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Sample records for filled high-density polyethylene

  1. Kinetics of Moisture Absorption for Alkali Extracted Steam-Exploded Fiber Filled High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Taib, R. M.; Ramarad, S.; Ishak, Z. A. M.; Rozman, H. D.

    2010-03-11

    Acacia mangium wood fiber derived from steam-explosion and fiber fractionation treatment was used as fillers for high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The alkali extracted steam-exploded fibers (AEF) obtained were acetylated to produce acetylated fibers (AAEF) having three different weight percent gain (WPG). Composites of AEF or AAEF and HDPE were prepared via 2-roll mill, compression molded and cut into dumbbell specimens. All samples were immersed in water at room temperature for 30 days. The process of absorption of water by all composites followed the kinetics and mechanisms described by the Fick's theory. Diffusion coefficient (D) values increased with filler loading but decreased with increasing WPG of the AAEF fiber. Further decrease was observed when maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was added to the composite system. This was due to improved fiber-matrix adhesion that restricts movement of water molecules from further penetrate inside the composite structures.

  2. Kinetics of Moisture Absorption for Alkali Extracted Steam-Exploded Fiber Filled High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taib, R. M.; Ramarad, S.; Ishak, Z. A. M.; Rozman, H. D.

    2010-03-01

    Acacia mangium wood fiber derived from steam-explosion and fiber fractionation treatment was used as fillers for high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The alkali extracted steam-exploded fibers (AEF) obtained were acetylated to produce acetylated fibers (AAEF) having three different weight percent gain (WPG). Composites of AEF or AAEF and HDPE were prepared via 2-roll mill, compression molded and cut into dumbbell specimens. All samples were immersed in water at room temperature for 30 days. The process of absorption of water by all composites followed the kinetics and mechanisms described by the Fick's theory. Diffusion coefficient (D) values increased with filler loading but decreased with increasing WPG of the AAEF fiber. Further decrease was observed when maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was added to the composite system. This was due to improved fiber-matrix adhesion that restricts movement of water molecules from further penetrate inside the composite structures.

  3. Electrical resistivity of carbon black-filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composite containing radiation crosslinked HDPE particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myong-Goo; Nho, Young Chang

    2001-04-01

    The room-temperature volume resistivity of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)-carbon black (CB) blends containing previously radiation crosslinked HDPE powder was studied. The results showed that the room-temperature volume resistivity decreases with increasing concentration of crosslinked HDPE powder. It is considered that the crosslinked HDPE particles act as a filler that increases the CB volume fraction in the HDPE matrix. The results of an optical microscope observation indicated that the crosslinked polymer particles are dispersed in the HDPE/CB composite. This effect of the crosslinked particles is attributed to the fact that the crosslinked mesh size of the HDPE particles is so small that the CB particles cannot go inside them. The effect of 60Co γ-ray and electron beam (EB) irradiation on the positive temperature coefficient, negative temperature coefficient and electrical resistivity behavior of the blends were studied.

  4. Vacuum Outgassing of High Density Polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Sze, J; Schildbach, M A; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Raboin, P; McLean II, W

    2008-08-11

    A combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed decomposition (TPD) was employed to identify the outgassing species, the total amount of outgassing, and the outgassing kinetics of high density polyethylene (HDPE) in a vacuum environment. The isoconversional kinetic analysis was then used to analyze the outgassing kinetics and to predict the long-term outgassing of HDPE in vacuum applications at ambient temperature. H{sub 2}O and C{sub n}H{sub x} with n as high as 9 and x centering around 2n are the major outgassing species from solid HDPE, but the quantities evolved can be significantly reduced by vacuum baking at 368 K for a few hours prior to device assembly.

  5. Recycling of irradiated high-density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, J.; Manas, M.; Mizera, A.; Bednarik, M.; Stanek, M.; Danek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a well-recognized modification of improving basic material characteristics. This research paper deals with the utilization of electron beam irradiated HDPE (HDPEx) after the end of its lifetime. Powder of recycled HDPEx (irradiation dose 165 kGy) was used as a filler into powder of virgin low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in concentrations ranging from 10% to 60%. The effect of the filler on processability and mechanical behavior of the resulting mixtures was investigated. The results indicate that the processability, as well as mechanical behavior, highly depends on the amount of the filler. Melt flow index dropped from 13.7 to 0.8 g/10 min comparing the lowest and the highest concentration; however, the higher shear rate the lower difference between each concentration. Toughness and hardness, on the other hand, grew with increasing addition of the recycled HDPEx. Elastic modulus increased from 254 to 450 MPa and material hardness increased from 53 to 59 ShD. These results indicate resolving the problem of further recycling of irradiated polymer materials while taking advantage of the improved mechanical properties.

  6. Scoping study. High density polyethylene (HDPE) in salstone service

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, Mark A.

    2005-02-18

    An evaluation of the use of high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes in Saltstone service has been conducted due to the potential benefits that could be derived from such usage. HDPE is one of the simplest hydrocarbon polymers and one of the most common polymers utilized in the production of geomembranes, which means that its costs are relatively low. Additionally, HDPE geomembranes have an extremely low permeability and an extremely low water vapor diffusional flux, which means that it is a good barrier to contaminant transport. The primary consideration in association with HDPE geomembranes in Saltstone service is the potential impact of Saltstone on the degradation of the HDPE geomembranes. Therefore, the evaluation documented herein has primarily focused upon the potential HDPE degradation in Saltstone service.

  7. WEAR BEHAVIOR OF CARBON NANOTUBE/HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITES

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brian B.; Novotny, John E.; Advani, Suresh G.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon Nanotube/High Density Polyethylene (CNT/HDPE) composites were manufactured and tested to determine their wear behavior. The nanocomposites were made from untreated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and HDPE pellets. Thin films of the precursor materials were created with varying weight percentages of nanotubes (1%, 3%, and 5%), through a process of mixing and extruding. The precursor composites were then molded and machined to create test specimens for mechanical and wear tests. These included small punch testing to compare stiffness, maximum load and work-to-failure and block-on-ring testing to determine wear behavior. Each of the tests was conducted for the different weight percentages of composite as well as pure HDPE as the baseline. The measured mechanical properties and wear resistance of the composite materials increased with increasing nanotube content in the range studied. PMID:20161101

  8. Compatibility and Decontamination of High-Density Polyethylene Exposed to Sulfur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    COMPATIBILITY AND DECONTAMINATION OF HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE EXPOSED TO SULFUR MUSTARD ECBC-TR-1235...Decontamination of High-Density Polyethylene Exposed to Sulfur Mustard 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...study to determine the compatability of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with liquid mustard (HD) material and decontamination of HDPE when exposed

  9. Fracture behavior of kaolin-reinforced high density polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Wetherhold, R.C.; Mouzakis, D.E.

    1999-10-01

    The addition of the low-cost mineral filler kaolin to high-density polyethylene (HDPE) creates a composite with both improved stiffness and toughness properties. This study focuses on two aspects of the toughness of these composites: the fracture toughness increment produced by work at the fracture surface and the directionality induced by the injection molding fabrication process. The Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) method gives results which show that a higher volume fraction of kaolin produces more surface work, consistent with earlier work using Compact Tension (CT) tests. The EWF method also demonstrates that a lower volume fraction can produce a higher overall plastic work and apparent toughness. A heat treatment that removes the orientation of the matrix but not that of the particles was applied to study the effect of matrix crystallinity. The results indicate that the matrix supramolecular structure (crystallinity and skin-core effect) is responsible for the directionality of toughness, and that a heat treatment can be used to produce high toughness behavior in both major directions.

  10. Crystallization Studies of Blends of Low Density Polyethylene and High Density Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, C.; Gomez, S.; Castañeda, R.

    1997-03-01

    The incorporation of low density polyethylene (LDPE) segments within the high density polyethylene (HDPE) lamellae on cooling from the molten state is investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Rich LDPE blends (>80%) on quenching from the melt exhibited partial cocrystallization. Two endotherms on heating are observed, the LDPE is the main component of the low melting endotherm whereas the HDPE is the main component of the high melting endotherm. A depression in the high melting temperature peak is observed. In addition, on subsequent treatment the crystallization behaviour under controlled conditions of the low melting component in quenched blends is studied and it shows a shift in the crystallization temperature when compared with pure LDPE. After reheating a depression in the low melting temperature with increasing HDPE content in the blend is observed. The effect of cooling conditions used from the melt on the cocrystallization between the two polymers is studied.

  11. Measurements and predictions of outgassing from high density polyethylene (HDPE), PBX9502, and certain silicones by the isoconversional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Glascoe, E A; Schildbach, M A; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; McLean II, W

    2009-07-06

    The techniques of mass spectrometry and temperature programmed decomposition were used to measure outgassing kinetics from high density polyethylene, insensitive high explosive PBX 9502, and silica-filled polysiloxane TR55 and S5370. The isoconversional thermal analysis method was then employed to extract outgassing kinetics and to make kinetic predictions for long term outgassing at lower temperatures. The accuracy, advantages and disadvantages of the isoconversional analysis in terms of kinetic prediction for these materials and some others will be discussed.

  12. Properties of high density polyethylene – Paulownia wood flour composites via injection molding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paulownia wood (PW) flour is evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. Composites of high density polyethylene (HDPE), 25% by weight of PW, and either 0% or 5% by weight of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) were produced by twin screw compounding followed by injection molding. Molded test composite...

  13. Mechanical and thermal properties of high density polyethylene – dried distillers grains with solubles composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried Distillers Grain with Solubles (DDGS) is evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. Injection molded composites of high density polyethylene (HDPE), 25% by weight of DDGS, and either 5% of 0% by weight of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) were produced by twin screw compounding and injection mo...

  14. An investigation on chloroprene-compatibilized acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene blends.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khalil

    2015-11-01

    Blends of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene (NBR/HDPE) compatibilized by Chloroprene rubber (CR) were prepared. A fixed quantity of industrial waste such as marble waste (MW, 40 phr) was also included. The effect of the blend ratio and CR on cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends was investigated. The results showed that the MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends revealed an increase in tensile strength, tear, modulus, hardness and cross-link density for increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The minimum torque (M L) and maximum torque (M H) of blends increased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE while scorch time (ts2) cure time (tc90), compression set and abrasion loss of blends decreased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The blends also showed a continuous reduction in elongation at break as well as swelling coefficient with increasing HDPE amount in blends. MW filled blends based on CR provided the most encouraging balance values of overall properties.

  15. An investigation on chloroprene-compatibilized acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene blends

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Blends of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene (NBR/HDPE) compatibilized by Chloroprene rubber (CR) were prepared. A fixed quantity of industrial waste such as marble waste (MW, 40 phr) was also included. The effect of the blend ratio and CR on cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends was investigated. The results showed that the MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends revealed an increase in tensile strength, tear, modulus, hardness and cross-link density for increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The minimum torque (ML) and maximum torque (MH) of blends increased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE while scorch time (ts2) cure time (tc90), compression set and abrasion loss of blends decreased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The blends also showed a continuous reduction in elongation at break as well as swelling coefficient with increasing HDPE amount in blends. MW filled blends based on CR provided the most encouraging balance values of overall properties. PMID:26644917

  16. Axial pattern composite prefabrication of high-density porous polyethylene: experimental and clinical research.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ragip; Kocer, Ugur; Tiftikcioglu, Yigit Ozer; Karaaslan, Onder; Kankaya, Yuksel; Cuzdan, Sedat; Baydar, Dilek Ertoy

    2005-01-01

    Currently, various alloplastic materials are being used for reconstruction of three-dimensional structures, and high-density porous polyethylene is so far the best and the most commonly used material. Various indications for high-density porous polyethylene have been defined for closure of craniofacial defects, correction of congenital anomalies, and aesthetic augmentations. A common property of various studies published so far is that after being fixed to the bone or underlying structures, high-density porous polyethylene has been covered primarily or by skin flaps. For reconstruction of complex three-dimensional structures such as the ear and nose, the success of current methods is limited by the thinness and pliability of the skin flap. In this study, the authors' aim was to investigate the graftability of high-density porous polyethylene after prefabrication with an axial pedicle and to explore possible clinical applications in light of the new data obtained. In the experimental study, three-dimensional implants (rectangular prism) carved from high-density porous polyethylene were prefabricated using bilateral superficial epigastric arteries and veins of 25 New Zealand rabbits. After a waiting period of 2 to 6 weeks in five groups, control samples were obtained and the prefabricated implants that had been left in place were directly grafted. The results showed that high-density porous polyethylene was vascularized 75 percent after 4 weeks and 90 percent after 5 weeks, and 95 percent of the grafts had survived after 8 weeks. In the clinical study, three nose defects, three ear defects, and one hard palate defect in seven patients ranging in age from 21 to 72 years were reconstructed using the same method. High-density porous polyethylene has been prefabricated and directly grafted for the very first time on a clinical basis. No serious complications have been observed, except for minimal graft loss in two patients. It is obvious that full-thickness skin grafts

  17. Catalytic and thermal depolymerization of low value post-consumer high density polyethylene plastic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of catalytic and non-catalytic pyrolytic conversion of low value post-consumer high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic into crude oil and subsequent distillation was explored. Translation of optimized conditions for catalytic and non-catalytic pyrolysis from TGA to a bench-scale sys...

  18. Mechanical properties of high density polyethylene--pennycress press cake composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pennycress press cake (PPC) is evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. PPC is a by-product of crop seed oil extraction. Composites with a high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix are created by twin screw compounding of 25% by weight of PPC and either 0% or 5% by weight of maleated polyethyle...

  19. The yield and post-yield behavior of high-density polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semeliss, M. A.; Wong, R.; Tuttle, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental and analytical evaluation was made of the yield and post-yield behavior of high-density polyethylene, a semi-crystalline thermoplastic. Polyethylene was selected for study because it is very inexpensive and readily available in the form of thin-walled tubes. Thin-walled tubular specimens were subjected to axial loads and internal pressures, such that the specimens were subjected to a known biaxial loading. A constant octahederal shear stress rate was imposed during all tests. The measured yield and post-yield behavior was compared with predictions based on both isotropic and anisotropic models. Of particular interest was whether inelastic behavior was sensitive to the hydrostatic stress level. The major achievements and conclusions reached are discussed.

  20. High-density polyethylene pipe: A new material for pass-by passive integrated transponder antennas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kazyak, David C.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Pass-by passive integrated transponder (PIT) antennas are widely used to study the movements of fish in streams. At many sites, stream conditions make it difficult to maintain antennas and obtain a continuous record of movement. We constructed pass-by PIT antennas by using high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and found them to be robust to high flows and winter ice flows. Costs for HDPE antennas were similar to those of traditional polyvinyl chloride (PVC) antennas, although construction was somewhat more complicated. At sites where PVC antennas are frequently damaged, HDPE is a durable and economical alternative for PIT antenna construction.

  1. Solving a product safety problem using a recycled high density polyethylene container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to introduce basic problem-solving techniques for product safety including problem identification, definition, solution criteria, test process and design, and data analysis. The students are given a recycled milk jug made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) by blow molding. The objectives are to design and perform proper material test(s) so they can evaluate the product safety if the milk jug is used in a certain way which is specified in the description of the procedure for this investigation.

  2. Large area neutron detector based on Li6 ionization chamber with integrated body-moderator of high density polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril D.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Chung, Kiwhan; Makela, Mark F.

    2009-06-30

    A detector was developed and funded by DHS to be a lower cost alternative to 3He detectors. A 6Li foil-lined ionization chamber was prepared with fill gas at one atmosphere and pulse mode operation. The high-density polyethylene (HOPE) body serves also as a neutron moderator. All electrodes, including high voltage bias supply, are hermetically sealed within the plastic slabs.

  3. Effect of ultraviolet radiation in the photo-oxidation of High Density Polyethylene and Biodegradable Polyethylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Romo, A.; González Mota, R.; Bernal, J. J. Soto; Frausto Reyes, C.; Rosales Candelas, I.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most widely used plastics in the world is the High density polyethylene (HDPE), it is a stable material due to its carbon-carbon bonds, causing their slow degradation; which is why we are looking for alternative ways to accelerate the degradation process of this polymer. An alternative is the addition of oxidized groups in its molecular structure, which results in the development of polymers susceptible to biodegradation (PE-BIO). In this paper, HDPE and PE-BIO films were exposed to UV-B radiation (320-280 nm) at different exposure times, 0-60 days. The effects of UV radiation in samples of HDPE and PE-BIO were characterized using infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (ATR). The results show that the exposed materials undergo changes in their molecular structure, due to the infrared bands formed which corresponds to the photo-oxidation of HDPE and PE films when submitted to UV-B radiation.

  4. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.

    2015-04-15

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  5. Reaction between Steel-Making Slag and Carbonaceous Materials While Mixing with High Density Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Lan; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the extensive applications in numerous high temperature processes such as iron- and steel-making, coke-making etc. partly in the place of coke, the investigation into the reaction mechanism of waste plastics has become increasingly necessary. In this paper a fundamental study on the behavior of a typical component of waste plastics, high density polyethylene (HDPE), in a mixture with coke at a 1:1 ratio in mass base was conducted during the reaction with iron oxide in steel-making slag at 1823 K and was compared with coke and graphite. The reaction mechanism of carbonaceous materials was analyzed based on the contents of CO and CO2 in the off-gas monitored by an infrared (IR) gas analyzer. It is clear from the results that the reaction of HDPE and coke mixture with steel-making slag approached equilibrium of the Boudouard reaction more quickly and closely than coke or graphite.

  6. Application of schlieren interferometry to temperature measurements during laser welding of high-density polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Coelho, João M P; Abreu, Manuel A; Rodrigues, F Carvalho

    2003-11-01

    Schlieren interferometry is found to be an alternative tool for temperature measurement during thermoplastic laser welding with regard to methods based on thermocouples or optical pyrometers. In fact, these techniques are not easily applied when materials to be processed have reduced thickness, negligible heat conduction, and low emissivity, as is the case of welding high-density polyethylene films with 10.6-microm CO2 laser radiation, even if the method reaches its applicability limit after approximately 1 s of the interaction process. The schlieren method provides the means and the results to probe the thermal variations of the laser-thermoplastic interaction on both the surface and the interface between the sample material and the air.

  7. Strain-rate/temperature behavior of high density polyethylene in compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, L. L.; Sherby, O. D.

    1978-01-01

    The compressive strain rate/temperature behavior of highly linear, high density polyethylene was analyzed in terms of the predictive relations developed for metals and other crystalline materials. For strains of 5 percent and above, the relationship between applied strain rate, dotted epsilon, and resulting flow stress, sigma, was found to be: dotted epsilon exp times (Q sub f/RT) = k'(sigma/sigma sub c) to the nth power; the left-hand side is the activation-energy-compensated strain rate, where Q sub f is activation energy for flow, R is gas constant, and T is temperature; k is a constant, n is temperature-independent stress exponent, and sigma/sigma sub c is structure-compensated stress. A master curve resulted from a logarithmic plot of activation-energy-compensated strain rate versus structure-compensated stress.

  8. Wet self-cleaning of superhydrophobic microfiber adhesives formed from high density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongho; Fearing, Ronald S

    2012-10-30

    Biologically inspired adhesives developed for switchable and controllable adhesion often require repetitive uses in general, dirty, environments. Superhydrophobic microstructures on the lotus leaf lead to exceptional self-cleaning of dirt particles on nonadhesive surfaces with water droplets. This paper describes the self-cleaning properties of a hard-polymer-based adhesive formed with high-aspect-ratio microfibers from high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The microfiber adhesive shows almost complete wet self-cleaning of dirt particles with water droplets, recovering 98% of the adhesion of the pristine microfiber adhesives. The low contact angle hysteresis indicates that the surface of microfiber adhesives is superhydrophobic. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal a design parameter, length, which can control the adhesion without affecting the superhydrophobicity. The results suggest some properties of biologically inspired adhesives can be controlled independently by adjusting design parameters.

  9. A multivariate analysis of the effects of multiple extrusion cycles on high density polyethylene bottle resin

    SciTech Connect

    Zahavich, A.

    1995-10-01

    The recycling of post consumer (PCR) high density polyethylene (HDPE) blow molding resins has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. The focus of research for this product has been on specific performance and processing properties such as tensile or melt strength. Little work has been done on studying the entire range of properties as a whole, particularly in the area of multiple extrusions. This paper describes a designed experiment study where multivariate statistical techniques were used to compare 2 HDPE and 2 HDPE PCR materials, in terms of changes in a number of properties with exposure to multiple extrusions. Virgin homopolymer and copolymer resins and PCR, mixed color bottle and natural, were passed through 4 extrusion cycles. Viscosity, swell, melt strength, crystallinity, polydispersity and ESCR properties were studied using principal component analysis.

  10. Sensitivity of Dielectric Properties to Wear Process on Carbon Nanofiber/High-Density Polyethylene Composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian; Wood, Weston; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2011-12-01

    We examined the correlation of wear effects with dielectric properties of carbon nanofibers (CNFs; untreated and organosilane-treated)-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. Wear testing for the nanocomposites over up to 120 h was carried out, and then, dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss factor of the polymer composites with the increased wear time were studied. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope observations were made to analyze the microstructure features of the nanocomposites. The results reveal that there exist approximate linear relationships of permittivity with wear coefficient for the nanocomposites. Composites containing silanized CNFs with the sufficiently thick coating exhibited high wear resistance. The change in permittivity was more sensitive to the increased wear coefficient for the nanocomposites with lower wear resistance. This work provides potential for further research on the application of dielectric signals to detect the effects of wear process on lifetime of polymeric materials.

  11. Sensitivity of Dielectric Properties to Wear Process on Carbon Nanofiber/High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We examined the correlation of wear effects with dielectric properties of carbon nanofibers (CNFs; untreated and organosilane-treated)-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. Wear testing for the nanocomposites over up to 120 h was carried out, and then, dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss factor of the polymer composites with the increased wear time were studied. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope observations were made to analyze the microstructure features of the nanocomposites. The results reveal that there exist approximate linear relationships of permittivity with wear coefficient for the nanocomposites. Composites containing silanized CNFs with the sufficiently thick coating exhibited high wear resistance. The change in permittivity was more sensitive to the increased wear coefficient for the nanocomposites with lower wear resistance. This work provides potential for further research on the application of dielectric signals to detect the effects of wear process on lifetime of polymeric materials. PMID:27502631

  12. Laser surfacing of high density polyethylene for reduction in fuel permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Duley, W.W. ); Ogmen, M.; Steel, T. ); Mihailov, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the increasing use of plastics by the automobile industry has resulted in new manufacturing technology. For example, high density polyethylene (HDPE) fuel tanks can now be blow-molded to fit available vehicle space. Such HDPE tanks offer several advantages over conventional metal tanks. Some of these advantages are: lower production cost; ease of fabrication and fitting to vehicle; reduced explosion hazard; 40 - 50 % reduction in weight; impact resistance; and lack of corrosion. The effect of UV and CO[sub 2] laser radiation on the surface of HDPE gas tank material in relation to the permeability of the surface to unleaded gasoline has been investigated. It is found that while excimer (UV) laser radiation has no effect on permeability, CO[sub 2] laser radiation at low intensity modifies the surface so as to reduce permeability over timescales of 1 - 2 days. A possible origin for this modification is suggested.

  13. Improved SEC-FTIR method for the characterization of multimodal high-density polyethylenes.

    PubMed

    Piel, Christian; Albrecht, Andreas; Neubauer, Corinna; Klampfl, Christian W; Reussner, Jens

    2011-06-01

    A size-exclusion chromatography-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SEC-FTIR) method for the analysis of high-density polyethylene copolymers was developed, providing superior resolution for the determination of short-chain branching as a function of time and improved repeatability by hardware adaptation and processing optimization. SEC-FTIR for characterization of polyolefins is a compromising technique. Best resolution in terms of molecular weight and molecular weight distribution requires a very low sample solution concentration in size-exclusion chromatography while best results from online infrared (IR) spectroscopy require as high concentrations as possible. The signal-to-noise ratio at the IR detector could be increased significantly after application of a bandpass filter instead of a steel mesh attenuator and furthermore influences of system instabilities could be decreased by changes in data processing. Reliable short-chain branching information in the high molecular weight section in respect to accuracy and repeatability with better chromatographic resolution could be achieved.

  14. Enhancement of in vitro high-density polyethylene (HDPE) degradation by physical, chemical, and biological treatments.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, V; Natarajan, K; Rajeshkannan, V; Perumal, P

    2014-11-01

    Partially degraded high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was collected from plastic waste dump yard for biodegradation using fungi. Of various fungi screened, strain MF12 was found efficient in degrading HDPE by weight loss and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometric analysis. Strain MF12 was selected as efficient HDPE degraders for further studies, and their growth medium composition was optimized. Among those different media used, basal minimal medium (BMM) was suitable for the HDPE degradation by strain MF12. Strain MF12 was subjected to 28S rRNA sequence analysis and identified as Aspergillus terreus MF12. HDPE degradation was carried out using combinatorial physical and chemical treatments in conjunction to biological treatment. The high level of HDPE degradation was observed in ultraviolet (UV) and KMnO4/HCl with A. terreus MF12 treatment, i.e., FT10. The abiotic physical and chemical factors enhance the biodegradation of HDPE using A. terreus MF12.

  15. Gasification of biomass/high density polyethylene mixtures in a downdraft gasifier.

    PubMed

    García-Bacaicoa, P; Mastral, J F; Ceamanos, J; Berrueco, C; Serrano, S

    2008-09-01

    In this work, an experimental study of the thermal decomposition of mixtures of wood particles and high density polyethylene in different atmospheres has been carried out in a downdraft gasifier with a nominal processing capacity of 50 kg/h. The main objective was to study the feasibility of the operation of the gasification plant using mixtures and to investigate the characteristics of the gas obtained. In order to do so, experiments with biomass only and with mixtures with up to 15% HDPE have been carried out. The main components of the gas generated are N(2) (50%), H(2) (14%), CO (9-22%) and CO(2) (7-17%) and its relatively high calorific value was adequate for using it in an internal combustion engine generator consisting of a modified diesel engine coupled with a 25 kV A alternator.

  16. In-situ Production of High Density Polyethylene and Other Useful Materials on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a revolutionary materials structure and power storage concept based on the in-situ production of abiotic carbon 4 compounds. One of the largest single mass penalties required to support the human exploration of Mars is the surface habitat. This proposal will use physical chemical technologies to produce high density polyethylene (HDPE) inflatable structures and construction materials from Mars atmospheric CO2. The formation of polyethylene from Mars CO2 is based on the use of the Sabatier and modified Fischer Tropsch reactions. The proposed system will fully integrate with existing in-situ propellant production concepts. The technology will also be capable of supplementing human caloric requirements, providing solid and liquid fuels for energy storage, and providing significant reduction in mission risk. The NASA Mars Reference Mission Definition Team estimated that a conventional Mars surface habitat structure would weigh 10 tonnes. It is estimated that this technology could reduce this mass by 80%. This reduction in mass will significantly contribute to the reduction in total mission cost need to make a Mars mission a reality. In addition the potential reduction of risk provided by the ability to produce C4 and potentially higher carbon based materials in-situ on Mars is significant. Food, fuel, and shelter are only three of many requirements that would be impacted by this research.

  17. Effect of environmental conditions on the permeability of high density polyethylene film to fumigant vapors.

    PubMed

    Papiernik, Sharon K; Yates, Scott R

    2002-04-15

    Soil fumigation in greenhouses or agricultural fields often includes tarping the soil surface with polyethylene (PE) films to contain the fumigant in the soil and reduce emissions to the atmosphere. Previous research has demonstrated that PE films are permeable to methyl bromide and other fumigant compounds. In these experiments, the effect of temperature, fumigant mixtures, condensed water, and field aging on the permeability of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was determined. Mass transfer coefficients (h, a measure of permeability) of the fumigants methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene, propargyl bromide, and chloropicrin across HDPE films were determined. In these studies, temperature and HDPE film type had the largest impact on the h of fumigant compounds across HDPE films. Other factors investigated, including fumigant mixtures, condensed water on the film, and field aging of UV-stabilized film, did not have a significant impact on h. The results of these experiments suggest that the permeability of an intact piece of an agricultural film will increase with increasing temperature but is relatively constant despite changes in other environmental conditions.

  18. Friction and wear of hydroxyapatite reinforced high density polyethylene against the stainless steel counterface.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Chandrasekaran, M; Bonfield, W

    2002-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) was invented as a biomaterial for skeletal applications. In this investigation, tribological properties (e.g. wear rate and coefficient of friction) of unfilled HDPE and HA/HDPE composites were evaluated against the duplex stainless steel in dry and lubricated conditions, with distilled water or aqueous solutions of proteins (egg albumen or glucose) being lubricants. Wear tests were conducted in a custom-built test rig for HDPE and HA/HDPE containing up to 40 vol % of HA. It was found that HA/HDPE composites had lower coefficients of friction than unfilled HDPE under certain conditions. HA/HDPE also exhibited less severe fatigue failure marks than HDPE. The degradation and fatigue failure of HDPE due to the presence of proteins were severe for low speed wear testing (100 rpm) as compared to high speed wear testing (200 rpm). This was due possibly to the high shear rate at the contact which could remove any degraded film instantaneously at high sliding speed, while with a low sliding speed the build-up of a degraded layer of protein could occur. The degraded protein layer would stay at the contact for a longer time and mechanical activation would induce adverse reactions, weakening the surface layer of HDPE. Both egg albumen and glucose were found to be corrosive to steel and adversely reactive for HDPE and HA/HDPE composites. The wear modes observed were similar to that of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Specimens tested with egg albumen also displayed higher wear rates, which was again attributed to corrosion accelerated wear.

  19. Preparation and properties of banana fiber-reinforced composites based on high density polyethylene (HDPE)/Nylon-6 blends.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Wu, Q; Zhang, Q

    2009-12-01

    Banana fiber (BaF)-filled composites based on high density polyethylene (HDPE)/Nylon-6 blends were prepared via a two-step extrusion method. Maleic anhydride grafted styrene/ethylene-butylene/styrene triblock polymer (SEBS-g-MA) and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE-g-MA) were used to enhance impact performance and interfacial bonding between BaF and the resins. Mechanical, crystallization/melting, thermal stability, water absorption, and morphological properties of the composites were investigated. In the presence of SEBS-g-MA, better strengths and moduli were found for HDPE/Nylon-6 based composites compared with corresponding HDPE based composites. At a fixed weight ratio of PE-g-MA to BaF, an increase of BaF loading up to 48.2 wt.% led to a continuous improvement in moduli and flexural strength of final composites, while impact toughness was lowered gradually. Predicted tensile modulus by the Hones-Paul model for three-dimensional random fiber orientation agreed well with experimental data at the BaF loading of 29.3 wt.%. However, the randomly-oriented fiber models underestimated experimental data at higher fiber levels. It was found that the presence of SEBS-g-MA had a positive influence on reinforcing effect of the Nylon-6 component in the composites. Thermal analysis results showed that fractionated crystallization of the Nylon-6 component in the composites was induced by the addition of both SEBS-g-MA and PE-g-MA. Thermal stability of both composite systems differed slightly, except an additional decomposition peak related to the minor Nylon-6 for the composites from the HDPE/Nylon-6 blends. In the presence of SEBS-g-MA, the addition of Nylon-6 and increased BaF loading level led to an increase in the water absorption value of the composites.

  20. PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE DISPOSAL CELL HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE GEOMEMBRANE LONGEVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.

    2012-01-31

    It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

  1. Current Activities Assessing Butt Fusion Joint Integrity in High Density Polyethylene Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Doctor, Steven R.; Denslow, Kayte M.

    2012-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, conducted initial studies to evaluate the effectiveness of nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing for assessing butt fusion joint integrity in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The work provided insightful information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques for detecting lack of fusion (LOF) conditions in the fusion joints. HDPE has been installed on a limited basis in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Class 3, buried piping systems at several operating U.S. nuclear power plants and has been proposed for use in new construction. A comparison was made between the results from ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive examinations and the results from mechanical destructive evaluations, specifically the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test, for determining joint integrity. The data comparison revealed that none of the NDE techniques detected all of the lack-of-fusion conditions that were revealed by the destructive tests. Follow-on work has recently been initiated at PNNL to accurately characterize the NDE responses from machined flaws of varying size and location in PE 4710 materials as well as the LOF condition. This effort is directed at quantifying the ability of volumetric NDE techniques to detect flaws in relation to the critical flaw size associated with joint integrity. A status of these latest investigations is presented.

  2. Shape stabilised phase change materials (SSPCMs): High density polyethylene and hydrocarbon waxes

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Mulan E-mail: m.basheer@qub.ac.uk; Basheer, P. A. M. E-mail: m.basheer@qub.ac.uk; Bai, Yun; McNally, Tony

    2014-05-15

    Shape stabilised phase change materials (SSPCMs) based on high density polyethylene (HDPE) with high (HPW, T{sub m}=56-58 °C) and low (L-PW, T{sub m}=18-23 °C) melting point waxes were prepared by melt-mixing in a twin-screw extruder and their potential in latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) applications for housing assessed. The structure and morphology of these blends were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both H-PW and L-PW were uniformly distributed throughout the HDPE matrix. The melting point and latent heat of the SSPCMs were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results demonstrated that both H-PW and L-PW have a plasticisation effect on the HDPE matrix. The tensile and flexural properties of the samples were measured at room temperature (RT, 20±2 °C) and 70 °C, respectively. All mechanical properties of HDPE/H-PW and HDPE/L-PW blends decreased from RT to 70 °C. In all instances at RT, modulus and stress, irrespective of the mode of deformation was greater for the HDPE/H-PW blends. However, at 70 °C, there was no significant difference in mechanical properties between the HDPE/H-PW and HDPE/L-PW blends.

  3. Characterization of laser beam transmission through a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genna, S.; Leone, C.; Tagliaferri, V.

    2017-02-01

    Infrared (IR) light propagation in semicrystalline polymers involves mechanisms such as reflection, transmission, absorption and internal scattering. These different rates determine either the interaction mechanism, either the temperatures reached in the IR heating processes. Consequently, the knowledge of these rates is fundamental in the development of IR heating processes in order to avoid the polymer's damage and to increase the process energy efficiency. Aim of this work is to assess a simple procedure to determine the rates of absorbed, reflected, transmitted and scattered energy in the case of an unfilled High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) plate. Experimental tests were performed by exposing a HDPE plate, 3 mm in thickness, to a diode laser source, working at the fundamental wavelength of 975 nm. The transmitted power was measured by power meter, the reflected one by applying the Beer-Lambert law to sample of different thickness. IR thermal images were adopted to measure the absorbed ratio. The scattered ratio was measured by energetic balance, as difference between the incoming power and the other ratios. Finally, IR thermal images were adopted to measure the scattered ratio and to validate the procedure.

  4. Modeling benzene permeation through drinking water high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes.

    PubMed

    Mao, Feng; Ong, Say Kee; Gaunt, James A

    2015-09-01

    Organic compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and o-, m-, and p-xylene from contaminated soil and groundwater may permeate through thermoplastic pipes which are used for the conveyance of drinking water in water distribution systems. In this study, permeation parameters of benzene in 25 mm (1 inch) standard inside dimension ratio (SIDR) 9 high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes were estimated by fitting the measured data to a permeation model based on a combination of equilibrium partitioning and Fick's diffusion. For bulk concentrations between 6.0 and 67.5 mg/L in soil pore water, the concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients of benzene were found to range from 2.0×10(-9) to 2.8×10(-9) cm2/s while the solubility coefficient was determined to be 23.7. The simulated permeation curves of benzene for SIDR 9 and SIDR 7 series of HDPE pipes indicated that small diameter pipes were more vulnerable to permeation of benzene than large diameter pipes, and the breakthrough of benzene into the HDPE pipe was retarded and the corresponding permeation flux decreased with an increase of the pipe thickness. HDPE pipes exposed to an instantaneous plume exhibited distinguishable permeation characteristics from those exposed to a continuous source with a constant input. The properties of aquifer such as dispersion coefficients (DL) also influenced the permeation behavior of benzene through HDPE pipes.

  5. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Cao, Leipeng; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a ZrO2-based polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was prepared and used in catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene (HDPE) for hydrocarbon fuel production. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst dosage, and HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio on the product distribution and hydrocarbon fuel composition were examined. Experimental results indicate that the maximum hydrocarbon fuel yield of 63.1wt. % was obtained at 430°C, and the oxygenates were rarely detected in the hydrocarbon fuel. The hydrocarbon fuel yield increased when the catalyst was used. At the catalyst dosage of 15wt.%, the proportion of alkanes in the hydrocarbon fuel reached 97.85wt.%, which greatly simplified the fuel composition and improved the fuel quality. With the augment of HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio, the hydrocarbon fuel yield monotonously increased. At the HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio of 1:1, the maximum proportion (97.85wt.%) of alkanes was obtained. Moreover, the properties of hydrocarbon fuel were superior to biodiesel and 0(#) diesel due to higher calorific value, better low-temperature low fluidity, and lower density and viscosity.

  6. [Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy for Degradation Profile of High Density Polyethylene after Weathering Aging].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-jun; Yan, Hua; Bao, He-bin; Wang, Xue-mei; Hu, Zhi-de; Yang, Jian-jian

    2015-06-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE) was widely used as rotational packaging case in the material reserve field. The chemical changes of HDPE, exposed to particular climatic conditions of tropic marine atmosphere for one year-long in Wanning Hainan, were elucidated by the attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The structural changes were studied qualitatively, mainly from the polymeric chain breaking, branching and oxidation to distinguish the degradation profile. The variations of crystallinity & carbonyl index were also studied quantitatively according to the characteristic peaks intensity & area ratio. Finally, the relationships between structural changes and mechanical properties were investigated. The results showed that the polymeric chain breaking & branching play a leading role before 3 months in the aging progress. Then oxidation phenomena gradually takes place during 3-6 months. The chain branching & oxidation were predominant factors after 6 months. Nine months later, the oxidation was saturated gradually. Furthermore, the aging process is positively correlated to the temperature and irradiation. After 12 months aging, the carbonyl index increased by 112 times and crystallinity was 10% higher than before. The tensile/bending modulus deceased faster than tensile/bending strength of HDPE. The linear degree of tensile modulus and carbonyl index was 0.97. The degree of linearity of tensile strength and crystallinity calculated by feature bands (720-730 cm(-1)) was 0.96. It showed that the mechanical properties of HDPE can be speculated from the structural changes by ATR-FTIR.

  7. Separation of bimodal high density polyethylene using multidimensional high temperature liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, K N; Brüll, R; Macko, T; Remerie, K; Tacx, J; Garg, P; Ginzburg, A

    2015-11-06

    High-temperature two-dimensional liquid chromatography (HT 2D-LC) using HT-HPLC as first dimension and HT-SEC as second dimension holds enormous potential to investigate the distribution according to molar mass and chemical composition of bimodal high density polyethylene (BiHDPE), as it avoids drawbacks of crystallization-based techniques. In this study, we have stepwise optimized the chromatographic parameters of 1D, comprising gradient slope and temperature, using model homo- and copolymers of ethylene with the aim to minimize the impact of molar mass on the compositional separation. Then the HT-HPLC was hyphenated to HT-SEC and optimum conditions for the volume of the sample transfer loop were probed with regard to the resolution of BiHDPE into the individual constituents HDPE and LLDPE. A particular important aspect was the use of infrared (IR) detection, and the demands it puts on the chromatographic aspects: We have shown that IR detection can be successfully applied in HT 2D-LC of BiHDPE, which is broadly distributed with regard to short chain branching and molar mass, only when the separation in 2D is optimized with regard to chromatographic resolution. As final result a bimodality is evident in the contour and the 3D surface plots as well as in both HPLC and SEC projections generated from HT 2D-LC.

  8. Shape stabilised phase change materials (SSPCMs): High density polyethylene and hydrocarbon waxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Mulan; Basheer, P. A. M.; Bai, Yun; McNally, Tony

    2014-05-01

    Shape stabilised phase change materials (SSPCMs) based on high density polyethylene (HDPE) with high (HPW, Tm=56-58 °C) and low (L-PW, Tm=18-23 °C) melting point waxes were prepared by melt-mixing in a twin-screw extruder and their potential in latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) applications for housing assessed. The structure and morphology of these blends were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both H-PW and L-PW were uniformly distributed throughout the HDPE matrix. The melting point and latent heat of the SSPCMs were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results demonstrated that both H-PW and L-PW have a plasticisation effect on the HDPE matrix. The tensile and flexural properties of the samples were measured at room temperature (RT, 20±2 °C) and 70 °C, respectively. All mechanical properties of HDPE/H-PW and HDPE/L-PW blends decreased from RT to 70 °C. In all instances at RT, modulus and stress, irrespective of the mode of deformation was greater for the HDPE/H-PW blends. However, at 70 °C, there was no significant difference in mechanical properties between the HDPE/H-PW and HDPE/L-PW blends.

  9. Effect of cooling rate on the properties of high density polyethylene/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dong; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Linton, David

    2015-05-22

    High density polyethylene (HDPE)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing using twin-screw extrusion. The extruded pellets were compression moulded at 200°C for 5min followed by cooling at different cooling rates (20°C/min and 300°C/min respectively) to produce sheets for characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the MWCNTs are uniformly dispersed in the HDPE. At 4 wt% addition of MWCNTs composite modulus increased by over 110% compared with the unfilled HDPE (regardless of the cooling rate). The yield strength of both unfilled and filled HDPE decreased after rapid cooling by about 10% due to a lower crystallinity and imperfect crystallites. The electrical percolation threshold of composites, irrespective of the cooling rate, is between a MWCNT concentration of 1∼2 wt%. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity of the rapidly cooled composite with 2 wt% MWCNTs is lower than that of the slowly cooled composites with the same MWCNT loading. This may be due to the lower crystallinity and smaller crystallites facilitating the formation of conductive pathways. This result may have significant implications for both process control and the tailoring of electrical conductivity in the manufacture of conductive HDPE/MWCNT nanocomposites.

  10. Effect of cooling rate on the properties of high density polyethylene/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Dong; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Linton, David

    2015-05-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing using twin-screw extrusion. The extruded pellets were compression moulded at 200°C for 5min followed by cooling at different cooling rates (20°C/min and 300°C/min respectively) to produce sheets for characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the MWCNTs are uniformly dispersed in the HDPE. At 4 wt% addition of MWCNTs composite modulus increased by over 110% compared with the unfilled HDPE (regardless of the cooling rate). The yield strength of both unfilled and filled HDPE decreased after rapid cooling by about 10% due to a lower crystallinity and imperfect crystallites. The electrical percolation threshold of composites, irrespective of the cooling rate, is between a MWCNT concentration of 1˜2 wt%. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity of the rapidly cooled composite with 2 wt% MWCNTs is lower than that of the slowly cooled composites with the same MWCNT loading. This may be due to the lower crystallinity and smaller crystallites facilitating the formation of conductive pathways. This result may have significant implications for both process control and the tailoring of electrical conductivity in the manufacture of conductive HDPE/MWCNT nanocomposites.

