, V.; Ramos, H.

    2017-09-01

    The discovery of conducting polymer has brought tremendous advancement in developing various polymeric materials, Carbazole pendants of poly(ethyl methacrylate) was cross-linked via an electrochemical route. The obtained film of poly( carbazole ethyl methacrylate) electrodeposited on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) was modified by implanting silver nanoparticles on its surface. This was done using Plasma Sputter-type Negative Ion Sources (PSTNIS) The modified and unmodified films of polycarbazole were characterized to assess its properties. Implanting silver nanoparticles on the surface of the cross-linked polymer abruptly changed its surface roughness, absorbance in the visible region and its current-voltage characteristic. A more pronounced diode-like characteristic was observed with a turn-on voltage of ∼0.4V. Investigation and tailoring the properties of electropolymerized carbazole attached to poly (ethyl methacrylate) backbone with implanted silver nanoparticles could lead to important materials with impact in optoelectronic devices.

  17. Microwave absorption property of plasma spray W-type hexagonal ferrite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shicheng; Liu, Yi; Tian, Haoliang; Tong, Hui; Liu, Yuxin; Xu, Binshi

    2015-03-01

    In order to enhance the adhesion strength of microwave absorbing materials, W-type hexagonal ferrite coating is fabricated by plasma spray. The feedstock of ferrite powders is synthesized by solid-state reaction and spray dried process. Microstructures of the coating are analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectra (EDS). Hexagonal ferrite coating is successfully deposited on the substrate with adhesion strength of 28 MPa. The magnetic property of ferrite samples is measured using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Saturation magnetization of the ferrite coating is lower than ferrite powder. Reflection loss of the hexagonal ferrite coating is measured in frequency of 2-18 GHz. The result shows that the coating is suitable for electromagnetic wave absorbers in Ku-band.

  18. DLTS study of defects in hydrogen plasma treated p-type silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Leitch, A. W. R.

    2001-12-01

    A deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) study of defects found in float-zone p-type silicon exposed to a DC hydrogen plasma is reported. DLTS measurements of these samples revealed three deep levels. Two of the levels are broad, with ET- EV in the range 0.34-0.39 eV (H2) and 0.40-0.44 eV (H3); these appear as bands in the Arrhenius plot. The third level has an activation energy of 0.09 eV (H1). The variations in the capture cross-sections of H2 and H3 are believed to be strain-related. The concentration of H3 exceeds the other two levels and decreases rapidly into the samples with ∼10 15 cm -3 at a depth of 0.20 μm. H3 is tentatively ascribed to an extended defect.

  19. Design of a 500-kJ Mather-type plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect

    Heidarnia, A. Sadighzadeh, A.; Zaeem, A. A.; Damideh, V.

    2016-12-15

    In this article, design of a 500-kJ Mather-type plasma focus device to achieve 10{sup 11} neutrons/shot is reported. One of its important characteristics is the triple-part anode design. The anode is surrounded by an alumina insulator. The second part of the anode is changeable in order to locate cylindrical, conical, or other shapes of pieces mounted on it. This geometry leads to the easier investigation of the neutron and X-ray emissions of the device. The third part of the anode is for changing the materials exposed to different kinds of radiations. The design parameters are considered by semiempirical and empirical formulas and are sketched by Solidworks software. Also, the peak current and neutron yield are estimated.

  20. Design of a 500-kJ Mather-type plasma focus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarnia, A.; Sadighzadeh, A.; Zaeem, A. A.; Damideh, V.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, design of a 500-kJ Mather-type plasma focus device to achieve 1011 neutrons/shot is reported. One of its important characteristics is the triple-part anode design. The anode is surrounded by an alumina insulator. The second part of the anode is changeable in order to locate cylindrical, conical, or other shapes of pieces mounted on it. This geometry leads to the easier investigation of the neutron and X-ray emissions of the device. The third part of the anode is for changing the materials exposed to different kinds of radiations. The design parameters are considered by semiempirical and empirical formulas and are sketched by Solidworks software. Also, the peak current and neutron yield are estimated.

  1. Type 2B von Willebrand Disease: A Matter of Plasma Plus Platelet Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Castaman, Giancarlo; Federici, Augusto B

    2016-07-01

    Type 2B von Willebrand disease (VWD2B) is a rare, autosomal-dominant inherited bleeding disorder, characterized by an enhanced ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma and often with variable degree of thrombocytopenia and loss of high-molecular-weight multimers von Willebrand factor (VWF). All these phenomena are caused by a mutant VWF, normally synthesized and assembled by endothelial cells, but with heightened affinity binding to the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ib-α (GpIb-α). When this abnormal VWF is released into the circulation and under specific clinical circumstances, in vivo platelet clumping is observed. Mutations, invariably clustered in exon 28 of the VWF gene encoding for the VWF A1 domain involved in VWF binding to GpIb-α, are responsible for VWD2B phenotype. Clinical and laboratory phenotype appears strongly related to the type of VWF-causative mutations. However, recent evidences suggest that a true platelet defect is also present in this type, with several morphological and functional abnormalities being detected in a subset of VWD2B patients.

  2. Day-to-day variability of fasting plasma glucose in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Ollerton, R L; Playle, R; Ahmed, K; Dunstan, F D; Luzio, S D; Owens, D R

    1999-03-01

    To determine the day-to-day intraindividual variability of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in newly diagnosed Caucasian type 2 diabetic subjects. A total of 193 newly diagnosed, previously untreated, Caucasian type 2 diabetic subjects (135 men, 58 women) had FPG measured on two consecutive days (FPG1, FPG2). Ethical approval and subjects' full informed consent were obtained. Subjects fasted for 12 h before each study day and rested for at least 30 min before blood was taken. Plasma glucose was analyzed by a glucose oxidase method with intra- and interassay coefficients of variation (CVs) < 2%. Variability of FPG was assessed by comparison of percentage differences (PDs): PD = 100 (FPG2 - FPG1)/FPG1, with averaged FPG (FPGaver = [FPG1 + FPG2]/2). Biological and analytical variability were determined by use of SD2total = SD2biological + SD2analytical, where SD2analytical approximately equal to 2 x (CVglucose measurement)2. Given normally distributed data with zero mean, 95% of daily percentage differences will be expected to fall within a range of +/- 2 SDtotal. Subjects were age 54 +/- 10 years (mean +/- SD) and had BMI of 29.3 +/- 5.3 kg/m2. FPG values for both days were 12.2 +/- 3.4 mmol/l (FPG1) and 12.1 +/- 3.3 mmol/l (FPG2), with a mean paired difference (95% CI) of 0.1 (0.0 to 0.3) mmol/l. The variance of these differences increased with increasing FPGaver. The PDs did not exhibit this effect and were normally distributed (mean -0.6% [-1.7 to 0.4]; SD 7.4% [6.8 to 8.3]), giving a 95% variability (2 SD) of 14.8%. Biological variability (2 SDbiological) was 13.7%. No significant difference in PD was found between men and women (mean difference 1.3% [-1.0 to 3.6]; SDmale 7.4%, SDfemale 7.3%; P = 0.62). A total of 95% of the FPG values for this group of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects varied within approximately +/- 15% on a daily basis, with approximately 14% caused by biological variability. As these results are expressed in percentage terms, subjects in

  3. A Guillemin type E pulse forming network as the driver for a pulsed, high density plasma source.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Priyavandna J; Anitha, V P; Sholapurwala, Z H; Saxena, Y C

    2014-06-01

    A Guillemin type E pulse forming network (PFN) has been designed, developed, and tested for its application in generating high density (~1 × 10(18) m(-3)) plasmas. In the present study, plasma thus generated is utilized to investigate the interaction of high power microwaves (HPMs) with plasma in an experimental architecture known as SYMPLE (System for Microwave PLasma Experiment). Plasma discharges of ~100 μs (max) duration are to be produced, by delivering energy of 5 kJ stored in a PFN to the plasma source, a washer gun. The output of the PFN, in terms of its rise time, flat top and amplitude, needs to be tailored, depending on the experimental requirements. An ignitron (NL8900) trigger generator (ITG) is developed in-house to control the PFN discharge through the gun. This ITG is also to be used in a circuit that synchronizes the HPM and plasma shots, to ensure that HPM-plasma interaction takes place during a temporal regime where appropriate parametric conditions are satisfied. Hence it is necessary to retain the jitter within ±2.5 μs. Further, requirement on plasma quiescence (~10%) necessitates maintaining the ripple within 5%. The developmental work of the PFN, keeping in view the above criteria and the test results, is presented in this paper. The parameters of the PFN have been analytically approximated and verified with PSPICE simulation. The test results presented include rise time ~5-8 μs, flat top variable in the range 20-100 μs, ripple within ~1.5%, and jitter within ±2.5 μs, producing quiescent (<10%) plasma discharge meeting the experimental requirements.

  4. Differential effects of insulin deprivation and systemic insulin treatment on plasma protein synthesis in type 1 diabetic people

    PubMed Central

    Jaleel, Abdul; Klaus, Katherine A.; Morse, Dawn M.; Karakelides, Helen; Ward, Lawrence E.; Irving, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    It remains to be determined whether systemic insulin replacement normalizes synthesis rates of different plasma proteins and whether there are differential effects on various plasma proteins. We tested a hypothesis that insulin deprivation differentially affects individual plasma protein synthesis and that systemic insulin treatment may not normalize synthesis of all plasma proteins. We measured synthesis rates of 41 plasma proteins in seven each of type 1 diabetic (T1DM) and nondiabetic participants (ND) using [ring-13C6]phenylalanine as a tracer. T1DM were studied while on chronic insulin treatment and during 8 h insulin deprivation. Insulin treatment normalized glucose levels, but plasma insulin levels were higher during insulin treatment than during insulin deprivation in T1DM and ND. Individual plasma proteins were purified by affinity chromatography and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Only 41 protein gel spots from over 300 were chosen based on their protein homogeneity. Insulin deprivation and hyperglycemia either significantly increased (n = 12) or decreased (n = 12) synthesis rates of 24 of 41 plasma proteins in T1DM compared with ND. Insulin treatment normalized synthesis rates of 13 of these 24 proteins, which were altered during insulin deprivation. However, insulin treatment significantly altered the synthesis of 14 additional proteins. In conclusion, acute insulin deprivation caused both a decrease and increase in synthesis rates of many plasma proteins with various functions. Moreover, chronic systemic insulin treatment not only did not normalize synthesis of all plasma proteins but also altered synthesis of several additional proteins that were unaltered during insulin deprivation. PMID:19654285

  5. Elevated total plasma homocysteine levels are associated with type 2 diabetes in women with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changyi; Wu, Qunhong; Zhang, Lina; Hao, Yanhua; Fan, Rui; Peng, Xiaolin; Liu, Shengyuan; Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Sihan; Ma, Jianping; Duan, Shiwei; Han, Liyuan

    2015-01-01

    There is only limited available evidence of a relationship between total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels and type 2 diabetes in hypertensive subjects. A total of 5,935 Chinese essentially hypertensive subjects were recruited by cluster sampling from 60 communities. The cases had diabetes, whereas the controls did not. Anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters were assessed using standard procedures. A multivariable analysis was performed to analyze the association of tHcy and type 2 diabetes susceptibility in hypertensive subjects. The 5,241 controls (women/men: 2,716/2,625) and 594 cases (women/men: 291/303) were recruited consecutively. The level of tHcy was dose- dependently associated with type 2 diabetes in the hypertensive women subjects. After controlling for corresponding confounding factors, a significant trend was only noted in the women subjects, with odds ratios per 5 μmol/L tHcy of 1.11 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.16) in the crude model, 1.05 (95% CI, 1.01-1.11) in model 1, and 1.07 (95% CI, 1.02-1.13) in model 2. However, no significant result was found for levels of tHcy>or=15 μmol/L vs <15 μmol/L in the men, women and all hypertensive subjects. When the level of tHcy was divided into quartiles, tHcy was positively associated with type 2 diabetes in hypertensive women subjects. However, when the level of tHcy was separated into hyperhomocysteinemic (>or=15 μmol/L) and normal (<15 μmol/L), no significant results were observed.

  6. Human Type IV P-type ATPases That Work as Plasma Membrane Phospholipid Flippases and Their Regulation by Caspase and Calcium*

    PubMed Central

    Segawa, Katsumori; Kurata, Sachiko; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2016-01-01

    In plasma membranes, flippases translocate aminophospholipids such as phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic leaflet. Mammalian ATP11C, a type IV P-type ATPase, acts as a flippase at the plasma membrane. Here, by expressing 12 human type IV P-type ATPases in ATP11C-deficient cells, we determined that ATP8A2 and ATP11A can also act as plasma membrane flippases. As with ATP11C, ATP8A2 and ATP11A localized to the plasma membrane in a CDC50A-dependent manner. ATP11A was cleaved by caspases during apoptosis, and a caspase-resistant ATP11A blocked apoptotic PtdSer exposure. In contrast, ATP8A2 was not cleaved by caspase, and cells expressing ATP8A2 did not expose PtdSer during apoptosis. Similarly, high Ca2+ concentrations inhibited the ATP11A and ATP11C PtdSer flippase activity, but ATP8A2 flippase activity was relatively resistant to Ca2+. ATP11A and ATP11C were ubiquitously expressed in human and mouse adult tissues. In contrast, ATP8A2 was expressed in specific tissues, such as the brain and testis. Thus, ATP8A2 may play a specific role in translocating PtdSer in these tissues. PMID:26567335

  7. Profiling B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Cleavage Peptidoforms in Human Plasma by Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenyan; Raedschelders, Koen; Santos, Marcia; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2017-10-02

    B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) is a biologically active circulating hormone. Plasma concentrations of BNP are routinely used in the diagnosis of heart failure, and the intravenous infusion of recombinant BNP can be used for heart failure treatment. Like many bioactive polypeptides, multiple plasma enzymes are known to cleave circulating BNP, and as part of the CVD-B/D-HPP mandate, we sought to develop a technique capable of profiling these catabolic processes in plasma. We used a neutral-coated capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization (CESI) separation system coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry to profile the proteolysis of exogenous recombinant BNP1-32 in plasma. Our method utilizes electrokinetic injection of minimally processed plasma samples to simultaneously monitor the dynamic generation and breakdown of at least five BNP peptidoforms in plasma. By integrating multisegment injection, our method can produce a multipoint BNP proteolytic profile for one sample within an hour. We envision applying this method to assess the potential relation between plasma-based BNP proteolysis and heart failure as well as a means of monitoring BNP bioavailability after therapeutic infusion.

  8. An example of genetically distinct HIV type 1 variants in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma during suppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Viktor; Gisslen, Magnus; Hagberg, Lars; Peterson, Julia; Shao, Wei; Spudich, Serena; Price, Richard W; Palmer, Sarah

    2014-05-15

    We sequenced the genome of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recovered from 70 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens and 29 plasma samples and corresponding samples obtained before treatment initiation from 17 subjects receiving suppressive therapy. More CSF sequences than plasma sequences were hypermutants. We determined CSF sequences and plasma sequences in specimens obtained from 2 subjects after treatment initiation. In one subject, we found genetically distinct CSF and plasma sequences, indicating that they came from HIV-1 from 2 different compartments, one potentially the central nervous system, during suppressive therapy. In addition, there was little evidence of viral evolution in the CSF during therapy, suggesting that continuous virus replication is not the major cause of viral persistence in the central nervous system.

  9. Formation of Nanoparticles by Control of Electron Temperature in Hollow-Typed Magnetron Radio Frequency CH4/H2 Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emi, Junichi; Kato, Kohgi; Abe, Toshimi; Iizuka, Satoru

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we investigate the effects of electron temperature Te on the production of nanoparticles by using the grid-biasing method in hollow-typed magnetron radio frequency (RF) CH4/H2 plasma. We find that nanoparticles are produced in low-Te plasma. On the other hand, thin film depositions, such as nanowalls, are mainly observed and almost no nanoparticles are created in high-Te plasma. This implies that a reduction in the CH2/CH3 radical ratio is important for producing nanoparticles, together with a reduction in sheath potential in front of the substrate. The change in electron temperature in plasma has a marked effect on film quality.

  10. Increased plasma levels of xanthurenic and kynurenic acids in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oxenkrug, Gregory F

    2015-01-01

    About 350 million people worldwide have type 2 diabetes (T2D). The major risk factor of T2D is impaired glucose tolerance (pre-diabetes) with 10% of pre-diabetes subjects develop T2D every year. Understanding of mechanisms of development of T2D from pre-diabetes is important for prevention and treatment of T2D. Chronic stress and chronic low grade inflammation are prominent risk factors for T2D development in pre-diabetic subjects. However, molecular mechanisms mediating effect of stress and inflammation on development of T2D from pre-diabetes remain unknown. One of such mechanisms might involve kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. We suggested that chronic stress- or chronic low grade inflammation-induced upregulation of formation of upstream KTP metabolites, KYN and 3-hydroxyKYN, combined with chronic stress or chronic low grade inflammation-induced deficiency of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, a cofactor of downstream enzymes of KTP, triggers overproduction of diabetogenic downstream KYN metabolites, kynurenic acid (KYNA) and 3-hydroxyKYNA (also known as xanthurenic acid (XA)). As the initial assessment of our working hypothesis, we evaluated plasma levels of up- and down-stream KP metabolites in the same samples of T2D patients. KYN, XA and KYNA levels in plasma samples of T2D patients were higher than in samples of non-diabetic subjects. Our results provide further support of “kynurenine hypothesis of insulin resistance and its progression to T2D” that suggested that overproduction of diabetogenic KP metabolites, induced by chronic stress- or chronic low grade inflammation, is one of the mechanisms promoting development of T2D from pre-diabetes. Downstream metabolites of KP might serve as biomarkers of T2D and targets for clinical intervention. PMID:26055228

  11. Plasma microRNAs as biomarkers for myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Perfetti, Alessandra; Greco, Simona; Bugiardini, Enrico; Cardani, Rosanna; Gaia, Paola; Gaetano, Carlo; Meola, Giovanni; Martelli, Fabio

    2014-06-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) lacks non-invasive and easy to measure biomarkers, still largely relying on semi-quantitative tests for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Muscle biopsies provide valuable data, but their use is limited by their invasiveness. microRNA (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression that are also present in biological fluids and may serve as diseases biomarkers. Thus, we tested plasma miRNAs in the blood of 36 DM1 patients and 36 controls. First, a wide miRNA panel was profiled in a patient subset, followed by validation using all recruited subjects. We identified a signature of nine deregulated miRNAs in DM1 patients: eight miRNAs were increased (miR-133a, miR-193b, miR-191, miR-140-3p, miR-454, miR-574, miR-885-5p, miR-886-3p) and one (miR-27b) was decreased. Next, the levels of these miRNAs were used to calculate a "DM1-miRNAs score". We found that both miR-133a levels and DM1-miRNAs score discriminated DM1 from controls significantly and Receiver-Operator Characteristic curves displayed an area under the curve of 0.94 and 0.97, respectively. Interestingly, both miR-133a levels and DM1-miRNAs score displayed an inverse correlation with skeletal muscle strength and displayed higher values in more compromised patients. In conclusion, we identified a characteristic plasma miRNA signature of DM1. Although preliminary, this study indicates miRNAs as potential DM1 humoral biomarkers.

  12. VGF Peptide Profiles in Type 2 Diabetic Patients’ Plasma and in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    D’Amato, Filomena; Noli, Barbara; Angioni, Laura; Cossu, Efisio; Incani, Michela; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Solinas, Paola; Isola, Raffaella; Mariotti, Stefano; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    To address the possible involvement of VGF peptides in obesity and diabetes, we studied type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obese patients, and high-fat diet induced obese mice. Two VGF peptides (NAPP-19 and QQET-30) were identified in human plasma by HPLC-ESI-MS. The VGF C-terminus, the above two cleaved peptides, and the TLQP-21 related peptide/s were studied using ELISA and immunohistochemistry. In euglycemic patients, plasma NAPPE and TLQP like peptides were significantly reduced with obesity (74±10 vs. 167±28, and 92±10 vs. 191±19 pmol/ml, mean+SEM, n = 10 and 6, obese vs. normal BMI, respectively, p<0.03). Upon a standard glucose load, a distinct response was shown for VGF C-terminus, TLQP and QQET-like (ERVW immunoreactive) peptides in euglycemic normal BMI patients, but was virtually abolished in euglycemic obese, and in T2D patients independently of BMI. High-fat diet induced obese mice showed reduced plasma VGF C-terminus, NAPPE and QQET-like (ERVW) peptide/s (3±0.2 vs. 4.6±0.3, 22±3.5 vs. 34±1.3, and 48±7 vs. 100±7 pmol/ml, mean+SEM, n = 8/group, obese vs. slim, respectively, p<0.03), with a loss of the response to glucose for all VGF peptides studied. In immunohistochemistry, TLQP and/or VGF C-terminus antibodies labelled VGF containing perikarya in mouse celiac ganglia, pancreatic islet cells and thin beaded nerve fibres in brown adipose tissues, with fewer in white adipose tissue. Upon the glucose load, tyrosine hydroxylase and VGF C-terminus immunoreactive axons became apparent in pancreatic islets of slim animals, but not in obese animals. Alltogether, a significant loss of VGF peptide immunoreactivity and/or their response to glucose was demonstrated in obese patients, with or without T2D, in parallel with a similar loss in high-fat diet induced obese mice. An involvement of VGF in metabolic regulations, including those of brown and/or white adipose tissues is underlined, and may point out specific VGF peptides as potential targets for diagnosis

  13. Plasma effects on the growth rate of a helix magnetron-type conducting cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghaninejad, A.; Saviz, S.

    2016-10-01

    The linear theory of magnetron amplifier in the presence of the partially plasma loaded sheath helix is presented. The hollow electron beam and plasma column are exposed to the axial magnetic field. The dispersion relation is obtained by using the appropriate boundary conditions. The effects of electron beam, plasma column parameters and sheath helix are studied numerically on the gain. The numerical results show that the presence of the plasma column considerably increases the gain. It is shown that the bandwidth increases by increasing the plasma density. One of the interesting results are that the maximum gain occurs at the special value of the plasma and beam radius. The maximum of gain occurs when the helix approaches the vane. The results show that the gain and bandwidth at lower harmonics are greater than at higher harmonics. The gain and bandwidth in the presence of the plasma column are larger than when applying the dielectric rod.

  14. Omentin-1 plasma levels and cholesterol metabolism in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 1: impact of weight reduction

    PubMed Central

    Lesná, J; Tichá, A; Hyšpler, R; Musil, F; Bláha, V; Sobotka, L; Zadák, Z; Šmahelová, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Omentin-1 is an anti-inflammatory adipokine produced preferentially by visceral adipose tissue. Plasma levels of omentin-1 are decreased in obesity and other insulin-resistant states. Insulin resistance contributes to the changes of cholesterol synthesis and absorption as well. The aim of this study was to characterise omentin-1 plasma levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 during weight reduction, and to elucidate the relationship between cholesterol metabolism and omentin-1. Methods: Plasma levels of omentin-1 were measured in obese type 1 diabetics (n=14, body mass index >30 kg m−2, age 29–62 years) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BioVendor). Gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (Fisons Plc.,) was used to measure squalene and non-cholesterol sterols—markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption (phase I). Measurements were repeated after 1 month (phase II; 1 week of fasting in the hospital setting and 3 weeks on a diet containing 150 g saccharides per day) and after 1 year (phase III) on a diet with 225 g saccharides per day. Results: Omentin-1 plasma levels were stable during phases I and II, but significantly increased (P<0.001) during phase III. Omentin-1 plasma dynamics were significantly associated with plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (P=0.005) and triacylglycerols (P=0.01), as well as with lathosterol (P=0.03). Conclusion: Omentin-1 plasma levels significantly increased during the weight reduction programme. Omentin-1 plasma dynamics suggest a close relationship with cholesterol metabolism. PMID:26524638

  15. Plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for detecting pheochromocytoma in von Hippel-Lindau disease and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    PubMed

    Eisenhofer, G; Lenders, J W; Linehan, W M; Walther, M M; Goldstein, D S; Keiser, H R

    1999-06-17

    The detection of pheochromocytomas in patients at risk for these tumors, such as patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN-2), is hindered by the inadequate sensitivity of commonly available biochemical tests. In this study we evaluated measurements of plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for detecting pheochromocytomas in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease or MEN-2. We studied 26 patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease and 9 patients with MEN-2 who had histologically verified pheochromocytomas and 50 patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease or MEN-2 who had no radiologic evidence of pheochromocytoma. Von Hippel-Lindau disease and MEN-2 were diagnosed on the basis of germ-line mutations of the appropriate genes. The plasma concentrations of normetanephrine and metanephrine were compared with the plasma concentrations of catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine) and urinary excretion of catecholamines, metanephrines, and vanillylmandelic acid. The sensitivity of measurements of plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for the detection of tumors was 97 percent, whereas the other biochemical tests had a sensitivity of only 47 to 74 percent. All patients with MEN-2 had high plasma concentrations of metanephrine, whereas the patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease had almost exclusively high plasma concentrations of only normetanephrine. One patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease had a normal plasma normetanephrine concentration; this patient had a very small adrenal tumor (<1 cm). The high sensitivity of measurements of plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine was accompanied by a high level of specificity (96 percent). Measurements of plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine are useful in screening for pheochromocytomas in patients with a familial predisposition to these tumors.

  16. Reconstitution fluid type does not affect pulmonary inflammation or DNA damage following infusion of lyophilized plasma.

    PubMed

    McCully, Sean P; Lee, Tim H; McCully, Belinda H; Sands, Claire L; Rick, Elizabeth A; Dean, Rondi K; Anderson, Nathan W; Hampton, David A; Louis, Scott G; Differding, Jerome A; Schreiber, Martin A

    2015-02-01

    Dysfunctional inflammation following traumatic hemorrhage can lead to multiple-organ failure and death. In our polytrauma swine model, lyophilized plasma (LP) reconstituted with sterile water and ascorbic acid suppressed systemic inflammation and attenuated DNA damage. However, it remains unknown whether the inflammatory response is affected by the type of fluid used to reconstitute LP. We hypothesized that common resuscitation fluids such as normal saline (LP-NS), lactated Ringer's solution (LP-LR), Hextend (LP-HX), or sterile water (LP-SW) would yield similar inflammation profiles and DNA damage following LP reconstitution and transfusion. This was a randomized, prospective, blinded animal study. LP was reconstituted to 50% of original volume with NS, LR, HX, or SW buffered with 15-mM ascorbic acid. Forty swine were subjected to a validated model of polytrauma, hemorrhagic shock, and Grade V liver injury and resuscitated with LP. Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, plasma C-reactive protein, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine concentrations were assessed for systemic inflammation and DNA damage at baseline, 2 hours, and 4 hours following liver injury. Lung inflammation was evaluated by Real Time Polymerize Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Reconstituted LP pH was similar between groups before resuscitation. IL-6 and IL-10 increased at 2 hours and 4 hours compared with baseline in all groups (p < 0.017). DNA damage increased at 2 hours and 4 hours compared with baseline and from 2 hours to 4 hours in the LP-NS, LP-LR, and LP-SW groups (all p < 0.017). Animals resuscitated with LP-HX not only demonstrated increased DNA damage at 4 hours versus baseline but also had the lowest C-reactive protein level at 2 hours and 4-hours (p < 0.017). Overall, differences between groups were similar for DNA damage and lung inflammation. Reconstitution fluid type does not affect inflammatory cytokine profiles or DNA damage following LP transfusion in this swine polytrauma model. Based on

  17. Urine and plasma metabolites predict the development of diabetic nephropathy in individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pena, M J; Lambers Heerspink, H J; Hellemons, M E; Friedrich, T; Dallmann, G; Lajer, M; Bakker, S J L; Gansevoort, R T; Rossing, P; de Zeeuw, D; Roscioni, S S

    2014-09-01

    Early detection of individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension at risk for micro- or macroalbuminuria may facilitate prevention and treatment of renal disease. We aimed to discover plasma and urine metabolites that predict the development of micro- or macroalbuminuria. Patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 90) and hypertension (n = 150) were selected from the community-cohort 'Prevention of REnal and Vascular End-stage Disease' (PREVEND) and the Steno Diabetes Center for this case-control study. Cases transitioned in albuminuria stage (from normo- to microalbuminuria or micro- to macroalbuminuria). Controls, matched for age, gender, and baseline albuminuria stage, remained in normo- or microalbuminuria stage during follow-up. Median follow-up was 2.9 years. Metabolomics were performed on plasma and urine. The predictive performance of a metabolite for albuminuria transition was assessed by the integrated discrimination index. In patients with Type 2 diabetes with normoalbuminuria, no metabolites discriminated cases from controls. In patients with Type 2 diabetes with microalbuminuria, plasma histidine was lower (fold change = 0.87, P = 0.02) and butenoylcarnitine was higher (fold change = 1.17, P = 0.007) in cases vs. controls. In urine, hexose, glutamine and tyrosine were lower in cases vs. controls (fold change = 0.20, P < 0.001; 0.32, P < 0.001; 0.51, P = 0.006, respectively). Adding the metabolites to a model of baseline albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate metabolites improved risk prediction for macroalbuminuria transition (plasma integrated discrimination index = 0.28, P < 0.001; urine integrated discrimination index = 0.43, P < 0.001). These metabolites did not differ between hypertensive cases and controls without Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes-specific plasma and urine metabolites were discovered that predict the development of macroalbuminuria beyond established renal risk markers. These results should be confirmed in a large

  18. Plasma level of cyclophilin A is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and suggests presence of vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Cyclophilin A, an immunophilin is secreted from human monocytes activated by high glucose. Given its role as an inflammatory mediator of vascular tissue damage associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, we examined plasma levels of cyclophilin A in normal healthy volunteers and patients with type 2 diabetes (DM), with or without coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Study subjects comprised of 212 patients with DM and CAD,101 patients with diabetes, 122 patients with CAD and 121 normal healthy volunteers. Diabetes was assessed by HbA1c levels while coronary artery disease was established by a positive treadmill test and/or coronary angiography. Plasma cyclophilin A was measured using a cyclophilin A ELISA Kit. Relationship of plasma cyclophilin A levels with blood markers of type 2 diabetes, blood lipid levels and medication for diabetes and coronary artery disease were also explored. Results Plasma Cyclophilin levels were higher in diabetes patients with or without CAD compared to normal subjects (P < 0.001). Age, fasting blood sugar levels and HbA1C levels were positively associated with increased plasma cyclophilin. Patients using metformin had reduced levels of plasma cyclophilin (p < 0.001).Serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides had no significant association with plasma cyclophilin levels. In patients with increased serum CRP levels, plasma cyclophilin A was also elevated (p = 0.016). Prevalence odds for DM, DM + CAD and CAD are higher in those with high cyclophilin values, compared to those with lower values, after adjusting for age and sex, indicating strong association of high cyclophilin values with diabetes and vascular disease. Conclusions/interpretations Our study demonstrates that patients with type 2 diabetes have higher circulating levels of cyclophilin A than the normal population. Plasma cyclophilin levels were increased in patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease

  19. Formation of Nitrogen Oxides in an Apokamp-Type Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnin, É. A.; Goltsova, P. A.; Panarin, V. A.; Skakun, V. S.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Didenko, M. V.

    2017-08-01

    Using optical and chemical processes, the composition of the products of decay of the atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma is determined in a pulsed, high-voltage discharge in the modes of apokampic and corona discharges. It is shown that the products of decay primarily contain nitrogen oxides NO x, and in the mode of the corona discharge - ozone. Potential applications of this source of plasma are discussed with respect to plasma processing of the seeds of agricultural crops.

  20. Types and sources of fuels for platelets in a medium containing minimal added fuels and a low carryover plasma.

    PubMed

    Niu, X; Whisson, M E; Guppy, M

    1997-06-01

    The storage of platelets in synthetic media can result in plasma savings and reduced transfusion reactions. Accordingly, a wide range of storage formulations have been developed with the aim of replacing at least a proportion of the plasma in the storage medium. However, the concentrations and types of fuels in the carryover plasma, and the utilization of these fuels by platelets in storage, has not been investigated. We have developed a system which can measure total ATP turnover, and the contribution to total ATP turnover by the oxidation of various fuels and by lactate production, in a bag of partially purified platelets in a buffered saline with minimal carryover citrate phosphate double dextrose (CP2D) plasma. Carryover plasma was about 1% and the final platelet suspension contained, on average, 0.62 mM glucose, 9.6 mg/l free fatty acids, 32 mg/l triglycerides and 0.23 mM total amino acids. The oxidation of carbohydrate (glucose, glycogen and lactate) accounted for 60% of total ATP turnover. The platelets also produced lactate (<6% of total ATP turnover) and consumed free fatty acids and amino acids/proteins (15.2% of total ATP turnover). Therefore we have identified the fuels that account for about 80% of oxygen consumption and ATP turnover by platelets in a medium with low carryover plasma. The implications of these data for storage strategies are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of the association of plasma pentraxin 3 levels with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in a Malay population.

    PubMed

    Abu Seman, Norhashimah; Witasp, Anna; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon; Anderstam, Björn; Brismar, Kerstin; Stenvinkel, Peter; Gu, Harvest F

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated that elevated plasma long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels are associated with cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases. In the current study, we investigated the plasma PTX3 levels in 296 Malay subjects including the subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients with or without DN by using an enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay. Results showed that in males, plasma PTX3 levels in T2DM patients without DN were lower than that in the subjects with NGT (2.78 versus 3.98 ng/mL; P = 0.021). Plasma PTX3 levels in T2DM patients with DN were decreased compared to the patients without DN (1.63 versus 2.78 ng/mL; P = 0.013). In females, however, no significant alteration of plasma PTX3 levels among NGT subjects and T2DM patients with and without DN was detected. Furthermore, an inverse correlation between PTX3 and body mass index was found in male subjects with NGT (P = 0.012; r = -0.390), but not in male T2DM patients, neither in all females. The current study provided the first evidence that decreased plasma PTX3 levels are associated with T2DM and DN in Malay men and also suggested that PTX3 may have different effects in DN and chronic kidney diseases.

  2. Proteomic Investigation on Grp94-IgG Complexes Circulating in Plasma of Type 1 Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Roveri, Antonella; Zaccarin, Mattia; Pagetta, Andrea; Tramentozzi, Elisa; Finotti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The glucose-regulated protein94 (Grp94) has been found in complexes with IgG in plasma of Type 1 (T1) diabetic subjects; however, the pathogenetic meaning of Grp94-IgG complexes has not yet been elucidated. To shed light on the nature and structure of these complexes in vivo, we conducted a proteomic analysis on plasma of both T1 diabetic subjects and healthy control subjects. IgG purified from plasma was submitted to 2D PAGE followed by Western blotting and mass analysis. Grp94 was detected in plasma of all diabetic but not control subjects and found linked with its N-terminus to the IgG heavy chain. Mass analysis of heavy chain of IgG that binds Grp94 also in vitro, forming stable complexes with characteristics similar to those of native ones, permitted identifying CH2 and CH3 regions as those involved in binding Grp94. At the electron microscopy, IgG from diabetic plasma appeared as fibrils of various lengthes and dimensions, suggestive of elevated aggregating tendency conferred to IgG by Grp94. The nonimmune nature of complexes turned out to be responsible for the particular stability and structure adopted by complexes in plasma of diabetic subjects. Results are of relevance to understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying diabetes and its complications. PMID:26167512

  3. W-type ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasma consisting of cold ions and nonthermal electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, I.; Chandra, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Paul, S. N.

    2016-10-01

    Sagdeev potential approach is used for the study of nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in plasma consisting of cold positive ions and nonthermal electrons. The nonlinear equation so derived are analysed with the help of Bogoliubov-Mitropolosky method. The profiles of Sagdeev potential solitary waves are evaluated in first-, second- and third- order which are depicted for different values of nonthermal parameter of electrons. It is seen that nonthermal electrons has considerable impact on the shape of ion-acoustic solitary waves in each order. The plasma consisting of cold positive ions and no negative ions can support the formation of compressive as well as W-type solitary waves in second- and third- order for certain value of nonthermal parameter of electrons. The results are new because W-type ion-acoustic solitary wave is found by earlier authors in plasma in presence of negative ions only. The ion-acoustic solitary waves near critical value of nonthermal parameter and arbitrary amplitude solitary waves in presence of nonthermal electrons have also been studied in the paper. Moreover, the solution for ion-acoustic double layers in plasma consisting of nonthermal electrons is obtained. Our results in the paper would be useful to understand the nonlinear wave processes in ionospheric and magnetospheric multicomponent plasma having nonthermal electrons.

  4. Plasma analogy and non-Abelian statistics for Ising-type quantum Hall states

    SciTech Connect

    Bonderson, Parsa; Gurarie, Victor; Nayak, Chetan

    2011-02-15

    We study the non-Abelian statistics of quasiparticles in the Ising-type quantum Hall states which are likely candidates to explain the observed Hall conductivity plateaus in the second Landau level, most notably the one at filling fraction {nu}=5/2. We complete the program started in V. Gurarie and C. Nayak, [Nucl. Phys. B 506, 685 (1997)]. and show that the degenerate four-quasihole and six-quasihole wave functions of the Moore-Read Pfaffian state are orthogonal with equal constant norms in the basis given by conformal blocks in a c=1+(1/2) conformal field theory. As a consequence, this proves that the non-Abelian statistics of the excitations in this state are given by the explicit analytic continuation of these wave functions. Our proof is based on a plasma analogy derived from the Coulomb gas construction of Ising model correlation functions involving both order and (at most two) disorder operators. We show how this computation also determines the non-Abelian statistics of collections of more than six quasiholes and give an explicit expression for the corresponding conformal block-derived wave functions for an arbitrary number of quasiholes. Our method also applies to the anti-Pfaffian wave function and to Bonderson-Slingerland hierarchy states constructed over the Moore-Read and anti-Pfaffian states.

  5. On the Dirichlet Problem of Mixed Type for Lower Hybrid Waves in Axisymmetric Cold Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, Daniela; Monticelli, Dario D.; Payne, Kevin R.

    2015-07-01

    For a class of linear second order partial differential equations of mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type, which includes a well known model for analyzing possible heating in axisymmetric cold plasmas, we give results on the weak well-posedness of the Dirichlet problem and show that such solutions are characterized by a variational principle. The weak solutions are shown to be saddle points of natural functionals suggested by the divergence form of the PDEs. Moreover, the natural domains of the functionals are the weighted Sobolev spaces to which the solutions belong. In addition, all critical levels will be characterized in terms of global extrema of the functionals restricted to suitable infinite dimensional linear subspaces. These subspaces are defined in terms of a robust spectral theory with weights which is associated to the linear operator and is developed herein. Similar characterizations for the weighted eigenvalue problem and nonlinear variants will also be given. Finally, topological methods are employed to obtain existence results for nonlinear problems including perturbations in the gradient which are then applied to the well-posedness of the linear problem with lower order terms.

  6. Characterization of gas tunnel type plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-nanostructure titania composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugeswaran, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Ucisik, A. Hikmet; Subramanian, B.

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated onto metal implants as a ceramic biocompatible coating to bridge the growth between implants and human tissue. Meanwhile many efforts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of the HA coatings without affecting its bioactivity. In the present study, nanostructure titania (TiO2) was mixed with HA powder and HA-nanostructure TiO2 composite coatings were produced by gas tunnel type plasma spraying torch under optimized spraying conditions. For this purpose, composition of 10 wt% TiO2 + 90 wt% HA, 20 wt% TiO2 + 80 wt% HA and 30 wt% TiO2 + 70 wt% HA were selected as the feedstock materials. The phase, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coatings were characterized. The obtained results validated that the increase in weight percentage of nanostructure TiO2 in HA coating significantly increased the microhardness, adhesive strength and wear resistance of the coatings. Analysis of the in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were done using conventional simulated body fluid (c-SBF) solution and cultured green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow stromal cells (MSCs) respectively. The bioactivity results revealed that the composite coating has bio-active surface with good cytocompatibility.

  7. Plasma C-type natriuretic peptide as a predictor for therapeutic response to metoprolol in children with postural tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Han, Zhenhui; Li, Hongxia; Chen, Selena Ying; Li, Xueying; Liu, Ping; Wang, Yuli; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    POTS is a global public-health disease, but predictor for therapeutic response to metoprolol in children with POTS is lacking. This study was designed to investigate predictive value of plasma C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in the therapeutic efficacy of metoprolol on postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) in children. Totally 34 children with POTS and 27 healthy children were included in the study. The head-up test or head-up tilt test was used to check heart rate and blood pressure from supine to upright in subjects. A double antibody (competitive) sandwich immunoluminometric assay was used to detect plasma CNP. Metoprolol was used to treat children with POTS. The difference in plasma concentrations of CNP between responders and non-responders was compared. An ROC curve was used to analyze plasma CNP to predict efficacy of metoprolol on POTS in children. Plasma CNP in children with POTS was significantly higher than that of healthy children [(51.9 ± 31.4) vs. (25.1 ± 19.1) pg/ml, P <0.001]. Plasma CNP in responders to metoprolol was significantly higher than non-responders [(59.1 ± 33.5) vs. (34.8 ± 16.7) pg/ml, P = 0.037] before treatment. The ROC curve showed that area under the curve was 0.821 (95% CI 0.642-0.999). The cut-off value of plasma CNP > 32.55 pg/ml yielded a sensitivity of 95.8% and specificity of 70% in predicting therapeutic efficacy of metoprolol on POTS children. Plasma CNP might serve as a useful predictor for the therapeutic efficacy of metoprolol on POTS in children.

  8. L/N-type calcium channel blocker cilnidipine reduces plasma aldosterone, albuminuria, and urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masanori; Maruyama, Noriaki; Suzuki, Hiroko; Inoshita, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Okada, Kazuyoshi; Soma, Masayoshi

    2013-07-01

    Cilnidipine inhibits both L- and N-type calcium channels and has been shown to dilate efferent arterioles as effectively as afferent arterioles. We conducted an open-label, randomized trial to compare the effects of cilnidipine against those of amlodipine on blood pressure (BP), albuminuria, and plasma aldosterone concentration in hypertensive patients with mild- to moderate-stage chronic kidney disease. Patients with BP ≥130/80 mmHg, an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 90-30 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g, despite treatment with the maximum recommended dose of angiotensin II receptor blockers, were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients received either 10 mg/day cilnidipine (increased to 20 mg/day; n = 35) or 2.5 mg/day amlodipine (increased to 5 mg/day; n = 35). After 48 weeks of treatment, a significant and comparable reduction in systolic and diastolic BP was observed in both groups. The percent reduction in the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio and liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in the cilnidipine group was significantly greater than in the amlodipine group. Although plasma renin activity did not differ between the two groups, the plasma aldosterone level was significantly decreased in the cilnidipine group. Cilnidipine therefore appears to reduce albuminuria, urinary L-FABP, and plasma aldosterone levels more than amlodipine, and these effects are independent of BP reduction.

  9. Plasma FGF23 and Calcified Atherosclerotic Plaque in African Americans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Barry I; Divers, Jasmin; Russell, Gregory B; Palmer, Nicholette D; Bowden, Donald W; Carr, J Jeffrey; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Hightower, R Caresse; Xu, Jianzhao; Smith, Susan Carrie; Langefeld, Carl D; Hruska, Keith A; Register, Thomas C

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone implicated in disorders of serum phosphorus concentration and vitamin D. The role of FGF23 in vascular calcification remains controversial. Relationships between FGF23 and coronary artery calcified atherosclerotic plaque (CAC), aortoiliac calcified plaque (CP), carotid artery CP, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), albuminuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were determined in 545 African Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and preserved kidney function in African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants. Generalized linear models were fitted to test associations between FGF23 and cardiovascular, bone, and renal phenotypes, and change in measurements over time, adjusting for age, gender, African ancestry proportion, body mass index, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, renin-angiotensin-system inhibitors, statins, calcium supplements, serum calcium, and serum phosphate. The sample was 56.7% female with a mean (SD) age of 55.6 (9.6) years, diabetes duration of 10.3 (8.2) years, eGFR 90.9 (22.1) ml/min/1.73 m2, urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) 151 (588) (median 13) mg/g, plasma FGF23 161 (157) RU/ml, and CAC 637 (1,179) mg. In fully adjusted models, FGF23 was negatively associated with eGFR (p < 0.0001) and positively associated with UACR (p < 0.0001) and CAC (p = 0.0006), but not with carotid CP or aortic CP. Baseline FGF23 concentration did not associate with changes in vBMD or CAC after a mean of 5.1 years follow-up. Plasma FGF23 concentrations were independently associated with subclinical coronary artery disease, albuminuria, and kidney function in the understudied African American population with T2D. Findings support relationships between FGF23 and vascular calcification, but not between FGF23 and bone mineral density, in African Americans lacking advanced nephropathy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Comparison of jet injector and insulin pen in controlling plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lixin; Xiao, Xinhua; Sun, Xue; Qi, Cuijuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study is conducted to investigate efficacy of an insulin jet injector and an insulin pen in treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with rapid-acting insulin (regular insulin) and insulin analog (insulin aspart) using the jet injector and the pen in 4 successive test cycles. Postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in blood were measured over time. Areas under curves of glucose and the insulin were calculated, and efficacy of 2 injection methods in treatment of the diabetes was compared. Regular insulin and insulin aspart administration by the jet injector showed significant decreases in plasma glucose levels as compared to the pen injection (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma glucose excursions at the time points of 0.5 to 3 hours were obviously lower in the jet-treated patients than the pen-treated ones (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma insulin levels were markedly higher in the jet-treated patients than the pen-treated ones (P < 0.05). Area under the glucose curve in the pen-treated patients was significantly increased as compared to the jet-treated ones (P < 0.01). Efficacy of the insulin jet injector in treatment of type 2 diabetic patients is obviously superior to the insulin pen in regulating plasma glucose and insulin levels. PMID:28072690

  11. Comparison of jet injector and insulin pen in controlling plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lixin; Xiao, Xinhua; Sun, Xue; Qi, Cuijuan

    2017-01-01

    This study is conducted to investigate efficacy of an insulin jet injector and an insulin pen in treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with rapid-acting insulin (regular insulin) and insulin analog (insulin aspart) using the jet injector and the pen in 4 successive test cycles. Postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in blood were measured over time. Areas under curves of glucose and the insulin were calculated, and efficacy of 2 injection methods in treatment of the diabetes was compared. Regular insulin and insulin aspart administration by the jet injector showed significant decreases in plasma glucose levels as compared to the pen injection (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma glucose excursions at the time points of 0.5 to 3 hours were obviously lower in the jet-treated patients than the pen-treated ones (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma insulin levels were markedly higher in the jet-treated patients than the pen-treated ones (P < 0.05). Area under the glucose curve in the pen-treated patients was significantly increased as compared to the jet-treated ones (P < 0.01). Efficacy of the insulin jet injector in treatment of type 2 diabetic patients is obviously superior to the insulin pen in regulating plasma glucose and insulin levels.

  12. Relationship between contents of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase on the surface of infertility sperm and in seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Chen, De-Yu; Zhu, Mao-Ying; Cui, Ya-Dong; Huang, Tian-Hua

    2007-02-01

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is localized in Leydig cells, sperm, and epithelial cells of the epididymis. The present study was to determine the correlation between content of this enzyme in seminal plasma and on the surface of sperm. We analyzed 90 semen samples. L-PGDS in seminal plasma was analyzed by an ELISA procedure. L-PGDS on sperm was analyzed by flow cytometry. The semen donors were categorized in three groups: normal, oligospermic, and azoospermic. According to results obtained, L-PGDS may have the ability to improve progressive motility of sperm, and L-PGDS in seminal plasma and on sperm surface may impact male fertility in the female reproductive tract.

  13. Low Plasma Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Viral Load Is Independent of Proviral Load: Low Virus Production In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Popper, Stephen J.; Sarr, Abdoulaye Dieng; Guèye-Ndiaye, Aïssatou; Mboup, Souleymane; Essex, Myron E.; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2000-01-01

    Levels of virus in the plasma are closely related to the pathogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HIV-2 is much less pathogenic than HIV-1, and infection with HIV-2 leads to significantly lower plasma viral load. To identify the source of this difference, we measured both viral RNA and proviral DNA in matched samples from 34 HIV-2-infected individuals. Nearly half had undetectable viral RNA loads (<100 copies/ml), but levels of proviral DNA were relatively high and confirmed that quantities of provirus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection were similar. Overall, HIV-2 proviral DNA load did not correlate with viral RNA load, and higher viral RNA load was associated with increased production of plasma virus from the proviral template. These results suggest that low viral load in HIV-2 infection is due to decreased rates of viral production, rather than differences in target cell infectivity. PMID:10627569

  14. Identification of lipopolysaccharide-interacting plasma membrane-type proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Vilakazi, Cornelius S; Dubery, Ian A; Piater, Lizelle A

    2017-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an amphiphatic bacterial glycoconjugate found on the external membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. This endotoxin is considered as a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecule and has been shown to elicit defense responses in plants. Here, LPS-interacting proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane (PM)-type fractions were captured and identified in order to investigate those involved in LPS perception and linked to triggering of innate immune responses. A novel proteomics-based affinity-capture strategy coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed for the enrichment and identification of LPS-interacting proteins. As such, LPS isolated from Burkholderia cepacia (LPSB.cep.) was immobilized on three independent and distinct affinity-based matrices to serve as bait for interacting proteins from A. thaliana leaf and callus tissue. These were resolved by 1D electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. Proteins specifically bound to LPSB.cep. have been implicated in membrane structure (e.g. COBRA-like and tubulin proteins), membrane trafficking and/or transport (e.g. soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, patellin, aquaporin, PM instrinsic proteins (PIP) and H(+)-ATPase), signal transduction (receptor-like kinases and calcium-dependent protein kinases) as well as defense/stress responses (e.g. hypersensitive-induced response (HIR) proteins, jacalin-like lectin domain-containing protein and myrosinase-binding proteins). The novel affinity-capture strategy for the enrichment of LPS-interacting proteins proved to be effective, especially in the binding of proteins involved in plant defense responses, and can thus be used to elucidate LPS-mediated molecular recognition and disease mechanism(s).

  15. Unbound fraction of fluconazole and linezolid in human plasma as determined by ultrafiltration: Impact of membrane type.