  11. Synthesis of manganese stearate for high density polyethylene (HDPE) and its biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Aras, Neny Rasnyanti M. Arcana, I Made

    2015-09-30

    An oxidant additive is one type of additive used for oxo-biodegradable polymers. This additive was prepared by reaction multivalent transition metals and fatty acids to accelerate the degradation process of polymers by providing a thermal treatment or irradiation with light. This study focused on the synthesis of manganese stearate as an additive for application in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), and the influence of manganese stearate on the characteristics of HDPE including their biodegradability. Manganese stearate was synthesized by the reaction of stearic acid with sodium hydroxide, and sodium stearate formed was reacted with manganese chloride tetrahydrate to form manganese stearate with a melting point of 100-110 °C. Based on the FTIR spectrum showed absorption peak at wave number around 1560 cm{sup −1} which is an asymmetric vibration of CO functional group that binds to the manganese. The films of oxo-biodegradable polymer were prepared by blending HDPE and manganese stearate additives at various concentrations with using the polymer melting method, followed heating at a temperature of 50°C and 70°C for 10 days. The characterizations of the oxo-biodegradable polymers were carried out by analysis the functional groups (FTIR and ATR),thermal properties (TGA), surface properties (SEM), as well as analysis of the biodegradability (the biodegradation test by using activated sludge, % weight loss). Based on COi indicate that the additive of manganese stearate is active in oxidizing polymer by heating treatment. Results of biodegradation by microorganisms from activated sludge showed that the percentage weight loss of polymers increase with the increasing incubation time and the concentration of manganese stearate in HDPE. Biodegradability of HDPE with the addition of manganese stearate and followed by heating at a higher temperature was better observed. The highest percentage weight loss was obtained at the polymer with concentration of 0.2% manganese

  12. Degradation of lindane and hexachlorobenzene in supercritical carbon dioxide using palladium nanoparticles stabilized in microcellular high-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei-Zen; Chen, GuanYu; Yak, HwaKwang; Liao, Weisheng; Chiu, KongHwa; Peng, Shie-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Palladium nanoparticles stabilized in microcellular high-density polyethylene prepared through supercritical foaming, supercritical impregnation, and H2 reduction are used for the hydrodechlorination of lindane and hexachlorobenzene in supercritical carbon dioxide below 100 °C. Both lindane and hexachlorobenzene can be almost 100% transformed to cyclohexane in 1 h. Reaction intermediates, such as lower chlorinated products or benzene, are not observed or exist in trace amount indicating that most of them may undergo reactions without leaving the metal surface.

  13. Thermal and optical excitation of trapped electrons in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) studied through positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahid, F.; Zhang, J. D.; Yu, T. F.; Ling, C. C.; Fung, S.; Beling, C. D.

    2011-04-01

    Positronium (Ps) formation in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) has been studied below the glass transition temperature. The formation probability increases with positron irradiation time due to an increasing number of inter-track trapped electrons becoming available for positron capture. The temperature variation of the saturated Ps level is discussed in different models. The quenching of trapped electrons by light has been studied and the optical de-trapping cross-section for different photon energies has been estimated over the visible region.

  14. Effect of oxyfluorinated multi-walled carbon nanotube additives on positive temperature coefficient/negative temperature coefficient behavior in high-density polyethylene polymeric switches

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Byong Chol; Kang, Seok Chang; Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Se Hyun; Lee, Young-Seak

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The electrical properties of MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches and their effect on oxyfluorination. Highlights: {yields} Oxyfluorinated MWCNTs were used to reduce the PTC/NTC phenomenon in MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. {yields} Electron mobility is difficult in MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups (C-O, C=O) increases by oxyfluorination. {yields} A mechanism of improved electrical properties of oxyfluorinated MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches was suggested. -- Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were embedded into high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to improve the electrical properties of HDPE polymeric switches. The MWCNT surfaces were modified by oxyfluorination to improve their positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behaviors in HDPE polymeric switches. HDPE polymeric switches exhibit poor electron mobility between MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups is increased by oxyfluorination. Thus, the PTC intensity of HDPE polymeric switches was increased by the destruction of the electrical conductivity network. The oxyfluorination of MWCNTs also leads to weak NTC behavior in the MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. This result is attributed to the reduction of the mutual attraction between the MWCNT particles at the melting temperature of HDPE, which results from a decrease in the surface free energy of the C-F bond in MWCNT particles.

  15. Effective Blending of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene with High-Density Polyethylene via Solid-State Shear Pulverization (SSSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, Mirian; Torkelson, John

    2014-03-01

    Compared with conventional polyolefins, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) possesses outstanding mechanical properties, including impact strength and crack resistance, that make it it highly desirable for applications ranging from body armor to implants. Unfortunately, UHMWPE has an ultrahigh melt viscosity that renders common melt processes ineffective for making products from UHMWPE. Attempts to overcome this problem by blending UHMWPE with polyethylene (PE) by conventional melt mixing have been unsuccessful because of the enormous viscosity mismatch between blend components and have led to large suspensions of UHMWPE particles within a PE matrix. Here, we show the utility of solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) in achieving effectively and intimately mixed UHMWPE/PE blends. For blends with up to 50 wt% UHMWPE we observe only slight increases in viscosity (η) at high shear rates but major increases in η with increasing UHMWPE content at low shear rates. Using extensional rheology, we confirm the strain hardening behavior of SSSP blends. Additionally, shear rheology and differential scanning calorimetry data indicate that the degree of mixing between UHMWPE and HDPE domains can be increased dramatically with subsequent passes of SSSP and single screw extrusion. Finally, blends prepared via SSSP show dramatic increases in impact strength; e.g., for a 30/70 wt% UHMWPE/HDPE blend, impact strength increases by about 300 % (relative to the parent neat HDPE).

  16. Evaluation of the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes from stainless steel and high-density polyethylene to Bologna and American cheese.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Andrés; McLandsborough, Lynne A

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors involved in the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes from surfaces to foods. We evaluated the influence of surface type (stainless steel and high-density polyethylene), inoculation method (biofilm growth and attached cells), hydration level (visibly dry and wet), and food type (bologna and American cheese). Each experiment included all 16 combinations and was repeated 11 times. A four-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes was used to inoculate stainless steel and high-density polyethylene either as growing biofilms or attached cells. Slides were placed on a universal testing machine and brought into contact with food at a constant pressure (45 kPa) and time (30 s). Food slices were blended, the number of transferred cells was determined by plating, and the efficiency of transfer (EOT) was calculated. The results strongly suggest that stainless steel surfaces transferred more L. monocytogenes to foods than did polyethylene (P = 0.05). Independent of the surface, biofilms tended to transfer more L. monocytogenes to foods (EOT = 0.57) than did attached cells (EOT = 0.16). Among foods, L. monocytogenes was transferred to bologna more easily than to cheese (P < 0.05). The impact of hydration on transfer was significantly higher for dried biofilms growing on stainless steel (P < 0.05). No significant differences for hydration were seen under other conditions (P > 0.05). We hypothesize that drying weakens cell-to-cell interactions in biofilms and cell-to-surface interactions of biofilms and thus allows increased transfer of cells to food products.

  17. Shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave phononic device with high density filling material for ultra-low power sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, M.; Bhethanabotla, V. R.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.

    2014-06-23

    Finite element simulations of a phononic shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor based on ST 90°-X Quartz reveal a dramatic reduction in power consumption. The phononic sensor is realized by artificially structuring the delay path to form an acoustic meta-material comprised of a periodic microcavity array incorporating high-density materials such as tantalum or tungsten. Constructive interference of the scattered and secondary reflected waves at every microcavity interface leads to acoustic energy confinement in the high-density regions translating into reduced power loss. Tantalum filled cavities show the best performance while tungsten inclusions create a phononic bandgap. Based on our simulation results, SAW devices with tantalum filled microcavities were fabricated and shown to significantly decrease insertion loss. Our findings offer encouraging prospects for designing low power, highly sensitive portable biosensors.

  18. Thermal, tensile and rheological properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) processed and irradiated by gamma-ray in different atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreto, H. F. R. E-mail: ana-feitoza@yahoo.com.br; Oliveira, A. C. F. E-mail: ana-feitoza@yahoo.com.br; Parra, D. F. E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br; Lugão, A. B. E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br; Gaia, R.

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate structural changes of high density polyethylene (HDPE) modified by ionizing radiation (gamma rays) in different atmospheres. The gamma radiation process for modification of commercial polymers is a widely applied technique to promote new physical-chemical and mechanical properties. Gamma irradiation originates free radicals which can induce chain scission or recombination, providing its annihilation, branching or crosslinking. This polymer was irradiated with gamma source of {sup 60}Co at doses of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 kGy at a dose rate of 5 kGy/h. The changes in molecular structure of HDPE, after gamma irradiations were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile machine and oscillatory rheology. The results showed the variations of the properties depending on the dose at each atmosphere.

  19. Preparation of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) film with a nucleating agent during a stretching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Seok; Cho, In-Hee; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Lim, Youn-Mook; Nho, Young-Chang

    2009-07-01

    The effects of the crystallinity and a radiation crosslinking on the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with a nucleating agent were investigated. We found the optimum conditions for the stretching process according to the addition of various quantities of a nucleating agent (Millad3988). The pores of a HDPE membrane were affected by the crystallinity of the polymer, and the crystallinity of the polymer was changed with an increase thermal ageing temperature. Thermal ageing treatment of the HDPE film was conducted in an oven at 110-135 °C for 5-60 min. When the conditions for the annealing were fixed at 125 °C and 40 min, we obtained the highest crystallinity. Also, the resulting mechanical properties of the irradiated HDPE separators were analyzed.

  20. Light-induced catalyst and solvent-free high pressure synthesis of high density polyethylene at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Ceppatelli, Matteo; Bini, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The combined effect of high pressure and electronic photo-excitation has been proven to be very efficient in activating extremely selective polymerisations of small unsaturated hydrocarbons in diamond anvil cells (DAC). Here we report an ambient temperature, large volume synthesis of high density polyethylene based only on high pressure (0.4-0.5 GPa) and photo-excitation (~350 nm), without any solvent, catalyst or radical initiator. The reaction conditions are accessible to the current industrial technology and the laboratory scale pilot reactor can be scaled up to much larger dimensions for practical applications. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, indicate that the synthesised material is of comparable quality with respect to the outstanding crystalline material obtained in the DAC. The polydispersity index is comparable to that of IV generation Ziegler-Natta catalysts. Moreover the crystalline quality of the synthesised material can be further enhanced by a thermal annealing at 373 K and ambient pressure.

  1. High-density polyethylene facial implants show surface oxidation in SEM and EDX examination: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Draenert, G F; Doeblinger, M; Draenert, M; Gosau, M

    2009-05-01

    Previous histopathological studies on explanted Medpor high-density polyethylene (HDPE) facial implants indicated signs of material destruction and claimed to observe phagocytized HDPE particles within the tissue samples beside the usual type IV reaction with severe fibrosis. We examined new and explanted Medpor material with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The implant surface of three patient-derived specimens showed significantly higher oxygenation in EDX analysis and morphological changes in SEM compared to the new unused material directly after opening of the package and after 1 year of exposure to air. Our preliminary findings indicate a possible oxidative biocorrosion in HDPE surgical implants. Further studies should confirm these pilot project results.

  2. Atomic force microscopic study of the structure of high-density polyethylene deformed in liquid medium by crazing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bagrov, D V; Yarysheva, A Y; Rukhlya, E G; Yarysheva, L M; Volynskii, A L; Bakeev, N F

    2014-02-01

    A procedure has been developed for the direct atomic force microscopic (AFM) examination of the native structure of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) deformed in an adsorption-active liquid medium (AALM) by the crazing mechanism. The AFM investigation has been carried out in the presence of a liquid medium under conditions preventing deformed films from shrinkage. Deformation of HDPE in AALM has been shown to proceed through the delocalized crazing mechanism and result in the development of a fibrillar-porous structure. The structural parameters of the crazed polymer have been determined. The obtained AFM images demonstrate a nanosized nonuniformity of the deformation and enable one to observe the structural rearrangements that take place in the deformed polymer after removal of the liquid medium and stress relaxation. A structural similarity has been revealed between HDPE deformed in the AALM and hard elastic polymers.

  3. Slow crack growth behavior in post-consumer recycled high-density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanjie

    A post-consumer recycled homopolymer (PCR-100-PE-N) was blended with high density ethylene hexene copolymer (HHM TR-480N) over the composition range of 0-100%. The resistance to slow crack growth (s.c.g.) was measured by a notched tensile test under a constant load in distilled water at three different temperatures 40sp°C, 60sp°C, and 80sp°C. The slow crack growth rate da/dt decreases about three or four orders at the same stress intensity factor and temperature as the composition increased from 0 to 100% of the copolymer. In the range of compositions below 50% of the copolymer, the slow crack growth rate decreases relatively slowly with composition compared to the very rapid decreases for compositions greater than 50% of the copolymer. The results might be explained in terms of a network formed by the crystals and the tie molecules that contain short-chain branches. The network becomes continuous when the copolymer is the major component and consequently the resistance to the slow crack growth increases rapidly. The fracture mechanisms for slow crack growth are identified using the activated rate process analysis. Considering the values of activation energies, it is concluded that progressive and incremental pull out of tie molecules from crystalline lamella was proposed as crack initiation mechanism. It is found from Ksb{c}-da/dt curve that crack propagates with a time dependence, average 0.224 ± 0.069, at low stress intensity, and a higher slopes, average 0.509 ± 0.099, at high stress intensity. With the help of SEM study of the fracture surfaces, it is concluded that average slope 0.224 represents sharp crack situation of relaxation, while the average slope 0.509 is considered to be the results of crack tip blunting effects.

  4. Design options for improved performance with high-density carbon ablators and low-gas fill hohlraum targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, L.; Divol, L.; Lepape, S.; Meezan, N. B.; Dewald, E.; Ho, D.; Khan, S.; Pak, A.; Ralph, J.; Ross, J. S.

    2016-10-01

    Recent simulation-based and experimental work using high-density carbon ablators in unlined uranium hohlraums with 0.3 mg/cc helium fill have demonstrated round implosions with minimal evolution of Legendre moment P2 during burn. To extend this promising work, design studies have been performed to explore potential performance improvements with larger capsules, while maintaining similar case-to-capsule target ratios. We present here the results of these design studies, which will motivate a series of upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Influence of γ-ray modified MWCNTs on the structural and thermal properties of high-density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoor, Bilal; Mehmood, Malik Sajjad; Shahid, Umair; Baluch, Mansoor A.; Yasin, Tariq

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of adding 100 kGy γ-irradiated multi wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) on the structural and thermal properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The effects of further γ-irradiation in the presence of γ-MWCNTs on aforementioned properties have also been investigated. FTIR spectroscopic measurements of HDPE and HDPE/γ-MWCNTs composites reveal that modification of MWCNTs with ≤100 kGy of γ-dose reduces its efficiency as free radical quencher. This behavior is found to increase further with the increase in the concentration of γ-MWCNTs. Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) data shows a decrease in percent crystallinity and shifting of crystalline peaks toward lower values of 2θ angles. This behavior is mainly attributed to the oxidation induced due to residual free radicals. Thermal analysis reveals that addition of γ-MWCNTs decreases the thermal stability as far as onset thermal degradation temperature, percent crystallinity, and melting temperature of UHMWPE/γ-MWCNTs. In addition to this, gel content measurements show that insoluble percentage of UHMWPE is higher with the incorporation γ-MWCNTs and further irradiation. The gel contents are found to improve up to 29% and 60%, respectively with the incorporation of γ-MWCNTs and further irradiation.

  6. Incorporation of Copper Enhances the Anti-Ageing Property of Flame-Sprayed High-Density Polyethylene Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhengmei; Huang, Jing; Gong, Yongfeng; Jin, Peipeng; Suo, Xinkun; Li, Hua

    2017-02-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE)-copper (Cu) composite coatings were prepared through depositing HDPE-Cu core-shell particles by flame spraying. The HDPE-Cu composite coatings and the HDPE coatings were aged in xenon lamp ageing testing chamber. The variations of chemical compositions and surface morphology of the coatings before and after the ageing testing were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. Results show that there is no chemical composition variation in the HDPE-Cu coatings. Cracks were found on the surfaces of the HDPE coatings, while the HDPE-Cu coating shows almost intact surface morphology. These results suggest that the HDPE-Cu coatings present better anti-ageing performances than the HDPE coatings. Further assessment of the function of Cu shells on the anti-ageing property reveals that Cu shells not only enhanced the absorption of the coatings to ultraviolet, but also increased their reflectivity to visible light. Additionally, the Cu shells enhanced the decomposition temperature and thermal stability of HDPE in the composite coatings. These results give bright insight into potential anti-ageing applications of the polymer-based structures.

  7. Influence of triallyl cyanurate as co-agent on gamma irradiation cured high density polyethylene/reclaimed tire rubber blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, Manoj N.; Arakh, Amar A.; Dubey, K. A.; Mhaske, S. T.

    2017-02-01

    Utilization of waste from tire industry as reclaimed tire rubber (RTR) by formation of blends with high density polyethylene (HDPE) is great area to be focused. Enhancement of properties by the addition of triallyl cyanurate (TAC) as a co-agent with 1%, 3% and 5% to blend of HDPE 50 wt% and RTR 50 wt% in presence of gamma irradiation curing were investigated. Specifically, mechanical and thermal properties were studied as a function of amount of TAC and gamma irradiation dose in range of 50-200 kGy. The resultant blends were evaluated for the values of impact strength, gel content, thermal stability, tensile properties, rheological properties and morphological properties with increasing irradiation dosage and TAC loading. The mechanical properties tensile strength, hardness, impact strength of blend containing 3% of TAC were substantially increased with increasing irradiation dosage up to 150 KGy. Rheological analysis has shown increase in viscosity with increase in TAC loading up to 3% and 150 KGy irradiation dosages. 3% loading of TAC lead to better set of properties with150 KGy gamma irradiation dosage.

  8. High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Surface Treatment Using an RF Capacitive Atmospheric Pressure Cold Ar Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiaomeng; Shin-ichi, Kuroda; Tamio, Mori; Katsuhiko, Hosoi

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a high-density polyethylene (HDPE, 5-mm-thick, 0.95 g/cm3) surface was treated using an RF capacitive atmospheric pressure cold Ar plasma jet. By using this Ar plasma jet, a hydrophilic HDPE surface was formed during the plasma treatment. In particular, the effects of an additive gas (N2 or O2) on the HDPE surface treatment were investigated in detail. It was shown that the addition of N2 or O2 gas had an important influence on the HDPE surface treatment. Compared to pure Ar plasma treatment, a lower value of water contact angle (WCA) was obtained when a trace of N2 or O2 gas was added. It was also found that besides the quantities of active species in the plasma jet, the treatment temperature played an important role in the HDPE surface treatment. This is because surface molecular motion is not negligible when the treatment temperature is close to the melting point of the polymer.

  9. Reinforcement of natural rubber/high density polyethylene blends with electron beam irradiated liquid natural rubber-coated rice husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, E. L.; Ahmad, Ishak; Dahlan, H. M.; Abdullah, Ibrahim

    2010-08-01

    Coating of rice husk (RH) surface with liquid natural rubber (LNR) and exposure to electron beam irradiation in air were studied. FTIR analysis on the LNR-coated RH (RHR) exposed to electron beam (EB) showed a decrease in the double bonds and an increase in hydroxyl and hydrogen bonded carbonyl groups arising from the chemical interaction between the active groups on RH surface with LNR. The scanning electron micrograph showed that the LNR formed a coating on the RH particles which transformed to a fine and clear fibrous layer at 20 kGy irradiation. The LNR film appeared as patches at 50 kGy irradiation due to degradation of rubber. Composites of natural rubber (NR)/high density polyethylene (HDPE)/RHR showed an optimum at 20-30 kGy dosage with the maximum stress, tensile modulus and impact strength of 6.5, 79 and 13.2 kJ/m 2, respectively. The interfacial interaction between the modified RH and TPNR matrix had improved on exposure of RHR to e-beam at 20-30 kGy dosage.

  10. Enhanced diesel fuel fraction from waste high-density polyethylene and heavy gas oil pyrolysis using factorial design methodology.

    PubMed

    Joppert, Ney; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina

    2015-02-01

    Factorial Design Methodology (FDM) was developed to enhance diesel fuel fraction (C9-C23) from waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and Heavy Gas Oil (HGO) through co-pyrolysis. FDM was used for optimization of the following reaction parameters: temperature, catalyst and HDPE amounts. The HGO amount was constant (2.00 g) in all experiments. The model optimum conditions were determined to be temperature of 550 °C, HDPE = 0.20 g and no FCC catalyst. Under such conditions, 94% of pyrolytic oil was recovered, of which diesel fuel fraction was 93% (87% diesel fuel fraction yield), no residue was produced and 6% of noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction was obtained. Seeking to reduce the cost due to high process temperatures, the impact of using higher catalyst content (25%) with a lower temperature (500 °C) was investigated. Under these conditions, 88% of pyrolytic oil was recovered (diesel fuel fraction yield was also 87%) as well as 12% of the noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction. No waste was produced in these conditions, being an environmentally friendly approach for recycling the waste plastic. This paper demonstrated the usefulness of using FDM to predict and to optimize diesel fuel fraction yield with a great reduction in the number of experiments.

  11. From macroplastic to microplastic: Degradation of high-density polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene in a salt marsh habitat.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, John E; Crocker, Brittany K; Gray, Austin D

    2016-07-01

    As part of the degradation process, it is believed that most plastic debris becomes brittle over time, fragmenting into progressively smaller particles. The smallest of these particles, known as microplastics, have been receiving increased attention because of the hazards they present to wildlife. To understand the process of plastic degradation in an intertidal salt marsh habitat, strips (15.2 cm × 2.5 cm) of high-density polyethylene, polypropylene, and extruded polystyrene were field-deployed in June 2014 and monitored for biological succession, weight, surface area, ultraviolet (UV) transmittance, and fragmentation. Subsets of strips were collected after 4 wk, 8 wk, 16 wk, and 32 wk. After 4 wk, biofilm had developed on all 3 polymers with evidence of grazing periwinkles (Littoraria irrorata). The accreting biofilm resulted in an increased weight of the polypropylene and polystyrene strips at 32 wk by 33.5% and 167.0%, respectively, with a concomitant decrease in UV transmittance by approximately 99%. Beginning at 8 wk, microplastic fragments and fibers were produced from strips of all 3 polymers, and scanning electron microscopy revealed surface erosion of the strips characterized by extensive cracking and pitting. The results suggest that the degradation of plastic debris proceeds relatively quickly in salt marshes and that surface delamination is the primary mechanism by which microplastic particles are produced in the early stages of degradation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1632-1640. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Novel cholesterol feeding strategy enables a high-density cultivation of cholesterol-dependent NS0 cells in linear low-density polyethylene-based disposable bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yiwen; Yusuf-Makagiansar, Helena; Shih, Jennifer; Ryll, Thomas; Sinacore, Marty

    2012-08-01

    We have developed a perfusion-based high cell density (HD) cell banking and inoculum expansion procedure for a cholesterol-dependent NS0 myeloma cell line using linear low-density polyethylene-based disposable bioreactors. Challenges associated with cholesterol-polymer interactions, which suppress cholesterol-dependent NS0 myeloma cell growth, were overcome using a novel cholesterol feeding protocol that included a combination of two cholesterol formulations: an ethanol-based formulation and an aqueous formulation. Using a cholesterol feed optimized for HD cell culture in a disposable bioreactor perfusion system, cell densities of >25 × 10(6) viable cells/ml at ≥ 90 % cell viability were achieved. Vials of high density cell banks were created by filling 90-100 × 10(6) viable cells/ml in 5 ml cryotube vials. Implementation of the HD cell banks enabled a significant reduction in the number of step operations in the inoculum expansion phase in a large-scale manufacturing setting.

  13. High density polyethylene (HDPE)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) polymer blend studies related to recycling co-mingled plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Pang-Yen

    Polymer blends of virgin high density polyethylene (HDPE) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were studied as an attempt to relate the microstructure to the mechanical properties of the blends. The virgin blends were prepared by extrusion and then injection molded into specimens for characterization. Two of the virgin blends were tested for possible compatibilization using a styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer. In addition, six blends of post-consumer resins (PCRs) of HDPE and PET were included in this work for comparison. The moduli of the virgin blends showed positive deviation from those expected from the rule of mixtures. The synergism of the composite moduli can be explained partly by a Poisson's effect. Yield strengths of the blends molded at low injection chamber temperatures (200sp°, 230sp°, and 250sp°C) followed the rule of mixtures well, because PET filaments found in the composites had very high length to diameter ratios. When the injection chamber temperature was above the PET melting point (˜254sp°C), PET filaments were found to break down into particles, and the yield strengths of the blends coincided with the values expected from the inverse rule of mixtures. Impact strengths of the virgin blends were much less than that of a HDPE homopolymer due to poor interfacial bonding between HDPE and PET. Compatibilization appeared to be advantageous since it dramatically improved the impact strength of the virgin blends. SEM micrographs of impact fractured surfaces revealed that the improved adhesion from compatibilization and the presence of numerous uniaxially aligned PET filaments in the HDPE substrate can account for the significant increases in fracture resistance of the compatibilized blends. Mechanical performance of the PCRs was inferior to that of the virgin blends. Aside from polymer degradation and contamination due to repeated processing and handling, absence of PET filaments and interfacial bonding could be

  14. Structure development during isothermal crystallisation of high-density polyethylene: Synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ślusarczyk, Czesław

    2013-12-01

    Isothermal melt crystallisation in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was studied using the time-resolved SAXS method with synchrotron radiation over a wide range of crystallisation temperatures. The SAXS profile was analysed by an interface distribution function, g1(r), which is a superposition of three contributions associated with the size distributions of crystalline (LC) and amorphous (LA) layers and a distribution of long period (LP). The morphological parameters extracted from the g1(r) functions show that the lamellar thickness increases with time, obeying a logarithmic time dependence. The time evolution of LC observed for the sample crystallised at 122 °C leads to the conclusion that crystallisation proceeds according to the mechanism of thickening growth. For samples crystallised at lower temperatures (116 °C and 118 °C), the lamellar thickening mechanism has been observed. The rate of lamellar thickening in these cases is much lower than that at 122 °C. At 40 °C, thickening of the crystalline layer does not occur. The interface distribution functions were deconvoluted, and the relative standard deviation σC/LC obtained in this way is an additional parameter that is varied during crystallisation and can be used for analysis of this process. Time-dependent changes in the σC/LC at large supercooling (TC=40 °C) indicates that LC presents a broad distribution in which the relative standard deviation increases with time. At lower supercooling (TC=122 °C), LC shows a much sharper distribution. In this case, the relative standard deviation decreases with time.

  15. Long-term results of high-density porous polyethylene implants in facial skeletal augmentation: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sanjeev; Munoli, Amarnath

    2010-01-01

    Context: With the increasing emphasis on well-sculpted facial features, today there is a growing need for tools to augment the facial skeleton; either for cosmetic reasons or to re-contour deformities-congenital, post-traumatic and post-ablative. The limitations of autogenous materials has lead to evolution of numerous 'alloplasts', of which, high-density porous polyethylene (HDPE) seems to be a promising alternative. Aims: To evaluate the long term results of HDPE in facial skeletal augmentation in terms of achieving desired facial contour, patient satisfaction and complications. Settings: A tertiary care referral centre in a metropolitan set-up. Design: Case Series Materials and Methods: All patients undergoing HDPE implant insertion for facial skeletal augmentation between July 2001 and November 2009 were included in the study. A total of 70 HDPE implants were inserted in 44 patients. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon following standardized pre, intra and post-operative protocols. The results were evaluated with respect to improvement in facial contour desired and achieved, overall patient satisfaction and complications encountered. Results: The study included 44 patients with a male:female ratio of 1:1, a mean age of 25.09 years (14 to 58 years) and a mean follow-up of 45.34 months (0.5 to 100 months). HDPE implants were used to augment the nasal dorsum, maxilla, malar eminence, chin, mandibular body and angle, orbital rim and frontal region. The overall recontouring afforded by the HDPE implants was good, with most patients reporting satisfactory results. There were seven complications (10%), including three cases of deviation (4.29%), three cases of exposure (4.29%) and one case of sub-clinical infection (1.43%). None however necessitated implant removal. Nasal dorsal HDPE implants, especially those involving secondary surgery, suffered a much higher complication rate compared to other implants. Conclusions: HDPE is an alternative to

  16. Effects of environment and gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of high density polyethylene. [Construction material for LLW high-integrity containers

    SciTech Connect

    Soo, P.; Arora, H.; Swyler, K.J.; Becker, W.; Sobel, E.

    1986-03-01

    An evaluation was made of the effects of environment and gamma irradiation on the short-term tensile and creep properties of Marlex CL-100, a highly cross-linked high-density polyethylene. This material is being considered as a constructional material for a low-level radioactive waste high-integrity container. It was found that the chemical environments studied could be beneficial or detrimental to strength and ductility depending on the type of mechanical property test and the nature of the exposure of the polyethylene to the chemical environment. Gamma irradiation to a sufficiently high dose prior to tensile or creep testing increased the strength and decreased the ductility. In-test irradiation, however, could increase or decrease the creep rate depending on the dose rate and applied stress.

  17. EVALUATION OF ULTRASONIC PHASED-ARRAY FOR DETECTION OF PLANAR FLAWS IN HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE) BUTT-FUSION JOINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Prowant, Matthew S.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Moran, Traci L.; Jacob, Rick E.; Hartman, Trenton S.; Crawford, Susan L.; Mathews, Royce; Neill, Kevin J.; Cinson, Anthony D.

    2016-09-21

    The desire to use high-density polyethylene (HDPE) piping in buried Class 3 service and cooling water systems in nuclear power plants is primarily motivated by the material’s high resistance to corrosion relative to that of steel and metal alloys. The rules for construction of Class 3 HDPE pressure piping systems were originally published in Code Case N-755 and were recently incorporated into the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) Section III as Mandatory Appendix XXVI (2015 Edition). The requirements for HDPE examination are guided by criteria developed for metal pipe and are based on industry-led HDPE research or conservative calculations.

  18. Separation of n-hexane/acetone mixtures by pervaporation using high density polyethylene/ethylene propylene diene terpolymer rubber blend membranes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P V Anil; Anilkumar, S; Varughese, K T; Thomas, Sabu

    2012-01-15

    Polymer membranes were prepared by blending high density polyethylene (HDPE) with ethylene propylene diene terpolymer rubber (EPDM). These blend membranes were evaluated for the selective separation of n-hexane from acetone. The flux and selectivity of the membranes were determined both as a function of the blend composition and feed mixture composition. Results showed that polymer blending method could be very useful to develop new membranes with improved selectivity. Pervaporation properties could be optimized by adjusting the blend composition. The effects of blend ratio, feed composition, and penetrant size on the pervaporation process were analyzed. The permeation properties have been explained on the basis of interaction between the membrane and solvents and blend morphology. Flux increases with increasing alkane content in the feed composition.

  19. Effects of inoculation level, material hydration, and stainless steel surface roughness on the transfer of listeria monocytogenes from inoculated bologna to stainless steel and high-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Andrés; Autio, Wesley R; McLandsborough, Lynne A

    2007-06-01

    The influence of inoculation level, material hydration, and stainless steel surface roughness on the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes from inoculated bologna to processing surfaces (stainless steel and polyethylene) was assessed. Slices of bologna (14 g) were inoculated with Listeria at different levels, from 10(5) to 10(9) CFU/cm2. Transfer experiments were done at a constant contact time (30 s) and pressure (45 kPa) with a universal testing machine. After transfer, cells that had been transferred to sterile stainless steel and polyethylene were removed and counted, and the efficiency of transfer (EOT) was calculated. As the inoculation level increased from 10(5) to 10(9) CFU/cm(2), the absolute level of transfer increased in a similar fashion. By calculating EOTs, the data were normalized, and the initial inoculation level had no effect on the transfer (P > 0.05). The influence of hydration level on stainless steel, high-density polyethylene, and material type was investigated, and the EOTs ranged from 0.1 to 1 under all the conditions tested. Our results show that transfers to wetted processing surfaces (mean EOT = 0.43) were no different from dried processing surfaces (mean EOT = 0.35) (P > 0.05). Material type was shown to be a significant factor, with greater numbers of Listeria transferring from bologna to stainless steel (mean EOT = 0.49) than from bologna to polyethylene (mean EOT = 0.28) (P < 0.01). Stainless steel with three different surface roughness (Ra) values of <0.8 microm (target Ra = 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 Vmicrom) and two different finishes (mechanically polished versus mechanically polished and further electropolished) was used to evaluate its effect on the transfer. The surface roughness and finish on the stainless steel did not have any effect on the transfer of Listeria (P > 0.05). Our results showed that when evaluating the transfer of Listeria, the use of EOTs rather than the absolute transfer values is essential to allow comparisons of

  20. Heat shrinkable behavior, physico-mechanical and structure properties of electron beam cross-linked blends of high-density polyethylene with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholds, Ingars; Kalkis, Valdis; Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Grigalovica, Agnese

    2016-03-01

    In this study, heat-shrinkable composites of electron beam irradiated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated. HDPE/NBR blends at a ratio of components 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 50/50 and 20/80 wt% were prepared using a two-roll mill. The compression molded films were irradiated high-energy (5 MeV) accelerated electrons up to irradiation absorbed doses of 100-300 kGy. The effect of electron beam induced cross-linking was evaluated by the changes of mechanical properties, gel content and by the differences of thermal properties, detected by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermo-shrinkage forces were determined as the kinetics of thermorelaxation and the residual shrinkage stresses of previously oriented (stretched up to 100% at above melting temperature of HDPE and followed by cooling to room temperature) specimens of irradiated HDPE/NBR blends under isometric heating-cooling mode. The compatibility between the both components was enhanced due to the formation of cross-linked sites at amorphous interphase. The results showed increase of mechanical stiffness of composites with increase of irradiation dose. The values of gel fraction compared to thermorelaxation stresses increased with the growth of irradiation dose level, as a result of formation cross-linked sites in amorphous PP/NBR interphase.

  1. Vibrational spectroscopic and ultrasound analysis for in-process characterization of high-density polyethylene/polypropylene blends during melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Barnes, S E; Brown, E C; Sibley, M G; Edwards, H G M; Scowen, I J; Coates, P D

    2005-05-01

    Spectroscopic techniques such as Raman, mid-infrared (MIR), and near-infrared (NIR) have become indispensable analytical tools for rapid chemical quality control and process monitoring. This paper presents the application of in-line Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and ultrasound transit time measurements for in-line monitoring of the composition of a series of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/polypropylene (PP) blends during single-screw extrusion. Melt composition was determined by employing univariate analysis of the ultrasound transit time data and partial least squares (PLS) multivariate analysis of the data from both spectroscopic techniques. Each analytical technique was determined to be highly sensitive to changes in melt composition, allowing accurate prediction of blend content to within +/- 1% w/w (1sigma) during monitoring under fixed extrusion conditions. FT-NIR was determined to be the most sensitive of the three techniques to changes in melt composition. A four-factor PLS model of the NIR blend spectra allowed determination of melt content with a standard prediction error of +/- 0.30% w/w (1sigma). However, the NIR transmission probes employed for analysis were invasive into the melt stream, whereas the single probes adopted for Raman and ultrasound analysis were noninvasive, making these two techniques more versatile. All three measurement techniques were robust to the high temperatures and pressures experienced during melt extrusion, demonstrating each system's suitability for process monitoring and control.

  2. Synthesis of highly efficient flame retardant high-density polyethylene nanocomposites with inorgano-layered double hydroxides as nanofiller using solvent mixing method.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanshan; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Junya; Huang, Liang; Yan, Xingru; Zhang, Xi; He, Qingliang; Xing, Zipeng; Guo, Zhanhu

    2014-04-09

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer nanocomposites containing Zn2Al-X (X= CO3(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-)) layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles with different loadings from 10 to 40 wt % were synthesized using a modified solvent mixing method. Synthesized LDH nanofillers and the corresponding nanocomposites were carefully characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, etc. The thermal stability and flame retardancy behavior were investigated using a thermo gravimetric analyzer and microscale combustion calorimeter. Comparing to neat HDPE, the thermal stability of nanocomposites was significantly enhanced. With the addition of 15 wt % Zn2Al-Cl LDH, the 50% weight loss temperature was increased by 67 °C. After adding LDHs, the flame retardant performance was significantly improved as well. With 40 wt % of LDH loading, the peak heat release rate was reduced by 24%, 41%, 48%, and 54% for HDPE/Zn2Al-Cl, HDPE/Zn2Al-CO3, HDPE/Zn2Al-NO3, and HDPE/Zn2Al-SO4, respectively. We also noticed that different interlayer anions could result in different rheological properties and the influence on storage and loss moduli follows the order of SO4(2-) > NO3(-) > CO3(2-) > Cl(-). Another important finding of this work is that the influence of anions on flame retardancy follows the exact same order on rheological properties.

  3. Heat transfer performance of a phase-change thermal energy storage water heater using cross-linked high density polyethylene pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Jotshi, C.K.; Klausner, J.F.; Goswami, D.Y.; Hsieh, C.K.; Santhosh, M.K.; Colacino, F.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this investigation was to develop an efficient water heater that stores thermal energy in a mixture of cross-linked high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and propylene glycol. Properties of cross-linked HDPE, such as melting and crystallization temperatures, heat of fusion and crystallization, and volume change were measured in the laboratory. The heat transfer coefficient for the mixture was also measured in a laboratory test. A prototype model of a storage water heater using a mixture of cross-linked HDPE pellets and propylene glycol was designed and fabricated. A copper finned heat transfer coil was used to extract the heat from the storage tank by passing water through it. The heat transfer efficiency (heat extracted by water/heat stored) was measured to be about 70%. To increase the efficiency, the storage unit was modified. In the modified unit, the length of the heat transfer coil was increased and coil spacing optimized. With the modification, the heat transfer efficiency was measured to be about 90%. In addition, a variable heat flux heating element, having high heat flux at the bottom and low heat flux at top, was used to reduce thermal stratification of the propylene glycol/HDPE pellet mixture.

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a new nanocomposite, containing high density polyethylene, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and magnesium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pourdanesh, Fereydoun; Jebali, Ali; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Allaveisie, Azra

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a new nanocomposite, which contained high density polyethylene (HDPE), tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) nanoparticles (TCP NPs), hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HA NPs), and magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) was prepared. As in vitro experiment, human osteoblasts (HOB) cells were exposed to pristine HDPE and its nanocomposite for a period of 1, 4, and 7 days at 37 °C, and then different assays were carried out, including osteoblast cell proliferation, Trypan blue staining, cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and cell adhesion. Antibacterial property of pristine HDPE and its nanocomposite was evaluated, and also their mechanical properties were measured after 2 and 4 months. As in vivo experiment, pristine HDPE and its nanocomposite were separately implanted on calvarium bone of rabbits, and tissue inflammation and osteogenesis were investigated after 2, 4, and 6 months. In case of HOB cells treated with HDPE or nanocomposite, as incubation time was increased, cell proliferation, live/dead ratio, and cell viability were decreased. But, the ALP activity and cell adhesion of HOB cells which treated with nanocomposite were raised after increase of incubation time. This study demonstrated that although the mechanical properties of nanocomposite were similar to HDPE sheet, but their antibacterial property was not similar. The in vivo experiment showed that both pristine HDPE and its nanocomposite had same inflammation responses. Interestingly, osteogenesis was observed after 2 months at bone/nanocomposite interface, and was highly increased after 4 and 6 months. It must be noted that such pattern was not seen at bone/HDPE interface.

  5. The Reconstruction of Nasal Septal Perforation with High Density Porous Polyethylene Covered with Fascia Lata: An Experimental Study on Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Onar, Vedat; Sayin, Ibrahim; Onol, Suzan Deniz; Aydin, Tamer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Evaluation of a new material, high-density porous polyethylene (HDPP), which is covered with fascia lata, for experimental nasal septal perforation closure. Methods Twenty New Zealand albino rabbits were included and divided into study and control groups. A lateral incision was made from the lateral aspect of the left nares to the incisura nasomaxillaris. After exposure of the cavum nasi, the nasal mucoperichondrium was elevated bilaterally. A full-thickness 0.5×0.5-cm perforation was created over the septum nasi with a No. 11 surgical blade. A fascia lata graft was used for the study group. The HDPP was covered with fascia lata and placed under the elevated mucosa. HDPP without a fascial covering was used in the control group. Four months after the procedure, magnetic resonance imaging was performed to evaluate resorption of the material. The animals were sacrificed, and the nasal septum was completely removed. Macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed on the nasal septum. Results All rabbits had survived after the 4-month period. Macroscopically, nine of 10 (90%) perforations were closed in the fascia lata-covered HDPP group. Histopathological examination of these nine rabbits revealed that the continuity of cartilage was disturbed in the perforation areas. Granulation tissue was inverted in areas in which the cartilage continuity was disturbed. The HDPP had remained intact at the edge of the perforation. In the HDPP group, six of 10 implants were still perforated (60%) and four (40%) were closed. The fascia lata-covered HDPP implant had a significantly higher perforation closure rate than that of the HDPP implant alone (P<0.05). Conclusion In cases of septal perforation, it is better to cover the HDPP implant with fascia lata. This covered implant can be used for the repair of nasal septal perforations. HDPP implants are easy to work with and avoid the increased operative time and morbidity associated with harvesting autografts

  6. Criticality Evaluation of Plutonium-239 Moderated by High-Density Polyethylene in Stainless Steel and Aluminum Containers Suitable for Non-Exclusive Use Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, T T

    2007-08-10

    Research is conducted at the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Facility (JASPER) on the effects of high pressure and temperature environments on plutonium-239, in support of the stockpile stewardship program. Once an experiment has been completed, it is necessary to transport the end products for interim storage or final disposition. Federal shipping regulations for nonexclusive use transportation require that no more than 180 grams of fissile material are present in at least 360 kilograms of contiguous non-fissile material. To evaluate the conservatism of these regulatory requirements, a worst-case scenario of 180g {sup 239}Pu and a more realistic scenario of 100g {sup 239}Pu were modeled using one of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Monte Carlo transport codes known as COG 10. The geometry consisted of {sup 239}Pu spheres homogeneously mixed with high-density polyethylene surrounded by a cube of either stainless steel 304 or aluminum. An optimized geometry for both cube materials and hydrogen-to-fissile isotope (H/X) ratio were determined for a single unit. Infinite and finite 3D arrays of these optimized units were then simulated to determine if the systems would exceed criticality. Completion of these simulations showed that the optimal H/X ratio for the most reactive units ranged from 800 to 1600. A single unit of either cube type for either scenario would not reach criticality. An infinite array was determined to reach criticality only for the 180g case. The offsetting of spheres in their respective cubes was also considered and showed a considerable decrease in the number of close-packed units needed to reach criticality. These results call into question the current regulations for fissile material transport, which under certain circumstances may not be sufficient in preventing the development of a critical system. However, a conservative, theoretical approach was taken in all assumptions and such idealized configurations may not be likely to

  7. Post-consumer contamination in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) milk bottles and the design of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process.

    PubMed

    Welle, F

    2005-10-01

    Six hundred conventional recycled HDPE flake samples, which were recollected and sorted in the UK, were screened for post-consumer contamination levels. Each analysed sample consisted of 40-50 individual flakes so that the amount of analysed individual containers was in the range 24,000-30,000 post-consumer milk bottles. Predominant contaminants in hot-washed flake samples were unsaturated oligomers, which can be also be found in virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pellet samples used for milk bottle production. In addition, the flavour compound limonene, the degradation product of antioxidant additives di-tert-butylphenol and low amounts of saturated oligomers were found in higher concentrations in the post-consumer samples in comparison with virgin HDPE. However, the overall concentrations in post-consumer recycled samples were similar to or lower than concentration ranges in comparison with virgin HDPE. Contamination with other HDPE untypical compounds was rare and was in most cases related to non-milk bottles, which are <2.1% of the input material of the recycling process. The maximum concentration found in one sample of 1 g was estimated as 130 mg kg(-1), which corresponds to a contamination of 5200-6500 mg kg(-1) in the individual bottle. The recycling process investigated was based on an efficient sorting process, a hot-washing of the ground bottles, and a further deep-cleaning of the flakes with high temperatures and vacuum. Based on the fact that the contamination levels of post-consumer flake samples are similar to virgin HDPE and on the high cleaning efficiency of the super-clean recycling process especially for highly volatile compounds, the recycling process investigated is suitable for recycled post-consumer HDPE bottles for direct food-contact applications. However, hand-picking after automatically sorting is recommended to decrease the amount of non-milk bottles. The conclusions for suitability are valid, provided that the migration testing of

  8. Improvement of bio-oil yield and quality in co-pyrolysis of corncobs and high density polyethylene in a fixed bed reactor at low heating rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supramono, D.; Lusiani, S.

    2016-11-01

    Over the past few decades, interest in developing biomass-derived fuel has been increasing rapidly due to the decrease in fossil fuel reserves. Bio-oil produced by biomass pyrolysis however contains high oxygen compounds resulting in low calorific-value fuel and therefore requiring upgrading. In co-pyrolysis of the feed blend of plastics of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and biomass of com cob particles, at some compositions free radicals from plastic decomposition containing more hydrogen radicals are able to bond oxygen radicals originating from biomass to reduce oxygenate compounds in the bio-oil thus increasing bio-oil quality. This phenomenon is usually called synergetic effect. In addition to that, the pattern of heating of the feed blend in the pyrolysis reactor is predicted to affect biooil quality and yield. In a batch reactor, co-pyrolysis of corncobs and HDPE requires low heating rate to reach a peak temperature at temperature rise period followed by heating for some time at peak temperature called holding time at constant temperature period. No research has been carried out to investigate how long holding time is set in co-pyrolysis of plastic and biomass to obtain high yield of bio-oil. Holding time may affect either crosslinking of free radicals in gas phase, which increases char product, or secondary pyrolysis in the gas phase, which increases non-condensable gas in the gas phase of pyrolysis reactor, both of which reduce bio-oil yield. Therefore, holding time of co-pyrolysis affects the mass rate of bio-oil formation as the pyrolysis proceeds and quality of the bio-oil. In the present work, effects of holding time on the yield and quality of bio-oil have been investigated using horizontal fixed bed of the feed blends at heating rate of 5°C, peak temperature of 500°C and N2 flow rate of 700 ml/minute. Holding time was varied from 0 to 70 minutes with 10 minutes interval. To investigate the effects of holding time, the composition of HDPE in the

  9. Structure-property relationships: Model studies on melt-extruded uniaxially-oriented high density polyethylene films having well defined morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongyi

    High density polyethylene (HDPE) films having simple and well-defined stacked lamellar morphology, either with or without a distinct presence of row-nucleated fibril structures, have been utilized as model materials to carry out investigations on solid state structure-property relationships. Mechanical tests, including tensile (INSTRON), creep (TMA), and dynamic mechanical (DMTA) tests, were performed at different angles with respect to the original machine direction (MD) of the melt extruded films; morphological changes as a result of these mechanical tests were detected by WAXS, SAXS, and TEM. Crystalline lamellar thickness and its distribution were determined by DSC, SAXS, TEM and AFM experiments. In the large strain deformation study (chapter 4.0), samples were stretched at 00sp°, 45sp° and 90sp° angles with respect to the original MD. A distinct orientation dependence of the tensile behavior was observed and correlated to the corresponding deformation modes and morphological changes, namely (1) lamellar separation and fragmentation by chain slip for the 00sp° stretch, (2) lamellar break-up via chain pull-out for the 90sp° stretch, and (3) lamellar shear, rotation and break-up through chain slip and/or tilt for the 45sp° stretch. A strong strengthening effect was observed for samples with row-nucleated fibril structures at the 00sp° stretch; whereas for the 90sp° stretch, the presence of such structures significantly limited deformability of the samples. In the dynamic strain mechanical alpha relaxation study (chapter 5.0), samples were tested at nine different angles with respect to the original MD, and the morphologies of samples before and after the dynamic tests were also investigated. The mechanical dispersions for the 00sp° and 90sp° tests were believed to arise essentially from the crystalline phase, and they contain contributions from two earlier recognized sub-relaxations of alphasbI and alphasbII. While for the 45sp° test, in addition to a

  10. Development of optimum process for electron beam cross-linking of high density polyethylene thermal energy storage pellets, process scale-up and production of application qualities of material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salyer, I. O.

    1980-01-01

    The electron irradiation conditions required to prepare thermally from stable high density polyethylene (HDPE) were defined. The conditions were defined by evaluating the heat of fusion and the melting temperature of several HDPE specimens. The performance tests conducted on the specimens, including the thermal cycling tests in the thermal energy storage unit are described. The electron beam irradiation tests performed on the specimens, in which the total radiation dose received by the pellets, the electron beam current, the accelerating potential, and the atmospheres were varied, are discussed.

  11. Leak detection in polyethylene terephthalate bottles filled with water and pulped and unpulped orange juice using a vacuum decay system.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishna, Vijaykrishna; Mehta, Anish; Schramm, Gerhard; Pascall, Melvin A

    2007-10-01

    This research evaluated an offline vacuum decay leak detection system for 1775-ml polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. These bottles were filled with water and pulped and unpulped orange juice and induction sealed with an aluminum liner and an outer 38-mm continuous thread polypropylene cap. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (i) minimum leak size sensitivity of the instrument; (ii) ability to identify weak but nonleaking seals; (iii) effect of varying fill heights on the equipment's sensitivity; and (iv) percentage of false-positive and negative results likely to be obtained during a normal test run. To meet these objectives, leaks 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 50 microm were created in the PET bottles. A second set of bottles was induction sealed at high voltage and 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, and 4 s of dwell time. A third set of bottles with good seals was filled with differing headspace measurements of brimful, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm. After optimizing the equipment, leak tests on random sets of leaking and nonleaking bottles showed 0.0% false-positive and 0.0% negative identifications. Results showed 5-microm minimum leak size detection for bottles filled with all products. Optimum seal conditions were >2 but <3 s at high voltage. Product fill heights >2 to < or =3 cm did not affect the efficiency of the equipment. These results show that this vacuum decay system has potential for use in identifying leaks in PET bottles used for food packaging.

  12. Ultradrawing novel ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fibers filled with bacterial cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jen-Taut; Tsai, Chih-Chen; Wang, Chuen-Kai; Shao, Jhih-Wun; Xiao, Ming-Zheng; Chen, Su-Chen

    2014-01-30

    Novel ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/bacterial cellulose (BC) (F100BCy) and UHMWPE/modified bacterial cellulose (MBC) (F100MBCx-y) as-prepared fibers were prepared and ultra-drawn. The achievable draw ratio (Dra) values of each F100MBCx-y as-prepared fiber series specimens approached a maximum value as their MBC contents reached the optimal value at 0.0625phr. In which, the maximum Dra value obtained for F100MBCx-0.0625 as-prepared fiber specimen prepared at the optimal MBC content reached another maximum value at 347 as the weight ratio of maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene to BC approach an optimal value at 10. In contrast, no significant improvement in Dra values was found for F100BCy as-prepared fiber specimens. To understand these interesting ultradrawing properties described above, Fourier transform infra-red, specific surface areas, and transmission electron microcopic analyses of original and modified BC nanofibers together with the thermal, orientation and tensile properties of F100BCy and F100MBCx-y fiber specimens were performed.

  13. Mechanical properties of low-density polyethylene filled by graphite nanoplatelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carotenuto, G.; De Nicola, S.; Palomba, M.; Pullini, D.; Horsewell, A.; Hansen, T. W.; Nicolais, L.

    2012-12-01

    The mechanical properties of GNP/LDPE nanocomposites (graphite nanoplatelets/low density polyethylene) have been investigated, in order to establish the effect of nanoscale reinforcement within the polymer matrix. Results show that the presence of the filler does not involve a change in the microscopic structure of the polymer. However, on a macroscopic scale, GNPs limit the mobility of the polymer chains, resulting in an increase in stiffness for the final composite. Orientation of GNPs within the LDPE matrix is also an important issue that affects mechanical properties and it has been evaluated by testing nanocomposites made by different manufacturing techniques (compression moulding and blown extrusion). The comparison between the experimental data and the Halpin-Tsai model shows that the orientation of GNPs due to the extrusion process leads to values of tensile modulus higher than that obtained with the randomly oriented disposition resulting from the compression moulding technique.

  14. Mechanical properties of low-density polyethylene filled by graphite nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, G; De Nicola, S; Palomba, M; Pullini, D; Horsewell, A; Hansen, T W; Nicolais, L

    2012-12-07

    The mechanical properties of GNP/LDPE nanocomposites (graphite nanoplatelets/low density polyethylene) have been investigated, in order to establish the effect of nanoscale reinforcement within the polymer matrix. Results show that the presence of the filler does not involve a change in the microscopic structure of the polymer. However, on a macroscopic scale, GNPs limit the mobility of the polymer chains, resulting in an increase in stiffness for the final composite. Orientation of GNPs within the LDPE matrix is also an important issue that affects mechanical properties and it has been evaluated by testing nanocomposites made by different manufacturing techniques (compression moulding and blown extrusion). The comparison between the experimental data and the Halpin-Tsai model shows that the orientation of GNPs due to the extrusion process leads to values of tensile modulus higher than that obtained with the randomly oriented disposition resulting from the compression moulding technique.

  15. Chitosan filled recycled low density polyethylene composite: Melt flow behaviour and thermal degradation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, B. Y.; Voon, C. H.; Salmah, H.; Nordin, H.

    2016-07-01

    An environmentally friendly composite was fabricated from chitosan and recycled low density polyethylene (rLDPE) with the means of melt mixing at 180 °C. The composites were prepared in different loading (10, 20, 30 and 40 php) of chitosan. Due to the incompatibility between filler and matrix, a coupling agent, Ultraplus TP01, was added into the composites. The melt flow index (MFI) values of rLDPE/chitosan composites decreased with chitosan loading but increased with rise of temperature. With the presence of Ultraplus TP01, MFI values of composites were decreased. The thermal stability of rLDPE/chitosan was reduced with increase of chitosan loading but increased with addition of Ultraplus TP01. It was believed that Ultraplus TP01 had provided better interfacial bonding between chitosan and rLDPE, thus enhanced the thermal stability of rLDPE/chitosan composites.

  16. Pervaporation and sorption behavior of zeolite-filled polyethylene glycol hybrid membranes for the removal of thiophene species.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ligang; Zhang, Yuzhong; Li, Hong

    2010-10-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-CuY zeolite hybrid membranes were prepared for sulfur removal from gasoline feed. The sorption and diffusion behavior of typical gasoline components through the hybrid membranes has been investigated by systematic studies of dynamic sorption curves. Influencing factors including feed temperature, permeate pressure, and zeolite content in the membranes on membrane performance have been evaluated. Immersion experiments results showed the preferential sorption of thiophene, which is key in fulfilling the separation of thiophene/hydrocarbon mixtures. The sorption, diffusion, and permeation coefficients of gasoline components in filled membranes are higher than those in unfilled membranes. Pervaporation (PV) and gas chromatography (GC) experiments results corresponded to the discussions on dynamic sorption curves. PV experiments showed that lower permeate pressure meant higher separation performance. The optimum temperature occurred at 383K, and an Arrhenius relationship existed between permeation flux and operating temperature. The CuY zeolite filling led to a significant increase of flux since the porous zeolite provides for more diffusion for small molecules in mixed matrix membranes. The sulfur enrichment factor increased first and then decreased with the increasing zeolite content, which was attributed to the combined influence of complexation force between CuY and thiophenes as well as the trade-off phenomenon between flux and selectivity. At 9 wt% CuY content, a higher permeation flux (3.19 kg/(m(2) h)) and sulfur enrichment factor (2.95) were obtained with 1190 microg/g sulfur content level in gasoline feed.

  17. Investigation of the oxygen depletion properties of low density polyethylene resins filled with thermally stable oxygen scavengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jen-taut; Cui, Li; Sun, Yan-bin; Xu, Li-ping; Wei, Wei; Tsai, Fang-chang; Jiang, Tao; Zhu, Ping; Huang, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Kan-Nan

    2009-07-01

    The thermal stability, oxygen depletion and tensile properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE) resins filled with ascorbic acid (Vc), sodium ascorbate (SA), iron (Fe) and modified iron (MFe) oxygen scavengers were systematically investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results clearly suggest that the thermal stability of SA powder and L95(SA)5 specimen is significantly better than that of Vc powder and L95(Vc)5 specimen, respectively. The oxygen depletion efficiency of L95(SA)5 is significantly better than that of L95(Vc)5, L95(Fe)5 and L95(MFe)5 specimens, although the virgin SA powders exhibit worse oxygen depletion efficiency than Vc, Fe or MFe powders before melt blending. Moreover, at a fixed weight ratio of Vc (or SA) to MFe of the oxygen scavenger compounds, the oxygen depletion efficiency of L95[SAx(MFe)y]5 series specimens is always significantly better than that of L95[Vcx(MFe)y]5 series specimens. In fact, at weight ratios of Vc/MFe and SA/MFe higher than 3/7 and 5/5, respectively, the residual oxygen concentration values present in the airtight flask of L95[Vcx(MFe)y]5 and L95[SAx(MFe)y]5 series samples at any time are even lower than those of the L95(Vc)5 and L95(SA)5 specimens, respectively. Further tensile experiments show that the tensile properties of the L95[SAx(MFe)y]5 series samples are always higher than those of the corresponding L95[Vcx(MFe)y]5 series samples with the same loadings of oxygen scavenger compounds, respectively. In order to understand these interesting thermal stability, oxygen depletion and tensile properties of these LDPE oxygen-scavenging plastics, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-rays analysis of the compositions on the surfaces of L95[SAx(MFe)y]5 and L95[Vcx(MFe)y]5 series samples were performed. Possible reasons accounting for these interesting properties of these LDPE oxygen-scavenging plastics are proposed.

  18. Spatially revolved high density electroencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jerry; Szu, Harold; Chen, Yuechen; Guo, Ran; Gu, Xixi

    2015-05-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. In practice, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, several tens of minutes, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. In order to improve the resolution and the distortion cause by the hair and scalp, large array magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are introduced. The major challenge is to systematically compare the accuracy of epileptic source localization with high electrode density to that obtained with sparser electrode setups. In this report, we demonstrate a two dimension (2D) image Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis along with utilization of Peano (space-filling) curve to further reduce the hardware requirement for high density EEG and improve the accuracy and performance of the high density EEG analysis. The brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in this work is enhanced by A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board with optimized two dimension (2D) image Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis.

  19. High density laser-driven target

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, John D.

    1981-01-01

    A high density target for implosion by laser energy composed of a central quantity of fuel surrounded by a high-Z pusher shell with a low-Z ablator-pusher shell spaced therefrom forming a region filled with low-density material.

  20. High density pixel array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener-Avnear, Eliezer (Inventor); McFall, James Earl (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A pixel array device is fabricated by a laser micro-milling method under strict process control conditions. The device has an array of pixels bonded together with an adhesive filling the grooves between adjacent pixels. The array is fabricated by moving a substrate relative to a laser beam of predetermined intensity at a controlled, constant velocity along a predetermined path defining a set of grooves between adjacent pixels so that a predetermined laser flux per unit area is applied to the material, and repeating the movement for a plurality of passes of the laser beam until the grooves are ablated to a desired depth. The substrate is of an ultrasonic transducer material in one example for fabrication of a 2D ultrasonic phase array transducer. A substrate of phosphor material is used to fabricate an X-ray focal plane array detector.

  1. Scale effects in tribological properties of solid-lubricating composites made of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene filled with calcium stearate particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, S. A.; Volkov-Bogorodskiy, D. B.; Knyzeva, A. G.; Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Friction properties being influenced by scale effects are simulated in the paper by the example of polymer composite material made from Ultra High-Molecular Weight Polyethylenes (UHMWPE) filled by calcium stearate (C36H70CaO4). Of interest are the composites whose mechanical properties and tribotechnical characteristics do not depend monotonically on filler (inclusions) weight fraction. In order to describe the influence of scale effects onto frictional properties the model based on Reiss averaging (model of "weak phase") is employed. It is also suggested that when gradient elasticity theory is applicable the formal analogy between effective friction coefficient for surface heterogeneous structures and effective mechanical properties (compliances) for heterogeneous material can take place. Theoretical dependence to describe nonmonotonic change of effective friction coefficient versus filler concentration was obtained for the polymer composites under study. The suggested expressions might be useful for the sake of properties prognosis of antifriction polymeric materilas.

  2. Effect of liquid epoxidized natural rubber (LENR) on mechanical properties and morphology of natural rubber/high density polyethylene/mengkuang fiber (NR/HDPE/MK) bio-composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piah, Mohd Razi Mat; Baharum, Azizah

    2016-11-01

    The use of mengkuang fiber (MK) fibers in NR/HDPE (40/60) blend was studied via surface modification of fiber. The MK fiber was pre-washed with 5%wt/v sodium hydroxide solution prior to treatment with liquid epoxidized natural rubber (LENR). The concentration of LENR were varied from 5%-20%wt in toluene. The effects of LENR concentrations were studied in terms of mechanical properties and morphology formed. Melt-blending was performed using an internal mixer (Haake Rheomix 600). The processing parameters identified were 135°C temperature, 45 rpm rotor speed, 12 minutes processing time and at 20%wt MK fiber loading. The optimum LENR treatment concentration was obtained at 5%wt with tensile strength, tensile modulus, and impact strength of 10.3 MPa, 414.2 MPa and 14.4 kJ/m2 respectively. The tensile modulus of LENR-treated MK fiber filled NR/HDPE bio-composite has shown enhancement up to 16.7% higher than untreated MK fiber. The tensile and impact strength were decreased with increasing LENR concentration due to the broken of MK fibers to smaller particles and adhered to each other. FESEM micrographs confirmed the formation of fiber-fiber agglomeration in NR/HDPE blends. The optical microscope analysis shows MK fibers is shorter than original fiber lengths after NaOH-LENR surface modification. The internal bonding forces of MK fiber seems to be weaker than external force exerted on it, therefore, the MK fiber has broken to smaller particles and reduced the mechanical properties of NR/HDPE/MK(20%) bio-composite.

  3. Laminated thermoplastic composite material from recycled high density polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a materials-science, educational experiment is presented. The student should understand the fundamentals of polymer processing and mechanical property testing of materials. The ability to use American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards is also necessary for designing material test specimens and testing procedures. The objectives of the experiment are (1) to understand the concept of laminated composite materials, processing, testing, and quality assurance of thermoplastic composites and (2) to observe an application example of recycled plastics.

  4. PSD Applicability: TEX-USS High Density Polyethylene Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. The characterization of high-density polyethylene/organoclay nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Tathiane Cordeiro; Tavares, Maria Inês Bruno; Soares, Igor Lopes; Moreira, Ana M.

    2009-01-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites, which are hybrids of polymers and modified inorganic clay with organic surfactants, are extremely attractive in both science and industry. These materials present improvements in such polymer properties as modulus, heat capacity, thermal stability, flame resistance, and so on. Research has been conducted in recent decades to obtain high-quality materials that can be used in applications like food packing, car components, and combustible cells. Polymeric nanocomposites present many advantages in relation to composites due to the quantity of filler added to the polymer and also to the improved properties. In a composite, the quantity of filler must be as high as possible (i.e., over 30%). In the polymeric nanocomposite the quantity of filler varies from 1% to 5% because of the nanosize of the particles. These nanoparticles often have a large surface area that results in improved polymer-matrix properties.

  6. Photoionization and High Density Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T.; Bautista, M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present results of calculations using the XSTAR version 2 computer code. This code is loosely based on the XSTAR v.1 code which has been available for public use for some time. However it represents an improvement and update in several major respects, including atomic data, code structure, user interface, and improved physical description of ionization/excitation. In particular, it now is applicable to high density situations in which significant excited atomic level populations are likely to occur. We describe the computational techniques and assumptions, and present sample runs with particular emphasis on high density situations.

  7. High density fluoride glass calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Q.; Scheltzbaum, J.; Akgun, U.

    2014-04-01

    The unprecedented radiation levels in current Large Hadron Collider runs, and plans to even increase the luminosity creates a need for new detector technologies to be investigated. Quartz plates to replace the plastic scintillators in current LHC calorimeters have been proposed in recent reports. Quartz based Cherenkov calorimeters can solve the radiation damage problem, however light production and transfer have proven to be challenging. This report summarizes the results from a computational study on the performance of a high-density glass calorimeter. High-density, scintillating, fluoride glass, CHG3, was used as the active material. This glass has been developed specifically for hadron collider experiments, and is known for fast response time, in addition to high light yield. Here, the details of a Geant4 model for a sampling calorimeter prototype with 20 layers, and its hadronic as well as electromagnetic performances are reported.

  8. High Density Methane Storage in Nanoporous Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Soo, Yuchoong; Maland, Brett; Doynov, Plamen; Lin, Yuyi; Pfeifer, Peter; Mriglobal Collaboration; All-Craft Team

    2014-03-01

    Development of low-pressure, high-capacity adsorbent based storage technology for natural gas (NG) as fuel for advanced transportation (flat-panel tank for NG vehicles) is necessary in order to address the temperature, pressure, weight, and volume constraints present in conventional storage methods (CNG & LNG.) Subcritical nitrogen adsorption experiments show that our nanoporous carbon hosts extended narrow channels which generate a high surface area and strong Van der Waals forces capable of increasing the density of NG into a high-density fluid. This improvement in storage density over compressed natural gas without an adsorbent occurs at ambient temperature and pressures ranging from 0-260 bar (3600 psi.) The temperature, pressure, and storage capacity of a 40 L flat-panel adsorbed NG tank filled with 20 kg of nanoporous carbon will be featured.

  9. High-density digital recording

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, F. (Editor); Buschman, A. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The problems associated with high-density digital recording (HDDR) are discussed. Five independent users of HDDR systems and their problems, solutions, and insights are provided as guidance for other users of HDDR systems. Various pulse code modulation coding techniques are reviewed. An introduction to error detection and correction head optimization theory and perpendicular recording are provided. Competitive tape recorder manufacturers apply all of the above theories and techniques and present their offerings. The methodology used by the HDDR Users Subcommittee of THIC to evaluate parallel HDDR systems is presented.

  10. Spacelab high density digital recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blais, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and performance of the high-density digital recorder (HDDR) developed for use at the NASA centers (KSC, JSC, and GSFC) and at the JPL to store and retrieve 50-Mb/s PCM data streams from the Spacelab experiments are reported. The recording reproduction, and transport requirements are reviewed; and the design solutions adopted in the final version of the HDDR are described, incuding three-position-modulation and Y-phase encoding, microprocessor-controlled automatic bit synchronization and equalization, cyclic-redundancy-check error detection and correction, clock regeneration, data and clock variations, tape-speed control, and EEE-488 remote control. Reliable performance, with bit error rates 1 in 10 to the 10th forward and 1 in 10 to the 9th reverse or better and packing density up to 50 percent greater than that obtainable using conventional codes, is reported after 1.5 years of service.

  11. High density harp for SSCL linac

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.; Crist, C.E.

    1993-05-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division, and the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) are collaboratively developing a high density harp for the SSCL linac. This harp is designed using hybrid microcircuit (HMC) technology to obtain a higher wire density than previously available. The developed harp contains one hundred twenty-eight 33-micron-diameter carbon wires on 0.38-mm centers. The harp features an onboard broken wire detection circuit. Carbon wire preparation and attachment processes were developed. High density surface mount connectors were located. The status of high density harp development will be presented along with planned future activities.

  12. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  13. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A high density peg which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  14. High Density Fuel Development for Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Wachs; Dennis Keiser; Mitchell Meyer; Douglas Burkes; Curtis Clark; Glenn Moore; Jan-Fong Jue; Totju Totev; Gerard Hofman; Tom Wiencek; Yeon So Kim; Jim Snelgrove

    2007-09-01

    An international effort to develop, qualify, and license high and very high density fuels has been underway for several years within the framework of multi-national RERTR programs. The current development status is the result of significant contributions from many laboratories, specifically CNEA in Argentina, AECL in Canada, CEA in France, TUM in Germany, KAERI in Korea, VNIIM, RDIPE, IPPE, NCCP and RIARR in Russia, INL, ANL and Y-12 in USA. These programs are mainly engaged with UMo dispersion fuels with densities from 6 to 8 gU/cm3 (high density fuel) and UMo monolithic fuel with density as high as 16 gU/cm3 (very high density fuel). This paper, mainly focused on the French & US programs, gives the status of high density UMo fuel development and perspectives on their qualification.

  15. Rheological properties of polyolefin composites highly filled with calcium carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Fierro, Annalisa; Jakubowska, Paulina; Sterzynski, Tomasz

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the rheological properties of highly filled polyolefin composites (HFPCs) have been investigated. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), with stearic acid modified surface, was used as filler. Ternary compounds have been obtained by the inclusion of a CaCO3/polypropylene master batch into the high density polyethylene matrix. The highly filled polyolefin composites with CaCO3 content in the range between 40 and 64 wt% have been prepared in the molten state using a single-screw extruder, the temperature of the extrusion die was set at 230°C. The melt rheological properties of the HFPCs have been extensively investigated both in oscillatory and steady shear flow.

  16. Reliability of PWB Microvias for High Density Package Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2008-01-01

    High density PWB (printed wiring board) with microvia technology is required for implementation of high density and high I/O area array packages (AAP). COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) AAP packaging technologies in high reliability versions with 1.27 mm pitch are now being considered for use in a number of NASA systems including Space Shuttle and Mars Rovers. NASA functional system designs are requiring more and more dense AAP packages and board space, which makes board microvia technology very attractive for effectively routing a large number of package inputs/outputs. However, the reliability of the fine feature microvias including via in pads is unknown for space applications. Understanding process and QA (quality assurance) indicators for reliability are important for low risk insertion of these newly available packages and PWBs. This paper presents literature search as well as test results for a high density board subjected to various thermal cycle and reflow profiles representative of tin-lead and lead-free solder reflow. Microvias sizes ranged from two to six mil with and without filling. Daisy chain microvias monitored during the test and PWBs were cross-sectioned to determine failure and locations. Optical and SEM photographs as well as resistance changes during cycling and Tg/Td (glass transition/decomposition temperature) characterisations are presented.

  17. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1 m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  18. Profiles in garbage: Polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1997-11-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a plastic resin used primarily to make bottles. Soft drinks -- along with salad dressing, fruit juices, peanut butter, and other household and consumer products -- use PET bottles. PET also is used for film, sheeting for cups and food trays, oven-safe trays, and other uses. PET is a relatively new packaging resin, first commercialized in the early 1970s. Because it is an ``engineered`` resin, PET is more expensive than commodity resins such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and, for the same reason, it is usually the highest valued plastic recyclable.

  19. Approach of high density coal preparation method

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Chen, Q.

    1996-12-31

    Density difference of aged anthracite coal of high density and discard is less than that of general coal and discard; conventional separation methods are difficult to be used. For the special coal, coal dry beneficiation technology with air-dense medium fluidized bed has obvious superiority over other separation methods.

  20. Nasal reconstruction using porous polyethylene implants.

    PubMed

    Romo, T; Sclafani, A P; Jacono, A A

    2000-01-01

    Nasal reconstruction presents a significant challenge to the facial plastic surgeon. The dual goals of reconstruction are restoration of the desired aesthetic nasal contour and an improved nasal airway. Autologous cartilage and bone are considered optimal grafting material, but their supply is often limited and harvesting entails additional morbidity. Many synthetic materials have been introduced in nasal reconstruction, but high infection and extrusion rates limited their use. Porous high density polyethylene implants present an alternative to autologous material as they allow for fibrovascular ingrowth, leading to stability of the implant and decreased rates of infection. Herein we describe the use of porous high density polyethylene implants for reconstruction of the platyrrhine nose and in revision rhinoplasty. The use of preformed nasal-dorsal tip and alar batten implants are described, as well as the use of columellar strut and premaxillary plumper implants. We believe that porous high density polyethylene implants provide a safe, desirable alternative in functional and aesthetic nasal reconstruction.

  1. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: THE FABRICATION OF POLYETHYLENE FML FIELD SEAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical guidance document is meant to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction assurance (CQC and CQA) guidelines that are presently available for high density polyethylene (HDPE) liner installation and inspection.

  2. The high density Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    During the past few years techniques have been developed for producing pinches in solid deuterium. The conditions which exist in these plasmas are quiet different from those produced earlier. The pinch is formed from a fiber of solid deuterium rather than from a low density gas, and the current is driven by a low impedance, high voltage pulse generator. Because of the high initial density, it is not necessary to compress the pinch to reach thermonuclear conditions, and the confinement time required for energy production is much shorter than for a gas. The experimental results, which have been verified by experiments performed at higher current were quite surprising and encouraging. The pinch appeared to be stable for a time much longer than the Alfven radial transit time. In this paper, however, I argue that the pinch is not strictly stable, but it does not appear to disassemble in a catastrophic fashion. It appears that there may be a distinction between stability and confinement in the high density pinch. In the discussion below I will present the status of the high density Z-pinch experiments at laboratories around the world, and I will describe some of the calculational and experimental results. I will confine my remarks to recent work on the high density pinch. 17 refs. 10 figs.

  3. Two-color QCD at high density

    SciTech Connect

    Boz, Tamer; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar; Giudice, Pietro; Hands, Simon; Williams, Anthony G.

    2016-01-22

    QCD at high chemical potential has interesting properties such as deconfinement of quarks. Two-color QCD, which enables numerical simulations on the lattice, constitutes a laboratory to study QCD at high chemical potential. Among the interesting properties of two-color QCD at high density is the diquark condensation, for which we present recent results obtained on a finer lattice compared to previous studies. The quark propagator in two-color QCD at non-zero chemical potential is referred to as the Gor’kov propagator. We express the Gor’kov propagator in terms of form factors and present recent lattice simulation results.

  4. High density circuit technology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, T. E.

    1982-01-01

    The metal (or dielectric) lift-off processes used in the semiconductor industry to fabricate high density very large scale integration (VLSI) systems were reviewed. The lift-off process consists of depositing the light-sensitive material onto the wafer and patterning first in such a manner as to form a stencil for the interconnection material. Then the interconnection layer is deposited and unwanted areas are lifted off by removing the underlying stencil. Several of these lift-off techniques were examined experimentally. The use of an auxiliary layer of polyimide to form a lift-off stencil offers considerable promise.

  5. Regulation of high density lipoprotein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1982-03-01

    An increasing awareness of the physiologic and pathologic importance of serum high density lipoproteins (HDL) has led to a large number of observations regarding factors which influence their concentrations. HDL consists of a heterogeneous collection of macromolecules with diverse physical properties and chemical constituents. While laboratory techniques have made it possible to measure HDL and their individual components, there are as yet large gaps in our knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms and clinical significance of changes in these laboratory parameters. In this review, current concepts of the structure and metabolism of HDL will be briefly summarized, and the factors influencing their levels in humans will be surveyed. 313 references.

  6. Method of high-density foil fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Blue, Craig A.; Sikka, Vinod K.; Ohriner, Evan K.

    2003-12-16

    A method for preparing flat foils having a high density includes the steps of mixing a powdered material with a binder to form a green sheet. The green sheet is exposed to a high intensity radiative source adapted to emit radiation of wavelengths corresponding to an absorption spectrum of the powdered material. The surface of the green sheet is heated while a lower sub-surface temperature is maintained. An apparatus for preparing a foil from a green sheet using a radiation source is also disclosed.

  7. The yield behavior of polyethylene tubes subjected to biaxial loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semeliss, M.; Wong, R.; Tuttle, M.

    1990-01-01

    High-density polyethylene is subjected to biaxial states of stress to examine the yield behavior of the semicrystalline thermoplastic under constant octahedral shear-stress rates. Combinations of internal pressures and axial loads are applied to thin-walled tubes of polyethylene, and the strain response in the axial and hoop directions are measured. The polyethylene specimens are found to be anisotropic, and the experimental measurements are compared to yield criteria that are applicable to isotropic and anisotropic materials.

  8. Evaluation of Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was employed as a bio-filler and blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) via extrusion. Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled through a 1-mm screen then separated via shaking into various particle fractions using sieves (#30 - < #2...

  9. Cortical High-Density Counterstream Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Nikola T.; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Van Essen, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Small-world networks provide an appealing description of cortical architecture owing to their capacity for integration and segregation combined with an economy of connectivity. Previous reports of low-density interareal graphs and apparent small-world properties are challenged by data that reveal high-density cortical graphs in which economy of connections is achieved by weight heterogeneity and distance-weight correlations. These properties define a model that predicts many binary and weighted features of the cortical network including a core-periphery, a typical feature of self-organizing information processing systems. Feedback and feedforward pathways between areas exhibit a dual counterstream organization, and their integration into local circuits constrains cortical computation. Here, we propose a bow-tie representation of interareal architecture derived from the hierarchical laminar weights of pathways between the high-efficiency dense core and periphery. PMID:24179228

  10. Fluid hydrogen at high density - Pressure dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saumon, Didier; Chabrier, Gilles

    1991-01-01

    A model for the Helmholtz free energy of fluid hydrogen at high density and high temperature is developed. This model aims at describing both pressure and temperature dissociation and ionization and bears directly on equations of state of partially ionized plasmas, as encountered in astrophysical situations and high-pressure experiments. This paper focuses on a mixture of hydrogen atoms and molecules and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of pressure dissociation at finite temperatures. In the present model, the strong interactions are described with realistic potentials and are computed with a modified Weeks-Chandler-Andersen fluid perturbation theory that reproduces Monte Carlo simulations to better than 3 percent. Theoretical Hugoniot curves derived from the model are in excellent agreement with experimental data.

  11. High Density Mastering Using Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yoshiaki; Kitahara, Hiroaki; Kasono, Osamu; Katsumura, Masahiro; Wada, Yasumitsu

    1998-04-01

    A mastering system for the next-generation digital versatile disk (DVD) is required to have a higher resolution compared with the conventional mastering systems. We have developed an electron beam mastering machine which features a thermal field emitter and a vacuum sealed air spindle motor. Beam displacement caused by magnetic fluctuation with spindle rotation was about 60 nm(p-p) in both the radial and tangential directions. Considering the servo gain of a read-out system, it has little influence on the read-out signal in terms of tracking errors and jitters. The disk performance was evaluated by recording either the 8/16 modulation signal or a groove on the disk. The electron beam recording showed better jitter values from the disk playback than those from a laser beam recorder. The deviation of track pitch was 44 nm(p-p). We also confirmed the high density recording with a capacity reaching 30 GB.

  12. Ultra-high density diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-12-11

    A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

  13. Ground state of high-density matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, ED; Kolb, Edward W.; Lee, Kimyeong

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that if an upper bound to the false vacuum energy of the electroweak Higgs potential is satisfied, the true ground state of high-density matter is not nuclear matter, or even strange-quark matter, but rather a non-topological soliton where the electroweak symmetry is exact and the fermions are massless. This possibility is examined in the standard SU(3) sub C tensor product SU(2) sub L tensor product U(1) sub Y model. The bound to the false vacuum energy is satisfied only for a narrow range of the Higgs boson masses in the minimal electroweak model (within about 10 eV of its minimum allowed value of 6.6 GeV) and a somewhat wider range for electroweak models with a non-minimal Higgs sector.

  14. Structures of High Density Molecular Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, B; Cynn, H; Iota, V; Yoo, C-S

    2002-02-01

    The goal of this proposal is to develop an in-situ probe for high density molecular fluids. We will, therefore, use Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) applied to laser heated samples in a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) to investigate molecular fluids at simultaneous conditions of high temperatures (T > 2000K) and high pressures (P > 10 GPa.) Temperatures sufficient to populate vibrational levels above the ground state will allow the vibrational potential to be mapped by CARS. A system capable of heating and probing these samples will be constructed. Furthermore, the techniques that enable a sample to be sufficiently heated and probed while held at static high pressure in a diamond-anvil-cell will be developed. This will be an in-situ investigation of simple molecules under conditions relevant to the study of detonation chemistry and the Jovain planet interiors using state of the art non-linear spectroscopy, diamond-anvil-cells, and laser heating technology.

  15. Manufacture of high-density ceramic sinters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibata, Y.

    1986-01-01

    High density ceramic sinters are manufactured by coating premolded or presintered porous ceramics with a sealing material of high SiO2 porous glass or nitride glass and then sintering by hot isostatic pressing. The ceramics have excellent abrasion and corrosion resistances. Thus LC-10 (Si3N2 powder) and Y2O3-Al2O3 type sintering were mixed and molded to give a premolded porous ceramic (porosity 37%, relative bulk density 63%). The ceramic was dipped in a slurry containing high SiO2 porous glass and an alcohol solution of cellulose acetate and dried. The coated ceramic was treated in a nitrogen atmosphere and then sintered by hot isostatic pressing to give a dense ceramic sinter.

  16. High-density fiber optic biosensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Jason R.; Walt, David R.

    2002-02-01

    Novel approaches are required to coordinate the immense amounts of information derived from diverse genomes. This concept has influenced the expanded role of high-throughput DNA detection and analysis in the biological sciences. A high-density fiber optic DNA biosensor was developed consisting of oligonucleotide-functionalized, 3.1 mm diameter microspheres deposited into the etched wells on the distal face of a 500 micrometers imaging fiber bundle. Imaging fiber bundles containing thousands of optical fibers, each associated with a unique oligonucleotide probe sequence, were the foundation for an optically connected, individually addressable DNA detection platform. Different oligonucleotide-functionalized microspheres were combined in a stock solution, and randomly dispersed into the etched wells. Microsphere positions were registered from optical dyes incorporated onto the microspheres. The distribution process provided an inherent redundancy that increases the signal-to-noise ratio as the square root of the number of sensors examined. The representative amount of each probe-type in the array was dependent on their initial stock solution concentration, and as other sequences of interest arise, new microsphere elements can be added to arrays without altering the existing detection capabilities. The oligonucleotide probe sequences hybridize to fluorescently-labeled, complementary DNA target solutions. Fiber optic DNA microarray research has included DNA-protein interaction profiles, microbial strain differentiation, non-labeled target interrogation with molecular beacons, and single cell-based assays. This biosensor array is proficient in DNA detection linked to specific disease states, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP's) discrimination, and gene expression analysis. This array platform permits multiple detection formats, provides smaller feature sizes, and enables sensor design flexibility. High-density fiber optic microarray biosensors provide a fast

  17. High density plasma etching of magnetic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kee Bum

    Magnetic materials such as NiFe (permalloy) or NiFeCo are widely used in the data storage industry. Techniques for submicron patterning are required to develop next generation magnetic devices. The relative chemical inertness of most magnetic materials means they are hard to etch using conventional RIE (Reactive Ion Etching). Therefore ion milling has generally been used across the industry, but this has limitations for magnetic structures with submicron dimensions. In this dissertation, we suggest high density plasmas such as ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) and ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) for the etching of magnetic materials (NiFe, NiFeCo, CoFeB, CoSm, CoZr) and other related materials (TaN, CrSi, FeMn), which are employed for magnetic devices like magnetoresistive random access memories (MRAM), magnetic read/write heads, magnetic sensors and microactuators. This research examined the fundamental etch mechanisms occurring in high density plasma processing of magnetic materials by measuring etch rate, surface morphology and surface stoichiometry. However, one concern with using Cl2-based plasma chemistry is the effect of residual chlorine or chlorinated etch residues remaining on the sidewalls of etched features, leading to a degradation of the magnetic properties. To avoid this problem, we employed two different processing methods. The first one is applying several different cleaning procedures, including de-ionized water rinsing or in-situ exposure to H2, O2 or SF6 plasmas. Very stable magnetic properties were achieved over a period of ˜6 months except O2 plasma treated structures, with no evidence of corrosion, provided chlorinated etch residues were removed by post-etch cleaning. The second method is using non-corrosive gas chemistries such as CO/NH3 or CO2/NH3. There is a small chemical contribution to the etch mechanism (i.e. formation of metal carbonyls) as determined by a comparison with Ar and N2 physical sputtering. The discharge should be NH3

  18. Infrared imaging of high density protein arrays.

    PubMed

    De Meutter, Joëlle; Vandenameele, Julie; Matagne, André; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2017-04-10

    We propose in this paper that protein microarrays could be analysed by infrared imaging in place of enzymatic or fluorescence labelling. This label-free method reports simultaneously a large series of data on the spotted sample (protein secondary structure, phosphorylation, glycosylation, presence of impurities, etc.). In the present work, 100 μm protein spots each containing about 100 pg protein were deposited to form high density regular arrays. Using arrays of infrared detectors, high resolution images could be obtained where each pixel of the image is in fact a full infrared spectrum. With microarrays, hundreds of experimental conditions can be tested easily and quickly, with no further labelling or chemistry of any kind. We describe how the noise present in the infrared spectra can be split into image noise and detector noise. We also detail how both types of noise can be most conveniently dealt with to generate very high quality spectra of less than 100 pg protein. Finally, the results suggest that the protein secondary structure is preserved during microarray building.

  19. High-density electroencephalography developmental neurophysiological trajectories.

    PubMed

    Dan, Bernard; Pelc, Karine; Cebolla, Ana M; Cheron, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to document early changes in the developing brain have resulted in the construction of increasingly accurate structural images based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in newborn infants. Tractography diagrams obtained through diffusion tensor imaging have focused on white matter microstructure, with particular emphasis on neuronal connectivity at the level of fibre tract systems. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides a complementary approach with more direct access to brain electrical activity. Its temporal resolution is excellent, and its spatial resolution can be enhanced to physiologically relevant levels, through the combination of high-density recordings (e.g. by using 64 channels in newborn infants) and mathematical models (e.g. inverse modelling computation), to identify generators of different oscillation bands and synchrony patterns. The integration of functional and structural topography of the neonatal brain provides insights into typical brain organization, and the deviations seen in particular contexts, for example the effect of hypoxic-ischaemic insult in terms of damage, eventual reorganization, and functional changes. Endophenotypes can then be used for pathophysiological reasoning, management planning, and outcome measurements, and allow a longitudinal approach to individual developmental trajectories.

  20. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  1. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  2. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  3. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  4. High density, uniformly distributed W/UO2 for use in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Barnes, Marvin W.; Hone, Lance; Cook, Steven

    2017-04-01

    An inexpensive, quick method has been developed to obtain uniform distributions of UO2 particles in a tungsten matrix utilizing 0.5 wt percent low density polyethylene. Powders were sintered in a Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) furnace at 1600 °C, 1700 °C, 1750 °C, 1800 °C and 1850 °C using a modified sintering profile. This resulted in a uniform distribution of UO2 particles in a tungsten matrix with high densities, reaching 99.46% of theoretical for the sample sintered at 1850 °C. The powder process is described and the results of this study are given below.

  5. Waste product profile: Polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1996-02-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a plastic resin used primarily to make bottles. Soft drinks are the primary product packaged in PET. Salad dressing, peanut butter, and other household and consumer products also use PET bottles. PET is also used for film, sheeting for cups and food trays, ovenable trays, and other uses. PET is a relatively new packaging resin, first commercialized in the early `70s. Because it is an ``engineered`` resin, it is more expensive than commodity resins such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The primary market for recycled PET is the fiber industry, which uses PET for carpet fiber, sweaters and other clothing, and for other uses. Recycled PET can also be used for food and beverage containers. Export markets, particularly Asian countries, are becoming increasingly important.

  6. Laser Direct Routing for High Density Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Wilfrido Alejandro

    Diffused Link. A high density Laser Vertical Link with resistance values below 10 ohms was developed, studied and tested using design of experiment methodologies. The vertical link offers excellent advantages in the area of quick prototyping of electronic circuits, but even more important, due to having similar characteristics to a foundry produced via, it gives quick transfer from the prototype system verification stage to the mass production stage.

  7. Measurement and Ranking of Permeation Specimen Thickness Profiles: High-Density Polyethylene Swatches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Excet, Inc., 8001 Braddock...Road, Suite 303, Springfield, VA 22151-2110 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ECBC-CR-155 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...chemicals by the nonpolar HDPE, which can pre-swell a polymer and increase permeation of the test chemical. Each HDPE block was first cut into

  8. Natural fibre high-density polyethylene and lead oxide composites for radiation shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed Abdo, A.; Ali, M. A. M.; Ismail, M. R.