    PubMed

    Kratzer, Alexander; Kees, Frieder; Dorn, Christoph

    2016-12-15

    Ultrafiltration is a rapid and convenient method to determine the free concentrations of drugs in plasma. Several ultrafiltration devices based on Eppendorf cups are commercially available, but are not validated for such use by the manufacturer. Plasma pH, temperature and relative centrifugal force as well as membrane type can influence the results. In the present work, we developed an ultrafiltration method in order to determine the free concentrations of linezolid or fluconazole, both neutral and moderately lipophilic antiinfective drugs for parenteral as well as oral administration, in plasma of patients. Whereas both substances behaved relatively insensitive in human plasma regarding variations in pH (7.0-8.5), temperature (5-37°C) or relative centrifugal force (1000-10.000xg), losses of linezolid were observed with the Nanosep Omega device due to adsorption onto the polyethersulfone membrane (unbound fraction 75% at 100mg/L and 45% at 0.1mg/L, respectively). No losses were observed with Vivacon which is equipped with a membrane of regenerated cellulose. With fluconazole no differences between Nanosep and Vivacon were observed. Applying standard conditions (pH 7.4/37°C/1000xg/20min), the mean unbound fraction of linezolid in pooled plasma from healthy volunteers was 81.5±2.8% using Vivacon, that of fluconazole was 87.9±3.5% using Nanosep or 89.4±3.3% using Vivacon. The unbound fraction of linezolid was 85.4±3.7% in plasma samples from surgical patients and 92.1±6.2% in ICU patients, respectively. The unbound fraction of fluconazole was 93.9±3.3% in plasma samples from ICU patients.

  16. Compact Torus plasma ring accelerator: a new type driver for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Hammer, J.H.; Meeker, D.L.

    1986-08-22

    We discuss the acceleration of magnetically-confined plasma rings to provide a driver for ICF. The acceleration of plasma rings is predicted to be efficient and following focusing, to generate ion-bombardment power in the range 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/ at a total deposition energy of multimegajoules. The simplicity of plasma ring accelerator suggests that a 5 MJ (on target) driver would cost in the range 1 to 5 $/joule. First experimental tests of the accelerator are described.

  17. Daily rhythms of plasma melatonin, but not plasma leptin or leptin mRNA, vary between lean, obese and type 2 diabetic men.

    PubMed

    Mäntele, Simone; Otway, Daniella T; Middleton, Benita; Bretschneider, Silvia; Wright, John; Robertson, M Denise; Skene, Debra J; Johnston, Jonathan D

    2012-01-01

    Melatonin and leptin exhibit daily rhythms that may contribute towards changes in metabolic physiology. It remains unclear, however, whether this rhythmicity is altered in obesity or type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We tested the hypothesis that 24-hour profiles of melatonin, leptin and leptin mRNA are altered by metabolic status in laboratory conditions. Men between 45-65 years old were recruited into lean, obese-non-diabetic or obese-T2DM groups. Volunteers followed strict sleep-wake and dietary regimes for 1 week before the laboratory study. They were then maintained in controlled light-dark conditions, semi-recumbent posture and fed hourly iso-energetic drinks during wake periods. Hourly blood samples were collected for hormone analysis. Subcutaneous adipose biopsies were collected 6-hourly for gene expression analysis. Although there was no effect of subject group on the timing of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), nocturnal plasma melatonin concentration was significantly higher in obese-non-diabetic subjects compared to weight-matched T2DM subjects (p<0.01) and lean controls (p<0.05). Two T2DM subjects failed to produce any detectable melatonin, although did exhibit plasma cortisol rhythms comparable to others in the group. Consistent with the literature, there was a significant (p<0.001) effect of subject group on absolute plasma leptin concentration and, when expressed relative to an individual's 24-hour mean, plasma leptin showed significant (p<0.001) diurnal variation. However, there was no difference in amplitude or timing of leptin rhythms between experimental groups. There was also no significant effect of time on leptin mRNA expression. Despite an overall effect (p<0.05) of experimental group, post-hoc analysis revealed no significant pair-wise effects of group on leptin mRNA expression. Altered plasma melatonin rhythms in weight-matched T2DM and non-diabetic individuals supports a possible role of melatonin in T2DM aetiology. However, neither obesity nor T2DM

  18. ACCESSORY PLASMA FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE BACTERICIDAL TEST FOR TYPE-SPECIFIC ANTIBODY TO GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI

    PubMed Central

    Stollerman, Gene H.; Rytel, Michael; Ortiz, Jesse

    1963-01-01

    A study was made of the nature of the thermolabile plasma factors in human blood which promote the phagocytosis of Group A streptococci in vitro in the presence of optimal amounts of type-specific M antibody. The plasmas of individuals with strong opsonic activity (normal) were compared with those of some individuals whose opsonic activity was consistently weak (deficient). A general relationship was established between encapsulation of streptococci and the opsonic requirement for thermolabile plasma factor(s). Marked differences in phagocytosis of Group A organisms by human bloods were demonstrated with encapsulated strains only. Human bloods deficient in the cofactor required for opsonization of encapsulated streptococci (coopsonin) showed a normal rate of phagocytosis against all other organisms and particles studied. Furthermore, coopsonin-deficient bloods contained normal levels of four components of complement, of properdin, of lysozyme, and of direct bactericidal activity against several species of Gram-negative organisms and of E. coli bacteriophage. The independence of the streptococcal coopsonin from complement was also demonstrated by absorption of plasma with bentonite and with zymosan. Under appropriate conditions, the coopsonin was reduced without significant loss of complement. The data support the concept that the capsule of the streptococcus imposes an opsonic requirement for a plasma factor(s) which is present in varying amounts in human bloods and which appears to be independent of the complement system. The possibility that it is accessory to the latter components has not been excluded. PMID:13984363

  19. Plasma lipid profiling of different types of hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride and lomustine in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Saito, Kosuke; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Yoshiro

    2016-04-12

    Plasma lipid profiling has emerged as a useful tool for understanding the pathophysiology of hepatic injury and disease. Hepatic fibrosis results from chronic, progressive damage to the liver and can lead, in turn, to more serious conditions such as hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the plasma lipid profiles of two types of hepatic fibrosis in order to aid the understanding of the pathophysiology of hepatic fibrosis. A liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry platform was used to reveal and compare the plasma lipid profiles of two types of chemical-induced hepatic fibrosis. Rat models of centrilobular fibrosis and bile duct fibrosis were established via chronic exposure to the known fibrogenic hepatotoxins, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or lomustine (LS), respectively, over a 28-day period. To delineate the specific alterations in the lipid profiles as a result of the hepatic fibrosis, we also employed non-fibrogenic hepatotoxicants (2-acetamidofluorene, N-nitrosodiethylamine, and ethambutol) as well as 3-day treatment of CCl4 and LS, which did not induce fibrosis. Our assay platform identified 228 lipids in the rat plasma, and the global lipid profile clearly distinguished these models from the control via principal component analysis. In addition, the alteration of the plasma lipid profile caused by CCl4 and LS were clearly different. Furthermore, a number of lipids were identified as specific alterations caused by fibrosis induced only by CCl4 and LS, respectively. Three lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC[18:3], LPC[20:4], and LPC[22:6]), and three phosphatidylcholines (PC[18:2/20:4], PC[40:8], and PC[20:4/22:6]) are specific circulating lipids, the levels of which were altered by both CCl4 and LS treatment; however, their levels were decreased by chronic exposure to CCl4 and increased by chronic exposure to LS. These results suggest that different types of chemical-induced hepatic fibrosis demonstrate clear

  20. Fasting plasma triglyceride concentration: A possible approach to identify increased risk of statin-induced type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Reaven, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that measurement of fasting plasma triglyceride concentration identifies individuals at enhanced risk of statin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. A retrospective analysis of data collected from routine health examinations in non-diabetic, East Asian individuals (n = 5790) with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of ⩾3.4 mmol/L. Subjects were stratified into those with or without a triglyceride concentration of ⩾1.7 mmol/L, and comparisons made of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Approximately 40% of men and 20% of women with elevations of both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were more insulin resistant (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), associated with higher plasma concentrations of HbA1c, glucose and insulin. Apparently, healthy, non-diabetic East Asian men and women with combined elevations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations are glucose intolerant and insulin resistant, and thereby at enhanced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Measurement of plasma triglyceride concentration can identify within a hypercholesterolemic population a subset of individuals at enhanced risk of statin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Identification of a fertility-associated protein in bull seminal plasma as lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase.

    PubMed

    Gerena, R L; Irikura, D; Urade, Y; Eguchi, N; Chapman, D A; Killian, G J

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize a 26-kDa seminal plasma protein previously shown to be prevalent in bulls of high fertility. Spots of this protein, excised and electroeluted from two-dimensional SDS-PAGE gels, were used for N-terminal amino acid sequencing and for preparation of antiserum in rabbits. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (ALQPNFEEDKFLGRWFTSGL) was 75% identical and 100% homologous to lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase isolated from human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Western blots of purified 26-kDa protein cross-reacted with polyclonal antibodies against lipocalin-type PGD synthase isolated from rat brain and human CSF. Immunoreactive bands at 26 kDa appeared in Western blots of seminal plasma and cauda epididymal fluid (CEF). A 29-kDa band appeared in blots of rete testis fluid (RTF). PGD synthase activity was detected in seminal plasma, CEF, and RTF. The cDNA for bovine lipocalin-type PGD synthase, isolated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, contained a coding region of 573 base pairs corresponding to 191 amino acids. The amino acid sequence was 63-80% identical to that of the enzyme of other mammals. These results establish that the 26-kDa fertility-associated protein in bull seminal plasma is lipocalin-type PGD synthase. Although we do not yet know the role of lipocalin-type PGD synthase in the male genital tract, we speculate that this protein may play an important role in both the development and the maturation of sperm.

  2. Plasma NT-proBNP and white matter hyperintensities in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP from the heart as well as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in the brain predict cardiovascular (CV) mortality in the general population. The cause of poor prognosis associated with elevated P-NT-proBNP is not known but WMH precede strokes in high risk populations. We assessed the association between P-NT-proBNP and WMH or brain atrophy measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in type 2 diabetic patients, and age-matched controls. Methods and results We measured P-NT-proBNP(ng/l) in 20 diabetic patients without prior stroke but with(n = 10) or without(n = 10) asymptomatic coronary artery disease(CAD) in order to include patients with a wide-ranging CV risk profile. All patients and 26 controls had a 3D MRI and brain volumes(ml) with WMH and brain parenchymal fraction(BPF), an indicator of brain atrophy, were determined. P-NT-proBNP was associated with WMH in linear regression analysis adjusted for CV risk factors(r = 0.94, p = 0.001) and with BPF in univariate analysis(r = 0.57, p = 0.009). Patients divided into groups of increased P-NT-proBNP levels were paralleled with increased WMH volumes(geometric mean[SD];(2.86[5.11] ml and 0.76[2.49] ml compared to patients with low P-NT-proBNP 0.20[2.28] ml, p = 0.003)) and also when adjusted for age, sex and presence of CAD(p = 0.017). The association was strengthened by CV risk factors and we did not find a common heart or brain specific driver of both P-NT-proBNP and WMH. Patients and particular patients with CAD had higher WMH, however no longer after adjustment for age and sex. Conclusion P-NT-proBNP was associated with WMH in type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting a linkage between heart and brain disease. PMID:23033840

  3. [Analgesics; the use of aspirin in dogs; effects of tablet type and food intake on plasma salicylate level].

    PubMed

    Nap, R C; Breen, D J; Lam, T J; Peters, I O; Willemsen, A; De Bruyne, J J

    1993-07-15

    Administration of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) in the dog may cause gastric mucosal damage. Enteric-coated tablets protect the canine stomach during oral aspirin medication. A therapeutic plasma salicylate concentration can be attained using enteric-coated aspirin tablets at a dosage of 25 mg/kg TID. In a series 4 of experiments using adult beagle and large mixed breed dogs and two types enteric-coated tablets, the influence of food intake on the plasma salicylate concentration was studied. Tablets were administered with 8h intervals and food intake was either once daily or three time daily with 8h intervals. Plasma salicylate concentrations were also studied during fasting. It is concluded that, when using enteric-coated tablets, the plasma salicylate concentration in the dog after oral medication is strongly influenced by the aspirin dosage, the tablet type and the feeding pattern. Large enteric-coated tablets may accumulate in the stomach over several days and are not suitable for use in the dog. The gastric accumulation is caused by the enteric-coating of the large tablets and not by the aspirin medication.

  4. Potential influence of Type A personality on plasma C-reactive protein levels in people with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chauvet-Gélinier, J-C; Trojak, B; Lemogne, C; Aho-Glélé, L-S; Brindisi, M-C; Bouillet, B; Ponavoy, E; Meille, V; Simoneau, I; Chahraoui, K; Vaillant, G; Petit, J-M; Consoli, S M; Bonin, B; Vergès, B

    2016-04-01

    Type A personality, although classically known as a factor linked to increased vascular risk, has recently been associated with increased survival in patients with diabetes. As low-grade inflammation predicts a poor outcome, the present study explored the potential associations between Type A and plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in diabetes. Type A personality was assessed by the Bortner questionnaire in people with diabetes. The association between Type A and plasma CRP levels was examined by multivariable linear regression, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to determine the impact of the major clinical, biological and psychological confounders. The study included 626 participants with type 1 and type 2 diabetes from the Diabetes and Psychological Profile study. Multivariable analyses showed an independent inverse association between Type A score and CRP levels. The structural model adjusted for age, gender, diabetes type and duration, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, alcohol abuse, oral antidiabetic and statin treatments, HbA1c levels, lipids, perceived stress, anxiety and depression revealed significant associations between CRP and Type A (β=-0.135, 95% CI: -0.242, -0.028; P=0.014), BMI (β=0.194, 95% CI: 0.038, 0.350; P=0.015) and HDL cholesterol (β=-0.132, 95% CI: -0.245, -0.020; P=0.014). Our present study data indicate that Type A personality is independently associated with lower CRP levels. This lower level of inflammation might explain the better clinical outcomes associated with Type A personality in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Type I intermittency related to the spatiotemporal dynamics of double layers and ion-acoustic instabilities in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chiriac, S.; Dimitriu, D. G.; Sanduloviciu, M.

    2007-07-15

    Anodic double layer instabilities occur in low-temperature diffusion filament-type discharge plasma by applying a certain positive bias with respect to the plasma potential to an additional electrode. Periodic nonlinear regimes, characterized by proper dynamics of double layers, are sustained if excitation and ionization rates in front of the electrode reach the value for which current limitation effects appear in the static current-voltage characteristic. It was experimentally shown that under specific experimental conditions these ordered spatiotemporal phenomena can evolve into chaotic states by type I intermittency. This transition was verified by the evolution of time series, fast Fourier transform amplitude plots, three-dimensional reconstructed state spaces, power laws, and flickering phenomena spectrum, as well as by the return map and tangent bifurcation.

  6. Dietary Japanese millet protein ameliorates plasma levels of adiponectin, glucose, and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Naoyuki; Togawa, Tubasa; Park, Kyung-Ok; Sato, Daiki; Miyakoshi, Yo; Inagaki, Kazuya; Ohmori, Norimasa; Ito, Yoshiaki; Nagasawa, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Millet is an important food crop in Asia and Africa, but the health benefits of dietary millet are little known. This study defined the effects of dietary Japanese millet on diabetic mice. Feeding of a high-fat diet containing Japanese millet protein concentrate (JMP, 20% protein) to type 2 diabetic mice for 3 weeks significantly increased plasma levels of adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) and decreased the levels of glucose and triglyceride as compared to control. The starch fraction of Japanese millet had no effect on glucose or adiponectin levels, but the prolamin fraction beneficially modulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression. Considering the physiological significance of adiponectin and HDL cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease, our findings imply that dietary JMP has the potential to ameliorate these diseases.

  7. Haemodynamic action of B-type natriuretic peptide substantially outlasts its plasma half-life in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Colleen J; Woods, Robyn L

    2003-01-01

    1. The objective of the present study was to determine the plasma half-life of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in conscious dogs after intravenous administration and to compare this with its haemodynamic effects. In six chronically instrumented dogs, plasma BNP concentrations were measured under basal conditions, during a constant infusion of canine BNP-32 (10 pmol/kg per min; 25 min) to steady state and at nominated time points up to 75 min after stopping the infusion. Concomitant, continuous measurements of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), central venous pressure (CVP) and mesenteric blood flow (MBF) were obtained. 2. Baseline plasma BNP levels were 15.0 +/- 2.3 fmol/mL and rose approximately 10-fold to 159 +/- 23 fmol/mL after 20-25 min BNP infusion. When the infusion was turned off, plasma BNP levels declined in a biphasic manner, with an initial half-life of 1.57 +/- 0.14 min and a terminal half-life of 301 +/- 85 min. The metabolic clearance rate of BNP was 2.29 +/- 0.34 L/min. 3. The infusion of BNP reduced MAP (approximately 10%), CVP (approximately 65%) and MBF (approximately 25%), whereas haematocrit (approximately 4%) and mesenteric vascular resistance (MVR) increased (approximately 40%; all P < 0.05). Plasma BNP levels returned to baseline by 20 min after BNP infusion had been stopped, whereas none of the haemodynamic variables returned to normal by this time. Mean arterial pressure returned to resting levels within 10-15 min after plasma BNP returned to normal. However, CVP, haematocrit and MBF remained substantially below baseline values for more than 20 min after circulating BNP levels had returned to pre-infusion levels. Of these, only mesenteric vascular changes were returned to baseline within 60 min of plasma BNP levels normalizing. 4. These results demonstrate that the removal of BNP from the canine circulation is rapid, similar to observations made regarding the metabolism of circulating atrial natriuretic peptide in dogs

  8. Modelisation numerique d'un actionneur plasma de type decharge a barriere dielectrique par la methode de derive-diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jacques

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is a proposed device for active for control in order to improve the performances of aircraft and turbomachines. Essentially, these actuators are made of two electrodes separated by a layer of dielectric material and convert electricity directly into flow. Because of the high costs associated with experiences in realistic operating conditions, there is a need to develop a robust numerical model that can predict the plasma body force and the effects of various parameters on it. Indeed, this plasma body force can be affected by atmospheric conditions (temperature, pressure, and humidity), velocity of the neutral flow, applied voltage (amplitude, frequency, and waveform), and by the actuator geometry. In that respect, the purpose of this thesis is to implement a plasma model for DBD actuator that has the potential to consider the effects of these various parameters. In DBD actuator modelling, two types of approach are commonly proposed, low-order modelling (or phenomenological) and high-order modelling (or scientific). However a critical analysis, presented in this thesis, showed that phenomenological models are not robust enough to predict the plasma body force without artificial calibration for each specific case. Moreover, there are based on erroneous assumptions. Hence, the selected approach to model the plasma body force is a scientific drift-diffusion model with four chemical species (electrons, positive ions, negative ions, and neutrals). This model was chosen because it gives consistent numerical results comparatively with experimental data. Moreover, this model has great potential to include the effect of temperature, pressure, and humidity on the plasma body force and requires only a reasonable computational time. This model was independently implemented in C++ programming language and validated with several test cases. This model was later used to simulate the effect of the plasma body force on the laminar

  9. Plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 as risk marker in type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease in North Indians.

    PubMed

    Harsimran, Kaur; Singh, Arora Ajinder Pal; Guruvinder, Singh; Sharda, Sidhu; Vasudha, Sambyal

    2009-10-01

    The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is implicated in chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to explore the relation of plasma levels of MCP-1 to disease pathology in type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Fasting plasma venous samples were taken from 162 subjects divided into four groups: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CAD (n=41), type 2 diabetes patients without CAD (n=50), CAD patients with no history of diabetes (n=41) and healthy controls (n=30). Coronary risk factors such as body mass index, percentage body fat, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure and physical activity were measured using standard procedures. Plasma MCP-1 was quantitatively estimated by sandwich enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Significant differences were observed for MCP-1 levels, percent body fat, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure amongst the groups. MCP-1 concentration was significantly correlated with diabetes duration (p<0.001), body mass index (p<0.01), waist/hip ratio (p<0.01), systolic blood pressure (p<0.01), percentage body fat (p<0.01) and physical activity level (p<0.001). MCP-1 might serve as a marker for CAD, and its association with CAD is mainly driven by traditional coronary risk factors.

  10. Inverse Association of Plasma Chromium Levels with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sijing; Jin, Xiaoling; Shan, Zhilei; Li, Shuzhen; Yin, Jiawei; Sun, Taoping; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Wei; Yao, Ping; Yu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Yan; Cheng, Qian; Cheng, Jinquan; Bao, Wei; Liu, Liegang

    2017-01-01

    Chromium has long been known as an enhancer of insulin action. However, the role of chromium in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in humans remains controversial. The current study aimed to examine the associations of plasma chromium levels with T2DM and pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM). We conducted a case-control study involving 1471 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, 682 individuals with newly diagnosed pre-DM, and 2290 individuals with normal glucose tolerance in a Chinese population from 2009 to 2014. Plasma chromium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma chromium levels were lower in the T2DM and pre-DM groups than in the control group (median: 3.68 μg/L, 3.61 μg/L, 3.97 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for T2DM across increasing quartiles of plasma chromium levels were 1 (referent), 0.67 (0.55–0.83), 0.64 (0.51–0.79), and 0.58 (0.46–0.73), respectively (p for trend <0.001). The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for pre-DM were 1 (referent), 0.70 (0.54–0.91), 0.67 (0.52–0.88), and 0.58 (0.43–0.78), respectively (p for trend < 0.001). Our results indicated that plasma chromium concentrations were inversely associated with T2DM and pre-DM in Chinese adults. PMID:28304331

  11. Inverse Association of Plasma Chromium Levels with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sijing; Jin, Xiaoling; Shan, Zhilei; Li, Shuzhen; Yin, Jiawei; Sun, Taoping; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Wei; Yao, Ping; Yu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Yan; Cheng, Qian; Cheng, Jinquan; Bao, Wei; Liu, Liegang

    2017-03-17

    Chromium has long been known as an enhancer of insulin action. However, the role of chromium in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in humans remains controversial. The current study aimed to examine the associations of plasma chromium levels with T2DM and pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM). We conducted a case-control study involving 1471 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, 682 individuals with newly diagnosed pre-DM, and 2290 individuals with normal glucose tolerance in a Chinese population from 2009 to 2014. Plasma chromium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma chromium levels were lower in the T2DM and pre-DM groups than in the control group (median: 3.68 μg/L, 3.61 μg/L, 3.97 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for T2DM across increasing quartiles of plasma chromium levels were 1 (referent), 0.67 (0.55-0.83), 0.64 (0.51-0.79), and 0.58 (0.46-0.73), respectively (p for trend <0.001). The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for pre-DM were 1 (referent), 0.70 (0.54-0.91), 0.67 (0.52-0.88), and 0.58 (0.43-0.78), respectively (p for trend < 0.001). Our results indicated that plasma chromium concentrations were inversely associated with T2DM and pre-DM in Chinese adults.

  12. Inflammation increases plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 in patients with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tjeerdema, Nathanja; Georgiadi, Anastasia; Jonker, Jacqueline T; van Glabbeek, Marjolijn; Dehnavi, Reza Alizadeh; Tamsma, Jouke T; Smit, Johannes W A; Kersten, Sander; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2014-01-01

    Background Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibits lipoprotein lipase and associates with dyslipidemia. The expression of ANGPTL4 is regulated by free fatty acids (FFA) that activate lipid-sensing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), but FFA can also activate pattern recognition receptors including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in macrophages. Objective To assess whether systemic low-grade inflammation is a determinant for plasma ANGPTL4 levels in patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design We studied 335 male participants: healthy controls (Controls), patients with the MetS without inflammation (MetS−I) and with low-grade inflammation (MetS+I), and patients with T2DM. All patients without diabetes included in the present study were initially matched for waist circumference. In plasma, ANGPTL4, C reactive protein (CRP) and metabolic parameters were determined. Underlying mechanisms were examined using human macrophages in vitro. Results As compared with Controls, plasma ANGPTL4 levels were increased in patients with MetS−I, MetS+I, and T2DM. Furthermore, ANGPTL4 was increased in T2DM compared with MetS−I. In fact, plasma CRP correlated positively with plasma ANGPTL4. In vitro studies showed that TLR 3/4 activation largely increased the expression and release of ANGPTL4 by macrophages. Conclusions Plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans are predicted by CRP, a marker of inflammation, and ANGPTL4 expression by macrophages is increased by inflammatory stimuli. PMID:25512873

  13. Clinical value of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide assay in pediatric pneumonia accompanied by heart failure

    PubMed Central

    HU, DAN; LIU, YANG; TAO, HUIXIAN; GAO, JINPING

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is useful in differentiating cardiac from pulmonary causes of dyspnea in adults. To date, international guidelines have recommended measurements of circulating BNP as a biomarker for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as well as therapeutic monitoring, in adults with cardiac diseases, particularly those suffering from acute and chronic heart failure (HF). The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential diagnostic and therapeutic analysis of BNP levels assayed in pediatric pneumonia accompanied by HF. The clinical data of 80 patients with pneumonia, aged 1–3 years, were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: Simple pneumonia (46 cases) and pneumonia accompanied by HF (34 cases). All patients underwent two plasma BNP assays: The first one upon admission to the hospital and the second one prior to discharge. The plasma BNP levels of 20 healthy children were used as the negative control. Plasma BNP levels were measured using the Triage® BNP automated immunoassay systems and reagents. Statistical analysis showed that the plasma BNP levels of the patients upon admission were higher in the pneumonia accompanied by HF group compared with those in the simple pneumonia group (750±120 vs. 135±50 pg/ml; P<0.05). In addition, in the pneumonia accompanied by HF group, the plasma BNP levels of the patients were higher upon admission to the hospital than they were prior to discharge (750±120 vs. 115±45 pg/ml; P<0.05); therefore, plasma BNP may comprise a sensitive diagnostic and therapeutic evaluative marker for pediatric patients with pneumonia accompanied by HF. This finding could prove invaluable in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of the disease. PMID:26668612

  14. Clinical value of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide assay in pediatric pneumonia accompanied by heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Tao, Huixian; Gao, Jinping

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is useful in differentiating cardiac from pulmonary causes of dyspnea in adults. To date, international guidelines have recommended measurements of circulating BNP as a biomarker for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as well as therapeutic monitoring, in adults with cardiac diseases, particularly those suffering from acute and chronic heart failure (HF). The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential diagnostic and therapeutic analysis of BNP levels assayed in pediatric pneumonia accompanied by HF. The clinical data of 80 patients with pneumonia, aged 1-3 years, were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: Simple pneumonia (46 cases) and pneumonia accompanied by HF (34 cases). All patients underwent two plasma BNP assays: The first one upon admission to the hospital and the second one prior to discharge. The plasma BNP levels of 20 healthy children were used as the negative control. Plasma BNP levels were measured using the Triage® BNP automated immunoassay systems and reagents. Statistical analysis showed that the plasma BNP levels of the patients upon admission were higher in the pneumonia accompanied by HF group compared with those in the simple pneumonia group (750±120 vs. 135±50 pg/ml; P<0.05). In addition, in the pneumonia accompanied by HF group, the plasma BNP levels of the patients were higher upon admission to the hospital than they were prior to discharge (750±120 vs. 115±45 pg/ml; P<0.05); therefore, plasma BNP may comprise a sensitive diagnostic and therapeutic evaluative marker for pediatric patients with pneumonia accompanied by HF. This finding could prove invaluable in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  15. Parabolic relationship between plasma triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol in familial combined hyperlipidaemia: the multiple-type hyperlipidaemia explained?

    PubMed

    Brouwers, Martijn C G J; de Graaf, Jacqueline; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M J; Georgieva, Anna M; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Ter Avest, Ewoud; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Stalenhoef, Anton F; de Bruin, Tjerk W A

    2008-03-01

    FCHL (familial combined hyperlipidaemia) is a highly prevalent genetic lipid disorder that accounts for a substantial number of premature cardiovascular events. To date, FCHL has been complicated by the different lipid phenotypes that are present within one family and one individual patient over time. In the present study, we hypothesized that a parabolic relationship between plasma triacylglycerols (triglycerides) and LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol can explain this so-called 'multiple-type hyperlipidaemia' in FCHL. Our hypothesis was tested in two well-documented FCHL cohorts [Maastricht (n=145) and Nijmegen (n=299)] that were followed over a 5-year interval. Three groups were constructed depending on plasma triacylglycerols: group A (individuals with both measurements below 1.5 mmol/l), group B (one measurement below and one measurement above 1.5 mmol/l) and group C (both measurement above 1.5 mmol/l). In both male, but not female, cohorts, a significant positive relationship between plasma triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol was observed in group A (P=0.02 for Maastricht cohort and P=0.001 for the Nijmegen cohort), a significant negative relationship in group C (P=0.01 for Maastricht cohort and P=0.02 for the Nijmegen cohort), and a relationship intermediate to group A and C in group B. In contrast, both apoB (apolipoprotein B) levels and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease were related with plasma triacylglycerols in a more linear fashion. In conclusion, a parabolic relationship between plasma triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol explains the 'multiple-type hyperlipidaemia' in FCHL. In addition, the linear relationship between triacylglycerols and both apoB levels and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease substantiate the use of apoB instead of LDL-cholesterol in the diagnosis of FCHL and the prediction of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Plasma Adrenomedullin and Allelic Variation in the ADM Gene and Kidney Disease in People With Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Velho, Gilberto; Ragot, Stéphanie; Mohammedi, Kamel; Gand, Elise; Fraty, Mathilde; Fumeron, Frédéric; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Bellili-Munoz, Naima; Bouby, Nadine; Potier, Louis; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Marre, Michel; Hadjadj, Samy; Roussel, Ronan

    2015-09-01

    Production of adrenomedullin (ADM), a vasodilator peptide, increases in response to ischemia and hypoxia in the vascular wall and the kidney. This may be an adaptive response providing protection against organ damage. We investigated the hypothesis that ADM has a nephroprotective effect in two prospective cohorts of patients with type 2 diabetes recruited in France. The highest tertile of plasma MR-proADM (a surrogate for ADM) concentration at baseline was associated with the risk of renal outcomes (doubling of plasma creatinine concentration and/or progression to end-stage renal disease) during follow-up in both cohorts. Four SNPs in the ADM gene region were associated with plasma MR-proADM concentration at baseline and with eGFR during follow-up in both cohorts. The alleles associated with lower eGFR were also associated with lower plasma MR-proADM level. In conclusion, plasma MR-proADM concentration was associated with renal outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our data suggest that the ADM gene modulates the genetic susceptibility to nephropathy progression. Results are consistent with the hypothesis of a reactive rise of ADM in diabetic nephropathy, blunted in risk alleles carriers, and with a nephroprotective effect of ADM. A possible therapeutic effect of ADM receptor agonists in diabetic renal disease would be worth investigating. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Proportions of several types of plasma and urine microparticles are increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with active disease

    PubMed Central

    Viñuela-Berni, V; Doníz-Padilla, L; Figueroa-Vega, N; Portillo-Salazar, H; Abud-Mendoza, C; Baranda, L; González-Amaro, R

    2015-01-01

    We analysed the proportions of different microparticles (MPs) in plasma from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and assessed their relationship with disease activity/therapy and their in-vitro effect on proinflammatory cytokine release. Blood and urine samples were obtained from 55 patients with RA (24 untreated and 31 under conventional therapy) and 20 healthy subjects. Fourteen patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were also studied. The proportions of CD3+, CD14+, CD19+, CD41+ and CD62E+ MPs were determined by flow cytometry analysis. The in-vitro effect of plasma MPs on the release of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α was also analysed. We detected that the proportions of different types of annexin-V+ MPs were enhanced in plasma (CD3+, CD14+, CD19+, CD41+ and CD62E+ MPs) and urine (CD14+, CD3+ and CD19+ MPs) from RA patients with high disease activity (DAS28 index > 5·1). Accordingly, a significant positive correlation was observed between the levels of MPs and DAS28 score, and these levels diminished significantly at week 4 of immunosuppressive therapy. Finally, MPs isolated from patients with high disease activity induced, in vitro, an enhanced release of IL-1, IL-17 and TNF-α. In SLE, enhanced levels of different types of plasma MPs were also detected, with a tight correlation with disease activity. Our data further support that MPs have a relevant role in the pathogenesis of RA and suggest that the analysis of the proportions of these microvesicles in plasma could be useful to monitor disease activity and therapy response in patients with RA. PMID:25639560

  18. Proportions of several types of plasma and urine microparticles are increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with active disease.

    PubMed

    Viñuela-Berni, V; Doníz-Padilla, L; Figueroa-Vega, N; Portillo-Salazar, H; Abud-Mendoza, C; Baranda, L; González-Amaro, R

    2015-06-01

    We analysed the proportions of different microparticles (MPs) in plasma from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and assessed their relationship with disease activity/therapy and their in-vitro effect on proinflammatory cytokine release. Blood and urine samples were obtained from 55 patients with RA (24 untreated and 31 under conventional therapy) and 20 healthy subjects. Fourteen patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were also studied. The proportions of CD3(+) , CD14(+) , CD19(+) , CD41(+) and CD62E(+) MPs were determined by flow cytometry analysis. The in-vitro effect of plasma MPs on the release of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α was also analysed. We detected that the proportions of different types of annexin-V(+) MPs were enhanced in plasma (CD3(+) , CD14(+) , CD19(+) , CD41(+) and CD62E(+) MPs) and urine (CD14(+) , CD3(+) and CD19(+) MPs) from RA patients with high disease activity (DAS28 index > 5·1). Accordingly, a significant positive correlation was observed between the levels of MPs and DAS28 score, and these levels diminished significantly at week 4 of immunosuppressive therapy. Finally, MPs isolated from patients with high disease activity induced, in vitro, an enhanced release of IL-1, IL-17 and TNF-α. In SLE, enhanced levels of different types of plasma MPs were also detected, with a tight correlation with disease activity. Our data further support that MPs have a relevant role in the pathogenesis of RA and suggest that the analysis of the proportions of these microvesicles in plasma could be useful to monitor disease activity and therapy response in patients with RA.

  19. Plasma Lipoproteins and Preeclampsia in Women with Type 1 Diabetes: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Alaupovic, Petar; Wu, Mingyuan; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Yu, Yongxin; Nankervis, Alison J.; Hanssen, Kristian F.; Scholz, Hanne; Henriksen, Tore; Lorentzen, Bjørg; Clausen, Torun; Garg, Satish K.; Menard, M. Kathryn; Hammad, Samar M.; Scardo, James A.; Stanley, John R.; Dashti, Azar; Aston, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: In nondiabetic pregnancy, cross-sectional studies have shown associations between maternal dyslipidemia and preeclampsia (PE). In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), the prevalence of PE is increased 4-fold, but prospective associations with plasma lipoproteins are unknown. Objectives: The aim of this study was to define lipoprotein-related markers and potential mechanisms for PE in T1DM. Design and Settings: We conducted a multicenter prospective study in T1DM pregnancy. Patients: We studied 118 T1DM women (26 developed PE, 92 remained normotensive). Subjects were studied at three visits before PE onset [12.2 ± 1.9, 21.6 ± 1.5, and 31.5 ± 1.7 wk gestation (means ± sd)] and at term (37.6 ± 2.0 wk). Nondiabetic normotensive pregnant women (n = 21) were included for reference. Main Outcome Measures: Conventional lipid profiles, lipoprotein subclasses [defined by size (nuclear magnetic resonance) and by apolipoprotein content], serum apolipoproteins (ApoAI, ApoB, and ApoCIII), and lipolysis (ApoCIII ratio) were measured in T1DM women with and without subsequent PE. Results: In women with vs. without subsequent PE, at the first and/or second study visits: low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, particle concentrations of total LDL and large (but not small) LDL, serum ApoB, and ApoB:ApoAI ratio were all increased (P < 0.05); peripheral lipoprotein lipolysis was decreased (P < 0.01). These early differences remained significant in covariate analysis (glycated hemoglobin, actual prandial status, gravidity, body mass index, and diabetes duration) but were not present at the third study visit. High-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein subclasses did not differ between groups before PE onset. Conclusions: Early in pregnancy, increased cholesterol-rich lipoproteins and an index suggesting decreased peripheral lipolysis were associated with subsequent PE in T1DM women. Background maternal lipoprotein characteristics, perhaps masked by effects of

  20. Type 2 diabetics with higher plasma viscosity exhibit a higher blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Aloulou, Ikram; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle

    2004-01-01

    Among hemorheologic parameters, plasma viscosity is one of the most studied in epidemiology, so that it has emerged as an independent risk factor. In diabetes, plasma viscosity is frequently elevated. For this reason we tried to define characteristics of non-insulin dependent diabetics with high plasma viscosity (>1.45 mPa.s) and whether they were more insulin resistant and/or exhibited other hemorheologic disturbances. 12 subjects (age 56.1+/-11.7; BMI 28.6+/-4.8) were thus found to have a value of plasma viscosity >1.45 mPa.s. They were compared to 20 age and BMI-matched NIDDMs. Patients have similar insulin sensitivity, HbA1c, and fibrinogen. RBC aggregation, rigidity and hematocrit were not significantly different. Whole blood viscosity at high shear rate was slightly higher (p=0.05). When corrected for hematocrit whole blood viscosity is no longer different. However, hematocrit was not lower in subjects with hpl >1.45. By contrast blood pressure was markedly higher (systolic: 177.5+/-2.5 mmHg vs 140+/-8 mmHg, p<10(-8); diastolic 110+/-14 vs 83+/-9 mmHg, p<10(-9); mean 132+/-18 mmHg vs 102+/-7 mmHg p<10(-9)). Therefore, in NIDDM, higher plasma viscosity, regardless insulin resistance and adiposity, is strongly related to blood pressure.

  1. Effect of multiply charged ions on the performance and beam characteristics in annular and cylindrical type Hall thruster plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Holak; Lim, Youbong; Choe, Wonho; Seon, Jongho

    2014-10-06

    Plasma plume and thruster performance characteristics associated with multiply charged ions in a cylindrical type Hall thruster (CHT) and an annular type Hall thruster are compared under identical conditions such as channel diameter, channel depth, propellant mass flow rate. A high propellant utilization in a CHT is caused by a high ionization rate, which brings about large multiply charged ions. Ion currents and utilizations are much different due to the presence of multiply charged ions. A high multiply charged ion fraction and a high ionization rate in the CHT result in a higher specific impulse, thrust, and discharge current.

  2. Weakly nonlinear kink-type solitary waves in a fully relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Boukhalfa, Soufiane; Zerguini, Taha Houssine

    2010-08-15

    A fully and coherent relativistic fluid model derived from the covariant formulation of relativistic fluid equations is used to study small but finite amplitude solitary waves. This approach has the characteristic to be consistent with the relativistic principle and consequently leads to a more general set of equations valid for fully relativistic plasmas with arbitrary Lorentz relativistic factor. A kink-solitary wave solution is outlined. Due to electron relativistic effect, the localized structure may experience either a spreading or a compression. This latter phenomenon (compression) becomes less effective and less noticeable as the relativistic character of the ions becomes important. Our results may be relevant to cosmic relativistic double-layers and relativistic plasma structures that involve energetic plasma flows.

  3. Toluene decomposition by DBD-type plasma combined with metal oxide catalysts supported on ferroelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Guk; Lee, Hyeong Seok; Kang, Youngjin; Lee, Ki Bong; Yoo, Jung Whan

    2013-06-01

    We investigated toluene decomposition with a single-stage plasma catalytic system operated at atmospheric pressure and working at reduced temperature (T < 75 degrees C), where a synergistic catalyst was integrated on ferroelectric BaTiO3 beads with a high dielectric constant. The catalyst species were characterized by FE-SEM and XPS before and after the experiment. The MnO2/BaTiO3 catalyst showed high stability in igniting plasma during destruction of toluene for 230 hours in a lifetime test.

  4. Plasma copeptin in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus in comparison to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Schiel, Ralf; Perenthaler, Thomas Johannes; Steveling, Antje; Stein, Günter

    2016-08-01

    In a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus the trial tested the hypothesis that copeptin levels are associated with kidney function, biometrical data and quality of diabetes control. A total of 141 subjects were recruited to participate in the trial: 80 patients with type 1 diabetes (13.0±3.4years, HbA1c 7.85±1.42%) and 61 healthy controls (12.4±2.8years). Clinical and socio-economic data were assessed. A sandwich immunoassay (B.R.A.H.M.S. GmbH/Thermo Fisher Scientific, Hennigsdorf/Berlin, Germany) was used for measuring plasma copeptin levels. The mean concentration of copeptin in the diabetic patients was 4.75±3.46pmol/l. There was a strong inverse correlation between copeptin and GFR (r=-0.86, p=0.021), as well as with total cholesterol (r=-0.23, p=0.041), LDL-cholesterol (r=-0.24, p=0.036), but not with serum creatinine, albuminuria, HbA1c, blood glucose, MAGE, CRP, systolic or diastolic blood pressure or age, diabetes duration, weight, height and BMI. Comparing patients with a diabetes duration of ⩾7years (n=45) with those with a diabetes duration <7years (n=35), patients with a longer duration of diabetes had higher copeptin levels (5.24±2.26 vs 4.13±2.86, p=0.045). Performing multivariate analyses only GFR could be identified as a parameter associated with copeptin (R-square=0.05, β=-0.23, p=0.032). In the healthy controls mean copeptin concentration was 5.56±3.15pmol/l. The copeptin concentration and GFR were inversely correlated as well (r=-0.61, p=0.034). However, other correlation and multivariate analyses revealed no further significant results. Comparing patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus with the healthy controls, the diabetes patients revealed no significant difference with respect to copeptin (p=0.24), serum creatinine (49.8±11.9 vs 50.4±11.0μmol/l, p=0.53) or GFR (102.4±23.3 vs 104.5±19.1ml/min, p=0.47). On the other hand, patients with type 1 diabetes had lower concentrations of CRP (1.66±3.91 vs 3

  5. Efficiency of plasma density control with dc discharge and magnetic field for different surface types in low pressure hypersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweigert, Irina

    2013-09-01

    Recently the problem of communication blackout during reentrant flight still remains unsolved. The spacecrafts enter the upper atmospheric layers with a hypersonic speed and the shock heated air around them becomes weakly ionized. The gas ionization behind the shock front is associative in nature and occurs through chemical reactions between fragments of molecules. The formation of a plasma layer near the surfaces of spacecraft causes serious problems related to the blocking of communication channels with the Earth and other spacecrafts. A promising way of restoring the radio communications is the application of electrical and magnetic fields for controlling the plasma layer parameters. Nevertheless the flux of electrons and ions on the surface charges it that essentially decrease the effect of electro-magnetic control of local plasma density. In Ref. it is shown that there is the way to remove the surface charge using the lateral diode string structures. Based on two dimensional kinetic Particle in cell Monte Carlo collision simulations, we study the possibility of local control the plasma layer parameters near a flat surface of two different types. The gas velocity distribution is set with a model profile. We apply DC voltage up to 4 kV and magnetic field B up to 200 G.

  6. Lipidomic profiling reveals distinct differences in plasma lipid composition in healthy, prediabetic, and type 2 diabetic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Huanzi; Fang, Chao; Fan, Yanqun; Lu, Yan; Wen, Bo; Ren, Huahui; Hou, Guixue; Yang, Fangming; Xie, Hailiang; Jie, Zhuye; Peng, Ye; Ye, Zhiqiang; Wu, Jiegen; Zi, Jin; Zhao, Guoqing; Chen, Jiayu; Bao, Xiao; Hu, Yihe; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) has been extensively reported, but the global lipid profiles, especially in the East Asia population, associated with the development of T2D remain to be characterized. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was applied to detect the global lipidome in the fasting plasma of 293 Chinese individuals, including 114 T2D patients, 81 prediabetic subjects, and 98 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed a gradual change in plasma lipid features with T2D patients exhibiting characteristics close to those of prediabetic individuals, whereas they differed significantly from individuals with NGT. We constructed and validated a random forest classifier with 28 lipidomic features that effectively discriminated T2D from NGT or prediabetes. Most of the selected features significantly correlated with diabetic clinical indices. Hydroxybutyrylcarnitine was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Lysophosphatidylcholines such as lysophosphatidylcholine (18:0), lysophosphatidylcholine (18:1), and lysophosphatidylcholine (18:2) were all negatively correlated with HOMA-IR. The altered plasma lipidome in Chinese T2D and prediabetic subjects suggests that lipid features may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2D and that such features may provide a basis for evaluating risk and monitoring disease development. PMID:28505362

  7. Plasma triglycerides after oral glucose load specifically associate with metabolic risk markers in healthy type 2 diabetes offspring.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Michaela; Tödter, Klaus; Altenburg, Christiane; Beisiegel, Ulrike; Scheja, Ludger

    2011-07-01

    To assess the potential of plasma triglycerides measured after glucose load as biomarker for insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, n=91) was performed in healthy type 2 diabetes offspring. Plasma lipids, lipoproteins, glucose and hormones were quantified in fasting and post-challenge samples. During the OGTT total plasma triglycerides decreased in most subjects, however, they increased in some individuals and this increase was strongly associated with metabolic risk factors. Subjects with increasing triglycerides (n=18) were more obese and insulin resistant than those with the most pronounced triglyceride decrease (n=18), as indicated by higher HOMA-IR, BMI and waist circumference. Correlation analysis (n=91) demonstrated that the changes of total plasma and VLDL-associated triglycerides between 0 h and 2 h (Δ-TG, Δ-VLDL-T) were strongly associated with risk factors. Δ-TG, and especially Δ-VLDL-T, correlated better than fasting triglycerides with waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and fasting glucose. The correlations remained significant after adjustment for gender, age and HDL cholesterol. The observed increase of triglycerides after glucose load in subjects with signs of insulin resistance and obesity suggests that post-glucose triglyceride change is a potential novel biomarker for early detection of metabolic risk. The specific association of post-glucose triglyceride change with abdominal obesity and fasting glucose suggests a link to hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous analysis of amphetamine-type stimulants in plasma by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Kristiane de Cássia; Schuh, Roselena S; Ferranti, Priscila; Ortiz, Rafael S; Souza, Daniele Z; Pechansky, Flavio; Froehlich, Pedro E; Limberger, Renata P

    2014-09-01

    Brazil is considered one of the countries with the highest number of amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) users worldwide, mainly diethylpropion (DIE) and fenproporex (FEN). The use of ATS is mostly linked to diverted prescription stimulants and this misuse is widely associated with (ab)use by drivers. A validated method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of amphetamine (AMP), DIE and FEN in plasma samples employing direct immersion-solid-phase microextraction, and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis. Trichloroacetic acid 10% was used for plasma deproteinization. In situ derivatization with propylchloroformate was employed. The linear range of the method covered from 5.0 to 100 ng/mL. The detection limits were 1.0 (AMP), 1.5 (DIE) and 2.0 ng/mL (FEN). The accuracy assessment of the control samples was within 85.58-108.33% of the target plasma concentrations. Recoveries ranged from 46.35 to 84.46% and precision was <15% of the value of relative standard deviation. This method is appropriate for screening and confirmation in plasma forensic toxicology analyses of these basic drugs.

  9. Differentiation of bullet type based on the analysis of gunshot residue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Udey, Ruth N; Hunter, Brian C; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2011-09-01

    Porcine tissue samples shot with two different types of bullets, jacketed and nonjacketed, were collected in the fresh state and throughout moderate decomposition. Wound samples were microwave-digested and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to detect all elements present at measurable levels in gunshot residue (GSR). Elements detected included antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), and lead (Pb), which are considered characteristic of GSR, as well as iron (Fe) and copper (Cu). These five elements were used to differentiate shot tissue and unshot tissue, as well as tissue shot by the two different bullet types, both in the fresh state and throughout moderate decomposition. The concentrations of Cu, Sb, and Pb were able to distinguish the two bullet types in fresh tissue samples at the 95% confidence level. Cu and Pb were able to differentiate the bullet types throughout moderate decomposition at the 99% confidence level.

  10. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, hepatitis A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and poliovirus type 2 by hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C; Antonoplos, P

    1998-04-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the capability of a hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization process to inactivate several types of viruses. Six test agents were used: HIV type 1, human hepatitis A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, vaccinia, herpes simplex virus type 1, and poliovirus type 2. The test viruses were suspended in cell culture medium and dried on the bottom of sterile glass petri dishes. The inoculated dishes were processed in the hydrogen peroxide gas plasma system for half the normal sterilization cycle time. Four inoculated carriers for each virus were used in two separate half cycles. Infectivity of the test viruses and cytotoxicity to the indicator cell lines were assayed. The hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization process produced inactivation of the six viral test agents under these experimental conditions. The reduction in viral titers ranged from 2.5 log10 to 5.5 log10, a 99.68% to 99.999% decrease. These results clearly demonstrate the virucidal effectiveness of the hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization process against both lipid and nonlipid viruses.

  11. Erythrocyte caspase-3 activation and oxidative imbalance in erythrocytes and in plasma of type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Maellaro, Emilia; Leoncini, Silvia; Moretti, Daniele; Del Bello, Barbara; Tanganelli, Italo; De Felice, Claudio; Ciccoli, Lucia

    2013-08-01

    An increased oxidative stress and a decreased life span of erythrocytes (RBCs) are reported in patients with diabetes. Aim of this study was to assess in RBCs from patients with type 2 diabetes whether downstream effector mechanisms of apoptosis, such as activation of caspase-3, is operative, and whether an iron-related oxidative imbalance, occurring inside RBCs and in plasma, could be involved in caspase-3 activation. In 26 patients with type 2 diabetes and in 12 healthy subjects, oxidative stress was evaluated by means of different markers; non-protein-bound iron, methemoglobin and glutathione were determined in RBCs, and non-protein-bound iron was also determined in plasma. Erythrocyte caspase-3 activation was evaluated by an immunosorbent enzyme assay. Arterial hypertension, demographic and standard biochemical data were also evaluated. The results show, for the first time, that type 2 diabetic RBCs put into motion caspase-3 activation, which is significantly higher than in control RBCs. Such an effector mechanism of "eryptosis" was positively correlated to blood glucose levels and to the increased plasma NPBI level. Caspase-3 activation was also positively correlated to occurrence of arterial hypertension. The results suggest that an extracellular oxidative milieu can be responsible for erythrocyte caspase-3 activation in patients with type 2 diabetes. In turn, caspase-3 activation can be envisaged as a novel mechanism which, by impairing the maintenance of erythrocyte shape and function, might contribute to the shortened life span of RBCs from patients with type 2 diabetes and to hemorheological disorders observed in these patients.