    2003-03-01

    Study has been made of the radiation shielding provided by recycled agricultural fibre and industrial plastic wastes produced as composite materials. Fast neutron and gamma-ray spectra behind composites of fibre-plastic ( ρ = 1.373 g cm -3) and fibre-plastic-lead ( ρ = 2.756 g cm -3) have been measured using a collimated reactor beam and neutron-gamma spectrometer with a stilbene scintillator. The pulse shape discriminating technique based on the zero-cross-over method was used to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray pulses. Slow neutron fluxes have been measured using a collimated reactor beam and BF 3 counter, leading to determination of the macroscopic cross-section ( Σ). The removal cross-sections ( ΣR) of fast neutrons have been determined from measured results and elemental composition of the composites. For gamma-rays, total linear attenuation coefficients ( μ) and total mass attenuation coefficients ( μ/ ρ) have been determined from use of the XCOM code and measured results. Reasonable agreement was found between measured and calculated results.

  9. Extrudate characteristics and morphology of styrene butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasree, T. K.; Manuvel, Jayan

    2013-06-01

    When HDPE is added to SBR, the melt elasticity of the system gets reduced. The morphology of the extrudates of the blends has been found to be dependent on the shear rate. Dynamic crosslinking with DCP has been improved the processability of SBR/HDPE blends by reducing the melt elasticity of the system considerably.

  10. Polyethylene Glycol 3350

    MedlinePlus

    Polyethylene glycol 3350 is used to treat occasional constipation. Polyethylene glycol 3350 is in a class of medications ... Polyethylene glycol 3350 comes as a powder to be mixed with a liquid and taken by mouth. ...

  11. Development of Infrared Welder for Sealing of Polyethylene TRU-Waste Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Milling, R.B.

    1999-06-08

    Engineers at the Savannah River Technology Center have successfully performed infrared welding of High Density Polyethylene test specimens to prove the feasibility of using the infrared welding process in the HANDSS-55-TRU-Waste Repackaging Module.

  12. The mechanical properties of density graded hemp/polyethylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauvegis, Raphaël; Rodrigue, Denis

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the production and mechanical characterization of density graded biocomposites based on high density polyethylene and hemp fibres was performed. The effect of coupling agent addition (maleated polyethylene) and hemp content (0-30%) was studied to determine the effect of hemp distribution (graded content) inside the composite (uniform, linear, V and Λ). Tensile and flexural properties are reported to compare the structures, especially in terms of their stress-strain behaviors under tensile loading.

  13. Relation between the High Density Phase and the Very-High Density Phase of Amorphous Solid Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovambattista, Nicolas; Stanley, H. Eugene; Sciortino, Francesco

    2005-03-01

    It has been suggested that high-density amorphous (HDA) ice is a structurally arrested form of high-density liquid (HDL) water, while low-density amorphous ice is a structurally arrested form of low-density liquid (LDL) water. Recent experiments and simulations have been interpreted to support the possibility of a second distinct high-density structural state, named very high-density amorphous (VHDA) ice, questioning the LDL-HDL hypothesis. We test this interpretation using extensive computer simulations and find that VHDA is a more stable form of HDA and that, in fact, VHDA should be considered as the amorphous ice of the quenched HDL.

  14. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123 Section 93.123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic...

  15. Study of the photo-detection efficiency of FBK High-Density silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappalà, G.; Acerbi, F.; Ferri, A.; Gola, A.; Paternoster, G.; Regazzoni, V.; Zorzi, N.; Piemonte, C.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents a study of the factors contributing to the Photo-Detection Efficiency of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs): Quantum Efficiency, Triggering Probability and Fill Factor. Two different SiPM High-Density technologies are tested, NUV-HD, based on n-on-p junction, and RGB-HD, based on p-on-n junction, developed at FBK, Trento. The quantum efficiency was measured on photodiodes produced along with the SiPMs. The triggering probability, as a function of wavelength and bias voltage, was measured on circular Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) with 100% fill factor. Square SPADs, having the same layout of single SiPM cells, were studied to measure the effective fill factor and compare it to the nominal value. The comparison of the circular and square SPADs allows to get the transition region size between the effective active area of the cell and the one defined by the layout.

  16. Small-Scale Production of High-Density Dry Ice: A Variant Combination of Two Classic Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Easily recoverable, thumb-sized pieces of high-density dry ice are conveniently produced by deposition of carbon dioxide within a test tube submerged in liquid nitrogen. A carbon dioxide-filled balloon sealed over the mouth of the test tube serves as a gas reservoir, and further permits a dramatic demonstration of both the gas-to-solid phase…

  17. High-density through-wafer copper via array in insulating glass mold using reflow process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Woo; Lee, Seung-Ki; Park, Jae-Hyoung

    2015-04-01

    A high-density through-wafer vertical copper via array in insulating glass interposer is demonstrated. The glass reflow and bottom-up filling copper electroplating process enables fabrication of a vertical through-wafer copper via array with high aspect ratio and high density. The minimum diameter of the copper vias and the gaps in between are 20 and 10 µm, respectively. Three failures among one hundred measurement points were detected within a 1 cm2 area of the via array, and the resistance of the 20-µm-diameter copper via was measured to be 153 ± 23 mΩ using the four-probe method. The optical transmittance and RF performance of the reflowed glass substrate were compared with those of bare glass. The reliability of the copper via in harsh environments was evaluated through thermal shock and pressure cooker tests.

  18. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: current perspective for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2009-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins are regarded as ''good guys'' but not always. Situations involving high-density lipoproteins are discussed and medication results are considered. Clinicians usually consider high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Nicotinic acid is the best available medication to elevate high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and this appears beneficial for cardiovascular risk. The major problem with nicotinic acid is that many patients do not tolerate the associated flushing. Laropiprant decreases this flushing and has an approval in Europe but not in the United States. The most potent medications for increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors. The initial drug in this class, torcetrapib, was eliminated by excess cardiovascular problems. Two newer cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, R1658 and anacetrapib, initially appear promising. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol may play an important role in improving cardiovascular risk in the 60% of patients who do not receive cardiovascular mortality/morbidity benefit from low-density lipoproteins reduction by statins.

  19. Poly(ethylene imine)-based granular sorbents by a new process of templated gel-filling. High capacity and selectivity of copper sorption in acidic and alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    Chanda, M.; Rempel, G.L.

    1995-08-01

    A new process has been developed for making granular gel-type sorbents from chelating resins using metal ion as template. Named as templated gel-filling, the process uses the chosen metal as templating host ion on high-surface-area silica to build a templated gel layer from a solution of the chelating resin in a suitable solvent in which the resin is soluble but its metal complex is insoluble. After cross-linking the templated gel layer, the silica support is removed by alkali to produce a hollow shell of the templated gel. The shells are then soaked in a concentrated aqueous solution of the same metal ion and suspended in the same resin solution to afford gel-filling. The shells thus filled with metal-templated gel are treated with cross-linking agent, followed by acid to remove the template ion and activate the resin for metal sorption. Poly(ethyleneimine) and its partially ethylated derivative have been used to produce granular gel-type sorbents by this process, with Cu(II) as the template ion. These sorbents are found to offer high capacity and selectivity for copper over nickel, cobalt, and zinc in both acidic and alkaline media. Containing a relatively high fraction of imbibed water, the sorbents exhibit markedly enhanced rate behavior, in both sorption and stripping.

  20. The radiation improvement of polyethylene prostheses. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Grobbelaar, C J; du Plessis, T A; Marais, F

    1978-08-01

    The radiation crosslinking of high-density polyethylene prostheses was investigated over a wide range of doses in the presence and absence of gaseous crosslinking agents. It was found that in the bulk polymer the crosslinking pattern is completely different from the homogeneous crosslinking that occurs in polymer films. The presence of crosslinking agents causes highly crosslinked polymer to be formed on the surface while the bulk of the polymer is largely unaffected--which is explained in terms of diffusion phenomena. This surface crosslinking has a profound effect on the mechanical properties of the prostheses and restricts cold flow and deformation of the polymer without sacrificing the excellent abrasion-resistance properties of the polyethylene when subjected to high pressures. Based on this research a number of high-density polyethylene knee prostheses have been radiation-crosslinked and the results in vitro appear to be very promising.

  1. Effects of extractives on some properties of bagasse/high density polypropylene composite.

    PubMed

    Sheshmani, Shabnam

    2013-04-15

    In this study, the effects of two variable parameters, namely the extractives and filler loading level, on the physical properties of composites were examined. Composites based on high density polyethylene (HDPE), bagasse flour (BF) as filler were made by injection molding. In order to increase the interphase adhesion, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE) was added as a coupling agent to all the composites studied. Three different solvents, ethanol-benzene, 1% NaOH and hot-water, were used to remove extractives. Physical properties, namely, water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) were investigated for a long period. At same filler loading, composites made with extracted bagasse had higher WA and TS values. In addition, the TS of samples showed a similar pattern to the water uptake data. The difference in WA between extracted and unextracted composites is due to blocking of -OH groups by extractives. The results also showed that as the BF content was increased, significant increase in WA and TS occurred. Statistical analysis confirmed that the effects of both variables and their interactions on the WA and TS properties were significant at 1% confidence level.

  2. Emerging strategies for increasing high-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Forrester, James S; Shah, Prediman K

    2006-12-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a potent and independent epidemiologic risk factor and is a proved antiatherosclerotic agent in animal models of atherosclerosis, acting through the principal mechanisms of accelerating cholesterol efflux and inhibiting oxidation and inflammation. Lifestyle modification increases serum levels by 5% to 15%, whereas niacin, the drug most widely used to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, increases it by 25% to 35% at the highest doses. This review examines the potent methods of increasing high-density lipoprotein and/or enhancing reverse cholesterol transport, including cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors, apolipoprotein A-I Milano, D4F, the dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists, and rimonabant, that are now in clinical trials. In conclusion, these new agents, used alone or in combination with existing therapies, carry the potential to markedly reduce the incidence of new coronary disease and cardiac events in this decade.

  3. High-density monolayers of metal complexes: preparation and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kenji; Sawamura, Masaya; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials for realizing a sustainable society. However, we may encounter problematic cases where conventional catalyst systems cannot provide effective solutions. We thus believe that the establishment of novel methods of catalyst preparation is currently necessary. Utilization of high-density monolayers of molecular metal complexes is our strategy, and we expect that this methodology will enable facile and systematic screening of unique and efficient catalysts. This Personal Account describes our challenges to establish such an immature method in catalyst preparation as well as the related background and perspective. Preparation and catalysis by high-density monolayers of Rh complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene, structurally compact phosphine and diisocyanide ligands on gold surfaces are presented. The catalytic application of a high-density Pd-bisoxazoline complex prepared on a single-crystal silicon surface is also shown. Uniquely high catalyst turnover numbers and high chemoselectivities were observed with these catalyst systems.

  4. High density semiconductor nanodots by direct laser fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghizadeh, Anahita; Yang, Haeyeon

    2016-03-01

    We report a direct method of fabricating high density nanodots on the GaAs(001) surfaces using laser irradiations on the surface. Surface images indicate that the large clumps are not accompanied with the formation of nanodots even though its density is higher than the critical density above which detrimental large clumps begin to show up in the conventional Stranski-Krastanov growth technique. Atomic force microscopy is used to image the GaAs(001) surfaces that are irradiated by high power laser pulses interferentially. The analysis suggests that high density quantum dots be fabricated directly on semiconductor surfaces.

  5. High-density carbon ablator experiments on the National Ignition Facilitya)

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Ross, J. S.; Le Pape, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Divol, L.; Ho, D.; Milovich, J.; Pak, A.; Ralph, J.; Döppner, T.; Patel, P. K.; Thomas, C.; Tommasini, R.; Haan, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J.; Caggiano, J.; Hatarik, R.; Bionta, R.; Ma, T.; Spears, B.; Rygg, J. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Dewald, E. L.; Fittinghoff, D.; Jones, O. S.; Robey, H. R.; Moody, J. D.; Khan, S.; Callahan, D. A.; Hamza, A.; Biener, J.; Celliers, P. M.; Braun, D. G.; Erskine, D. J.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Wallace, R. J.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Sater, J.; Collins, G.; Storm, E.; Hsing, W.; Landen, O.; Atherton, J. L.; Lindl, J. D.; Edwards, M. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Rinderknecht, H.; Rosenberg, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A.; Knauer, J. P.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Merrill, F.; Olson, R.; Kyrala, G. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.; Moreno, K.; Hoover, D. E.; Wild, C.; Werner, E.

    2014-05-01

    High Density Carbon (HDC) is a leading candidate as an ablator material for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules in x-ray (indirect) drive implosions. HDC has a higher density (3.5 g/cc) than plastic (CH, 1 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator with a larger inner radius for a given capsule scale. This leads to higher x-ray absorption and shorter laser pulses compared to equivalent CH designs. This paper will describe a series of experiments carried out to examine the feasibility of using HDC as an ablator using both gas filled hohlraums and lower density, near vacuum hohlraums. These experiments have shown that deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium gas filled HDC capsules driven by a hohlraum filled with 1.2 mg/cc He gas, produce neutron yields a factor of 2× higher than equivalent CH implosions, representing better than 50% Yield-over-Clean (YoC). In a near vacuum hohlraum (He = 0.03 mg/cc) with 98% laser-to-hohlraum coupling, such a DD gas-filled capsule performed near 1D expectations. A cryogenic layered implosion version was consistent with a fuel velocity = 410 ± 20 km/s with no observed ablator mixing into the hot spot.

  6. High-density carbon ablator experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, A. J. Meezan, N. B.; Ross, J. S.; Le Pape, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Divol, L.; Ho, D.; Milovich, J.; Pak, A.; Ralph, J.; Döppner, T.; Patel, P. K.; Thomas, C.; Tommasini, R.; Haan, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J.; Caggiano, J.; Hatarik, R.; Bionta, R.; and others

    2014-05-15

    High Density Carbon (HDC) is a leading candidate as an ablator material for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules in x-ray (indirect) drive implosions. HDC has a higher density (3.5 g/cc) than plastic (CH, 1 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator with a larger inner radius for a given capsule scale. This leads to higher x-ray absorption and shorter laser pulses compared to equivalent CH designs. This paper will describe a series of experiments carried out to examine the feasibility of using HDC as an ablator using both gas filled hohlraums and lower density, near vacuum hohlraums. These experiments have shown that deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium gas filled HDC capsules driven by a hohlraum filled with 1.2 mg/cc He gas, produce neutron yields a factor of 2× higher than equivalent CH implosions, representing better than 50% Yield-over-Clean (YoC). In a near vacuum hohlraum (He = 0.03 mg/cc) with 98% laser-to-hohlraum coupling, such a DD gas-filled capsule performed near 1D expectations. A cryogenic layered implosion version was consistent with a fuel velocity = 410 ± 20 km/s with no observed ablator mixing into the hot spot.

  7. High density packaging and interconnect of massively parallel image processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John C.; Indin, Ronald J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents conceptual designs for high density packaging of parallel processing systems. The systems fall into two categories: global memory systems where many processors are packaged into a stack, and distributed memory systems where a single processor and many memory chips are packaged into a stack. Thermal behavior and performance are discussed.

  8. High Density Polymer-Based Integrated Electgrode Array

    DOEpatents

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Davidson, James Courtney; Hamilton, Julie K.

    2006-04-25

    A high density polymer-based integrated electrode apparatus that comprises a central electrode body and a multiplicity of arms extending from the electrode body. The central electrode body and the multiplicity of arms are comprised of a silicone material with metal features in said silicone material that comprise electronic circuits.

  9. High density constraint on the entropy instability. [with nonisothermal effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Kennel, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    The entropy instability squared is a nonisothermal effect which is eliminated by parallel ion pressure at high densities (k sub z lambda sub e 1/2 sq root of m/M), reducing previous growth rate estimates and the range of unstable parameters.

  10. Heat map visualization of high-density clinical chemistry data.

    PubMed

    Auman, J Todd; Boorman, Gary A; Wilson, Ralph E; Travlos, Gregory S; Paules, Richard S

    2007-10-22

    Clinical chemistry data are routinely generated as part of preclinical animal toxicity studies and human clinical studies. With large-scale studies involving hundreds or even thousands of samples in multiple treatment groups, it is currently difficult to interpret the resulting complex, high-density clinical chemistry data. Accordingly, we conducted this study to investigate methods for easy visualization of complex, high-density data. Clinical chemistry data were obtained from male rats each treated with one of eight different acute hepatotoxicants from a large-scale toxicogenomics study. The raw data underwent a Z-score transformation comparing each individual animal's clinical chemistry values to that of reference controls from all eight studies and then were visualized in a single graphic using a heat map. The utility of using a heat map to visualize high-density clinical chemistry data was explored by clustering changes in clinical chemistry values for >400 animals. A clear distinction was observed in animals displaying hepatotoxicity from those that did not. Additionally, while animals experiencing hepatotoxicity showed many similarities in the observed clinical chemistry alterations, distinct differences were noted in the heat map profile for the different compounds. Using a heat map to visualize complex, high-density clinical chemistry data in a single graphic facilitates the identification of previously unrecognized trends. This method is simple to implement and maintains the biological integrity of the data. The value of this clinical chemistry data transformation and visualization will manifest itself through integration with other high-density data, such as genomics data, to study physiology at the systems level.

  11. New pitfalls of high-density postmortem computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Ayumi; Hyodoh, Hideki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Fukuda, Marika; Baba, Miho; Okazaki, Shunichiro; Mizuo, Keisuke; Hayashi, Etsuko; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2014-09-01

    An 80-year-old female was transferred to the hospital due to a traffic accident. Multiple cranial bone fractures with intracranial hemorrhage and intracranial air were detected. Despite treatment, the patient died after 6h. Twenty-one hours after the patient died, her whole body was scanned by postmortem CT, and a region of high density was detected within the left putamen. The autopsy revealed a cerebral contusion and multiple skull base fractures. Moreover, superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) were found within the left lateral ventricle and adjacent to the putamen, which appeared as a high-density lesion on postmortem CT at the left putamen, where the SAPs were compacted. Both ante- and postmortem conditions should be considered to prevent misdiagnoses based only on postmortem CT.

  12. PREPARATION OF HIGH-DENSITY THORIUM OXIDE SPHERES

    DOEpatents

    McNees, R.A. Jr.; Taylor, A.J.

    1963-12-31

    A method of preparing high-density thorium oxide spheres for use in pellet beds in nuclear reactors is presented. Sinterable thorium oxide is first converted to free-flowing granules by means such as compression into a compact and comminution of the compact. The granules are then compressed into cubes having a density of 5.0 to 5.3 grams per cubic centimeter. The cubes are tumbled to form spheres by attrition, and the spheres are then fired at 1250 to 1350 deg C. The fired spheres are then polished and fired at a temperature above 1650 deg C to obtain high density. Spherical pellets produced by this method are highly resistant to mechanical attrition hy water. (AEC)

  13. Noise reduction in muon tomography for detecting high density objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettoni, M.; Bettella, G.; Bonomi, G.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Cortelazzo, G.; Cossutta, L.; Donzella, A.; Furlan, M.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Rigoni Garola, A.; Ronchese, P.; Squarcia, S.; Subieta, M.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zanuttigh, P.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2013-12-01

    The muon tomography technique, based on multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed as a tool to detect the presence of high density objects inside closed volumes. In this paper a new and innovative method is presented to handle the density fluctuations (noise) of reconstructed images, a well known problem of this technique. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated using experimental data obtained with a muon tomography prototype located at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The results reported in this paper, obtained with real cosmic ray data, show that with appropriate image filtering and muon momentum classification, the muon tomography technique can detect high density materials, such as lead, albeit surrounded by light or medium density material, in short times. A comparison with algorithms published in literature is also presented.

  14. Advanced short haul aircraft for high density markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    The short haul (less than 500 miles) passenger enplanements represent about 50% of the total domestic enplanements. These can be distinguished by the annual passenger flow for a given city pair and classified into low, medium and high densiy markets. NASA studies have investigated various advanced short haul aircraft concepts that have potential application in these three market areas. Although advanced operational techniques impact all market densities, advanced vehicle design concepts such as RTOL, STOL and VTOL have the largest impact in the high density markets. This paper summarizes the results of NASA sponsored high density short haul air transportation systems studies and briefly reviews NASA sponsored advanced VTOL conceptual aircraft design studies. Trends in vehicle characteristics and operational requirements will be indicated in addition to economic suitability and impact on the community.

  15. Advanced short haul systems in high density markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The design requirements, performance, economics, and noise aspects of STOL and VTOL conceptual aircraft developed for short haul air transportation are reviewed, along with the characteristics of areas of high-density annual passenger flow in which the aircraft are intended to operate. It is shown that aircraft of 100 to 200 passenger capacity provide the best return on investment in high density markets. The various STOL propulsive lift concepts have the same general trends with field length; their wing loadings are 20 to 30 pounds per square foot higher than the nonpropulsive lift concepts. A comparison of the aircraft under consideration shows that no one aircraft concept will be optimum for all future operational environments.

  16. Equation of state for a high-density glass.

    SciTech Connect

    Mattsson, Ann Elisabet

    2003-07-01

    Properties of relevance for the equation of state for a high-density glass are discussed. We review the effects of failure waves, comminuted phase, and compaction on the validity of the Mie-Grueneisen EOS. The specific heat and the Grueneisen parameter at standard conditions for a {rho}{sub 0} = 5.085 g/cm{sup 3} glass ('Glass A') is then estimated to be 522 mJ/g/K and 0.1-0.3, respectively. The latter value is substantially smaller than the value of 2.1751 given in the SESAME tables for a high-density glass with {rho}{sub 0} = 5.46 g/cm{sup 3}. The present unusual value of the Grueneisen parameter is confirmed from the volume dependence determined from fitting the Mie-Grueneisen EOS to shock data in Ref. [2].

  17. Equation of State for a High-Density Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, A. E.

    2004-07-01

    Properties of relevance for the equation of state for a high-density glass are discussed. We review the effects of failure waves, comminuted phase, and compaction on the validity of the Mie-Grüneisen EOS. The specific heat and the Grüneisen parameter at standard conditions for a ρ0 = 5.085 g/cm3 glass ("Glass A") is then estimated to be 522 mJ/g/K and 0.1 - 0.3, respectively. The latter value is substantially smaller than the value of 2.1751 given in the SESAME tables for a high-density glass with ρ0 = 5.46 g/cm3. The present unusual value of the Grüneisen parameter is confirmed from the volume dependence determined from fitting the Mie-Grüneisen EOS to shock data in Ref. [2].

  18. Fabrication of very high density fuel pellets of thorium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiratori, Tetsuo; Fukuda, Kosaku

    1993-06-01

    Very high density ThO 2 pellets were prepared without binders and lubricants from the ThO 2 powder originated by the thorium oxalate, which was aimed to simplify the fabrication process by skipping a preheat treatment. The as-received ThO 2 powder with a surface area of 4.56 m 2/g was ball-milled up to about 9 m 2/g in order to increase the green pellet density as high as possible. Both of the single-sided and the double-sided pressing were tested in the range from 2 to 5 t/cm 2 in the green pellet formation. Sintering temperature was such low as 1550°C. The pellet prepared in this experiment had a very high density in the range from about 96 to 98% TD without any cracks, in which a difference of the pellet density was not recognized in the single-sided pressing methods.

  19. High-Density Amorphous Ice, the Frost on Interstellar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Blake, D. F.; Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.

    1995-01-01

    Most water ice in the universe is in a form which does not occur naturally on Earth and of which only minimal amounts have been made in the laboratory. We have encountered this 'high-density amorphous ice' in electron diffraction experiments of low-temperature (T less than 30 K) vapor-deposited water and have subsequently modeled its structure using molecular dynamics simulations. The characteristic feature of high-density amorphous ice is the presence of 'interstitial' oxygen pair distances between 3 and 4 A. However, we find that the structure is best described as a collapsed lattice of the more familiar low-density amorphous form. These distortions are frozen in at temperatures below 38 K because, we propose, it requires the breaking of one hydrogen bond, on average, per molecule to relieve the strain and to restructure the lattice to that of low-density amorphous ice. Several features of astrophysical ice analogs studied in laboratory experiments are readily explained by the structural transition from high-density amorphous ice into low-density amorphous ice. Changes in the shape of the 3.07 gm water band, trapping efficiency of CO, CO loss, changes in the CO band structure, and the recombination of radicals induced by low-temperature UV photolysis all covary with structural changes that occur in the ice during this amorphous to amorphous transition. While the 3.07 micrometers ice band in various astronomical environments can be modeled with spectra of simple mixtures of amorphous and crystalline forms, the contribution of the high-density amorphous form nearly always dominates.

  20. Allotypy of High Density Lipoprotein of Rabbit Serum

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kåre; Boman, Helge; Torsvik, Harald; Walker, Suzanne M.

    1971-01-01

    A common antigenic polymorphism of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in rabbit serum is described. The presence or absence of an antigen termed Hl 1 appears to be controlled by autosomal dominant inheritance. The polymorphism should be a useful tool in the study of serum lipoproteins, particularly since genetic polymorphisms within the low density lipoprotein are already known in several species. The Hl polymorphism may make the rabbit more useful for model studies of serum lipoproteins in health and disease. Images PMID:4995822

  1. Critical Technology Assessment: Fine Grain, High Density Graphite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Control Classification Number ( ECCN ) 1C107.a on the Commerce Control List (CCL). The parameters of 1C107.a stem from controls established by the Missile...Technology Control Regime (MTCR). In this assessment, BIS specifically examined: • The application of ECCN 1C107.a and related licensing...export licensing process for fine grain, high density graphite controlled by ECCN 1C107.a, especially to China, requires more license conditions and

  2. Near-vacuum hohlraums for driving fusion implosions with high density carbon ablatorsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; Meezan, N. B.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S.; Milovich, J. L.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Casey, D.; Celliers, P. M.; Pak, A.; Peterson, J. L.; Ralph, J.; Rygg, J. R.

    2015-05-01

    Recent experiments at the National Ignition Facility [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] have explored driving high-density carbon ablators with near-vacuum hohlraums, which use a minimal amount of helium gas fill. These hohlraums show improved efficiency relative to conventional gas-filled hohlraums in terms of minimal backscatter, minimal generation of suprathermal electrons, and increased hohlraum-capsule coupling. Given these advantages, near-vacuum hohlraums are a promising choice for pursuing high neutron yield implosions. Long pulse symmetry control, though, remains a challenge, as the hohlraum volume fills with material. Two mitigation methodologies have been explored, dynamic beam phasing and increased case-to-capsule ratio (larger hohlraum size relative to capsule). Unexpectedly, experiments have demonstrated that the inner laser beam propagation is better than predicted by nominal simulations, and an enhanced beam propagation model is required to match measured hot spot symmetry. Ongoing work is focused on developing a physical model which captures this enhanced propagation and on utilizing the enhanced propagation to drive longer laser pulses than originally predicted in order to reach alpha-heating dominated neutron yields.

  3. Characterization of the high density plasma etching process of CCTO thin films for the fabrication of very high density capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamore, C.; Tringali, C.; Sparta', N.; Di Marco, S.; Grasso, A.; Ravesi, S.

    2010-02-01

    In this work the feasibility of CCTO (Calcium Copper Titanate) patterning by etching process is demonstrated and fully characterized in a hard to etch materials etcher. CCTO sintered in powder shows a giant relative dielectric constant (105) measured at 1 MHz at room temperature. This feature is furthermore coupled with stability from 101 Hz to 106 Hz in a wide temperature range (100K - 600K). In principle, this property can allow to fabricate very high capacitance density condenser. Due to its perovskite multi-component structure, CCTO can be considered a hard to etch material. For high density capacitor fabrication, CCTO anisotropic etching is requested by using high density plasma. The behavior of etched CCTO was studied in a HRe- (High Density Reflected electron) plasma etcher using Cl2/Ar chemistry. The relationship between the etch rate and the Cl2/Ar ratio was also studied. The effects of RF MHz, KHz Power and pressure variation, the impact of HBr addiction to the Cl2/Ar chemistry on the CCTO etch rate and on its selectivity to Pt and photo resist was investigated.

  4. Single-mode tuning of the plasmon resonance in high-density pillar arrays.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Matthew D

    2017-03-22

    The Maxwell-Garnett (MG) effective medium model has a pure resonance controlled by volume fraction f, but is usually invalid at high density. I present special 2D structures that match quasistatic MG over the entire range 0  <  f  <  1, in several regular and semi-regular arrays, expanding the applicability of MG. Optimal contours depend on both lattice and fill-factor, transforming from circular at low f to nearly polygonal at high f. A key insight is the direct relationship between optimal surface polarization and surface position. Electrodynamic calculations underline the effect of constituent permittivity on spatial dispersion and required sizes for quasistatic response in various materials.

  5. High-density carbon capsule experiments on the national ignition facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, J. S.; Ho, D.; Milovich, J.; Döppner, T.; McNaney, J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Hamza, A.; Biener, J.; Robey, H. F.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Divol, L.; Le Pape, S.; Hopkins, L. Berzak; Celliers, P. M.; Landen, O.; Meezan, N. B.; Mackinnon, A. J.

    2015-02-01

    Indirect-drive implosions with a high-density carbon (HDC) capsule were conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to test HDC properties as an ablator material for inertial confinement fusion. A series of five experiments were completed with 76 -μ m -thick HDC capsules using a four-shock laser pulse optimized for HDC. The pulse delivered a total energy of 1.3 MJ with a peak power of 360 TW. The experiment demonstrated good laser to target coupling (˜90 % ) and excellent nuclear performance. A deuterium and tritium gas-filled HDC capsule implosion produced a neutron yield of 1.6 ×1015±3 ×1013 , a yield over simulated in one dimension of 70 % .

  6. Single-mode tuning of the plasmon resonance in high-density pillar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Matthew D.

    2017-03-01

    The Maxwell–Garnett (MG) effective medium model has a pure resonance controlled by volume fraction f, but is usually invalid at high density. I present special 2D structures that match quasistatic MG over the entire range 0  <  f  <  1, in several regular and semi-regular arrays, expanding the applicability of MG. Optimal contours depend on both lattice and fill-factor, transforming from circular at low f to nearly polygonal at high f. A key insight is the direct relationship between optimal surface polarization and surface position. Electrodynamic calculations underline the effect of constituent permittivity on spatial dispersion and required sizes for quasistatic response in various materials.

  7. High-density carbon capsule experiments on the national ignition facility.

    PubMed

    Ross, J S; Ho, D; Milovich, J; Döppner, T; McNaney, J; MacPhee, A G; Hamza, A; Biener, J; Robey, H F; Dewald, E L; Tommasini, R; Divol, L; Le Pape, S; Berzak Hopkins, L; Celliers, P M; Landen, O; Meezan, N B; Mackinnon, A J

    2015-02-01

    Indirect-drive implosions with a high-density carbon (HDC) capsule were conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to test HDC properties as an ablator material for inertial confinement fusion. A series of five experiments were completed with 76-μm-thick HDC capsules using a four-shock laser pulse optimized for HDC. The pulse delivered a total energy of 1.3 MJ with a peak power of 360 TW. The experiment demonstrated good laser to target coupling (∼90%) and excellent nuclear performance. A deuterium and tritium gas-filled HDC capsule implosion produced a neutron yield of 1.6×10^{15}±3×10(13), a yield over simulated in one dimension of 70%.

  8. High density monolithic packaging technology for digital/microwave avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fertig, Timothy; Walter, Theresa; Gaver, Eric; Leahy, Kevin

    1994-10-01

    There has been a need for generic technologies and common approaches in design, development, and manufacturing of military and commercial products. This need is more pronounced and pressing today than ever before. With the objective to dramatically enhance avionics reliability, maintainability and availability (RM&A), an integrated, generic technology for packaging, cooling, and interconnection of high density and high performance circuits was developed. It is named High Density Monolithic Packaging (HDMP). Under the sponsorship of Wright Laboratory, a two-part complementary program (1990-1994), named Advanced Radio-Frequency Packaging/ARFP was contracted to Westinghouse. Under the ARFP program, the HDMP technology is being applied and its promising capability is being assessed for its ability to reduce the low power RF avionics life-cycle cost. Being better than half way through the program, the results and projections have been extremely promising. The technology assessment is approximately 50 percent complete and initial results have been extremely successful. Although the focus of the development effort has been on RF subsystems, the basic elements of HDMP technology have applications beyond RF/microwave subsystems. As digital processing speeds increase, RF/microwave design techniques must be applied to maintain high speed digital signal integrity. The basic elements of the HDMP technology are: low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC), solderless interconnects, multichip modules (MCM's), and composite heatsink materials. The key technology element, in this avionics availability enabling technology, is LTCC. LTCC material technology is a monolithic multilayered ceramic and conductor/metallization structure used as a substrate to support dense co-habitation of high density electronic circuits, their interconnections, and the electromechanical integrity of the integrated constituents.

  9. High density electronic circuit and process for making

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, W.P.

    1999-06-29

    High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits are disclosed. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing. 8 figs.

  10. High density electronic circuit and process for making

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, William P.

    1999-01-01

    High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing.

  11. Extended length microchannels for high density high throughput electrophoresis systems

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    High throughput electrophoresis systems which provide extended well-to-read distances on smaller substrates, thus compacting the overall systems. The electrophoresis systems utilize a high density array of microchannels for electrophoresis analysis with extended read lengths. The microchannel geometry can be used individually or in conjunction to increase the effective length of a separation channel while minimally impacting the packing density of channels. One embodiment uses sinusoidal microchannels, while another embodiment uses plural microchannels interconnected by a via. The extended channel systems can be applied to virtually any type of channel confined chromatography.

  12. High Density Thermal Energy Storage with Supercritical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Wirz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to storing thermal energy with supercritical fluids is being investigated, which if successful, promises to transform the way thermal energy is captured and utilized. The use of supercritical fluids allows cost-affordable high-density storage with a combination of latent heat and sensible heat in the two-phase as well as the supercritical state. This technology will enhance penetration of several thermal power generation applications and high temperature water for commercial use if the overall cost of the technology can be demonstrated to be lower than the current state-of-the-art molten salt using sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate eutectic mixtures.

  13. Antarctic marine gravity field from high-density satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.

    1992-01-01

    High-density (about 2-km profile spacing) Geosat/GM altimetry profiles were obtained for Antarctic waters (6-deg S to 72 deg S) and converted to vertical gravity gradient, using Laplace's equation to directly calculate gravity gradient from vertical deflection grids and Fourier analysis to construct gravity anomalies from two vertical deflection grids. The resultant gravity grids have resolution and accuracy comparable to shipboard gravity profiles. The obtained gravity maps display many interesting and previously uncharted features, such as a propagating rift wake and a large 'leaky transform' along the Pacific-Antarctic Rise.

  14. Biomimetic high density lipoprotein nanoparticles for nucleic acid delivery.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kaylin M; Mutharasan, R Kannan; Tripathy, Sushant; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bobeica, Mariana; Shumaker, Dale K; Luthi, Andrea J; Helfand, Brian T; Ardehali, Hossein; Mirkin, Chad A; Volpert, Olga; Thaxton, C Shad

    2011-03-09

    We report a gold nanoparticle-templated high density lipoprotein (HDL AuNP) platform for gene therapy that combines lipid-based nucleic acid transfection strategies with HDL biomimicry. For proof-of-concept, HDL AuNPs are shown to adsorb antisense cholesterylated DNA. The conjugates are internalized by human cells, can be tracked within cells using transmission electron microscopy, and regulate target gene expression. Overall, the ability to directly image the AuNP core within cells, the chemical tailorability of the HDL AuNP platform, and the potential for cell-specific targeting afforded by HDL biomimicry make this platform appealing for nucleic acid delivery.

  15. Near-vacuum hohlraums for driving fusion implosions with high density carbon ablators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2014-10-01

    Achieving ignition requires reaching fast implosion velocities, which highlights the need for a highly efficient hohlraum to drive indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions. Gas-filled hohlraums are typically utilized due to the pulse length (15-20 ns) needed to drive plastic (CH) capsules. With the recent use of 3× denser high-density carbon (HDC) capsules, ignition pulses can be less than 10 ns in duration, providing the opportunity to utilize near-vacuum hohlraums (NVH) to drive ignition-relevant implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with minimal laser-plasma instabilities which complicate standard gas-filled hohlraums. Initial NVH implosions on the NIF have demonstrated coupling efficiency significantly higher than observed in gas-filled hohlraums - backscatter losses less than 2% and virtually no suprathermal electron generation. A major design challenge for the NVH is symmetry control. Without tamping gas, the hohlraum wall quickly expands filling the volume with gold plasma. However, results to-date indicate that the inner-cone beams propagate freely to the hohlraum wall for at least 6.5 ns. With minimal predicted cross-beam power transfer, this propagation enables symmetry control via dynamic beam phasing - time-dependent direct adjustment of the inner- and outer-cone laser pulses. A series of experiments with an HDC ablator and NVH culminated in a 6 ns, 1.2 MJ cryogenic DT layered implosion yielding 1.8 × 1015 neutrons--significantly higher yield than any CH implosion at comparable energy. This implosion reached an ignition-relevant velocity -350 km/s - with no observed ablator mix in the hot spot. Recent experiments have explored two-shock designs in a larger, 6.72 mm hohlraum, and upcoming experiments will incrementally extend the pulse duration toward a 9 ns long, three-shock ignition design. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Degradation of electron-irradiated polyethylene studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, K.; Oka, T.; Kino, Y.; Sekine, T.

    2017-01-01

    Degradation of electron beam irradiated high-density polyethylene was studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), micro-FT-IR, and gel fraction measurements. The obtained results indicated that ortho-positronium intensity is influenced not only by the irradiation but also the post oxidation, which illustrates that PALS may be a promising tool to monitor/evaluate the degradation of polyethylene induced by irradiation and long-term storage.

  17. System design for OFDM systems with high-density constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jian

    2001-10-01

    This paper addresses issues in designing OFDM systems with high-density constellations. To achieve high data throughput, many high-speed OFDM systems such as HiperLAN2 and IEEE 802.11a use high-density constellations such as 64QAM to reach up to 54Mbits/s over a 20 MHz frequency bandwidth. Compared with low-density constellation modulations, OFDM systems using M-QAM (M>=64) are very sensitive to analog circuits/components variations causing so-called I-Q imbalances. Moreover, for the purpose of high integration level and low cost, simple front-end radio/analog architectures such as direct conversion and low-IF are desirable but such architectures are even more sensitive to circuitry and component variation. We have developed a patent-pending technology called IQ-Balancing, which removes the adverse effect of I-Q imbalance and enables OFDM systems to have high tolerance to circuitry and component variations. With IQ-Balancing technology, direct conversion and low-IF architectures become very attractive for high-speed OFDM systems. Exploring further with IQ- balancing technology leads to a simple implementation of software Defined Radio (SDR).

  18. An evaluation of serum high density lipoproteins-phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Ide, H; Tsuji, M; Shimada, M; Kondo, T; Fujiya, S; Asanuma, Y; Agishi, Y

    1988-07-01

    Phospholipids in high density lipoproteins (HDL) is being used as a negative risk indicator of atherosclerosis. Phospholipids in HDL may not demonstrate the actual level of HDL-phospholipids when determined by the precipitation or ultracentrifugal methods, because HDL fractions contain very high density lipoproteins (VHDL) and albumin. In the present study, the true level of phospholipids in HDL was estimated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and it was compared with the level of phospholipids in HDL determined by the precipitation method. Sera from 18 healthy subjects were used as materials. In the HPLC method, the HDL fraction was extracted making sure that it contained no free albumin, which is albumin not bound to phospholipids. The HDL fraction was separated into subfractions. It was found that phospholipids in the VHDL fraction make a 20.2 +/- 7.3% (mean +/- S.D.) part of the total HDL-phospholipids. A large part of the VHDL fraction was constituted of albumin-bound phospholipids. A significant correlation was observed between HDL-phospholipids determined by the precipitation method, which contain albumin, and the actual HDL fraction phospholipids determined by HPLC, which do not contain VHDL (r = 0.903, p less than 0.01). These results suggest that HDL-phospholipids values determined by the precipitation method give useful clinical data.

  19. Loop formation of microtubules during gliding at high density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lynn; Tüzel, Erkan; Ross, Jennifer L.

    2011-09-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton, including the associated proteins, forms a complex network essential to multiple cellular processes. Microtubule-associated motor proteins, such as kinesin-1, travel on microtubules to transport membrane bound vesicles across the crowded cell. Other motors, such as cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-5, are used to organize the cytoskeleton during mitosis. In order to understand the self-organization processes of motors on microtubules, we performed filament-gliding assays with kinesin-1 motors bound to the cover glass with a high density of microtubules on the surface. To observe microtubule organization, 3% of the microtubules were fluorescently labeled to serve as tracers. We find that microtubules in these assays are not confined to two dimensions and can cross one other. This causes microtubules to align locally with a relatively short correlation length. At high density, this local alignment is enough to create 'intersections' of perpendicularly oriented groups of microtubules. These intersections create vortices that cause microtubules to form loops. We characterize the radius of curvature and time duration of the loops. These different behaviors give insight into how crowded conditions, such as those in the cell, might affect motor behavior and cytoskeleton organization.

  20. Multiplexed, High Density Electrophysiology with Nanofabricated Neural Probes

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiangang; Blanche, Timothy J.; Harrison, Reid R.; Lester, Henry A.; Masmanidis, Sotiris C.

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular electrode arrays can reveal the neuronal network correlates of behavior with single-cell, single-spike, and sub-millisecond resolution. However, implantable electrodes are inherently invasive, and efforts to scale up the number and density of recording sites must compromise on device size in order to connect the electrodes. Here, we report on silicon-based neural probes employing nanofabricated, high-density electrical leads. Furthermore, we address the challenge of reading out multichannel data with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) performing signal amplification, band-pass filtering, and multiplexing functions. We demonstrate high spatial resolution extracellular measurements with a fully integrated, low noise 64-channel system weighing just 330 mg. The on-chip multiplexers make possible recordings with substantially fewer external wires than the number of input channels. By combining nanofabricated probes with ASICs we have implemented a system for performing large-scale, high-density electrophysiology in small, freely behaving animals that is both minimally invasive and highly scalable. PMID:22022568

  1. Effects of High-Density Impacts on Shielding Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are shielded from micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts to meet requirements for crew safety and/or mission success. In the past, orbital debris particles have been considered to be composed entirely of aluminum (medium-density material) for the purposes of MMOD shielding design and verification. Meteoroids have been considered to be low-density porous materials, with an average density of 1 g/cu cm. Recently, NASA released a new orbital debris environment model, referred to as ORDEM 3.0, that indicates orbital debris contains a substantial fraction of high-density material for which steel is used in MMOD risk assessments [Ref.1]. Similarly, an update to the meteoroid environment model is also under consideration to include a high-density component of that environment. This paper provides results of hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations on typical spacecraft MMOD shields using steel projectiles. It was found that previous ballistic limit equations (BLEs) that define the protection capability of the MMOD shields did not predict the results from the steel impact tests and hydrocode simulations (typically, the predictions from these equations were too optimistic). The ballistic limit equations required updates to more accurately represent shield protection capability from the range of densities in the orbital debris environment. Ballistic limit equations were derived from the results of the work and are provided in the paper.

  2. Grafting functional antioxidants on highly crosslinked polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Malaika, S.; Riasat, S.; Lewucha, C.

    2016-05-01

    The problem of interference of antioxidants, such as hindered phenols, with peroxide-initiated crosslinking of polyethylene was addressed through the use of functional (reactive) graftable antioxidants (g-AO). Reactive derivatives of hindered phenol and hindered amine antioxidants were synthesised, characterised and used to investigate their grafting reactions in high density polyethylene; both non-crosslinked (PE) and highly peroxide-crosslinked (PEXa). Assessment of the extent of in-situ grafting of the antioxidants, their retention after exhaustive solvent extraction in PE and PEXa, and the stabilising performance of the grafted antioxidants (g-AO) in the polymer were examined and benchmarked against conventionally stabilised crosslinked & non-crosslinked polyethylene. It was shown that the functional antioxidants graft to a high extent in PEXa, and that the level of interference of the g-AOs with the polymer crosslinking process was minimal compared to that of conventional antioxidants which bear the same antioxidant function. The much higher level of retention of the g-AOs in PEXa after exhaustive solvent extraction, compared to that of the corresponding conventional antioxidants, accounts for their superior long-term thermal stabilising performance under severe extractive conditions.

  3. [Biodegradation of polyethylene].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Song, Yi-ling; Qin, Xiao-yan

    2007-05-01

    Plastic material is one of the most serious solid wastes pollution. More than 40 million tons of plastics produced each year are discarded into environment. Plastics accumulated in the environment is highly resistant to biodegradation and not be able to take part in substance recycle. To increase the biodegradation efficiency of plastics by different means is the main research direction. This article reviewed the recent research works of polyethylene biodegradation that included the modification and pretreatment of polyethylene, biodegradation pathway, the relevant microbes and enzymes and the changes of physical, chemical and biological properties after biodegradation. The study directions of exploiting the kinds of life-forms of biodegradation polyethylene except the microorganisms, isolating and cloning the key enzymes and gene that could produce active groups, and enhancing the study on polyethylene biodegradation without additive were proposed.

  4. Nanoscale design of multifunctional organic layers for low-power high-density memory devices.

    PubMed

    Nougaret, Laurianne; Kassa, Hailu G; Cai, Ronggang; Patois, Tilia; Nysten, Bernard; van Breemen, Albert J J M; Gelinck, Gerwin H; de Leeuw, Dago M; Marrani, Alessio; Hu, Zhijun; Jonas, Alain M

    2014-04-22

    We demonstrate the design of a multifunctional organic layer by the rational combination of nanosized regions of two functional polymers. Instead of relying on a spontaneous and random phase separation process or on the tedious synthesis of block copolymers, the method involves the nanomolding of a first component, followed by the filling of the resulting open spaces by a second component. We apply this methodology to fabricate organic nonvolatile memory diodes of high density. These are built by first creating a regular array of ferroelectric nanodots by nanoimprint lithography, followed by the filling of the trenches separating the ferroelectric nanodots with a semiconducting polymer. The modulation of the current in the semiconductor by the polarization state of the ferroelectric material is demonstrated both at the scale of a single semiconductor channel and in a microscopic device measuring about 80,000 channels in parallel, for voltages below ca. 2 V. The fabrication process, which combines synergetically orthogonal functional properties with a fine control over their spatial distribution, is thus demonstrated to be efficient over large areas.

  5. 77 FR 13387 - Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Driscopipe® 8000 High Density Polyethylene Pipe of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... range from 1978 to 1999. All reported cases have been on systems operating at or below 60 psig in desert..., operating environments, pipe sizes, or pipe installation dates. While the manufacturer has attempted to... regulatory authorities to determine if their systems are susceptible to similar degradation, and...

  6. Production of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene/High-Density Polyethylene Composites from Waste Sources by Using Coupling Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskolczi, N.; Szakacs, H.; Sedlarik, V.; Kucharczyk, P.; Riegel, E.

    2014-07-01

    A possible way of recycling plastic wastes has been investigated. Polyalkenyl-poly-maleic-anhydride derivates were synthesized and employed in ABS and HDPE blends to eliminate their immiscibility. By this way, the recycling of ABS and HDPE could be performed with improved mechanical properties of reshaped specimens.

  7. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Donald W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco R.

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  8. Ultracold molecular Rydberg physics in a high density environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiles, Matthew T.; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Robicheaux, F.; Greene, Chris H.

    2016-06-01

    Sufficiently high densities in Bose-Einstein condensates provide favorable conditions for the production of ultralong-range polyatomic molecules consisting of one Rydberg atom and a number of neutral ground state atoms. The chemical binding properties and electronic wave functions of these exotic molecules are investigated analytically via hybridized diatomic states. The effects of the molecular geometry on the system’s properties are studied through comparisons of the adiabatic potential curves and electronic structures for both symmetric and randomly configured molecular geometries. General properties of these molecules with increasing numbers of constituent atoms and in different geometries are presented. These polyatomic states have spectral signatures that lead to non-Lorentzian line-profiles.

  9. Measurements of uranium mass confined in high density plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    An X-ray absorption method for measuring the amount of uranium confined in high density, rf-heated uranium plasmas is described. A comparison of measured absorption of 8 keV X-rays with absorption calculated using Beer Law indicated that the method could be used to measure uranium densities from 3 times 10 to the 16th power atoms/cu cm to 5 times 10 to the 18th power atoms/cu cm. Tests were conducted to measure the density of uranium in an rf-heated argon plasma with UF6 infection and with the power to maintain the discharge supplied by a 1.2 MW rf induction heater facility. The uranium density was measured as the flow rate through the test chamber was varied. A maximum uranium density of 3.85 times 10 to the 17th power atoms/cu cm was measured.

  10. High density operation for reactor-relevant power exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischmeier, M.

    2015-08-01

    With increasing size of a tokamak device and associated fusion power gain an increasing power flux density towards the divertor needs to be handled. A solution for handling this power flux is crucial for a safe and economic operation. Using purely geometric arguments in an ITER-like divertor this power flux can be reduced by approximately a factor 100. Based on a conservative extrapolation of current technology for an integrated engineering approach to remove power deposited on plasma facing components a further reduction of the power flux density via volumetric processes in the plasma by up to a factor of 50 is required. Our current ability to interpret existing power exhaust scenarios using numerical transport codes is analyzed and an operational scenario as a potential solution for ITER like divertors under high density and highly radiating reactor-relevant conditions is presented. Alternative concepts for risk mitigation as well as strategies for moving forward are outlined.

  11. High-density equation of state for a lattice gas.

    PubMed

    Ushcats, M V

    2015-05-01

    For the lattice gas models of arbitrary geometry and dimensions with absolute repulsion between particles at zero distance (a hard core identical to a single lattice site) and arbitrary repulsion or attraction at other distances, the "hole-particle" symmetry of the system potential energy has been stated and an equation of state has been derived on the basis of the classical Gibbs statistics. The equation is completely analogous to the well-known virial equation of state, except that it is more accurate at high-density states, while the virial equation has the low-density limitation. Both equations contain the common set of the so-called irreducible integrals, related to the corresponding virial coefficients, and can be used together to describe the behavior of a lattice gas in a wide range of densities.

  12. High-density percutaneous chronic connector for neural prosthetics

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Kedar G.; Bennett, William J.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.

    2015-09-22

    A high density percutaneous chronic connector, having first and second connector structures each having an array of magnets surrounding a mounting cavity. A first electrical feedthrough array is seated in the mounting cavity of the first connector structure and a second electrical feedthrough array is seated in the mounting cavity of the second connector structure, with a feedthrough interconnect matrix positioned between a top side of the first electrical feedthrough array and a bottom side of the second electrical feedthrough array to electrically connect the first electrical feedthrough array to the second electrical feedthrough array. The two arrays of magnets are arranged to attract in a first angular position which connects the first and second connector structures together and electrically connects the percutaneously connected device to the external electronics, and to repel in a second angular position to facilitate removal of the second connector structure from the first connector structure.

  13. High density propellant for single stage to orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, J. J.; Masters, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Mixed mode propulsion concepts are studied for advanced, single stage earth orbital transportation systems (SSTO) for use in the post-1990 time period. These propulsion concepts are based on the sequential and/or parallel use of high density impulse and high specific impulse propellants in a single stage to increase vehicle performance and reduce dry weight. Specifically, the mixed mode concept utilizes two propulsion systems with two different fuels (mode 1 and mode 2) with liquid oxygen as a common oxidizer. Mode 1 engines would burn a high bulk density fuel for lift-off and early ascent to minimize performance penalties associated with carrying fuel tankage to orbit. Mode 2 engines will complete orbital injection utilizing liquid hydrogen as the fuel.

  14. Can phosphatidylserine enhance atheroprotective activities of high-density lipoprotein?

    PubMed

    Darabi, Maryam; Kontush, Anatol

    2016-01-01

    Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is well known to be protective against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, therapeutic interventions to raise HDL-cholesterol levels do not translate into reduction in cardiovascular risk. Due to the compositional complexity of HDL particles, molecular determinants of their atheroprotective function still remain to be clarified. Recent structural and functional data identify phospholipid as a major bioactive component of HDL. Such a role has recently been specifically evidenced for phosphatidylserine (PS); indeed, HDL content of PS displayed positive correlations with all metrics of HDL functionality assessed. This review summarizes current knowledge about HDL-associated PS; possible mechanisms for its atheroprotective role are discussed and potential applications of PS to HDL-based therapies are highlighted.

  15. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  16. High-Density Lipoprotein and Prostate Cancer: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Ikpot, Imoh Z.; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Remaley, Alan T.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common disease in modern, developed societies and has a high incidence and mortality. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has recently received much attention as a possible risk marker of prostate cancer development and prognosis. In the present article, we summarized findings from epidemiologic studies of the association between HDL-C and prostate cancer. Low HDL-C level was found to be a risk and prognostic factor of prostate cancer in several epidemiologic studies, although the overall linkage between HDL and prostate cancer has not been definitively established. The mechanisms for this association remain uncertain; however, limited data from experimental studies imply a possible role of HDL in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer. More epidemiologic research, in combination with experimental studies, is needed in this field. PMID:23985823

  17. Niobium flex cable for low temperature high density interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Weers, H. J.; Kunkel, G.; Lindeman, M. A.; Leeman, M.

    2013-05-01

    This work describes the fabrication and characterization of a Niobium on polyimide flex cable suitable for sub-Kelvin temperatures. The processing used can be extended to high density interconnects and allows for direct integration with printed circuit boards. Several key parameters such as RRR, Tc, current carrying capability at 4 K and thermal conductivity in the range from 0.15 to 10 K have been measured. The average Tc was found to be 8.9 K, with a minimum of 8.3 K. Several samples allowed for more than 50 mA current at 4 K while remaining in the superconducting state. The thermal conductivity for this flex design is dominated by the polyimide, in our case Pyralin PI-2611, and is in good agreement with published thermal conductivity data for a polyimide called Upilex R. Registered trademark of Ube Industries, Japan.

  18. Characterization of high density through silicon vias with spectral reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Ku, Yi-Sha; Huang, Kuo Cheng; Hsu, Weite

    2011-03-28

    Measurement and control is an important step for production-worthy through silicon vias etch. We demonstrate the use and enhancement of an existing wafer metrology tool, spectral reflectometer by implementing novel theoretical model and measurement algorithm for high density through-silicon via (HDTSV) inspection. It is capable of measuring depth and depth variations of array vias by Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) analysis in one shot measurement. Surface roughness of via bottom can also be extracted by scattering model fitting. Our non-destructive solution can measure TSV profile diameters as small as 5 μm and aspect ratios greater than 13:1. The measurement precision is in the range of 0.02 μm. Metrology results from actual 3D interconnect processing wafers are presented.

  19. High Density Memory Based on Quantum Device Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWagt, Paul; Frazier, Gary; Tang, Hao

    1995-01-01

    We explore the feasibility of ultra-high density memory based on quantum devices. Starting from overall constraints on chip area, power consumption, access speed, and noise margin, we deduce boundaries on single cell parameters such as required operating voltage and standby current. Next, the possible role of quantum devices is examined. Since the most mature quantum device, the resonant tunneling diode (RTD) can easily be integrated vertically, it naturally leads to the issue of 3D integrated memory. We propose a novel method of addressing vertically integrated bistable two-terminal devices, such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) and Esaki diodes, that avoids individual physical contacts. The new concept has been demonstrated experimentally in memory cells of field effect transistors (FET's) and stacked RTD's.

  20. Biominetic High Density Lipoproteins for the Delivery of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sushant

    Advances in nanotechnology have brought about novel inorganic and hybrid nanoparticles with unique physico-chemical properties that make them suitable for a broad range of applications---from nano-circuitry to drug delivery. A significant part of those advancements have led to ground-breaking discoveries that have changed the approaches to formulation of therapeutics against diseases, such as cancer. Now-a-days the focus does not lie solely on finding a candidate small-molecule therapeutic with minimal adverse effects, but researchers are looking up to nanoparticles to improve biodistribution and biocompatibility profile of clinically proven therapeutics. The plethora of conjugation chemistries offered by currently extant inorganic nanoparticles have, in recent years, led to great leaps in the field of biomimicry---a modality that promises high biocompatibility. Further, in the pursuit of highly specific therapeutic molecules, researchers have turned to silencing oligonucleotides and some have already brought together the strengths of nanoparticles and silencing oligonucleotides in search of an efficacious therapy for cancer with minimal adverse effects. This dissertation work focuses on such a biomimetic platform---a gold nanoparticle based high density lipoprotein biomimetic (HDL NP), for the delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. The first chapter of this body of work introduces the molecular target of the silencing oligonucleotides---VEGFR2, and its role in the progression of solid tumor cancers. The background information also covers important aspects of natural high density lipoproteins (HDL), especially their innate capacity to bind and deliver exogenous and endogenous silencing oligonucleotides to tissues that express their high affinity receptor SRB1. We subsequently describe the synthesis of the biomimetic HDL NP and its oligonucleotide conjugates, and establish their biocompatibility. Further on, experimental data demonstrate the efficacy of silencing

  1. High Density And High Temperature Plasmas In Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komori, A.

    2010-07-01

    For the realization of the fusion reactor, it is necessary to confine high density and high temperature plasma for a time, which is well known as the Lawson criterion. To improve the plasma or confinement performance, vigorous experiments have been performed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) in National Institute for Fusion Science, which is the largest superconducting heliotron device with R = 3.9 m r = 0.6 m, Bt = 3 T. Recently a promising confinement regime called Super Dense Core (SDC) mode was discovered. An extremely high density core region with more than ~ 1 × 10^20 m-3 is obtained with the formation of an Internal Diffusion Barrier (IDB). The density gradient at the IDB (? = 0.6) is very high and the particle confinement in the core region is ~ 0.2 s. It is expected, for the future reactor, that the IDB-SDC mode has a possibility to achieve the self-ignition condition with lower temperature than expected before. The IDB-SDC mode is also favorable from the engineering point of view since one can moderate demands for heating devices and plasma facing components. In order to achieve the IDB-SDC mode, the central fuelling with the pellet injection and the low recycling condition are essential. A repetitive pellet injector was newly developed to continuously feed the particle source to the central region. For the recycling control, the effective divertor system should be employed to control the edge plasma. Conventional approaches to increase the temperature have also been tried in LHD. For the ion heating, the perpendicular neutral beam injection effectively increased the ion temperature more than 10 keV with the formation of the internal transport barrier (ITB). In the core region, the heat conductivity is improved to the neoclassical level, while no clear ITB for electron was seen. Another interesting phenomenon called "impurity hole" was observed inside the ITB. During the high ion temperature discharge, the im- purity density in the core region becomes

  2. Wake High-Density Electroencephalographic Spatiospectral Signatures of Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Michele A.; Ramautar, Jennifer R.; Wei, Yishul; Gomez-Herrero, Germán; Stoffers, Diederick; Wassing, Rick; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Cajochen, Christian; Van Someren, Eus J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although daytime complaints are a defining characteristic of insomnia, most EEG studies evaluated sleep only. We used high-density electroencephalography to investigate wake resting state oscillations characteristic of insomnia disorder (ID) at a fine-grained spatiospectral resolution. Methods: A case-control assessment during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) was performed in a laboratory for human physiology. Participants (n = 94, 74 female, 21–70 y) were recruited through www.sleepregistry.nl: 51 with ID, according to DSM-5 and 43 matched controls. Exclusion criteria were any somatic, neurological or psychiatric condition. Group differences in the spectral power topographies across multiple frequencies (1.5 to 40 Hz) were evaluated using permutation-based inference with Threshold-Free Cluster-Enhancement, to correct for multiple comparisons. Results: As compared to controls, participants with ID showed less power in a narrow upper alpha band (11–12.7 Hz, peak: 11.7 Hz) over bilateral frontal and left temporal regions during EO, and more power in a broad beta frequency range (16.3–40 Hz, peak: 19 Hz) globally during EC. Source estimates suggested global rather than cortically localized group differences. Conclusions: The widespread high power in a broad beta band reported previously during sleep in insomnia is present as well during eyes closed wakefulness, suggestive of a round-the-clock hyperarousal. Low power in the upper alpha band during eyes open is consistent with low cortical inhibition and attentional filtering. The fine-grained HD-EEG findings suggest that, while more feasible than PSG, wake EEG of short duration with a few well-chosen electrodes and frequency bands, can provide valuable features of insomnia. Citation: Colombo MA, Ramautar JR, Wei Y, Gomez-Herrero G, Stoffers D, Wassing R, Benjamins JS, Tagliazucchi E, van der Werf YD, Cajochen C, Van Someren EJW. Wake high-density electroencephalographic spatiospectral

  3. Self-Healing of Polyethylene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipara, Dorina Magdalena; Flores, Maritza; Puente, Nancy; Lozano, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Autonomic self-healing is expected to enhance the lifetime of polymeric materials, resins, and composites subjected to long term mechanical stresses. The self-healing process is initiated by the rupture of some polyurea-formaldehyde microcapsules filled with monomer. The self-healing polymer is actually a compound containing microcapsules filled with monomer and catalyst particles. The monomer released from these broken microcapsules is diffusing within the polymer, reacting with the catalyst and starting a polymerization reaction. This new polymer, growing within the propagating crack, stops the mechanical failure. While the process is pretty slow (timescale of the order of 10 to 100 s), there are many important technological applications that would benefit from the availability of self-healing polymers. We report about the addition of self-healing capabilities to polyethylene oxide by using polyurea formaldehyde microcapsules filled with dicyclopentadiene and first generation Grubbs catalysts. Details regarding the physical and chemical steps used to add self-healing capabilities to polyethylene oxide will be presented. Self-healing efficiency was assessed by fatigues tests.

  4. Outlier detection in high-density surface electromyographic signals.

    PubMed

    Marateb, Hamid R; Rojas-Martínez, Monica; Mansourian, Marjan; Merletti, Roberto; Villanueva, Miguel A Mañanas

    2012-01-01

    Recently developed techniques allow the analysis of surface EMG in multiple locations over the skin surface (high-density surface electromyography, HDsEMG). The detected signal includes information from a greater proportion of the muscle of interest than conventional clinical EMG. However, recording with many electrodes simultaneously often implies bad-contacts, which introduce large power-line interference in the corresponding channels, and short-circuits that cause near-zero single differential signals when using gel. Such signals are called 'outliers' in data mining. In this work, outlier detection (focusing on bad contacts) is discussed for monopolar HDsEMG signals and a new method is proposed to identify 'bad' channels. The overall performance of this method was tested using the agreement rate against three experts' opinions. Three other outlier detection methods were used for comparison. The training and test sets for such methods were selected from HDsEMG signals recorded in Triceps and Biceps Brachii in the upper arm and Brachioradialis, Anconeus, and Pronator Teres in the forearm. The sensitivity and specificity of this algorithm were, respectively, 96.9 ± 6.2 and 96.4 ± 2.5 in percent in the test set (signals registered with twenty 2D electrode arrays corresponding to a total of 2322 channels), showing that this method is promising.

  5. Structural Stability and Functional Remodeling of High-Density Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Gursky, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Lipoproteins are protein-lipid nanoparticles that transport lipids in circulation and are central in atherosclerosis and other disorders of lipid metabolism. Apolipoproteins form flexible structural scaffolds and important functional ligands on the particle surface and direct lipoprotein metabolism. Lipoproteins undergo multiple rounds of metabolic remodeling that is crucial to lipid transport. Important aspects of this remodeling, including apolipoprotein dissociation and particle fusion, are mimicked in thermal or chemical denaturation and are modulated by free energy barriers. Here we review our biophysical studies that revealed kinetic mechanism of lipoprotein stabilization and unraveled its structural basis. The main focus is on high-density lipoprotein (HDL). An inverse correlation between stability and functions of various HDLs in cholesterol transport suggests functional role of structural disorder. A mechanism for conformational adaptation of the major HDL proteins, apoA-I and apoA-II, to the increasing lipid load is proposed. Together, these studies help understand why HDL form discrete subclasses separated by kinetic barriers, which have distinct composition, conformation and functional properties. Understanding these properties may help improve HDL quality and develop novel therapies for cardiovascular disease. PMID:25749369

  6. High-density lipoprotein-raising strategies: update 2010.

    PubMed

    Spillmann, Frank; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Tschöpe, Carsten; Van Linthout, Sophie

    2010-05-01

    Population studies have consistently shown that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are a strong, independent inverse predictor of cardiovascular disease. Every 1 mg/dl increase in HDL cholesterol is associated with a 2% to 3% decrease in coronary artery disease risk, independent of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The primary mechanism for this protective effect is believed to be reverse cholesterol transport, but several other anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative functions for HDL have also been identified. Low HDL cholesterol is predictive of cardiovascular events in statin-treated patients with low LDL cholesterol, indicating that intensive lipid lowering strategies with statins alone are not sufficient to prevent cardiovascular events, and merging for additional effective HDL-raising therapy. This review focuses at giving an overview of current established HDL-raising pharmaca, including statins, fibrates, thiazolidinediones, and nicotinic acids, and of novel therapies including cholesterol ester transfer protein-inhibitors, liver X receptor agonists, reconstituted HDL, and apolipoprotein A-I mimetics. Working mechanisms are described and results from clinical trials of monotherapy and combination therapy are discussed.

  7. New electrode-barrier structures for high density ferroelectric memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, R.; Desu, C. S.; Tirumala, S.; Bhatt, H. D.; Desu, S. B.; Lee, K. B.

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, two electrode-barrier structures based on Pt-Rh and Pt-Ir alloys and their oxides are proposed for high-density ferroelectric memory applications. These electrode-barriers are multi-layered, comprising a diffusion barrier (PtRhOx or PtIrOx), metal alloy (PtRh or PtIr) and another PtRhOx or PtIrOx layer for fatigue reduction in the case of PZT capacitors. Both lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) capacitors based on the electrode-barriers were used in the present study. The electrode-barrier structure acts as a conducting electrode as well as an excellent diffusion barrier for lead, bismuth, oxygen and silicon. The PZT test capacitors fabricated on these electrode-barriers showed excellent fatigue resistance with other ferroelectric properties being similar to those on Pt. Also, these electrode-barriers are stable, and remain conductive even up to the processing temperatures of SBT (750 °C). This makes direct integration of both PZT and SBT capacitors on to a poly-Si plug attainable. In addition, the conducting electrode-barrier structures can be deposited in situ, directly over n+polycrystalline Si, thereby significantly improving the density of the device.

  8. Irradiation testing of high density uranium alloy dispersion fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, S.L.; Trybus, C.L.; Meyer, M.K.

    1997-10-01

    Two irradiation test vehicles have been designed, fabricated, and inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor in Idaho. Irradiation of these experiments began in August 1997. These irradiation tests were designed to obtain irradiation performance information on a variety of potential new, high-density dispersion fuels. Each of the two irradiation vehicles contains 32 microplates. Each microplate is aluminum clad, having an aluminum matrix phase and containing one of the following compositions as the fuel phase: U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6Ru, U-10Mo-0.05Sn, U{sub 2}Mo, or U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. These experiments will be discharged at peak fuel burnups of 40% and 80%. Of particular interest is the fission gas retention/swelling characteristics of these new fuel alloys. This paper presents the design of the irradiation vehicles and the irradiation conditions.

  9. Iatrogenic severe depression of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Mymin, D; Dembinski, T; Friesen, M H

    2009-07-01

    The authors present 5 cases of paradoxical depression of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol induced by fibrate drugs. In a 24-month review of all cases seen in one physician's practice at the Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre Lipid Clinic, 492 patients made a total of 1187 visits. Sixty-eight of them were given a fibrate drug (14%). Ten patients had HDL cholesterol levels that were less than 0.5 mmol/L (2%), and of these, 5 cases were due to exposure to fenofibrate (1%). These 5 cases comprised 7.4% of the 68 patients who were given any fibrate drug during that period. Mean levels were as follows: HDL cholesterol on fenofibrate 0.27, off fenofibrate 1.0 mmol/L and apo A1 on fenofibrate 0.41, off fenofibrate 1.17 g/L. A literature review revealed documented cases in 37 patients involving fibrates alone or in combination with other drugs known to cause decreased HDL cholesterol levels. In 13 patients, exposure was to fibrate therapy alone; in those exposed to combinations, the effect was clearly attributable to fibrates in 9; in 14, the nonfibrates (mostly rosiglitazone) were the attributable drugs; and in 1, it was impossible to tell. Thus, fibrate therapy should always be suspected as a cause of profoundly depressed HDL cholesterol.

  10. High density operation with Lower Hybrid waves in FTU tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Mirizzi, F.; Panaccione, L.; Podda, S.

    2001-10-01

    Since April 2001 the lower hybrid (LH) radiofrequency system in FTU (6 gyrotrons @ f=8 GHz) can deliver to the plasma about 2 MW through two equal launchers with a reflection coefficient = 10%. This value is close to the target value of 2.2 MW (net power density of 6.2 kW/cm2 on the waveguides mouth) which could be reached after further conditioning of the grill and of the transmission lines. In high density plasmas (line density *1*1020 m-3), high magnetic field (BT=7.2 T), with PLH=2 MW we drive about 75% of the total current (Ip=500 kA) and stabilise fully the sawteeth activity. The central electron temperature Te0 increases from 1.6 to 3.3 keV (steady), and the neutron rate by about 10 times. Analysis of these pulses with effective electronic heating will be presented. In post-pellet plasmas ( *6*1020 m-3), good coupling of the LH is achieved with the launcher almost flush to the walls, due to the very dense scrape off-layer. The perturbation here induced by the pellet imposes a delay to the LH of only 20 ms. The exact location of the launcher is critical in these regimes, because the high N|| (parallel index of refraction) requested (N||>2.3) for a good penetration of the waves makes more problematic a good coupling all along the poloidal extension of the grill.

  11. A Concept for Robust, High Density Terminal Air Traffic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacson, Douglas R.; Robinson, John E.; Swenson, Harry N.; Denery, Dallas G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a concept for future high-density, terminal air traffic operations that has been developed by interpreting the Joint Planning and Development Office s vision for the Next Generation (NextGen) Air Transportation System and coupling it with emergent NASA and other technologies and procedures during the NextGen timeframe. The concept described in this paper includes five core capabilities: 1) Extended Terminal Area Routing, 2) Precision Scheduling Along Routes, 3) Merging and Spacing, 4) Tactical Separation, and 5) Off-Nominal Recovery. Gradual changes are introduced to the National Airspace System (NAS) by phased enhancements to the core capabilities in the form of increased levels of automation and decision support as well as targeted task delegation. NASA will be evaluating these conceptual technological enhancements in a series of human-in-the-loop simulations and will accelerate development of the most promising capabilities in cooperation with the FAA through the Efficient Flows Into Congested Airspace Research Transition Team.

  12. High-density lipoprotein exerts vasculoprotection via endothelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Petoumenos, Vasileios; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) enhance endothelial cell repair, improve endothelial dysfunction and are a predictor for cardiovascular mortality. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels inversely correlate with cardiovascular events and have vasculoprotective effects. Here we postulate that HDL influences EPC biology. HDL and EPC were isolated according to standard procedures. Differentiation of mononuclear cells into DiLDL/lectin positive cells was enhanced after HDL treatment compared to vehicle. HDL was able to inhibit apoptosis (TUNEL assay, annexin V staining) while proliferation (BrdU incorporation) of early outgrowth colonies after extended cell cultivation (14 days) was increased. Flow chamber experiments revealed an improved adhesion of HDL pre-incubated EPC on human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) compared to vehicle while HDL treatment of HCAEC prevented adhesion of inflammatory cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated an up-regulation of β2- and α4-integrins on HDL pre-incubated EPC. Blocking experiments revealed a unique role of β2-integrin in EPC adhesion. Treatment of wild-type mice with recombinant HDL after endothelial denudation resulted in enhanced re-endothelialization compared to vehicle. Finally, in patients with coronary artery disease a correlation between circulating EPC and HDL concentrations was demonstrated. We provide evidence that HDL mediates important vasculoprotective action via the improvement of function of circulating EPC. PMID:18705697

  13. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measure- ment of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 µ m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detec- tor wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered alu- minum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97%.

  14. High-Density Infrared Surface Treatments of Refractories

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.

    2005-03-31

    Refractory materials play a crucial role in all energy-intensive industries and are truly a crosscutting technology for the Industries of the Future (IOF). One of the major mechanisms for the degradation of refractories and a general decrease in their performance has been the penetration and corrosion by molten metals or glass. Methods and materials that would reduce the penetration, wetting, and corrosive chemistry would significantly improve refractory performance and also maintain the quality of the processed liquid, be it metal or glass. This report presents the results of an R&D project aimed at investigating the use of high-density infrared (HDI) heating to surface treat refractories to improve their performance. The project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). HDI is capable of heating the near-surface region of materials to very high temperatures where sintering, diffusion, and melting can occur. The intended benefits of HDI processing of refractories were to (1) reduce surface porosity (by essentially sealing the surface to prevent liquid penetration), (2) allow surface chemistry changes to be performed by bonding an adherent coating onto the underlying refractory (in order to inhibit wetting and/or improve corrosion resistance), and (3) produce noncontact refractories with high-emissivity surface coatings.

  15. Path to Efficient Lower Hybrid Current Drive at High Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, S. G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Brunner, D.; Faust, I.; Labombard, B. L.; Parker, R. R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; Wukitch, S.

    2015-11-01

    Recovery of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) efficiency at high density was demonstrated on Alcator C-Mod by modifying the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma. RF probe measurements around the C-Mod tokamak indicate that the LH wave amplitude at the high field side wall significantly attenuates with plasma density. This is interpreted as enhanced collisional loss due to the increase in the SOL density and width. By taking advantage of the narrower SOL width by doubling plasma current to 1.1 MA, it is found that the LH wave amplitude maintains its strength, and an effective current drive is extended to above 1x10e20 m-3. An order of magnitude increase in non-thermal Bremsstrahlung emission is consistent with ray-tracing results which take into account the change of SOL profiles with current. In the coming campaign, a further investigation on the role of the SOL plasma is planned by raising plasma current above 1.1 MA. This will be aided with newly developed RF magnetic loop antennas mounted on a radially movable probe head. This system is expected to intercept the LH resonance cone on the first pass, allowing us to measure radial profiles of both the wave amplitude and dominant parallel wavenumber in the SOL for the first time. These data will be compared with the GENRAY ray-tracing code. Work supported by USDoE awards DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  16. Synthetic high-density lipoproteins for delivery of 10-hydroxycamptothecin

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yue; Wen, Jian; Tang, Jie; Kan, Qiming; Ackermann, Rose; Olsen, Karl; Schwendeman, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel synthetic high-density lipoprotein (sHDL) nanoparticle delivery system for 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) for treatment of colon carcinoma. HDL is recognized by scavenger receptor B-I (SR-BI) over-expressed in colon carcinomas 5- to 35-fold relative to the human fibroblasts. The sHDL nanoparticles were composed of apolipoprotein A-I mimic peptide (5A) and contained 0.5%–1.5% (w/w) of HCPT. An optimized HCPT-sHDL formulation exhibited 0.7% HCPT loading with 70% efficiency with an average size of 10–12 nm. Partitioning of HCPT in the sHDL lipid membrane enhanced drug stability in its active lactone form, increased solubilization, and enabled slow release. Cytotoxicity studies in HT29 colon carcinoma cells revealed that the IC50 of HCPT-sHDL was approximately 3-fold lower than that of free HCPT. Pharmacokinetics in rats following intravenous administration showed that the area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC0−t) and Cmax of HCPT-HDL were 2.7- and 6.5-fold higher relative to the values for the free HCPT, respectively. These results suggest that sHDL-based formulations of hydrophobic drugs are useful for future evaluation in treatment of SR-BI-positive tumors. PMID:27920529

  17. Acrolein impairs the cholesterol transport functions of high density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Alexandra C; Holme, Rebecca L; Chen, Yiliang; Thomas, Michael J; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Silverstein, Roy L; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Sahoo, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered athero-protective, primarily due to their role in reverse cholesterol transport, where they transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The current study was designed to determine the impact of HDL modification by acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde found in high abundance in cigarette smoke, on the cholesterol transport functions of HDL. HDL was chemically-modified with acrolein and immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed apolipoprotein crosslinking, as well as acrolein adducts on apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. The ability of acrolein-modified HDL (acro-HDL) to serve as an acceptor of free cholesterol (FC) from COS-7 cells transiently expressing SR-BI was significantly decreased. Further, in contrast to native HDL, acro-HDL promotes higher neutral lipid accumulation in murine macrophages as judged by Oil Red O staining. The ability of acro-HDL to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into SR-BI-expressing cells was reduced compared to native HDL. Together, the findings from our studies suggest that acrolein modification of HDL produces a dysfunctional particle that may ultimately promote atherogenesis by impairing functions that are critical in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway.

  18. Atomistic Simulation of High-Density Uranium Fuels

    DOE PAGES

    Garcés, Jorge Eduardo; Bozzolo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    We apply an atomistic modeling approach to deal with interfacial phenomena in high-density uranium fuels. The effects of Si, as additive to Al or as U-Mo-particles coating, on the behavior of the Al/U-Mo interface is modeled by using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys. The basic experimental features characterizing the real system are identified, via simulations and atom-by-atom analysis. These include (1) the trend indicating formation of interfacial compounds, (2) much reduced diffusion of Al into U-Mo solid solution due to the high Si concentration, (3) Si depletion in the Al matrix, (4) an unexpected interaction between Mo and Simore » which inhibits Si diffusion to deeper layers in the U-Mo solid solution, and (5) the minimum amount of Si needed to perform as an effective diffusion barrier. Simulation results related to alternatives to Si dispersed in the Al matrix, such as the use of C coating of U-Mo particles or Zr instead of the Al matrix, are also shown. Recent experimental results confirmed early theoretical proposals, along the lines of the results reported in this work, showing that atomistic computational modeling could become a valuable tool to aid the experimental work in the development of nuclear fuels.« less

  19. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measurement of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 \\upmu m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detector wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered aluminum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97 %.

  20. [Residual risk: The roles of triglycerides and high density lipoproteins].

    PubMed

    Grammer, Tanja; Kleber, Marcus; Silbernagel, Günther; Scharnagl, Hubert; März, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    In clinical trials, the reduction of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins reduces the incidence rate of cardiovascular events by approximately one third. This means, that a sizeable "residual risk" remains. Besides high lipoprotein (a), disorders in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high density liproteins have been implicated as effectors of the residual risk. Both lipoprotein parameters correlate inversely with each other. Therefore, the etiological contributions of triglycerides and / or of HDL for developing cardiovascular disease can hardly be estimated from either observational studies or from intervention studies. The largely disappointing results of intervention studies with inhibitors of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein and in particular the available set of genetically-epidemiological studies suggest that in the last decade, the importance of HDL cholesterol has been overvalued, while the importance of triglycerides has been underestimated. High triglycerides not always atherogenic, but only if they are associated with the accumulation relatively cholesterol-enriched, incompletely catabolized remnants of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (familial type III hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus). The normalization of the concentration of triglycerides and remnants by inhibiting the expression of apolipoprotein C3 is hence a new, promising therapeutic target.

  1. High-Density Lipoprotein, Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase, and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ossoli, Alice; Pavanello, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data clearly show the existence of a strong inverse correlation between plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and the incidence of coronary heart disease. This relation is explained by a number of atheroprotective properties of HDL, first of all the ability to promote macrophage cholesterol transport. HDL are highly heterogeneous and are continuously remodeled in plasma thanks to the action of a number of proteins and enzymes. Among them, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) plays a crucial role, being the only enzyme able to esterify cholesterol within lipoproteins. LCAT is synthetized by the liver and it has been thought to play a major role in reverse cholesterol transport and in atheroprotection. However, data from animal studies, as well as human studies, have shown contradictory results. Increased LCAT concentrations are associated with increased HDL-C levels but not necessarily with atheroprotection. On the other side, decreased LCAT concentration and activity are associated with decreased HDL-C levels but not with increased atherosclerosis. These contradictory results confirm that HDL-C levels per se do not represent the functionality of the HDL system. PMID:27302716

  2. A system verification platform for high-density epiretinal prostheses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuanfu; Lo, Yi-Kai; Yang, Zhi; Weiland, James D; Humayun, Mark S; Liu, Wentai

    2013-06-01

    Retinal prostheses have restored light perception to people worldwide who have poor or no vision as a consequence of retinal degeneration. To advance the quality of visual stimulation for retinal implant recipients, a higher number of stimulation channels is expected in the next generation retinal prostheses, which poses a great challenge to system design and verification. This paper presents a system verification platform dedicated to the development of retinal prostheses. The system includes primary processing, dual-band power and data telemetry, a high-density stimulator array, and two methods for output verification. End-to-end system validation and individual functional block characterization can be achieved with this platform through visual inspection and software analysis. Custom-built software running on the computers also provides a good way for testing new features before they are realized by the ICs. Real-time visual feedbacks through the video displays make it easy to monitor and debug the system. The characterization of the wireless telemetry and the demonstration of the visual display are reported in this paper using a 256-channel retinal prosthetic IC as an example.

  3. Enhanced configurational entropy in high-density nanoconfined bilayer ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsetti, Fabiano; Zubeltzu, Jon; Artacho, Emilio

    Understanding the structural tendencies of nanoconfined water is of great interest for nanoscience and biology, where nano/micro-sized objects may be separated by very few layers of water. We present a study of water confined to a 2D geometry by a featureless, chemically neutral potential, in order to characterize its intrinsic behaviour. We use molecular dynamics simulations with the TIP4P/2005 potential, combined with density-functional theory calculations with a non-local van der Waals density functional and an ab initio random structure search procedure. We propose a novel kind of crystal order in high-density nanoconfined bilayer ice. A first-order transition is observed between a low-temperature proton-ordered solid and a high-temperature proton-disordered solid. The latter is shown to possess crystalline order for the oxygen positions, arranged on a close-packed triangular lattice with AA stacking. Uniquely amongst the ice phases, the triangular bilayer is characterized by two levels of disorder (for the bonding network and for the protons) which results in a configurational entropy twice that of bulk ice.

  4. Gene expression profiling in peanut using high density oligonucleotide microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Payton, Paxton; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Rowland, Diane; Faircloth, Wilson; Guo, Baozhu; Burow, Mark; Puppala, Naveen; Gallo, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background Transcriptome expression analysis in peanut to date has been limited to a relatively small set of genes and only recently has a significant number of ESTs been released into the public domain. Utilization of these ESTs for oligonucleotide microarrays provides a means to investigate large-scale transcript responses to a variety of developmental and environmental signals, ultimately improving our understanding of plant biology. Results We have developed a high-density oligonucleotide microarray for peanut using 49,205 publicly available ESTs and tested the utility of this array for expression profiling in a variety of peanut tissues. To identify putatively tissue-specific genes and demonstrate the utility of this array for expression profiling in a variety of peanut tissues, we compared transcript levels in pod, peg, leaf, stem, and root tissues. Results from this experiment showed 108 putatively pod-specific/abundant genes, as well as transcripts whose expression was low or undetected in pod compared to peg, leaf, stem, or root. The transcripts significantly over-represented in pod include genes responsible for seed storage proteins and desiccation (e.g., late-embryogenesis abundant proteins, aquaporins, legumin B), oil production, and cellular defense. Additionally, almost half of the pod-abundant genes represent unknown genes allowing for the possibility of associating putative function to these previously uncharacterized genes. Conclusion The peanut oligonucleotide array represents the majority of publicly available peanut ESTs and can be used as a tool for expression profiling studies in diverse tissues. PMID:19523230

  5. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, J. R.

    2015-05-01

    There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC). This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  6. Crystallographic alignment of high-density gallium nitride nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Kuykendall, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter J; Zhang, Yanfeng; Goldberger, Joshua; Sirbuly, Donald; Denlinger, Jonathan; Yang, Peidong

    2004-08-01

    Single-crystalline, one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are considered to be one of the critical building blocks for nanoscale optoelectronics. Elucidation of the vapour-liquid-solid growth mechanism has already enabled precise control over nanowire position and size, yet to date, no reports have demonstrated the ability to choose from different crystallographic growth directions of a nanowire array. Control over the nanowire growth direction is extremely desirable, in that anisotropic parameters such as thermal and electrical conductivity, index of refraction, piezoelectric polarization, and bandgap may be used to tune the physical properties of nanowires made from a given material. Here we demonstrate the use of metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and appropriate substrate selection to control the crystallographic growth directions of high-density arrays of gallium nitride nanowires with distinct geometric and physical properties. Epitaxial growth of wurtzite gallium nitride on (100) gamma-LiAlO(2) and (111) MgO single-crystal substrates resulted in the selective growth of nanowires in the orthogonal [1\\[Evec]0] and [001] directions, exhibiting triangular and hexagonal cross-sections and drastically different optical emission. The MOCVD process is entirely compatible with the current GaN thin-film technology, which would lead to easy scale-up and device integration.

  7. Method for casting polyethylene pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, R. M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Short lengths of 7-cm ID polyethylene pipe are cast in a mold which has a core made of room-temperature-vulcanizable (RTV) silicone. Core expands during casting and shrinks on cooling to allow for contraction of the polyethylene.

  8. STEM-EELS analysis reveals stable high-density He in nanopores of amorphous silicon coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Schierholz, Roland; Lacroix, Bertrand; Godinho, Vanda; Caballero-Hernández, Jaime; Duchamp, Martial; Fernández, Asunción

    2015-02-20

    A broad interest has been showed recently on the study of nanostructuring of thin films and surfaces obtained by low-energy He plasma treatments and He incorporation via magnetron sputtering. In this paper spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope is used to locate and characterize the He state in nanoporous amorphous silicon coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering. A dedicated MATLAB program was developed to quantify the helium density inside individual pores based on the energy position shift or peak intensity of the He K-edge. A good agreement was observed between the high density (∼35-60 at nm(-3)) and pressure (0.3-1.0 GPa) values obtained in nanoscale analysis and the values derived from macroscopic measurements (the composition obtained by proton backscattering spectroscopy coupled to the macroscopic porosity estimated from ellipsometry). This work provides new insights into these novel porous coatings, providing evidence of high-density He located inside the pores and validating the methodology applied here to characterize the formation of pores filled with the helium process gas during deposition. A similar stabilization of condensed He bubbles has been previously demonstrated by high-energy He ion implantation in metals and is newly demonstrated here using a widely employed methodology, magnetron sputtering, for achieving coatings with a high density of homogeneously distributed pores and He storage capacities as high as 21 at%.

  9. Experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center is described. A sensory evaluation of the high density foods was conducted first to test the acceptability of the products. A shelf-life study of the high density foods was also conducted for three different time lengths at three different temperatures. The nutritional analysis of the high density foods is at present incomplete.

  10. Impact behavior of hydroxyapatite reinforced polyethylene composites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Tanner, K E

    2003-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite particulate reinforced high density polyethylene composite (HA-HDPE) has been developed as a bone replacement material. The impact behavior of the composites at 37 degrees C has been investigated using an instrumented falling weight impact testing machine. The fracture surfaces were examined using SEM and the fracture mechanisms are discussed. It was found that the fracture toughness of HA-HDPE composites increased with HDPE molecular weight, but decreased with increasing HA volume fraction. Examination of fracture surfaces revealed weak filler/matrix interfaces which can debond easily to enable crack initiation and propagation. Increasing HA volume fraction increases the interface area, and more cracks can form and develop, thus decreasing the impact resistance of the composites. Another important factor for the impact behavior of the composites is the matrix. At higher molecular weight, HDPE is able to sustain more plastic deformation and dissipates more impact energy, hence improving the impact property.

  11. Thermal analysis of polyethylene + X% carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozovyi, Fedir; Ivanenko, Kateryna; Nedilko, Sergii; Revo, Sergiy; Hamamda, Smail

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research is to study the influence of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the thermomechanical and structural properties of high-density polyethylene. Several, complementary experimental techniques were used, namely, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Dilatometry data showed that nanocomposites exhibit anisotropic behavior, and intensity of the anisotropy depends on the MWCNT concentration. The shapes of the dilatometric curves of the nanocomposites under study differ significantly for the radial and longitudinal directions of the samples. DSC results show that MWCNTs weekly influence calorimetry data, while Raman spectra show that the I D/ I G ratio decreases when MWCNT concentration increases. The IR spectra demonstrate improvement of the crystallinity of the samples as the content in MWCNTs rises.