  12. The effect of L-carnitine on plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in hypercholesterolemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Cicero, Arrigo F G; Gaddi, Antonio; Mugellini, Amedeo; Ciccarelli, Leonardina; Fogari, Roberto

    2003-05-01

    A previous study has demonstrated that L-carnitine reduces plasma lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia. To test a tolerable Lp(a)-reducing agent in diabetic patients, we assessed the effect of a dietary supplementation of L-carnitine on plasma lipid levels, particularly Lp(a), of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypercholesterolemia. In this 6-month, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial, patients were enrolled, assessed, and followed up at the Diabetic and Metabolic Diseases Center of the Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics at the University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. All study patients had newly diagnosed type 2 DM that was managed through dietary restriction alone throughout the study, as well as hypercholesterolemia. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. One group received L-carnitine, one 1-g tablet BID. The other group received a corresponding placebo. We assessed body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting plasma insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apo B, and Lp(a) at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months of treatment. This study included 94 patients. The treatment group included 24 men and 22 women (mean [SD] age, 52 [6] years). The placebo group included 23 men and 25 women (mean [SD] age, 50 [7] years). The baseline characteristics of the groups did not differ significantly. The mean (SD) body weight, height, and body mass index were 78.2 (5.8) kg, 1.70 (0.04) m, and 27.3 (2.5) kg/m(2), respectively, in the L-carnitine group and 77.6 (6.4) kg, 1.71 (0.05) m, and 26.8 (2.2) kg/m(2), respectively, in the placebo group. In the treatment group, Lp(a) was significantly reduced at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P < 0.05) and P < 0.01, respectively). We observed a significant improvement after 6 months (P < 0

  13. Does glucose variability influence the relationship between mean plasma glucose and HbA1c levels in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients?

    PubMed

    Kuenen, Judith C; Borg, Rikke; Kuik, Dirk J; Zheng, Hui; Schoenfeld, David; Diamant, Michaela; Nathan, David M; Heine, Robert J

    2011-08-01

    The A1C-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study demonstrated a linear relationship between HbA(1c) and mean plasma glucose (MPG). As glucose variability (GV) may contribute to glycation, we examined the association of several glucose variability indices and the MPG-HbA(1c) relationship. Analyses included 268 patients with type 1 diabetes and 159 with type 2 diabetes. MPG during 3 months was calculated from 7-point self-monitored plasma glucose and continuous glucose monitoring. We calculated three different measures of GV and used a multiple-step regression model to determine the contribution of the respective GV measures to the MPG-HbA(1c) relationship. GV, as reflected by SD and continuous overlapping net glycemic action, had a significant effect on the MPG-HbA(1c) relationship in type 1 diabetic patients so that high GV led to a higher HbA(1c) level for the same MPG. In type 1 diabetes, the impact of confounding and effect modification of a low versus high SD at an MPG level of 160 mg/dL on the HbA(1c) level is 7.02 vs. 7.43 and 6.96 vs. 7.41. All GV measures showed the same tendency. In only type 1 diabetic patients, GV shows a significant interaction with MPG in the association with HbA(1c). This effect is more pronounced at higher HbA(1c) levels. However, the impact of GV on the HbA(1c) level in type 1 diabetes is modest, particularly when HbA(1c) is close to the treatment target of 7%.

  14. Increased cholesterol efflux from cultured fibroblasts to plasma from hypertriglyceridemic type 2 diabetic patients: roles of pre beta-HDL, phospholipid transfer protein and cholesterol esterification.

    PubMed

    de Vries, R; Groen, A K; Perton, F G; Dallinga-Thie, G M; van Wijland, M J A; Dikkeschei, L D; Wolffenbuttel, B H R; van Tol, A; Dullaart, R P F

    2008-02-01

    We tested whether hypertriglyceridemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by alterations in pre beta-HDL, which are considered to be initial acceptors of cell-derived cholesterol, and by changes in the ability of plasma to promote cellular cholesterol efflux. In 28 hypertriglyceridemic and 56 normotriglyceridemic type 2 diabetic patients, and in 56 control subjects, we determined plasma lipids, HDL cholesterol and phospholipids, plasma pre beta-HDL and pre beta-HDL formation, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity, plasma cholesterol esterification (EST) and cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) and the ability of plasma to stimulate cholesterol efflux out of cultured human fibroblasts. HDL cholesterol and HDL phospholipids were lower, whereas plasma PLTP activity, EST and CET were higher in hypertriglyceridemic diabetic patients than in the other groups. Pre beta-HDL levels and pre beta-HDL formation were unaltered, although the relative amount of pre beta-HDL (expressed as % of total plasma apo A-I) was increased in hypertriglyeridemic diabetic patients. Cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma from hypertriglyceridemic diabetic patients was increased compared to efflux to normotriglyceridemic diabetic and control plasma, but efflux to normotriglyceridemic diabetic and control plasma did not differ. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma was positively and independently related to pre beta-HDL formation, PLTP activity and EST (multiple r=0.48), but not to the diabetic state. In conclusion, cholesterol efflux from fibroblasts to normotriglyceridemic diabetic plasma is unchanged. Efflux to hypertriglyceridemic diabetic plasma is enhanced, in association with increased plasma PLTP activity and cholesterol esterification. Unaltered pre beta-HDL formation in diabetic hypertriglyceridemia, despite low apo A-I, could contribute to maintenance of cholesterol efflux.

  15. Mutagenicity and Immune Toxicity of Emulsion-type Sausage Cured with Plasma-treated Water

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Sung, Nak-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Cold plasma has been developed to reduce microbial contamination and to improve safety of food and medical products. In addition, the technology can be used in the manufacture of sausages without addition of nitrite. To be applied in food industry commercially, the new technology should be safe and efficient. However, toxicological test of plasma-treated food is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the mutagenicity and immune toxicity of the meat products cured with plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source. Emulsion sausages were prepared with no nitrite (control), sodium nitrite (SCS), and PTW (SCP). For a mutagenicity test, the Ames test was performed with the sausage samples. For immune toxicity test, 8-wk-old female Balb/c mice were given free access to the sausages in order to evaluate the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level. As a result, no mutagenicity was detected in the sausages by the Ames test. The serum TNF-α values were less than 10 pg/mL in mice after feeding control and treated samples for 32 d, indicating that no inflammatory response was occurred by feeding the sausages made by PTW. Therefore, the present study opens the possibility of using plasma-treated water as a nitrite source without any toxicity. PMID:27621690

  16. Dietary saturated fatty acid type modifies the plasma phospholipidome in obese mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A high intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) is associated with obesity and its related diseases. However, the contribution of particular SFAs to obesity has not been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that the composition of dietary SFA causes selective changes in the plasma phospholipidome in ...

  17. Plasma Amino Acid Responses After Consumption of Beverages with Varying Protein Type

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    enzyme -linked immunosorbent assay. High- performance liquid chromatography (Agilent. Santa Clara. CAl was used to analyze plasma concentrations of...effecls. To address our experimental question. we dcveloped a chocolate bevcrage similar to Ihose available in the marketplace . using cocoa fXlwder

  18. Concordance of Changes in Metabolic Pathways Based on Plasma Metabolomics and Skeletal Muscle Transcriptomics in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Tumpa; Chai, High Seng; Ward, Lawrence E.; Ghosh, Aditya; Persson, Xuan-Mai T.; Ford, G. Charles; Kudva, Yogish C.; Sun, Zhifu; Asmann, Yan W.; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2012-01-01

    Insulin regulates many cellular processes, but the full impact of insulin deficiency on cellular functions remains to be defined. Applying a mass spectrometry–based nontargeted metabolomics approach, we report here alterations of 330 plasma metabolites representing 33 metabolic pathways during an 8-h insulin deprivation in type 1 diabetic individuals. These pathways included those known to be affected by insulin such as glucose, amino acid and lipid metabolism, Krebs cycle, and immune responses and those hitherto unknown to be altered including prostaglandin, arachidonic acid, leukotrienes, neurotransmitters, nucleotides, and anti-inflammatory responses. A significant concordance of metabolome and skeletal muscle transcriptome–based pathways supports an assumption that plasma metabolites are chemical fingerprints of cellular events. Although insulin treatment normalized plasma glucose and many other metabolites, there were 71 metabolites and 24 pathways that differed between nondiabetes and insulin-treated type 1 diabetes. Confirmation of many known pathways altered by insulin using a single blood test offers confidence in the current approach. Future research needs to be focused on newly discovered pathways affected by insulin deficiency and systemic insulin treatment to determine whether they contribute to the high morbidity and mortality in T1D despite insulin treatment. PMID:22415876

  19. Plasma metanephrine levels are decreased in type 1 diabetic patients with a severely impaired epinephrine response to hypoglycemia, indicating reduced adrenomedullary stores of epinephrine.

    PubMed

    De Galan, Bastiaan E; Tack, Cees J; Willemsen, Jacques J; Sweep, C G J Fred; Smits, Paul; Lenders, Jacques W M

    2004-05-01

    A defective epinephrine response to hypoglycemia is a common disorder in type 1 diabetes. We assessed the role of the adrenomedullary capacity to secrete epinephrine in this disorder by measuring plasma metanephrine levels in affected type 1 diabetic patients compared with those in matched nondiabetic controls. Metanephrine is formed from epinephrine that leaks from adrenomedullary storage vesicles by catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and is continuously released into the circulation. Thus, plasma metanephrine levels reflect adrenomedullary epinephrine content and, provided there is normal COMT activity, the adrenomedullary capacity to secrete epinephrine. Diabetic patients had approximately 25% lower plasma metanephrine levels than controls (0.18 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.24 +/- 0.02 nmol/liter; P = 0.012), whereas plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and normetanephrine levels were comparable between patients and controls. In response to hypoglycemia, the increments in plasma epinephrine and plasma metanephrine levels were both significantly lower in diabetic patients than in controls (P < 0.001), but the increase in plasma metanephrine as a percentage of the increase in plasma epinephrine was identical, indicating similar COMT activity. We conclude that type 1 diabetic patients with an impaired epinephrine response to hypoglycemia have lower plasma metanephrine levels than matched controls, reflecting decreased adrenomedullary stores of epinephrine and indicating reduced adrenomedullary capacity to secrete epinephrine.

  20. The calcium channel antagonist benidipine reduces plasma and cardiac endothelin-1 levels in type II diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Subrina; Sakuma, Ichiro; Hattori, Yuichi; Kitabatake, Akira; Miyauchi, Takashi

    2004-11-01

    Cardiovascular complications are the central feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance is an early clinical manifestation of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Calcium channel blockers are widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases in diabetic patients; however, it remains unknown how endothelin-1 (ET-1) is altered and associated with cardiac lesions at the insulin-resistant early stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and, if so, whether calcium channel blockers can reverse such alterations. We examined plasma and cardiac expression of ET-1 in male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a spontaneous model of human type 2 diabetes mellitus. At 8 weeks of age, OLETF rats were treated for 12 weeks with a long acting calcium channel blocker, benidipine (3 mg/kg per day p.o.) (BEN, n = 15), or with vehicle (OLETF, n = 15), and age-matched genetic control, male Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were also used (n = 15). Blood pressure was significantly higher in OLETF than LETO rats, and benidipine treatment of OLETF rats for 12 weeks did not reduce their blood pressure significantly. Plasma and cardiac levels of ET-1 were significantly higher in OLETF compared with LETO rats (both P < 0.01), and were reversed after benidipine treatment. Our results suggest that ET-1 plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cardiac complications at the insulin-resistant stage of diabetes mellitus, and that benidipine treatment may have a beneficial effect on these complications.

  1. Nonthermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Suppresses Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Replication in Corneal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Alekseev, Oleg; Donovan, Kelly; Limonnik, Vladimir; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Herpes keratitis (HK) is the leading cause of cornea-derived and infection-associated blindness in the developed world. Despite the availability of effective antivirals, some patients develop refractory disease, drug-resistant infection, and topical toxicity. A nonpharmaceutical treatment modality may offer a unique advantage in the management of such cases. This study investigated the antiviral effect of nonthermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, a partially ionized gas that can be applied to organic substances to produce various biological effects. Methods Human corneal epithelial cells and explanted corneas were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and exposed to culture medium treated with nonthermal DBD plasma. The extent of infection was measured by plaque assay, quantitative PCR, and Western blot. Corneal toxicity assessment was performed with fluorescein staining, histologic examination, and 8-OHdG detection. Results Application of DBD plasma–treated medium to human corneal epithelial cells and explanted corneas produced a dose-dependent reduction of the cytopathic effect, viral genome replication, and the overall production of infectious viral progeny. Toxicity studies showed lack of detrimental effects in explanted human corneas. Conclusions Nonthermal DBD plasma substantially suppresses corneal HSV-1 infection in vitro and ex vivo without causing pronounced toxicity. Translational Relevance Nonthermal plasma is a versatile tool that holds great biomedical potential for ophthalmology, where it is being investigated for wound healing and sterilization and is already in use for ocular microsurgery. The anti-HSV-1 activity of DBD plasma demonstrated here could be directly translated to the clinic for use against drug-resistant herpes keratitis. PMID:24757592

  2. Association of plasma concentrations of salicylic acid and high on ASA platelet reactivity in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Postula, Marek; Janicki, Piotr K; Rosiak, Marek; Przybylkowski, Adam; Kaplon-Cieslicka, Agnieszka; Grygorowicz, Tomasz; Trzepla, Ewa; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Czlonkowski, Andrzej; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between plasma concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) and other minor acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) metabolites and high on ASA platelet reactivity assessed with different methods in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM). Study cohort consisted of 293 T2DM patients on chronic ASA therapy. Platelet function inhibition was analyzed using measurements of serum thromboxane B2 (S-TxB2), VerifyNow Aspirin and Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 assays. The concentration of ASA metabolites in plasma was measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In logistic regression analysis both ASA dose/kg of body weight and plasma SA concentration were found to be predictive of S-TxB2 concentrations above 0.72 ng/mL cut-off point (OR 16.9, 95% CI 2.29-125.8, p = 0.006 and OR 5.34, 95% CI 2.67-10.68, p < 0.001, respectively). When using the VerifyNow Aspirin Assay, the concentrations of SA were significantly lower (p = 0.007) in the group with high on ASA platelet reactivity when compared with the group with normal on ASA platelet reactivity. In logistic regression analysis plasma SA concentration was found to be predictive of VerifyNow Aspirin Reaction Units (ARU) ≥ 550 (OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.86-8.00, p < 0.001). Our study suggests that disturbances of pharmacokinetic mechanisms might contribute to lower plasma SA levels, and subsequently incomplete inhibition of thromboxane A2 synthesis as measured with S-TxB2 concentrations and increased platelet reactivity measured with VerifyNow in T2DM patients.

  3. Functional and proteomic alterations of plasma high density lipoproteins in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Shankarappa; Distelmaier, Klaus; Dasari, Surendra; Carter, Rickey E; Kudva, Yogish C; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2016-09-01

    Higher HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) is linked to lower cardiovascular risk but individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with normal or high HDL-C have higher cardiovascular events compared to age matched non-diabetic controls (ND). We determined whether altered HDL functions despite having normal HDL-C concentration may explain increased cardiovascular risk in T1DM individuals. We also determined whether irreversible posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of HDL bound proteins occur in T1DM individuals with altered HDL functions. T1DM with poor glycemic control (T1D-PC, HbA1c≥8.5%, n=15) and T1DM with good glycemic control (T1D-GC, HbA1c≤6.6%, n=15) were compared with equal numbers of NDs, ND-PC and ND-GC respectively, matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). We measured cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of HDL in the serum using J774 macrophages, antioxidant function of HDL as the ability to reverse the oxidative damage of LDL and PON1 activity using commercially available kit. For proteomic analysis, HDL was isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and was analyzed by mass spectrometry and shotgun proteomics method. Plasma HDL-C concentrations in both T1DM groups were similar to their ND. However, CEC (%) of T1D-PC (16.9±0.8) and T1D-GC (17.1±1) were lower than their respective ND (17.9±1, p=0.01 and 18.2±1.4, p=0.02). HDL antioxidative function also was lower (p<0.05). The abundance of oxidative PTMs of apolipoproteins involved in CEC and antioxidative functions of HDL were higher in T1D-PC (ApoA4, p=0.041) and T1D-GC (ApoA4, p=0.025 and ApoE, p=0.041) in comparison with ND. Both T1D-PC and T1D-GC groups had higher abundance of amadori modification of ApoD (p=0.002 and p=0.041 respectively) and deamidation modification of ApoA4 was higher in T1D-PC (p=0.025). Compromised functions of HDL particles in T1DM individuals, irrespective of glycemic control, could be explained by higher abundance of irreversible PTMs of HDL proteins. These

  4. E→H mode transition density and power in two types of inductively coupled plasma configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian; Du, Yin-chang; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhe; Liu, Yu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Pi; Cao, Jin-xiang

    2014-07-15

    E → H transition power and density were investigated at various argon pressures in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) in a cylindrical interlaid chamber. The transition power versus the pressure shows a minimum transition power at 4 Pa (ν/ω=1) for argon. Then the transition density hardly changes at low pressures (ν/ω≪1), but it increases clearly when argon pressure exceeds an appropriate value. In addition, both the transition power and transition density are lower in the re-entrant configuration of ICP compared with that in the cylindrical configuration of ICP. The result may be caused from the decrease of stochastic heating in the re-entrant configuration of ICP. This work is useful to understand E → H mode transition and control the transition points in real plasma processes.

  5. PLASMA CELL NEOPLASIA IN A SINGLE HOST: A MOSAIC OF DIFFERENT PROTEIN-PRODUCING CELL TYPES

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Michael

    1962-01-01

    The peritoneal plasma cell neoplasias that develop in strain BALB/c mice after the injection of adjuvant-staphylococcus mixtures or mineral oil alone appear in the form of multiple nodules in the mesentery and on peritoneal surfaces. Experiments were done to determine if these nodules were metastases or multiple primary neoplasms. Nodules or pieces of masses were transplanted subcutaneously by the trochar method or by insertion of tissue under the kidney capsule from 6 primary cases and parallel transplant lines were established. The serum and urinary protein abnormality (a stable heritable characteristic) of each of the various transplant lines was characterized by agar gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. Different protein-producing lines were found in 3 cases; in one case 5 different protein-producing lines were isolated. Two different lines were found for each of the other 2 cases. When transplantation studies were begun early, it was demonstrated that the nodules were multiple primary plasma cell neoplasms; when delayed, only one protein-producing plasma cell neoplasm was found. PMID:14488298

  6. [Zinc and copper blood plasma and erythrocyte value in adolescent with the different types of pathology].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, E M; Bakanov, M I; Spichak, T V; Simonova, O I; Poliakova, S I; Surganova, A A; Kupriianova, O O; Gorelova, Zh Iu; Plats-Koldobenko, A N; Baranovskaia, Iu V; Gorinova, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    Comparative analysis the value of the cation of zinc and copper in the blood plasma and erythrocytes were performed in the different diseases in children and adolescent. The patients with bronchopulmonary diseases, liver diseases, low cardiovascular malformation and growth inhibition were examined. Increase the value of the intracellular zinc and copper was detected in patients with the definite bronchopulmonary diseases, which can on the one hand, reflected the activation of the antioxidant protection system and by another hand, reflected destructive metalloproteinase. Decrease the value of the intracellular copper in bronchopulmonary patients with the lung emphysema and Kartagnera syndrome indicate about the falure of the compensatory reactions and needs the additional investigation. It was detected that copper content in the blood plasma and the copper accumulation in erythrocyte were decrease in patients with liver diseases in comparison with the health children. The increase of copper value in erythrocyte in children with low cardiovascular malformation was detected and need the additional investigation. In children with the growth inhibition was detected appreciable decrease the value of the free zinc and copper ions in erythrocytes and copper in the blood plasma, which can explained the physical developmental lagging.

  7. Decrease of Plasma Glucose by Hibiscus taiwanensis in Type-1-Like Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin-Yu; Chung, Hsien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus taiwanensis (Malvaceae) is widely used as an alternative herb to treat disorders in Taiwan. In the present study, it is used to screen the effect on diabetic hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). The extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis showed a significant plasma glucose-lowering action in STZ-diabetic rats. Stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis are more effective than other parts to decrease the plasma glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis three times daily for 3 days into STZ-diabetic rats increased the sensitivity to exogenous insulin showing an increase in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, similar repeated administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis for 3 days in STZ-diabetic rats produced a marked reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression in liver and an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in skeletal muscle. Taken together, our results suggest that Hibiscus taiwanensis has the ability to lower plasma glucose through an increase in glucose utilization via elevation of skeletal GLUT 4 and decrease of hepatic PEPCK in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:23690841

  8. [Effects of two types of diet on plasma lipids in rats submitted to splenic surgery].

    PubMed

    Paulo, Isabel Cristina Andreatta Lemos; Paulo, Danilo Nagib Salomão; Kalil, Mitre; Guerra, Alvino Jorge; Guerzet, Eduardo Almeida; Silva, Alcino Lázaro da

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to verify the effect of total splenectomy and ligature of the splenic vessels on the plasma lipid levels in rats fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with 2.5% cholesterol. Ninety-nine male Wistar rats weighting between 273 and 427 g (arithmetic mean: 349.46 +/-35.54) were randomly divided into four groups: group 1- control (N=19), nonoperated; group 2 - sham (N=19), laparotomy with spleen manipulation; group 3 -TS (N=31), total splenectomy; group 4 (N=30) simultaneous ligature of the splenic artery and vein. Blood was collected from all animals for determination of plasma lipids at the beginning of the experiment. Rats were than divided into two subgroups receiving either control diet (subgroup A) or diet supplemented with 2.5% cholesterol (subgroup B). Another blood sample was collected 90 days later for a new determination. No significant difference in plasma lipids between the four groups was observed at the beginning (p>0.05). In subgroups 1A, 2A and 4A, there was no significant difference in the values of HDL, VLDL and triglycerides, except LDL that dropped significantly in subgroup 1A and 2A (p<0.05) and not significantly in subgroup 4A. In subgroup 1B, 2B and 4B there was a significant increase in late postoperative plasma total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL (p<0.05) and a not significant increase of HDL. In total splenectomy, at late postoperative there was a significant increase of cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and triglycerides, especially in subgroup B. In group 3 the cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides were more significant than in groups 1, 2 and 4. Total splenectomy caused a more significant increase of cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and triglycerides in rats fed a cholesterol diet. The simultaneous ligature of vein and artery prevented alterations in plasma lipids observed in rats submitted to total splenectomy and maintained lipid levels similar to those of the control and sham groups.

  9. Behavior of n = 1 magnetohydrodynamic modes of infernal type at high-mode pedestal with plasma rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L. J.; Kotschenreuther, M. T.; Valanju, P.

    2013-01-15

    Magnetohydrodynamic instabilities of high-mode (H-mode) pedestal are investigated in this paper with the inclusion of bootstrap current for equilibrium and rotation for stability. The jointed European torus-like equilibria of H-mode discharges are generated numerically using the VMEC code. It is found that, when the bootstrap current is taken into account, a safety-factor reversal or plateau can be generated near plasma edge. This confirms previous results of numerical equilibrium reconstructions using other types of codes. The n = 1 magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, where n is toroidal mode number, are investigated numerically in this type of equilibria using the AEGIS code. It is found that the infernal type harmonic can prevail at safety-factor reversal or plateau region. The toroidal plasma rotation effect with low Mach number is investigated. The numerical results show that the mode frequency is close to the rotation frequency at pedestal top, when the value of safety factor at plateau is slightly above a rational number. This mode frequency range seems to coincide with the experimentally observed frequencies of n = 1 edge harmonic oscillations (or outer modes) at the quiescent H-mode discharges.

  10. The Gonadal Hormone Regulates the Plasma Lactate Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Treated With and Without Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ying; Li, Qing; Tang, Junling; Zheng, Taishan; Lu, Fengdi; Lu, Huijuan; Jia, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Our previous study showed there was a gender difference in plasma lactate concentrations in subjects with type 2 diabetes. This study investigated the effect of sex hormone levels on plasma lactic acid (LA) levels in type 2 diabetes with and without metformin therapy. Subjects and Methods Fasting whole blood specimens of 392 type 2 diabetes patients treated with metformin (n=199) or not (n=193) were collected. LA was measured with an enzyme-electrode assay. Levels of sex hormones, including testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), were measured with a chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay. Spearman's or Pearson's correlation and logistic regression analysis were performed for the factors associated with LA. Results The LA level in the metformin group was significantly higher than that in the non-metformin group (1.26±0.43 vs. 1.14±0.49 mmol/L, P<0.001), and LA levels of females were significantly higher than those of males (P<0.001). LA concentrations were positively correlated with E2 level but negatively correlated with metformin and T levels (P<0.01). The logistic regression analysis showed that gender, creatinine, E2, metformin, and T were independent factors influencing lactate levels. Analysis of subgroups demonstrated that the LA concentrations increased with the elevation of E2 level (P<0.05) but decreased with the rising of T level (P<0.05). Conclusions Sex hormones play an important role on regulating plasma lactate levels in diabetes patients treated with metformin. E2 up-regulates but T tend to down-regulate lactate levels. PMID:22524632

  11. Endothelial dysfunction correlates with plasma fibrinogen and HDL cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Bosevski, M; Borozanov, V; Peovska, I; Georgievska-Ismail, L

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of endothelial dysfunction (ED) in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and estimation of correlation of ED with metabolic parameters: low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, systolic blood pressure and with inflammatory-hemostatic parameters: CRP and fibrinogen. 42 patients (age 60.0 +/- 8.5 years) with diagnosed type 2 diabetes and CAD were randomly included in a cross sectional study. B-mode ultrasound system with a linear transducer 7.5 MHz was used for evaluation of flow mediated vasodilation in brachial artery (FMV). FMV was presented as the percentage increase in brachial artery diameter, within 30 s after limb ischemia, previously provoked by cuff inflation. Percentage value up to 10% was defined as ED. Bivariate linear correlation model presented significant correlation between plasma fibrinogen and FMV percentage, with r -0.47, p < 0.01. Presence of ED correlates linearly with plasma level of HDL < 1.03 mmol/L (r -0.35, p < 0.03). Multivariate analysis using Backward Wald model presented fibrinogen (OR 3.14, 95% CI 0.87-11.28) and low HDL (OR 5.16, 95% CI 0.53-60.39) as factors correlated with the presence of endothelial dysfunction. These results presented plasma fibrinogen level and low HDL < 1.03 mmol/L as factors, independently correlated to the presence of endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (Tab. 8, Fig. 1, Ref. 25). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  12. Forced magnetic reconnection in a plasma sheet with localized resistivity profile excited by lower hybrid drift type instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoshino, M.

    1991-01-01

    A forced magnetic reconnection process with a temporal evolution of resistivity is studied for a plasma sheet with a nonuniform resistivity profile based on the nonlocal mode structure of the lower hybrid drift type instability. The growth rate of the mode found is almost independent of the resistivity at the neutral sheet, but depends on the resistivity of the region of maximum density gradient away from the neutral sheet. This is studied by using both a nonlinear numerical MHD simulation and a linear theory. The mode may be relevant to the prevalent theoretical concept of MHD reconnection and the localized anomalous resistivity profile based on the lower hybrid drift instability.

  13. Sphingomyelin-induced inhibition of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase causes neurodegeneration in type A Niemann-Pick disease.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cañamás, A; Benvegnù, S; Rueda, C B; Rábano, A; Satrústegui, J; Ledesma, M D

    2017-05-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPA) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe neurological alterations that leads to death in childhood. Loss-of-function mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) gene cause NPA, and result in the accumulation of sphingomyelin (SM) in lysosomes and plasma membrane of neurons. Using ASM knockout (ASMko) mice as a NPA disease model, we investigated how high SM levels contribute to neural pathology in NPA. We found high levels of oxidative stress both in neurons from these mice and a NPA patient. Impaired activity of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) increases intracellular calcium. SM induces PMCA decreased activity, which causes oxidative stress. Incubating ASMko-cultured neurons in the histone deacetylase inhibitor, SAHA, restores PMCA activity and calcium homeostasis and, consequently, reduces the increased levels of oxidative stress. No recovery occurs when PMCA activity is pharmacologically impaired or genetically inhibited in vitro. Oral administration of SAHA prevents oxidative stress and neurodegeneration, and improves behavioral performance in ASMko mice. These results demonstrate a critical role for plasma membrane SM in neuronal calcium regulation. Thus, we identify changes in PMCA-triggered calcium homeostasis as an upstream mediator for NPA pathology. These findings can stimulate new approaches for pharmacological remediation in a disease with no current clinical treatments.

  14. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of the plasma concentration of K-27, a novel oxime-type cholinesterase reactivator.

    PubMed

    Tekes, K; Hasan, M Y; Sheen, R; Kuca, K; Petroianu, G; Ludányi, K; Kalász, H

    2006-07-28

    A simple and reliable HPLC method for the determination of the plasma level of K-27, an oxime type antidote of use in organophosphorus poisoning is presented. Separation was carried out by HPLC using an octyl silica stationary phase and a mobile phase consisting of 93% phosphate buffer (pH 2.6) containing octane sulfate sodium salt, and 7% methanol. Quantitative absorbance was monitored at 286 nm. The calibration curve was linear through the range of 1.25-200 microg/mL, that is well beyond the detected plasma level range of K-27. Limit of quantitation was 5 microg/mL. Intra-day and inter-day precisions of the HPLC determinations gave standard deviations as 0.77 and 2.67%, respectively. Following intramuscular administration of 50 micromol (22.31 mg) K-27 in rats, the maximum of K-27 concentration in plasma was reached at about 15 min giving 186 microg/mL and the t(1/2) was 85 min. K-27 displays initial (from 15 trough 120 min) zero order elimination kinetics. Similar results have been found after intraperitoneal administration.

  15. Plasma gastrin and cholecystokinin response after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy with Billroth-I type of reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Tangoku, A.; Nishikawa, M.; Adachi, A.; Suzuki, T. )

    1991-07-01

    Plasma gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) responses were measured after a pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) using the Billroth-I type reconstruction combined with distal partial gastrectomy (standard PD) and combined with preservation of the pylorus and the duodenal bulb (PPPD). Six unoperated patients, 4 men and 2 women, were studied as control subjects. Basal plasma levels of gastrin were significantly higher in controls than in patients who had a standard PD (p less than 0.05) and gastrin responses to a meal were also blunted in these patients. In contrast basal and postprandial levels of gastrin after PPPD were significantly higher than these found in patients with standard PD (p less than 0.05). Postprandial gastrin response after PPPD were similar in pattern to these found in controls. Integrated gastrin release after PPPD was less than that of the control but was significantly greater than that in patients with standard PD. Basal plasma levels of CCK in the patients after the standard PD were significantly lower than in controls and significantly higher postprandial levels of CCK were found after PPPD compared to standard PD (p less than 0.05). However integrated CCK from 0 to 120 minutes were not significantly different between PPPD and standard PD groups. Based on these observations concerning hormonal release of gastrin and CCK, preservation of the stomach and the duodenal bulb appears to be a more physiologic reconstructive procedure than the standard PD. In addition the operation probably has more beneficial effect on the injured pancreas in time.

  16. Parametric decay of current-driven Langmuir oscillations and wave packet formation in plateau plasmas: Relevance to type III bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, K.; Malaspina, D.; Pulupa, M.

    2016-12-01

    Instead of starting with an unstable electron beam, our focus is directed on the nonlinear response of Langmuir oscillations which are driven after beam stabilization by the still persisting current of the (stable) two-electron plasma. The velocity distribution function of the second population forms a plateau with weak damping over a more or less extended wave number range k. As shown by PIC simulations, this so-called plateau plasma drives primarily Langmuir oscillations at the plasma frequency ωe with k=0 over long times without remarkable change of the distribution function. The Langmuir oscillations, however, act as pump wave for parametric decay by which an electron-acoustic wave slightly below ωe and a counter-streaming ion-acoustic wave are generated. Both high-frequency waves have nearly the same amplitude which is simply given by the product of plateau density and velocity. Beating of these two wave types leads to pronounced Langmuir amplitude modulation, in good agreement with solar wind and foreshock WIND observations where waveforms and electron distribution functions have simultaneously been analyzed.

  17. Clinical Significance of Determining Plasma MicroRNA33b in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuki; Matsumura, Koki; Murakami, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Maki; Matsuki, Kota; Tanabe, Jutaro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Matsui, Jun; Daimon, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c is the dominant liver insulin-stimulated isoform and strongly correlates with diabetic dyslipidemia characterized by hyperinsulinemia [i.e., high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and hypertriglyceridemia]. MicroRNA (miRNA) 33b is harbored in the intron of SREBP-1c and represses ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A, and member 1 (ABCA1) expression, essential for HDL formation. We measured plasma miRNA33b levels as possible biomarkers for diabetic dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) showing insulin resistance. Methods: The participants included 50 patients with T2DM (M/F 31/19) enrolled in an educational program for controlling blood glucose levels at Hirosaki University Hospital. HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid levels were determined. Plasma miRNA33b, miRNA33a and miRNA148a were quantified using a TaqMan® MicroRNA Assay, and values were corrected with reference to miRNA16. Results: Mean BMI of participants were 28.2 ± 6.6 (kg/m2) and the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance was 4.3 ± 2.7. Patients' laboratory findings indicated diabetic dyslipidemia with insulin resistance. Plasma miRNA33b/16 levels revealed a positive correlation with plasma insulin level (r = 0.326, P = 0.021), serum C-peptide (r = 0.280, P = 0.049), and triglyceride (r = 0.351, P = 0.012), but no association with HDL-C (r = −0.210, P = 0.143). The blood level of miRNA33a was approximately 1/150th of that of miRNA33b and was not correlated with the above parameters. Conclusion: We postulated that plasma miRNA33b may be useful as a new metabolic biomarker of dyslipidemia in patients with T2DM as well as metabolic syndrome via an insulin/SREBP-1c/miRNA33b/ABCA1 pathway. PMID:27301461

  18. [Associations of insulin resistance and pancreatic beta-cell function with plasma glucose level in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Nian, Xiaoping; Sun, Gaisheng; Dou, Chunmei; Hou, Hongbo; Fan, Xiuping; Yu, Hongmei; Ma, Ling; He, Bingxian

    2002-06-10

    To investigate the influence of insulin resistance and pancreatic beta-cell function on plasma glucose level in type 2 diabetes so as to provide theoretical basis for reasonable selection of hypoglycemic agents. The plasma non-specific insulin (NSINS), true insulin (TI) and glucose in eight-one type 2 diabetics, 38 males and 43 females, with a mean age of 53 years, were examined 0, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after they had 75 grams of instant noodles. The patients were divided into two groups according to their fasting plasma glucose (FPG): group A (FPG < 8.89 mmol/L) and group B (FPG> = 8.89 mmol/L). The insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR, the beta-cell function was evaluated by HOMA-beta formula and the formula deltaI(30)/deltaG(30) = (deltaI(30)-deltaI(0))/(deltaG(30)-deltaG(0)). The insulin area under curve (INSAUC) was evaluated by the formula INSAUC=FINS/2+INS(30)+INS(60)+INS(120)/2. The mean FPG was 6.23 mmol/L in group A and 12.6 mmol/L in group B. PG2H was 11.7 mmol/L in group A and 19.2 mmol/L in group B. The TI levels in group B at 0, 30, 60, 120 min during standard meal test were significantly higher than those in group A: 6.15 +/- 1.06 vs 4.77 +/- 1.06, 9.76 +/- 1.1 vs 5.88 +/- 1.1,14.68 +/- 1.11 vs 6.87 +/- 1.1 and 17.13 +/- 1.12 vs 8.0 +/- 1.1 microU/dl (all P< 0.01). The NSINS showed the same trend. The insulin resistance in group B was 1.5 times that in group A. With the insulin resistance adjusted, the beta cell function in group A was 5 to 6 times that in group B. The INSAUC in group A was 1.66 times larger than that in group B, especially the INSAUC for true insulin (2 times larger). The contribution of insulin resistance and beta cell function to PG2H was half by half in group A and 1:8 in group B. beta cell function calculated by insulin (Homa-beta) explained 41% of the plasma glucose changes in group A and 54% of the plasma glucose changes in group B. The contribution of insulin deficiency to plasma glocose was 3.3.times that of insulin

  19. Cosmic plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to experimental and theoretical approaches to plasma physics, plasma phenomena in laboratory and space, field and particle aspects of plasmas, the present state of the classical theory, boundary conditions and circuit dependence, and cosmology. Electric currents in space plasmas are considered, taking into account dualism in physics, particle-related phenomena in plasma physics, magnetic field lines, filaments, local plasma properties and the circuit, electric double layers, field-aligned currents as 'cables', an expanding circuit, different types of plasma regions, the cellular structure of space, and the fine structure of active plasma regions. Other topics discussed are related to circuits, the theory of cosmic plasmas, the origin of the solar system, the coexistence of matter and antimatter, annihilation as a source of energy, the Hubble expansion in a Euclidean space, and a model for the evolution of the Metagalaxy.

  20. Plasma concentrations of generic lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV type-1-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    van der Lugt, Jasper; Lange, Joep; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Sealoo, Siriporn; Burger, David; Gorowara, Meena; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2009-01-01

    Generic drugs can contribute to access to treatment for HIV-infected patients. However quality and safety remains an issue of concern. Therefore, we evaluated minimal plasma concentrations and short-term safety of a generic lopinavir/ritonavir 200/50 mg tablet formulation. In a single-centre prospective pilot study, patients receiving protease-inhibitor-based antiretroviral treatment were switched to a generic lopinavir/ritonavir tablet at the standard dose (400/100 mg twice daily). Minimum drug concentrations (C(min)) of lopinavir and ritonavir were performed before switching (in 16 patients who were on Kaletra((R)) soft-gel capsules) and after 4 weeks (in all patients). Plasma levels of lopinavir and ritonavir were determined by a validated HPLC method. Either the Wilcoxon signed-rank or Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the groups. A total of 37 patients (18 females) were included in the study. Two stopped their study medications prematurely because of intolerance. The median (interquartile range) lopinavir C(min) was 7.2 mg/l (5.8-8.3) and no patients had subtherapeutic levels <1.0 mg/l. No significant difference of lopinavir C(min) levels was found between Kaletra((R)), and the generic product (P=0.224). By contrast, the C(min) of generic ritonavir was higher (P=0.012). Food did not affect the drug levels. Mild gastrointestinal complaints were reported in 12 patients. The generic lopinavir/ritonavir tablet showed C(min) plasma concentrations similar to what is described for the branded product, with good stability, independent of food intake. These data support the efforts in scaling up access to generic second-line treatment in middle- and low-income countries.

  1. Multiplex bead array assay of plasma cytokines in type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Hui; Yuan, Songtao; Yang, Qin; Yuan, Dongqing

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the roles of plasma cytokines in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and their relationship with the severity of DR. Methods This study included 59 diabetic patients and 19 non-diabetic controls. The plasma concentrations of endothelial growth factor (EGF), eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), Flt-3 ligand (Flt-3L), fractalkine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), growth-related oncogene (GRO), interferon (IFN)-α2, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12 (p40), IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, IFN-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, MCP-3, macrophage-derived cytokine (MDC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, sCD40L, sIL-2Rα, transforming growth factor (TGF)-α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α, TNF-β, and VEGF were measured with Luminex multiplex bead immunoassay. The levels of these cytokines were investigated according to the DR stage. Results The plasma level of ten cytokines—MCP-1, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, sCD40L, sIL-2Rα and TNF-β—increased significantly in the diabetic group compared to the controls. The Flt-3L, IL-1Ra, IL-3, IL-5, and IL-12 (p40) levels were lower in the diabetic group than in the control group. The TNF-α plasma level was significantly elevated in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) compared with the levels in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and patients with no apparent diabetic retinopathy (NDR). Conclusions TNF-α might be involved in the progression of DR, especially in the pathogenesis of PDR. TNF-α is a potential cytokine for the prognosis of DR and might act as a therapeutic target in DR. PMID:25253986

  2. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus Type-1 by fresh-frozen plasma treated with methylene blue and light.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Manuel; Luis-Hidalgo, Mar; Bracho, María Alma; Blanquer, Amando; Larrea, Luis; Villalba, José; Puig, Nieves; Planelles, Dolores; Montoro, José; González-Candelas, Fernando; Roig, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The risk of transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI) has been minimized by introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT) and pathogen inactivation (PI). This case report describes transmission of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) to two recipients despite these measures. In March 2009 a possible TTI of HIV-1 was identified in a patient that had received pooled buffy coat platelet concentrate (BC-PLT) in November 2005. The subsequent lookback study found two more patients who had received methylene blue (MB)-treated fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and red blood cells (RBCs) from the same donation. In November 2005 the donor had tested negative for both HIV antibodies and HIV-1 RNA by 44 minipool (44 MP) NAT. Repository samples of this donation and samples from the recipients were used for viral load (VL) and sequence analysis. HIV-1 RNA was detectable by individual donation (ID)-NAT in the repository sample from the 2005 window period donation and a VL of 135 copies/mL was measured. HIV-1 infection was confirmed in both recipients of both BC-PLT (65 mL of plasma) and MB-FFP (261 mL of plasma), but not in the patient that had received 4-week-old RBCs (20 mL of plasma). The sequence analysis revealed a close phylogenetic relationship between the virus strains isolated from the donor and recipients, compatible with TTI. Approximately 17,600 and 4400 virions in the MB-FFP and BC-PLT were infectious, but 1350 virions in the RBCs were not. ID-NAT would have prevented this transmission, but the combination of MP-NAT and MB-PI did not. © 2015 AABB.

  3. Sustained high plasma mannose less sensitive to fluctuating blood glucose in glycogen storage disease type Ia children.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Hironori; Yorifuji, Tohru; Bandsma, Robert H J; Takatani, Tomozumi; Asano, Hisaki; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Takuwa, Mayuko; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Inui, Ayano; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Komatsu, Haruki; Hiejima, Eitaro; Fujisawa, Tomoo; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Miida, Takashi; Ohtake, Akira; Taguchi, Tadao; Miwa, Ichitomo

    2013-01-01

    Plasma mannose is suggested to be largely generated from liver glycogen-oriented glucose-6-phosphate. This study examined plasma mannose in glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) lacking conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to glucose in the liver. We initially examined fasting--and postprandial 2 h--plasma mannose and other blood carbohydrates and lipids for seven GSD Ia children receiving dietary interventions using cornstarch and six healthy age-matched children. Next, one-day successive intra-individual parameter changes were examined for six affected and two control children. Although there were no significant differences in fasting--and postprandial 2 h--glucose and insulin levels, the mannose level of the affected group was invariably much higher than that of the control group (p < 0.001): the fasting level of the affected group was about two-fold that of the control group; the postprandial-2 h level remained almost unchanged in the affected group, although it was one-half of the fasting level in the control group. Inter-individual analyses revealed that the GSD Ia group mannose level was significantly and positively correlated with lactate and triglycerides levels at both time points (p < 0.01). In each control, mannose levels fluctuated greatly, maintaining strong and significant negative correlations with glucose and insulin levels (p < 0.001). Correlations were lower or nonexistent in GSD Ia children. In individuals with high lactate and triglycerides levels, strikingly high mannose levels never changed against glucose and insulin fluctuations. Plasma mannose is less sensitive to blood glucose and insulin in GSD Ia children. Its basal level and the fluctuation pattern differ by their metabolic activity.

  4. [Plasma homocysteine, Lp(a), and oxidative stress markers in peripheral macroangiopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Real, Jose T; Folgado, José; Molina Mendez, Mercedes; Martinez-Hervás, Sergio; Peiro, Marta; Ascaso, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    To study new risk factors for peripheral macroangiopathy (PM) in patients with diabetes, as oxidative stress (OS) and its interaction with classical risk factors: age, Lp(a), plasma homocysteine values and HbA1c. We studied 204 type2 diabetic (T2DM) patients, consecutive selected form a reference hospital and a secondary hospital form our Community (2009-2010). Design was a case (ABI<0.89) control (ABI0.9-1.2) study. PM was defined using ankle brachial index (ABI). Thirty nine T2DM subjects presented ABI>1.2 and were excluded. Clinical and biological parameters were determined using standard methods. Comparing clinical and biological parameters obtained in both studied groups (T2DM+ABI<0.9 vs T2DM+ABI0.9-1.2), we found statistical significant differences in age, evolution time of diabetes, Lp(a) and plasma homocysteine values. No differences were found in OS parameters: reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and maloldialdehide between studied groups. Plasma homocysteine values were an independent risk factor for the presence of PM and were related to evolution time of diabetes and reduced glutathione. We have confirmed that Lp(a) and independently plasma homocysteine values were related to PM in T2DM subjects. No association with PM and OS markers (GSH, GSSG and MDA) were found in T2DM with more than 10years of evolution time of their disease and high prevalence of chronic complications. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A Plant Plasma Membrane ATP Binding Cassette–Type Transporter Is Involved in Antifungal Terpenoid Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Jasiński, Michal; Stukkens, Yvan; Degand, Hervé; Purnelle, Bénédicte; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Boutry, Marc

    2001-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which are found in all species, are known mainly for their ability to confer drug resistance. To date, most of the ABC transporters characterized in plants have been localized in the vacuolar membrane and are considered to be involved in the intracellular sequestration of cytotoxins. Working on the assumption that certain ABC transporters might be involved in defense metabolite secretion and their expression might be regulated by the concentration of these metabolites, we treated a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cell culture with sclareolide, a close analog of sclareol, an antifungal diterpene produced at the leaf surface of Nicotiana spp; this resulted in the appearance of a 160-kD plasma membrane protein, which was partially sequenced. The corresponding cDNA (NpABC1) was cloned and shown to encode an ABC transporter. In vitro and in situ immunodetection showed NpABC1 to be localized in the plasma membrane. Under normal conditions, expression was found in the leaf epidermis. In cell culture and in leaf tissues, NpABC1 expression was strongly enhanced by sclareolide and sclareol. In parallel with NpABC1 induction, cells acquired the ability to excrete a labeled synthetic sclareolide derivative. These data suggest that NpABC1 is involved in the secretion of a secondary metabolite that plays a role in plant defense. PMID:11340184

  6. Open-air type plasma chemical vaporization machining by applying pulse-width modulation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoshiki; Hata, Yuki; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2014-03-01

    Photolithography techniques have been used to enable the low-cost and high-speed transfer of a pattern onto a silicon wafer. However, owing to the high integration of semiconductors, extreme ultraviolet will be increasingly used as the exposure light source and all optics must be reflective to focus light because the wavelength of the light will be so short that it cannot pass through a lens. The form accuracy of reflective optics affects the accuracy of transfer, and a flatness of less than 32 nm on a 6 inch photomask substrate is required according to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors roadmap. Plasma chemical vaporization machining is an ultraprecise figuring technique that enables a form accuracy of nanometre order to be obtained. In our previous study, the removal volume was controlled by changing the scanning speed of the worktable. However, a discrepancy between the theoretical scanning speed and the actual scanning speed occurred owing to the inertia of the worktable when the change in speed was rapid. As an attempt to resolve this issue, we controlled the removal volume by controlling the electric power applied during plasma generation while maintaining a constant scanning speed. The methods that we adapted to control the applied electric power were amplitude-modulation (AM) control and pulse-width modulation (PWM) control. In this work, we evaluate the controllability of the material removal rate in the AM and PWM control modes.

  7. Identifying low-dimensional dynamics in type-I edge-localised-mode processes in JET plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, F. A.; Chapman, S. C.; Nicol, R. M.; Dendy, R. O.; Webster, A. J.; Alper, B. [EURATOM Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2013-04-15

    Edge localised mode (ELM) measurements from reproducibly similar plasmas in the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak, which differ only in their gas puffing rate, are analysed in terms of the pattern in the sequence of inter-ELM time intervals. It is found that the category of ELM defined empirically as type I-typically more regular, less frequent, and having larger amplitude than other ELM types-embraces substantially different ELMing processes. By quantifying the structure in the sequence of inter-ELM time intervals using delay time plots, we reveal transitions between distinct phase space dynamics, implying transitions between distinct underlying physical processes. The control parameter for these transitions between these different ELMing processes is the gas puffing rate.

  8. Study of discrete-particle effects in a one-dimensional plasma simulation with the Krook type collision model

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Po-Yen; Chen, Liu; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2015-09-15

    The thermal relaxation time of a one-dimensional plasma has been demonstrated to scale with N{sub D}{sup 2} due to discrete particle effects by collisionless particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, where N{sub D} is the particle number in a Debye length. The N{sub D}{sup 2} scaling is consistent with the theoretical analysis based on the Balescu-Lenard-Landau kinetic equation. However, it was found that the thermal relaxation time is anomalously shortened to scale with N{sub D} while externally introducing the Krook type collision model in the one-dimensional electrostatic PIC simulation. In order to understand the discrete particle effects enhanced by the Krook type collision model, the superposition principle of dressed test particles was applied to derive the modified Balescu-Lenard-Landau kinetic equation. The theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with the simulation results when the collisional effects dominate the plasma system.

  9. Porting plasma physics simulation codes to modern computing architectures using the type="smallcap">libmrc framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germaschewski, Kai; Abbott, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Available computing power has continued to grow exponentially even after single-core performance satured in the last decade. The increase has since been driven by more parallelism, both using more cores and having more parallelism in each core, e.g. in GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi. Adapting existing plasma physics codes is challenging, in particular as there is no single programming model that covers current and future architectures. We will introduce the open-source type="smallcap">libmrc framework that has been used to modularize and port three plasma physics codes: The extended MHD code MRCv3 with implicit time integration and curvilinear grids; the OpenGGCM global magnetosphere model; and the particle-in-cell code PSC. type="smallcap">libmrc consolidates basic functionality needed for simulations based on structured grids (I/O, load balancing, time integrators), and also introduces a parallel object model that makes it possible to maintain multiple implementations of computational kernels, on e.g. conventional processors and GPUs. It handles data layout conversions and enables us to port performance-critical parts of a code to a new architecture step-by-step, while the rest of the code can remain unchanged. We will show examples of the performance gains and some physics applications.

  10. Improvement of luminous efficacy in plasma display panels by a counter-type electrode configuration with a large gap

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Min; Kim, Jae Rok; Yi, Jeong Doo; Cho, Yoon Hyoung; Song, Su Bin; Park, Jun Yong; Lee, Han Yong

    2006-06-01

    The discharge characteristics of plasma display panel with coplanar and counter-type electrode configurations are compared using the numerical modeling and experiment with respect to real and macrocells, respectively. Numerical analysis shows that the ultraviolet (UV) efficiency and driving voltage of counter type at a gap distance of 230 {mu}m are located at similar levels to those of coplanar type at a gap distance of 60 {mu}m. The UV efficiency for counter type is enhanced with the rise of xenon fraction and gap distance, between which the large gap operation is more advantageous to high UV efficiency. The measured temporal evolution of infrared emission reveals that the cathode layer plays an important role in forming the discharge current after the gas breakdown. It is found from the time-averaged visible and infrared emissions for the counter type that as the gap distance becomes larger, the positive column region increases but the sheath regime remains almost unchanged. On the other hand, the variation of gap distance gives a little influence on the average discharge current at the same applied voltage. The UV efficiency is thus greatly improved with the gap distance. When the gap becomes double, the UV efficiency is improved by 75%, which is well agreed with the results predicted in the numerical modeling.

  11. Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin was inversely associated with plasma glucose level and fat mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, I; Yamaguchi, T; Yamauchi, M; Yamamoto, M; Kurioka, S; Yano, S; Sugimoto, T

    2011-01-01

    Although recent animal studies have shown that undercarboxylated osteocalcin acts as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism and fat mass, little is known about the relationships in humans. We reported here for the first time that undercarboxylated osteocalcin were associated with glucose/fat metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have shown that undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) acts as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism and fat mass. We investigated the relationship between ucOC as well as other bone turnover markers [serum OC, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type-I collagen] versus serum levels of glucose, fasting serum C-peptide, and adiponectin as well as the amount of fat mass in type 2 diabetes. A total of 180 men and 109 postmenopausal women were consecutively recruited, and radiographic and biochemical characteristics were collected. Fat mass was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT). In men, ucOC negatively correlated with percent trunk fat (%trunk fat; by DXA) and visceral/subcutaneous fat ratio (by CT) as well as fasting plasma glucose and HbA(1c) (at least p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that these associations were still significant independent of age, duration of diabetes, body stature, and renal function as well as glucose or fat metabolism, whereas BAP, another bone formation marker, did not correlate with any variable. On the other hand, although ucOC also negatively correlated with %fat and %trunk fat as well as HbA(1c) (at least p < 0.05) in postmenopausal women, we found no significant association in multiple regression analysis. These findings suggest that ucOC is associated with plasma glucose level and fat mass in men with type 2 diabetes.

  12. ATPases enzyme activities during ageing in different types of somatic and synaptic plasma membranes from rat frontal cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Gorini, Antonella; Canosi, Umberto; Devecchi, Elisabetta; Geroldi, Diego; Villa, Roberto Federico

    2002-01-01

    The catalytic properties of energy-utilizing ATPases enzyme systems related to ions homeostasis were evaluated in different types of synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) and in somatic plasma membranes (SM) from cerebral cortex of rats aged 5, 10, and 22 months. The following enzymes were evaluated: Na+, K+-ATPase, Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase and the activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) was also evaluated. The ATPases located on SM and SPM and synaptic vesicles are involved in the regulation of presynaptic nerve ending homeostasis and postsynaptic activities. Different types of SM and SPM (three types) were obtained by combinations of differential and density gradient ultracentrifugation techniques in sucrose-Ficoll media: the first was obtained by purification of the sediment of mitochondrial supernate and the second after synaptosomal lysis and purification on density gradient. In the cerebral cortex of 5-month-old rats, the catalytic properties of ATPases systems markedly differ according to the different types of SPM and SM, thus indicating that the metabolic role of each ATPase is determined by their subcellular in vivo localization. As regards ageing: (i) ATPase enzyme catalytic activities tend to decrease during ageing in a complex way; (ii) ageing induced specific modifications in individual ATPases according to their subsynaptic localization; and (iii) these effects are probably due to specific biochemical situations that take place at each age, reflecting the bioenergetic state of the cerebral tissue with respect to the energy demand. The cerebral concentration and content of SM proteins were increased by ageing suggesting that many defective noncatalytic proteins may be formed during ageing, as shown by immunoblotting techniques.

  13. MiR-199a is overexpressed in plasma of type 2 diabetes patients which contributes to type 2 diabetes by targeting GLUT4.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuang-Tong; Li, Chun-Lin; Tian, Hui; Li, Jian; Pei, Yu; Liu, Yu; Gong, Yan-Ping; Fang, Fu-Sheng; Sun, Ban-Ruo

    2014-12-01

    Decreased GLUT4 expression and impaired GLUT4 cell membrane translocation are involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathogenesis so the factors impacting GLUT4 expression may be associated with T2DM. In this study, we identified four miRNAs: miR-31, miR-93, miR-146a, and miR-199a which suppress GLUT4 expression in HEK293T cells. Subsequently, we determined expression of these four miRNAs in plasma samples of T2DM patients, T2DM susceptible individuals, and healthy controls and found miR-199a was overexpressed in patients' plasma compared with healthy control. Because the miR-199a binding site in GLUT4 3'UTR is highly conserved among vertebrates, we detected the glucose uptake in rat L6 myoblast cells through gain- and loss-of-function of miR-199a. We found that miR-199a can repress glucose uptake in L6 cells, which was rescued by GLUT4 overexpression. These results indicate that T2DM patients may have a high level miR-199a that reduce GLUT4 expression and contribute to the insulin resistance. Hence, miR-199a may be a novel biomarker for risk estimation and classification in T2DM patients.

  14. Plasma C1q/TNF-Related Protein-9 Levels Are Associated with Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes without Renal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Asada, Mariko; Yamazaki, Yuko; Kakutani, Yoshinori; Kawarabayashi, Reina; Motoyama, Koka; Mori, Katsuhito; Shioi, Atsushi; Shoji, Tetsuo; Emoto, Masanori; Inaba, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Aim. C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-9 (CTRP9), a paralog of adiponectin, is expressed in adipose tissue. CTRP9 exerts protective effects against obesity and atherosclerosis in rodents. We investigated the association between plasma CTRP9 levels and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. We included 419 patients with type 2 diabetes, 161 of whom had chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fasting plasma CTRP9 and total adiponectin levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery was measured with ultrasonography. Results. Plasma CTRP9 levels were higher in the CKD group than in the non-CKD group. Plasma CTRP9 levels were positively correlated with carotid IMT in the non-CKD group. Multivariate analyses revealed that plasma CTRP9 levels were positively associated with carotid IMT in the non-CKD group, independent of age, sex, body mass index, adiponectin, and other cardiovascular risk factors. However, plasma CTRP9 levels were not associated with carotid IMT in the CKD group. Conclusion. Plasma CTRP9 levels are associated with atherosclerosis in diabetic patients without CKD, independently of obesity, adiponectin, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. This study indicates a potential role of CTRP9 in atherosclerosis progression in human type 2 diabetes. PMID:28070523

  15. Plasma oxidative stress parameters in men and women with early stage Alzheimer type dementia.

    PubMed

    Puertas, M C; Martínez-Martos, J M; Cobo, M P; Carrera, M P; Mayas, M D; Ramírez-Expósito, M J

    2012-08-01

    It is well known that oxidative stress is one of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, indicating that may play a key role in this disease. In our study, we measured the levels of oxidative stress indicators (TBARS and protein carbonyls content) and the non-enzymatic (glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG)) and enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) defense systems in the plasma of 46 patients diagnosed of ATD and 46 age-matched controls. We found decreased levels in total GSH in ATD patients, although healthy control women showed lower levels of total GSH than healthy control men. On the contrary, we found increased levels of TBARS and carbonyl groups content in ATD patients in both genders. The activity of the plasma antioxidant enzymes showed no changes for SOD activity in ATD patients, independently of the gender, although western blot analysis showed an increase in SOD-1 protein. CAT activity was also decreased in ATD patients, although this decrease is mainly due to the decrease found in men but not in women. However, western blot analysis did not show differences in CAT protein between controls and ATD patients. Finally, a decrease of GPx activity was found in ATD patients in both genders. However, as with CAT protein, western blot analysis did not show differences in GPx protein between controls and ATD patients. Our results suggest that there is a defect in the antioxidant defense system that is incapable of responding to increased free radical production, which may lead to oxidative damage and the development of the pathological alterations that characterize the neurodegenerative disorder of patients with ATD. Thus, oxidative damage could be one important aspect for the onset of ATD and oxidative stress markers could be useful to diagnose the illness in their earliest stages through both non-invasive, reliable and cost-affordable methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Cardiac tamponade as an independent condition affecting the relationship between the plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels and cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Minai, Kosuke; Komukai, Kimiaki; Arase, Satoshi; Nagoshi, Tomohisa; Matsuo, Seiichiro; Ogawa, Kazuo; Kayama, Yosuke; Inada, Keiichi; Tanigawa, Shin-Ichi; Takemoto, Tomoyuki; Sekiyama, Hiroshi; Date, Taro; Ogawa, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2013-07-01

    Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is finely regulated by the cardiac function and several extracardiac factors. Therefore, the relationship between the plasma BNP levels and the severity of heart failure sometimes seems inconsistent. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the plasma BNP levels in patients with cardiac tamponade and their changes after pericardial drainage. This study included 14 patients with cardiac tamponade who underwent pericardiocentesis. The cardiac tamponade was due to malignant diseases in 13 patients and uremia in 1 patient. The plasma BNP levels were measured before and 24-48 h after drainage. Although the patients reported severe symptoms of heart failure, their plasma BNP levels were only 71.2 ± 11.1 pg/ml before drainage. After appropriate drainage, the plasma BNP levels increased to 186.0 ± 22.5 pg/ml, which was significantly higher than that before drainage (P = 0.0002). In patients with cardiac tamponade, the plasma BNP levels were low, probably because of impaired ventricular stretching, and the levels significantly increased in response to the primary condition after drainage. This study demonstrates an additional condition that affects the relationship between the plasma BNP levels and cardiac function. If inconsistency is seen in the relationship between the plasma BNP levels and clinical signs of heart failure, the presence of cardiac tamponade should therefore be considered.

  17. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Wu, Jing; Duan, Yang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Huacong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among plasma periostin, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammation in Chinese patients with obesity (OB), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma periostin levels in the T2DM group were significantly higher than the NGT group (P < 0.01). Patients with both OB and T2DM had the highest periostin levels. Correlation analysis showed that plasma periostin levels were positively correlated with weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05 or 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TG, TNF-α, and HOMA-IR were independent related factors in influencing the levels of plasma periostin (P < 0.001). These results suggested that Chinese patients with obesity and T2DM had significantly higher plasma periostin levels. Plasma periostin levels were strongly associated with plasma TG, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance. PMID:27313402

  18. Plasma-based water treatment: development of a general mechanistic model to estimate the treatability of different types of contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mededovic Thagard, Selma; Stratton, Gunnar R.; Dai, Fei; Bellona, Christopher L.; Holsen, Thomas M.; Bohl, Douglas G.; Paek, Eunsu; Dickenson, Eric R. V.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the types of applications for which plasma-based water treatment (PWT) is best suited, the treatability of 23 environmental contaminants was assessed through treatment in a gas discharge reactor with argon bubbling, termed the enhanced-contact reactor. The contaminants were treated in a mixture to normalize reaction conditions and convective transport limitations. Treatability was compared in terms of the observed removal rate constant (k obs). To characterize the influence of interfacial processes on k obs, a model was developed that accurately predicts k obs for each compound, as well as the contributions to k obs from each of the three general degradation mechanisms thought to occur at or near the gas-liquid interface: ‘sub-surface’, ‘surface’ and ‘above-surface’. Sub-surface reactions occur just underneath the gas-liquid interface between the contaminants and dissolved plasma-generated radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of compounds that lack surfactant-like properties and so are not highly concentrated at the interface. Surface reactions occur at the interface between the contaminants and dissolved radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of surfactant-like compounds that have high interfacial concentrations. The contaminants’ interfacial concentrations were calculated using surface-activity parameters determined through surface tension measurements. Above-surface reactions are proposed to take place in the plasma interior between highly energetic plasma species and exposed portions of compounds that extend out of the interface. This mechanism largely accounts for the degradation of surfactant-like contaminants that contain highly hydrophobic perfluorocarbon groups, which are most likely to protrude from the interface. For a few compounds, the degree of exposure to the plasma interior was supported by new and previously reported molecular dynamics simulations results. By reviewing the predicted

  19. [Initial osteoblast functions on a type of near β-type titanium alloys surfaces modified by the double glow plasma nitriding technology].

    PubMed

    Qu, Y H; Li, F L; Wen, K; Wang, W

    2017-02-09

    Objective: To evaluate the adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of osteogenesis-related genes and osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) of osteoblast-like cells on a type of near β-type titanium alloys (Ti-5Zr-3Sn-5Mo-15Nb, TLM) surfaces modified by the double glow plasma nitriding technology, and to investigate the effect of the modified surfaces on the initial functions of osteoblast-like cells. Methods: The surfaces of TLM were modified by the double glow plasma nitriding technology. TLM surfaces without modification were used as control. Cell morphology was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method was used to measure cell proliferation. Cell ALP activity was evaluated by using reagent kits. The mRNA expression of Runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), typeⅠcollagen alpha 1 chain (COLⅠ α1) and OPG/RANKL were examined by quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR). Results: Four hour following cell alture, cells on modified surfaces extend filopodia and intercellular junction was tight. Three days later, cell proliferation (0.277±0.007) was significantly higher than that in control group (0.249±0.004) (P<0.01). After two weeks, ALP activity on TLM modified layer (173.6±1.89) was significantly higher than that on unmodified TLM (162.6±2.4) (P<0.01). The mRNA expression of osteoblast marker RUNX2, COLⅠα1 were stronger than that in control group (P<0.05). The expression of OPG mRNA was higher than that in control group (P<0.01), and RANKL mRNA expression was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The TLM surface modified by the double glow plasma nitriding technology has a positive effect on osteoblasts initial adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, and it can also improve expression of OPG mRNA and has an inhibitory effect on RANKL mRNA expression of osteoblasts.

  20. Critical Fluctuations in Beam-Plasma Systems and Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2017-09-01

    It is shown that the Langmuir waves are excited similar to critical fluctuations during phase transitions when the negative absorption due to electron beam traveling radially outward in the solar atmosphere is balanced by the positive absorption due to collisions in the corona and due to scattering on electron density inhomogeneities in the interplanetary medium. The effective temperature of the Langmuir fluctuations range from 1011 to 1013 K, explaining the majority of the type III bursts. The Rayleigh scattering and direct coupling due to density gradient as well as due to density inhomogeneities are discussed in the context of fundamental radiation and the combination scattering for second harmonic. The number density of electrons in type III beams is estimated and compared with observations. It is also shown that the stabilization of type III beams is achieved automatically since the instability does not develop in the case of critical fluctuations.

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Argon Plasma against 78 Genetically Different (mecA, luk-P, agr or Capsular Polysaccharide Type) Staphylococcus aureus Strains.

    PubMed

    Matthes, Rutger; Lührman, Anne; Holtfreter, Silva; Kolata, Julia; Radke, Dörte; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the antimicrobial activity of cold atmospheric pressure argon plasma showed varying effects against mecA+ or mecA-Staphylococcus aureus strains. This observation may have important clinical and epidemiological implications. Here, the antibacterial activity of argon plasma was investigated against 78 genetically different S. aureus strains, stratified by mecA, luk-P, agr1-4, or the cell wall capsule polysaccharide types 5 and 8. kINPen09® served as the plasma source for all experiments. On agar plates, mecA+luk-P-S. aureus strains showed a decreased susceptibility against plasma compared to other S. aureus strains. This study underlines the high complexity of microbial defence against antimicrobial treatment and confirms a previously reported strain-dependent susceptibility of S. aureus to plasma treatment. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. TACI is required for efficient plasma cell differentiation in response to T-independent type 2 antigens.

    PubMed

    Mantchev, George T; Cortesão, Catarina S; Rebrovich, Michelle; Cascalho, Marilia; Bram, Richard J

    2007-08-15

    The control of systemic infection by encapsulated microorganisms requires T-independent type II (TI-2) Ab responses to bacterial polysaccharides. To understand how such responses evolve, we explored the function of transmembrane activator calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI), a member of the TNFR family, required for TI-2 Ab production. Quasimonoclonal (QM) mice produce robust TI-2 responses to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetate (NP)-Ficoll, owing to the high precursor frequency of NP-specific B cells in the marginal zone of the spleen. QM mice that lack TACI produce decreased numbers of IgM (2-fold) and IgG (1.6-fold) NP-specific ASCs, compared with TACI-positive QM mice in response to immunization with NP-Ficoll. Our studies indicate that TACI acts at a remote time from activation because TACI is not necessary for activation and proliferation of B cells both in vitro and in vivo. Instead, TACI-deficient QM B cells remained in the cell cycle longer than TACI-proficient QM cells and had impaired plasma cell differentiation in response to NP-Ficoll. We conclude that TACI has dual B cell-autonomous functions, inhibiting prolonged B cell proliferation and stimulating plasma cell differentiation, thus resolving the longstanding paradox that TACI may have both B cell-inhibitory and -stimulatory functions. By promoting plasma cell differentiation earlier during clonal expansion, TACI may decrease the chances of autoantibody production by somatic hypermutation of Ig genes in response to T-independent Ags.

  3. High plasma phospholipase A2 activity, inflammation markers, and LDL alterations in obesity with or without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Garces, Fatima; López, Flor; Niño, Cladimar; Fernandez, Anazita; Chacin, Luis; Hurt-Camejo, Eva; Camejo, Germán; Apitz-Castro, Rafael

    2010-10-01

    Plasma phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) hydrolyze phospholipids of circulating lipoproteins or deposited in arteries producing bioactive lipids believed to contribute to the atherosclerotic inflammatory response. PLA(2)(s) are elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) but it is not clear which of these conditions is the cause since they frequently coexist. This study attempts to evaluate if high plasma PLA(2)(s) activities and markers of their effects in lipoproteins are associated with obesity or T2D diabetes, or with both. Total PLA(2) and Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent activities, lipids, lipoproteins, apoAI, and apoB apolipoproteins and affinity of apoB-lipoproteins for arterial proteoglycans were measured, as well as Inflammation markers. These parameters were evaluated in plasma samples of four groups: (i) apparently healthy controls with normal BMI (nBMI), (ii) obese subjects with no T2D, (iii) patients with T2D but with nBMI, and (iv) obese patients with T2D. PLA(2) activities were measured in the presence and absence of Ca(2+) and in the presence of specific inhibitors. Obese subjects, with or without T2D, had high activities of total PLA(2) and of Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent enzymes. The activities were correlated with inflammation markers in obese subjects with and without diabetes and with alterations of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) that increased their affinity for arterial proteoglycans. Ca(2+)-dependent secretory (sPLA(2)) enzymes were the main responsible of the obesity-associated high activity. We speculate that augmented PLA(2)(s) activity that increases affinity of circulating LDL for arterial intima proteoglycans could be another atherogenic component of obesity.

  4. High Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Normal Plasma Aminotransferase Levels.

    PubMed

    Portillo-Sanchez, Paola; Bril, Fernando; Maximos, Maryann; Lomonaco, Romina; Biernacki, Diane; Orsak, Beverly; Subbarayan, Sreevidya; Webb, Amy; Hecht, Joan; Cusi, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its more severe form with steatohepatitis (NASH) are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, they are usually believed to largely affect those with elevated aminotransferases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NAFLD by the gold standard, liver magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in patients with T2DM and normal aminotransferases, and to characterize their metabolic profile. We recruited 103 patients with T2DM and normal plasma aminotransferases (age, 60 ± 8 y; body mass index [BMI], 33 ± 5 kg/m(2); glycated hemoglobin [A1c], 7.6 ± 1.3%). We measured the following: 1) liver triglyceride content by (1)H-MRS; 2) systemic insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance); and 3) adipose tissue insulin resistance, both fasting (as the adipose tissue insulin resistance index: fasting plasma free fatty acids [FFA] × insulin) and during an oral glucose tolerance test (as the suppression of FFA). The prevalence of NAFLD and NASH were much higher than expected (50% and 56% of NAFLD patients, respectively). The prevalence of NAFLD was higher in obese compared with nonobese patients as well as with increasing BMI (P = .001 for trend). Higher plasma A1c was associated with a greater prevalence of NAFLD and worse liver triglyceride accumulation (P = .01). Compared with nonobese patients without NAFLD, patients with NAFLD had severe systemic (liver/muscle) and, particularly, adipose tissue (fasting/postprandial) insulin resistance (all P < .01). The prevalence of NAFLD is much higher than previously believed in overweight/obese patients with T2DM and normal aminotransferases. Moreover, many are at increased risk of NASH. Physicians should have a lower threshold for screening patients with T2DM for NAFLD/NASH.

  5. Altered Plasma Levels of Glucagon, GLP-1 and Glicentin During OGTT in Adolescents With Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Manell, Hannes; Staaf, Johan; Manukyan, Levon; Kristinsson, Hjalti; Cen, Jing; Stenlid, Rasmus; Ciba, Iris; Forslund, Anders; Bergsten, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Proglucagon-derived hormones are important for glucose metabolism, but little is known about them in pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Fasting and postprandial levels of proglucagon-derived peptides glucagon, GLP-1, and glicentin in adolescents with obesity across the glucose tolerance spectrum were investigated. This was a cross-sectional study with plasma hormone levels quantified at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This study took place in a pediatric obesity clinic at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. Adolescents with obesity, age 10-18 years, with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 23), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 19), or T2DM (n = 4) and age-matched lean adolescents (n = 19) were included. Outcome measures were fasting and OGTT plasma levels of insulin, glucagon, active GLP-1, and glicentin. Adolescents with obesity and IGT had lower fasting GLP-1 and glicentin levels than those with NGT (0.25 vs 0.53 pM, P < .05; 18.2 vs 23.6 pM, P < .01) and adolescents with obesity and T2DM had higher fasting glucagon levels (18.1 vs 10.1 pM, P < .01) than those with NGT. During OGTT, glicentin/glucagon ratios were lower in adolescents with obesity and NGT than in lean adolescents (P < .01) and even lower in IGT (P < .05) and T2DM (P < .001). Obese adolescents with IGT have lowered fasting GLP-1 and glicentin levels. In T2DM, fasting glucagon levels are elevated, whereas GLP-1 and glicentin levels are maintained low. During OGTT, adolescents with obesity have more products of pancreatically than intestinally cleaved proglucagon (ie, more glucagon and less GLP-1) in the plasma. This shift becomes more pronounced when glucose tolerance deteriorates.

  6. PECVD of SiOC Films Using a Sheet-type Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kouta; Tanaka, Kenji; Shirafuji, Tatsuru

    2015-09-01

    Packaging industries have used SiOC thin films for gas barrier coatings on the membranes for packaging foods, drug, and so on. PECVD is the most extensively employed method for preparing the SiOC films. However, PECVD is a process performed at a low pressure in general and requires expensive vacuum systems, especially in the case of large area coatings. Atmospheric pressure PECVD is a candidate to overcome this issue. If we simply apply atmospheric pressure plasma to CVD processes, however, we will encounter the problem of particle formation because of the high collision frequency in the environment of atmospheric pressure. In this work, we have developed a reactor that utilizes a unique gas-flow scheme for avoiding the particle formation. We have successfully deposited SiOC films by using this reactor, in which the source material is hexamethyldisiloxane and discharge/carrier gas is He. XPS measurements on the SiOC films have revealed that the films contain relatively higher concentrations of unfavorable methyl groups that reduce gas barrier performances. However, no particulates are involved in and on the deposited films as long as characterizing the films with eye observation and with transmission electron microscopy.

  7. Discharge Chamber Plasma Structure of a 30-cm NSTAR-Type Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2006-01-01

    Single Langmuir probe measurements are presented over a two-dimensional array of locations in the near Discharge Cathode Assembly (DCA) region of a 30-cm diameter ring cusp ion thruster over a range of thruster operating conditions encompassing the high-power half of the NASA throttling table. The Langmuir probe data were analyzed with two separate methods. All data were analyzed initially assuming an electron population consisting of Maxwellian electrons only. The on-axis data were then analyzed assuming both Maxwellian and primary electrons. Discharge plasma data taken with beam extraction exhibit a broadening of the higher electron temperature plume boundary compared to similar discharge conditions without beam extraction. The opposite effect is evident with the electron/ion number density as the data without began, extraction appears to be more collimated than the corresponding data with beam extraction. Primary electron energy and number densities are presented for one operating condition giving an order of magnitude of their value and the error associated with this calculation.

  8. A planar-type surface-wave plasma source with a subwavelength diffraction grating inclusion for large-area plasma applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhaoquan; Liu Minghai; Tang Liang; Hu Peng; Hu Xiwei

    2009-07-01

    The electromagnetic wave through the subwavelength diffraction grating can be largely absorbed by surface-wave plasmas (SWPs). A SWP source is built with two slot-array antennas element. Due to the dissipation of surface waves in overdense plasmas, this source can provide remarkable discharge efficiency of 4.4 cm{sup 2}/W experimentally and 96% of incident power numerically. When the applied power as low as 200 W is supplied to the SWP source, a homogeneous plasma with the uniform area up to 14x36 cm{sup 2} and the plasma density up to 1.04x10{sup 18} m{sup -3} is generated under the quartz slab. By varying the incident power and gas pressure, the parameter of plasmas can be easily controlled without density jumping. Moreover, the characters of bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution prove that our SWP source yield plasmas by surface heating actually. These excellent performances make the proposed source meet the requirements in large-area plasma processing and also give its advices for plasmas heating in next meter-size SWP sources.

  9. Elevated Basal Insulin Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes Caused by Reduced Plasma Membrane Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Vini; Kazim, Abdulla S.; Helgeson, Johan; Lewold, Clemens; Barik, Satadal; Buda, Pawel; Reinbothe, Thomas M.; Wennmalm, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Elevated basal insulin secretion under fasting conditions together with insufficient stimulated insulin release is an important hallmark of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms controlling basal insulin secretion remain unclear. Membrane rafts exist in pancreatic islet cells and spatially organize membrane ion channels and proteins controlling exocytosis, which may contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion. Membrane rafts (cholesterol and sphingolipid containing microdomains) were dramatically reduced in human type 2 diabetic and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat islets when compared with healthy islets. Oxidation of membrane cholesterol markedly reduced microdomain staining intensity in healthy human islets, but was without effect in type 2 diabetic islets. Intriguingly, oxidation of cholesterol affected glucose-stimulated insulin secretion only modestly, whereas basal insulin release was elevated. This was accompanied by increased intracellular Ca2+ spike frequency and Ca2+ influx and explained by enhanced single Ca2+ channel activity. These results suggest that the reduced presence of membrane rafts could contribute to the elevated basal insulin secretion seen in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27533789

  10. Elevated Basal Insulin Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes Caused by Reduced Plasma Membrane Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Vini; Kazim, Abdulla S; Helgeson, Johan; Lewold, Clemens; Barik, Satadal; Buda, Pawel; Reinbothe, Thomas M; Wennmalm, Stefan; Zhang, Enming; Renström, Erik

    2016-10-01

    Elevated basal insulin secretion under fasting conditions together with insufficient stimulated insulin release is an important hallmark of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms controlling basal insulin secretion remain unclear. Membrane rafts exist in pancreatic islet cells and spatially organize membrane ion channels and proteins controlling exocytosis, which may contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion. Membrane rafts (cholesterol and sphingolipid containing microdomains) were dramatically reduced in human type 2 diabetic and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat islets when compared with healthy islets. Oxidation of membrane cholesterol markedly reduced microdomain staining intensity in healthy human islets, but was without effect in type 2 diabetic islets. Intriguingly, oxidation of cholesterol affected glucose-stimulated insulin secretion only modestly, whereas basal insulin release was elevated. This was accompanied by increased intracellular Ca(2+) spike frequency and Ca(2+) influx and explained by enhanced single Ca(2+) channel activity. These results suggest that the reduced presence of membrane rafts could contribute to the elevated basal insulin secretion seen in type 2 diabetes.

  11. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 min by direct polymerase chain reaction from plasma or serum.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Franz F; Flegel, Willy A; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fy(a) , Fy(b) , Jk(a) and Jk(b) antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting.

  12. Measurement of the effective energy of pulsed X-rays emitted from a Mather-type plasma focus device.

    PubMed

    Miremad, Seyed Milad; Shirani Bidabadi, Babak

    2017-07-01

    The current study examined the effective energy of pulsed x-rays emitted from a Mather-type plasma focus device with copper anodes at an energy range of 2-3kJ using x-ray transmission radiography. Aluminum filters of different thicknesses and dental x-ray film were used. When air gas was used at a constant voltage of 21kV at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 mbar, the effective energy of pulsed the x-ray was 10.9, 10.7, 17.3 and 15.8keV, respectively. At 0.6 mbar of air, as the operating voltage increased to 19, 21 and 23kV, the effective energy of the x-ray radiation was 10.6, 10.7 and 12.4keV, respectively. Comprehensive investigation of the characteristics of x-ray emission from plasma focus devices makes it feasible to use this device as an intensive x-ray generator for medical and industrial purposes. The present study is a part of a program which is planned to realize these applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of fasting and postprandial state on plasma carnitine concentrations during aerobic exercise in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ferland, A; Broderick, T L; Nadeau, A; Simard, S; Martin, J; Poirier, P

    2007-09-01

    The effects of metabolic states of fasting and post-absorption on plasma concentrations of free carnitine (FC), acylcarnitine (AC) and total carnitine (TC) were compared during submaximal exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ten sedentary men (54+/-5 years) treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents were tested on two separate occasions: following an overnight fast and 2 h after a 395-kcal standardised breakfast. Exercise was performed at 60% of [Formula: see text]O(2peak) on a cycle ergometer for 60 min. Blood samples were drawn at rest for baseline values and following 60 min of exercise and 30 min of recovery. Our results show that: (1) baseline levels of TC, FC and AC were similar in fasted and postprandial groups, (2) TC and AC levels were increased during exercise in the fasted group only, (3) FC levels were decreased during exercise in both fasted and postprandial state and (4) the AC/FC ratio increased during exercise in the fasted group. Our results indicate that the metabolic state of the diabetic patient is associated with a different plasma carnitine status. These patterns may reflect differences in energy metabolism associated with fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia.

  14. Super-Resolution Imaging of C-Type Lectin and Influenza Hemagglutinin Nanodomains on Plasma Membranes Using Blink Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Itano, Michelle S.; Steinhauer, Christian; Schmied, Jürgen J.; Forthmann, Carsten; Liu, Ping; Neumann, Aaron K.; Thompson, Nancy L.; Tinnefeld, Philip; Jacobson, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells express DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin (CTL) that binds a variety of pathogens and facilitates their uptake for subsequent antigen presentation. DC-SIGN forms remarkably stable microdomains on the plasma membrane. However, inner leaflet lipid markers are able to diffuse through these microdomains suggesting that, rather than being densely packed with DC-SIGN proteins, an elemental substructure exists. Therefore, a super-resolution imaging technique, Blink Microscopy (Blink), was applied to further investigate the lateral distribution of DC-SIGN. Blink indicates that DC-SIGN, another CTL (CD206), and influenza hemagglutinin (HA) are all localized in small (∼80 nm in diameter) nanodomains. DC-SIGN and CD206 nanodomains are randomly distributed on the plasma membrane, whereas HA nanodomains cluster on length scales up to several microns. We estimate, as a lower limit, that DC-SIGN and HA nanodomains contain on average two tetramers or two trimers, respectively, whereas CD206 is often nonoligomerized. Two-color Blink determined that different CTLs rarely occupy the same nanodomain, although they appear colocalized using wide-field microscopy. What to our knowledge is a novel domain structure emerges in which elemental nanodomains, potentially capable of binding viruses, are organized in a random fashion; evidently, these nanodomains can be clustered into larger microdomains that act as receptor platforms for larger pathogens like yeasts. PMID:22500753

  15. Metabolomics reveals relationship between plasma inositols and birth weight: possible markers for fetal programming of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Pia Marlene; Nebel, Caroline; Oksbjerg, Niels; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in man and with experimental animal models have shown that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) resulting in low birth weight is associated with higher risk of programming welfare diseases in later life. In the pig, severe IUGR occurs naturally and contribute substantially to a large intralitter variation in birth weight and may therefore be a good model for man. In the present paper the natural form of IUGR in pigs was studied close to term by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-)based metabolomics. The NMR-based investigations revealed different metabolic profiles of plasma samples from low-birth weight (LW) and high-birth weight (HW) piglets, respectively, and differences were assigned to levels of glucose and myo-inositol. Further studies by GC-MS revealed that LW piglets had a significant higher concentration of myoinositol and D-chiro-inositol in plasma compared to larger littermates. Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been coupled with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in adults, and the present paper therefore suggests that IUGR is related to impaired glucose metabolism during fetal development, which may cause type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  16. Amplification of a new surface plasma mode in the type-I semiconductor superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, J.; Kempa, K.; Bakshi, P.

    1988-11-01

    Mode structure and drift velocity thresholds for instability have been investigated for the type-I superlattice, and a new current-induced mode is found to exist for high drifts. Simple separation of the single-layer physics and superlattice geometry has been achieved, leading to an analytical expression for the Giuliani-Quinn mode and universality relations for the instability threshold curves of the new mode.

  17. Effects of corn type and fasting time before slaughter on growth and plasma index in weaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Yang, C; He, J; Chen, D W; Yu, B; Yu, J; Mao, X B; Yang, K Y; Yuan, Z C

    2016-01-01

    A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary corn type (waxy corn [WC] vs. nonwaxy corn [NC]) and fasting period (2 h vs. 12-16 h) before slaughter on growth and plasma index in weaning pigs. Twenty-four crossbred barrows (8.26 ± 0.47 kg) were allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replications of 1 pig per replicate metabolism cage. Waxy corn contained less fat, a lower amylase:amylopectin ratio, more CP, and more starch than NC. Pigs fed the WC diet had lower jejunum digesta pH compared with those fed the NC diet ( < 0.05). Maltase activity in the jejunum and ileum mucosa ( < 0.01), sucrose activity in the ileum mucosa ( < 0.01), and amylase activity in the pancreas and jejunum digesta ( < 0.05) were increased in pigs fed the WC diet relative to those fed the NC diet. But the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of starch and CP was lower for the WC group ( < 0.05). Ingestion of the NC diet resulted in higher ( < 0.05) ADG and ADFI in the second week but did not affect ADG ( = 0.091) and the feed:gain ratio (F:G; = 0.077) during the whole experiment period. The plasma glucose ( < 0.01) concentration was higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; < 0.01) concentrations was lower in the hepatic portal vein in pigs fed the WC diet relative to those fed the NC diet. Fasting 2 h before slaughter decreased the jejunum and ileum digesta pH compared with the 12-h fasting group ( < 0.01). Villus height increased in the duodenum ( < 0.01) and jejunum ( < 0.05) and the villus height:crypt depth ratio increased in the duodenum ( < 0.05) of pigs after shortening the fasting period before slaughter. Shortening the fasting time before slaughter resulted in higher plasma glucose ( < 0.05) concentrations and a higher HDL-C:low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ratio ( < 0.05) whereas the LDL-C ( < 0.05) concentrations were reduced in the hepatic portal vein. The results of this experiment indicate that although the production

  18. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Plasma Concentration May Predict Susceptibility to High Altitude Pulmonary Edema

    PubMed Central

    Zügel, Stefanie; Schoeb, Michele; Auinger, Katja; Dehnert, Christoph; Maggiorini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Acute exposure to high altitude induces inflammation. However, the relationship between inflammation and high altitude related illness such as high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and acute mountain sickness (AMS) is poorly understood. We tested if soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) plasma concentration, a prognostic factor for cardiovascular disease and marker for low grade activation of leukocytes, will predict susceptibility to HAPE and AMS. Methods. 41 healthy mountaineers were examined at sea level (SL, 446 m) and 24 h after rapid ascent to 4559 m (HA). 24/41 subjects had a history of HAPE and were thus considered HAPE-susceptible (HAPE-s). Out of the latter, 10/24 HAPE-s subjects were randomly chosen to suppress the inflammatory cascade with dexamethasone 8 mg bid 24 h prior to ascent. Results. Acute hypoxic exposure led to an acute inflammatory reaction represented by an increase in suPAR (1.9 ± 0.4 at SL versus 2.3 ± 0.5 at HA, p < 0.01), CRP (0.7 ± 0.5 at SL versus 3.6 ± 4.6 at HA, p < 0.01), and IL-6 (0.8 ± 0.4 at SL versus 3.3 ± 4.9 at HA, p < 0.01) in all subjects except those receiving dexamethasone. The ascent associated decrease in PaO2 correlated with the increase in IL-6 (r = 0.46, p < 0.001), but not suPAR (r = 0.27, p = 0.08); the increase in IL-6 was not correlated with suPAR (r = 0.16, p = 0.24). Baseline suPAR plasma concentration was higher in the HAPE-s group (2.0 ± 0.4 versus 1.8 ± 0.4, p = 0.04); no difference was found for CRP and IL-6 and for subjects developing AMS. Conclusion. High altitude exposure leads to an increase in suPAR plasma concentration, with the missing correlation between suPAR and IL-6 suggesting a cytokine independent, leukocyte mediated mechanism of low grade inflammation. The correlation between IL-6 and PaO2 suggests a direct effect of hypoxia, which is not the case for suPAR. However, suPAR plasma concentration measured before hypoxic exposure may predict

  19. Tunable transport properties of n-type ZnO nanowires by Ti plasma immersion ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, L.; Zhang, Z.; Yan, B.; Li, G. P.; Wu, T.; Shen, Z. X.; Yu, T.; Yang, Y.; Cao, H. T.; Chen, L. L.; Tay, B. K.; Sun, X. W.

    2008-10-01

    Single-crystalline, transparent conducting ZnO nanowires were obtained simply by Ti plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). Electrical transport characterizations demonstrate that the n-type conduction of ZnO nanowire could be tuned by appropriate Ti-PIII. When the energy of PIII is increased, the resistivity of ZnO decreases from 4x10{sup 2} to 3.3x10{sup -3} {omega} cm, indicating a semiconductor-metal transition. The failure-current densities of the metallic ZnO could be up to 2.75x10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. Therefore, this facile method may provide an inexpensive alternative to tin doped indium oxide as transparent conducting oxide materials.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of thermoelectric nanostructured n-type silicon-germanium alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Bathula, Sivaiah; Gahtori, Bhasker; Tripathy, S. K.; Tyagi, Kriti; Srivastava, A. K.; Dhar, Ajay; Jayasimhadri, M.

    2014-08-11

    Owing to their high thermoelectric (TE) figure-of-merit, nanostructured Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys are evolving as a potential replacement for their bulk counterparts in designing efficient radio-isotope TE generators. However, as the mechanical properties of these alloys are equally important in order to avoid in-service catastrophic failure of their TE modules, we report the strength, hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal shock resistance of nanostructured n-type Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering of mechanically alloyed nanopowders of its constituent elements. These mechanical properties show a significant enhancement, which has been correlated with the microstructural features at nano-scale, delineated by transmission electron microscopy.

  1. Incompatible type A plasma transfusion in patients requiring massive transfusion protocol: Outcomes of an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, W Tait; Morse, Bryan C; Bernard, Andrew; Davenport, Daniel L; Sams, Valerie G; Goodman, Michael D; Dumire, Russell; Carrick, Matthew M; McCarthy, Patrick; Stubbs, James R; Pritts, Timothy A; Dente, Christopher J; Luo-Owen, Xian; Gregory, Jason A; Turay, David; Gomaa, Dina; Quispe, Juan C; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Haddad, Nadeem N; Choudhry, Asad; Quesada, Jose F; Zielinski, Martin D

    2017-07-01

    With a relative shortage of type AB plasma, many centers have converted to type A plasma for resuscitation of patients whose blood type is unknown. The goal of this study is to determine outcomes for trauma patients who received incompatible plasma transfusions as part of a massive transfusion protocol (MTP). As part of an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional trial, registry and blood bank data were collected from eight trauma centers for trauma patients (age, ≥ 15 years) receiving emergency release plasma transfusions as part of MTPs from January 2012 to August 2016. Incompatible type A plasma was defined as transfusion to patient blood type B or type AB. Of the 1,536 patients identified, 92% received compatible plasma transfusions and 8% received incompatible type A plasma. Patient characteristics were similar except for greater penetrating injuries (48% vs 36%; p = 0.01) in the incompatible group. In the incompatible group, patients were transfused more plasma units at 4 hours (median, 9 vs. 5; p < 0.001) and overall for stay (11 vs. 9; p = 0.03). No hemolytic transfusion reactions were reported. Two transfusion-related acute lung injury events were reported in the compatible group. Between incompatible and compatible groups, there was no difference in the rates of acute respiratory distress syndrome (6% vs. 8%; p = 0.589), thromboembolic events (9% vs. 7%; p = 0.464), sepsis (6% vs. 8%; p = 0.589), or acute renal failure (8% vs. 8%, p = 0.860). Mortality at 6 (17% vs. 15%, p = 0.775) and 24 hours (25% vs. 23%, p = 0.544) and at 28 days or discharge (38% vs. 35%, p = 0.486) were similar between groups. Multivariate regression demonstrated that Injury Severity Score, older age and more red blood cell transfusion at 4 hours were independently associated with death at 28 days or discharge; Injury Severity Score and more red blood cell transfusion at 4 hours were predictors for morbidity. Incompatible transfusion was not an independent

  2. Effect of L-carnitine on plasma glycemic and lipidemic profile in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, A R; Shakerhosseini, R; Saadat, N; Taleban, F; Pordal, A; Gollestan, B

    2005-04-01

    We designed this study to investigate the effects of oral L-carnitine administration on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus type II. The effect of L-carnitine on FPG and lipid parameters was investigated in 22 male and 13 female type II diabetic patients; the mean age +/- s.d. was 51.3 +/- 3.7 y. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups (L-carnitine and placebo group) and 1 g of L-carnitine or of placebo was given orally three times a day for a period of 12 weeks. FPG in the L-carnitine group decreased significantly from 143 +/- 35 to 130 +/- 33 mg/dl (P = 0.03), and we observed a significant increase of triglycerides (TG) from 196+/-61 to 233+/-12 mg/dl (P = 0.05), of Apo A1 from 94 +/- 20 to 103 +/- 23 mg/dl (P = 0.02), and of Apo B100 from 98 +/- 18 to 108 +/- 22 mg/dl (P = 0.02) after 12 weeks of treatment. There was no significant change in LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1C, LP(a) or total cholesterol. L-Carnitine significantly lowers FPG but increases fasting triglyceride in type II diabetic patients.

  3. Circulating plasma vascular endothelial growth factor and microvascular complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus: the influence of ACE inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, N; Fuller, J H; Pokras, F; Rottiers, R; Papazoglou, N; Aiello, L P

    2001-04-01

    To determine whether circulating plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is elevated in the presence of diabetic microvascular complications, and whether the impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on these complications can be accounted for by changes in circulating VEGF. Samples (299/354 of those with retinal photographs) from the EUCLID placebo-controlled clinical trial of the ACE inhibitor lisinopril in mainly normoalbuminuric non-hypertensive Type 1 diabetic patients were used. Albumin excretion rate (AER) was measured 6 monthly. Geometric mean VEGF levels by baseline retinopathy status, change in retinopathy over 2 years, and by treatment with lisinopril were calculated. No significant correlation was observed between VEGF at baseline and age, diabetes duration, glycaemic control, blood pressure, smoking, fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor. Mean VEGF concentration at baseline was 11.5 (95% confidence interval 6.0--27.9) pg/ml in those without retinopathy, 12.9 (6.0--38.9) pg/ml in those with non-proliferative retinopathy, and 16.1 (8.1--33.5) pg/ml in those with proliferative retinopathy (P = 0.06 for trend). Baseline VEGF was 15.2 pg/ml in those who progressed by at least one level of retinopathy by 2 years compared to 11.8 pg/ml in those who did not (P = 0.3). VEGF levels were not altered by lisinopril treatment. Results were similar for AER. Circulating plasma VEGF concentration is not strongly correlated with risk factor status or microvascular disease in Type 1 diabetes, nor is it affected by ACE inhibition. Changes in circulating VEGF cannot account for the beneficial effect of ACE inhibition on retinopathy.

  4. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist decreases plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 and soluble adhesion molecules in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tsutamoto, T; Wada, A; Maeda, K; Mabuchi, N; Hayashi, M; Tsutsui, T; Ohnishi, M; Sawaki, M; Fujii, M; Matsumoto, T; Kinoshita, M

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of an angiotensin (Ang II) type 1 receptor antagonist on immune markers in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Ang II stimulates production of immune factors via the Ang II type 1 receptor in vitro, and the long-term effects of Ang II type 1 receptor antagonists on plasma markers of immune activation are unknown in patients with CHF. Twenty-three patients with mild to moderate CHF with left ventricular dysfunction were randomly divided into two groups: treatment with Ang II type 1 receptor (candesartan cilexetil) (n = 14) or placebo (n = 9). We measured plasma levels of immune factors such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1). We also measured plasma levels of the neurohumoral factors such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a biological marker of ANP and BNP. Plasma levels of TNFalpha, IL-6, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were increased in the 23 CHF patients compared with normal subjects and significantly decreased after 14 weeks of candesartan cilexetil treatment, but did not change in the placebo group. Plasma levels of BNP, which is a marker of ventricular injury, significantly decreased, and the molar ratio of plasma cGMP to cardiac natriuretic peptides (ANP + BNP) was significantly increased after candesartan cilexetil treatment, but did not change in the placebo group. These findings suggest that 14 weeks of treatment with an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist (candesartan cilexetil) decreased plasma levels of the immune markers such as TNFalpha, IL-6, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 and that it improved the biological compensatory action of endogenous cardiac natriuretic peptides in patients with mild to moderate CHF.

  5. Engineering Considerations for the Self-Energizing Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD)-Type Fusion Plasma Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    OC 20 i. Ar9NCv USE ONLY (Le L* J 3 REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED F ’’ ebruary 1992 T= -910712 Engineering Considerations for the Self...I o> coca I J 0 015CC 0 0000 Ii 0 00 5 00 10 00 15 0 00 25 00 30 00 35 00 PROPELLANT MASS FLOW RATE (K3>S) Figure 18. Vehicle F /W vs. Propellant Mass...viii) W.E. Moeckel, "Comparison of Advanced Propulsion Concepts for Deep Space Exploration," J . Spacecraft, 12 (1972) 863. ix) F . Winterberg, "Rocket

  6. Relationship of plasma creatinine and lactic acid in type 2 diabetic patients without renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Lu, Jun-xi; Tang, Jun-ling; Li, Li; Lu, Hui-juan; Hou, Xu-hong; Jia, Wei-ping; Xiang, Kun-san

    2009-11-05

    As one of most widely-used biguanides, metformin can induce the lactic acidosis in patients with renal failure though its incidence is very low. However, lactic acidemia induced by metformin was reported in patients without renal dysfunction. It is unclear that whether lactatemia exists in diabetic patients with normal renal function in Chinese or not and its influencing factors. This study aimed to clarify the influencing factors of lactic acid, and identify a practiced clinical marker to predict the hyperlactacidemia in diabetics with normal renal function. The clinical data and venous blood samples of 1024 type 2 diabetic patients treated with (n = 426) or without metformin (n = 599) were collected. The lactic acid was assayed by enzyme-electrode method. The biochemical indexes included creatinine (Cr) and hepatase were measured with enzymatic procedures. The lactic acid concentrations of different Cr subgroups were compared, and the correlation and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used. The mean lactic acid level and the proportion of hyperlactatemia of metformin group were significantly higher than that of non-metformin group (P < 0.01), but no lactic acidosis was found in all patients. The correlation and multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that the correlative factors of lactic acid in turn were Cr, metformin, alanine transferase (ALT), body mass index (BMI), Urine albumin (Ualb), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in total patients; and Cr, ALT, BMI and BUN in non-metformin treated patients; Cr and ALT in metformin-group. The lactate concentration increased with the increment of Cr levels, and reached its peak at Cr 111-130 micromol/L, and the optimal cutoff of Cr in predicting hyperlactacidemia was 96.5 micromol/L. Metformin can increase the incidence of lactatemia in type 2 diabetic patients without renal dysfunction. Cr, ALT, and BMI are independent associated factors of blood lactic acid levels. There is low proportion of

  7. [Experimental study on the corrosion behavior of a type of oral near β-type titanium alloys modified with double glow plasma nitriding].

    PubMed

    Wen, Ke; Li, Fenglan

    2015-12-01

    To study the electrochemical corrosion performance of a type of biomedical materials near beta titanium alloy(Ti-3Zr-2Sn-3Mo-25Nb, TLM) in artificial saliva before and after nitride changing, and to provide clinical basis for clinical application of titanium alloy TLM. The double glow plasma alloying technology was used to nitride the surface of titanium alloy TLM. The surface properties of the modified layer were observed and tested by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, glow discharge spectrum analyzer, X-ray diffraction and micro hardness tester. Then, electrochemical measurement system was used to test and compare titanium alloy TLM's electrochemical corrosion in artificial saliva before and after its surface change. Finally, the surface morphology of the original titanium alloy and the modified layer was compared by scanning electron microscope. By the technology of double glow plasma nitriding, the surface of the titanium alloy TLM had been successfully nitrided with a modified layer of 4-5 µm in thickness, uniform and compact. Its main compositions were Ti and Ti(2)N. The Microhardness of modified layer also had been improved from (236.8 ± 5.4) to (871.8 ± 5.2) HV. The self-corrosion potential in electrochemical corrosion tests had been increased from -0.559 V to -0.540 V, while the self- corrosion current density had been reduced from 2.091 × 10(-7) A/cm(2) to 7.188 × 10(-8) A/cm(2). Besides, alternating-current impedance(AC Impedance) had also been increased. With the scanning electron microscope, it's obvious that the diameter of corrosion holes on modified layer were approximately 10 µm. As to the diameter and number of corrosion holes on modified layer, they had been decreased comparing with the original titanium alloy. The type of near beta titanium alloy TLM can construct a nitriding modified layer on its surface. Meanwhile, the performance of its anti- corrosion in artificial saliva has been improved, comparing to the original

  8. Cutting edge: Leukotriene C4 activates mouse platelets in plasma exclusively through the type 2 cysteinyl leukotriene receptor.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Hannah E; Liu, Tao; Feng, Chunli; Laidlaw, Tanya M; Conley, Pamela B; Kanaoka, Yoshihide; Boyce, Joshua A

    2013-12-15

    Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and its extracellular metabolites, LTD4 and LTE4, mediate airway inflammation. They signal through three specific receptors (type 1 cys-LT receptor [CysLT1R], CysLT2R, and GPR99) with overlapping ligand preferences. In this article, we demonstrate that LTC4, but not LTD4 or LTE4, activates mouse platelets exclusively through CysLT2R. Platelets expressed CysLT1R and CysLT2R proteins. LTC4 induced surface expression of CD62P by wild-type mouse platelets in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and caused their secretion of thromboxane A2 and CXCL4. LTC4 was fully active on PRP from mice lacking either CysLT1R or GPR99, but completely inactive on PRP from CysLT2R-null (Cysltr2(-/-)) mice. LTC4/CysLT2R signaling required an autocrine ADP-mediated response through P2Y12 receptors. LTC4 potentiated airway inflammation in a platelet- and CysLT2R-dependent manner. Thus, CysLT2R on platelets recognizes LTC4 with unexpected selectivity. Nascent LTC4 may activate platelets at a synapse with granulocytes before it is converted to LTD4, promoting mediator generation and the formation of leukocyte-platelet complexes that facilitate inflammation.

  9. Electrostatic energy analyzer measurements of low energy zirconium beam parameters in a plasma sputter-type negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Malapit, Giovanni M.; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.; Poral, Matthew D.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-15

    A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into the data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.