  12. Stress crack testing of polyethylene geomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halse, Y. H.; Koerner, R. M.; Lord, A. E., Jr.

    The sensitivity of high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes to stress cracking is evaluated under accelerated conditions at a constant stress. The test specimens are in accordance with ASTM D-1822, and are of the dumbbell shape with a constant length in the central section. The accelerated testing conditions consist of a 10 percent Igepal wetting solution in tap water, at a constant temperature of 50 C. The applied stresses are from 30 to 50 percent of the yield stress. It was found that most commercially available HDPE sheet material performs quite well in this type of test. Only one specimen in 80 showed any evidence of cracking and this may have been caused by other reasons. Testing of field fabricated seams, however, resulted in relatively large numbers of cracked specimens. Many of these test specimens showed signs of overgrinding and/or overheating. The results indicate that great care and excellent workmanship are required in the field fabrication of HDPE seams.

  13. Effect of obesity on high-density lipoprotein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Shirya; Genest, Jacques

    2007-12-01

    Reduced levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in non-obese and obese states are associated with increased risk for the development of coronary artery disease. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the mechanisms responsible for reduced HDL in obese states and, conversely, to examine therapies aimed at increasing HDL levels in these individuals. This paper examines the multiple causes for reduced HDL in obese states and the effect of exercise and diet--two non-pharmacologic therapies--on HDL metabolism in humans. In general, the concentration of HDL-cholesterol is adversely altered in obesity, with HDL-cholesterol levels associated with both the degree and distribution of obesity. More specifically, intra-abdominal visceral fat deposition is an important negative correlate of HDL-cholesterol. The specific subfractions of HDL that are altered in obese states include the HDL2, apolipoprotein A-I, and pre-beta1 subfractions. Decreased HDL levels in obesity have been attributed to both an enhancement in the uptake of HDL2 by adipocytes and an increase in the catabolism of apolipoprotein A-I on HDL particles. In addition, there is a decrease in the conversion of the pre-beta1 subfraction, the initial acceptor of cholesterol from peripheral cells, to pre-beta2 particles. Conversely, as a means of reversing the decrease in HDL levels in obesity, sustained weight loss is an effective method. More specifically, weight loss achieved through exercise is more effective at raising HDL levels than dieting. Exercise mediates positive effects on HDL levels at least partly through changes in enzymes of HDL metabolism. Increased lipid transfer to HDL by lipoprotein lipase and reduced HDL clearance by hepatic triglyceride lipase as a result of endurance training are two important mechanisms for increases in HDL observed from exercise.

  14. Proprotein convertases in high-density lipoprotein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seungbum; Korstanje, Ron

    2013-09-18

    The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexins (PCSKs) are a serine endopeptidase family. PCSK members cleave amino acid residues and modulate the activity of precursor proteins. Evidence from patients and animal models carrying genetic alterations in PCSK members show that PCSK members are involved in various metabolic processes. These studies further revealed the molecular mechanism by which genetic alteration of some PCSK members impairs normal molecular and physiological functions, which in turn lead to cardiovascular disease. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is anti-atherogenic as it removes excessive amount of cholesterol from blood and peripheral tissues. Several PCSK members are involved in HDL metabolism. PCSK3, PCSK5, and PCSK6 process two triglyceride lipase family members, endothelial lipase and lipoprotein lipase, which are important for HDL remodeling. Recent studies in our lab found evidence that PCSK1 and PCSK9 are also involved in HDL metabolism. A mouse model carrying an amino acid substitution in PCSK1 showed an increase in serum apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) level. Another mouse model lacking PCSK9 showed a decrease in APOE-containing HDL. In this review, we summarize the role of the five PCSK members in lipid, glucose, and bile acid (BA) metabolism, each of which can influence HDL metabolism. We propose an integrative model in which PCSK members regulate HDL metabolism through various molecular mechanisms and metabolic processes and genetic variation in some PCSK members may affect the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport. PCSK members are considered as attractive therapeutic targets. A greater understanding of the molecular and physiological functions of PCSK members will improve therapeutic strategies and drug efficacy for cardiovascular disease where PCSK members play critical role, with fewer adverse effects.

  15. Biomimetic High-Density Lipoproteins from a Gold Nanoparticle Template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthi, Andrea Jane

    For hundreds of years the field of chemistry has looked to nature for inspiration and insight to develop novel solutions for the treatment of human diseases. The ability of chemists to identify, mimic, and modifiy small molecules found in nature has led to the discovery and development of many important therapeutics. Chemistry on the nanoscale has made it possible to mimic natural, macromolecular structures that may also be useful for understanding and treating diseases. One example of such a structure is high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The goal of this work is to use a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) as a template to synthesize functional mimics of HDL and characterize their structure and function. Chapter 1 details the structure and function of natural HDL and how chemistry on the nanoscale provides new strategies for mimicking HDL. This Chapter also describes the first examples of using nanoparticles to mimic HDL. Chapter 2 reports the synthesis and characterization of biomimetic HDL using different sizes of Au NPs and different surface chemistries and how these variables can be used to tailor the properties of biomimetic HDL. From these studies the optimal strategy for synthesizing biomimetic HDL was determined. In Chapter 3, the optimization of the synthesis of biomimetic HDL is discussed as well as a full characterization of its structure. In addition, the work in this chapter shows that biomimetic HDL can be synthesized on a large scale without alterations to its structure or function. Chapter 4 focuses on understanding the pathways by which biomimetic HDL accepts cholesterol from macrophage cells. The results of these studies demonstrate that biomimetic HDL is able to accept cholesterol by both active and passive pathways of cholesterol efflux. In Chapter 5 the preliminary results of in vivo studies to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biomimetic HDL are presented. These studies suggest that biomimetic HDL traffics through tissues prone to

  16. High density 3D printed microfluidic valves, pumps, and multiplexers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2016-07-07

    In this paper we demonstrate that 3D printing with a digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer can be used to create high density microfluidic devices with active components such as valves and pumps. Leveraging our previous work on optical formulation of inexpensive resins (RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106621), we demonstrate valves with only 10% of the volume of our original 3D printed valves (Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9, 016501), which were already the smallest that have been reported. Moreover, we show that incorporation of a thermal initiator in the resin formulation along with a post-print bake can dramatically improve the durability of 3D printed valves up to 1 million actuations. Using two valves and a valve-like displacement chamber (DC), we also create compact 3D printed pumps. With 5-phase actuation and a 15 ms phase interval, we obtain pump flow rates as high as 40 μL min(-1). We also characterize maximum pump back pressure (i.e., maximum pressure the pump can work against), maximum flow rate (flow rate when there is zero back pressure), and flow rate as a function of the height of the pump outlet. We further demonstrate combining 5 valves and one DC to create a 3-to-2 multiplexer with integrated pump. In addition to serial multiplexing, we also show that the device can operate as a mixer. Importantly, we illustrate the rapid fabrication and test cycles that 3D printing makes possible by implementing a new multiplexer design to improve mixing, and fabricate and test it within one day.

  17. Distribution of High-Density Lipoprotein Subfractions and Hypertensive Status

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Xu, Rui-Xia; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Gao, Ying; Dong, Qian; Liu, Geng; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The exact mechanisms of hypertension contributing to atherosclerosis have not been fully elucidated. Although multiple studies have clarified the association with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions, uncertainty remains about its relationship with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions. Therefore, we aimed to comprehensively determine the relationship between distribution of HDL subfractions and hypertensive status. A total of 953 consecutive subjects without previous lipid-lowering drug treatment were enrolled and were categorized based on hypertension history (with hypertension [n = 550] or without hypertension [n = 403]). Baseline clinical and laboratory data were collected. HDL separation was performed using the Lipoprint System. Plasma large HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and large HDL percentage were dramatically lower whereas the small HDL-C and small HDL percentage were higher in patients with hypertension (all P < 0.05). The antihypertensive drug therapy was not associated with large or small HDL subfractions (on treatment vs not on treatment, P > 0.05; combination vs single drug therapy, P > 0.05). However, the blood pressure well-controlled patients have significantly lower small HDL subfraction (P < 0.05). Moreover, large HDL-C and percentage were inversely whereas small HDL percentage was positively associated with incident hypertension after adjusting potential confounders (all P < 0.05). In the multivariate model conducted in patients with and without hypertension separately, the cardio-protective value of large HDL-C was disappeared in patients with hypertension (OR 95%CI: 1.011 [0.974–1.049]). The distribution of HDL subfractions is closely associated with hypertensive status and hypertension may potentially impact the cardio-protective value of large HDL subfraction. PMID:26512616

  18. Isolation of high density lipoproteins from rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Magun, A M; Brasitus, T A; Glickman, R M

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies have defined forms of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in rat mesenteric lymph, suggesting that they have a secretory origin. This study describes the isolation and characterization of intestinal intracellular HDL. Two preparations were made as follows: (a) Rat enterocytes were isolated and a Golgi organelle fraction was prepared. (b) Cell homogenates were subjected to nitrogen cavitation and a cytoplasmic fraction was prepared. Lipoproteins were isolated from both preparations by sequential ultracentrifugation. When the HDL fraction (1.07-1.21 g/ml) was subjected to isopyknic density gradient ultracentrifugation, a peak of apoproteins A-I and B (apoA-I and apoB, respectively) was found at a density of 1.11-1.14 g/ml. Electron microscopy of the fraction showed spherical particles ranging in size from 6 to 13 nm. Immunoelectrophoresis revealed a precipitin arc in the alpha region against apoA-I which extended into the pre-beta region where a precipitin arc against apoB was also seen. ApoB antisera depleted the pre-beta particles whereas the alpha migrating particles remained. Lipid analysis of the whole HDL fraction revealed phospholipid, cholesteryl ester, and triglyceride as the major lipids. [3H]leucine was then administered into the duodenum and a radiolabeled intracellular HDL fraction was isolated. The newly synthesized apoproteins of the HDL fraction, as determined by gel electrophoresis, were apoB, apoA-I, and apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV). Immunoprecipitation of the apoB particles revealed apoA-I and apoA-IV in the supernatant. These data demonstrate that there are at least two intracellular intestinal forms of HDL particles, one of which contains apoB. The other particle contains apoA-I and apoA-IV, has alpha mobility, is spherical, and resembles a particle found in the lymph. Images PMID:3965504

  19. Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

  20. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  1. Method of fabricating high-density hermetic electrical feedthroughs

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Kedar G.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Delima, Terri L.

    2015-06-02

    A method of fabricating electrical feedthroughs selectively removes substrate material from a first side of an electrically conductive substrate (e.g. a bio-compatible metal) to form an array of electrically conductive posts in a substrate cavity. An electrically insulating material (e.g. a bio-compatible sealing glass) is then flowed to fill the substrate cavity and surround each post, and solidified. The solidified insulating material is then exposed from an opposite second side of the substrate so that each post is electrically isolated from each other as well as the bulk substrate. In this manner a hermetic electrically conductive feedthrough construction is formed having an array of electrical feedthroughs extending between the first and second sides of the substrate from which it was formed.

  2. 21 CFR 172.260 - Oxidized polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxidized polyethylene. 172.260 Section 172.260... CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.260 Oxidized polyethylene. Oxidized polyethylene may... polyethylene is the basic resin produced by the mild air oxidation of polyethylene. The polyethylene used...

  3. 21 CFR 172.260 - Oxidized polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oxidized polyethylene. 172.260 Section 172.260... CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.260 Oxidized polyethylene. Oxidized polyethylene may... polyethylene is the basic resin produced by the mild air oxidation of polyethylene. The polyethylene used...

  4. 21 CFR 172.260 - Oxidized polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxidized polyethylene. 172.260 Section 172.260... CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.260 Oxidized polyethylene. Oxidized polyethylene may... polyethylene is the basic resin produced by the mild air oxidation of polyethylene. The polyethylene used...

  5. Constraining cloud parameters using high density gas tracers in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazandjian, M. V.; Pelupessy, I.; Meijerink, R.; Israel, F. P.; Coppola, C. M.; Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Spaans, M.

    2016-11-01

    Far-infrared molecular emission is an important tool used to understand the excitation mechanisms of the gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) of star-forming galaxies. In the present work, we model the emission from rotational transitions with critical densities n ≳ 104 cm-3. We include 4-3 < J ≤ 15-14 transitions of CO and 13CO , in addition to J ≤ 7-6 transitions of HCN, HNC, and HCO+ on galactic scales. We do this by re-sampling high density gas in a hydrodynamic model of a gas-rich disk galaxy, assuming that the density field of the ISM of the model galaxy follows the probability density function (PDF) inferred from the resolved low density scales. We find that in a narrow gas density PDF, with a mean density of 10 cm-3 and a dispersion σ = 2.1 in the log of the density, most of the emission of molecular lines, even of gas with critical densities >104 cm-3, emanates from the 10-1000 cm-3 part of the PDF. We construct synthetic emission maps for the central 2 kpc of the galaxy and fit the line ratios of CO and 13CO up to J = 15-14, as well as HCN, HNC, and HCO+ up to J = 7-6, using one photo-dissociation region (PDR) model. We attribute the goodness of the one component fits for our model galaxy to the fact that the distribution of the luminosity, as a function of density, is peaked at gas densities between 10 and 1000 cm-3, with negligible contribution from denser gas. Specifically, the Mach number, ℳ, of the model galaxy is 10. We explore the impact of different log-normal density PDFs on the distribution of the line-luminosity as a function of density, and we show that it is necessary to have a broad dispersion, corresponding to Mach numbers ≳30 in order to obtain significant (>10%) emission from n> 104 cm-3 gas. Such Mach numbers are expected in star-forming galaxies, luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGS), and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGS). This method provides a way to constrain the global PDF of the ISM of galaxies from observations of

  6. Effect of drugs on high-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    McKenney, James M

    2007-03-01

    The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III found evidence for raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to reduce coronary artery disease (CAD) events supports use of HDL-C to help modify low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering goals, but not to establish new HDL-C-focused treatment recommendations. However, the HDL-C-raising clinical trials provide important lessons to help guide clinical management of dyslipidemic patients. The fibrate outcome trials demonstrate that these drugs reduce CAD events, but not death. Their greatest benefit is in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by high triglycerides, small LDL particles, and low HDL-C. Unfortunately, there is no information on whether these drugs extend risk reduction when added to a statin. The niacin outcome trials also demonstrate a reduction in CAD events, both with niacin monotherapy and in combination with a statin. Unfortunately, most of the trials are too small to address the impact of niacin on mortality. In the clinic, statins are most useful for their LDL-C-lowering efficacy, although their modest HDL-C-raising effects can be important in CAD risk reduction. In most cases, other therapies will need to be added to a statin to augment HDL-C-raising, and the most effective drug for achieving this is niacin. The greatest challenge with the use of niacin is managing the vasodilatory side effects, but this can be effectively done in the majority of patients. Fibrates can also be added to a statin for management of atherogenic dyslipidemia. These drugs are among the most effective triglyceride-lowering drugs, and they also increase HDL-C levels, but not as much as niacin. The biggest concern with combining a fibrate with a statin is the enhanced risk of severe muscle toxicity, but this appears to be a problem unique to gemfibrozil, and not fenofibrate. In the research center, new approaches are under development for enhancing the availability of

  7. High-Density, High-Bandwidth, Multilevel Holographic Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2008-01-01

    A proposed holographic memory system would be capable of storing data at unprecedentedly high density, and its data transfer performance in both reading and writing would be characterized by exceptionally high bandwidth. The capabilities of the proposed system would greatly exceed even those of a state-of-the art memory system, based on binary holograms (in which each pixel value represents 0 or 1), that can hold .1 terabyte of data and can support a reading or writing rate as high as 1 Gb/s. The storage capacity of the state-of-theart system cannot be increased without also increasing the volume and mass of the system. However, in principle, the storage capacity could be increased greatly, without significantly increasing the volume and mass, if multilevel holograms were used instead of binary holograms. For example, a 3-bit (8-level) hologram could store 8 terabytes, or an 8-bit (256-level) hologram could store 256 terabytes, in a system having little or no more size and mass than does the state-of-the-art 1-terabyte binary holographic memory. The proposed system would utilize multilevel holograms. The system would include lasers, imaging lenses and other beam-forming optics, a block photorefractive crystal wherein the holograms would be formed, and two multilevel spatial light modulators in the form of commercially available deformable-mirror-device spatial light modulators (DMDSLMs) made for use in high speed input conversion of data up to 12 bits. For readout, the system would also include two arrays of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) photodetectors matching the spatial light modulators. The system would further include a reference-beam sterring device (equivalent of a scanning mirror), containing no sliding parts, that could be either a liquid-crystal phased-array device or a microscopic mirror actuated by a high-speed microelectromechanical system. Time-multiplexing and the multilevel nature of the DMDSLM would be exploited to enable writing

  8. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of a high density fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Brabbs, T.A.; Merritt, S.A.

    1993-07-01

    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (ER is greater than 4) of the high density fuel exo-tetrahydrocyclopentadiene (JP-10) was studied over the equivalence ratio range 5.0 to 7.6, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1220 to 1120 K. The process produced soot-free gaseous products similar to those obtained with iso-octane and jet-A in previous studies. The measured combustion temperature agreed well with that calculated assuming soot was not a combustion product. The process raised the effective hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio from 1.6 to over 2.0, thus significantly improving the combustion properties of the fuel. At an equivalence ratio near 5.0, about 80 percent of the initial fuel carbon was in light gaseous products and about 20 percent in larger condensable molecules. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion has now been studied for three fuels with H/C ratios of 2.25 (iso-octane), 1.92 (jet-A), and 1.6 (JP-10). A comparison of the product distribution of these fuels shows that, in general, the measured concentrations of the combustion products were monotonic functions of the H/C ratio with the exception of hydrogen and ethylene. In these cases, data for JP-10 fell between iso-octane and jet-A rather than beyond jet-A. It is suggested that the ring cross-linking structure of JP-10 may be responsible for this behavior. All the fuels studied showed that the largest amounts of small hydrocarbon molecules and the smallest amounts of large condensable molecules occurred at the lower equivalence ratios. This corresponds to the highest combustion temperatures used in these studies. Although higher temperatures may improve this mix, the temperature is limited. First, the life of the present catalyst would be greatly shortened when operated at temperatures of 1300 K or greater. Second, fuel-rich catalytic combustion does not produce soot because the combustion temperatures used in the experiments were well below the threshold temperature (1350 K) for the formation of soot.

  9. High-Density Plasma Reactors: Simulations for Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hash, David B.; Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The development of improved and more efficient plasma reactors is a costly process for the semiconductor industry. Until five years ago, the Industry made most of its advancements through a trial and error approach. More recently, the role of computational modeling in the design process has increased. Both conventional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques like Navier-Stokes solvers as well as particle simulation methods are used to model plasma reactor flowfields. However, since high-density plasma reactors generally operate at low gas pressures on the order of 1 to 10 mTorr, a particle simulation may be necessary because of the failure of CFD techniques to model rarefaction effects. The direct simulation Monte Carlo method is the most widely accepted and employed particle simulation tool and has previously been used to investigate plasma reactor flowfields. A plasma DSMC code is currently under development at NASA Ames Research Center with its foundation as the object-oriented parallel Cornell DSMC code, MONACO. The present investigation is a follow up of a neutral flow investigation of the effects of process parameters as well as reactor design on etch rate and etch rate uniformity. The previous work concentrated on silicon etch of a chlorine flow in a configuration typical of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) or helical resonator type reactors. The effects of the plasma on the dissociation chemistry were modeled by making assumptions about the electron temperature and number density. The electrons or ions themselves were not simulated.The present work extends these results by simulating the charged species.The electromagnetic fields are calculated such that power deposition is modeled self-consistently. Electron impact reactions are modeled along with mechanisms for charge exchange. An bipolar diffusion assumption is made whereby electrons remain tied to the ions. However, the velocities of tile electrons are allowed to be modified during collisions

  10. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of a high density fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Merritt, Sylvia A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (ER is greater than 4) of the high density fuel exo-tetrahydrocyclopentadiene (JP-10) was studied over the equivalence ratio range 5.0 to 7.6, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1220 to 1120 K. The process produced soot-free gaseous products similar to those obtained with iso-octane and jet-A in previous studies. The measured combustion temperature agreed well with that calculated assuming soot was not a combustion product. The process raised the effective hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio from 1.6 to over 2.0, thus significantly improving the combustion properties of the fuel. At an equivalence ratio near 5.0, about 80 percent of the initial fuel carbon was in light gaseous products and about 20 percent in larger condensable molecules. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion has now been studied for three fuels with H/C ratios of 2.25 (iso-octane), 1.92 (jet-A), and 1.6 (JP-10). A comparison of the product distribution of these fuels shows that, in general, the measured concentrations of the combustion products were monotonic functions of the H/C ratio with the exception of hydrogen and ethylene. In these cases, data for JP-10 fell between iso-octane and jet-A rather than beyond jet-A. It is suggested that the ring cross-linking structure of JP-10 may be responsible for this behavior. All the fuels studied showed that the largest amounts of small hydrocarbon molecules and the smallest amounts of large condensable molecules occurred at the lower equivalence ratios. This corresponds to the highest combustion temperatures used in these studies. Although higher temperatures may improve this mix, the temperature is limited. First, the life of the present catalyst would be greatly shortened when operated at temperatures of 1300 K or greater. Second, fuel-rich catalytic combustion does not produce soot because the combustion temperatures used in the experiments were well below the threshold temperature (1350 K) for the formation of soot. Increasing

  11. Effects of acute exercise on high density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein subfractions in moderately trained females

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, P. M.; Fowler, S.; Warty, V.; Danduran, M.; Visich, P.; Keteyian, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have previously been reported after moderate exercise bouts lasting less than two hours in men. Little information exists, however, on HDL-C responses after moderate duration exercise in women. Post-exercise HDL- C modifications may appear differently in women because of higher baseline HDL-C concentrations and differences in lipolytic activity. To determine the influence of exercise on acute HDL-C responses in women, 12 trained premenopausal women (22 (4) years old; mean (SD)) who ran 24- 48 km a week exercised on a motor driven treadmill at 75% VO2MAX until 3.34 MJ (800 kcal) were expended (72 (9) min). Subjects were all tested during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Fasting blood samples were obtained before exercise (baseline), immediately after (IPE), one hour after (1 h PE), 24 hours after (24 h PE), and 48 hours after (48 h PE) exercise. Plasma was analysed for HDL-C, HDL2-C, and HDL3-C. A significant increase in HDL-C was observed 48 h PE (p<0.05). HDL3-C increased IPE (p<0.01) but returned to baseline at 1 h PE. In contrast, HDL2-C was not significantly different from baseline at any time point. The rise in HDL-C, however, was attributed to an increase in both HDL2 and HDL3. Moreover, at 48 h PE, the increase in HDL-C correlated highly with changes in HDL2-C (r = 0.92). Thus it appears that exercise of moderate duration can elicit similar post- exercise increases in HDL-C in women to those previously reported in men. However, the changes in HDL subfractions leading to the rise in HDL-C may be different in women. 


 PMID:9562167

  12. Executive Dysfunction and Reward Dysregulation: A High-Density Electrical Mapping Study in Cocaine Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Morie, Kristen P.; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Garavan, Hugh; Foxe, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Executive function deficits and reward dysregulation, which mainly manifests as anhedonia, are well documented in drug abusers. We investigated specific aspects of executive function (inhibitory control and cognitive control), as well as anhedonia, in a cohort of current cocaine abusers in order to ascertain to what extent these factors are associated with more severe drug dependence. Participants filled out questionnaires relating to anhedonia and their addiction history. Participants also performed a response inhibition task while high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Electrophysiological responses to successful inhibitions (N2/P3 components) and to commission errors (ERN/Pe components) were compared between 23 current users of cocaine and 27 non-using controls. A regression model was performed to determine the association of our measures of reward dysregulation and executive function with addiction severity. As expected, cocaine users performed more poorly than controls on the inhibitory control task and showed significant electrophysiological differences. They were also generally more anhedonic than controls. Higher levels of anhedonia were associated with more severe substance use, whereas the level of executive dysfunction was not associated with more severe substance use. However, N2 amplitude was associated with duration of drug use. Further, inhibitory control and anhedonia were correlated, but only in controls. These data suggest that while executive dysfunction characterizes drug abuse, it is anhedonia, independent of executive dysfunction, that is most strongly associated with more severe use. PMID:24911989

  13. Comparison of high-density carbon implosions in unlined uranium versus gold hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewald, Eduard; Meezan, Nathan; Tommasini, Riccardo; Khan, Shahab; MacKinnon, Andrew; Berzak Hopkins, Laura; Divol, Laurent; Lepape, Sebastien; Moore, Alastair; Schneider, Marilyn; Pak, Arthur; Nikroo, Abbas; Landen, Otto

    2016-10-01

    In Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions, laser energy is converted to x-ray radiation in hohlraums with High-Z walls. At radiation temperatures near 300 eV relevant for ICF experiments, the radiative losses in heating the wall are lower for U than for Au hohlraums. Furthermore, the intensity of the ``M-band'' x-rays with photon energies h ν >1.8 keV is lower for uranium, allowing for reduced capsule dopant concentrations employed to minimize inner ablator preheat and hence keep favorable fuel/ablator interface Atwood numbers. This in turn improves the ablator rocket efficiency and reduces the risk of polluting the hot-spot with emissive dopant material. The first uranium vacuum hohlraum experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with undoped high-density carbon (HDC, or diamond) capsules have demonstrated 30% lower ``M-band'' intensity relative to Au, resulting in lower inflight ablator thickness due to reduced preheat. In addition, fusion neutron yields are 2x higher in U than in Au hohlraums for D2-gas filled capsule implosions at ICF relevant velocities of 380 +/-20 km/s. These results have led the NIF ICF implosions to routinely employ U hohlraums. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Design of pervaporation membrane for organic-liquid separation based on solubility control by plasma-graft filling polymerization technique

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Takeo; Nakao, Shinichi; Kimura, Shoji )

    1993-05-01

    Pervaporation performance through the membranes showed the same tendency as solubility results. The authors have prepared the filling-polymerized membrane for pervaporation of organic-liquid mixtures by the plasma-graft polymerization technique. The membrane is composed of two different polymers: a porous substrate which can suppress membrane swelling and a grafted polymer which forms in the pores of the substrate and exhibits selectivity due to its solubility. The objectives of the present study are to design a suitable membrane for an organic-mixture system by the control of the filling-polymer solubility. Specifically, a porous high-density polyethylene membrane and poly(methylacrylate/acrylamide) copolymer were employed as the porous substrate and grafted polymer, respectively, and grafted copolymer solubility was predicted by Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). The grafted polymer composition and its solubility behavior could be controlled by varying the monomer composition, and the solubility change was in accordance with the prediction by HSP. Pervaporation performance through the membranes showed the same tendency as solubility results. The authors concluded that an optimum pervaporation membrane can be designed on the basis of solubility control through use of these techniques for polymerization and prediction.

  15. Launch Vehicle with Combustible Polyethylene Case Gasification Chamber Design Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yemets, V.

    A single-stage launch vehicle equipped with a combustible tank shell of polyethylene and a moving propulsion plant is proposed. The propulsion plant is composed of a chamber for the gasification of the shell, a compressor of pyrolysed polyethylene and a magnetic powder obturator. It is shown that the “dental” structure of the gasification chamber is necessary to achieve the necessary contact area with the polyethylene shell. This conclusion is drawn from consideration of the thermo- physical properties of polyethylene, calculating quasisteady temperature field in the gasification chamber, estimating gasification rate of polyethylene, launch vehicle shortening rate and area of gasification. Experimental determination of the gasification rate is described. The gasification chamber specific mass as well as the propulsion plant weight-to-thrust ratio are estimated under some assumptions concerning the obturator and compressor. Combustible launch vehicles are compared with conventional launch vehicles taking into consideration their payload mass ratios. Combustible launchers are preferable as small launchers for micro and nano satellites. Reusable versions of such launchers seem suitable if polyethylene tank shells filled with metal or metal hydride fine dusts are used.

  16. Developing High-Density Diffuse Optical Tomography for Neuroimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Brian Richard

    Clinicians who care for brain-injured patients and premature infants desire a bedside monitor of brain function. A decade ago, there was hope that optical imaging would be able to fill this role, as it combined fMRI's ability to construct cortical maps with EEG's portable, cap-based systems. However, early optical systems had poor imaging performance, and the momentum for the technique slowed. In our lab, we develop diffuse optical tomography (DOT), which is a more advanced method of performing optical imaging. My research has been to pioneer the in vivo use of DOT for advanced neuroimaging by (1) quantifying the advantages of DOT through both in silico simulation and in vivo performance metrics, (2) restoring confidence in the technique with the first retinotopic mapping of the visual cortex (a benchmark for fMRI and PET), and (3) creating concepts and methods for the clinical translation of DOT. Hospitalized patients are unable to perform complicated neurological tasks, which has motivated us to develop the first DOT methods for resting-state brain mapping with functional connectivity. Finally, in collaboration with neonatologists, I have extended these methods with proof-of-principle imaging of brain-injured premature infants. This work establishes DOT's improvements in imaging performance and readies it for multiple clinical and research roles.

  17. Characterization of green rHDPE biocomposites filled with natural filler: Rheological and thermal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, B. Y.; Voon, C. H.; Adawiah Mahmod, R.

    2016-11-01

    Palm kernel shell filled recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE/PKS) biocomposites were produced in order to reduce the waste product from palm oil production. The biocomposites at various filler loading were prepared by melt mixing at 180 °C. Ultra Plast TP0' was selected as coupling agent in rHDPE/PKS biocomposites, in order to modify the properties of biocomposites. It was found that the higher filler loading had reduced the melt flow index (MFI) values. However, with the increasing of testing temperature from 180 to 210 °C, the MFI values of the biocomposites were increased. The presence of Ultra Plast TP01was capable to increase MFI values of the biocomposites. The thermal studies showed that thermal stability of the biocomposites was affected by PKS loading and coupling agent. Though the thermal stability of biocomposites was reduced by PKS, it can be improved by Ultra Plast TP01. Hence, Ultra Plast TP01 can serve as an effective coupling agent for rHDPE/PKS.

  18. Attenuation of heavy metals by geosynthetics in the coal gangue-filled columns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Hu, Zhenqi; Wang, Peijun

    2013-01-01

    In the subsided areas backfilled with coal gangue, an issue of continuing environmental concern is the migration of hazardous metals to the subsurface soil and groundwater. As an effective isolation material, geosynthetics have been scarcely applied into mining areas reclamation of China. This paper describes research aimed at characterizing the behaviours of different geosynthetics in the leaching columns filled with coal gangues. Four types of geosynthetics were selected: fibres needle-punched nonwoven geotextiles, high-density polyethylene, needle-punched Na-bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL-NP) and Na-bentonite geosynthetic-overbited film. Heavy metals were significantly attenuated and by monitoring aqueous solutions in the whole percolation period, negative correlation was found between pH value and concentration of heavy metals. Generally, GCL-NP showed comparatively better effects on attenuating the migration of heavy metals. According to the meta-analysis of heavy metals present in the leachates and retained in the columns, geosynthetics have good capabilities of sorption and retardation, which can delay the breakthrough time of heavy metals and retard the accumulation in the subsurface. Future research will use X-ray diffraction and micro-imaging (electron microprobe and scanning electron microscopy) to further explain retention mechanisms.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical, thermal and rheological behavior of HDPE filled with seaweed residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataño, L.; Albano, C.; Karam, A.; Domínguez, N.; Sánchez, Y.; González, J.

    2005-07-01

    The present work shows the results obtained during the investigation of the influence of gamma irradiation on mechanical, thermal and rheological properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) filled with seaweed residues (SR). The SR used was located on Venezuelan coastlines and they are composed mainly by CaCO3 in aragonite phase. The HDPE was extruded along with the filler at different compositions (20, 30 and 40 wt.%). The composites were exposed to a 60Co source irradiated at 25 and 100 kGy. From the obtained results, it was noticed that Young modulus remained constant with filler content. Moreover, the influence of filler content was found to be more prominent on properties like tensile stress and elongation at break. On the other hand, thermal analysis showed that filler content had no significant influence on thermal stability. Still, it is necessary to point out that low radiation doses improved thermal stability of the composites. From rheological studies it was observed a decreasing of melt flow index (MFI) by increasing the SR amount and radiation. Therefore, was determinate that high filler content composites are the best choice to be considered for biomedical and industrial applications.

  20. Getting a prescription filled

    MedlinePlus

    ... prescription filled; Drugs - how to get prescription filled; Pharmacy - mail order; Pharmacy - internet; Types of pharmacies ... paper prescription that you take to a local pharmacy Calling or e-mailing a pharmacy to order ...

  1. 76 FR 58393 - High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of Determination Regarding Low Demand Periods at Ronald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Hawks, Office of the Chief Counsel, Federal Aviation Administration, 800...-mail: rob.hawks@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The FAA issued the High Density...

  2. Polyethylene Glycol Propionaldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Joe M.; Sedaghat-Herati, Mohammad R.; Karr, Laurel J.

    1992-01-01

    New class of compounds derived from polyethylene glycol (PEG's) namely, PEG-propionaldehydes, offers two important advantages over other classes of PEG aldehyde derivatives: compounds exhibit selective chemical reactivity toward amino groups and are stable in aqueous environment. PEG's and derivatives used to couple variety of other molecules, such as, to tether protein molecules to surfaces. Biotechnical and biomedical applications include partitioning of two phases in aqueous media; immobilization of such proteins as enzymes, antibodies, and antigens; modification of drugs; and preparation of protein-rejecting surfaces. In addition, surfaces coated with PEG's and derivatives used to control wetting and electroosmosis. Another potential application, coupling to aminated surfaces.

  3. High-density grids for efficient data collection from multiple crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O.; Bonagura, Christopher A.; Brehmer, Winnie; Brunger, Axel T.; Calero, Guillermo; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Degrado, William F.; Fraser, James S.; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Kern, Jan; Kobilka, Brian K.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Larsson, Karl M.; Lemke, Heinrik T.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Manglik, Aashish; McPhillips, Scott E.; Norgren, Erik; Pang, Siew S.; Soltis, S. M.; Song, Jinhu; Thomaston, Jessica; Tsai, Yingssu; Weis, William I.; Woldeyes, Rahel A.; Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Zouni, Athina; Cohen, Aina E.

    2016-01-01

    Higher throughput methods to mount and collect data from multiple small and radiation-sensitive crystals are important to support challenging structural investigations using microfocus synchrotron beamlines. Furthermore, efficient sample-delivery methods are essential to carry out productive femtosecond crystallography experiments at X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). To address these needs, a high-density sample grid useful as a scaffold for both crystal growth and diffraction data collection has been developed and utilized for efficient goniometer-based sample delivery at synchrotron and XFEL sources. A single grid contains 75 mounting ports and fits inside an SSRL cassette or uni-puck storage container. The use of grids with an SSRL cassette expands the cassette capacity up to 7200 samples. Grids may also be covered with a polymer film or sleeve for efficient room-temperature data collection from multiple samples. New automated routines have been incorporated into theBlu-Ice/DCSSexperimental control system to support grids, including semi-automated grid alignment, fully automated positioning of grid ports, rastering and automated data collection. Specialized tools have been developed to support crystallization experiments on grids, including a universal adaptor, which allows grids to be filled by commercial liquid-handling robots, as well as incubation chambers, which support vapor-diffusion and lipidic cubic phase crystallization experiments. Experiments in which crystals were loaded into grids or grown on grids using liquid-handling robots and incubation chambers are described. Crystals were screened at LCLS-XPP and SSRL BL12-2 at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.

  4. High-density grids for efficient data collection from multiple crystals.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Elizabeth L; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O; Bonagura, Christopher A; Brehmer, Winnie; Brunger, Axel T; Calero, Guillermo; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Degrado, William F; Fraser, James S; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Kern, Jan; Kobilka, Brian K; Kruse, Andrew C; Larsson, Karl M; Lemke, Heinrik T; Lyubimov, Artem Y; Manglik, Aashish; McPhillips, Scott E; Norgren, Erik; Pang, Siew S; Soltis, S M; Song, Jinhu; Thomaston, Jessica; Tsai, Yingssu; Weis, William I; Woldeyes, Rahel A; Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Zouni, Athina; Cohen, Aina E

    2016-01-01

    Higher throughput methods to mount and collect data from multiple small and radiation-sensitive crystals are important to support challenging structural investigations using microfocus synchrotron beamlines. Furthermore, efficient sample-delivery methods are essential to carry out productive femtosecond crystallography experiments at X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). To address these needs, a high-density sample grid useful as a scaffold for both crystal growth and diffraction data collection has been developed and utilized for efficient goniometer-based sample delivery at synchrotron and XFEL sources. A single grid contains 75 mounting ports and fits inside an SSRL cassette or uni-puck storage container. The use of grids with an SSRL cassette expands the cassette capacity up to 7200 samples. Grids may also be covered with a polymer film or sleeve for efficient room-temperature data collection from multiple samples. New automated routines have been incorporated into the Blu-Ice/DCSS experimental control system to support grids, including semi-automated grid alignment, fully automated positioning of grid ports, rastering and automated data collection. Specialized tools have been developed to support crystallization experiments on grids, including a universal adaptor, which allows grids to be filled by commercial liquid-handling robots, as well as incubation chambers, which support vapor-diffusion and lipidic cubic phase crystallization experiments. Experiments in which crystals were loaded into grids or grown on grids using liquid-handling robots and incubation chambers are described. Crystals were screened at LCLS-XPP and SSRL BL12-2 at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.

  5. Fabrication, Micro-structural Analysis, and Mechanical Testing of High Density Polymeric Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Trevor Gustov

    Foams, or what are often called cellular solids, are some of the most widely used materials in the modern era. In general, foam is a porous substance formed by the introduction of gas filled pores into condensed matter; the result is typically a light weight substance with properties related to the base (non-porous) medium. Applications of foams include: vibration dampening, energy mitigation (such as packaging and bike helmets), insulation, filtration, and flotation. The focus of this work is on the properties of flexible elastomeric foam of high relative-density. The bulk of existing literature on elastomeric foam is concerned with foam of low relative-density (ratio of the foam density to the density of the material from which the foam is formed ≤ 0.1). The relationship between the micro-structure of high relative-density foam and its mechanical response has, in large part, not been subjected to systematic investigation heretofore. The present work examines how the micro-structural features of pore shape, size, and location affect the macro-structural response of relative high density foam to compressive loading. In order to carry out this study, methods were developed and employed to control a foam's micro-structure, and hence its mechanical response, with the use of temporary pore forming particles and micron scale inclusions. Advanced microscopy techniques were used to observe, in situ, the evolution of a foam's micro-structure under compressive loading, and the results were correlated with the evolution of the foam's stress - strain response. Additionally, quantitative methods were developed and employed to describe numerically the foam's micro-structural features, such as: (i), pore shape, (ii), pore size, and (iii), the arrangement of the pores with respect to each other. Numerous foams were produced, tested, and subjected to the

  6. High-density grids for efficient data collection from multiple crystals

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O.; Bonagura, Christopher A.; Brehmer, Winnie; Brunger, Axel T.; Calero, Guillermo; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Degrado, William F.; Fraser, James S.; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Kern, Jan; Kobilka, Brian K.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Larsson, Karl M.; Lemke, Heinrik T.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Manglik, Aashish; McPhillips, Scott E.; Norgren, Erik; Pang, Siew S.; Soltis, S. M.; Song, Jinhu; Thomaston, Jessica; Tsai, Yingssu; Weis, William I.; Woldeyes, Rahel A.; Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Zouni, Athina; Cohen, Aina E.

    2016-01-01

    Higher throughput methods to mount and collect data from multiple small and radiation-sensitive crystals are important to support challenging structural investigations using microfocus synchrotron beamlines. Furthermore, efficient sample-delivery methods are essential to carry out productive femtosecond crystallography experiments at X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). To address these needs, a high-density sample grid useful as a scaffold for both crystal growth and diffraction data collection has been developed and utilized for efficient goniometer-based sample delivery at synchrotron and XFEL sources. A single grid contains 75 mounting ports and fits inside an SSRL cassette or uni-puck storage container. The use of grids with an SSRL cassette expands the cassette capacity up to 7200 samples. Grids may also be covered with a polymer film or sleeve for efficient room-temperature data collection from multiple samples. New automated routines have been incorporated into the Blu-Ice/DCSS experimental control system to support grids, including semi-automated grid alignment, fully automated positioning of grid ports, rastering and automated data collection. Specialized tools have been developed to support crystallization experiments on grids, including a universal adaptor, which allows grids to be filled by commercial liquid-handling robots, as well as incubation chambers, which support vapor-diffusion and lipidic cubic phase crystallization experiments. Experiments in which crystals were loaded into grids or grown on grids using liquid-handling robots and incubation chambers are described. Crystals were screened at LCLS-XPP and SSRL BL12-2 at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. PMID:26894529

  7. High-density grids for efficient data collection from multiple crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; ...

    2015-11-03

    Higher throughput methods to mount and collect data from multiple small and radiation-sensitive crystals are important to support challenging structural investigations using microfocus synchrotron beamlines. Furthermore, efficient sample-delivery methods are essential to carry out productive femtosecond crystallography experiments at X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). To address these needs, a high-density sample grid useful as a scaffold for both crystal growth and diffraction data collection has been developed and utilized for efficient goniometer-based sample delivery at synchrotron and XFEL sources. A single grid contains 75 mounting ports and fits inside an SSRL cassettemore » or uni-puck storage container. The use of grids with an SSRL cassette expands the cassette capacity up to 7200 samples. Grids may also be covered with a polymer film or sleeve for efficient room-temperature data collection from multiple samples. New automated routines have been incorporated into theBlu-Ice/DCSSexperimental control system to support grids, including semi-automated grid alignment, fully automated positioning of grid ports, rastering and automated data collection. Specialized tools have been developed to support crystallization experiments on grids, including a universal adaptor, which allows grids to be filled by commercial liquid-handling robots, as well as incubation chambers, which support vapor-diffusion and lipidic cubic phase crystallization experiments. Experiments in which crystals were loaded into grids or grown on grids using liquid-handling robots and incubation chambers are described. As a result, crystals were screened at LCLS-XPP and SSRL BL12-2 at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.« less

  8. High-density grids for efficient data collection from multiple crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O.; Bonagura, Christopher A.; Brehmer, Winnie; Brunger, Axel T.; Calero, Guillermo; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Degrado, William F.; Fraser, James S.; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Kern, Jan; Kobilka, Brian K.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Larsson, Karl M.; Lemke, Heinrik T.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Manglik, Aashish; McPhillips, Scott E.; Norgren, Erik; Pang, Siew S.; Soltis, S. M.; Song, Jinhu; Thomaston, Jessica; Tsai, Yingssu; Weis, William I.; Woldeyes, Rahel A.; Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Zouni, Athina; Cohen, Aina E.

    2015-11-03

    Higher throughput methods to mount and collect data from multiple small and radiation-sensitive crystals are important to support challenging structural investigations using microfocus synchrotron beamlines. Furthermore, efficient sample-delivery methods are essential to carry out productive femtosecond crystallography experiments at X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). To address these needs, a high-density sample grid useful as a scaffold for both crystal growth and diffraction data collection has been developed and utilized for efficient goniometer-based sample delivery at synchrotron and XFEL sources. A single grid contains 75 mounting ports and fits inside an SSRL cassette or uni-puck storage container. The use of grids with an SSRL cassette expands the cassette capacity up to 7200 samples. Grids may also be covered with a polymer film or sleeve for efficient room-temperature data collection from multiple samples. New automated routines have been incorporated into theBlu-Ice/DCSSexperimental control system to support grids, including semi-automated grid alignment, fully automated positioning of grid ports, rastering and automated data collection. Specialized tools have been developed to support crystallization experiments on grids, including a universal adaptor, which allows grids to be filled by commercial liquid-handling robots, as well as incubation chambers, which support vapor-diffusion and lipidic cubic phase crystallization experiments. Experiments in which crystals were loaded into grids or grown on grids using liquid-handling robots and incubation chambers are described. As a result, crystals were screened at LCLS-XPP and SSRL BL12-2 at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.