  10. Electrostatic energy analyzer measurements of low energy zirconium beam parameters in a plasma sputter-type negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Malapit, Giovanni M; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S; Poral, Matthew D; Ramos, Henry J

    2012-02-01

    A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into the data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.

  11. Global parameter optimization of a Mather-type plasma focus in the framework of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional snowplow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) is known to produce highly energetic ions, electrons and plasma environment which can be used for breeding short-lived isotopes, plasma nanotechnology and other material processing applications. Commercial utilization of DPF in such areas would need a design tool that can be deployed in an automatic search for the best possible device configuration for a given application. The recently revisited (Auluck 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 112501) Gratton-Vargas (GV) two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus provides a numerical formula for dynamic inductance of a Mather-type plasma focus fitted to thousands of automated computations, which enables the construction of such a design tool. This inductance formula is utilized in the present work to explore global optimization, based on first-principles optimality criteria, in a four-dimensional parameter-subspace of the zero-resistance GV model. The optimization process is shown to reproduce the empirically observed constancy of the drive parameter over eight decades in capacitor bank energy. The optimized geometry of plasma focus normalized to the anode radius is shown to be independent of voltage, while the optimized anode radius is shown to be related to capacitor bank inductance.

  12. Total oxidant-scavenging capacities of plasma from glycogen storage disease type Ia patients as measured by cyclic voltammetry, FRAP and luminescence techniques.

    PubMed

    Koren, E; Lipkin, J; Klar, A; Hershkovitz, E; Ginsburg, I; Kohen, R

    2009-10-01

    It has been suggested that the very low incidence of atherosclerosis in glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) subjects might be attributed to elevated levels of uric acid, one of the potent low molecular- weight antioxidants found in plasma. The present communication describes a use of two analytical methods-cyclic voltammetry and ferric reducing ability of plasma-and also two chemiluminescence methods to evaluate the total oxidant-scavenging capacities (TOSC) of plasma from GSD Ia patients. Our results verified the elevation of TOSC in GSD Ia patients and we propose the inclusion of luminescence and cyclic voltammetry assays as reliable methods for estimating TOSC in a variety of clinical disorders. Our findings with the cyclic voltammetry method add support to the assumption that the elevated uric acid levels might be the main contributor to plasma antioxidant capacity and possible protection against atherosclerosis.

  13. Improvement of Plasma Biomarkers after Switching Stroke Patients from Other Angiotensin II Type I Receptor Blockers to Olmesartan.

    PubMed

    Tada, Yoshiteru; Yagi, Kenji; Uno, Masaaki; Matsushita, Nobuhisa; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Shimada, Kenji; Nishi, Kyoko; Hirasawa, Motohiro; Satomi, Junichiro; Kitazato, Keiko T; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Matsuura, Eiji; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2015-07-01

    Managing hypertension is crucial for preventing stroke recurrence. Some stroke patients experience resistant hypertension. In our experimental stroke model, olmesartan increased the expression of angiotensin (Ang) II converting enzyme-2. We hypothesized that switching to olmesartan affects biomarkers and the blood pressure (BP) in stroke patients whose BP is insufficiently controlled by standard doses of Ang II type I receptor blockers (ARBs) other than olmesartan. We recruited 25 patients to study our hypothesis. All had a history of stroke or silent cerebral infarction. We switched them to olmesartan (10-40 mg per day) for 12 weeks and determined their plasma level of Ang-(1-7), peroxiredoxin, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)/β-2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) complex, adiponectin, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and recorded their BP before and after olmesartan treatment. After switching the patients to olmesartan, their plasma level of Ang-(1-7) as a vasoprotective indicator and adiponectin regulating metabolic syndrome was increased, and peroxiredoxin and the oxLDL/β2GPI complex indicating its antioxidative stress and its proatherogenicity were lower than their baseline. This suggests that olmesartan may be more effective than other ARBs to improve these conditions. Neither HMGB1 nor TNFα reflecting an inflammatory response was affected, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of olmesartan are similar to those of other ARBs. The recommended BP (<140/90) was obtained in 10 of the 25 patients after switching to olmesartan. No adverse events occurred. Switching from other ARBs to olmesartan may be a promising therapeutic option in patients with resistant hypertension. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impaired Increase of Plasma Abscisic Acid in Response to Oral Glucose Load in Type 2 Diabetes and in Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ameri, Pietro; Bruzzone, Santina; Mannino, Elena; Sociali, Giovanna; Andraghetti, Gabriella; Salis, Annalisa; Ponta, Monica Laura; Briatore, Lucia; Adami, Giovanni F.; Ferraiolo, Antonella; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Maggi, Davide; Cordera, Renzo; Murialdo, Giovanni; Zocchi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is present and active in humans, regulating glucose homeostasis. In normal glucose tolerant (NGT) human subjects, plasma ABA (ABAp) increases 5-fold after an oral glucose load. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an oral glucose load on ABAp in type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects. We chose two sub-groups of patients who underwent an oral glucose load for diagnostic purposes: i) 9 treatment-naive T2D subjects, and ii) 9 pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GDM), who underwent the glucose load before and 8–12 weeks after childbirth. Each group was compared with matched NGT controls. The increase of ABAp in response to glucose was found to be abrogated in T2D patients compared to NGT controls. A similar result was observed in the women with GDM compared to pregnant NGT controls; 8–12 weeks after childbirth, however, fasting ABAp and ABAp response to glucose were restored to normal in the GDM subjects, along with glucose tolerance. We also retrospectively compared fasting ABAp before and after bilio-pancreatic diversion (BPD) in obese, but not diabetic subjects, and in obese T2D patients, in which BPD resulted in the resolution of diabetes. Compared to pre-BPD values, basal ABAp significantly increased 1 month after BPD in T2D as well as in NGT subjects, in parallel with a reduction of fasting plasma glucose. These results indicate an impaired hyperglycemia-induced ABAp increase in T2D and in GDM and suggest a beneficial effect of elevated ABAp on glycemic control. PMID:25723556

  15. Impaired increase of plasma abscisic Acid in response to oral glucose load in type 2 diabetes and in gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ameri, Pietro; Bruzzone, Santina; Mannino, Elena; Sociali, Giovanna; Andraghetti, Gabriella; Salis, Annalisa; Ponta, Monica Laura; Briatore, Lucia; Adami, Giovanni F; Ferraiolo, Antonella; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Maggi, Davide; Cordera, Renzo; Murialdo, Giovanni; Zocchi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is present and active in humans, regulating glucose homeostasis. In normal glucose tolerant (NGT) human subjects, plasma ABA (ABAp) increases 5-fold after an oral glucose load. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an oral glucose load on ABAp in type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects. We chose two sub-groups of patients who underwent an oral glucose load for diagnostic purposes: i) 9 treatment-naive T2D subjects, and ii) 9 pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GDM), who underwent the glucose load before and 8-12 weeks after childbirth. Each group was compared with matched NGT controls. The increase of ABAp in response to glucose was found to be abrogated in T2D patients compared to NGT controls. A similar result was observed in the women with GDM compared to pregnant NGT controls; 8-12 weeks after childbirth, however, fasting ABAp and ABAp response to glucose were restored to normal in the GDM subjects, along with glucose tolerance. We also retrospectively compared fasting ABAp before and after bilio-pancreatic diversion (BPD) in obese, but not diabetic subjects, and in obese T2D patients, in which BPD resulted in the resolution of diabetes. Compared to pre-BPD values, basal ABAp significantly increased 1 month after BPD in T2D as well as in NGT subjects, in parallel with a reduction of fasting plasma glucose. These results indicate an impaired hyperglycemia-induced ABAp increase in T2D and in GDM and suggest a beneficial effect of elevated ABAp on glycemic control.

  16. Plasma progesterone levels during the estrous cycle of Holstein and Brahman cows, Carora type and cross-bred heifers.

    PubMed

    Díaz, T; Manzo, M; Trocóniz, J; Benacchio, N; Verde, O

    1986-10-01

    Daily plasma progesterone (P(4)) was determined during one estrous cycle of 19 cows and 18 heifers of four different breeds: Holstein (H), Brahman (B), Carora-type (C) and crossbred (CB) females. Estrus detection was made by visual observation and using a teaser bull with a chin-ball marker. The P(4) profiles showed no differences among groups. In Group 1 (H), P(4) levels ranged from 0.5 ng/ml plasma on the day of estrus (Day 0) to 5.1 ng/ml at the luteal phase peak (Day 13). In Group 2 (B), P(4) levels ranged from 0.5 ng/ml on Day 0 to 9.2 ng/ml on Day 13. In Groups 3 (C) and 4 (CB), P(4) levels ranged from 0.5 ng/ml, on Day 0, to 13.7 ng/ml on Day 12 and 8.8 ng/ml on Day 13. These last two groups were moved to the same location and then compared. It was found that P(4) concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.025) in Group 3 between Days 7 and 14 of the estrous cycle. In all groups, P(4) levels were lower than 1 ng/ml one day before the next estrus, and levels of 0.4, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.4 ng/ml were obtained the day of estrus in Groups 1 to 4, respectively. Results indicated that the pattern of P(4) for each one of the groups was similar to those reported by other investigators.

  17. Plasma lipids, lipoprotein metabolism and HDL lipid transfers are equally altered in metabolic syndrome and in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vanessa M; Vinagre, Carmen G C; Dallan, Luis A O; Chacra, Ana P M; Maranhão, Raul C

    2014-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to states of insulin resistance that predispose to development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim was to investigate whether plasma lipids and lipid metabolism differ in MetS patients compared to those with T2DM with poor glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin > 7.0). Eighteen patients with T2DM, 18 with MetS and 14 controls, paired for age (40-70 years) and body mass index (BMI), were studied. Plasma lipids and the kinetics of a triacylglycerol-rich emulsion labeled with [(3)H]-triolein ([(3)H]-TAG) and [(14)C]-cholesteryl esters ([(14)C]-CE) injected intravenously followed by one-hour blood sampling were determined. Lipid transfers from an artificial nanoemulsion donor to high-density lipoprotien (HDL) were assayed in vitro. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) were not different in T2DM (128 ± 7; 42 ± 7) and MetS (142 ± 6; 39 ± 3), but triacylglycerols were even higher in MetS (215 ± 13) than in T2DM (161 ±11, p < 0.05). Fractional clearance rate (FCR, in min(1)) of [(3)H]-TAG and [(14)C]-CE were equal in T2DM (0.008 ± 0.018; 0.005 ± 0.024) and MetS (0.010 ± 0.016; 0.006 ± 0.013), and both were reduced compared to controls. The transfer of non-esterified cholesterol, phospholipids and triacylglycerols to HDL was higher in MetS and T2DM than in controls (p < 0.01). Cholesteryl ester transfer and HDL size were equal in all groups. Results imply that MetS is equal to poorly controlled T2DM concerning the disturbances of plasma lipid metabolism examined here, and suggest that there are different thresholds for the insulin action on glucose and lipids. These findings highlight the magnitude of the lipid disturbances in MetS, and may have implications in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. NEAR-SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS OF X-RAY PLASMA EJECTION, CORONAL MASS EJECTION, AND TYPE II RADIO BURST

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeon-Han; Bong, Su-Chan; Park, Y.-D.; Cho, K.-S.; Moon, Y.-J.

    2009-11-10

    We report the first simultaneous observation of X-ray plasma ejection (XPE), coronal mass ejection (CME), and type II solar radio burst on 1999 October 26. First, an XPE was observed from 21:12 UT to 21:24 UT in the Yohkoh SXT field of view (1.1 to 1.4 R{sub sun}). The XPE was accelerated with a speed range from 190 to 410 km s{sup -1} and its average speed is about 290 km s{sup -1}. Second, the associated CME was observed by the Mauna Loa Mk4 coronameter (1.1-2.8 R{sub sun}) from 21:16 UT. The CME front was clearly identified at 21:26 UT and propagated with a deceleration of about -110 m s{sup -2}. Its average speed is about 360 km s{sup -1}. At the type II burst start time (21:25 UT), the height of the CME front is around 1.7 R{sub sun} and its speed is about 470 km s{sup -1}. Third, a type II solar radio burst was observed from 21:25 UT to 21:43 UT by the Culgoora solar radio spectrograph. The burst shows three emission patches during this observing period and the emission heights of the burst are estimated to be about 1.3 R{sub sun} (21:25 UT), 1.4 R{sub sun} (21:30 UT), and 1.8 R{sub sun} (21:40 UT). By comparing these three phenomena, we find that: (1) kinematically, while the XPE shows acceleration, the associated CME front shows deceleration; (2) there is an obvious height difference (0.3 R {sub sun}) between the CME front and the XPE front around 21:24 UT and the formation height of the type II burst is close to the trajectory extrapolated from the XPE front; (3) both speeds of the XPE and the CME are comparable with each other around the starting time of the type II burst. Considering the formation height and the speed of the type II burst, we suggest that its first emission is due to the coronal shock generated by the XPE and the other two emissions are driven by the CME flank interacting with the high-density streamer.

  19. Interictal plasma pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide levels are decreased in migraineurs but remain unchanged in patients with tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Han, Xun; Dong, Zhao; Hou, Lei; Wan, Dongjun; Chen, Min; Tang, Wenjing; Yu, Shengyuan

    2015-10-23

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is associated with migraine phase; however, whether PACAP levels could be used to distinguish between migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) remains unknown. We compared interictal plasma PACAP levels among healthy controls, migraineurs, and patients with TTH. Interictal plasma levels of PACAP were measured in 133 migraineurs, 106 patients with TTH, and 50 controls using enzyme-linked immunoassays. We further evaluated the relationships between interictal PACAP plasma concentrations and clinical parameters, such as headache severity, attack frequency, and duration. We found that migraineurs had significantly lower interictal plasma PACAP levels than patients with TTH and healthy controls. However, there were no significant differences between patients with TTH and healthy controls. Plasma PACAP levels were significantly lower in patients with episodic migraine (EM) than in patients with episodic tension-type headache (ETTH) and in patients with chronic migraine (CM) than in patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Interictal PACAP levels were negatively correlated with duration in the CM group. The results of this study demonstrated differences in interictal PACAP levels in migraine and TTH, suggesting that PACAP is involved in the pathogenesis of migraine rather than TTH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasma concentrations of asymmetric-dimethyl-arginine in type 2 diabetes associate with glycemic control and glomerular filtration rate but not with risk factors of vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Päivä, Hannu; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laakso, Juha; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Rantalaiho, Vappu; Wirta, Ole; Pasternack, Amos; Laaksonen, Reijo

    2003-03-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Increased plasma levels of ADMA may indicate endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of angiopathy. The relation of ADMA to diabetes, glycemic control, and renal function, especially early diabetic hyperfiltration, remains unknown. We tried to evaluate whether there is an association between ADMA and glycosylated hemoglobin (GHbA(1c)) on the one hand and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) on the other hand in diabetic subjects with normal or slightly increased GFR. We also studied whether plasma ADMA is associated with some risk factors of vasculopathy (hypercholesterolemia and hypertension). The study subjects consisted of 86 patients with type 2 diabetes and 65 control subjects. Plasma ADMA levels were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography as o-pthalaldehyde (OPA) derivatives and GFR was determined by the plasma clearance of chromium 51-EDTA. The diabetic patients had lower plasma ADMA levels than the nondiabetic control subjects (0.29 +/- 0.15 v 0.34 +/- 0.16 micromol/L, P <.03). In the diabetic subjects, plasma ADMA concentrations were inversely correlated with GHbA(1c) (R = -0.28, P =.01). In a multivariate linear model, significant predictors of ADMA were GFR (R = -0.32, P =.008) in diabetic subjects and GHbA(1c) (R = -0.19, P =.03) and GFR (R = -0.19, P =.02) in all subjects. Plasma ADMA was not associated with risk factors of vasculopathy. We conclude that diabetic patients with a normal or slightly increased GFR have lower circulating ADMA concentrations than nondiabetic control subjects. In type 2 diabetic patients high GFR and poor glycemic control were related to low plasma ADMA concentrations.

  1. Atmospheric plasma surface modifications of electrospun PCL/chitosan/PCL hybrid scaffolds by nozzle type plasma jets for usage of cell cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surucu, Seda; Masur, Kai; Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal; Von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus Dieter

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports Ar gas, Ar + O2, Ar + O2 + N2 gas mixtures and dry air plasma modifications by atmospheric pressure argon driven kINPen and air driven Diener (PlasmaBeam) plasma jets to alter surface properties of three dimensional (3D), electrospun PCL/Chitosan/PCL layer by layer hybrid scaffolds to improve human fibroblast (MRC5) cell attachment and growth. The characterizations of the samples were done by contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed that the plasma modification carried out under dry air and Ar + O2 + N2 gas mixtures were altered effectively the nanotopography and the functionality of the material surfaces. It was found that the samples treated with Ar + O2 + N2 gas mixtures for 1 min and dry air for 9 min have better hydrophilicity 78.9° ± 1.0 and 75.6° ± 0.1, respectively compared to the untreated samples (126.5°). Biocompatibility performance of the scaffolds was determined with alamarBlue (aB) assay and MTT assay methods, Giemsa staining, fluorescence microscope, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The results showed that plasma treated samples increased the hydrophilicity and oxygen functionality and topography of the surfaces significantly, thus affecting the cell viability and proliferation on/within scaffolds.

  2. High-dose aspirin is required to influence plasma fibrin network structure in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Sara; Antovic, Aleksandra; Mobarrez, Fariborz; Mageed, Koteiba; Lins, Per-Eric; Adamson, Ulf; Wallén, Håkan N; Jörneskog, Gun

    2012-02-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes form a less permeable fibrin network, which could contribute to their increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Low-dose aspirin treatment is the standard in the management of CVD; however, the effect seems reduced in patients with diabetes. We investigated the effects of low- and high-dose aspirin treatment on fibrin network formation in patients with type 1 diabetes (primary aim) and the possible interaction between the treatment effects of aspirin on fibrin network permeability and glycemic control in these patients (secondary aim). Forty-eight patients (24 subjects with good [HbA(1c) <7.4%] and 24 subjects with poor [HbA(1c) >8.4%] glycemic control) were randomly assigned to treatment with 75 or 320 mg/day aspirin during 4 weeks in a crossover fashion. A 4-week washout period separated the treatment periods. The plasma fibrin network was assessed by determination of the permeability coefficient (K(s)). Treatment with 75 mg aspirin did not influence fibrin network permeability (K(s)). However, K(s) increased significantly during treatment with 320 mg aspirin (P = 0.004), and a significant treatment effect was seen compared with treatment with 75 mg aspirin (P = 0.009). The increase in K(s) during high-dose aspirin treatment was significant in patients with poor glycemic control (P = 0.02), whereas K(s) only tended to increase in patients with good glycemic control (P = 0.06). A high dose of aspirin is required to influence fibrin network permeability in patients with type 1 diabetes. The observed lack of effect with low-dose aspirin may contribute to aspirin treatment failure in diabetes.

  3. Platelet-Rich Plasma Preparation Types Show Impact on Chondrogenic Differentiation, Migration, and Proliferation of Human Subchondral Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Kreuz, Peter Cornelius; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Metzlaff, Sebastian; Freymann, Undine; Endres, Michaela; Pruss, Axel; Petersen, Wolf; Kaps, Christian

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the chondrogenic potential of platelet concentrates on human subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) as assessed by histomorphometric analysis of proteoglycans and type II collagen. Furthermore, the migratory and proliferative effect of platelet concentrates were assessed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared using preparation kits (Autologous Conditioned Plasma [ACP] Kit [Arthrex, Naples, FL]; Regen ACR-C Kit [Regen Lab, Le Mont-Sur-Lausanne, Switzerland]; and Dr.PRP Kit [Rmedica, Seoul, Republic of Korea]) by apheresis (PRP-A) and by centrifugation (PRP-C). In contrast to clinical application, freeze-and-thaw cycles were subsequently performed to activate platelets and to prevent medium coagulation by residual fibrinogen in vitro. MPCs were harvested from the cortico-spongious bone of femoral heads. Chondrogenic differentiation of MPCs was induced in high-density pellet cultures and evaluated by histochemical staining of typical cartilage matrix components. Migration of MPCs was assessed using a chemotaxis assay, and proliferation activity was measured by DNA content. MPCs cultured in the presence of 5% ACP, Regen, or Dr.PRP formed fibrous tissue, whereas MPCs stimulated with 5% PRP-A or PRP-C developed compact and dense cartilaginous tissue rich in type II collagen and proteoglycans. All platelet concentrates significantly (ACP, P = .00041; Regen, P = .00029; Dr.PRP, P = .00051; PRP-A, P < .0001; and PRP-C, P < .0001) stimulated migration of MPCs. All platelet concentrates but one (Dr.PRP, P = .63) showed a proliferative effect on MPCs, as shown by significant increases (ACP, P = .027; Regen, P = .0029; PRP-A, P = .00021; and PRP-C, P = .00069) in DNA content. Platelet concentrates obtained by different preparation methods exhibit different potentials to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation, migration, and proliferation of MPCs. Platelet concentrates obtained by commercially available preparation kits failed to induce

  4. Elevated plasma retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Qi, Qibin; Zong, Geng; Ye, Xingwang; Li, Huaixing; Liu, Xin; Zheng, He; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Yong; Lin, Xu

    2014-05-01

    The association between circulating retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and risk of type 2 diabetes has been inconsistent in cross-sectional studies, but prospective evidence is limited. We aimed to investigate whether plasma RBP4 is associated with future development of type 2 diabetes and whether the association could be explained by iron or other risk factors. A total of 2091 Chinese adults aged 50-70 y were followed up for 6 y. Baseline dietary intakes and fasting plasma RBP4, ferritin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), γ-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, and erythrocyte fatty acids were determined. Self-reported doctor-diagnosed diabetes, or usage of antidiabetic agents, or fasting plasma glucose concentration at the follow-up visit ≥7.0 mmol/L was defined as an incident diabetes case. Plasma RBP4 concentration was significantly associated with dietary heme iron intake, plasma ferritin concentration, and other established risk factors. After multivariate adjustment for demographic and lifestyle variables, relative risk (RR) for type 2 diabetes when the extreme quartiles of RBP4 were compared was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.37; P-trend < 0.001). This association remained significant when the extreme quartiles were compared (RR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.05; P-trend = 0.036) after further controlling for ferritin and dietary factors, as well as other risk factors, including body mass index, adiponectin, CRP, lipids, liver and kidney function, insulin resistance, and hypertension. A threshold effect of RBP4 concentrations on incident diabetes was suggested by restricted quadratic spline analysis (P = 0.026 for nonlinearity). Our study indicates that plasma RBP4 is independently associated with the 6-y risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

  5. Human plasma enhances the infectivity of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S C; Spouge, J L; Conley, S R; Tsai, W P; Merges, M J; Nara, P L

    1995-01-01

    Physiological microenvironments such as blood, seminal plasma, mucosal secretions, or lymphatic fluids may influence the biology of the virus-host cell and immune interactions for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Relative to media, physiological levels of human plasma were found to enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 primary isolates in both phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Enhancement was observed only when plasma was present during the virus-cell incubation and resulted in a 3- to 30-fold increase in virus titers in all of the four primary isolates tested. Both infectivity and virion binding experiments demonstrated a slow, time-dependent process generally requiring between 1 and 10 h. Human plasma collected in anticoagulants CPDA-1 and heparin, but not EDTA, exhibited this effect at concentrations from 90 to 40%. Furthermore, heat-inactivated plasma resulted in a loss of enhancement in peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not in monocyte-derived macrophages. Physiological concentrations of human plasma appear to recruit additional infectivity, thus increasing the infectious potential of the virus inoculum. PMID:7666510

  6. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm). PMID:26989513

  7. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients.

    PubMed

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm).

  8. IL-6-positive classical Hodgkin's lymphoma co-occurring with plasma cell type of Castleman's disease: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Momoi, Akihito; Kojima, Masaru; Sakai, Takeshi; Ajiro, Junya; Isahai, Noriatsu; Nagai, Kouichi; Aoki, Sadao

    2013-02-01

    We present a case of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) co-occurring with histological features of Castleman's disease (CD). A 25-year-old man presented with left supraclavicular and axillary lymph node swelling and mediastinal mass. Using an initial biopsy specimen from left axillary lymph node, a tentative diagnosis of multicentric CD of plasma cell type was made. The serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was elevated. The patient was treated with immunosuppressive therapy containing tocilizumab (TCZ). Shrinkage of mediastinal mass and axillary lymph nodes was seen; however, swelling of his left axillary lymph nodes reemerged, even after therapy with TCZ. A second left axillary lymph node biopsy was performed and a diagnosis of nodular sclerosis of classical HL without histologic features of CD was made. The initial biopsy specimen was re-examined, and scattered CD30+ Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells were found in the interfollicular area. Interestingly, Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells and surrounding reactive cells in both lymph nodes were stained with anti-IL-6 antibody. We emphasize that biopsy specimens with HL involvement may also have histologic features reminiscent of those seen in CD. To our knowledge, this is the first report to provide a detailed description of this pathology, including a survey of IL-6 and clinical course upon treatment with TCZ.

  9. The use of atmospheric pressure plasma-treated water as a source of nitrite for emulsion-type sausage.

    PubMed

    Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Sanghoo; In Yong, Hae; Choe, Jun Ho; Jeon, Hee-Joon; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the possible use of atmospheric pressure plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source in curing process. Emulsion-type sausages were manufactured with PTW, celery powder containing nitrite, and synthetic sodium nitrite at a concentration of nitrite ion 70mgkg(-1). In terms of sausage quality, there were no noticeable effects of PTW on the total aerobic bacterial counts, color, and peroxide values of sausages compared with those of celery powder and sodium nitrite throughout 28days of storage at 4°C. Sausage with added PTW had lower concentrations of residual nitrite compared to those of added celery powder and sodium nitrite during the storage period (P<0.05). The sensory properties of PTW-treated and sodium nitrite-treated sausages were not different, whereas the sausage with added celery powder received the lowest scores in taste and acceptability. From the results, it is concluded that PTW can be used as a nitrite source equivalent to a natural curing agent.

  10. Controlling chaos based on a novel intelligent integral terminal sliding mode control in a rod-type plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, Khari; Zahra, Rahmani; Behrooz, Rezaie

    2016-05-01

    An integral terminal sliding mode controller is proposed in order to control chaos in a rod-type plasma torch system. In this method, a new sliding surface is defined based on a combination of the conventional sliding surface in terminal sliding mode control and a nonlinear function of the integral of the system states. It is assumed that the dynamics of a chaotic system are unknown and also the system is exposed to disturbance and unstructured uncertainty. To achieve a chattering-free and high-speed response for such an unknown system, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is utilized in the next step to approximate the unknown part of the nonlinear dynamics. Then, the proposed integral terminal sliding mode controller stabilizes the approximated system based on Lyapunov’s stability theory. In addition, a Bee algorithm is used to select the coefficients of integral terminal sliding mode controller to improve the performance of the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate the improvement in the response speed, chattering rejection, transient response, and robustness against uncertainties.

  11. Manufacturing and High Heat Flux Testing of Brazed Flat-Type W/CuCrZr Plasma Facing Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Youyun; Liu, Xiang; Feng, Fan; Chen, Lei; Cheng, Zhengkui; Wang, Jin; Chen, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Water-cooled flat-type W/CuCrZr plasma facing components with an interlayer of oxygen-free copper (OFC) have been developed by using vacuum brazing route. The OFC layer for the accommodation of thermal stresses was cast onto the surface of W at a temperature range of 1150 °C-1200 °C in a vacuum furnace. The W/OFC cast tiles were vacuum brazed to a CuCrZr heat sink at 940 °C using the silver-free filler material CuMnSiCr. The microstructure, bonding strength, and high heat flux properties of the brazed W/CuCrZr joint samples were investigated. The W/Cu joint exhibits an average tensile strength of 134 MPa, which is about the same strength as pure annealed copper. High heat flux tests were performed in the electron beam facility EMS-60. Experimental results indicated that the brazed W/CuCrZr mock-up experienced screening tests of up to 15 MW/m2 and cyclic tests of 9 MW/m2 for 1000 cycles without visible damage. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11205049) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2011GB110004)

  12. A variant near MTNR1B is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Bonnefond, Amélie; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Sparsø, Thomas; Holmkvist, Johan; Marchand, Marion; Delplanque, Jérôme; Lobbens, Stéphane; Rocheleau, Ghislain; Durand, Emmanuelle; De Graeve, Franck; Chèvre, Jean-Claude; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Ruokonen, Aimo; Tichet, Jean; Marre, Michel; Weill, Jacques; Heude, Barbara; Tauber, Maithé; Lemaire, Katleen; Schuit, Frans; Elliott, Paul; Jørgensen, Torben; Charpentier, Guillaume; Hadjadj, Samy; Cauchi, Stéphane; Vaxillaire, Martine; Sladek, Robert; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Balkau, Beverley; Lévy-Marchal, Claire; Pattou, François; Meyre, David; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riita; Walley, Andrew J; Hansen, Torben; Dina, Christian; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In genome-wide association (GWA) data from 2,151 nondiabetic French subjects, we identified rs1387153, near MTNR1B (which encodes the melatonin receptor 2 (MT2)), as a modulator of fasting plasma glucose (FPG; P = 1.3 x 10(-7)). In European populations, the rs1387153 T allele is associated with increased FPG (beta = 0.06 mmol/l, P = 7.6 x 10(-29), N = 16,094), type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.08-1.22, P = 6.3 x 10(-5), cases N = 6,332) and risk of developing hyperglycemia or diabetes over a 9-year period (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.06-1.36, P = 0.005, incident cases N = 515). RT-PCR analyses confirm the presence of MT2 transcripts in neural tissues and show MT2 expression in human pancreatic islets and beta cells. Our data suggest a possible link between circadian rhythm regulation and glucose homeostasis through the melatonin signaling pathway.

  13. Ligand-induced type II interleukin-4 receptor dimers are sustained by rapid re-association within plasma membrane microcompartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, David; Moraga, Ignacio; Winkelmann, Hauke; Birkholz, Oliver; Wilmes, Stephan; Schulte, Markos; Kraich, Michael; Kenneweg, Hella; Beutel, Oliver; Selenschik, Philipp; Paterok, Dirk; Gavutis, Martynas; Schmidt, Thomas; Garcia, K. Christopher; Müller, Thomas D.; Piehler, Jacob

    2017-07-01

    The spatiotemporal organization of cytokine receptors in the plasma membrane is still debated with models ranging from ligand-independent receptor pre-dimerization to ligand-induced receptor dimerization occurring only after receptor uptake into endosomes. Here, we explore the molecular and cellular determinants governing the assembly of the type II interleukin-4 receptor, taking advantage of various agonists binding the receptor subunits with different affinities and rate constants. Quantitative kinetic studies using artificial membranes confirm that receptor dimerization is governed by the two-dimensional ligand-receptor interactions and identify a critical role of the transmembrane domain in receptor dimerization. Single molecule localization microscopy at physiological cell surface expression levels, however, reveals efficient ligand-induced receptor dimerization by all ligands, largely independent of receptor binding affinities, in line with the similar STAT6 activation potencies observed for all IL-4 variants. Detailed spatiotemporal analyses suggest that kinetic trapping of receptor dimers in actin-dependent microcompartments sustains robust receptor dimerization and signalling.

  14. LC-MS/MS analysis of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids in type 2 diabetic patients after insulin analog initiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eicosanoids derived from omega-6 (n6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have proinflammatory functions whereas eicosanoids derived from omega-3 (n3) PUFAs have anti-inflammatory properties. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of insulin analog initiation therapy on n6 and n3 PUFAs in type 2 diabetic patients during early phase. Methods Sixteen type 2 diabetic patients with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels above 10% despite ongoing combination therapy with sulphonylurea and metformin were selected. Former treatment regimen was continued for the first day followed by substitution of sulphonylurea therapy with different insulin analogs (0.4 U/kg/day) plus metformin. Blood samples were obtained from all patients at 24 and 72 hours. Plasma levels of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3n6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n3) were determined by an optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method using ultra fast-liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was measured in serum samples by enzyme immunoassay. Results All measured PUFAs were significantly increased after treatment with insulin analogs plus metformin compared to before treatment levels. The mean AA/EPA ratio was significantly lower after treatment with insulin analogs plus metformin. A 22% decrease was observed in PGE2 levels after treatment with insulin analogs plus metformin compared to pretreatment levels (p > 0.05). Conclusion The significant decrease in AA/EPA ratio indicates that insulin analog initiation therapy has anti-inflammatory properties by favoring the increase of n3 fatty acid EPA. PMID:24195588

  15. Electrodeposition of PANi films on platinum needle type microelectrodes. Application to the oxidation of ascorbate in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Bonastre, A M; Bartlett, P N

    2010-08-31

    Needle type (165 microm(2)) and small Pt disc (3-11 microm(2)) microelectrodes were used for the electrodeposition of composite poly(aniline), PANi, films by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry for the oxidation of ascorbate. PANi electroactivity at neutral pH was retained through polymer alkylation or by using large poly-anions, such as poly(vinylsulfonate), PVS, and poly(styrenesulfonate), PSS. Hence the growth of the composite films was studied in the presence of different counter ions such as SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), NaPVS and NaPSS. The morphology of the resulting films was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that flat PANi films with thicknesses much lower than the microelectrode radius were obtained by potentiodynamic electrodeposition. On the other hand films with mushroom shapes, with significant spill over, were obtained under constant potential. The resulting polymer modified microelectrodes films were shown to be suitable for the oxidation of ascorbate at 0.1 V vs. SCE and pH 7 with a detection limit of 1 microM for PANi/PSS composites. The current was independent of film thickness, mass transport controlled at low ascorbate concentrations and not affected by the presence of common interferences such as uric acid, glutathione or vitamin E. Due to their excellent properties the PANi-PSS film coated microelectrodes were used for the amperometric detection of ascorbate in human plasma. The results are encouraging for the use of small polymer modified Pt needle type microelectrodes for the detection of ascorbate in biological systems.

  16. Hyperglucagonemia correlates with plasma levels of non-branched chained amino acids in patients with liver disease independent of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Junker, Anders E; Christensen, Mette; Hædersdal, Sofie; Wibrand, Flemming; Lund, Allan M; Galsgaard, Katrine Douglas; Holst, Jens J; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2017-09-28

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) frequently exhibit elevated plasma concentrations of glucagon (hyperglucagonemia). Hyperglucagonemia and alpha-cell hyperplasia may result from elevated levels of plasma amino acids when glucagon's action on hepatic amino acid metabolism is disrupted. We therefore measured plasma levels of glucagon and individual amino acids in patients with and without biopsy-verified NAFLD and with and without type T2D. Fasting levels of amino acids and glucagon in plasma were measured, using validated ELISAs and high-performance liquid chromatography, in obese, middle-aged individuals with I) normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and NAFLD, II) T2D and NAFLD, III) T2D without liver disease, and IV) NGT and no liver disease. Elevated levels of total amino acids were observed in participants with NAFLD and NGT compared to NGT controls (1,310±235 µM vs. 937±281 µM, p=0.03) and in T2D and NAFLD compared to T2D without liver disease (1,354±329 µM vs. 511±235 µM, p<0.0001). Particularly amino acids with known glucagonotropic effects (e.g. glutamine) were increased. Plasma levels of total amino acids correlated to plasma levels of glucagon also when adjusting for body mass index (BMI), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and cholesterol levels (β=0.013±0.007, p=0.024). Elevated plasma levels of total amino acids associate with hyperglucagonemia in NAFLD patients independently of glycemic control, BMI or cholesterol - supporting the potential importance of a 'liver-alpha-cell axis' in which glucagon regulates hepatic amino acid metabolism. Fasting hyperglucagonemia as seen in T2D may therefore represent impaired hepatic glucagon action with increasing amino acids levels. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

  17. Prospective measurement of Epstein-Barr virus-DNA in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ritsuro; Yamaguchi, Motoko; Izutsu, Koji; Yamamoto, Go; Takada, Kenzo; Harabuchi, Yasuaki; Isobe, Yasushi; Gomyo, Hiroshi; Koike, Tadashi; Okamoto, Masataka; Hyo, Rie; Suzumiya, Junji; Nakamura, Shigeo; Kawa, Keisei; Oshimi, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-DNA was prospectively analyzed in plasma and mononuclear cells (MNCs) from peripheral blood in patients with extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, to evaluate the clinical significance for diagnosis, monitoring the tumor burden, and prognostication. Thirty-three patients were enrolled, and 32 were evaluable. Pretreatment plasma and MNC EBV-DNA was detectable in 14 (range, 50-71 000 copies/mL) and 6 patients (range, 20-780 copies/μg DNA), respectively, and both were well correlated (r = 0.8741, P < .0001). Detectable plasma EBV-DNA was associated with higher clinical stage (P = .02), presence of B symptoms (P = .02), worse performance status (P = .02), and higher serum soluble IL-2 receptor level (P < .0001). Twenty-two patients attained complete response. Plasma EBV-DNA level was significantly higher in nonresponders than in responders (mean, 16,472 vs 2,645 copies/mL; P = .02). Multivariate analysis showed clinical stage (hazard ratio, 9.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.8%-45.0%) and pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA (hazard ratio, 10.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.3%-87.0%) were significant prognostic factors. Three-year overall survival of plasma EBV-DNA positive and negative patients was 42.9% and 94.4%, respectively (P = .0009). Plasma was a preferable sample for this purpose in NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, and EBV-DNA level was a good indicator for response and overall survival.

  18. Serum Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Is Associated with Low Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Elevated Plasma Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide Level

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Shu-ichi; Tanaka, Suguru; Maeda, Daichi; Morita, Hideaki; Fujisaka, Tomohiro; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Ito, Takahide; Ishizaka, Nobukazu

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a biomarker of subclinical levels of inflammation, is significantly correlated with cardiovascular events. Purpose We investigated the association between suPAR and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) among cardiac inpatients. Methods and Results In total, 242 patients (mean age 71.3 ± 9.8 years; 70 women) admitted to the cardiology department were enrolled in the study. suPAR was significantly correlated with LVEF (R = -0.24, P<0.001), LVMI (R = 0.16, P = 0.014) and BNP (R = 0.46, P<0.001). In logistic regression analysis, the highest suPAR tertile (> 3236 pg/mL) was associated with low LVEF (< 50%) and elevated BNP (> 300 pg/mL) with an odds ratio of 3.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22–12.1) and 5.36 (95% CI, 1.32–21.8), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, log-transformed estimated glomerular filtration rate (log(eGFR)), C-reactive protein, and diuretic use. The association between suPAR and LVMI was not statistically significant. In multivariate receiver operating characteristic analysis, addition of log(suPAR) to the combination of age, sex, log(eGFR) and CRP incrementally improved the prediction of low LVEF (area under the curve [AUC], 0.827 to 0.852, P = 0.046) and BNP ≥ 300 pg/mL (AUC, 0.869 to 0.906; P = 0.029). Conclusions suPAR was associated with low LVEF and elevated BNP, but not with left ventricular hypertrophy, independent of CRP, renal function, and diuretic use among cardiac inpatients who were not undergoing chronic hemodialysis. PMID:28135310

  19. Change in fasting plasma glucose and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffary, Amirhossein; Asgari, Samaneh; Tohidi, Maryam; Kazempour-Ardebili, Sara; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a cohort of the Iranian population. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting This study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) to investigate the association between change in FPG between baseline examination (1999–2001) and the second visit (2002–2005) with incident T2D. Participants A total of 3981 non-diabetic participants aged ≥20 years. Outcome measure T2D was defined if the participant was using antidiabetic drugs or if FPG was ≥7 mmol/L or if the 2 h post-challenge plasma glucose (2-hPCG) was ≥11.1 mmol/L. Results During a median follow-up of 6.17 years, after the second examination, 288 new cases of T2D were identified. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis using age as timescale, we presented a simple model including FPG change (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.33) and baseline waist circumference (WC) (HR 1.004, 95% CI 1.001 to 1.008) with a discriminative power (C-index) of 72%. Furthermore, we showed that the highest quartile of FPG change enhanced the T2D risk to 1.65 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.27) compared with the lowest quartile (p for trend=0.004).The independent risk of FPG change resisted further adjustment with 2-hPCG change. Adding the 2-hPCG change only slightly increased the discriminative power of the model including FPG change and baseline value of WC (0.73% vs 0.72%). After the study population had been limited to those with normal fasting glucose/normal glucose tolerance, FPG change remained an independent predictor (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.88). Conclusions Two measurements of FPG obtained about 3 years apart can help to identify populations at risk of incident T2D independently of important traditional risk factors and their changes, including 2-hPCG change. PMID:27217283

  20. Development of array-type atmospheric-pressure RF plasma generator with electric on-off control for high-throughput numerically controlled processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, H.; Kurio, S.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamauchi, K.; Sano, Y.

    2016-10-01

    An array-type atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency (RF) plasma generator is proposed for high-precision and high-throughput numerically controlled (NC) processes. We propose the use of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) circuit for direct RF switching to achieve plasma on-off control. We confirmed that this type of circuit works correctly using a MOSFET with a small parasitic capacitance between its source and gate. We examined the design method for the distance between adjacent electrodes, which corresponds to the parasitic capacitance between adjacent electrodes and is very important in the individual on-off control of each electrode. We developed a prototype array-type plasma generator apparatus with 19 electrodes and the same number of MOSFET circuits; we then confirmed that each electrode could control its plasma on-off state individually. We also demonstrated that the thickness uniformity of the surface Si layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer could be processed to less than 1 nm peak to valley by the NC sacrificial oxidation method using the apparatus.

  1. Effect of incorporation of deuterium on vacancy-type defects of a-C:H films prepared by plasma CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, K.; Sekiba, D.; Uedono, A.; Hirakuri, K. K.; Masuzawa, T.

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous deuterated carbon (a-C:D) films were prepared using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from CH4/CD4 and CH4/D2 source gases. For CH4/CD4, the gas flow ratio of CD4/(CD4 + CH4) was varied from 0 to 100%. For CH4/D2, the additional partial gas pressure of D2 was increased from 1 to 7 Pa as the flow rate increased, and the partial gas pressure and the flow rate of CH4 were maintained at 10 Pa and 10 sccm, respectively. The concentrations of hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) relative to carbon (C) in the films and the film densities were determined by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) was performed to measure the vacancy-type defect of the film. The S value obtained from PAS measurement correlates to the vacancy-type defect in the film. The film hardness was also measured using a nanoindenter. For CH4/CD4, the D concentration in the film increased when the CD4/(CH4 + CD4) gas ratio increased, whereas the concentration of H decreased. For CH4/D2, the D concentration in the film increased with increasing D2 partial pressure, whereas the concentration of H decreased. From the PAS results, the S value increased with increasing CD4/(CH4 + CD4) gas ratio for CH4/CD4, whereas the S value did not change with any D2 partial pressure for CH4/D2. The hardness and the mass density of the films decreased when the CD4/(CH4 + CD4) gas ratio increased for CH4/CD4, whereas the hardness and the density did not change with any D2 partial pressure for CH4/D2. A correlation among the S value, the film hardness and the film density was observed, and the S value, the film hardness and the film density did not correlate to the D concentration in the film. These findings suggest that information about the vacancy-type defect of the hydrogenated amorphous carbon films is crucial for evaluation of their mechanical properties and density.

  2. Association of Arabidopsis type-II ROPs with the plasma membrane requires a conserved C-terminal sequence motif and a proximal polybasic domain.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Meirav; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2006-06-01

    Plant ROPs (or RACs) are soluble Ras-related small GTPases that are attached to cell membranes by virtue of the post-translational lipid modifications of prenylation and S-acylation. ROPs (RACs) are subdivided into two major subgroups called type-I and type-II. Whereas type-I ROPs terminate with a conserved CaaL box and undergo prenylation, type-II ROPs undergo S-acylation on two or three C-terminal cysteines. In the present work we determined the sequence requirement for association of Arabidopsis type-II ROPs with the plasma membrane. We identified a conserved sequence motif, designated the GC-CG box, in which the modified cysteines are flanked by glycines. The GC-CG box cysteines are separated by five to six mostly non-polar residues. Deletion of this sequence or the introduction of mutations that change its nature disrupted the association of ROPs with the membrane. Mutations that changed the GC-CG box glycines to alanines also interfered with membrane association. Deletion of a polybasic domain proximal to the GC-CG box disrupted the plasma membrane association of AtROP10. A green fluorescent protein fusion protein containing the C-terminal 25 residues of AtROP10, including its polybasic domain and GC-CG box, was primarily associated with the plasma membrane but a similar fusion protein lacking the polybasic domain was exclusively localized in the soluble fraction. These data provide evidence for the minimal sequence required for plasma membrane association of type-II ROPs in Arabidopsis and other plant species.

  3. Association of a major transcriptional regulatory protein, ICP4, of herpes simplex virus type 1 with the plasma membrane of virus-infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yao, F; Courtney, R J

    1991-01-01

    A major transcriptional regulatory protein, ICP4, of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is localized primarily within the nucleus soon after its synthesis. Recent studies have shown that approximately 100 to 200 molecules of ICP4 are located in the tegument region of purified virions (F. Yao and R. J. Courtney, J. Virol. 63:3338-3344, 1989). As an extension to these studies, we present data suggesting that ICP4 may also associate with the plasma membrane of HSV-1-infected cells. The experimental approaches used included the isolation and purification of plasma membranes from HSV-1-infected cells, the isolation of purified vesicular stomatitis virus containing ICP4, and immunofluorescence of HSV-1-infected cells following selective permeabilization with detergent. The results from the above studies support the suggestion that detectable amounts of ICP4 are associated with the inner surface of the plasma membrane of HSV-1-infected cells. Images PMID:1847468

  4. The CTGF -945GC polymorphism is not associated with plasma CTGF and does not predict nephropathy or outcome in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The -945GC polymorphism (rs6918698) in the connective tissue growth factor gene promoter (CTGF/CCN-2) has been associated with end organ damage in systemic sclerosis. Because CTGF is important in progression of diabetic kidney disease, we investigated whether the -945GC polymorphism is associated with plasma CTGF level and outcome in type 1 diabetes. The study cohort consisted of 448 diabetic nephropathy patients and 419 normoalbuminuric diabetic patients with complete data concerning renal function and cardiovascular characteristics. Genomic DNA was genotyped by a QPCR-based SNP assay. We observed no relation between the -945GC polymorphism and plasma CTGF level, and the genotype frequencies were not different in nephropathy patients vs. normoalbuminuric controls. General and cardiovascular mortality, and renal function decline was similar in patients with CC, CG or GG genotypes. In conclusion, the -945GC SNP does not affect plasma CTGF levels, incidence and prognosis of diabetic nephropathy, and cardiovascular outcome. PMID:21548990

  5. The CTGF -945GC polymorphism is not associated with plasma CTGF and does not predict nephropathy or outcome in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dendooven, Amélie; Nguyen, Tri Q; Brosens, Lodewijk; Li, Dongxia; Tarnow, Lise; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Rossing, Peter; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2011-05-08

    The -945GC polymorphism (rs6918698) in the connective tissue growth factor gene promoter (CTGF/CCN-2) has been associated with end organ damage in systemic sclerosis. Because CTGF is important in progression of diabetic kidney disease, we investigated whether the -945GC polymorphism is associated with plasma CTGF level and outcome in type 1 diabetes. The study cohort consisted of 448 diabetic nephropathy patients and 419 normoalbuminuric diabetic patients with complete data concerning renal function and cardiovascular characteristics. Genomic DNA was genotyped by a QPCR-based SNP assay. We observed no relation between the -945GC polymorphism and plasma CTGF level, and the genotype frequencies were not different in nephropathy patients vs. normoalbuminuric controls. General and cardiovascular mortality, and renal function decline was similar in patients with CC, CG or GG genotypes. In conclusion, the -945GC SNP does not affect plasma CTGF levels, incidence and prognosis of diabetic nephropathy, and cardiovascular outcome.

  6. Near Discharge Cathode Assembly Plasma Potential Measurements in a 30-cm NSTAR Type Ion Engine During Beam Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2006-01-01

    Floating emissive probe plasma potential data are presented over a two-dimensional array of locations in the near Discharge Cathode Assembly (DCA) region of a 30-cm diameter ring-cusp ion thruster. Discharge plasma data are presented with beam extraction at throttling conditions comparable to the NASA TH Levels 8, 12, and 15. The operating conditions of the Extended Life Test (ELT) of the Deep Space One (DS1) flight spare ion engine, where anomalous discharge keeper erosion occurred, were TH 8 and TH 12 consequently they are of specific interest in investigating discharge keeper erosion phenomena. The data do not validate the presence of a potential hill plasma structure downstream of the DCA, which has been proposed as a possible erosion mechanism. The data are comparable in magnitude to data taken by other researchers in ring-cusp electron-bombardment ion thrusters. The plasma potential structures are insensitive to thruster throttling level with a minimum as low as 14 V measured at the DCA exit plane and increasing gradually in the axial direction. A sharp increase in plasma potential to the bulk discharge value of 26 to 28 volts, roughly 10 mm radially from DCA centerline, was observed. Plasma potential measurements indicate a low-potential plume structure that is roughly 20 mm in diameter emanating from the discharge cathode that may be attributed to a free-standing plasma double layer.

  7. Heart rate variability and plasma biomarkers in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Effect of a bout of aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Anaruma, Chadi P; Ferreira, Maycon; Sponton, Carlos H G; Delbin, Maria A; Zanesco, Angelina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate: (1) the cardiovascular parameters and plasma biomarkers in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) at baseline; and (2) the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood glucose in response to a session of aerobic exercise (AE) and during recovery period. Adults (18-35 years) were divided into two groups: control (CT, n=10) and T1DM (n=9). Anthropometric, cardiovascular, and biochemical parameters, and aerobic capacity (indirect peak oxygen uptake, VO2peak) were evaluated at baseline. Thirty minutes of AE (40-60% intensity) was performed on a treadmill. Blood glucose and HRV were determined at rest, during AE, and during the recovery period. Anthropometric measurements, cardiovascular parameters, aerobic capacity, and biochemical parameters were similar between the groups at baseline. In the T1DM group, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentrations were increased while nitrite/nitrate (NOx(-)) levels were reduced. During AE, the magnitude of the reduction of blood glucose was greater than that during the recovery period in the T1DM group. The RR intervals and SDNN were reduced at rest as well as in the recovery period in T1DM subjects, whereas the RMSSD and pNN50 were only reduced during the recovery period. No changes were observed in low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio. Our study shows that T1DM patients on insulin therapy have poor blood glucose control with greater lipid peroxidation and lower NOx(-) levels, accompanied by an imbalance in autonomic function detected by the challenge of AE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model

    SciTech Connect

    Butlitsky, M. A.; Zelener, B. V.