  9. On-chip high density droplet-on-template (DOT) array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jitae; Song, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we present a new method for generating a high-density (2D) droplet array using double-layered polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) templates containing honeycomb microwells. Without external flow control, a droplet-on-template (DOT) was created by utilizing capillary forces associated with the interfacial tension between the aqueous and oil phases. The DOT process involved three simple steps: (1) vacuum-assisted filling of microwells; (2) excess water removal; and (3) covering the droplet array with oil. To demonstrate the concept of the DOT, we generated spherical water droplets 147, 191, 238, 326 and 405 μm in diameter from corresponding microwells with lengths of 200, 300, 400, 600 and 800 μm, respectively and a height of 76 μm (up to ~10,000 droplets on a template 25  ×  25 mm). Two important factors, including the aspect ratio (height-to-length ratio) of the microwell and the interfacial tension of the two phases, were investigated to understand how those factors affect the shape of the droplets (‘sphere’ or ‘dome’). All the droplets were spherical up to an aspect ratio of 0.55. The droplets were dome-shaped for aspect ratios above 0.82. For a 1 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution, the use of mineral oil (which had the highest interfacial tension studied) produced spherical droplets, but dome-shaped droplets were produced by corn oil and oleic acid.

  10. [Growth of microfungi on the external polyethylene anticorrosive coating of oil-gas pipes].

    PubMed

    Subbota, A G; Chuenko, A I; Ostapiuk, S N

    2014-01-01

    The authors have studied the resistance of external anticorrosive polyethylene coat of oil-gas pipes (based on the high-density polyethylene, HDPE) to the action of microfungi, natural contamination, fungistatic and fungicide activity. It was found that the intensity of growth of standard test cultures on the surface of polyethylene coat increases in terms which imitate mineral and organic contaminations, and this results in the decrease of the index of its resistance to the action of microfungi. The microfungi, found in the process of study of natural contamination of polyethylene coat and its components, are presented by six species, Alternaria sp. most frequently occurring among them. The presence of admixtures of nitrogenic and phosphoric organic substances in chemical composition of control standards of adhesive and HDPE, which were not exposed to the influence of microfungi, was established by the method of IR spectroscopy. Changes of the IR spectra were noticed in the surface layer of high density polyethylene pellets under the influence of Penicillium funiculosum 171703 that evidences for the process of its slow oxidation. It is assumed that the damaging of the coating components is due to the presence in their chemical composition of impurities of nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing compounds that are easily absorbed by microscopic fungi.

  11. Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive

    DOEpatents

    Stroud, John R.; Ornellas, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  12. A high density genetic linkage map for rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) containing 47,839 SNPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-density SNP arrays have become the tool of choice for QTL mapping, genome-wide association studies and genomic selection. More recently, high-density linkage maps generated by SNP array data have proven to be crucial for the accurate assembly of scaffolds and contigs in whole-genome sequencing ...

  13. Fitness, Heart Disease, and High-Density Lipoproteins: A Look at the Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCunney, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The role of fitness in preventing coronary heart disease is explored. Research on high-density lipoprotein, which has been found to be one of the most critical determinants of risk, is reviewed. The relationship between fitness, high-density lipoprotein, and coronary heart disease is assessed, and clinical implications are spelled out. (MT)

  14. Stability of serum high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs for preanalytical conditions.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Yamada, Hiroya; Taromaru, Nao; Kondo, Kanako; Nagura, Ayuri; Yamazaki, Mirai; Ando, Yoshitaka; Munetsuna, Eiji; Suzuki, Koji; Ohashi, Koji; Teradaira, Ryoji

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently, several studies have shown that microRNAs are present in high-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein-microRNA may be a promising disease biomarker. We investigated the stability of high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs in different storage conditions as this is an important issue for its application to the field of clinical research. Methods microRNAs were extracted from the high-density lipoprotein fraction that was purified from the serum. miR-135 a and miR-223, which are known to be present in high-density lipoprotein, were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. The influence of preanalytical parameters on the analysis of high-density lipoprotein-miRNAs was examined by the effect of RNase, storage conditions, and freezing and thawing. Results The concentrations of microRNA in high-density lipoprotein were not altered by RNase A treatment (0-100 U/mL). No significant change in these microRNAs was observed after storing serum at room temperature or 4℃ for 0-24 h, and there was a similar result in the cryopreservation for up to two weeks. Also, high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs were stable for, at least, up to five freeze-thaw cycles. Conclusions These results demonstrated that high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs are relatively resistant to various storage conditions. This study provides new and important information on the stability of high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs.

  15. Photolithographic Synthesis of High-Density DNA and RNA Arrays on Flexible, Transparent, and Easily Subdivided Plastic Substrates.

    PubMed

    Holden, Matthew T; Carter, Matthew C D; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Wolfer, Jamison; Codner, Eric; Sussman, Michael R; Lynn, David M; Smith, Lloyd M

    2015-11-17

    The photolithographic fabrication of high-density DNA and RNA arrays on flexible and transparent plastic substrates is reported. The substrates are thin sheets of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) coated with cross-linked polymer multilayers that present hydroxyl groups suitable for conventional phosphoramidite-based nucleic acid synthesis. We demonstrate that by modifying array synthesis procedures to accommodate the physical and chemical properties of these materials, it is possible to synthesize plastic-backed oligonucleotide arrays with feature sizes as small as 14 μm × 14 μm and feature densities in excess of 125 000/cm(2), similar to specifications attainable using rigid substrates such as glass or glassy carbon. These plastic-backed arrays are tolerant to a wide range of hybridization temperatures, and improved synthetic procedures are described that enable the fabrication of arrays with sequences up to 50 nucleotides in length. These arrays hybridize with S/N ratios comparable to those fabricated on otherwise identical arrays prepared on glass or glassy carbon. This platform supports the enzymatic synthesis of RNA arrays and proof-of-concept experiments are presented showing that the arrays can be readily subdivided into smaller arrays (or "millichips") using common laboratory-scale laser cutting tools. These results expand the utility of oligonucleotide arrays fabricated on plastic substrates and open the door to new applications for these important bioanalytical tools.

  16. High-temperature compatibility between liquid metal as PWR fuel gap filler and stainless steel and high-density concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong; Jumpee, Chayanit; Jitpukdee, Manit

    2014-08-01

    In conventional nuclear fuel rods for light-water reactors, a helium-filled as-fabricated gap between the fuel and the cladding inner surface accommodates fuel swelling and cladding creep down. Because helium exhibits a very low thermal conductivity, it results in a large temperature rise in the gap. Liquid metal (LM; 1/3 weight portion each of lead, tin, and bismuth) has been proposed to be a gap filler because of its high thermal conductivity (∼100 times that of He), low melting point (∼100 °C), and lack of chemical reactivity with UO2 and water. With the presence of LM, the temperature drop across the gap is virtually eliminated and the fuel is operated at a lower temperature at the same power output, resulting in safer fuel, delayed fission gas release and prevention of massive secondary hydriding. During normal reactor operation, should an LM-bonded fuel rod failure occurs resulting in a discharge of liquid metal into the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel, it should not corrode stainless steel. An experiment was conducted to confirm that at 315 °C, LM in contact with 304 stainless steel in the PWR water chemistry environment for up to 30 days resulted in no observable corrosion. Moreover, during a hypothetical core-melt accident assuming that the liquid metal with elevated temperature between 1000 and 1600 °C is spread on a high-density concrete basement of the power plant, a small-scale experiment was performed to demonstrate that the LM-concrete interaction at 1000 °C for as long as 12 h resulted in no penetration. At 1200 °C for 5 h, the LM penetrated a distance of ∼1.3 cm, but the penetration appeared to stop. At 1400 °C the penetration rate was ∼0.7 cm/h. At 1600 °C, the penetration rate was ∼17 cm/h. No corrosion based on chemical reactions with high-density concrete occurred, and, hence, the only physical interaction between high-temperature LM and high-density concrete was from tiny cracks generated from thermal stress. Moreover

  17. Nanostructure and thermal properties of melt compounded PE/clay nanocomposites filled with an organosilylated montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Scarfato, Paola; Incarnato, Loredana; Di Maio, Luciano; Dittrich, Bettina; Niebergall, Ute; Böhning, Martin; Schartel, Bernhard

    2015-12-17

    In this work we report on the functionalization of a natural sodium montmorillonite (MMT) with (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane by a silylation procedure and on its use as nanofiller in melt compounding of polyethylene nanocomposites. The obtained organosilylated clay showed higher interlayer spacing than the original MMT and higher thermal stability with respect to most of commercial organoclays modified with alkylammonium salts. Its addition (at 5wt%) to two different polyethylene matrices (a low density polyethylene, LDPE, and a high density polyethylene, HDPE), processed in a pilot-scale twin-screw extruder, allowed to produce hybrids with nanoscale dispersion of the filler, as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning thermal analyses point out that the obtained nanocomposites do not show noticeable changes in the thermal behavior of both LDPE and HDPE, even if a slight reduction in the overall bulk crystallinity was observed in presence of the nanofillers.

  18. Nanostructure and thermal properties of melt compounded PE/clay nanocomposites filled with an organosilylated montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfato, Paola; Incarnato, Loredana; Di Maio, Luciano; Dittrich, Bettina; Niebergall, Ute; Böhning, Martin; Schartel, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    In this work we report on the functionalization of a natural sodium montmorillonite (MMT) with (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane by a silylation procedure and on its use as nanofiller in melt compounding of polyethylene nanocomposites. The obtained organosilylated clay showed higher interlayer spacing than the original MMT and higher thermal stability with respect to most of commercial organoclays modified with alkylammonium salts. Its addition (at 5wt%) to two different polyethylene matrices (a low density polyethylene, LDPE, and a high density polyethylene, HDPE), processed in a pilot-scale twin-screw extruder, allowed to produce hybrids with nanoscale dispersion of the filler, as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning thermal analyses point out that the obtained nanocomposites do not show noticeable changes in the thermal behavior of both LDPE and HDPE, even if a slight reduction in the overall bulk crystallinity was observed in presence of the nanofillers.

  19. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol on a roller coaster: where will the ride end?

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Bowe et al. report an association between low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and various incident chronic kidney disease end points in a cohort of almost 2 million US veterans followed for 9 years. These impressive data should be a starting point for further investigations including genetic epidemiologic investigations as well as post hoc analyses of interventional trials that target high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and, finally, studies that focus on the functionality of high-density lipoprotein particles.

  20. Determination of Yttrium in High Density Silicon Nitride by Emission and X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    AD-AI07 596 ARMY MATERIALS AND MECHANICS RESEARCH CENTER WATERTOWN MA F/S 7/4 DETERMINATION OF YTTRIUM IN HIGH DENSITY SILICON NITRIDE BY EMI-ETCIU...AUG Al B H STRAUSS. UNCLASSIFIED AMMRC-TR-Al-39 N AMMRC TR 81-39 A ~LEVEL ’ t’- .- DETERMINATION OF YTTRIUM IN 1 HIGH DENSITY SILICON NITRIDE BY...DETERMINATION OF YTTRIUM IN HIGH DENSITY SILICON NITRIDE BY EMISSION AND X-RAY Final Report FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR

  1. High density harp for SSCL linac. [Suerconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL)

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L. . Bendix Kansas City Div.); Crist, C.E. )

    1993-05-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division, and the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) are collaboratively developing a high density harp for the SSCL linac. This harp is designed using hybrid microcircuit (HMC) technology to obtain a higher wire density than previously available. The developed harp contains one hundred twenty-eight 33-micron-diameter carbon wires on 0.38-mm centers. The harp features an onboard broken wire detection circuit. Carbon wire preparation and attachment processes were developed. High density surface mount connectors were located. The status of high density harp development will be presented along with planned future activities.

  2. 21 CFR 172.260 - Oxidized polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oxidized polyethylene. 172.260 Section 172.260... § 172.260 Oxidized polyethylene. Oxidized polyethylene may be safely used as a component of food, subject to the following restrictions: (a) Oxidized polyethylene is the basic resin produced by the...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1615 - Polyethylene, fluorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene, fluorinated. 177.1615 Section 177... Contact Surfaces § 177.1615 Polyethylene, fluorinated. Fluorinated polyethylene, identified in paragraph... prescribed conditions: (a) Fluorinated polyethylene food-contact articles are produced by modifying...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1620 - Polyethylene, oxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene, oxidized. 177.1620 Section 177.1620... Contact Surfaces § 177.1620 Polyethylene, oxidized. Oxidized polyethylene identified in paragraph (a) of... following prescribed conditions: (a) Oxidized polyethylene is the basic resin produced by the mild...

  5. 21 CFR 172.260 - Oxidized polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oxidized polyethylene. 172.260 Section 172.260 Food... Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.260 Oxidized polyethylene. Oxidized polyethylene may be safely used as a component of food, subject to the following restrictions: (a) Oxidized polyethylene is...

  6. High-speed high-density holographic memory using electro-optic beam steering devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying; Reyes, George F.; Dragoi, Danut; Hanan, Jay

    2002-11-01

    An innovative compact holographic memory system will be presented. This system utilizes a new electro-optic (E-O) beam steering technology to achieve high-speed, high-density holographic data storage.

  7. Porous polyethylene implants in facial reconstruction: Outcome and complications.

    PubMed

    Ridwan-Pramana, Angela; Wolff, Jan; Raziei, Ashkan; Ashton-James, Claire E; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the indications, results and complications of patients treated with porous polyethylene (Medpor(®)) implants in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of VU Medical Centre, Amsterdam over 17 years. A total of 69 high-density porous polyethylene implants (Medpor(®) Biomaterial; Porex Surgical, Newman, GA) were used in forty patients (22 males, 18 females). All patients were analysed for gender, age, diagnosis, indications for surgery, follow-up period and postoperative complications. A mean age of 34.1 years was observed. The main reason for implant surgery was post-traumatic functional impairment (27.5%). Most implants were placed at the mandibular angel and the orbital floor. Unsatisfactory appearance scored the highest in postoperative complications (10.1%) followed by infection rate (7.2%). Comparing the number of implants placed over the years and the incidence of complications, makes the overall complications rate of porous polyethylene very low. A consensus about antibiotic prophylaxis is needed. The objective measurements in patient satisfaction and proper implant design would be of great use.

  8. Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and choline esterase in overseas and Japanese university students.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, S

    1985-04-01

    Serum lipids were studied in 97 overseas and 282 Japanese university students. As compared with Japanese, serum total cholesterol levels were low and high density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio was high in the overseas students, especially in Chinese and Korean students. 30-39-year-old Chinese students, moreover, showed elevated high density lipoprotein levels. Choline esterase levels were significantly lower in 30-39-year-old Chinese and Korean students than in Japanese and Taiwanese.

  9. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, B.L.

    1998-10-27

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver > 4kW/cm{sup 2} of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources. 13 figs.

  10. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver>4kW/cm2 of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources.

  11. High-density polymer microarrays: identifying synthetic polymers that control human embryonic stem cell growth.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne; Mjoseng, Heidi K; Zhang, Rong; Kalloudis, Michail; Koutsos, Vasileios; de Sousa, Paul A; Bradley, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication of high-density polymer microarray is described, allowing the simultaneous and efficient evaluation of more than 7000 different polymers in a single-cellular-based screen. These high-density polymer arrays are applied in the search for synthetic substrates for hESCs culture. Up-scaling of the identified hit polymers enables long-term cellular cultivation and promoted successful stem-cell maintenance.

  12. Effect of chemical composition and dimensional parameters of natural filler on structure formation and physical-chemical properties of polyethylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastalygina, E. E.; Varyan, I. A.; Kolesnikova, N. N.; Monakhova, T. V.; Karpova, S. G.; Popov, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of chemical composition and dimensional parameters of natural filler particles on structure and properties of polymer composites based on low-density polyethylene filled with lignocellulosic components was investigated. The adding of natural additives to polyethylene matrix leads to an increase in the degree and perfection of polymer crystallines, as well as affects the elastic modulus and oxidation stability of the composites.

  13. Mechanical, rheological, and bioactivity properties of ultra high-molecular-weight polyethylene bioactive composites containing polyethylene glycol and hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mazatusziha; Uzir Wahit, Mat; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Mohd Dahlan, Khairul Zaman

    2012-01-01

    Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene/high-density polyethylene (UHMWPE/HDPE) blends prepared using polyethylene glycol PEG as the processing aid and hydroxyapatite (HA) as the reinforcing filler were found to be highly processable using conventional melt blending technique. It was demonstrated that PEG reduced the melt viscosity of UHMWPE/HDPE blend significantly, thus improving the extrudability. The mechanical and bioactive properties were improved with incorporation of HA. Inclusion of HA from 10 to 50 phr resulted in a progressive increase in flexural strength and modulus of the composites. The strength increment is due to the improvement on surface contact between the irregular shape of HA and polymer matrix by formation of mechanical interlock. The HA particles were homogenously distributed even at higher percentage showed improvement in wetting ability between the polymer matrix and HA. The inclusion of HA enhanced the bioactivity properties of the composite by the formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) precipitates on the composite surface as proven from SEM and XRD analysis.

  14. Filling a Conical Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  15. Evaluating Performance and Stability of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and Cellulose Polymer as Soilless Mix Components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S., concerns over the long-term sustainability of peat, perlite, and other media components have led to searches for alternative materials. FiberFill, a synthetic fiber made of recyclable polyethylene terephthalate, and Tencel, a cellulose fiber, are new materials with potential as substra...

  16. Evaluating fibrous polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and cellulose as components for soilless substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to test the suitability of FiberFill, a synthetic fiber made of polyethylene terephthalate, and Tencel, a cellulose-based fiber, as growing mix components by evaluating the growth of a variety of floriculture crops using substrates containing different proportions of t...

  17. Synergism of the carbon-heterocyclic thion composition in the process of polyethylene thermooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struk, V. A.; Oparin, D. A.; Medved', A. V.; Orlovskii, S. V.; Gritsevich, A. I.

    2000-05-01

    It is shown by the methods of IR spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis that heterocyclic thions of thiophthalone, isoindoline, and phthalazine systems can be effectively used as inhibitors of thermooxidation of low-pressure charge-filled polyethylene. The effect of synergism of the thion-charge complex has been revealed. The possible mechanism of the protective action of these thions is discussed.

  18. SNP-based high density genetic map and mapping of btwd1 dwarfing gene in barley

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Jibin; Liu, Lipan; Sun, Genlou; Li, Chengdao; Luo, Hong; Sun, Dongfa

    2016-01-01

    A high-density linkage map is a valuable tool for functional genomics and breeding. A newly developed sequence-based marker technology, restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, has been proven to be powerful for the rapid discovery and genotyping of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and for the high-density genetic map construction. The objective of this research was to construct a high-density genetic map of barley using RAD sequencing. 1894 high-quality SNP markers were developed and mapped onto all seven chromosomes together with 68 SSR markers. These 1962 markers constituted a total genetic length of 1375.8 cM and an average of 0.7 cM between adjacent loci. The number of markers within each linkage group ranged from 209 to 396. The new recessive dwarfing gene btwd1 in Huaai 11 was mapped onto the high density linkage maps. The result showed that the btwd1 is positioned between SNP marks 7HL_6335336 and 7_249275418 with a genetic distance of 0.9 cM and 0.7 cM on chromosome 7H, respectively. The SNP-based high-density genetic map developed and the dwarfing gene btwd1 mapped in this study provide critical information for position cloning of the btwd1 gene and molecular breeding of barley. PMID:27530597

  19. Rhesus positivity and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a new link?

    PubMed

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Yildirir, Aylin; Ulus, Taner; Bilgi, Muhammet; Kucuk, Alparslan; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of ABO and Rh blood groups with lipid profile in patients with established multivessel coronary artery disease in a population with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The records of 978 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease, in whom coronary bypass surgery was performed, were investigated. Coronary risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity were noted for each patient. Serum lipid profiles: total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, were also recorded. The mean age of the patients was 59.3 +/- 9.7 years (range, 25-84 years) and 80% were male. The risk factors and lipid profiles of ABO blood types were similar. Rh-negative patients had higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (46.9 +/- 9.9 vs. 41.6 +/- 10.4 mg.dL(-1), p = 0.001) and a lower total/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (4.8 +/- 1.3 vs. 5.2 +/- 1.6, p = 0.029) compared to Rh-positive patients. The other lipid levels and risk factors had no association with Rh typing. These results indicate a significant association between rhesus positivity and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease.

  20. Kinetics and microscopic processes of long-term fracture in polyethylene-piping materials. Annual report, February 1, 1989-February 1, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Lu, X.

    1990-05-10

    Contents: notchology--the effect of the notching method on the slow crack growth failure in tough polyethylene; the effect of molecular weight on the fatigue behavior of high density polyethylene; the transition from ductile to slow crack growth failure in a copolymer of polyethylene; the ductile-brittle transition in a polyethylene copolymer; a unification of ductile failure and slow crack growth in an ethylene-octene copolymer; the dependence of butyl branch density on slow crack growth in polyethylene-kinetics; slow crack growth under fatigue and constant stress for ethylene-hexene resins with different density of branches; correlation of the fatigue test and the constant load slow crack growth test; relationship between slow crack growth and morphological change in ethylene-hexene copolymers; morphological changes on annealing in hdpe and mdpe and their effect on slow crack growth; ranking of pe gas pipe resins in air and igepal; brittle fracture of pe at low temperature; butt fusion welding.

  1. Degradable polyethylene: fantasy or reality.

    PubMed

    Roy, Prasun K; Hakkarainen, Minna; Varma, Indra K; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2011-05-15

    Plastic waste disposal is one of the serious environmental issues being tackled by our society today. Polyethylene, particularly in packaging films, has received criticism as it tends to accumulate over a period of time, leaving behind an undesirable visual footprint. Degradable polyethylene, which would enter the eco-cycle harmlessly through biodegradation would be a desirable solution to this problem. However, the "degradable polyethylene" which is presently being promoted as an environmentally friendly alternative to the nondegradable counterpart, does not seem to meet this criterion. This article reviews the state of the art on the aspect of degradability of polyethylene containing pro-oxidants, and more importantly the effect these polymers could have on the environment in the long run. On exposure to heat, light, and oxygen, these polymers disintegrate into small fragments, thereby reducing or increasing the visual presence. However, these fragments can remain in the environment for prolonged time periods. This article also outlines important questions, particularly in terms of time scale of complete degradation, environmental fate of the polymer residues, and possible accumulation of toxins, the answers to which need to be established prior to accepting these polymers as environmentally benign alternatives to their nondegradable equivalents. It appears from the existing literature that our search for biodegradable polyethylene has not yet been realized.

  2. A high density recombination map of the pig reveals a correlation between sex-specific recombination and GC content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The availability of a high-density SNP chip and a reference genome sequence of the pig have enabled the construction of a high-density linkage map. A high density linkage map is an essential tool for the further fine-mapping of QTL for a variety of traits in the pig and for a better und...

  3. Antimony mediated growth of high-density InAs quantum dots for photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tutu, F. K.; Wu, J.; Lam, P.; Tang, M.; Liu, H.; Miyashita, N.; Okada, Y.; Wilson, J.; Allison, R.

    2013-07-22

    We report enhanced solar cell performance using high-density InAs quantum dots. The high-density quantum dot was grown by antimony mediated molecular beam epitaxy. In-plane quantum dot density over 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} was achieved by applying a few monolayers of antimony on the GaAs surface prior to quantum dot growth. The formation of defective large clusters was reduced by optimization of the growth temperature and InAs coverage. Comparing with a standard quantum dot solar cell without the incorporation of antimony, the high-density quantum dot solar cell demonstrates a distinct improvement in short-circuit current from 7.4 mA/cm{sup 2} to 8.3 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  4. The final stage of gravitational collapse for high density fluid medium

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, R. G.; De Campos, M.

    2013-03-25

    The High density high density fluids can be represented by a stiff matter state equation P={rho} and also by the Hagedorn state equation. The first is constructed using a lagrangian that allows bare nucleons to interact attractively via scalar meson exchange, and repulsively by a more massive vector meson exchange; the second consider that for large mass the spectrum of hadrons grows exponentially, namely {rho}(m) {approx}exp(m/T{sub H}), where T{sub H} is the Hagedorn temperature, resulting the state equation P = P{sub 0}+{rho}{sub 0}ln({rho}/{rho}{sub 0}). We study the gravitational collapse for a high density fluid, considering a Hagedorn state equation in a presence of a vacuum component.

  5. Processing of crack-free high density polycrystalline LiTaO3 ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ching-Fong; Brennecka, Geoff L.; King, Graham; Tegtmeier, Eric L.; Holesinger, Terry; Ivy, Jacob; Yang, Pin

    2016-11-04

    Our work achieved high density (99.9%) polycrystalline LiTaO3. The keys to the high density without cracking were the use of LiF-assisted densification to maintain fine grain size as well as the presence of secondary lithium aluminate phases as grain growth inhibitors. The average grain size of the hot pressed polycrystalline LiTaO3 is less than 5 μm, limiting residual stresses caused by the anisotropic thermal expansion. Dilatometry results clearly indicate liquid phase sintering via the added LiF sintering aid. Efficient liquid phase sintering allows densification during low temperature hot pressing. Electron microscopy confirmed the high-density microstructure. Furthermore, Rietveld analysis of neutron diffraction data revealed the presence of LiAlO2 and LiAl5O8 minority phases and negligible substitutional defect incorporation in LiTaO3.

  6. Processing of crack-free high density polycrystalline LiTaO3 ceramics

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Ching-Fong; Brennecka, Geoff L.; King, Graham; ...

    2016-11-04

    Our work achieved high density (99.9%) polycrystalline LiTaO3. The keys to the high density without cracking were the use of LiF-assisted densification to maintain fine grain size as well as the presence of secondary lithium aluminate phases as grain growth inhibitors. The average grain size of the hot pressed polycrystalline LiTaO3 is less than 5 μm, limiting residual stresses caused by the anisotropic thermal expansion. Dilatometry results clearly indicate liquid phase sintering via the added LiF sintering aid. Efficient liquid phase sintering allows densification during low temperature hot pressing. Electron microscopy confirmed the high-density microstructure. Furthermore, Rietveld analysis of neutronmore » diffraction data revealed the presence of LiAlO2 and LiAl5O8 minority phases and negligible substitutional defect incorporation in LiTaO3.« less

  7. Device and method for electron beam heating of a high density plasma

    DOEpatents

    Thode, L.E.

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high density plasma in a small localized region are described. A relativistic electron beam generator produces a high voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10/sup 17/ to 10/sup 20/.

  8. Development of a high-density energy-storage capacitor for Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, D.K.; Cooper, R.A.; Sevigny, J.A.; Merritt, B.T.; Carder, B.M.; Whitham, K.

    1981-10-22

    This paper covers Maxwell's approach to developing energy storage capacitors. Based on previous capacitor designs of 3 KJ, 5 KJ and 10 KJ, the final Nova 12.5 KJ capacitor evolved. At the outset of the Nova capacitor development program, a relatively new dielectric system, polypropylene-paper-DOP, seemed to show superiority in volumetric efficiency, life, and more importantly cost. However, as a result of studies performed at Maxwell, a high-density, energy-storage capacitor was developed utilizing new high-quality, high-density paper and caster oil as the dielectric. Test data have demonstrated that the Maxwell 12.5 KJ capacitor exceeds all LLNL's qualification requirements.

  9. Loose-fill insulations

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Whether you are increasing the insulation levels in your current home or selecting insulation for a new home, choosing the right insulation material can be challenging. Fibrous loose-fill insulations such as cellulose, fiberglass, and rock wool are options you may wish to consider. This publication will introduce you to these materials--what they are, how they are applied, how they compare with each other, and other considerations regarding their use--so that you can decide whether loose fills are right for your home.

  10. Enhanced adherence of mouse fibroblast and vascular cells to plasma modified polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Reznickova, Alena; Novotna, Zdenka; Kolska, Zdenka; Kasalkova, Nikola Slepickova; Rimpelova, Silvie; Svorcik, Vaclav

    2015-01-01

    Since the last decade, tissue engineering has shown a sensational promise in providing more viable alternatives to surgical procedures for harvested tissues, implants and prostheses. Biomedical polymers, such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), were activated by Ar plasma discharge. Degradation of polymer chains was examined by determination of the thickness of ablated layer. The amount of an ablated polymer layer was measured by gravimetry. Contact angle, measured by goniometry, was studied as a function of plasma exposure and post-exposure aging times. Chemical structure of modified polymers was characterized by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface chemistry and polarity of the samples were investigated by electrokinetic analysis. Changes in surface morphology were followed using atomic force microscopy. Cytocompatibility of plasma activated polyethylene foils was studied using two distinct model cell lines; VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) as a model for vascular graft testing and connective tissue cells L929 (mouse fibroblasts) approved for standardized material cytotoxicity testing. Specifically, the cell number, morphology, and metabolic activity of the adhered and proliferated cells on the polyethylene matrices were studied in vitro. It was found that the plasma treatment caused ablation of the polymers, resulting in dramatic changes in their surface morphology and roughness. ARXPS and electrokinetic measurements revealed oxidation of the polymer surface. It was found that plasma activation has a positive effect on the adhesion and proliferation of VSMCs and L929 cells.

  11. 3D-Printed High-Density Droplet Array Chip for Miniaturized Protein Crystallization Screening under Vapor Diffusion Mode.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi-Ran; Zhu, Li-Na; Gao, Jie; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Zhu, Ying; Ye, Sheng; Fang, Qun

    2017-03-23

    Here we describe the combination of three-dimensional (3D) printed chip and automated microfluidic droplet-based screening techniques for achieving massively parallel, nanoliter-scale protein crystallization screening under vapor diffusion mode. We fabricated high-density microwell array chips for sitting-drop vapor diffusion crystallization utilizing the advantage of the 3D-printing technique in producing high-aspect-ratio chips. To overcome the obstacle of 3D-printed microchips in performing long-term reactions caused by their porousness and gas permeability properties in chip body, we developed a two-step postprocessing method, including paraffin filling and parylene coating, to achieve high sealability and stability. We also developed a simple method especially suitable for controlling the vapor diffusion speed of nanoliter-scale droplets by changing the layer thickness of covering oil. With the above methods, 84 tests of nanoliter-scale protein crystallization under vapor diffusion mode were successfully achieved in the 7 × 12 droplet array chip with a protein consumption of 10 nL for each test, which is 20-100 times lower than that in the conventional large-volume screening system. Such a nanoliter-scale vapor diffusion system was applied to two model proteins with commercial precipitants and displayed advantages over that under microbatch mode. It identified more crystallization conditions, especially for the protein samples with lower concentrations.

  12. Closing the gaps on human chromosome 19 revealed genes with a high density of repetitive tandemly arrayed elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Leem, Sun-Hee; Kouprina, Natalay; Grimwood, Jane; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Mullokandov, Michael; Yoon, Young-Ho; Chae, Ji-Youn; Morgan, Jenna; Lucas, Susan; Richardson, Paul; Detter, Chris; Glavina, Tijana; Rubin, Eddy; Barrett, J. Carl; Larionov, Vladimir

    2003-09-01

    The reported human genome sequence includes about 400 gaps of unknown sequence that were not found in the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and cosmid libraries used for sequencing of the genome. These missing sequences correspond to {approx} 1 percent of euchromatic regions of the human genome. Gap filling is a laborious process because it relies on analysis of random clones of numerous genomic BAC or cosmid libraries. In this work we demonstrate that closing the gaps can be accelerated by a selective recombinational capture of missing chromosomal segments in yeast. The use of both methodologies allowed us to close the four remaining gaps on the human chromosome 19. Analysis of the gap sequences revealed that they contain several abnormalities that could result in instability of the sequences in microbe hosts, including large blocks of micro- and minisatellites and a high density of Alu repeats. Sequencing of the gap regions, in both BAC and YAC forms, allowed us to generate a complete sequence of four genes, including the neuronal cell signaling gene SCK1/SLI. The SCK1/SLI gene contains a record number of minisatellites, most of which are polymorphic and transmitted through meiosis following a Mendelian inheritance. In conclusion, the use of the alternative recombinational cloning system in yeast may greatly accelerate work on closing the remaining gaps in the human genome (as well as in other complex genomes) to achieve the goal of annotation of all human genes.

  13. Immobilization of bacteria in microgel grafted onto macroporous polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trelles, J. A.; Quiroga, F.; Britos, C.; Smolko, Eduardo E.; Grasselli, Mariano

    2010-03-01

    The development of " Green Chemistry" requires new materials to replace the conventional organic chemistry by biological catalysts, to produce fine chemicals in an environmentally friendly manner. Microbial whole cells can be directly used as biocatalysts, providing a simple and cheap methodology since enzyme isolation and purification are avoided. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a very stable polymer though it can be activated by gamma radiation to induce grafting. Glycidyl methacrylate was grafted onto macroporous HDPE and PP in the range of 1-6%, proportional to the initial monomer concentration. Grafted polymers were further chemically modified with ethylenediamine to generate a cationic hydrogel of micron-size thickness onto the internal polymer surfaces. Modified polymers were able to immobilize Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that can catalyze a chemical reaction as efficient as free cells do.

  14. Reinforced polyethylene/clay nanocomposites: influence of different silane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ming; Zhang, Liying; Chen, Xuelong; Hu, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Montmorillonite (MMT) was first cation exchanged by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and then treated by short chain silane (methyltrimethoxylsilane) or different amount of long chain silane (dodecyltrimethoxylsilane). High density polyethylene (HDPE)/clay nanocomposites were prepared through twin screw extruder using these silane modified clays without any compatibilizer. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) proved the successful grafting of silanes onto clay. The effects of the chain length and content of the silanes on the dispersion state of clay and properties of the composites were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), mechanical tests, creep tests and so on. The results indicate that the grafting of long chain silanes at higher content could improve the compatibility between clay and PE, thus more efficiently enhancing mechanical and creep properties of the composites than other silane treated clays.

  15. Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

    2010-01-01

    High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) and multi-level cell (MLC) NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

  16. The Pain in Storage: Work Safety in a High-Density Shelving Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Stephanie A.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of academic and research libraries have built high-density shelving facilities to address overcrowding conditions in their regular stacks. However, the work performed in these facilities is physically strenuous and highly repetitive in nature and may require the use of potentially dangerous equipment. This article will examine…

  17. Comparing high density LIDAR and medium resolution GPS generated elevation data for predicting yield stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High density light detection and ranging (LIDAR) imaging has been shown to be able to define yield stability areas of a field for multi-cropping. Since LIDAR imaging is expensive and not widely available, we hypothesized that medium resolution GPS elevation data which is commonly collected with var...

  18. Radiation Tests of Highly scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories--Update 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

    2011-01-01

    High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) 32Gb and multi-level cell (MLC) 64Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

  19. Development of a 37K high-density oligo-nucleotide microarray for rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have constructed a rainbow trout high-density oligonucleotide microarray by using all the available tentative consensus (TC) sequences from the Rainbow Trout Gene Index database (The Computational Biology and Functional Genomics Lab., Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard School of Public Heal...

  20. X-ray refraction effect and density determination of steep-gradient, high-density plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyanaga, N.; Kato, Y.; Yamanaka, C.

    1982-12-01

    X-ray defraction due to the steep density gradient of a laser-produced plasma has been observed. Distribution of the density gradient was determined from the measured refraction angle. Estimation of the radial density profile and the density scale length in the high-density region near the ablation surface are presented.

  1. Principle and application of high density spatial sampling in seismic migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zi-Shun

    2012-06-01

    To avoid spatial aliasing problems in broad band high resolution seismic sections, I present a high density migration processing solution. I first analyze the spatial aliasing definition for stack and migration seismic sections and point out the differences between the two. We recognize that migration sections more often show spatial aliasing than stacked sections. Second, from wave propagation theory, I know that migration output is a new spatial sampling process and seismic prestack time migration can provide the high density sampling to prevent spatial aliasing on high resolution migration sections. Using a 2D seismic forward modeling analysis, I have found that seismic spatial aliasing noise can be eliminated by high density spatial sampling in prestack migration. In a 3D seismic data study for Daqing Oilfield in the Songliao Basin, I have also found that seismic sections obtained by high-density spatial sampling (10 × 10 m) in prestack migration have less spatial aliasing noise than those obtained by conventional low density spatial sampling (20 × 40 m) in prestack migration.

  2. High-density MEA recordings unveil the dynamics of bursting events in Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Lonardoni, Davide; Di Marco, Stefano; Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Berdondini, Luca; Nieus, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    High density multielectrode arrays (MEAs) based on CMOS technology (CMOS-MEAs) can simultaneously record extracellular spiking activity in neuronal cultures from 4096 closely spaced microelectrodes. This allows for a finer investigation of neuronal network activity compared to conventional MEAs with a few tens of electrodes. However, the sensing properties of these devices differ. To highlight this aspect, here we investigate and discuss the differences observed when quantifying spontaneous synchronized bursting events (SBEs) in datasets acquired with conventional MEAs and high-density MEAs from comparable hippocampal cultures. We found that datasets acquired with high-density MEAs exhibit collective dynamics similar to conventional arrays, but are characterized by a higher percentage of random spikes, i.e. spikes that are not part of a burst, most probably resulting from the larger recording capability. Additionally, the percentage of electrodes that record a burst is remarkably small on high-density MEAs compared to what can be observed on conventional MEAs and SBEs appear to be propagating in time across the electrode array, by involving shorter sequences of spikes per electrode. Overall, these results highlight a lower level of network synchronization involved in SBEs compared to what has been debated for several decades based on conventional MEA recordings from cell cultures.

  3. Growth of high-density horizontally aligned SWNT arrays using Trojan catalysts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue; Kang, Lixing; Zhao, Qiuchen; Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Shuchen; Yang, Liangwei; Wang, Zequn; Lin, Jingjing; Li, Qingwen; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lianmao; Liu, Zhongfan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-01-20

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based electronics have been regarded as one of the most promising candidate technologies to replace or supplement silicon-based electronics in the future. These applications require high-density horizontally aligned SWNT arrays. During the past decade, significant efforts have been directed towards growth of high-density SWNT arrays. However, obtaining SWNT arrays with suitable density and quality still remains a big challenge. Herein, we develop a rational approach to grow SWNT arrays with ultra-high density using Trojan catalysts. The density can be as high as 130 SWNTs μm(-1). Field-effect transistors fabricated with our SWNT arrays exhibit a record drive current density of -467.09 μA μm(-1) and an on-conductance of 233.55 μS μm(-1). Radio frequency transistors fabricated on these samples exhibit high intrinsic fT and fMAX of 6.94 and 14.01 GHz, respectively. These results confirm our high-density SWNT arrays are strong candidates for applications in electronics.

  4. Library Off-Site Shelving: Guide for High-Density Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitecki, Danuta A., Ed.; Kendrick, Curtis L., Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the planning, construction, and operating issues relating to high-density library shelving facilities. The volume covers essential topics that address issues relating to the building, its operations, and serving the collections. It begins with an introduction by the volume's editors, "The Paradox and…

  5. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; Kelly, Luke E.

    1990-01-01

    The study evaluated the total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol of 40 adults (mean age 37.5 years) with mental retardation residing at an intermediate care facility. Results indicated that 59 percent of the males and 68 percent of the females were at moderate to high risk for coronary heart disease. (DB)

  6. High density ash slurry pumping and disposal: An environmentally safe and economical alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Broek, B. van den

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes conventional ash disposal systems; high density slurry transportation and disposal systems, including the design, disposal site, technical features, sloped disposal site operating parameters, slurry quality and deposit management; typical operational questions; specific advantages of the proposed GEHO system; and GEHO piston diaphragm pumps.

  7. Device and method for electron beam heating of a high density plasma

    DOEpatents

    Thode, Lester E.

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator produces a high voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target plasma is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region within the high density plasma target.

  8. High-Density Plasma Sources and Technology for the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hideo

    1998-10-01

    These days, rapid progress in semiconductor devices such as LSI, flat panel displays and solar cells requires technical innovation in plasma-aided deposition and etching. Due to the primary importance of plasma sources, a great deal of effort has been made to develop high-density large-diameter sources and to control reactive plasmas for the next generation. Here I briefly review high-density sources developed so far, focusing mainly on current understanding of nonlinear coupling from RF antenna to high density sources, and on chemistry control of highly dissociated plasmas. First of all, I introduce various high density sources such as ECR, helicon, inductively-coupled and surface-wave plasmas; then they are classified into three categories depending on the antenna-induced electromagnetic fields. In general, antenna-plasma coupling is nonlinear, which causes plasma density jump with a discharge power increase in most high-density sources. I describe such examples of helicon,(H. Sugai et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion) 39 (1997) A445. and surface wave discharges along with a model explaining the mechanism. In the case of inductive RF discharge, power transfer efficiency measurements(K. Suzuki, K. Nakamura, H. Ohkubo, H. Sugai, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.) 7 (1998) 13. enable discrimination of electrostatic coupling from inductive coupling, and a few methods to reduce the electrostatic coupling will be presented. The wave excitation and absorption processes in surface wave discharge(H. Sugai, I. Ghanashev, M. Nagatsu, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.) 7 (1998) 192. will then be discussed, but only qualitatively as the physics involved there is not clearly understood yet. Besides the discharge physics described above, plasma chemistry significantly influences the processing performance in high density plasmas. The radical composition is markedly different from the low density case, due to secondary processes accompanied with electron-impact dissociation of radicals

  9. 21 CFR 177.1610 - Polyethylene, chlorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene, chlorinated. 177.1610 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1610 Polyethylene, chlorinated. Chlorinated polyethylene identified in this section may be safely used as articles or components of articles that...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1620 - Polyethylene, oxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene, oxidized. 177.1620 Section 177.1620... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1620 Polyethylene, oxidized. Oxidized polyethylene identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as a component of...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1615 - Polyethylene, fluorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene, fluorinated. 177.1615 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1615 Polyethylene, fluorinated. Fluorinated polyethylene, identified in paragraph (a) of this section, may be safely used as food-contact articles...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1620 - Polyethylene, oxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene, oxidized. 177.1620 Section 177.1620... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1620 Polyethylene, oxidized. Oxidized polyethylene identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as a component of...

  13. 21 CFR 573.780 - Polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene. 573.780 Section 573.780 Food and... Listing § 573.780 Polyethylene. (a) Identity. Polyethylene consists of basic polymers manufactured by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene. (b) Specifications. (1) For the purposes of this section,...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1620 - Polyethylene, oxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene, oxidized. 177.1620 Section 177.1620... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1620 Polyethylene, oxidized. Oxidized polyethylene identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as a component of...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1620 - Polyethylene, oxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene, oxidized. 177.1620 Section 177.1620... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1620 Polyethylene, oxidized. Oxidized polyethylene identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as a component of...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1615 - Polyethylene, fluorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene, fluorinated. 177.1615 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1615 Polyethylene, fluorinated. Fluorinated polyethylene, identified in paragraph (a) of this section, may be safely used as food-contact articles...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1615 - Polyethylene, fluorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene, fluorinated. 177.1615 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1615 Polyethylene, fluorinated. Fluorinated polyethylene, identified in paragraph (a) of this section, may be safely used as food-contact articles...

  18. 76 FR 70896 - Polyethylene Glycol; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyethylene Glycol; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... amu), 17,000; also known as polyethylene glycol, when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide...(oxyethylene, minimum number average molecular weight (in amu), 17,000; also known as polyethylene...

  19. 21 CFR 573.780 - Polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyethylene. 573.780 Section 573.780 Food and... Listing § 573.780 Polyethylene. (a) Identity. Polyethylene consists of basic polymers manufactured by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene. (b) Specifications. (1) For the purposes of this section,...