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a “shelf Coulomb” model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The “shelf Coulomb” model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ε parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ε and γ = βe{sup 2}n{sup 1/3} (where β = 1/k{sub B}T, n is the particle's density, k{sub B} is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ε and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ε{sub crit}≈13(T{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.076),γ{sub crit}≈1.8(v{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.17),P{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ{sup 3} and reduced temperature T{sup *} = ε{sup −1}.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Plasma B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Musani, Solomon K.; Fox, Ervin R.; Kraja, Aldi; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lin, Honghuang; Beecham, Ashley; Chen, Ming-Huei; Felix, Jenin; Fox, Caroline; Kao, W.H. Linda; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Nalls, Mike A.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Smith, Jennifer; Sun, Yan V.; Wilson, Gregory; Zhang, Zhaogong; Mosley, Thomas H.; Taylor, Herman A.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous experimental studies suggest that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is cardioprotective, yet in clinical studies, higher plasma BNP concentrations have been associated with incident cardiovascular disease and higher left ventricular mass (LVM). Genetic association studies may allow us to determine the true causal directions without confounding by compensatory mechanisms. Methods and Results We performed meta-analysis of two genome-wide association (GWA) results from a total of 2,790 African Americans. We assumed an additive genetic model in association analysis of imputed 2.5 million SNP dosages with residuals generated from multivariable-adjusted logarithmically-transformed BNP controlling for relevant covariates and population stratification. Two loci were genome-wide significant, a candidate gene locus NPPB (rs198389, p-value=1.18×10−09) and novel missense variant in the KLKB1 locus (rs3733402, p-value=1.75×10−11) that explained 0.4% and 1.9% of variation in log BNP concentration, respectively. The observed increase in BNP concentration was proportional to the number of effect allele copies, an average of 8.1 pg/dl increase associated with two allele copies. SNPs in this loci were subsequently cross-checked with GWA results for the aldosterone-to-renin ratio in individuals of European ancestry, and only rs3733402 was genome-wide significant (p<5.0×10−8), suggesting possible shared genetic architecture for these two pathways. Other statistically significant relations for these SNPs included: rs198389 with systolic blood pressure in blacks (COGENT consortium) rs198389 and rs3733402 with LVM in whites (EchoGEN consortium). Conclusions These findings improve our knowledge of the genetic basis of BNP variation in African Americans, demonstrate possible shared allelic architecture for BNP with ARR and motivate further studies of underlying mechanisms. PMID:25561047

  10. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in dogs with right-sided congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    KANNO, Nobuyuki; HORI, Yasutomo; HIDAKA, Yuichi; CHIKAZAWA, Seishiro; KANAI, Kazutaka; HOSHI, Fumio; ITOH, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The clinical utility of plasma natriuretic peptide concentrations in dogs with right-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) remains unclear. We investigated whether plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are useful for assessing the congestive signs of right-sided heart failure in dogs. This retrospective study enrolled 16 healthy dogs and 51 untreated dogs with presence (n=28) or absence (n=23) of right-sided CHF. Medical records of physical examinations, thoracic radiography and echocardiography were reviewed. The plasma concentration of canine ANP was measured with a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Plasma ANP and NT-proBNP concentrations in dogs with right-sided CHF were significantly higher than in healthy controls and those without right-sided CHF. The plasma NT-proBNP concentration >3,003 pmol/l used to identify right-sided CHF had a sensitivity of 88.5% and specificity of 90.3%. An area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.93. The AUC for NT-proBNP was significantly higher than the AUCs for the cardiothoracic ratio, vertebral heart score, ratio of right ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter to body surface area, tricuspid late diastolic flow and ratio of the velocities of tricuspid early to late diastolic flow. These results suggest that plasma ANP and NT-proBNP concentrations increase markedly in dogs with right-sided CHF. Particularly, NT-proBNP is simple and helpful biomarkers to assess the right-sided CHF. PMID:26607133

  11. Post-partum plasma C-peptide and ghrelin concentrations are predictive of type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lappas, Martha; Jinks, Debra; Ugoni, Antony; Louizos, Connie C J; Permezel, Michael; Georgiou, Harry M

    2015-07-01

    Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. The aim of this study was to determine if circulating levels of metabolic hormones 12 weeks following a GDM pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes 8-10 years later. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, ghrelin, GIP, GLP-1, glucagon, leptin, PAI-1, resistin and visfatin were measured in 98 normal glucose tolerant women, 12 weeks following an index GDM pregnancy. Women were assessed every 2 years for up to 10 years for development of overt type 2 diabetes. After a median follow-up period of 8.7 years, 22.5% of women with a pGDM pregnancy developed type 2 diabetes. Significant risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes were fasting plasma glucose levels >5 mmol/L during pregnancy and at 12 weeks post-pregnancy. In addition, higher C-peptide levels and lower ghrelin levels at 12 weeks post-pregnancy were also significant risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. Fasting plasma glucose during pregnancy and post-partum, and post-partum C-peptide and ghrelin levels were significant risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes in women with pGDM. This is the first report that identifies C-peptide and ghrelin as potential biomarkers for the prediction of type 2 diabetes in women with a history of GDM. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor as a Biomarker for the Main Types of Mild Neurocognitive Disorders and Treatment Efficacy: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Levada, Oleg A; Cherednichenko, Nataliya V; Trailin, Andriy V; Troyan, Alexandra S

    2016-01-01

    Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are assumed to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of mild neurocognitive disorders (MNCDs). In this study, we compared plasma BDNF levels (at baseline and after two months of treatment with escitalopram) in patients with the main types of MNCDs and normal controls. 21 patients met the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for possible MNCD due to Alzheimer's disease (MNCD-AD); 22 patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for subcortical vascular MNCD (ScVMNCD) according to Frisoni et al. (2002) and neuroimaging-supported probable diagnosis of vascular MNCD according to DSM-5; 16 subjects entered control group. At baseline, we detected lower BDNF levels in both MNCD groups, which was significant only in subjects with MNCD-AD. Moreover, plasma BDNF level of 21160 pg/mL showed high sensitivity (94%) to discriminate patients with MNCD-AD. Decreased plasma BDNF highly correlated with the severity of memory impairment and total MMSE score in MNCD-AD group. Escitalopram treatment in patients with MNCD-AD or ScVMNCD led to an increase of plasma BDNF concentrations and as a result to a decrease of cognitive, depressive, and anxiety symptom severity. In conclusion, plasma BDNF might be a reliable biomarker for the validation of MNCD-AD diagnosis and treatment efficacy.

  13. Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor as a Biomarker for the Main Types of Mild Neurocognitive Disorders and Treatment Efficacy: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are assumed to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of mild neurocognitive disorders (MNCDs). In this study, we compared plasma BDNF levels (at baseline and after two months of treatment with escitalopram) in patients with the main types of MNCDs and normal controls. 21 patients met the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for possible MNCD due to Alzheimer's disease (MNCD-AD); 22 patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for subcortical vascular MNCD (ScVMNCD) according to Frisoni et al. (2002) and neuroimaging-supported probable diagnosis of vascular MNCD according to DSM-5; 16 subjects entered control group. At baseline, we detected lower BDNF levels in both MNCD groups, which was significant only in subjects with MNCD-AD. Moreover, plasma BDNF level of 21160 pg/mL showed high sensitivity (94%) to discriminate patients with MNCD-AD. Decreased plasma BDNF highly correlated with the severity of memory impairment and total MMSE score in MNCD-AD group. Escitalopram treatment in patients with MNCD-AD or ScVMNCD led to an increase of plasma BDNF concentrations and as a result to a decrease of cognitive, depressive, and anxiety symptom severity. In conclusion, plasma BDNF might be a reliable biomarker for the validation of MNCD-AD diagnosis and treatment efficacy. PMID:27597800

  14. Design and Fabrication of 11.2 kJ Mather-Type Plasma Focus IR-MPF-1 with High Drive Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damideh, V.; Zaeem, A. A.; Heidarnia, A.; Sadighzadeh, A.; Tafreshi, M. A.; Abbasi Davani, F.; Moradshahi, M.; Bakhshzad Mahmoudi, M.; Damideh, R.

    2012-02-01

    Drive parameter is one of the most important and influential factors in design and construction of plasma focus devices. This parameter controls the speed of current sheath both in the radial and the axial phases; as a result, the final temperature of the pinched plasma as well as the speed of moving-boiler (IEEE Trans Plasma Sci, 38:2096 in 2010). Therefore, to design a machine with high drive parameter, the IR-MPF-1 device (Iranian-Mather Type Plasma Focus1) was designed and constructed. In this work, Lee's model and semi-empirical formulas were used to achieve the anode length. Using neutron counter (HVTC 1001 GM) in the IR-MPF-1 device (bank energy of 11.2 kJ and 3.2 torr pressure) with deuterium operational gas, the number of 5.7 × 108 neutron/shot was observed. High amount of neutron yield according to the relatively small size of the device represents the effective role of the drive parameter on the fusion products in plasma focus machines.

  15. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels and recurrent arrhythmia after successful ablation of lone atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ayman A; Saliba, Walid I; Martin, David O; Shadman, Mazyar; Kanj, Mohamed; Bhargava, Mandeep; Dresing, Thomas; Chung, Mina; Callahan, Thomas; Baranowski, Bryan; Tchou, Patrick; Lindsay, Bruce D; Natale, Andrea; Wazni, Oussama M

    2011-05-17

    Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is abnormally elevated in patients with lone atrial fibrillation (AF). The exact significance and prognostic implications of this elevation have yet to be determined. Little is known about BNP in lone AF patients undergoing arrhythmia ablation. We sought to determine the relationship between BNP levels and the risk of recurrent arrhythmia after ablation of lone AF. We followed up 726 patients with lone AF undergoing first-time arrhythmia ablation. All had BNP levels measured on the day of ablation with of the point-of-care Triage Meter assay (Biosite Diagnostics, San Diego, CA). At baseline, factors associated with elevated BNP levels in multivariable linear regression analysis (with log BNP being the dependent variable) were older age (β regression coefficient for +1-year change, 0.025; P<0.0001), longer duration of AF (β for +1-year change, 0.031; P=0.01), nonparoxysmal AF (versus paroxysmal; β, 0.52; P<0.0001), and larger left atrial size (β for +1-cm(2) change, 0.040; P<0.0001). The BNP levels were strongly associated with arrhythmia recurrence in univariate- (hazard ratio for +1-log-BNP change, 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 2.11 to 2.74; P<0.001) and covariate- (hazard ratio for +1-log-BNP change, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 2.06 to 2.38; P<0.001) adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis. The covariate-adjusted hazard ratios for recurrent arrhythmia were 1.6, 2.7, 4.3, and 5.7 for the second, third, fourth, and fifth quintiles, respectively, compared with patients in the lowest quintile (P for trend across quintiles <0.001). B-type natriuretic peptide levels correlate with AF burden (chronicity, altered hemodynamics, and anatomic remodeling) in patients with lone AF and are strong predictors of recurrent arrhythmia after ablation. Elevated BNP levels may reflect increased cardiac chamber wall stress and/or intrinsic atrial disease, thus increasing the risk of arrhythmia recurrence.

  16. Plasma Proteins Modified by Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Reveal Site-specific Susceptibilities to Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Greifenhagen, Uta; Frolov, Andrej; Blüher, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-04-29

    Protein glycation refers to the reversible reaction between aldoses (or ketoses) and amino groups yielding relatively stable Amadori (or Heyns) products. Consecutive oxidative cleavage reactions of these products or the reaction of amino groups with other reactive substances (e.g. α-dicarbonyls) yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can alter the structures and functions of proteins. AGEs have been identified in all organisms, and their contents appear to rise with some diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Here, we report a pilot study using highly sensitive and specific proteomics approach to identify and quantify AGE modification sites in plasma proteins by reversed phase HPLC mass spectrometry in tryptic plasma digests. In total, 19 AGE modification sites corresponding to 11 proteins were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under poor glycemic control. The modification degrees of 15 modification sites did not differ among cohorts of normoglycemic lean or obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients under good and poor glycemic control. The contents of two amide-AGEs in human serum albumin and apolipoprotein A-II were significantly higher in patients with poor glycemic control, although the plasma levels of both proteins were similar among all plasma samples. These two modification sites might be useful to predict long term, AGE-related complications in diabetic patients, such as impaired vision, increased arterial stiffness, or decreased kidney function.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteinase is rapidly and efficiently inactivated in human plasma by alpha 2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed

    Kisselev, A F; von der Helm, K

    1994-10-01

    Human plasma impairs the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) proteinase to cleave the HIV-1 gag-polyprotein precursor. The inhibition is due to the entrapment of the proteinase by plasma alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M). In methylamine-treated plasma, where alpha 2M is inactivated, HIV proteinase is not blocked. The interaction of alpha 2M and HIV-1 proteinase resulting in covalent complexes of proteinase and alpha 2M was demonstrated by immunoblotting with antiserum either to alpha 2M or to the HIV proteinase. We suggest if HIV-1 proteinase would be released in vivo from infected patients' cells, alpha 2M entrapment may prevent or minimize a conceivable cleavage of extracellular matrix or plasma proteins by the HIV-1 enzyme.

  18. Experimental research on electrical propulsion. Note 2: Experimental research on a plasma jet with vortex type stabilization for propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robotti, A. C.; Oggero, M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental electric propulsion research are presented. A plasma generator, with an arc stabilized by an air vortex is examined. The heat transfer efficiency between arc and fluid environment at a varying current and flow rate is discussed.

  19. Unmatter Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2015-11-01

    ``Unmatter Plasma'' is a novel form of plasma, exclusively made of matter and its antimatter counterpart. An experiment (2015) on matter-antimatter plasma [or unmatter plasma] was recently successful at the Astra Gemini laser facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford, United Kingdom. The experiment that was made has produced electron-positron plasma. The positron is the antimatter of the electron, having an opposite charge of the electron, but the other properties are the same. Unmatter is considered as a combination of matter and antimatter. For example electron-positron is a type of unmatter. We coined the word ``unmatter'' (2004) that means neither matter nor antimatter, but something in between. Besides matter and antimatter there may exist unmatter (as a new form of matter) in accordance with the neutrosophy theory that between an entity and its opposite there exist intermediate entities.

  20. Antiretroviral Resistance among HIV Type 1-Infected Women First Exposed to Antiretrovirals during Pregnancy: Plasma versus PBMCs

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Ramirez, Luis E.; Rodriguez-Diaz, Roberto; Durán, Adriana S.; Losso, Marcelo H.; Salomón, Horacio; Gómez-Carrillo, Manuel; Pampuro, Sandra; Harris, D. Robert; Duarte, Geraldo; De Souza, Ricardo S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) in plasma samples from HIV-1-infected women who received antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis during pregnancy was assessed and correlated with the detection of RAMs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs). The study population was composed of HIV-1-infected women enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Latin America and the Caribbean (NISDI Perinatal Study) as of March 1, 2005, who were diagnosed with HIV-1 infection during the current pregnancy, who received ARVs during pregnancy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, and who were followed through at least the 6–12 week postpartum visit. Plasma samples collected at enrollment during pregnancy and at 6–12 weeks postpartum were assayed for RAMs. Plasma results were compared to previously described PBMC results from the same study population. Of 819 enrolled subjects, 197 met the eligibility criteria. Nucleic acid amplification was accomplished in 123 plasma samples at enrollment or 6–12 weeks postpartum, and RAMs were detected in 22 (17.9%; 95%CI: 11.7–25.9%). Previous analyses had demonstrated detection of RAMs in PBMCs in 19 (16.1%). There was high concordance between RAMs detected in plasma and PBMC samples, with only eight discordant pairs. The prevalence of RAMs among these pregnant, HIV-1-infected women is high (>15%). Rates of detection of RAMs in plasma and PBMC samples were similar. PMID:18507526

  1. Antiretroviral resistance among HIV type 1-infected women first exposed to antiretrovirals during pregnancy: plasma versus PBMCs.

    PubMed

    Soto-Ramirez, Luis E; Rodriguez-Diaz, Roberto; Durán, Adriana S; Losso, Marcelo H; Salomón, Horacio; Gómez-Carrillo, Manuel; Pampuro, Sandra; Harris, D Robert; Duarte, Geraldo; De Souza, Ricardo S; Read, Jennifer S

    2008-06-01

    Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) in plasma samples from HIV-1-infected women who received antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis during pregnancy was assessed and correlated with the detection of RAMs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs). The study population was composed of HIV-1-infected women enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Latin America and the Caribbean (NISDI Perinatal Study) as of March 1, 2005, who were diagnosed with HIV-1 infection during the current pregnancy, who received ARVs during pregnancy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, and who were followed through at least the 6-12 week postpartum visit. Plasma samples collected at enrollment during pregnancy and at 6-12 weeks postpartum were assayed for RAMs. Plasma results were compared to previously described PBMC results from the same study population. Of 819 enrolled subjects, 197 met the eligibility criteria. Nucleic acid amplification was accomplished in 123 plasma samples at enrollment or 6-12 weeks postpartum, and RAMs were detected in 22 (17.9%; 95%CI: 11.7-25.9%). Previous analyses had demonstrated detection of RAMs in PBMCs in 19 (16.1%). There was high concordance between RAMs detected in plasma and PBMC samples, with only eight discordant pairs. The prevalence of RAMs among these pregnant, HIV-1-infected women is high (15%). Rates of detection of RAMs in plasma and PBMC samples were similar.

  2. Preparation of solid-solution type Fe-Co nanoalloys by synchronous deposition of Fe and Co using dual arc plasma guns.

    PubMed

    Sadakiyo, Masaaki; Heima, Minako; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Matsuura, Masashi; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Yamauchi, Miho

    2015-09-28

    We succeeded in the efficient preparation of well-dispersed Fe-Co nanoalloys (NAs) using the arc plasma deposition method. Synchronous shots of dual arc plasma guns were applied to a carbon support to prepare the solid-solution type Fe-Co NAs having an approximately 1 : 1 atomic ratio. The alloy structures with and without a reductive thermal treatment under a hydrogen atmosphere were examined using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, high resolution STEM, and magnetic measurements, suggesting that highly crystalline spherical particles of ordered B2-type Fe-Co NAs form by the thermal treatment of the deposited grains.

  3. Lactose as affinity eluent and a synthetic sulfated copolymer as inhibitor, in conjunction with synthetic and natural acceptors, differentiate human milk Lewis-type and plasma-type alpha-L-fucosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, E V; Rhodes, J M; Jain, R K; Matta, K L

    1994-01-14

    Human milk Lewis-type (alpha 1,3/4) fucosyltransferase (FT) was separated from the plasma-type by chromatography on bovine IgG glycopep-Sepharose using lactose as the selective eluent and further purified on a column of Sephacryl S-100 HR. The alpha 1,3-FT activity towards 2'-fucosyllactose was found to be associated with alpha 1,4-FT activity. The inherency of N-acetyl-glucosaminide alpha 1,3-L-FT activity in the Lewis-type FT was shown by a) the emergence of both alpha 1,3- and alpha 1,4-FT activities from the Sephacryl S-100 HR column in the same position; b) the inhibition of the alpha 1,3-FT activity in the Lewis-type FT by alpha 1,4-FT specific inhibitor namely a copolymer from 3-sulfoGal beta 1,3GlcNAc beta-O-Allyl and acrylamide; c) the inhibition of alpha 1,4 activity in the Lewis-type FT by alpha 1,3-FT specific acceptor. Fetuin triantennary sialoglycopeptide, the corresponding asialo glycopeptide, and bovine IgG diantennary glycopeptide served as acceptors for both FTs, the Lewis-type FT being far more active than the plasma type FT towards the triantennary sialoglycopeptide.

  4. Increased Plasma Levels of Select Deoxy-ceramide and Ceramide Species are Associated with Increased Odds of Diabetic Neuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Samar M; Baker, Nathaniel L; El Abiad, Jad M; Spassieva, Stefanka D; Pierce, Jason S; Rembiesa, Barbara; Bielawski, Jacek; Lopes-Virella, Maria F; Klein, Richard L

    2017-03-01

    Plasma deoxy-sphingoid bases are elevated in type 2 diabetes patients and correlate with the stage of diabetic distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy; however, associations between deoxy-sphingolipids (DSL) and neuropathy in type 1 diabetes have not been examined. The primary aim of this exploratory pilot study was to assess the associations between multiple sphingolipid species including DSL and free amino acids and the presence of symptomatic neuropathy in a DCCT/EDIC type 1 diabetes subcohort. Using mass spectroscopy, plasma levels of DSL and free amino acids in DCCT/EDIC type 1 diabetes participants (n = 80), with and without symptoms of neuropathy, were investigated. Patient-determined neuropathy was based on 15-item self-administered questionnaire (Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument) developed to assess distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy in diabetes. Patients who scored ≥4, or reported inability to sense their feet during walking or to distinguish hot from cold water while bathing were considered neuropathic. Plasma levels of ceramide, sphingomyelin, hexosyl- and lactosylceramide species, and amino acids were measured and analyzed relative to neuropathy status in the patient. Deoxy-C24-ceramide, C24- and C26-ceramide were higher in patients with neuropathy than those without neuropathy. Cysteine was higher in patients with neuropathy. No differences in other sphingolipids or amino acids were detected. The covariate-adjusted Odds Ratios of positive patient-reported neuropathy was associated with increased levels of deoxy-C24-, and deoxy-C24:1-ceramide; C22-, C24-, and C26-ceramide; and cysteine. Plasma deoxy-ceramide and ceramide species may have potential diagnostic and prognostic significance in diabetic neuropathy.

  5. Highly efficient neutralization by plasma antibodies from human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infected individuals on antiretroviral drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Raiees; Makhdoomi, M A; Kumar, Rajesh; Bala, Manju; Parray, Hilal; Gupta, Arjun; Kotnala, Ankita; Thirumurthy, Velpandian; Luthra, Kalpana

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the neutralizing antibodies induced in HIV-1 patients on antiretroviral treatment, which constitute an interesting group of individuals with improved B cell profile. Plasma samples from 34 HIV-1 seropositive antiretroviral drug treated (ART) patients were tested for neutralization against a panel of 14 subtype-A, B and C tier 1 and tier 2 viruses in TZM-bl assay. Of the 34 plasma samples, remarkably all the plasma samples were able to neutralize at least one virus while 32 (94 %) were found to neutralize ≥50 % viruses tested. In terms of overall neutralization frequency, approximately 86 %, 68 % and 17 % of the virus/plasma combinations showed 50 % neutralizing activity at 1 > 60, 1 ≥ 200 and 1 ≥ 2000 dilutions respectively. The improvement in neutralizing activity was shown to be associated with ART in two follow up patients. The neutralization of viruses by two representative plasma samples, AIIMS221 and AIIMS265, was exclusively mediated by immunoglobulin G fractions independent of ART drugs and IgG retained cross-reactive binding to recombinant gp120 proteins. We observed a positive trend of neutralization with duration of ART (p = 0.06), however no such correlation was found with clinical and immunological variables like CD4 count (p = 0.35), viral load (p = 0.09) and plasma total IgG (p = 0.46). Our study suggests that the plasma antibodies from ART patients display high neutralizing activity most likely due to an improved B cell function induced by ART despite low antigenic stimulation.

  6. Interactions between zinc transporter-8 gene (SLC30A8) and plasma zinc concentrations for impaired glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shan, Zhilei; Bao, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Rong, Ying; Wang, Xia; Jin, Yilin; Song, Yadong; Yao, Ping; Sun, Changhao; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2014-05-01

    Although both SLC30A8 rs13266634 single nucleotide polymorphism and plasma zinc concentrations have been associated with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), their interactions for IGR and T2D remain unclear. Therefore, to assess zinc-SLC30A8 interactions, we performed a case-control study in 1,796 participants: 218 newly diagnosed IGR patients, 785 newly diagnosed T2D patients, and 793 individuals with normal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, family history of diabetes, and hypertension, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) of T2D associated with a 10 µg/dL higher plasma zinc level was 0.87 (95% CI 0.85-0.90). Meanwhile, the OR of SLC30A8 rs13266634 homozygous genotypes CC compared with TT was 1.53 (1.11-2.09) for T2D. Similar associations were found in IGR and IGR&T2D groups. Each 10 µg/dL increment of plasma zinc was associated with 22% (OR 0.78 [0.72-0.85]) lower odds of T2D in TT genotype carriers, 17% (0.83 [0.80-0.87]) lower odds in CT genotype carriers, and 7% (0.93 [0.90-0.97]) lower odds in CC genotype carriers (P for interaction = 0.01). Our study suggested that the C allele of rs13266634 was associated with higher odds of T2D, and higher plasma zinc was associated with lower odds. The inverse association of plasma zinc concentrations with T2D was modified by SLC30A8 rs13266634. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the mechanisms underlying the interaction between plasma zinc and the SLC30A8 gene in relation to T2D.

  7. Chronic Reduction of Plasma Free Fatty Acid Improves Mitochondrial Function and Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity in Obese and Type 2 Diabetic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, Giuseppe; Eldor, Roy; Merovci, Aurora; Clarke, Geoffrey D.; Xiong, Juan; Tripathy, Devjit; Taranova, Anna; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance and dysregulation of free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism are core defects in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) and obese normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals. Impaired muscle mitochondrial function (reduced ATP synthesis) also has been described in insulin-resistant T2DM and obese subjects. We examined whether reduction in plasma FFA concentration with acipimox improved ATP synthesis rate and altered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Eleven NGT obese and 11 T2DM subjects received 1) OGTT, 2) euglycemic insulin clamp with muscle biopsy, and 3) 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy of tibialis anterior muscle before and after acipimox (250 mg every 6 h for 12 days). ATP synthesis rate and ROS generation were measured in mitochondria isolated from muscle tissue ex vivo with chemoluminescence and fluorescence techniques, respectively. Acipimox 1) markedly reduced the fasting plasma FFA concentration and enhanced suppression of plasma FFA during oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin clamp in obese NGT and T2DM subjects and 2) enhanced insulin-mediated muscle glucose disposal and suppression of hepatic glucose production. The improvement in insulin sensitivity was closely correlated with the decrease in plasma FFA in obese NGT (r = 0.81) and T2DM (r = 0.76) subjects (both P < 0.001). Mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate increased by >50% in both obese NGT and T2DM subjects and was strongly correlated with the decrease in plasma FFA and increase in insulin-mediated glucose disposal (both r > 0.70, P < 0.001). Production of ROS did not change after acipimox. Reduction in plasma FFA in obese NGT and T2DM individuals improves mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate, indicating that the mitochondrial defect in insulin-resistant individuals is, at least in part, reversible. PMID:24353180

  8. Chronic reduction of plasma free fatty acid improves mitochondrial function and whole-body insulin sensitivity in obese and type 2 diabetic individuals.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Giuseppe; Eldor, Roy; Merovci, Aurora; Clarke, Geoffrey D; Xiong, Juan; Tripathy, Devjit; Taranova, Anna; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance and dysregulation of free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism are core defects in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) and obese normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals. Impaired muscle mitochondrial function (reduced ATP synthesis) also has been described in insulin-resistant T2DM and obese subjects. We examined whether reduction in plasma FFA concentration with acipimox improved ATP synthesis rate and altered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Eleven NGT obese and 11 T2DM subjects received 1) OGTT, 2) euglycemic insulin clamp with muscle biopsy, and 3) (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy of tibialis anterior muscle before and after acipimox (250 mg every 6 h for 12 days). ATP synthesis rate and ROS generation were measured in mitochondria isolated from muscle tissue ex vivo with chemoluminescence and fluorescence techniques, respectively. Acipimox 1) markedly reduced the fasting plasma FFA concentration and enhanced suppression of plasma FFA during oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin clamp in obese NGT and T2DM subjects and 2) enhanced insulin-mediated muscle glucose disposal and suppression of hepatic glucose production. The improvement in insulin sensitivity was closely correlated with the decrease in plasma FFA in obese NGT (r = 0.81) and T2DM (r = 0.76) subjects (both P < 0.001). Mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate increased by >50% in both obese NGT and T2DM subjects and was strongly correlated with the decrease in plasma FFA and increase in insulin-mediated glucose disposal (both r > 0.70, P < 0.001). Production of ROS did not change after acipimox. Reduction in plasma FFA in obese NGT and T2DM individuals improves mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate, indicating that the mitochondrial defect in insulin-resistant individuals is, at least in part, reversible. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  9. Plasma methylglyoxal and glyoxal are elevated and related to early membrane alteration in young, complication-free patients with Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingchun; Randell, Edward; Vasdev, Sudesh; Gill, Vicki; Gadag, Vereesh; Newhook, Leigh Anne; Grant, Marie; Hagerty, Donna

    2007-11-01

    The reactive aldehydes methylglyoxal and glyoxal, arise from enzymatic and non-enzymatic degradation of glucose, lipid and protein catabolism, and lipid peroxidation. In Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) where hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation are common, these aldehydes may be elevated. These aldehydes form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with proteins that are implicated in diabetic complications. We measured plasma methylglyoxal and glyoxal in young, complication-free T1DM patients and assessed activity of the ubiquitous membrane enzyme, Na+/K+ ATPase. A total of 56 patients with TIDM (DM group), 6-22 years, and 18 non-diabetics (ND group), 6-21 years, were enrolled. Mean plasma A1C (%) was higher in the DM group (8.5+/-1.3) as compared to the ND group (5.0+/-0.3). Using a novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry method, we found that mean plasma methylglyoxal (nmol/l) and glyoxal levels (nmol/l), respectively, were higher in the DM group (841.7+/-237.7, 1051.8+/-515.2) versus the ND group (439.2+/-90.1, 328.2+/-207.5). Erythrocyte membrane Na+/K+ ATPase activity (nmol NADH oxidized/min/mg protein) was elevated in the DM group (4.47+/-0.98) compared to the ND group (2.16+/-0.59). A1C correlated with plasma methylglyoxal and glyoxal, and both aldehydes correlated with each other. A high correlation of A1C with Na+/K+ ATPase activity, and a regression analysis showing A1C as a good predictor of activity of this enzyme, point to a role for glucose in membrane alteration. In complication-free patients, increased plasma methylglyoxal, plasma glyoxal, and erythrocyte Na+/K+ ATPase activity may foretell future diabetic complications, and emphasize a need for aggressive management.

  10. Rotation of the anatomic regions used for insulin injections and day-to-day variability of plasma glucose in type I diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Bantle, J P; Weber, M S; Rao, S M; Chattopadhyay, M K; Robertson, R P

    1990-04-04

    Treatment of type I diabetes mellitus is hindered by the often large fluctuations in blood glucose concentration experienced by affected individuals. To determine to what extent day-to-day variation in blood glucose levels can be reduced if insulin is injected in the same anatomic region rather than in different regions using a rotational scheme, as is commonly recommended, 12 type I diabetic subjects were studied. Insulin injections were given in the abdomen for 3 days and rotated among arms, abdomen, and thighs for 3 days using a crossover design with random assignment of treatment order. Blood samples for measurement of plasma glucose levels were obtained at nine scheduled times on each day. Insulin dose, diet, and physical activity were held constant for each subject. During the abdominal injection period, the mean SD of plasma glucose levels and the mean variance of plasma glucose levels were both less at all nine time points than during the rotating injection period. Overall values for the SD of plasma glucose levels were 2.7 +/- 0.2 mmol/L for the abdominal injection period and 3.7 +/- 0.3 mmol/L for the rotating injection period. Overall values for the variance of plasma glucose levels were 9.2 +/- 1.4 mmol2/L2 for the abdominal injection period and 17.4 +/- 2.2 mmol2/L2 for the rotating injection period. We conclude that the common clinical practice of rotating the anatomic regions used for insulin injections increases day-to-day variation in blood glucose concentration. Use of a single anatomic region, eg, the abdomen, for all insulin injections may reduce this variation and allow greater precision in the adjustment of insulin doses.

  11. Effects of nozzle type atmospheric dry air plasma on L929 fibroblast cells hybrid poly (ε-caprolactone)/chitosan/poly (ε-caprolactone) scaffolds interactions.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Ozan; Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal

    2016-08-01

    In the study presented here, in order to improve the surface functionality and topography of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/chitosan/PCL hybrid tissue scaffolds fabricated layer by layer with electrospinning technique, an atmospheric pressure nozzle type plasma surface modification was utilized. The optimization of the plasma process parameters was carried out by monitoring the changes in surface hydrophilicity by using contact angle measurements. SEM, AFM and XPS analyses were utilized to observe the changes in topographical and chemical properties of the modified surfaces. The results showed that applied plasma modification altered the nanotopography and the functionality of the surfaces of the scaffolds. The modification applied for 9 min from a distance of 17 cm was found to provide the possible contact angle value (75.163±0.083) closest to the target value which is the value of tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) petri dishes (∼49.7°), compared to the unmodified samples (84.46±3.86). In vitro cell culture was carried out by L929 mouse fibroblast cell line in order to examine the effects of plasma surface modification on cell-material interactions. Standard MTT assay showed improved cell viability on/within modified scaffolds confirmed with the observations of the cell attachment and the morphology by means of SEM, fluorescence and confocal imaging. The experiments performed in the study proved the enhanced biocompatibility of the nozzle type dry air plasma modified scaffolds. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The TELEC - A plasma type of direct energy converter. [Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter for electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter (TELEC) is a high-power density plasma device designed to convert a 10.6-micron CO2 laser beam into electric power. Electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in plasma electrons, creating a high-electron temperature. Energetic electrons diffuse from the plasma and strike two electrodes having different areas. The larger electrode collects more electrons and there is a net transport of current. An electromagnetic field is generated in the external circuit. A computer program has been designed to analyze TELEC performance allowing parametric variation for optimization. Values are presented for TELEC performance as a function of cesium pressure and for current density and efficiency as a function of output voltage. Efficiency is shown to increase with pressure, reaching a maximum over 45%.

  13. Plasma levels of galectin-3-binding protein reflect type I interferon activity and are increased in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Christoffer T; Lood, Christian; Østergaard, Ole; Iversen, Line V; Voss, Anne; Bengtsson, Anders; Jacobsen, Søren; Heegaard, Niels H H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Simple measures of type I interferon (IFN) activity constitute highly attractive biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We explore galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP) as a novel measure of type I IFN activity and serum/plasma biomarker in large independent cohorts of patients with SLE and controls. Methods Serum and plasma G3BP concentrations were quantified using ELISA. Type I IFN activity was assessed by Mx1 reporter gene expression assays and correlated to serum G3BP concentrations (SLE-IFN-α, n=26 and healthy controls (HCs), n=10). Plasma G3BP concentrations in the SLE-Denmark (DK) (n=70) and SLE-Sweden (SE) (n=68) cohorts were compared with the HC-DK (n=47) and HC-SE (n=50) cohorts and patients with systemic sclerosis (n=111). In 15 patients with SLE, serum G3BP in consecutive samples was correlated to disease activity. Correlation analysis between G3BP, clinical parameters including disease activity in the four SLE cohorts was performed. Results G3BP concentrations correlated significantly with the IFN-α reporter gene assay (r=0.56, p=0.0005) and with IFN-α gene expression scores (r=0.54, p=0.0002). Plasma concentrations were significantly increased in the SLE-DK and SLE-SE cohorts compared with HCs and patients with systemic sclerosis (p<0.0001 and p=0.0009). G3BP concentrations correlated with disease activity measures in the SLE-DK- and SLE-IFN-α cohorts (p=0.0004 and p=0.05) but not in the SLE-SE cohort (p=0.98). Markedly temporal variation was observed in G3BP levels in the consecutive SLE-samples and was significantly associated with changes in disease activity (r=0.44, p=0.014). Conclusions G3BP plasma levels reflect type I IFN activity and are increased in SLE. Associations with disease activity or clinical manifestations are uncertain. This study highlights G3BP as a convenient measure of type I IFN-dependent gene activation. PMID:25452879

  14. Fasting plasma triglycerides predict the glycaemic response to treatment of type 2 diabetes by gastric electrical stimulation. A novel lipotoxicity paradigm.

    PubMed

    Lebovitz, H E; Ludvik, B; Yaniv, I; Haddad, W; Schwartz, T; Aviv, R

    2013-06-01

    Non-stimulatory, meal-mediated electrical stimulation of the stomach (TANTALUS-DIAMOND) improves glycaemic control and causes modest weight loss in patients with Type 2 diabetes who are inadequately controlled on oral anti-diabetic medications. The magnitude of the glycaemic response in clinical studies has been variable. A preliminary analysis of data from patients who had completed 6 months of treatment indicated that the glycaemic response to the electrical stimulation was inversely related to the baseline fasting plasma triglyceride level. An analysis of 40 patients who had had detailed longitudinal studies for 12 months. Twenty-two patients with fasting plasma triglycerides ≤ 1.7 mmol/l had mean decreases in HbA1c after 3, 6 and 12 months of gastric contraction modulation treatment of -15 ± 2.1 mmol/mol (-1.39 ± 0.20%), -16 ± 2.2 mmol/mol (-1.48 ± 0.20%) and -14 ± 3.0 mmol/mol (-1.31 ± 0.26%), respectively. In contrast, 18 patients with fasting plasma triglyceride > 1.7 mmol/l had mean decreases in HbA1c of -7 ± 1.7 mmol/mol (-0.66 ± 0.16%), -5 ± 1.6 mmol/mol (-0.44 ± 0.18%) and -5 ± 1.7 mmol/mol (-0.42 ± 0.16%), respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient between fasting plasma triglyceride and decreases in HbA1c at 12 months of treatment was 0.34 (P < 0.05). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was unchanged during 12 months of treatment in patients with high baseline fasting triglycerides, while it progressively improved in patients with low fasting plasma triglycerides. Patients with low fasting plasma triglycerides had a tendency to lose more weight than those with high fasting plasma triglycerides, but this did not achieve statistical significance. The data presented suggest the existence of a triglyceride lipotoxic mechanism that interferes with gastric/neural mediated pathways that can regulate glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The data suggest the existence of a triglyceride lipotoxic pathway that

  15. Fasting plasma triglycerides predict the glycaemic response to treatment of Type 2 diabetes by gastric electrical stimulation. A novel lipotoxicity paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Lebovitz, H E; Ludvik, B; Yaniv, I; Haddad, W; Schwartz, T; Aviv, R

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-stimulatory, meal-mediated electrical stimulation of the stomach (TANTALUS-DIAMOND) improves glycaemic control and causes modest weight loss in patients with Type 2 diabetes who are inadequately controlled on oral anti-diabetic medications. The magnitude of the glycaemic response in clinical studies has been variable. A preliminary analysis of data from patients who had completed 6 months of treatment indicated that the glycaemic response to the electrical stimulation was inversely related to the baseline fasting plasma triglyceride level. Method An analysis of 40 patients who had had detailed longitudinal studies for 12 months. Results Twenty-two patients with fasting plasma triglycerides ≤ 1.7 mmol/l had mean decreases in HbA1c after 3, 6 and 12 months of gastric contraction modulation treatment of −15 ± 2.1 mmol/mol (−1.39 ± 0.20%), −16 ± 2.2 mmol/mol (−1.48 ± 0.20%) and −14 ± 3.0 mmol/mol (−1.31 ± 0.26%), respectively. In contrast, 18 patients with fasting plasma triglyceride > 1.7 mmol/l had mean decreases in HbA1c of −7 ± 1.7 mmol/mol (−0.66 ± 0.16%), −5 ± 1.6 mmol/mol (−0.44 ± 0.18%) and −5 ± 1.7 mmol/mol (−0.42 ± 0.16%), respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient between fasting plasma triglyceride and decreases in HbA1c at 12 months of treatment was 0.34 (P < 0.05). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was unchanged during 12 months of treatment in patients with high baseline fasting triglycerides, while it progressively improved in patients with low fasting plasma triglycerides. Patients with low fasting plasma triglycerides had a tendency to lose more weight than those with high fasting plasma triglycerides, but this did not achieve statistical significance. Conclusions The data presented suggest the existance of a triglyceride lipotoxic mechanism that interferes with gastric/neural mediated pathways that can regulate glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The data

  16. Low plasma levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor are potential risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shao-Yi; Du, Xiao-Fang; Ma, Xiang; Guo, Jian-Lian; Lu, Jian-Min; Ma, Lu-Sheng

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies suggested that neurotrophins play a role in the diabetic retinopathy (DR). We therefore evaluated the role of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR). Plasma levels of BDNF were determined in type 2 diabetic patients (N=344). At baseline, the demographical and clinical data were taken. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) was used to test the overall predict accuracy of BDNF and other markers. Diabetic patients with DR and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) had significantly lower BDNF levels on admission (P<0.0001 both). BDNF improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the diabetes duration for DR from 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.82) to 0.89 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95; P<0.01) and for VDTR from 0.84 (95% CI, 0.78-0.92) to 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90-0.98; P<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for common risk factors showed that plasma BDNF levels≤12.4 ng/mL(1(rd) quartiles) was an independent marker of DR (OR=3.92; 95%CI: 2.31-6.56) and VTDR (OR=4.88; 95%CI: 2.21-9.30). The present study demonstrated that decreased plasma levels of BDNF were independent markers for DR and VDTR in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting a possible role of BDNF in the pathogenesis of DR complications.

  17. Plasma visfatin and retinol binding protein-4 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their relationship to adiposity and fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Olfat; El-Shehaby, Amal; Zakaria, Abir; Mostafa, Naglaa; Talaat, Soha; Katsiki, Niki; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2011-12-01

    We investigated whether plasma visfatin and binding protein-4 (RBP-4) levels correlate with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two groups were enrolled: Group 1: 40 patients with T2DM and Group 2: 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Both groups were subdivided according to body mass index (BMI) into non-obese (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) and obese subjects (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) (20 each). Plasma visfatin and RBP-4 levels were significantly increased in T2DM patients compared with controls with similar BMI values (for both p<0.001). Plasma visfatin and RBP-4 concentrations correlated with BMI, waist/hip ratio, insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)). Visfatin and RBP-4 correlated with visceral fat and liver fat in diabetic patients (for both p<0.001). Visfatin level was increased in T2DM, possibly related to hyperglycemia. Plasma RBP-4 correlated positively with liver fat and HOMA(IR) which may reflect its effects on hepatic insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative Effects of Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on Migration and Invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Cancer, by Gas Type

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Un; Seo, Seong Jin; Kim, Yeon Soo; Shin, Yoo Seob; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Chang Min; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Jong-Soo; Moon, Eunpyo; Kang, Hami; Ryeo, Jeong Beom; Lee, Yuijina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The fourth state of matter, plasma is known as an ionized gas with electrons, radicals and ions. The use of non-thermal plasma (NTP) in cancer research became possible because of the progresses in plasma medicine. Previous studies on the potential NTP-mediated cancer therapy have mainly concentrated on cancer cell apoptosis. In the present study, we compared the inhibitory effect of NTP on cell migration and invasion in the oral squamous cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods We used oral squamous cancer cell lines (SCC1483, MSKQLL1) and different gases (N2, He, and Ar). To investigate the mechanism of plasma treatment, using different gases (N2, He, and Ar) which induces anti-migration and anti-invasion properties, we performed wound healing assay, invasion assay and gelatin zymography. Results The results showed that NTP inhibits cancer cell migration and invasion of oral squamous cancer cell. In addition, focal adhesion kinase expression and matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activity were also inhibited. Conclusion The suppression of cancer cell invasion by NTP varied depending on the type of gas. Comparison of the three gases revealed that N2 NTP inhibited cell migration and invasion most potently via decreased expression of focal adhesion kinase and matrix metalloproteinase activity. PMID:28120556

  19. [Correlation between plasma concentrations of homocysteine and diabetic polyneuropathy evaluated with the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Molina, Mercedes; Gonzalez, Ricardo; Folgado, José; Real, José T; Martínez-Hervás, Sergio; Priego, Antonia; Lorente, Rosario; Chaves, F Javier; Ascaso, Juan F

    2013-11-02

    Few modifiable risk factors are known to be associated with the presence and progression of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). We have analyzed in 405 type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects (169 women) the association of plasma homocysteine with the presence of DPN measured with the Semmes-Weinstein (SW) monofilament test. A score below 4 was considered an altered SW monofilament test. Plasma homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured using standard procedures (ELISA). Patients with T2DM with altered SW test have significantly higher age, evolution of disease, HbA1c and lower creatinine clearance values. In addition, plasma homocysteine values were independently and significantly higher in T2DM with DPN measured as altered SW test (13.64 ± 4.93 vs. 12.22 ± 4.48 μmol/l, P<.01) with similar vitamin B12 and folic acid values comparing the 2 groups. Plasma homocysteine and HbA1c values are the 2 modifiable biological factors associated with the presence of DPN evaluated as an altered SW monofilament test in T2DM subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Anomalous resistivity effect on multiple ion beam emission and hard x-ray generation in a Mather type plasma focus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behbahani, R. A.; Aghamir, F. M.

    2011-10-01

    Multi ion beam and hard x-ray emissions were detected in a high inductance (more than 100 nH) Mather type plasma focus (PF) device at different filling gas pressures and charging voltages. The signal analysis was performed through the current trace, as it is the fundamental signal from which all of the phenomena in a PF device can be extracted. Two different fitting processes were carried out according to Lee's computational (snow-plow) model. In the first process, only plasma dynamics and classical (Spitzer) resistances were considered as energy consumer parameters for plasma. This led to an unsuccessful fitting and did not answer the energy transfer mechanism into plasma. A second fitting process was considered through the addition of anomalous resistance, which provided the best fit. Anomalous resistance was the source of long decrease in current trace, and multi dips and multi peaks of high voltage probe. Multi-peak features were interpreted considering the second fitting process along with the mechanisms for ion beam production and hard x-ray emission. To show the important role of the anomalous resistance, the duration of the current drop was discussed.

  1. A short-term evaluation of the relationship between plasma ascorbic acid levels and periodontal disease in systemically healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Neeraja H; Acharya, Anirudh B; Patil, Vidya S; Trivedi, Dheeraj J; Thakur, Srinath L

    2013-06-01

    Deficient ascorbic acid levels (AALs) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with periodontal disease. This study evaluated the relationship between plasma AAL and periodontitis in systemically healthy and T2DM subjects, which to the best of our knowledge is being reported for the first time. One hundred twenty subjects were categorized into four groups of 30 each as group 1: without periodontal disease; group 2: chronic gingivitis; group 3: chronic periodontitis, and group 4: chronic periodontitis and freshly diagnosed T2DM. Plaque index (PlI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and probing pocket depths (PPDs) were evaluated. Venous blood was evaluated for plasma AAL spectrophotometrically. Randomized subjects were subgrouped within groups 2-4, to receive either scaling and root planing (SRP) with dietary supplementation (450 mg) of ascorbic acid (AA) for two weeks or only SRP. After two weeks, the clinical parameters were reassessed. Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures and paired t test were used with the level of statistical significance adjusted to p ≤ .05. AAL plasma levels were significantly greater in group 1 than in group 2 (p = .0007) and in group 4 (p = .0003). A significant reduction in the SBI was seen in the subgroups that received dietary supplementation of vitamin C within group 2 (p = .0012) and group 4 (p = .036). Plasma AAL is below the normal range in systemically healthy subjects with gingivitis and diabetics with periodontitis. Dietary AA supplementation with SRP improves the SBI in subjects with gingivitis and diabetics with periodontitis.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Complex plasma: dusts in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Osamu

    2007-04-01

    Dust particles in a plasma are charged negatively and are subject to various types of forces, including a drag force by plasma particles and a force due to the collective nature of a plasma. Dust particles are found in a sheath in laboratories balanced by the gravitational force and the electric force, while dust particles in space are ubiquitous, including planetary magnetospheres and interstellar space. Because of the novel nature of a complex system involving plasma particles and dust particles in a collective way, the dusty plasma is often called a complex plasma. The complex plasma is characterized by two distinctly different scales in time and in space. The plasma with electrons, ions and neutrals is characterized by the collective motion with a fast time scale and a short wavelength, while the dust particles move in a slow time scale and a long spatial scale. Some fundamental aspects of a complex plasma are reviewed and possible applications are discussed.

  3. Plasma concentrations of trans fatty acids in persons with Type 2 diabetes between September 2002 and April 2004

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TransFatty acids (TFAs) increase cardiovascular disease risk. TFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the food supply may be declining, with reciprocal increases in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs). We sought to determine whether plasma 18-carbon TFA a...

  4. Increased Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) Levels in Plasma of Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Ventorp, Filip; Gustafsson, Anna; Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Westrin, Åsa; Ljunggren, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    The soluble form of the urokinase receptor, suPAR, has been suggested as a novel biomarker of low-grade inflammation. Activation of the immune system has been proposed to contribute to the development of depression and suicidal behavior. In order to identify depressed and suicidal individuals who could benefit from an anti-inflammatory treatment, a reliable biomarker of low-grade inflammation is vital. This study evaluates plasma suPAR levels as a biomarker of low-grade inflammation in patients with major depressive disorder and in patients who recently attempted suicide. The plasma suPAR and an established biomarker, C reactive protein (CRP) of suicide attempters (n = 54), depressed patients (n = 19) and healthy controls (n = 19) was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The biomarker attributes of sensitivity and sensibility were evaluated using ROC curve analysis. Both the depressed patients and suicide attempters had increased plasma suPAR. The levels of suPAR discriminated better between controls and suicide attempters than did CRP. In the future, plasma suPAR might be a superior prognosticator regarding outcome of treatment applying conventional antidepressants in conjunction with anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:26451727

  5. Mechanism and comparison of needle-type non-thermal direct and indirect atmospheric pressure plasma jets on the degradation of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attri, Pankaj; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Park, Ji Hoon; Lingamdinne, Lakshmi Prasanna; Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Shiratani, Masaharu; Choi, Eun Ha; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-10-01

    Purified water supply for human use, agriculture and industry is the major global priority nowadays. The advanced oxidation process based on atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been used for purification of wastewater, although the underlying mechanisms of degradation of organic pollutants are still unknown. In this study we employ two needle-type atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jets, i.e., indirect (ID-APPJ) and direct (D-APPJ) jets operating at Ar feed gas, for the treatment of methylene blue, methyl orange and congo red dyes, for two different times (i.e., 20 min and 30 min). Specifically, we study the decolorization/degradation of all three dyes using the above mentioned plasma sources, by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC and a density meter. We also employ mass spectroscopy to verify whether only decolorization or also degradation takes place after treatment of the dyes by the NTP jets. Additionally, we analyze the interaction of OH radicals with all three dyes using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, based on the density functional-tight binding method. This investigation represents the first report on the degradation of these three different dyes by two types of NTP setups, analyzed by various methods, and based on both experimental and computational studies.

  6. Ligand-regulated transport of the Menkes copper P-type ATPase efflux pump from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane: a novel mechanism of regulated trafficking.

    PubMed

    Petris, M J; Mercer, J F; Culvenor, J G; Lockhart, P; Gleeson, P A; Camakaris, J

    1996-11-15

    The Menkes P-type ATPase (MNK), encoded by the Menkes gene (MNK; ATP7A), is a transmembrane copper-translocating pump which is defective in the human disorder of copper metabolism, Menkes disease. Recent evidence that the MNK P-type ATPase has a role in copper efflux has come from studies using copper-resistant variants of cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. These variants have MNK gene amplification and consequently overexpress MNK, the extents of which correlate with the degree of elevated copper efflux. Here, we report on the localization of MNK in these copper-resistant CHO cells when cultured in different levels of copper. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that MNK is predominantly localized to the Golgi apparatus of cells in basal medium. In elevated copper conditions there was a rapid trafficking of MNK from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. This shift in steady-state distribution of MNK was reversible and not dependent on new protein synthesis. In media containing basal copper, MNK accumulated in cytoplasmic vesicles after treatment of cells with a variety of agents that inhibit endosomal recycling. We suggest that MNK continuously recycles between the Golgi and the plasma membrane and elevated copper shifts the steady-state distribution from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. These data reveal a novel system of regulated protein trafficking which ultimately leads to the efflux of an essential yet potentially toxic ligand, where the ligand itself appears directly and specifically to stimulate the trafficking of its own transporter.

  7. Mechanism and comparison of needle-type non-thermal direct and indirect atmospheric pressure plasma jets on the degradation of dyes

    PubMed Central

    Attri, Pankaj; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Park, Ji Hoon; Lingamdinne, Lakshmi Prasanna; Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Shiratani, Masaharu; Choi, Eun Ha; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-01-01

    Purified water supply for human use, agriculture and industry is the major global priority nowadays. The advanced oxidation process based on atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been used for purification of wastewater, although the underlying mechanisms of degradation of organic pollutants are still unknown. In this study we employ two needle-type atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jets, i.e., indirect (ID-APPJ) and direct (D-APPJ) jets operating at Ar feed gas, for the treatment of methylene blue, methyl orange and congo red dyes, for two different times (i.e., 20 min and 30 min). Specifically, we study the decolorization/degradation of all three dyes using the above mentioned plasma sources, by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC and a density meter. We also employ mass spectroscopy to verify whether only decolorization or also degradation takes place after treatment of the dyes by the NTP jets. Additionally, we analyze the interaction of OH radicals with all three dyes using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, based on the density functional-tight binding method. This investigation represents the first report on the degradation of these three different dyes by two types of NTP setups, analyzed by various methods, and based on both experimental and computational studies. PMID:27708352

  8. Mechanism and comparison of needle-type non-thermal direct and indirect atmospheric pressure plasma jets on the degradation of dyes.

    PubMed

    Attri, Pankaj; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Park, Ji Hoon; Lingamdinne, Lakshmi Prasanna; Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Shiratani, Masaharu; Choi, Eun Ha; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-10-06

    Purified water supply for human use, agriculture and industry is the major global priority nowadays. The advanced oxidation process based on atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been used for purification of wastewater, although the underlying mechanisms of degradation of organic pollutants are still unknown. In this study we employ two needle-type atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jets, i.e., indirect (ID-APPJ) and direct (D-APPJ) jets operating at Ar feed gas, for the treatment of methylene blue, methyl orange and congo red dyes, for two different times (i.e., 20 min and 30 min). Specifically, we study the decolorization/degradation of all three dyes using the above mentioned plasma sources, by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC and a density meter. We also employ mass spectroscopy to verify whether only decolorization or also degradation takes place after treatment of the dyes by the NTP jets. Additionally, we analyze the interaction of OH radicals with all three dyes using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, based on the density functional-tight binding method. This investigation represents the first report on the degradation of these three different dyes by two types of NTP setups, analyzed by various methods, and based on both experimental and computational studies.

  9. Plasma endothelin-1 and single nucleotide polymorphisms of endothelin-1 and endothelin type A receptor genes as risk factors for normal tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kosior-Jarecka, Ewa; Łukasik, Urszula; Aung, Tin; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Kocki, Janusz; Żarnowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of endothelin and endothelin receptor type A genes can constitute a risk factor for normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and high tension glaucoma (HTG). Methods The study included 160 patients with NTG, 124 patients with HTG, and 165 healthy controls. To analyze the frequency of polymorphic variants of the endothelin EDN gene (K198N) and the endothelin receptor type A gene EDN RA (C1222T, C70G, G231A), DNA was isolated from peripheral blood, and SNP genotyping was performed using the real-time PCR (RT–PCR) method. Plasma endothelin (ET) concentrations were detected using an enzyme immunoassay. Endothelin levels were compared with genotype and allele distributions, patients’ clinical status, and various risk factors for NTG. Results There was a significant difference between the patients with NTG and HTG and the controls (p = 0.035, p = 0.008) regarding the genotype of the C1222T and C70G polymorphism. Plasma concentrations of ET did not differ between the NTG and HTG groups, and no significant correlation with intraocular pressure (IOP), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and the cup to disc ratio (c/d ratio) was seen in patients with NTG. Plasma endothelin levels showed a noticeably positive correlation with age in the NTG group (R = 0.249, p = 0.042). Higher endothelin levels corresponded to more advanced visual field damage. No statistical difference was observed between variant genotypes of K198N and the ET-1 plasma concentration in patients with NTG, whereas a slightly higher ET level was observed in the patients with HTG with the GT genotype in comparison to those with the GG genotype (p = 0.001). The C1222T polymorphism significantly affected the plasma ET level in patients with NTG. The TT genotype carriers had the highest ET level, and the CC genotype carriers the lowest (p = 0.034). The AA variant genotype of the G231A polymorphism exhibited the highest

  10. Comparative effects of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone on plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Oz Gul, Ozen; Tuncel, Ercan; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Ulukaya, Engin; Gul, Cuma Bulent; Kiyici, Sinem; Oral, Arzu Yilmaztepe; Guclu, Metin; Ersoy, Canan; Imamoglu, Sazi

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) have been associated with the occurrence of vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Preliminary evidence has suggested that thiazolidinediones have the ability to modulate circulating levels of this molecule in the hyperglycemic milieu. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the differential effect of 2 different thiazolidinediones-pioglitazone and rosiglitazone-on plasma levels of sRAGE in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Sixty type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects were randomly assigned to receive pioglitazone (30 mg/d, n = 19), rosiglitazone (4 mg/d, n = 20), or placebo (medical nutrition therapy, n = 21) for 12 weeks. Changes in plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and sRAGE were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, the pioglitazone (P < .001) group had a significant increase from baseline in sRAGE values that was not seen in the medical nutrition therapy and rosiglitazone groups. We conclude that, in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, pioglitazone-but not rosiglitazone-significantly raised sRAGE, which may contribute to its antiatherogenic effects.

  11. Evaluation of the VACUTAINER PPT Plasma Preparation Tube for Use with the Bayer VERSANT Assay for Quantification of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA

    PubMed Central

    Elbeik, Tarek; Nassos, Patricia; Kipnis, Patricia; Haller, Barbara; Ng, Valerie L.

    2005-01-01

    Separation and storage of plasma within 2 h of phlebotomy is required for the VACUTAINER PPT Plasma Preparation Tube (PPT) versus 4 h for the predecessor VACUTAINER EDTA tube for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load (HIVL) testing by the VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 3.0 assay (branched DNA). The 2-h limit for PPT imposes time constraints for handling and transporting to the testing laboratory. This study compares HIVL reproducibility from matched blood in EDTA tubes and PPTs and between PPT pairs following processing within 4 h of phlebotomy, stability of plasma HIV-1 RNA at 24- and 72-h room temperature storage in the tube, and comparative labor and supply requirements. Blood from 159 patients was collected in paired tubes (EDTA/PPT or PPT/PPT): 86 paired EDTA tubes and PPTs were processed 4 h following phlebotomy and their HIVLs were compared, 42 paired PPT/PPT pairs were analyzed for intertube HIVL reproducibility, and 31 PPT/PPT pairs were analyzed for HIV-1 RNA stability by HIVL. Labor and supply requirements were compared between PPT and EDTA tubes. PPTs produce results equivalent to standard EDTA tube results when processed 4 h after phlebotomy. PPT intertube analyte results are reproducible. An average decrease of 13% and 37% in HIVL was observed in PPT plasma after 24 and 72 h of room temperature storage, respectively; thus, plasma can be stored at room temperature up to 24 h in the original tube. PPTs offer labor and supply savings over EDTA tubes. PMID:16081908

  12. Improved insulin sensitivity after exercise training is linked to reduced plasma C14:0 ceramide in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kasumov, Takhar; Solomon, Thomas P J; Hwang, Calvin; Huang, Hazel; Haus, Jacob M; Zhang, Renliang; Kirwan, John P

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effect of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and plasma ceramides in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Twenty-four adults with obesity and normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 14) or diabetes (n = 10) were studied before and after a 12-week supervised exercise-training program (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 80-85% of maximum heart rate). Changes in body composition were assessed using hydrostatic weighing and computed tomography. Peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity was assessed by a 40 mU/m(2) /min hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Plasma ceramides (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C20:0, C24:0, and C24:1) were quantified using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after separation with HPLC. Plasma ceramides were similar for the subjects with obesity and NGT and the subjects with diabetes, despite differences in glucose tolerance. Exercise significantly reduced body weight and adiposity and increased peripheral insulin sensitivity in both groups (P < 0.05). In addition, plasma C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, and C24:0 ceramide levels were reduced in all subjects following the intervention (P < 0.05). Decreases in total (r = -0.51, P = 0.02) and C14:0 (r = -0.56, P = 0.009) ceramide were negatively correlated with the increase in insulin sensitivity. Ceramides are linked to exercise training-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity, and plasma C14:0 ceramide may provide a specific target for investigating lipid-related insulin resistance in obesity and T2D. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  13. Evaluation of the VACUTAINER PPT Plasma Preparation Tube for use with the Bayer VERSANT assay for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA.

    PubMed

    Elbeik, Tarek; Nassos, Patricia; Kipnis, Patricia; Haller, Barbara; Ng, Valerie L

    2005-08-01

    Separation and storage of plasma within 2 h of phlebotomy is required for the VACUTAINER PPT Plasma Preparation Tube (PPT) versus 4 h for the predecessor VACUTAINER EDTA tube for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load (HIVL) testing by the VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 3.0 assay (branched DNA). The 2-h limit for PPT imposes time constraints for handling and transporting to the testing laboratory. This study compares HIVL reproducibility from matched blood in EDTA tubes and PPTs and between PPT pairs following processing within 4 h of phlebotomy, stability of plasma HIV-1 RNA at 24- and 72-h room temperature storage in the tube, and comparative labor and supply requirements. Blood from 159 patients was collected in paired tubes (EDTA/PPT or PPT/PPT): 86 paired EDTA tubes and PPTs were processed 4 h following phlebotomy and their HIVLs were compared, 42 paired PPT/PPT pairs were analyzed for intertube HIVL reproducibility, and 31 PPT/PPT pairs were analyzed for HIV-1 RNA stability by HIVL. Labor and supply requirements were compared between PPT and EDTA tubes. PPTs produce results equivalent to standard EDTA tube results when processed 4 h after phlebotomy. PPT intertube analyte results are reproducible. An average decrease of 13% and 37% in HIVL was observed in PPT plasma after 24 and 72 h of room temperature storage, respectively; thus, plasma can be stored at room temperature up to 24 h in the original tube. PPTs offer labor and supply savings over EDTA tubes.

  14. Improved Insulin Sensitivity After Exercise Training is Linked to Reduced Plasma C14:0 Ceramide in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kasumov, Takhar; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Hwang, Calvin; Huang, Hazel; Haus, Jacob M.; Zhang, Renliang; Kirwan, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and plasma ceramides in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Twenty-four adults with obesity and normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=14), or diabetes (n=10) were studied before and after a 12-week supervised exercise-training program (5 d/wk, 1 hr/d, 80–85% of maximum heart rate). Changes in body composition were assessed using hydrostatic weighing and computed tomography. Peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity was assessed by a 40 mU/m2/min hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Plasma ceramides (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C20:0, C24:0 and C24:1) were quantified using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after separation with HPLC. Results Plasma ceramides were similar for the obese NGT and subjects with diabetes, despite differences in glucose tolerance. Exercise significantly reduced body weight and adiposity, and increased peripheral insulin sensitivity in both groups (P<0.05). In addition, plasma C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, and C24:0 ceramide levels were reduced in all subjects following the intervention (P<0.05). Decreases in total (r=-0.51, P=0.02) and C14:0 (r=-0.56, P=0.009) ceramide were negatively correlated with the increase in insulin sensitivity. Conclusion Ceramides are linked to exercise training-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity, and plasma C14:0 ceramide may provide a specific target for investigating lipid-related insulin resistance in obesity and T2D. PMID:25966363

  15. Plasma activity of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with biventricular heart failure versus those with right heart failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Flessas, Nikolaos; Alexanian, Ioannis; Parissis, John; Kremastinos, Dimitrios; Lekakis, John; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2014-06-01

    Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is an established prognostic indicator in patients with left ventricular systolic heart failure (LHF). However, no efficient data exist regarding the differences in plasma BNP activity between patients with biventricular heart failure and those with right heart failure (RHF) due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study investigates BNP in RHF due to COPD in comparison to RHF due to LHF, and estimates the relation of BNP levels with clinical and echocardiographic parameters. We evaluated plasma BNP in 88 patients admitted to hospital with acutely decompensated chronic heart failure (31 with RHF due to LHF, 30 with RHF due to COPD without left heart disease, and 27 with LHF without right ventricular involvement). All patients underwent echocardiography examination and blood samples were collected to determine BNP and routine blood chemistry measurements. Plasma BNP levels were significantly higher in RHF due to LHF compared with RHF due to COPD (P <0.001). Plasma BNP did not appear to differ between RHF due to LHF and LHF alone (P = 0.802). In multiple linear regression analysis, tissue Doppler imaging e(LV) (B: -0.053, P = 0.002) and e(RV) (B: -0.079, P = 0.007) had an independent negative association with BNP, whereas logUrea (B: 0.635, P < 0.001) and hematocrit (B: 0.014, P = 0.005) showed an independent positive association with BNP levels in the group of RHF due to COPD. BNP levels were significantly lower in RHF due to COPD compared with RHF due to LHF and were independently predicted by indices of left ventricular and right ventricular diastolic function, renal function, and anemia.

  16. Design a 10 kJ IS Mather Type Plasma Focus for Solid Target Activation to Produce Short-Lived Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Adlparvar, S.; Sheibani, S.; Elahi, M.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Zirak, A. R.; Alhooie, S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Khalaj, M. M.; Khanchi, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Kashani, A.; Zahedi, F.

    2010-10-01

    A 10 kJ (15 kV, 88 μF) IS (Iranian Sun) Mather type plasma focus device has been studied to determine the activity of a compound exogenous carbon solid target through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The produced 13N is a short-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 9.97 min and threshold energy of 0.28 MeV. The results indicate that energetic deuterons impinging on the solid target can produce yield of = 6.7 × 10-5 with an activity of A = 6.8 × 104 Bq for one plasma focus shut and A ν = 4 × 105 Bq for 6 shut per mint when the projectile maximum deuterons energy is E max = 3 MeV.

  17. Hydrogen plasma treatment of very thin p-type nanocrystalline Si films grown by RF-PECVD in the presence of B(CH3)3

    PubMed Central

    Filonovich, Sergej Alexandrovich; Águas, Hugo; Busani, Tito; Vicente, António; Araújo, Andreia; Gaspar, Diana; Vilarigues, Marcia; Leitão, Joaquim; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    We have characterized the structure and electrical properties of p-type nanocrystalline silicon films prepared by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and explored optimization methods of such layers for potential applications in thin-film solar cells. Particular attention was paid to the characterization of very thin (∼20 nm) films. The cross-sectional morphology of the layers was studied by fitting the ellipsometry spectra using a multilayer model. The results suggest that the crystallization process in a high-pressure growth regime is mostly realized through a subsurface mechanism in the absence of the incubation layer at the substrate-film interface. Hydrogen plasma treatment of a 22-nm-thick film improved its electrical properties (conductivity increased more than ten times) owing to hydrogen insertion and Si structure rearrangements throughout the entire thickness of the film. PMID:27877504

  18. Effects of hyperlipidaemia on plasma apolipoprotein M levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: an independent case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Puhong; Gao, Jialin; Pu, Chun; Feng, Gang; Wang, Lizhuo; Huang, Lizhu; Tao, Qingsong; Zhang, Yao

    2016-09-15

    Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is mainly enriched in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and is slightly present in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. apoM is involved in HDL formation and HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. apoM is also associated with hyperlipidaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Significantly high plasma apoM levels are detected in hyperlipidaemia mice with a defective LDL receptor. By contrast, low plasma apoM levels are observed in patients with T2DM, which is often accompanied with hyperlipidaemia. However, the underlying mechanism of this condition is poorly understood. This research aims to examine the changes in apoM levels in patients with hyperlipidaemia and to determine the effects of hyperlipidaemia on plasma apoM levels in patients with T2DM. This study included patients with hyperlipidaemia (n = 79), patients with T2DM but without hyperlipidaemia (n = 125), patients with T2DM and hyperlipidaemia (n = 98), and healthy controls (n = 105). Their plasma apoM concentrations were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The average plasma apoM concentrations were 18 % higher in the hyperlipidaemia group (26.63 ± 10.35 ng/μL) than in the healthy controls (22.61 ± 10.81 ng/μL, P <0.01). The plasma apoM concentrations were lower in the T2DM without hyperlipidaemia group (18.54 ± 10.33 ng/μL, P <0.01) and the T2DM with hyperlipidaemia group (19.83 ± 7.41 ng/μL, P <0.05) than in the healthy controls. Similar to apoA-I (1.29 ± 0.33 g/L vs. 1.28 ± 0.31 g/L, P >0.05), the plasma apoM concentrations in the T2DM with hyperlipidaemia group did not significantly differ from those in the T2DM without hyperlipidaemia group (P >0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that hyperlipidaemia (β = 5.18, P = 0.007) is an independent promoting factor of plasma apoM levels and diabetes (β = -3.09, P

  19. The effects of different plasma insulin concentrations on lipolytic and ketogenic responses to epinephrine in normal and type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic humans.

    PubMed

    Avogaro, A; Valerio, A; Gnudi, L; Maran, A; Miola, M; Duner, E; Marescotti, C; Iori, E; Tiengo, A; Nosadini, R

    1992-02-01

    This study was performed to verify: (1) the ability of different insulin concentrations to restrict the lipolytic and ketogenic responses to exogenous epinephrine administration; (2) whether the ability of insulin to suppress the lipolytic and ketogenic responses during epinephrine administration is impaired in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Each subject was infused on separate occasions with insulin at rates of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mU.kg-1.min-1 while normoglycaemic. To avoid indirect adrenergic effects on endocrine pancreas secretions, the so-called "islet clamp" technique was used. Rates of appearance of palmitic acid, acetoacetate, and 3-hydroxybutyrate were simultaneously measured with an infusion of 13C-labelled homologous tracers. After a baseline observation period epinephrine was exogenously administered at a rate of 16 ng.kg-1.min-1. At low insulin levels (20 microU/ml) the lipolytic response of comparable magnitude was detected in normal and Type 1 diabetic patients. However, the ketogenic response was significantly higher in Type 1 diabetic patients. During epinephrine administration, similar plasma glucose increments were observed in the two groups (from 4.74 +/- 0.53 to 7.16 +/- 0.77 mmol/l (p less than 0.05) in Type 1 diabetic patients and from 4.94 +/- 0.20 to 7.11 +/- 0.38 mmol/l (p less than 0.05) in normal subjects, respectively). At intermediate insulin levels (35 microU/ml) no significant differences were found between Type 1 diabetic patients and normal subjects, whereas plasma glucose levels rose from 4.98 +/- 0.30 to 6.27 +/- 0.66 mmol/l (p less than 0.05) in Type 1 diabetic patients, and from 5.05 +/- 0.13 to 6.61 +/- 0.22 mmol/l (p less than 0.05) in normal subjects. At high insulin levels (70 microU/ml) the lipolytic response was detectable only in Type 1 diabetic patients; the ketogenic response was reduced in both groups. During the third clamp, a significant rise in plasma glucose concentration during epinephrine infusion

  20. Plasma acylcarnitine profiles suggest incomplete long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation and altered tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in type 2 diabetic African-American women.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sean H; Hoppel, Charles L; Lok, Kerry H; Zhao, Ling; Wong, Scott W; Minkler, Paul E; Hwang, Daniel H; Newman, John W; Garvey, W Timothy

    2009-06-01

    Inefficient muscle long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion is associated with insulin resistance, but molecular links between mitochondrial fat catabolism and insulin action remain controversial. We hypothesized that plasma acylcarnitine profiling would identify distinct metabolite patterns reflective of muscle fat catabolism when comparing individuals bearing a missense G304A uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 g/a) polymorphism to controls, because UCP3 is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and g/a individuals have reduced whole-body fat oxidation. MS analyses of 42 carnitine moieties in plasma samples from fasting type 2 diabetics (n = 44) and nondiabetics (n = 12) with or without the UCP3 g/a polymorphism (n = 28/genotype: 22 diabetic, 6 nondiabetic/genotype) were conducted. Contrary to our hypothesis, genotype had a negligible impact on plasma metabolite patterns. However, a comparison of nondiabetics vs. type 2 diabetics revealed a striking increase in the concentrations of fatty acylcarnitines reflective of incomplete LCFA beta-oxidation in the latter (i.e. summed C10- to C14-carnitine concentrations were approximately 300% of controls; P = 0.004). Across all volunteers (n = 56), acetylcarnitine rose and propionylcarnitine decreased with increasing hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.544, P < 0.0001; and r = -0.308, P < 0.05, respectively) and with increasing total plasma acylcarnitine concentration. In proof-of-concept studies, we made the novel observation that C12-C14 acylcarnitines significantly stimulated nuclear factor kappa-B activity (up to 200% of controls) in RAW264.7 cells. These results are consistent with the working hypothesis that inefficient tissue LCFA beta-oxidation, due in part to a relatively low tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity, increases tissue accumulation of acetyl-CoA and generates chain-shortened acylcarnitine molecules that activate proinflammatory pathways implicated in insulin resistance.

  1. Interaction of macroparticles localized in Wigner-Seitz cells of various types of cubic lattices in an equilibrium plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The interaction of two charged point macroparticles located in Wigner-Seitz cells of simple cubic (SC), body-centered cubic (BCC), or face-centered cubic (FCC) lattices in an equilibrium plasma has been studied within the Debye approximation or, more specifically, based on the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann model. The shape of the outer boundary is shown to exert a strong influence on the pattern of electrostatic interaction between the two macroparticles, which transforms from repulsion at small interparticle distances to attraction as the interparticle distance approaches half the length of the computational cell. The macroparticle pair interaction potential in an equilibrium plasma is shown to be nevertheless the Debye one and purely repulsive for likely charged macroparticles.

  2. Interaction of macroparticles localized in Wigner–Seitz cells of various types of cubic lattices in an equilibrium plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Filippov, A. V.

    2016-10-15

    The interaction of two charged point macroparticles located in Wigner–Seitz cells of simple cubic (SC), body-centered cubic (BCC), or face-centered cubic (FCC) lattices in an equilibrium plasma has been studied within the Debye approximation or, more specifically, based on the linearized Poisson–Boltzmann model. The shape of the outer boundary is shown to exert a strong influence on the pattern of electrostatic interaction between the two macroparticles, which transforms from repulsion at small interparticle distances to attraction as the interparticle distance approaches half the length of the computational cell. The macroparticle pair interaction potential in an equilibrium plasma is shown to be nevertheless the Debye one and purely repulsive for likely charged macroparticles.

  3. Immunolocalization of plasma-membrane H+-ATPase and tonoplast-type pyrophosphatase in the plasma membrane of the sieve element-companion cell complex in the stem of Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Langhans, M; Ratajczak, R; Lützelschwab, M; Michalke, W; Wächter, R; Fischer-Schliebs, E; Ullrich, C I

    2001-05-01

    Plasma-membrane-located primary pumps were investigated in the sieve element (SE)-companion cell complex in the transport phloem of 2-week-old stems of Ricinus communis L. and, for comparison, in stems of Cucurbita pepo L. and in the secondary phloem of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced crown galls as a typical sink tissue. The plasma-membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and the tonoplast-type pyrophosphatase (PPase) were immunolocalized by epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) upon single or double labeling with specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Quantitative fluorescence evaluation by CLSM revealed both pumps in one membrane, the sieve-element PM. Different PM H+-ATPase antibody clones, raised against the PM H+-ATPase of Zea mays coleoptiles, induced in mouse and produced in mouse hybridoma cells, discriminated between different phloem cell types. Clones 30D5C4 and 44B8A1 labeled sieve elements and clone 46E5B11D5 labeled companion cells, indicating the existence of different phloem PM H+-ATPase isoforms. The results are discussed in terms of energization of SE transporters for retrieval of leaking sucrose, K+ and amino acids, as one of the unknown roles of ATP found in SEs. The function of the PPase could be related to phloem sucrose metabolism in support of ATP-requiring processes.

  4. Deep Chandra Observations of NGC 1404: Cluster Plasma Physics Revealed by an Infalling Early-type Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Kraft, Ralph P.; Roediger, Elke; Nulsen, Paul; Forman, William R.; Churazov, Eugene; Randall, Scott W.; Jones, Christine; Machacek, Marie E.

    2017-01-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM), as a magnetized and highly ionized fluid, provides an ideal laboratory to study plasma physics under extreme conditions that cannot be achieved on Earth. NGC 1404 is a bright elliptical galaxy that is being gas stripped as it falls through the ICM of the Fornax Cluster. We use the new Chandra X-ray observations of NGC 1404 to study ICM microphysics. The interstellar medium of NGC 1404 is characterized by a sharp leading edge, 8 kpc from the Galaxy center, and a short downstream gaseous tail. Contact discontinuities are resolved on unprecedented spatial scales (0.″5 = 45 pc) due to the combination of the proximity of NGC 1404, the superb spatial resolution of Chandra, and the very deep (670 ks) exposure. At the leading edge, we observe sub-kiloparsec-scale eddies generated by Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) and put an upper limit of 5% Spitzer on the isotropic viscosity of the hot cluster plasma. We also observe mixing between the hot cluster gas and the cooler galaxy gas in the downstream stripped tail, which provides further evidence of a low viscosity plasma. The assumed ordered magnetic fields in the ICM ought to be smaller than 5 μG to allow KHI to develop. The lack of an evident magnetic draping layer just outside the contact edge is consistent with such an upper limit.

  5. Decreased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 plasma viremia during antiretroviral therapy reflects downregulation of viral replication in lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, O J; Pantaleo, G; Holodniy, M; Schnittman, S; Niu, M; Graziosi, C; Pavlakis, G N; Lalezari, J; Bartlett, J A; Steigbigel, R T

    1995-01-01

    Although several immunologic and virologic markers measured in peripheral blood are useful for predicting accelerated progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, their validity for evaluating the response to antiretroviral therapy and their ability to accurately reflect changes in lymphoid organs remain unclear. In the present study, changes in certain virologic markers have been analyzed in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue during antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-infected individuals who were receiving antiretroviral therapy with zidovudine for > or = 6 months were randomly assigned either to continue on zidovudine alone or to add didanosine for 8 weeks. Lymph node biopsies were performed at baseline and after 8 weeks. Viral burden (i.e., HIV DNA copies per 10(6) mononuclear cells) and virus replication in mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood and lymph node and plasma viremia were determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. Virologic and immunologic markers remained unchanged in peripheral blood and lymph node of patients who continued on zidovudine alone. In contrast, a decrease in virus replication in lymph nodes was observed in four of six patients who added didanosine to their regimen, and this was associated with a decrease in plasma viremia. These results indicate that decreases in plasma viremia detected during antiretroviral therapy reflect downregulation of virus replication in lymphoid tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7597072

  6. A membrane-anchored E-type endo-1,4-β-glucanase is localized on Golgi and plasma membranes of higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Brummell, David A.; Catala, Carmen; Lashbrook, Coralie C.; Bennett, Alan B.

    1997-01-01

    Endo-1,4-β-d-glucanases (EGases, EC 3.2.1.4) are enzymes produced in bacteria, fungi, and plants that hydrolyze polysaccharides possessing a 1,4-β-d-glucan backbone. All previously identified plant EGases are E-type endoglucanases that possess signal sequences for endoplasmic reticulum entry and are secreted to the cell wall. Here we report the characterization of a novel E-type plant EGase (tomato Cel3) with a hydrophobic transmembrane domain and structure typical of type II integral membrane proteins. The predicted protein is composed of 617 amino acids and possesses seven potential sites for N-glycosylation. Cel3 mRNA accumulates in young vegetative tissues with highest abundance during periods of rapid cell expansion, but is not hormonally regulated. Antibodies raised to a recombinant Cel3 protein specifically recognized three proteins, with apparent molecular masses of 93, 88, and 53 kDa, in tomato root microsomal membranes separated by sucrose density centrifugation. The 53-kDa protein comigrated in the gradient with plasma membrane markers, the 88-kDa protein with Golgi membrane markers, and the 93-kDa protein with markers for both Golgi and plasma membranes. EGase enzyme activity was also found in regions of the density gradient corresponding to both Golgi and plasma membranes, suggesting that Cel3 EGase resides in both membrane systems, the sites of cell wall polymer biosynthesis. The in vivo function of Cel3 is not known, but the only other known membrane-anchored EGase is present in Agrobacterium tumefaciens where it is required for cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:9114071

  7. Differences in the prospective association between individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Forouhi, Nita G; Koulman, Albert; Sharp, Stephen J; Imamura, Fumiaki; Kröger, Janine; Schulze, Matthias B; Crowe, Francesca L; Huerta, José María; Guevara, Marcela; Beulens, Joline W J; van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J; Wang, Laura; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L; Feskens, Edith J M; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gonzalez, Carlos; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Quirós, J Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Tjonneland, Anne; Tormo, Maria-José; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2014-10-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding the association between saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and type 2 diabetes. In this longitudinal case-cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prospective associations between objectively measured individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and incident type 2 diabetes in EPIC-InterAct participants. The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study includes 12,403 people with incident type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort of 16,154 individuals who were selected from a cohort of 340.234 European participants with 3·99 million person-years of follow-up (the EPIC study). Incident type 2 diabetes was ascertained until Dec 31, 2007, by a review of several sources of evidence. Gas chromatography was used to measure the distribution of fatty acids in plasma phospholipids (mol%); samples from people with type 2 diabetes and subcohort participants were processed in a random order by centre, and laboratory staff were masked to participant characteristics. We estimated country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for associations per SD of each SFA with incident type 2 diabetes using Prentice-weighted Cox regression, which is weighted for case-cohort sampling, and pooled our findings using random-effects meta-analysis. SFAs accounted for 46% of total plasma phospholipid fatty acids. In adjusted analyses, different individual SFAs were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in opposing directions. Even-chain SFAs that were measured (14:0 [myristic acid], 16:0 [palmitic acid], and 18:0 [stearic acid]) were positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR [95% CI] per SD difference: myristic acid 1·15 [95% CI 1·09-1·22], palmitic acid 1·26 [1·15-1·37], and stearic acid 1·06 [1·00-1·13]). By contrast, measured odd-chain SFAs (15:0 [pentadecanoic acid] and 17:0 [heptadecanoic acid]) were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR [95% CI] per 1 SD difference: 0·79 [0·73-0·85] for pentadecanoic acid and 0·67 [0·63-0·71] for

  8. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode.

    PubMed

    Rieker, G B; Poehlmann, F R; Cappelli, M A

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  9. A GC-MS untargeted metabolomics analysis in the plasma and liver of rats lacking dipeptidyl-peptidase type IV enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Antonio; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cadoni, Erika; Serra, Monica; Marongiu, Fabio; Laconi, Ezio

    2017-09-11

    This study was achieved with the aim to find metabolic changes between Fischer rats with different dipeptidyl peptidase-type 4 (DPPIV) expression. The DPPIV is an enzyme expressed in several tissues and is critically involved in the regulation of meal-related insulin secretion in healthy individuals. The metabolic consequences of chronic DPPIV inhibition were analyzed in a surrogate animal model of genetic enzyme deficiency. Hyphenated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and multivariate data analysis techniques were used to study the metabolic aqueous fraction profile of 18 plasma and liver samples in two syngeneic rat strains differing in DPPIV activity (DPPIV(+) vs. DPPIV(-)). The hyperglycemic response following oral glucose administration was attenuated in DPPIV(-) rats, as expected. Statistical significant differences between the two strains were observed among the low molecular weight polar metabolites analyzed from plasma and liver.These included a decrease in malic acid and glutamine and an increase in pyroglutamic acid, serine, and alanine in plasma of DPPIV(-) rats. In addition, palmitic acid, L-proline, and ribitol were decreased in the liver of DPPIV(-) strain. Such alterations were compatible with a normal phenotype. These results suggest that long-term exposure to DPPIV inhibitors looks compatible with an overall balanced metabolism.

  10. Effects of berberine and pomegranate seed oil on plasma phospholipid metabolites associated with risks of type 2 diabetes mellitus by U-HPLC/Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Li, Yan; Wang, Qiu; Li, Weimin; Feng, Yifan

    2015-12-15

    A rapid and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (U-HPLC/Q-TOF-MS) has been firstly used to analyze the changes of plasma phospholipids, in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice after administration of berberine and pomegranate seed oil (PSO). The separation of plasma phospholipids was carried out on an Acquity U-HPLC BEH C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm, Waters) by linear gradient elution using a mobile phase consisting of 10mM ammonium formate in water and acetonitrile: isopropanol (1:1, v/v) mixed solution added by 0.25% water and 10mM ammonium formate. The method demonstrated a good precision and reproducibility. Linear regression analysis showed a good linearity. And potential biomarkers were discovered based on their mass spectra and chemometrics methods. The results demonstrated that the proposed U-HPLC/Q-TOF-MS method was successfully applied to analyze the dynamic changes of phospholipids components in plasma of T2DM mice after drug treatment and could provide a useful data base for meriting further study in humans and investigating pharmacological actions of drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthetic peptides and fluorogenic substrates related to the reactive site sequence of Kunitz-type inhibitors isolated from Bauhinia: interaction with human plasma kallikrein.

    PubMed

    Oliva, M L; Santomauro-Vaz, E M; Andrade, S A; Juliano, M A; Pott, V J; Sampaio, M U; Sampaio, C A

    2001-01-01

    We have previously described Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitors purified from Bauhinia seeds. Human plasma kallikrein shows different susceptibility to those inhibitors. In this communication, we describe the interaction of human plasma kallikrein with fluorogenic and non-fluorogenic peptides based on the Bauhinia inhibitors' reactive site. The hydrolysis of the substrate based on the B. variegata inhibitor reactive site sequence, Abz-VVISALPRSVFIQ-EDDnp (Km 1.42 microM, kcat 0.06 s(-1), and kcat/Km 4.23 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)), is more favorable than that of Abz-VMIAALPRTMFIQ-EDDnp, related to the B. ungulata sequence (Km 0.43 microM, kcat 0.00017 s(-1), and kcat/Km 3.9 x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1)). Human plasma kallikrein does not hydrolyze the substrates Abz-RPGLPVRFESPL-EDDnp and Abz-FESPLRINIIKE-EDDnp based on the B. bauhinioides inhibitor reactive site sequence, the most effective inhibitor of the enzyme. These peptides are competitive inhibitors with Ki values in the nM range. The synthetic peptide containing 19 amino acids based on the B. bauhinioides inhibitor reactive site (RPGLPVRFESPL) is poorly cleaved by kallikrein. The given substrates are highly specific for trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysis. Other serine proteinases such as factor Xa, factor XII, thrombin and plasmin do not hydrolyze B. bauhinioides inhibitor related substrates.

  12. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide is a useful tool for assessing coronary heart disease risk in a Japanese general population.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takuya; Asakura, Masanori; Eguchi, Kazuo; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Ohara, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Hashimura, Kazuhiko; Tomoike, Hitonobu; Kim, Jiyoong; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular prognosis in a community-based population. In addition, accumulation of individual cardiovascular risk factors is important in predicting an individual's risk of future cardiovascular disease. However, there have been few reports showing that BNP is a comprehensive marker of the accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors. We studied 1530 community-dwelling subjects without obvious heart diseases or renal dysfunction (mean age 62 ± 15 years; 569 men and 961 women) who participated in an annual health checkup in a rural Japanese community. Coronary heart disease (CHD) risk was estimated, and patients were placed into the following three groups based on the Framingham function: low risk, moderate risk and high risk. The prevalence of moderate- and high-risk subjects for CHD rose in both genders with increasing plasma BNP levels. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed a modest ability of plasma BNP levels to detect these subjects (0.755 and 0.700 for men and women, respectively). The optimal thresholds for the identification of subjects with moderate- and high-risk disease were BNP concentrations of 12.0 and 22.0 pg ml(-1), with sensitivities of 70% and 66% and specificities of 71% and 63% for men and women, respectively. In conclusion, subjects with high plasma BNP levels were at higher risk for CHD in a population without obvious heart disease or renal dysfunction.

  13. High Degree of Interlaboratory Reproducibility of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease and Reverse Transcriptase Sequencing of Plasma Samples from Heavily Treated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Robert W.; Hertogs, Kurt; Zolopa, Andrew R.; Warford, Ann; Bloor, Stuart; Betts, Bradley J.; Merigan, Thomas C.; Harrigan, Richard; Larder, Brendon A.

    2001-01-01

    We assessed the reproducibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease sequencing using cryopreserved plasma aliquots obtained from 46 heavily treated HIV-1-infected individuals in two laboratories using dideoxynucleotide sequencing. The rates of complete sequence concordance between the two laboratories were 99.1% for the protease sequence and 99.0% for the RT sequence. Approximately 90% of the discordances were partial, defined as one laboratory detecting a mixture and the second laboratory detecting only one of the mixture's components. Only 0.1% of the nucleotides were completely discordant between the two laboratories, and these were significantly more likely to occur in plasma samples with lower plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Nucleotide mixtures were detected at approximately 1% of the nucleotide positions, and in every case in which one laboratory detected a mixture, the second laboratory either detected the same mixture or detected one of the mixture's components. The high rate of concordance in detecting mixtures and the fact that most discordances between the two laboratories were partial suggest that most discordances were caused by variation in sampling of the HIV-1 quasispecies by PCR rather than by technical errors in the sequencing process itself. PMID:11283081

  14. The association of hs-CRP with fasting and postprandial plasma lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes is disrupted by dietary monounsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bozzetto, L; De Natale, C; Di Capua, L; Della Corte, G; Patti, L; Maione, S; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A; Annuzzi, G

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether two dietary approaches recommended for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular prevention-high-MUFA or complex carbohydrates/fiber-differently influence inflammation. A 4-week crossover study in 12 individuals with type 2 diabetes was performed. Fasting and postprandial hs-CRP plasma levels were not significantly different after a high-carbohydrate/high-fiber/low-glycemic index (CHO/fiber) and a high-MUFA diet. Compared with fasting, hs-CRP levels decreased significantly after the MUFA but not after the CHO/fiber meal. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins were significantly lower after the CHO/fiber than the MUFA diet. At fasting and postprandially, hs-CRP correlated with triglyceride in whole plasma, chylomicrons, small and large VLDL after the CHO/fiber but not after the MUFA diet. In conclusion, a MUFA-rich diet and a carbohydrate/fiber-rich diet induced similar effects on plasma hs-CRP concentrations. However, these dietary approaches seem to influence hs-CRP levels through different mechanisms. i.e., direct acute postprandial effects by MUFA and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins mediated effects by CHO/fiber.

  15. Diagnostic utility of plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein levels in differential diagnosis of pericardial constriction and restrictive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Karaahmet, Tansu; Yilmaz, Fatih; Tigen, Kursat; Mutlu, Bulent; Cevik, Cihan; Basaran, Yelda

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the diagnostic utility of plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT proBNP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the differential diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis (CP) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RC). Twenty-five patients with high clinical suspicion of either CP or RC were enrolled. Mean plasma NT proBNP levels were significantly higher in patients with RC compared to those with CP (2641 +/- 2902 pg/mL vs 628 +/- 678 pg/mL; P=.003). The NT proBNP level that provided the best sensitivity and specificity for the differentiation of CP and RC was 800 pg/mL. Mean CRP levels were higher in patients with CP than with RC (1.41 +/- 1.73 mg/dL vs 0.38 +/- 0.21 mg/dL; P=.03). The CRP level that provided the best sensitivity and specificity for the differentiation of CP and RC was 0.57 mg/dL. Plasma NT proBNP and CRP levels can be useful in the differential diagnosis of RC and CP.

  16. Specific Activation of the Plant P-type Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase by Lysophospholipids Depends on the Autoinhibitory N- and C-terminal Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Wielandt, Alex Green; Pedersen, Jesper Torbøl; Falhof, Janus; Kemmer, Gerdi Christine; Lund, Anette; Ekberg, Kira; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Palmgren, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic P-type plasma membrane H+-ATPases are primary active transport systems that are regulated at the post-translation level by cis-acting autoinhibitory domains, which can be relieved by protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation or binding of specific lipid species. Here we show that lysophospholipids specifically activate a plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase (Arabidopsis thaliana AHA2) by a mechanism that involves both cytoplasmic terminal domains of AHA2, whereas they have no effect on the fungal counterpart (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pma1p). The activation was dependent on the glycerol backbone of the lysophospholipid and increased with acyl chain length, whereas the headgroup had little effect on activation. Activation of the plant pump by lysophospholipids did not involve the penultimate residue, Thr-947, which is known to be phosphorylated as part of a binding site for activating 14-3-3 protein, but was critically dependent on a single autoinhibitory residue (Leu-919) upstream of the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain in AHA2. A corresponding residue is absent in the fungal counterpart. These data indicate that plant plasma membrane H+-ATPases evolved as specific receptors for lysophospholipids and support the hypothesis that lysophospholipids are important plant signaling molecules. PMID:25971968

  17. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  18. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    PubMed Central

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions. PMID:23983449

  19. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    SciTech Connect

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-07-15

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  20. Plasma extracellular superoxide dismutase concentration, allelic variations in the SOD3 gene and risk of myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mohammedi, Kamel; Bellili-Muñoz, Naïma; Marklund, Stefan L; Driss, Fathi; Le Nagard, Hervé; Patente, Thiago A; Fumeron, Frédéric; Roussel, Ronan; Hadjadj, Samy; Marre, Michel; Velho, Gilberto

    2015-01-15

    Oxidative stress is involved in development of diabetes complications. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD, SOD3) is a major extracellular antioxidant enzyme and is highly expressed in arterial walls. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and 8-iso-prostaglandin (isoprostane) are markers of oxidative stress. We investigated association of SOD3 gene variants, plasma concentrations of EC-SOD, AOPP and isoprostane with myocardial infarction and mortality in diabetic patients. We studied three cohorts designed to evaluate the vascular complications of diabetes: the GENEDIAB study (469 participants with type 1 diabetes at baseline; follow-up data for 259 participants), the GENESIS study (603 participants with type 1 diabetes at baseline; follow-up data for 525 participants) and the DIABHYCAR study (3137 participants with type 2 diabetes at baseline and follow-up). Duration of follow-up was 9, 5, and 5 years, respectively. Main outcome measures were incidence of myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular and total mortality during follow-up. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SOD3 locus were genotyped in the three cohorts. Plasma concentrations of EC-SOD, AOPP, and isoprostane were measured in baseline samples of GENEDIAB participants. In GENEDIAB/GENESIS pooled cohorts, the minor T-allele of rs2284659 variant was inversely associated with the prevalence at baseline (Odds Ratio 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.78, p = 0.004) and the incidence during follow-up of myocardial infarction (Hazard Ratio 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83, p = 0.003) and with cardiovascular (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.08-0.74, p = 0.004) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.73, p = 0.0006). The protective allele was associated with higher plasma EC-SOD and lower plasma AOPP concentrations in GENEDIAB. It was also inversely associated with incidence of myocardial infarction (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.94, p = 0.01) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.97, p = 0

  1. Genetic variants, plasma lipoprotein(a) levels, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among two prospective cohorts of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qibin; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Frank B.; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Aims To examine the relations between genetic loci, plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among diabetic patients and compare with the observations in the general population. Methods and results In two prospective cohorts of patients with type 2 diabetes (n= 2308) from the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professional Follow-Up Study, we performed (i) genome-wide association (GWA) scans for plasma Lp(a); (ii) prospective analysis of plasma Lp(a) for CVD risk and mortality; and (iii) genetic association analysis for CVD risk and mortality. Meta-analysis of the two GWA scans yielded 71 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6q associated with plasma Lp(a) levels at a genome-wide significance level (P< 5 × 10−8). The SNP rs10455872 in LPA was most strongly associated with Lp(a) (P= 4.60 × 10−39). Forward-selection analysis indicated that rs10455872 and other five SNPs in a region encompassing LPA, PLG, SLC22A3, and LPAL2 genes were independently associated with Lp(a) levels and jointly explained ∼20% of variation in diabetic patients. In prospective analysis, we did not find any significant association between plasma levels and CVD incidence; the relative risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD, and CVD death was 1.05 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95–1.15], 1.05 (0.96–1.15), and 1.21 (0.99–1.47) per 1-SD higher log-transformed Lp(a) levels, respectively. Consistently, none of the Lp(a) SNPs were associated with CVD risk or mortality (all P> 0.09). For the best SNP rs10455872 for plasma Lp(a) levels, the OR for CHD, CVD, and CVD death was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.69–1.28), 0.97 (0.72–1.29), and 1.23 (0.79–1.92), respectively. The genetic effect on CHD risk showed a significant heterogeneity between the diabetic and the general populations (P= 0.006). Conclusion Our data indicate that the effect of Lp(a) on CVD risk among diabetic patients might be different from that in the general population

  2. High Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Normal Plasma Aminotransferase Levels.

    PubMed

    Portillo Sanchez, Paola; Bril, Fernando; Maximos, Maryann; Lomonaco, Romina; Biernacki, Diane; Orsak, Beverly; Subbarayan, Sreevidya; Webb, Amy; Hecht, Joan; Cusi, Kenneth

    2014-10-10

    NAFLD, and its more severe form with steatohepatitis (NASH), are common in patients with T2DM. However, they are usually believed to affect largely those with elevated aminotransferases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NAFLD (by the gold-standard liver magnetic resonance and spectroscopy or (1)H-MRS) in patients with T2DM and normal aminotransferases, and to characterize their metabolic profile. We recruited 103 patients with T2DM and normal plasma aminotransferases (age: 60±8 years, BMI: 33±5 kg/m(2), A1c: 7.6±1.3%). We measured: i) liver triglyceride content by (1)H-MRS; ii) systemic insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR), and iii) adipose tissue insulin resistance (IR), both fasting (as the adipose tissue IR index: fasting plasma FFA x insulin) and during an OGTT (as the suppression of FFA). The prevalence of NAFLD and NASH were much higher than expected (76% and 56%, respectively). The prevalence of NAFLD was higher in obese compared to non-obese patients, as well as with increasing BMI (p=0.03 for trend). Higher plasma A1c was associated with a greater prevalence of NAFLD and worse liver triglyceride accumulation (p<0.01). Compared to non-obese patients without NAFLD, patients with NAFLD had severe systemic (liver/muscle), and particularly, adipose tissue (fasting/postprandial) insulin resistance (all p<0.01). The prevalence of NAFLD is much higher than previously believed in overweight/obese patients with T2DM and normal aminotransferases. Moreover, many are at increased risk of severe liver disease (NASH). Physicians should have a lower threshold for screening patients with T2DM for NAFLD/NASH.

  3. An alternative to the plasma emission model: Particle-in-cell, self-consistent electromagnetic wave emission simulations of solar type III radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiklauri, David

    2011-05-15

    High-resolution (sub-Debye length grid size and 10 000 particle species per cell), 1.5D particle-in-cell, relativistic, fully electromagnetic simulations are used to model electromagnetic wave emission generation in the context of solar type III radio bursts. The model studies generation of electromagnetic waves by a super-thermal, hot beam of electrons injected into a plasma thread that contains uniform longitudinal magnetic field and a parabolic density gradient. In effect, a single magnetic line connecting Sun to Earth is considered, for which five cases are studied. (i) We find that the physical system without a beam is stable and only low amplitude level electromagnetic drift waves (noise) are excited. (ii) The beam injection direction is controlled by setting either longitudinal or oblique electron initial drift speed, i.e., by setting the beam pitch angle (the angle between the beam velocity vector and the direction of background magnetic field). In the case of zero pitch angle, i.e., when v-vector{sub b{center_dot}}E-vector{sub perpendicular}=0, the beam excites only electrostatic, standing waves, oscillating at local plasma frequency, in the beam injection spatial location, and only low level electromagnetic drift wave noise is also generated. (iii) In the case of oblique beam pitch angles, i.e., when v-vector{sub b{center_dot}}E-vector{sub perpendicular}=0, again electrostatic waves with same properties are excited. However, now the beam also generates the electromagnetic waves with the properties commensurate to type III radio bursts. The latter is evidenced by the wavelet analysis of transverse electric field component, which shows that as the beam moves to the regions of lower density and hence lower plasma frequency, frequency of the electromagnetic waves drops accordingly. (iv) When the density gradient is removed, an electron beam with an oblique pitch angle still generates the electromagnetic radiation. However, in the latter case no frequency

  4. Type of milk consumed can influence plasma concentrations of fatty acids and minerals and body composition in infant and weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Murry, A C; Gelaye, S; Casey, J M; Foutz, T L; Kouakou, B; Arora, D

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments using 42 crossbred neonatal pigs to compare the effects of caprine and bovine milk on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility and body composition were conducted. At age 72 h, pigs were removed from their dams and randomly divided into two groups, housed separately in stainless steel metabolism cages and were fed a predetermined amount (300 mL/kg body weight) of pasteurized, nonfortified whole, caprine or bovine milk. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In Experiment 1, 22 intact male pigs were used for a 31-d experimental period. There was no significant (P > 0.05) dietary effect on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility or body composition. Significant differences (P < 0.05), however, were observed in plasma of C 8:0, C 10:0 and C 12:0 concentrations. In Experiment 2, 20 pigs (10 intact males and 10 females) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment for 52 d. Pigs fed caprine milk had higher (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of C10:0 and C12:0 as well as Na, Mg and Zn than those fed bovine milk. At Day 52, pigs fed caprine milk had less body fat (P < 0.001) and higher (P < 0.06) bone mineral density than those fed bovine milk. Drymatter, N and total mineral intake of male pigs was higher (P < 0.05) than female pigs. Also, male pigs had higher (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of C12:0 than females. This study demonstrates that the type of milk consumed can influence plasma concentrations of fatty acids, minerals and body composition in pigs.

  5. In vivo testing of canine prosthetic femoral components with HA-Ti ladder-type coating on vacuum plasma-sprayed Ti substrate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xian-lin; Li, Jing-feng; Yang, Shu-hua; Zheng, Qi-xin; Zou, Zhen-wei

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the structure and functional change of the bone-coating-prosthesis interface in vivo and to evaluate the histocompatibility of self-made prosthetic femoral components in the body and the degree of their bonding with the surrounding bone tissues as well as their stability. Six mature beagle dogs underwent bilateral hip replacement with prosthetic femur components. Three groups were established in terms of different coating of prothesis (four joints in each group): atmosphere (A) plasma-sprayed pure titanium (Ti) prosthetic joint with hydroxyapatite (HA) coating (HA+Ti+A group); vacuum (V) plasma-sprayed pure Ti prosthetic joint with HA coating (HA+Ti+V group); vacuum plasma-sprayed pure Ti prosthetic joint with Ti-HA stepped coating (Ti+HAG+Ti+V group). The hip joints were functionally evaluated, and subjected to X-ray examination, biomechanics inspection, and histological examination. As a result, X-ray imaging revealed all prosthetic joints were in a good location and no dislocation of joint was found. Shear strength of interface was significantly higher in Ti+HAG+Ti+V group than in HA+Ti+V group (P<0.05) and HA+Ti+A group (P<0.05) at 28th week. Histological examination showed the amount of newborn bone in Ti+HAG+Ti+V group was more than in HA+Ti+V group and HA+Ti+A group after 28 weeks. It was suggested that vacuum plasma-sprayed pure Ti prosthetic joint with TI-HA stepped coating could improve the bonding capacity of bone-prosthesis, enhance the stability of prosthesis, and increase the fixion of prosthetic femoral components because of better bone growth. This new type of biological material in prosthetic femoral components holds promises for application in clinical practice.

  6. Discrimination of type 2 diabetes mellitus corresponding to different traditional Chinese medicine syndromes based on plasma fatty acid profiles and chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Liangxiao; Huang, Yuhong; Yang, Qianxu; Xiao, Hongbin; Zhang, Deqin

    2012-09-28

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history and particular advantages in the diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Syndrome differentiation is the foundation and essence of TCM theories. The aims of the study are to discriminate T2DM corresponding to different syndromes (Qi-deficiency, Qi and Yin-deficiency and Damp heat) and discover syndrome-related biomarkers using metabolomics technology. Plasma fatty acid profiles of 85 clinical samples were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, some of the lipid parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), were obtained through clinical testing methods. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares (OSC-PLS) and uncorrelated linear discriminant analysis (ULDA) were employed to establish two-class models for three different syndromes. Compared with the plasma fatty acid profiles of healthy controls, the characteristic fatty acids of three TCM syndromes were discovered (p<0.01). Totally, the plasma fatty acids of T2DM were up-regulated, while significant differences existed in different syndromes. Results of ULDA indicate that the three TCM syndromes could be effectively separated by the plasma fatty acid profiles and the syndrome-related biomarkers were also screened. The fact that three TCM syndromes can be separated indicates certain metabolic differences in different TCM syndromes of T2DM really exist and such differences can be manifested by fatty acids and lipid parameters. The results benefit modern biological interpretation of the three TCM syndromes and in a sense the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of plasma and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid compositions in patients with end-stage renal disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sertoglu, Erdim; Kurt, Ismail; Tapan, Serkan; Uyanik, Metin; Serdar, Muhittin A; Kayadibi, Huseyin; El-Fawaeir, Saad

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the serum lipid profile and fatty acid (FA) compositions of erythrocyte membrane (EM) and plasma in three different patient groups (group 1: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)+end-stage renal disease (ESRD), group 2: ESRD, group 4: T2DM) and healthy controls (group 3) simultaneously. 40 ESRD patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) in Gulhane School of Medicine (20 with T2DM) and 32 controls (17 with T2DM, 15 healthy controls) were included in the study. Plasma and EM FA concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Plasma and EM palmitic acid (PA) and stearic acid (SA) levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients compared to controls (p=0.040 and p=0.002 for plasma, p=0.001 and p=0.010 for EM, respectively). EM docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were also significantly lower in patients with ESRD+T2DM and ESRD compared to controls (p=0.004 and p=0.037, respectively). Patients with insulin resistance display a pattern of high long chain saturated FAs (PA, SA and arachidic acids). However, while there are no recognized standards for normal EM DHA content, decreased levels of EM DHA in ESRD patient groups (groups 1 and 2) suggest that there may be reduced endogenous synthesis of DHA in HD subjects, due to the decreased functionality of desaturase and elongase enzymes. Because membrane PUFA content affects membrane fluidity and cell signaling, these findings are worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin on plasma volume in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sha, S; Polidori, D; Heise, T; Natarajan, J; Farrell, K; Wang, S-S; Sica, D; Rothenberg, P; Plum-Mörschel, L

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of canagliflozin on plasma volume, urinary glucose excretion (UGE), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and additional measures of fluid/electrolyte balance in patients with type 2 diabetes on background therapy with metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Patients (N = 36) were randomized (1:1) to receive canagliflozin 300 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Pharmacodynamic parameters were assessed at baseline and at weeks 1 and 12. Increased 24-h UGE was seen in the canagliflozin group compared with a reduction in the placebo group at both week 1 (91.8 vs. -2.4 g) and week 12 (82.6 vs. -0.4 g). Canagliflozin also reduced both FPG and HbA1c. Reductions in body weight and blood pressure were observed at weeks 1 and 12. Canagliflozin decreased plasma volume compared with an increase with placebo at week 1 (-5.4 vs. 4.3%; p = 0.02), but this was largely attenuated at week 12 (4.6 vs. 5.8%; p = 0.76). A modest numerical increase in urine volume was observed with canagliflozin at week 1 that was attenuated at week 12; other measures of volume status (i.e. blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and haematocrit) remained modestly increased with canagliflozin at week 12. Canagliflozin provided sustained effects on UGE and FPG over 12 weeks and a transient reduction in plasma volume that was largely attenuated by week 12. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Reduction of bacteria and human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 infectivity of platelet suspension in plasma using xenon flash-pulse light in a bench-scale trial.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hideki; Shiba, Masayuki; Niibe, Yoshiyuki; Tadokoro, Kenji; Satake, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Current pathogen reduction systems for platelet concentrates (PCs) require addition of chemical compounds and/or reduction of plasma content in PCs. We have investigated a new method using xenon (Xe) flash-pulse light without additional compounds or plasma replacement. An aliquot of apheresis platelets (PLTs) in plasma inoculated with bacteria or human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) was irradiated with Xe flash-pulse light (Xe flash phototreatment). Bacterial growth was monitored up to 6 days of storage, whereas HIV-1 infectivity was assayed just after treatment. Pairs of Xe flash-phototreated and untreated PCs were examined for PLT lesion during the storage period. Under the current conditions, a low titer (1.8 colony-forming units [CFUs]/mL) of Staphylococcus aureus did not proliferate during the 6-day storage period, but grew in some cases at high-titer (24.0 CFUs/mL) inoculation. HIV-1 infectivity was reduced by 1.8 log. PLT recovery of the treated PCs was lower than untreated ones. An increase of mean PLT volume and glucose consumption, together with a decrease of hypotonic shock response and pH, were enhanced by the treatment. CD62P- and PAC-1-positive PLTs increased after the treatment, indicating the induction of PLT activation. Among biologic response modifiers, soluble CD40 ligand was significantly increased in the treated PCs on Day 6. Xe flash phototreatment could prevent bacterial proliferation and reduce HIV-1 infectivity in 100% plasma PCs without any additional compounds, but enhanced PLT storage lesions. Further improvement is required to increase the potency of pathogen inactivation with reducing PLT damage. © 2016 AABB.

  10. New Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-Initiated PCR Assay with Single-Copy Sensitivity for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Sarah; Wiegand, Ann P.; Maldarelli, Frank; Bazmi, Holly; Mican, JoAnn M.; Polis, Michael; Dewar, Robin L.; Planta, Angeline; Liu, Shuying; Metcalf, Julia A.; Mellors, John W.; Coffin, John M.

    2003-01-01

    More sensitive assays for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA are needed to detect, quantify, and characterize persistent viremia in patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy and whose plasma HIV-1 RNA levels are suppressed to less than 50 to 75 copies/ml. We therefore developed an internally controlled real-time reverse transcriptase-initiated PCR assay that quantifies HIV-1 RNA concentrations down to 1 copy per ml of plasma. This assay with single-copy sensitivity (the single-copy assay) generates a reproducible linear regression plot of input copy number versus threshold cycle by using HIV-1 RNA transcripts at copy numbers ranging from 1 to 106 per reaction mixture. The single-copy assay was compared to the ultrasensitive AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR assay and a more sensitive modification of the ultrasensitive assay by repeatedly testing a low-copy-number panel containing 200 to 0.781 copies of HIV-1 RNA per ml of plasma. This comparison showed that the single-copy assay had a greater sensitivity than the other assays and was the only assay that detected HIV-1 RNA at levels as low as 0.781 copies/ml. Testing of plasma samples from 15 patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and who had <75 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml revealed persistent viremia in all 15 patients, with HIV-1 RNA levels ranging from 1 to 32 copies/ml (median, 13 copies/ml). The greater sensitivity of the single-copy assay should allow better characterization of persistent viremia in patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy and whose HIV-1 RNA levels are suppressed to below the detection limits of present assays. PMID:14532178

  11. Organohalogenated contaminants in domestic cats' plasma in relation to spontaneous acromegaly and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a clue for endocrine disruption in humans?

    PubMed

    Dirtu, Alin C; Niessen, Stijn J M; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian

    2013-07-01

    It was recently hypothesized that pets may serve as sentinels to explore human exposure to organohalogenated chemicals (OHCs) via indoor environments and adverse health effects. The current study investigates OHCs contamination in domestic cats suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM), particularly DM induced by acromegaly and a form of DM akin to human type 2 DM (T2DM). Plasma from three groups of domestic cats was analyzed: acromegaly induced DM, T2DM and age matched control cats without DM. Analytes targeted included organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), together with their hydroxylated (HO-) metabolites. Similar PCB profiles were measured in cat plasma compared to humans, while the PBDE profile (dominated by BDE-99 (48%-55%) and BDE-47 (19%-25%)), the PCB and PBDE metabolite profiles were different in cat plasma than found in humans. Significantly higher OHC concentrations were recorded in plasma of acromegalic cats compared to the other two groups. Group differences in the PCBs/HO-PCBs ratios suggest that acromegalic cats have a lower capacity to metabolize persistent OHCs, like PCBs, than diabetic cats or cats without an endocrinopathy. As pituitary tumorigenesis in animals can be induced by estrogens, and PCBs may act as xenoestrogens, further investigation into whether there could be a causative link with the induction of feline acromegaly is warranted. Interestingly, BDE-47/BDE-99 ratios in cats were similar to the ratios in house dust. The results of this study suggest that domestic cats may represent a good model to assess human exposure to chemicals present in indoor dust. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. One-hour and two-hour postload plasma glucose concentrations are comparable predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Southwestern Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Ethan; Hohenadel, Maximilian G; Piaggi, Paolo; Vijayakumar, Pavithra; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Krakoff, Jonathan; Chang, Douglas C

    2017-06-29

    Elevated 2-h plasma glucose concentration (2 h-PG) during a 75 g OGTT predict the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, 1-h plasma glucose concentration (1 h-PG) is associated with insulin secretion and may be a better predictor of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate the association between 1 h-PG and 2 h-PG using gold standard methods for measuring insulin secretion and action. We also compared 1 h-PG and 2 h-PG as predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This analysis included adult volunteers without diabetes, predominantly Native Americans of Southwestern heritage, who were involved in a longitudinal epidemiological study from 1965 to 2007, with a baseline OGTT that included measurement of 1 h-PG. Group 1 (n = 716) underwent an IVGTT and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp for measurement of acute insulin response (AIR) and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (M), respectively. Some members of Group 1 (n = 490 of 716) and members of a second, larger, group (Group 2; n = 1946) were followed-up to assess the development of type 2 diabetes (median 9.0 and 12.8 years follow-up, respectively). Compared with 2 h-PG (r = -0.281), 1 h-PG (r = -0.384) was more closely associated with AIR, whereas, compared with 1 h-PG (r = -0.340), 2 h-PG (r = -0.408) was more closely associated with M. Measures of 1 h-PG and 2 h-PG had similar abilities to predict type 2 diabetes, which did not change when both were included in the model. A 1 h-PG cut-off of 9.3 mmol/l provided similar levels of sensitivity and specificity as a 2 h-PG cut-off of 7.8 mmol/l; the latter is used to define impaired glucose tolerance, a recognised predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The 1 h-PG was associated with important physiological predictors of type 2 diabetes and was as effective as 2 h-PG for predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus. The 1 h-PG is, therefore, an alternative method of identifying individuals with an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes

  13. [The change of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) level in type 2 diabetic pedigrees and the response of AIP to Acarbose or Glimepiride in therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Tian, Haoming; Ren, Yan; Tong, Nanwei; Yu, Hongling; Han, Lingchuan; Ran, Xingwu

    2005-06-01

    The alterations in atherogenic index of plasma (AlP) in type 2 diabetic patients and their normoglycemic first-degree relatives (NFDR) were investigated, and the effects of Acarbose or Glimepiride on AIP in 99 type 2 diabetic patients were evaluated. Triglycerride (TG), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were analyzed, and Log (TG/HDL-C) was calculated as AIP in 62 type 2 diabetic patients and their 67 NFDR from 29 type 2 diabetic pedigrees and in 45 healthy controls without family histories of diabetes. Also analyzed were the same parameters in 99 type 2 diabetic patients before and after therapy with Acarbose or Glimepiride. The results revealed that diabetic patients and their NFDR had significantly higher AIP than did the controls, whereas no significant differences were seen between diabetic patients and their NFDR. Positive correlation of AIP between type 2 diabetic patients and their offspring were observed (r = 0.241, P < 0.05). After 8 weeks therapy with Acarbose, the AIP of type 2 diabetic patients was decreased significantly, and no differences were observed for AIP levels in Glimepiride group although the AIP was lower when compared with the untreated level. As a significant inverse correlation of small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) with AIP was confirmed, our data suggest that diabetic patients and their NFDR from type 2 diabetic pedigrees had significantly higher AIP than did controls; AIP could be decreased by therapy with Acarbose in type 2 diabetic patients; Glimepiride may bring potential benefit to type 2 diabetic patients by influencing sdLDL.

  14. Diagnostics of plasma in the ionospheric D-region: detection and study of different ionospheric disturbance types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nina, Aleksandra; Čadež, Vladimir M.; Popović, Luka Č.; Srećković, Vladimir A.

    2017-07-01

    Here we discuss our recent investigations of the ionospheric plasma by using very low and low frequency (VLF/LF) radio waves. We give a review of how to detect different low ionospheric reactions (sudden ionospheric disturbances) to various terrestrial and extra-terrestrial events, show their classification according to intensity and time duration, and present some methods for their detections in time and frequency domains. Investigations of detection in time domain are carried out for intensive long-lasting perturbations induced by solar X-ray flares and for short-lasting perturbations caused by gamma ray bursts. We also analyze time variations of signals used in the low ionospheric monitoring after earthquake events. In addition, we describe a procedure for the detection of acoustic and gravity waves from the VLF/LF signal analysis in frequency domain. The research of the low ionospheric plasma is based on data collected by the VLF/LF receivers located in Belgrade, Serbia. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2016)", edited by Goran Poparic, Bratislav Obradovic, Dragana Maric and Aleksandar Milosavljevic.

  15. Background diet and fat type alters plasma lipoprotein response but not aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Alice; Matthan, Nirupa R; Spartano, Nicole L; Butkowski, Ann E; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-12-01

    Dietary modification alters plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion progression in humans and some animal models. Variability in response to diet induced atherosclerosis has been reported in hamsters. Assessed was the interaction between background diet composition and dietary fat type on aortic cholesterol accumulation, lipoprotein profiles, hepatic lipids and selected genes. F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (20/group) were fed (12 weeks) semi-purified or non-purified diets containing either 10 % (w/w) coconut oil or safflower oil and 0.15 % (w/w) cholesterol. The non-purified diets relative to semi-purified diets resulted in significantly higher TC (72 % [percent difference] and 38 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) and nHDL-C (84 and 61 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively), and lower HDL-C (-47 and -45 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) concentrations. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in the hamsters fed the non-purified coconut oil-supplemented diets were three- to fourfold higher than non-purified safflower oil-supplemented, and both semi-purified diets. With the exception of HDL-C, a significant effect of fat type was observed in TC, nHDL-C and triacylglycerol (all P < 0.05) concentrations. Regardless of diet induced differences in lipoprotein profiles, there was no significant effect on aortic cholesterol accumulation. There was an inverse relationship between plasma nHDL-C and triacylglycerol, and hepatic cholesteryl ester content (P < 0.001). Diet induced differences in hepatic gene transcription (LDL receptor, apoB-100, microsomal transfer protein) were not reflected in protein concentrations. Although hamsters fed non-purified and/or saturated fatty acid-supplemented diets had more atherogenic lipoprotein profiles compared to hamsters fed semi-purified and/or polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented diets these differences were not reflected in aortic cholesterol accumulation.

  16. Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of n-type GaN on Si (111) Grown by RF-plasma assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, C. W.; Hassan, Z.; Yam, F. K.

    2008-05-20

    In this paper, we present the study of the structural, optical and electrical of n-type GaN grown on silicon (111) by RF plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MBE). X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement reveals that the GaN was epitaxially grown on silicon. For the photoluminescence (PL) measurement, a sharp and intense peak at 364.5 nm indicates that the sample is of high optical quality. Hall effect measurement shows that the film has a carrier concentration of 3.28x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. The surface of the n-type GaN was smooth and no any cracks and pits.

  17. A novel technique based on a plasma focus device for nano-porous gallium nitride formation on P-type silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi Malvajerdi, S.; Salar Elahi, A.; Habibi, M.

    2017-04-01

    A new deposition formation was observed with a Mather-type Plasma Focus Device (MPFD). MPFD was unitized to fabricate porous Gallium Nitride (GaN) on p-type Silicon (Si) substrate with a (100) crystal orientation for the first time in a deposition process. GaN was deposited on Si with 4 and 7 shots. The samples were subjected to a 3 phase annealing procedure. First, the semiconductors were annealed in the PFD with nitrogen plasma shots after their deposition. Second, a thermal chemical vapor deposition annealed the samples for 1 h at 1050 °C by nitrogen gas at a pressure of 1 Pa. Finally, an electric furnace annealed the samples for 1 h at 1150 °C with continuous flow of nitrogen. Porous GaN structures were observed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, X-Ray diffraction analysis was carried out to determine the crystallinity of GaN after the samples were annealed. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy indicated the amount of gallium, nitrogen, and oxygen due to the self-oxidation of the samples. Photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed emissions at 2.94 eV and 3.39 eV, which shows that hexagonal wurtzite crystal structures were formed.

  18. Carrier concentration dependence of donor activation energy in n-type GaN epilayers grown on Si (1 1 1) by plasma-assisted MBE

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Mahesh; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Roul, Basanta; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Kalghatgi, A.T.; Krupanidhi, S.B.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► The n-type GaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. ► The optical characteristics of a donor level in Si-doped GaN were studied. ► Activation energy of a Si-related donor was estimated from temperature dependent PL measurements. ► PL peak positions, FWHM of PL and activation energies are found to be proportional to the cube root of carrier density. ► The involvement of donor levels is supported by the temperature-dependent electron concentration measurements. -- Abstract: The n-type GaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted MBE and either intentionally doped with Si or unintentionally doped. The optical characteristics of a donor level in Si-doped, GaN were studied in terms of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of electron concentration. Temperature dependent PL measurements allowed us to estimate the activation energy of a Si-related donor from temperature-induced decay of PL intensity. PL peak positions, full width at half maximum of PL and activation energies are found to be proportional to the cube root of carrier density. The involvement of donor levels is supported by the temperature-dependent electron concentration measurements.

  19. Effects of the T/L-type calcium channel blocker benidipine on albuminuria and plasma aldosterone concentration. A pilot study involving switching from L-type calcium channel blockers to benidipine.

    PubMed

    Tani, Shigemasa; Takahashi, Atsuhiko; Nagao, Ken; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Albuminuria and a high plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) are prognosis factors predicting a poor outcome for cardiovascular disease. We examined here the effects of benidipine, a T/L-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), on albuminuria and PAC.Thirty-one patients with essential hypertension who received an L-type CCB and achieved the target blood pressure (BP) indicated by the Treatment Guidelines of the Japan Society of Hypertension (JSH2009) were investigated. The Ltype CCB under treatment was switched to benidipine at a dose in which equivalent BP reduction was expected. BP and estimated glomerular filtration rate at 6 months after switching to benidipine were not significantly different from those at baseline. The urinary-albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) decreased significantly by 36.9% (P = 0.001). No significant change was observed in plasma renin activity (P = 0.063). The PAC of all patients decreased significantly by 11.8% (P = 0.002). When analyzed by daily doses of benidipine, the PAC appeared to have decreased in patients who received 4 mg per day of benidipine (n = 14), although statistical significance was not reached (P = 0.096). The PAC in patients who received 8 mg per day of benidipine (n =17) was significantly reduced by 13.2% (P = 0.017).In hypertensive patients whose BP is controlled by L-type CCB, switching to the T/L-type CCB benidipine maintained BP control and reduced UACR. In addition, the high dose of benidipine reduced the PAC independent of BP control. These results suggest the T/L-type CCB benidipine may contribute to cardio-renal protection in addition to lowering BP.

  20. Role of galectin-3 and plasma B type-natriuretic peptide in predicting prognosis in discharged chronic heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Feola, Mauro; Testa, Marzia; Leto, Laura; Cardone, Marco; Sola, Mario; Rosso, Gian Luca

    2016-06-01

    Galectin-3 demonstrated to be a robust independent marker of cardiovascular mid-term (18-month) outcome in heart failure (HF) patients. The objective of this study was to analyze the value of a predischarged determination of plasma galectin-3 alone and with plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in predicting mid-term outcome in frequent-flyers (FF) HF (≥2 hospitalization for HF/year)/dead patients discharged after an acute decompensated HF (ADHF) episode.All FF chronic HF subjects discharged alive after an ADHF were enrolled. All patients underwent a determination of BNP and galectin-3, a 6-minute walk test, and an echocardiogram within 48 hours upon hospital discharge. Death by any cause, cardiac transplantation, and worsening HF requiring readmission to hospital were considered cardiovascular events.Eighty-three patients (67 males, age 73.2 ± 8.6 years old) were analyzed (mean follow-up 11.6 ± 5.2 months; range 4-22 months). During the follow-up 38 events (45.7%) were scheduled: (13 cardiac deaths, 35 rehospitalizations for ADHF). According to medical history, in 33 patients (39.8%) a definition of FF HF patients was performed (range 2-4 hospitalization/year). HF patients who suffered an event (FF or death) demonstrated more impaired ventricular function (P = 0.037), higher plasma BNP (P = 0.005), and Gal-3 at predischarge evaluation (P = 0.027). Choosing adequate cut-off points (BNP ≥ 500 pg/mL and Gal-3 ≥ 17.6 ng/mL), the Kaplan-Meier curves depicted the powerful stratification using BNP + Gal-3 in predicting clinical course at mid-term follow-up (log rank 5.65; P = 0.017).Adding Gal-3 to BNP, a single predischarge strategy testing seemed to obtain a satisfactorily predictive value in alive HF patients discharged after an ADHF episode.

  1. Effect of quantum parameter – H on space-charge wave spectra in n-type semiconductor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S. Muley, Apurva

    2015-07-31

    The present paper deals with the propagation characteristics of very fundamental wave i.e. space – charge wave while propagating through quantum semiconductor plasma. We have used quantum hydrodynamic model to derive the most general dispersion relation in terms of quantum parameter – H. We have found that in presence of an external electrostatic field, the wave spectra (dispersion as well as gain characteristics) not only modified due to presence of quantum effect but also two novel modes of propagation are introduced due to this effect. Hence it may be concluded that to miniaturize the opto-electronic devices, one should use highly doped semiconductor medium at comparatively lower temperature so that the quantum effects predominate.

  2. Type of cottonseed and level of gossypol in diets of lactating dairy cows: plasma gossypol, health, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Santos, J E P; Villasenor, M; Robinson, P H; DePeters, E J; Holmberg, C A

    2003-03-01

    Objectives were to determine effects of altering gossypol intake by feeding whole linted Upland (WUP) or a 1:2 blend of WUP and cracked Pima (BUPCP) cottonseed on plasma gossypol (PG) concentrations, reproduction, and health of Holstein cows. Cows, 813, on three dairy farms were assigned to one of two diets starting at 13 +/- 11 d in milk for a 170-d experiment. Diets contained 717 and 951 mg of free gossypol/kg of dry matter from WUP and BUPCP, respectively. Concentrations of PG, as well as the proportion of total gossypol (TG) as the minus isomer were higher for cows fed BUPCP vs cows fed WUP. Conception rate at the first postpartum artificial insemination did not differ between treatments. However, cows consuming the higher gossypol diet had reduced subsequent conception rates and a lower pregnancy rate. Incidence of abortions increased in the higher gossypol diet, and cows that aborted or remained open had higher PG concentrations. Increasing PG concentrations resulted in reduced conception rates and extended days open. The probability of conception after the first artificial insemination declined at a decreasing rate as the plasma TG increased. Incidence of health disorders were unaffected by gossypol intake and PG concentrations. Similarly, gossypol intake and PG concentrations had no effect on culling or mortality. Six cows died in each diet, and none had postmortem signs compatible with gossypol toxicity. Consumption of a high gossypol diet for 170 d had no effect on health of lactating dairy cows, but it increased PG concentrations and impaired reproductive performance.

  3. Quantitative detection of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A RNA by the Nuclisens EasyQ Assay (version 1.1).

    PubMed

    Rodés, Berta; Sheldon, Julie; Toro, Carlos; Cuevas, Laureano; Pérez-Pastrana, Esperanza; Herrera, Inmaculada; Soriano, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    No commercial viral load assay has yet been approved for use for measurement of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) RNA levels in plasma. We assessed the performance of the NucliSens EasyQ (version 1.1) assay (EasyQ; bioMérieux, Boxtel, The Netherlands) to quantify HIV-2 viremia. A viral stock was prepared from an HIV-2 (subtype A)-infected patient. Culture supernatant was subjected to viral particle counting by electron microscopy. Serial dilutions of the viral stock were made in HIV-negative plasma and were used to test EasyQ for its sensitivity, linearity, and reproducibility. RNA was quantified by the NucliSens EasyQ (version 1.1) assay. Plasma samples from 75 HIV-2-infected patients were further tested. EasyQ was able to quantify HIV-2 RNA in a reproducible manner. Overall, estimates of the number of HIV-2 RNA copies/ml obtained with EasyQ were lower than those obtained by electron microscopy; however, the differences were always less than 0.7 log (mean, 0.55 +/- 0.19 log(10)). The assay showed good linearity (r(2) = 0.964; P < 0.0001). The agreement between both measures was assessed by use of a Bland-Altman plot; the narrow limits (0.158 to 0.952), defined as the mean difference +/- 2 standard deviations, indicated good agreement. The reproducibility was also good, since the between-run coefficients of variation were 1.49, 3.60, and 12.25% for samples containing 6.30, 4.30, and 2.30 log(10) HIV-2 RNA copies/ml, respectively. HIV-2 RNA was detected in 34 of 75 (45%) plasma specimens (mean, 2.72 log RNA copies/ml; range, 1.74 to 4.11 log RNA copies/ml); the rest of the specimens were considered to have undetectable viremia. A negative correlation was found between the number of HIV-2 RNA copies/ml and CD4 counts. In summary, EasyQ was shown to be reliable for the measurement of plasma HIV-2 subtype A RNA levels and may be a feasible tool for routine clinical monitoring of HIV-2 subtype A-infected patients.

  4. Plasma accelerator experiments in Yugoslavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purić, J.; Astashynski, V. M.; Kuraica, M. M.; Dojčinovié, I. P.

    2002-12-01

    An overview is given of the results obtained in the Plasma Accelerator Experiments in Belgrade, using quasi-stationary high current plasma accelerators constructed within the framework of the Yugoslavia-Belarus Joint Project. So far, the following plasma accelerators have been realized: Magnetoplasma Compressor type (MPC); MPC Yu type; one stage Erosive Plasma Dynamic System (EPDS) and, in final stage of construction two stage Quasi-Stationary High Current Plasma Accelerator (QHPA).

  5. Comparison of the enhancement of plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Taga, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup is used as a premium natural sweeter, and is known for being good for human health. In the present study, we investigate whether maple syrup is suitable as a sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats develop type 2 diabetes mellitus by 30 weeks of age, and 60-week-old OLETF rats show hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia via pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. The administration of sucrose or maple syrup following an OGT test increased plasma glucose (PG) levels in OLETF rats, but the enhancement in PG following the oral administration of maple syrup was lower than in the case of sucrose administration in both 30- and 60-week-old OLETF rats. Although, the insulin levels in 30-week-old OLETF rats also increased following the oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup, no increase in insulin levels was seen in 60-week-old OLETF rats following the oral administration of either sucrose or maple syrup. No significant differences were observed in insulin levels between sucrose- and maple syrup-administered OLETF rats at either 30 or 60 weeks of age. The present study strongly suggests that the maple syrup may have a lower glycemic index than sucrose, which may help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  6. Fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle and adipose tissues in Chilota lambs grazing on two different low quality pasture types in Chiloé Archipelago (Chile).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Maria A; Dannenberger, Dirk; Rivero, Jordana; Pulido, Ruben; Nuernberg, Karin

    2014-11-01

    There is no information about the effect of different pasture types on tissue fatty acid profiles of a native rustic lamb breed of the Chiloe Archipelago, the Chilota. Eight Chilota lambs were grazed on a 'Calafatal' pasture (CP), a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago (Chile) and eight Chilota lambs were located to graze on naturalized pasture (NP) of Chiloé. Botanical, chemical and lipid composition of the two types of pastures and of different lamb tissues (muscle, subcutaneous - and tail adipose tissues) and plasma were performed. Both pasture types induced high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and CLAcis-9,trans-11 proportions in Chilota meat. Thus, in muscle, Chilota lambs grazing CP showed higher sum PUFA, sum n-6 PUFA proportion and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. In tail fats of Chilota lambs grazing CP significantly higher proportions of 18:3n-3, sum saturated fatty acids, sum PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were detected compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. Feeding of different pasture types (CP vs. NP) caused significant differences in fatty acid composition of muscle and the two fat depots in Chilota lambs, but also point to tissue-specific responses of de novo synthesized fatty acid deposition in the tissues. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Explicit characteristics of evolutionary-type plasma bubbles observed from Equatorial Atmosphere Radar during the low to moderate solar activity years 2010-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajith, K. K.; Ram, S. Tulasi; Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Gowtam, V. Sai; Otsuka, Y.; Tsugawa, T.; Niranjan, K.

    2015-02-01

    Using the fan sector backscatter maps of 47 MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang (0.2°S geographic latitude, 100.3°E geographic longitude, and 10.4°S geomagnetic latitude), Indonesia, the spatial and temporal evolution of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were examined to classify the evolutionary-type EPBs from those which formed elsewhere and drifted into the field of view of radar. A total of 535 EPBs were observed during the low to moderate solar activity years 2010-2012, out of which about 210 (~39%) are of evolving type and the remaining 325 (~61%) are drifting-in EPBs. In general, both the evolving-type and drifting-in EPBs exhibit predominance during the postsunset hours of equinoxes and December solstices. Interestingly, a large number of EPBs were found to develop even a few minutes prior to the apex sunset during equinoxes. Further, the occurrence of evolving-type EPBs exhibits a clear secondary peak around midnight (2300-0100 LT), primarily, due to higher rate of occurrence during the postmidnight hours of June solstices. A significant number (~33%) of postmidnight EPBs generated during June solstices did not exhibited any clear zonal drift, while about 14% of EPBs drifted westward. Also, the westward drifting EPBs are confined only to June solstices. The responsible mechanisms for the genesis of fresh EPBs during postmidnight hours were discussed in light of equatorward meridional winds in the presence of weak westward electric fields.

  8. Inter-ELM evolution of the pedestal structures in type-I ELMy H-mode plasmas with LHW and NBI heating on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Zang, Q.; Xiao, S.; Wang, T.; Hu, A.; Tian, B.; Li, D.; Zhou, H.; Zhao, J.; Hsieh, C.; Li, M.; Yan, N.; Gong, X.; Hu, L.; Xu, G.; Gao, X.; the EAST Team

    2017-04-01

    The evolution characteristics of type-I ELMy high-confinement mode pedestal are examined in EAST based on the recently developed Thomson scattering system. The influence of the plasma current on pedestal evolvement has been confirmed experimentally. In the higher I p case (500 kA) the pedestal height shows an increase trend until the onset of next ELM and in the lower I p cases (300 and 400 kA), however, this buildup saturates at the first ∼30% of the ELM cycle. In contrast, the width increases only during the first ∼70% of the ELM cycle and then keeps almost stable in three I p cases, but resulting in different widening size of ∼1.5, 1 and 0.5 cm for 300, 400 and 500 kA respectively. Experimental results show that the pedestal pressure width has good correlation with poloidal beta as {{{Δ }}}{{p}{{e}},\\psi }=0.16\\sqrt{{{β }}{{p}{{o}}{{l}}}}, where the fitting coefficient 0.16 is not changed with different plasma currents but a little larger than that of other machines. For each current level, the pedestal density increases while the pedestal temperature decreases. But with increasing {I}{{p}} platforms, the pedestal height prior to the ELM onset shows a near quadratic (within error bars) increase. Experimental measurements demonstrate that the decrease of {{Δ }}{W}{{E}{{L}}{{M}}} with increasing {ν }{{p}{{e}}{{d}}}* comes mostly from the reduction of the plasma temperature drop, while the pedestal density height keeps relatively stable. Additional injection of LHW has been proved to modify the pedestal structure which should be responsible for the remaining scatter of the experimental data.

  9. Plasma B-type Natriuretic Peptide as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Events in Subjects with Atrial Fibrillation: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Motoyuki; Koeda, Yorihiko; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Ohsawa, Masaki; Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Omama, Shinich; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Makita, Shinji; Ohta, Mutsuko; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Komatsu, Takashi; Okayama, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a significant public health issue due to its high prevalence in the general population, and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events including systemic thrombo-embolism, heart failure, and coronary artery disease. The relationship between plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and CV risk in real world AF subjects remains unknown. Methods The subject of the study (n = 228; mean age = 69 years) was unselected individuals with AF in a community-based population (n = 15,394; AF prevalence rate = 1.5%). The CV event free rate within each BNP tertile was estimated, and Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the relative risk of the onset of CV events among the tertiles. The prognostic ability of BNP was compared to an established risk score for embolic events (CHADS2 score). In addition, to determine the usefulness of BNP as a predictor in addition to CHADS2 score, we calculated Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI) indices. Results During the follow-up period 58 subjects experienced CV events (52 per 1,000 person-years). The event-free ratio was significantly lower in the highest tertile (p < 0.02). After adjustment for established CV risk factors, the hazard ratio (HR) of the highest tertile was significantly higher than that of the lowest tertile (HR = 2.38; p < 0.02). The predictive abilities of plasma BNP in terms of sensitivity and specificity for general CV events were comparable to those of CHADS2 score. Adding BNP to the CHADS2 score only model improved the NRI (0.319; p < 0.05) and the IDI (0.046; p < 0.05). Conclusion Plasma BNP is a valuable biomarker both singly or in combination with an established scoring system for assessing general CV risk including stroke, heart failure and acute coronary syndrome in real-world AF subjects. PMID:24312541

  10. Increase in skin autofluorescence and release of heart-type fatty acid binding protein in plasma predicts mortality of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Stefan; Trajceska, Lada; van Oeveren, Wim; Smit, Andries J; Dzekova, Pavlina; Stegmayr, Bernd; Sikole, Aleksandar; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert

    2013-07-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are uremic toxins that accumulate progressively in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the 1-year increase in skin autofluorescence (ΔAF), a measure of AGEs accumulation and plasma markers, as predictors of mortality in HD patients. One hundred sixty-nine HD patients were enrolled in this study. Skin autofluorescence was measured twice, 1 year apart using an AGE Reader (DiagnOptics Technologies BV, Groningen, The Netherlands). Besides routine blood chemistry, additional plasma markers including superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxydase, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), and von Willebrand factor were measured at baseline. The mortality of HD patients was followed for 36 months. Skin autofluorescence values of the HD patients at the two time points were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those of healthy subjects of the same age. Mean 1-year ΔAF of HD patients was 0.16 ± 0.06, which was around seven- to ninefold higher than 1-year ΔAF in healthy subjects. Multivariate Cox regression showed that age, hypertension, 1-year ΔAF, hs-CRP, ICAM-1, and H-FABP were independent predictors of overall mortality. Hypertension, 1-year ΔAF, hs-CRP, and H-FABP were also independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. One-year ΔAF and plasma H-FABP, used separately and in combination, are strong predictors of overall and cardiovascular mortality in HD patients.

  11. The plasma concentration of VEGF, HE4 and CA125 as a new biomarkers panel in different stages and sub-types of epithelial ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background VEGF may play a role in the pathogenesis of cancer disease, for example in cell growth, proliferation and angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated plasma levels of this cytokine in comparison to plasma levels of a new biomarker - HE4 and the established tumor marker CA125 in ovarian cancer patients (100) as compared to control groups: patients with a benign ovarian tumor (80) and healthy subjects (50). Methods Plasma levels of VEGF were determined by ELISA, HE4 and CA125 by CMIA method. Results The results showed that levels of VEGF, CA125 and HE4 were significantly higher in ovarian cancer (OC) patients as compared to the both control groups. VEGF has demonstrated as high as comparative markers values of the diagnostic sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), the predictive values of positive and negative test results (PV-PR, PV-NR), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) in early stages of cancer tested groups. The combined use of parameters studied resulted in the increase in the diagnostic criteria values and the AUC. Conclusions These findings suggest the usefulness of VEGF in the early diagnostics of ovarian cancer, especially in combination with CA125 and HE4, as a new biomarkers panel. Additionally, VEGF is the most useful tool in the diagnostics of locally advanced ovarian cancer without metastases. Investigated cytokine presented similar to HE4 usefulness in differentiation of OC according to its histopathlogical sub-type, and could be used especially in the diagnostics of endometrioid epithelial OC. PMID:23819707

  12. In situ formation of low friction ceramic coatings on carbon steel by plasma electrolytic oxidation in two types of electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunlong; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2009-04-01

    In situ formation of ceramic coatings on Q235 carbon steel was achieved by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in carbonate electrolyte and silicate electrolyte, respectively. The surface and cross-section morphology, phase and elemental composition of PEO coatings were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The bond strength of the coating was determined using a direct pull-off test. The hardness as well as tribological properties of the ceramic coating was primarily studied. The results indicated that the coating obtained in carbonate electrolyte was Fe 3O 4, while the coating achieved from silicate electrolyte was proved to be amorphous. Both kinds of coatings showed coarse and porous surface. The Fe 3O 4 coatings obtained in carbonate electrolyte showed a high bonding strength to the substrate up to 20 ± 2 MPa and the value was 15 ± 2 MPa for the amorphous coatings obtained in carbonate electrolyte. The micro hardness of the amorphous coating and the Fe 3O 4 coating was 1001 Hv and 1413 Hv, respectively, which was more than two and three times as that of the Q235 alloy substrate (415 Hv). The friction coefficient exhibited by amorphous coating and Fe 3O 4 coating was 0.13 and 0.11, respectively, both lower than the uncoated Q235 substrate which ranged from 0.17 to 0.35.

  13. Differences in HIV type 1 RNA plasma load profile of closely related cocirculating Ethiopian subtype C strains: C and C'.

    PubMed

    Ayele, Workenesh; Mekonnen, Yared; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Mengistu, Yohannes; Tsegaye, Aster; Bakker, Margreet; Berkhout, Ben; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien; Wolday, Dawit; Goudsmit, Jaap; Coutinho, Roel; de Baar, Michel; Paxton, William A; Pollakis, Georgios

    2010-07-01

    Two HIV-1 subtype C subclusters have been identified in Ethiopia (C and C') with little knowledge regarding their biological or clinical differences. We longitudinally monitored HIV-1 viral loads and CD4(+) T cell counts for 130 subtype C-infected individuals from Ethiopia over 5 years. The genetic subclusters C and C' were determined and comparisons were made between the groups. None of the study individuals received antiretroviral therapy. Subcluster C' was found to be the more prevalent (72.3%) genotype circulating. Individuals infected with subcluster C' harbored higher viral loads in comparison to subcluster C-infected individuals when the CD4(+) T cell counts were high (500-900 cells/mm(3)), whereas at low CD4(+) T cell counts (0-150 cells/mm(3)) individuals infected with subcluster C viruses showed higher viral loads. We identified a greater number of deaths among individuals infected with subcluster C viruses in comparison to C'. Our results indicate that infection with subcluster C viruses leads to a more rapid onset of disease, despite the initial lower HIV-1 RNA plasma loads. Additionally, the higher viral loads seen for HIV-1 subcluster C' infections at higher CD4(+) T cell counts can help explain the higher prevalence of this subtype in Ethiopia.

  14. Mechanical properties of thermoelectric n-type magnesium silicide synthesized employing in situ spark plasma reaction sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthiah, Saravanan; Singh, R. C.; Pathak, B. D.; Dhar, Ajay

    2017-07-01

    Thermoelectric devices employing magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) offer an inexpensive and non-toxic solution for green energy generation compared to other existing conventional thermoelectric materials in the mid-temperature range. However, apart from the thermoelectric performance, their mechanical properties are equally important in order to avoid the catastrophic failure of their modules during actual operation. In the present study, we report the synthesis of Mg2Si co-doped with Bi and Sb employing in situ spark plasma reaction sintering and investigate its broad range of mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the sintered co-doped Mg2Si suggest a significantly enhanced value of hardness ~5.4  ±  0.2 GPa and an elastic modulus ~142.5  ±  6 GPa with a fracture toughness of ~1.71  ±  0.1 MPa  √m. The thermal shock resistance, which is one of the most vital parameter for designing thermoelectric devices, was found to be ~300 W m-1, which is higher than most of the other existing state-of-the-art mid-temperature thermoelectric materials. The friction and wear characteristics of sintered co-doped Mg2Si have been reported for the first time, in order to realize the sustainability of their thermoelectric modules under actual hostile environmental conditions.

  15. Plasma metabolomic profiles reflective of glucose homeostasis in non-diabetic and Type 2 diabetic obese African-American women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insulin resistance progressing to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is marked by a broad perturbation of macronutrient intermediary metabolism. Understanding the biochemical networks that underlie metabolic homeostasis and how they associate with insulin action will help unravel diabetes etiology and...

  16. Effects of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection on the plasma membrane and related functions of HeLa S3 cells.

    PubMed

    Palù, G; Biasolo, M A; Sartor, G; Masotti, L; Papini, E; Floreani, M; Palatini, P

    1994-12-01

    In this study we evaluated modifications of various structural and functional properties of the plasma membrane of HeLa S3 cells following infection by the lytic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity considerably decreased during the first few hours post-infection (p.i.), whereas Na+ and K+ concentrations were not significantly affected until a much later period. By 8 h p.i., a partial membrane depolarization in infected cells had occurred, as indicated by a small change in the transmembrane potential. HSV infection induced a time-dependent lipid peroxidation of HeLa cell plasma membranes temporally correlated with the progressive reduction in Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity. Moreover, a significant decrease of membrane fluidity appeared at a late phase of the viral replicative cycle probably representing cumulative membrane damage. These results demonstrate that HSV-1 infection induced the production of free radicals in non-phagocytic cells. Since lipid peroxidation begins at an early stage of the virus replicative cycle, it may be directly related to viral cytopathicity.

  17. Association of LRP5, TCF7L2, and GCG variants and type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as fasting plasma glucose and lipid metabolism indexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjin; Yan, Guoli; Zhang, Jianfeng; Gao, Kaiping; Zhang, Ming; Li, Linlin; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian; Zhai, Yujia; You, Haifei; Ren, Yongcheng; Wang, Bingyuan; Hu, Dongsheng

    2015-05-01

    Recent data puts WNT signaling pathway in a pivotal role in regulating pancreas development as well as islet function, insulin production and secretion. The key effectors in the WNT signaling pathway are low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), and downstream-regulated glucagon (GCG). Our previous studies suggest that the WNT signaling pathway plays a significant role in risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Chinese population. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LRP5, TCF7L2 and glucagon (GCG) and quantitative traits in a healthy population. We used tag SNP to screen candidate SNPs for LRP5 and GCG; for TCF7L2, used the confirmed SNP rs11196218. A total of 1842 patients with T2DM and 7777 healthy controls underwent genotyping for the SNPs. We found a significant association of rs3758644 in LRP5 and fasting plasma glucose (p=0.006), and rs11196218 in TCF7L2 and triglycerides level (p=0.004). Among the SNPs in LRP5, TCF7L2, and GCG analyzed, only rs3758644 of LRP5 and rs11196218 of TCF7L2 were significantly associated with fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides index, respectively, in a healthy population. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma nitrite levels, total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, and oxidative stress index in patients with tension-type headache and fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Neyal, Munife; Yimenicioglu, Fatih; Aydeniz, Ali; Taskin, Abdullah; Saglam, Sadullah; Cekmen, Mustafa; Neyal, Abdurrahman; Gursoy, Savas; Erel, Ozcan; Balat, Ayse

    2013-06-01

    Tension-type headache (TTH) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) are worldwide seen chronic pain syndromes of unknown etiology. Despite the growing body of data on pathophysiology and generation mechanisms of pain; our knowledge on pain mechanisms in both FM and TTH is yet to be limited. We investigated the plasma nitrite levels, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in 35 TTH, 33 FM patients and 31 healthy controls. The mean plasma nitrite levels and TAS levels were significantly low and OSI was found to be significantly high in TTH and FM groups compared to the control group (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). The mean serum TOS levels were also significantly higher in FM group according to the control group (p=0.034), but there was not a significant difference between TTH and control groups (p=0.066). These results indicated that; FM and TTH patients revealed higher oxidative stress index and lower total nitrite levels than healthy controls. We conclude that oxidative stress may have a role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of TTH and FM, although, whether it is the cause or the consequence, is not clear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of amphetamine-type stimulants and their metabolites in plasma, urine and bile by liquid chromatography with a strong cation-exchange column-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko T; Miyauchi, Seiji; Kamo, Naoki

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop and validate a method for analysing amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs) and their metabolites in plasma, urine and bile by liquid chromatography with a strong cation-exchange column-tandem mass spectrometry, and to apply it to the pharmacokinetic study of ATSs. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methamphetamine, ketamine and their main metabolites, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, p-hydroxymethamphetamine, amphetamine and norketamine, were simultaneously quantified by the new method (50-5000 ng/ml). The coefficients of variation and the percent deviations for the eight compounds were in the range of 0.2 to 5.3% and -9.4 to +12.8%, respectively. The recoveries were over 90% in all biological samples tested. This method was effective for the separation and the identification of ATSs and their main metabolites having amine moieties in plasma, urine and bile, and was applicable to pharmacokinetic analysis of methamphetamine, ketamine and their main metabolites in biological samples. This analytical method should be useful for the pharmacokinetic analysis of ATSs.

  20. Fluid Model Analysis of the Distribution of the Negative Ion Density before the Extraction from a Tandem Type of a Plasma Source

    SciTech Connect

    St Lishev, Stiliyan; Shivarova, Antonia P.; Tarnev, Khristo Ts.

    2011-09-26

    Unified description of the expansion (through a magnetic filter) and extraction regions, including also the driver, of volume-production based sources of negative hydrogen ions is presented in the study. The model is one-dimensional, developed within the fluid plasma theory. It covers description of both the second chamber of the tandem sources and a single inductively-driven (with a planar coil) discharge of a matrix source. Four parameters have been varied in the analysis of the results: type, position and magnitude of the filter field and rf power applied for the discharge maintenance. The obtained results for the spatial distribution of the plasma parameters as well as for the electronegativity, for the negative ion beam current and its ratio to the electron current at the position of the extraction are discussed regarding optimum conditions for the source operation. The conclusion is that a magnetic field extended over a large region till the extraction favors locality in the discharge behavior and, respectively, the local production of the negative ions. This leads to high density of the extracted negative ion beam current at reasonable values of its ratio to the electron current density.

  1. Catalytic unit-independent phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of type II regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Z; Luo, Y; Vereb, G

    1986-01-01

    Rat liver plasma membranes contain a 55 kDa protein which proved to be identical with type II regulatory subunit (RII) of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (kinase A) by several criteria (gel electrophoretic behaviour, peptide map, position of the autophosphorylated site). Analysis of phosphopeptide maps revealed that the membrane-bound RII was phosphorylated by a kinase which is unrelated to the catalytic unit (C) of kinase A. Dephosphorylation of the membrane-bound RII by an endogenous phosphatase was stimulated by both cyclic AMP and fluoride. Addition of C did not stimulate dephosphorylation even in the presence of ADP; moreover, protein inhibitor of C did not modify the effects of cyclic AMP or fluoride. The effects of both cyclic AMP and fluoride were, however, inhibited by C. Results indicate that rat liver plasma membranes contain a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation system for which RII is a relatively specific substrate. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3010951

  2. Clinical Value of Plasma Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Term Neonates with Infection or Sepsis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Siahanidou, Tania; Margeli, Alexandra; Charoni, Stavroula; Giannaki, Maria; Vavourakis, Eustathios; Charisiadou, Athina; Papassotiriou, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Background. suPAR, the soluble form of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, has been identified as a biomarker of infection in adults but its properties in neonatal infection are not known. Methods. Plasma suPAR levels were determined by ELISA in 47 term neonates with infection (19 bacterial and 28 viral) and in 18 healthy neonates as controls. Thirteen out of 47 infected neonates were septic. In all infected neonates, suPAR levels were repeated at 24 hours, 48 hours, 3–5 days, and 7–10 days following admission. Results. Plasma suPAR levels were significantly increased in infected neonates upon admission, whereas they were highest in septic neonates, in comparison with controls (P < 0.001) and correlated positively with serum CRP levels (P = 0.001). At infection subsidence, suPAR concentrations decreased significantly in comparison with baseline (P < 0.001) but remained higher than in controls (P = 0.01). Receiver operating characteristic analysis resulted in significant areas under the curve for detecting either infected or septic neonates, but not for discriminating between bacterial and viral cause of infection. Conclusions. suPAR is a diagnostic biomarker of infection or sepsis in term neonates; however, it cannot discriminate bacterial from viral infections and also its utility for monitoring the response to treatment is questioned. PMID:24882949