  20. 21 CFR 573.780 - Polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene. 573.780 Section 573.780 Food and... Listing § 573.780 Polyethylene. (a) Identity. Polyethylene consists of basic polymers manufactured by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene. (b) Specifications. (1) For the purposes of this section,...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1610 - Polyethylene, chlorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene, chlorinated. 177.1610 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1610 Polyethylene, chlorinated. Chlorinated polyethylene identified in this section may be safely used as articles or components of articles that...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1610 - Polyethylene, chlorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene, chlorinated. 177.1610 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1610 Polyethylene, chlorinated. Chlorinated polyethylene identified in this section may be safely used as articles or components of articles that...

  3. 21 CFR 573.780 - Polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene. 573.780 Section 573.780 Food and... Listing § 573.780 Polyethylene. (a) Identity. Polyethylene consists of basic polymers manufactured by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene. (b) Specifications. (1) For the purposes of this section,...

  4. 21 CFR 573.780 - Polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene. 573.780 Section 573.780 Food and... Listing § 573.780 Polyethylene. (a) Identity. Polyethylene consists of basic polymers manufactured by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene. (b) Specifications. (1) For the purposes of this section,...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1610 - Polyethylene, chlorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene, chlorinated. 177.1610 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1610 Polyethylene, chlorinated. Chlorinated polyethylene identified in this section may be safely used as articles or components of articles that...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1615 - Polyethylene, fluorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene, fluorinated. 177.1615 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1615 Polyethylene, fluorinated. Fluorinated polyethylene, identified in paragraph (a) of this section, may be safely used as food-contact articles...

  7. Multiaxial deformation of polyethylene and polyethylene/clay nanocomposites: In situ synchrotron small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Gurun, Bilge; Bucknall, David G.; Thio, Yonathan S.; Teoh, Chin Ching; Harkin-Jones, Eileen

    2013-01-10

    A unique in situ multiaxial deformation device has been designed and built specifically for simultaneous synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements. SAXS and WAXS patterns of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and HDPE/clay nanocomposites were measured in real time during in situ multiaxial deformation at room temperature and at 55 C. It was observed that the morphological evolution of polyethylene is affected by the existence of clay platelets as well as the deformation temperature and strain rate. Martensitic transformation of orthorhombic into monoclinic crystal phases was observed under strain in HDPE, which is delayed and hindered in the presence of clay nanoplatelets. From the SAXS measurements, it was observed that the thickness of the interlamellar amorphous region increased with increasing strain, which is due to elongation of the amorphous chains. The increase in amorphous layer thickness is slightly higher for the nanocomposites compared to the neat polymer.

  8. Improvement in mechanical and barrier properties of polyethylene blown films using atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gyeong Beom; Hak Song, Seung; Wook Moon, Sung; Woo Kim, Jun; Hyung Shim, Joon; Choi, Byoung-Ho; Moo Heo, Young

    2014-01-15

    Recently, thin films deposited on polymer substrates have been widely utilized as encapsulation barriers in electronic applications such as flexible displays, packaging films, and organic light-emitting diodes. The barrier and mechanical properties of these films are critical aspects when using them for protecting the inner modules of electronic devices from environmental factors such as moisture, oxygen, and sunlight. In particular, polymers can be degraded or decomposed more easily than other materials under such environmental conditions. Therefore, polymer films can be deposited using thin functional materials; however, suitable deposition methods for polymers are scarce owing to many limitations such as low melting/glass transition temperature, thermal degradation, and oxidation. In this study, a thin alumina oxide film was deposited on a high-density polyethylene blown film by using atomic layer deposition. The mechanical and barrier properties of the alumina oxide film deposited on the polyethylene film were characterized by a microtensile test and water vapor transmission rate test. Process conditions such as process temperature, plasma surface treatment, and number of cycles were varied to ascertain the reliability of the thin alumina oxide film deposited on the high-density polyethylene blown film. The results showed that the barrier property of the deposited film improved upon the application of plasma surface treatment, and that its mechanical properties varied under different process conditions.

  9. Properties of dried distillers grains with solubles, Paulownia wood, and pine wood reinforced high density polyethylene composites: Effect of maleation, chemical modification, and the mixing of fillers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to identify usable lignocellulosic materials that can be blended with thermoplastic resins to produced commercial lignocellulosic plastic composites (LPC) at lower costs with improved performance. The core objectives of this study are to: 1) evaluate the use of dried distillers grai...

  10. Accumulation of MS2, GA, and Qβ phages on high density polyethylene (HDPE) and drinking water biofilms under flow/non-flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Pelleïeux, Sandra; Bertrand, Isabelle; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine; Mathieu, Laurence; Francius, Grégory; Gantzer, Christophe

    2012-12-01

    Accumulation of enteric viruses on surfaces within a drinking water distribution system was investigated in a reactor using three F-specific RNA bacteriophages (MS2, GA, and Qβ) as models of human pathogenic viruses. The influence of hydrodynamic versus hydrostatic conditions and the effect of the colonization of HDPE surfaces with two-month-old biofilms were assessed for virus accumulation on surfaces. In order to work under controlled laminar conditions and to study various wall shear stresses at the same time, a new rotating disc reactor was designed. Among the wall shear rates applied in the reactor (450 to 1640 s(-1)) no significant differences were observed concerning both the total number of bacteria, which was found to be around 1.7 × 10(7) cells/cm(2) and the virus concentrations on surfaces were about 3 × 10(4), 5 × 10(5) and 3 × 10(5) eq PFU/cm(2) for MS2, GA and Qβ phages, respectively. Comparison between static versus dynamic conditions revealed that both Brownian diffusion and convective diffusion were involved in the transport of these soft colloidal particles and an increase reaching about 1 log in virus concentrations measured on surfaces appeared when hydrodynamic conditions where applied. Our results also showed the influence of the colonization by two-month-old drinking water biofilms which led to a change in the level of virus adhesion. The implication of the physico-chemical properties was also underlined since different adhesion profiles were obtained for the three bacteriophages and MS2 phage was found to be the less adherent one whatever the conditions applied.

  11. Response of the polymers KEL-F, polysulfone, high density polyethylene and polymethylmethacrylate to shock loading and release from 0. 3 to 2. 4 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.U.

    1991-01-01

    The Bauer PVDF stress-rate gauge has been used to study the response of the cited polymers from measurements at the impact surface and in-situ'' at sample thicknesses of 1.5 and 3 mm. The PVDF stress- rate dependent piezoelectric output combined with appropriate signal recording techniques allow accurate recording over the broad range of stress rates encountered during shock compression of polymers. Strong viscous response effects are observed. The release velocity is found to increase strongly with pressure, and the release-rate history is recorded with PVDF as a continuous function of pressure. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Safety and Biocompatibility of a New High-Density Polyethylene-Based Spherical Integrated Porous Orbital Implant: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Bueno, Ivan; Di Lauro, Salvatore; Alvarez, Ivan; Lopez, Jose Carlos; Garcia-Gutierrez, Maria Teresa; Fernandez, Itziar; Larra, Eva; Pastor, Jose Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate clinically and histologically the safety and biocompatibility of a new HDPE-based spherical porous orbital implants in rabbits. Methods. MEDPOR (Porex Surgical, Inc., Fairburn, GA, USA), OCULFIT I, and OCULFIT II (AJL Ophthalmic S.A., Vitoria, Spain) implants were implanted in eviscerated rabbis. Animals were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 4 each) according to the 3 implant materials tested and 2 follow-up times of 90 or 180 days. Signs of regional pain and presence of eyelid swelling, conjunctival hyperemia, and amount of exudate were semiquantitatively evaluated. After animals sacrifice, the implants and surrounding ocular tissues were processed for histological staining and polarized light evaluation. Statistical study was performed by ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results. No statistically significant differences in regional pain, eyelid swelling, or conjunctival hyperemia were shown between implants and/or time points evaluated. However, amount of exudate differed, with OCULFIT I causing the smallest amount. No remarkable clinical complications were observed. Histological findings were similar in all three types of implants and agree with minor inflammatory response. Conclusions. OCULFIT ophthalmic tolerance and biocompatibility in rabbits were comparable to the clinically used MEDPOR. Clinical studies are needed to determine if OCULFIT is superior to the orbital implants commercially available. PMID:26689343

  13. Methodology for Long-Term Permeation Test Periods for HD in High-Density Polyethylene: Universal Munitions Storage Container for the Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    Regression lines intersect at about 1330–1340 min. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 120 240 360 480 600 720 840 960 1080 1200 1320 1440 1560 M as s P er...m ea te d , n g Time, min y = 5E-05x + 0.7842 R² = 0.2619 y = 0.0076x - 9.3979 R² = 0.9817 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 600 720 840 960 1080 1200

  14. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  15. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Brent T.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation.

  16. High-density 3D graphene-based monolith and related materials, methods, and devices

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Kucheyev, Sergei; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Shin, Swanee; Tylski, Elijah

    2017-03-21

    A composition comprising at least one high-density graphene-based monolith, said monolith comprising a three-dimensional structure of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds and having a density of at least 0.1 g/cm.sup.3. Also provided is a method comprising: preparing a reaction mixture comprising a suspension and at least one catalyst, said suspension selected from a graphene oxide (GO) suspension and a carbon nanotube suspension; curing the reaction mixture to produce a wet gel; drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel, said drying step is substantially free of supercritical drying and freeze drying; and pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce a high-density graphene-based monolith. Exceptional combinations of properties are achieved including high conductive and mechanical properties.

  17. Advantages and Challenges of 10-Gbps Transmission on High-Density Interconnect Boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Chang Fei; Jambek, Asral Bahari; Al-Hadi, Azremi Abdullah

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to high-density interconnect (HDI) technology and its implementation on printed circuit boards (PCBs). The advantages and challenges of implementing 10-Gbps signal transmission on high-density interconnect boards are discussed in detail. The advantages (e.g., smaller via dimension and via stub removal) and challenges (e.g., crosstalk due to smaller interpair separation) of HDI are studied by analyzing the S-parameter, time-domain reflectometry (TDR), and transmission-line eye diagrams obtained by three-dimensional electromagnetic modeling (3DEM) and two-dimensional electromagnetic modeling (2DEM) using Mentor Graphics HyperLynx and Keysight Advanced Design System (ADS) electronic computer-aided design (ECAD) software. HDI outperforms conventional PCB technology in terms of signal integrity, but proper routing topology should be applied to overcome the challenge posed by crosstalk due to the tight spacing between traces.

  18. OSCAR experiment high-density network data report: Event 3 - April 16-17, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, M.T.; Easter, R.C.; Thorp, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) experiment, conducted during April 1981, was a cooperative field investigation of wet removal in cyclonic storm systems. The high-density component of OSCAR was located in northeast Indiana and included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements on a 100 by 100 km network, as well as airborne air chemistry and cloud chemistry measurements, surface air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. Four separate storm events were studied during the experiment. This report summarizes data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the third storm event, April 16-17. The report contains the high-density network precipitation chemistry data, air chemistry and cloud chemistry data from the PNL aircraft, and meteorological data for the event, including standard National Weather Service products and radar and rawindsonde data from the network. 4 references, 76 figures, 6 tables.

  19. OSCAR experiment high-density network data report: Event 4 - April 21-23, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, M.T.; Easter, R.C.; Thorp, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) experiment, conducted during April 1981, was a cooperative field investigation of wet removal in cyclonic storm systems. The high-density component of OSCAR was located in northeast Indiana and included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements on a 100 by 100 km netwok, as well as airborne air chemistry and cloud chemistry mueasurements, surface air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. Four separate storm events were studied during the experiment. This report summarizes data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the fourth storm event, April 21-23. The report contains the high-density network precipitation chemistry data, air and cloud chemistry data from the two PNL aircraft, and meteorological data for the event, including standard National Weather Service products and radar and rawindsonde data from the event. 3 references, 80 figures, 11 tables.

  20. A very-high-density lipoprotein with clotting ability from hemolymph of sand crayfish, Ibacus ciliatus.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, M; Ando, S

    1998-03-01

    A very-high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) with a density of 1.27-1.29 g/ml was the most abundant lipoprotein in the hemolymph of the sand crayfish Ibacus ciliatus. The VHDL isolated by a density gradient ultracentrifugation consisted of 94% protein and 6% lipid reflecting its high density, and phospholipid was a predominant lipid component. The VHDL had an apolipoprotein of molecular mass 195 kDa and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified as follows: LQPGLEYQYRYNGRVAA. This sequence was similar to those of clotting proteins from the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus and the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. Transglutaminase and Ca2+ also induced the VHDL to clot. Considering large amounts of VHDL in the hemolymph of sand crayfish, the VHDL not only functions as lipid carrier but plays an important role in the defense process of crustacea.

  1. Effects of high-density lipoproteins on storage at 4 degrees C of fowl spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Blesbois, E; Hermier, D

    1990-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative characterization of lipoproteins found in seminal plasma from domestic cocks was performed after isolation by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Trigyceride-rich lipoproteins (very low, intermediate- and low density lipoproteins) were not detectable in seminal plasma. High-density lipoproteins (HDL), identified on the basis of size, chemical composition and protein moiety, were present at a concentration of 66 micrograms/ml. A fraction possibly corresponding to VHDL (very high density lipoproteins, 77% protein, 23% lipid) was also detected but appeared contaminated by a protein-rich opalescent material. Since HDL contains mostly phospholipid and cholesterol, the physiological role of these lipoproteins on the storage of fowl spermatozoa was studied. Replacing seminal plasma with a solution containing chicken HDL at physiological concentration (66 micrograms/ml) had no effect on fertilizing ability of spermatozoa stored at 4 degrees C for 24 h. However, higher concentrations of HDL (560 micrograms/ml) had deleterious effects on spermatozoa stored in vitro.

  2. Purification of very high density lipoproteins by differential density gradient ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Haunerland, N H; Ryan, R O; Law, J H; Bowers, W S

    1987-03-01

    Differential density gradient ultracentrifugation procedures, utilizing a vertical rotor, were developed for the preparative purification of very high density lipoproteins (VHDL, density greater than 1.21 g/ml). The VHDLs of several insect species were purified as follows. An initial density gradient ultracentrifugation step removed lipoproteins of lower density from the VHDL-fraction, which partially separated from the nonlipoproteins present in the infranatant. A complete separation was achieved by a second centrifugation step employing a modified gradient system. The use of a vertical rotor and specially designed discontinuous gradients allows a relatively fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the class of very high density lipoproteins. Similar gradient systems should be useful for the detection and purification of VHDLs from other sources.

  3. Multimessenger Observations of Neutron Star Mergers: Probing the Physics of High-Density Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radice, David

    2016-09-01

    Neutron star mergers are Nature's ultimate hadron colliders. They are extremely violent events resulting in gravitational-waves and electromagnetic emissions that could be detected at distances of several hundred mega-parsecs. Imprinted in these signals are important clues on the properties of high-density matter, waiting to be harnessed by us. In this talk, I will review our current knowledge of neutron star mergers from the theoretical side. I will discuss the prospects of measuring neutron star radii and masses using gravitational-wave observations of the late-inspiral of merging neutron stars. Then, I will show how multimessenger observations of the merger and post-merger evolution of merging neutron stars could be used to place further constrains on the nuclear equation of state at very high densities. Finally, I will discuss the possible role of neutron star mergers in the creation of the r-process nuclei in the Universe.

  4. Forced canonical thermalization in a hadronic transport approach at high density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliinychenko, Dmytro; Petersen, Hannah

    2017-03-01

    Hadronic transport approaches based on an effective solution of the relativistic Boltzmann equation are widely applied for the dynamical description of heavy ion reactions at low beam energies. At high densities, the assumption of binary interactions often used in hadronic transport approaches may not be applicable anymore. Therefore, we effectively simulate the high-density regime using the local forced canonical thermalization. This framework provides the opportunity to interpolate in a dynamical way between two different limits of kinetic theory: the dilute gas approximation and the ideal fluid case. This approach will be important for studies of the dynamical evolution of heavy ion collisions at low and intermediate energies as experimentally investigated at the beam energy scan program at RHIC, and in the future at FAIR and NICA. On the other hand, this new way of modeling hot and dense strongly interacting matter might be relevant for small systems at high energies (LHC and RHIC) as well.

  5. Subfractions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and dysfunctional HDL in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rysz-Górzyńska, Magdalena; Banach, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    A number of studies have shown that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic kidney disease is characterized by significant disturbances in lipoprotein metabolism, including differences in quantitative and qualitative content of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Recent studies have revealed that serum HDL cholesterol levels do not predict CVD in CKD patients; thus CKD-induced modifications in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may be responsible for the increase in CV risk in CKD patients. Various methods are available to separate several subclasses of HDL and confirm their atheroprotective properties. However, under pathological conditions associated with inflammation and oxidation, HDL can progressively lose normal biological activities and be converted into dysfunctional HDL. In this review, we highlight the current state of knowledge on subfractions of HDL and HDL dysfunction in CKD.

  6. Ultra-sensitive high-density Rb-87 radio-frequency magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Savukov, I.; Boshier, M. G.; Karaulanov, T.

    2014-01-13

    Radio-frequency (RF) atomic magnetometers (AMs) can be used in many applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear quadrupole resonance. High-density AMs provide both superior sensitivity and large bandwidth. Previously, high-density potassium AMs were demonstrated, but these magnetometers have various disadvantages, such as high-temperature of operation and bulky design. We demonstrate a rubidium-87 RF AM with 5 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} sensitivity (3 fT Hz{sup 1/2} probe noise), which is comparable to that of the best potassium magnetometers. Our magnetometer also features a simple fiber-optic design, providing maximum flexibility for magnetic-field measurements.

  7. Subfractions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and dysfunctional HDL in chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Banach, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic kidney disease is characterized by significant disturbances in lipoprotein metabolism, including differences in quantitative and qualitative content of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Recent studies have revealed that serum HDL cholesterol levels do not predict CVD in CKD patients; thus CKD-induced modifications in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may be responsible for the increase in CV risk in CKD patients. Various methods are available to separate several subclasses of HDL and confirm their atheroprotective properties. However, under pathological conditions associated with inflammation and oxidation, HDL can progressively lose normal biological activities and be converted into dysfunctional HDL. In this review, we highlight the current state of knowledge on subfractions of HDL and HDL dysfunction in CKD. PMID:27478466

  8. High-density carbon nanotube buckypapers with superior transport and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Guang; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2012-09-12

    High-density buckypapers were obtained by using well-aligned carbon nanotube arrays. The density of the buckypapers was as high as 1.39 g cm(-3), which is close to the ultimate density of ideal buckypapers. Then we measured the transport and mechanical properties of the buckypapers. Our results demonstrated that its electrical and thermal conductivities could be almost linearly improved by increasing its density. In particular, its superior thermal conductivity is nearly twice that of common metals, which enables it a lightweight and more efficient heat-transfer materials. The Young's modulus of the buckypapers could reach a magnitude over 2 GPa, which is greatly improved compared with previous reported results. In view of this, our work provided a simple and convenient method to prepare high-density buckypapers with excellent transport and mechanical properties.

  9. High-density ferroelectric recording using a hard disk drive-type data storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Tomonori; Hiranaga, Yoshiomi; Cho, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric probe data storage has been proposed as a novel data storage method in which bits are recorded based on the polarization directions of individual domains. These bits are subsequently read by scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy. The domain walls of typical ferroelectric materials are quite thin: often only several times the lattice constant, which is advantageous for high-density data storage. In this work, high-density read/write (R/W) demonstrations were conducted using a hard disk drive-type test system, and the writing of bit arrays with a recording density of 3.4 Tbit/in.2 was achieved. Additionally, a series of writing and reading operations was successfully demonstrated at a density of 1 Tbit/in.2. Favorable characteristics of ferroelectric recording media for use with the proposed method are discussed in the latter part of this paper.

  10. The use of high-density concretes in radiotherapy treatment room design.

    PubMed

    Facure, A; Silva, A X

    2007-09-01

    With the modernization of radiotherapic centers, medical linear accelerators are largely replacing (60)Co teletherapy units. In many cases, the same vault housing the (60)Co teletherapy unit is reused for the linear accelerator and, when space is at a premium, high-density concrete (3.0-5.0 g/cm(3)) is employed to provide shielding against the primary, scatter and leakage radiation. This work presents a study based on Monte Carlo simulations of transmission of some clinical photon spectra (of 4-10 MV accelerators) through some types of high-density concretes, normally used in the construction of radiotherapy bunkers. From the simulations, the initial and subsequent tenth-value layers (TVL) for these materials, taking into account realistic clinical photon spectra, are presented, for primary radiation.

  11. Transition boundary model of magnetization distribution in high density perpendicular recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. J.; Chen, B. J.; Wang, H. T.

    2011-04-01

    A model is introduced in this paper to describe the transition boundaries in perpendicular magnetic recording at extremely high density. In contrary to the previous signal generation models, effects of magnetization transition curvature and the track edge fluctuations are adequately included in the new model that is designed to capture the actual transition boundaries, i.e., the variations of magnetization distribution in both down-track and across-track directions. The model is used to predict the readback waveforms based on the detailed information obtained from micromagnetic simulations taking into account the head and media parameters. The model is therefore suitable for magnetic recording at extremely high densities when the impact of the transition curvature and the track edge effect on the recording performance becomes more significant.

  12. Tris(triazolo)benzene and its derivatives: high-density energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Thottempudi, Venugopal; Forohor, Farhad; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2012-09-24

    High-performance explosives: Tris(triazolo)benzene was synthesized and converted to its trinitro and trichloro derivatives (see scheme; R=NO(2), Cl). The heats of formation of this "high-nitrogen" compounds were calculated and combined with experimentally determined densities to determine detonation pressures and velocities. They exhibit high density, good thermal stability, high heats of formation, and moderate to good detonation properties.

  13. A Graph Decomposition Technique Based on a High-Density Clustering Model on Graphs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    ADAO90 3A8 ALFRED P SLOAN SCHOOL OF MANAGEMNT CAMBRIDGE MA CEN-ETC FIG 12 GRAPH DECOMPOSITION TECHNIQUE BASEO ON A HIGH-DENSITY CLUSTER-ETC(U) JUL 0...ELEMENT.’ PROJECT, TASK Center for Information Systems Research AREAO G ORK UNIT NUMBERS Sloan School of Management, M.I.T. V Cambridge,_MA__02139...See Kernighan and Lin (1970), Lukes (1974, 1975), anc Christofides and Brooker (1976) for methods that operate under some size constraints on the

  14. 3D-HIM: A 3D High-density Interleaved Memory for Bipolar RRAM Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    JOURNAL ARTICLE (Post Print ) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2010 – NOV 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D -HIM: A 3D HIGH-DENSITY INTERLEAVED MEMORY...emerged as one of the promising candidates for large data storage in computing systems. Moreover, building up RRAM in a three dimensional ( 3D ) stacking...brings in the potential reliability issue. To alleviate the situation, we introduce two novel 3D stacking structures built upon bipolar RRAM

  15. High-Density Renewable Fuels Based on the Selective Dimerization of Pinenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    synthesized in up to 90%yield from β- pinene , a renewable strained bicyclic compound derived fromwood and plant sources . The process is based on the...10.1021/ef900799c High-Density Renewable Fuels Based on the Selective Dimerization of Pinenes Benjamin G. Harvey,* Michael E. Wright, and Roxanne L...heterogeneous acidic catalysts Montmorillonite-K10 and Nafion, which promote selective isomerization and dimerization of pinenes under moderate conditions (100

  16. Growth and characterization of high-density mats of single-walled carbon nanotubes for interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.; Zhong, G.; Telg, H.; Thomsen, C.; Warner, J. H.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Roth, S.

    2008-10-20

    We grow high-density, aligned single wall carbon nanotube mats for use as interconnects in integrated circuits by remote plasma chemical vapor deposition from a Fe-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film catalyst. We carry out extensive Raman characterization of the resulting mats, and find that this catalyst system gives rise to a broad range of nanotube diameters, with no preferential selectivity of semiconducting tubes, but with at least 1/3 of metallic tubes.

  17. Investigating cell culture dynamics combining high density recordings with dimensional reduction techniques.

    PubMed

    Nieus, Thierry; Di Marco, Stefano; Maccione, Alessandro; Amin, Hayder; Berdondini, Luca

    2015-08-01

    High density multielectrode array recordings with CMOS-MEAs allow to monitor cell culture activity with unprecedent details respect to previous recording techniques. This is clarifying how network activity develops and is motivating the development of novel data analysis tools. Here, in order to advance in the exploitation of the richness of these large-scale array recordings, we introduce a principal component analysis approach that aims at improving on existing methodologies to describe neural activity events within large networks.

  18. Prospect of chip scale silicon photonics transceiver for high density multi-mode wiring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kurihara, Mitsuru; Tokushima, Masatoshi; Hagihara, Yasuhiko; Ogura, Ichiro; Nakamura, Takahiro

    2016-03-01

    We propose high density multi-mode wiring system with chip scale silicon photonics transceiver. After review of concept and a discussion of overall design principles, design of a chip scale optical transceiver named Optical I/O core using silicon photonics is described.Experimental results with connected multimode fiber are presented. Finally, applications of optical I/O core and future prospects are introduced.

  19. Acoustical Detection of High-Density Krill Demersal Layers in the Submarine Canyons off Georges Bank.

    PubMed

    Greene, C H; Wiebe, P H; Burczynski, J; Youngbluth, M J

    1988-07-15

    High-density demersal layers of krill have been detected in the submarine canyons off Georges Bank by means of a high-frequency, dual-beam bioacoustical technique. Krill densities in these demersal layers were observed to be two to three orders of magnitude greater than the highest densities observed in water-column scattering layers. Such abundances may help explain the unusually high squid and demersal fish production estimates attributed to the Georges Bank ecosystem.

  20. Monitoring underground water quality based on high-density resistivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanyan

    2015-12-01

    Underground water is different from surface water. Once contaminated, underground water is difficult to recover, so it is necessary to give priority to the prevention of the quality of underground water. High-density resistivity method is very important in the environmental engineering geophysical prospecting and it is widely used in mineral resources as well as monitoring the underground-water quality. In the experiment, multi-tools joint inversion is applied to build the model in order to increase the accuracy. In contrast with the pollution-free water model which is owned by the RES2DMOD, the inversion result of underground water quality with the high density resistivity method is useful to monitor the underground water quality, showing that different degree of water pollution depends on the position of abnormal and there is a more significant abnormal value in the vertical direction of the deep abnormal than that of the shallow abnormal, and high and low resistance pollution depends on the different value and forms of abnormal resistance. In conclusion, monitoring the underground water quality by the high density resistivity method is efficient. In the future research, it is necessary to accomplish more precise inversion models combining with field measurements to find out the optimal solution to monitor underwater quality.

  1. A high-density genetic map and growth related QTL mapping in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis)

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Beide; Liu, Haiyang; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2016-01-01

    Growth related traits in fish are controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL), but no QTL for growth have been detected in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) due to the lack of high-density genetic map. In this study, an ultra-high density genetic map was constructed with 3,121 SNP markers by sequencing 117 individuals in a F1 family using 2b-RAD technology. The total length of the map was 2341.27 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.75 cM. A high level of genomic synteny between our map and zebrafish was detected. Based on this genetic map, one genome-wide significant and 37 suggestive QTL for five growth-related traits were identified in 6 linkage groups (i.e. LG3, LG11, LG15, LG18, LG19, LG22). The phenotypic variance explained (PVE) by these QTL varied from 15.4% to 38.2%. Marker within the significant QTL region was surrounded by CRP1 and CRP2, which played an important role in muscle cell division. These high-density map and QTL information provided a solid base for QTL fine mapping and comparative genomics in bighead carp. PMID:27345016

  2. Injectable, high-density collagen gels for annulus fibrosus repair: An in vitro rat tail model.

    PubMed

    Borde, Brandon; Grunert, Peter; Härtl, Roger; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2015-08-01

    A herniated intervertebral disc often causes back pain when disc tissue is displaced through a damaged annulus fibrosus. Currently, the only methods available for annulus fibrosus repair involve mechanical closure of defect, which does little to address biological healing in the damaged tissue. Collagen hydrogels are injectable and have been used to repair annulus defects in vivo. In this study, high-density collagen hydrogels at 5, 10, and 15 mg/mL were used to repair defects made to intact rat caudal intervertebral discs in vitro. A group of gels at 15 mg/mL were also cross-linked with riboflavin at 0.03 mM, 0.07 mM, or 0.10 mM. These cross-linked, high-density collagen gels maintained their presence in the defect under loading and contributed positively to the mechanical response of damaged discs. Discs exhibited increases to 95% of undamaged effective equilibrium and instantaneous moduli as well as up to fourfold decreases in effective hydraulic permeability from the damaged discs. These data suggest that high-density collagen gels may be effective at restoring mechanical function of injured discs as well as potential vehicles for the delivery of biological agents such as cells or growth factors that may aid in the repair of the annulus fibrosus.

  3. Novel LLM series high density energy materials: Synthesis, characterization, and thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagoria, Philip; Zhang, Maoxi; Tsyshevskiy, Roman; Kuklja, Maija

    Novel high density energy materials must satisfy specific requirements, such as an increased performance, reliably high stability to external stimuli, cost-efficiency and ease of synthesis, be environmentally benign, and be safe for handling and transportation. During the last decade, the attention of researchers has drifted from widely used nitroester-, nitramine-, and nitroaromatic-based explosives to nitrogen-rich heterocyclic compounds. Good thermal stability, the low melting point, high density, and moderate sensitivity make heterocycle materials attractive candidates for use as oxidizers in rocket propellants and fuels, secondary explosives, and possibly as melt-castable ingredients of high explosive formulations. In this report, the synthesis, characterization, and results of quantum-chemical DFT study of thermal stability of LLM-191, LLM-192 and LLM-200 high density energy materials are presented. Work performed under the auspices of the DOE by the LLNL (Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344). This research is supported in part by ONR (Grant N00014-12-1-0529) and NSF. We used NSF XSEDE (Grant DMR-130077) and DOE NERSC (Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231) resources.

  4. Injectable, High Density Collagen Gels for Annulus Fibrosus Repair: An In Vitro Rat Tail Model

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Brandon; Grunert, Peter; Härtl, Roger; Bonassar, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    A herniated intervertebral disc often causes back pain when disc tissue is displaced through a damaged annulus fibrosus. Currently the only methods available for annulus fibrosus repair involve mechanical closure of defect, which does little to address biological healing in the damaged tissue. Collagen hydrogels are injectable and have been used to repair annulus defects in vivo. In this study, high-density collagen hydrogels at 5, 10 and 15 mg/ml were used to repair defects made to intact rat caudal intervertebral discs in vitro. A group of gels at 15 mg/ml were also crosslinked with riboflavin at 0.03 mM, 0.07 mM or 0.10 mM . These crosslinked, high-density collagen gels maintained presence in the defect under loading and contributed positively to the mechanical response of damaged discs. Discs exhibited increases to 95% of undamaged effective equilibrium and instantaneous moduli as well as up to four fold decreases in effective hydraulic permeability from the damaged discs. These data suggest that high density collagen gels may be effective at restoring mechanical function of injured discs as well as potential vehicles for delivery of biological agents such as cells or growth factors that may aid in the repair of the annulus fibrosus. PMID:25504661

  5. HIGH-DENSITY MOLECULAR GAS PROPERTIES OF THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 1614 REVEALED WITH ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2013-09-15

    We present the results of HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 transition line observations of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 1614, obtained with ALMA Cycle 0. We find that high density molecular gas traced with these lines shows a velocity structure such that the northern (southern) side of the nucleus is redshifted (blueshifted) with respect to the nuclear velocity of this galaxy. The redshifted and blueshifted emission peaks are offset by {approx}0.''6 at the northern and southern sides of the nucleus, respectively. At these offset positions, observations at infrared >3 {mu}m indicate the presence of active dusty starbursts, supporting the picture that high-density molecular gas is the site of active starbursts. The enclosed dynamical mass within the central {approx}2'' in radius, derived from the dynamics of the high-density molecular gas, is {approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, which is similar to previous estimates. Finally, the HCN emission is weaker than HCO{sup +} but stronger than HNC for J = 4-3 for all starburst regions of NGC 1614, as seen for J = 1-0 transition lines in starburst-dominated galaxies.

  6. Spectral broadening of parametric instability in lower hybrid current drive at a high density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesario, R.; Amicucci, L.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Marinucci, M.; Napoli, F.; Paoletti, F.; De Arcangelis, D.; Ferrari, M.; Galli, A.; Gallo, G.; Pullara, E.; Schettini, G.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    The important goal of adding to the bootstrap current a more flexible tool, capable of producing and controlling steady-state profiles with a high fraction of non-inductive plasma current, could be reached using the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect. Experiments performed on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) demonstrated that LHCD can occur at reactor-graded high plasma density, provided that the parametric instability (PI)-produced broadening of the spectrum launched by the antenna is reduced under proper operating conditions, capable of producing relatively high temperature in the outer region of plasma column. This condition was produced by operations that reduce particle recycling from the vessel walls, and enhance the gas fuelling in the core by means of fast pellet. New results of FTU experiments are presented documenting that the useful effect of temperature at the periphery, which reduces the LH spectral broadening and enhances the LH-induced hard-x ray emission level, occurs in a broader range of plasma parameters than in previous work. Modelling results show that a further tool for helping LHCD at a high density would be provided by electron cyclotron resonant heating of plasma periphery. New information is provided on the modelling, able determining frequencies, growth rates and LH spectral broadening produced by PI, which allowed assessing the new method for enabling LHCD at high densities. Further robustness is provided to theoretical and experimental fundaments of the method for LHCD at a high density.

  7. Optimal Thermo-Structural Analysis for High Density Package Mounting on Build-up Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Tohru; Hase, Tomohiro

    The importance of the high density packaging technology and mounting technology on the printed wiring build-up board has been increased for the consumer electric products. On the other hand, the chance to use the build-up boards for mounting the high density packages has been increased. However, the understanding that the reliability of the solder connection depends on the structure of the package, the motherboard, and the material properties, is not very high. In this paper, the reliability for high density packaging, mounted on the build-up board, is assessed. The compact numerical analysis model for the reliability assessment is suggested and the most reliable packaging design with optimizing each of the parameters is reported. For introduction to the reliability assessment of the FCA attachment, ceramic and silicon are compared as the inter-poser with the parameter of the solder height. The verification of the numerical analysis results using tests on the actual hardware is also shown. And the established numerical analysis model is applied to the study of influence of the copper balance between the front side and the back side copper layers.

  8. Ion Beam Driven Shock Device Using Accelerated High Density Plasmoid by Phased Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko; Aizawa, Tatsuhiko; Tsuchida, Minoru

    1997-07-01

    Different from three methods to generate high shock pressure by acceleration of high density plasma or particles (intense ion beams, plasma gun and rail gun) having their intrinsic deficiencies, new frontier is proposed to propel the shock physics and chemistry by using the high density plasma. In the present paper, new scheduled Z-pinch method is developed as a new device to generate high shock pressure. In the present method, plasma density can be compressed to the order of 10^18 to 10^19 cm-3, and high density plasma can be accelerated by zippering together with axial shock pressure, resulting in high-velocity launching of flyer. In the present paper, systematic experimental works are performed to demonstrate that high energy plasma flow can be electro-magnetically driven by the scheduled capillary Z-pinch, and to characterize the ion velocity and its current density. The estimated value of ion speed from the plasma-measurement reaches to 7 x 10^7 cm/s corresponding to 70 to 100 KeV for Ar. Copper flyer can be shot with the velocity range from 1km/s to 3km/s in the standard condition.

  9. Low-enriched uranium high-density target project. Compendium report

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, George; Brown, M. Alex; Jerden, James L.; Gelis, Artem V.; Stepinski, Dominique C.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley; Youker, Amanda; Hebden, Andrew; Solbrekken, Gary; Allen, Charlie; Robertson, David; El-Gizawy, Sherif; Govindarajan, Srisharan; Hoyer, Annemarie; Makarewicz, Philip; Harris, Jacob; Graybill, Brian; Gunn, Andy; Berlin, James; Bryan, Chris; Carbajo, Juan; Freels, Jim; Sherman, Steven; Hobbs, Randy; Griffin, Fred P.; Chandler, David; Hurt, C. J.; Williams, Paul; Creasy, John; Tjader, Barak; McFall, Danielle; Longmire, Hollie

    2016-09-01

    At present, most 99Mo is produced in research, test, or isotope production reactors by irradiation of highly enriched uranium targets. To achieve the denser form of uranium needed for switching from high to low enriched uranium (LEU), targets in the form of a metal foil (~125-150 µm thick) are being developed. The LEU High Density Target Project successfully demonstrated several iterations of an LEU-fission-based Mo-99 technology that has the potential to provide the world’s supply of Mo-99, should major producers choose to utilize the technology. Over 50 annular high density targets have been successfully tested, and the assembly and disassembly of targets have been improved and optimized. Two target front-end processes (acidic and electrochemical) have been scaled up and demonstrated to allow for the high-density target technology to mate up to the existing producer technology for target processing. In the event that a new target processing line is started, the chemical processing of the targets is greatly simplified. Extensive modeling and safety analysis has been conducted, and the target has been qualified to be inserted into the High Flux Isotope Reactor, which is considered above and beyond the requirements for the typical use of this target due to high fluence and irradiation duration.

  10. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL−1 and 0.91 g mL−1) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity. PMID:25826744

  11. Investigation of photon shielding property changes in curing high density concrete.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Matthew B; Peters, Christopher; Rawluk, Nicholas; Schreiner, L John

    2013-10-01

    High density concrete is usually used for radiation shielding around radiotherapy treatment rooms. Because the concrete is specified differently at the design, construction, and verification stages, the relationship between the intended performance and the actual performance of the shielding material might not be entirely clear. In this study, cylindrical samples of high density shielding concrete were taken as each section of a new radiotherapy bunker was poured. The shielding performance of each sample [measured by beam attenuation and tenth-value layers (TVL)] was evaluated for 15 MV and 6 MV x-ray beams and for the 1.25 MeV monoenergetic gamma beam from a Co source. Transmission curves to 3 TVL were mapped for a representative sample. The samples were also imaged and analyzed using Co Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CoCBCT). Results indicate no significant change in the TVL of high density concrete samples as they cure. The minor fluctuations in shielding properties observed are explained by the heterogeneous structure of the samples as indicated in the CoCBCT images.

  12. High density of ice krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) in the Amundsen sea coastal polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Hyoung Sul; Lee, Hyungbeen; Fielding, Sophie; Kang, Donhyug; Ha, Ho Kyung; Atkinson, Angus; Park, Jisoo; Siegel, Volker; Lee, SangHoon; Shin, Hyoung Chul

    2015-01-01

    High densities of ice krill Euphausia crystallorophias were observed along six acoustic transects within the Amundsen Sea Coastal Polynya, Antarctica. Two-frequency acoustic backscatter data was examined in the austral summers of January 2011 and February 2012. A dB identification window (Sv120-38) identified ice krill dominating the acoustic backscatter. The density of ice krill, calculated with the stochastic distorted-wave born approximation model, ranged between 4.5 and 30 g wet mass m-2 for each transect (a mean of 16 g wet mass m-2 for all transects), these high values are an order of magnitude higher than recorded previously in the Ross Sea Polynya. High densities were detected along the ice shelf and near the boundary between pack ice and coastal polynya, and we postulate that these could be important habitats for ice krill. The high densities observed along the transects make ice krill a potentially important, but poorly known contributor to these high-latitude shelf food webs.

  13. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-31

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL(-1) and 0.91 g mL(-1)) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity.

  14. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in the presence of bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jikun; Chen, Laigao; Sandison, George A.; Liang, Yun; Xu, Lisa X.

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents a novel method of reducing x-ray CT high-density artefacts generated by metal objects when abundant bone structures are present in the region of interest. This method has an advantage over previously proposed methods since it heavily suppresses the metal artefacts without introducing extra bone artefacts. The method of suppression requires that bone pixels are isolated and segmented by thresholding. Then artificial CT numbers are assigned to the bone pixels so that their projection profiles are smooth and thus can be properly simulated by a polynomial interpolation. The projection profile of the metal object is then removed to fully suppress the artefacts. The resulting processed profile is fed to a reconstruction routine and the previously preserved bone pixels added back. The new method utilizes two important features of the CT image with metal artefacts: (a) metal and bone pixels are not severely affected by the high-density artefacts and (b) the high-density artefacts can be located in specific projection channels in the profile domain, although they are spread out in the image domain. This suppression method solves the problem of CT image artefacts arising from metal objects in the body. It has the potential to greatly improve diagnostic CT imaging in the presence of these objects and treatment planning that utilizes CT for patients with metal applicators (e.g., brachytherapy for cervix cancer and prostate cryotherapy).

  15. Neonatal hemodynamic response to visual cortex activity: high-density near-infrared spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Steve M.; Gregg, Nick M.; White, Brian R.; Zeff, Benjamin W.; Bjerkaas, Katelin A.; Inder, Terrie E.; Culver, Joseph P.

    2010-03-01

    The neurodevelopmental outcome of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infants is a major clinical concern with many infants displaying neurobehavioral deficits in childhood. Functional neuroimaging may provide early recognition of neural deficits in high-risk infants. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has the advantage of providing functional neuroimaging in infants at the bedside. However, limitations in traditional NIRS have included contamination from superficial vascular dynamics in the scalp. Furthermore, controversy exists over the nature of normal vascular, responses in infants. To address these issues, we extend the use of novel high-density NIRS arrays with multiple source-detector distances and a superficial signal regression technique to infants. Evaluations of healthy term-born infants within the first three days of life are performed without sedation using a visual stimulus. We find that the regression technique significantly improves brain activation signal quality. Furthermore, in six out of eight infants, both oxy- and total hemoglobin increases while deoxyhemoglobin decreases, suggesting that, at term, the neurovascular coupling in the visual cortex is similar to that found in healthy adults. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using high-density NIRS arrays in infants to improve signal quality through superficial signal regression, and provide a foundation for further development of high-density NIRS as a clinical tool.

  16. Experimental evidence that ecological effects of an invasive fish are reduced at high densities.

    PubMed

    Kornis, Matthew S; Carlson, Jedchada; Lehrer-Brey, Gabrielle; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the relationship between invasive species density and ecological impact is a pressing topic in ecology, with implications for environmental management and policy. Although it is widely assumed that invasive species impact will increase with density, theory suggests interspecific competition may diminish at high densities due to increased intraspecific interactions. To test this theory, we experimentally examined intra- and interspecific interactions between a globally invasive fish, round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), and three native species at different round goby densities in a tributary of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Eighteen 2.25 m(2) enclosures were stocked with native fish species at natural abundances, while round gobies were stocked at three different densities: 0 m(-2), 2.7 m(-2), and 10.7 m(-2). After 52 days, native fish growth rate was significantly reduced in the low density goby treatment, while growth in the high density goby treatment mirrored the goby-free treatment for two of three native species. Invertebrate density and gut content weight of native fishes did not differ among treatments. Conversely, gut content weight and growth of round gobies were lower in the high goby density treatment, suggesting interactions between round gobies and native fishes are mediated by interference competition amongst gobies. Our experiment provides evidence that invasive species effects may diminish at high densities, possibly due to increased intraspecific interactions. This is consistent with some ecological theory, and cautions against the assumption that invasive species at moderate densities have low impact.

  17. Evaluation of an analytic linear Boltzmann transport equation solver for high-density inhomogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, S. A. M.; Ansbacher, W.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Acuros external beam (Acuros XB) is a novel dose calculation algorithm implemented through the ECLIPSE treatment planning system. The algorithm finds a deterministic solution to the linear Boltzmann transport equation, the same equation commonly solved stochastically by Monte Carlo methods. This work is an evaluation of Acuros XB, by comparison with Monte Carlo, for dose calculation applications involving high-density materials. Existing non-Monte Carlo clinical dose calculation algorithms, such as the analytic anisotropic algorithm (AAA), do not accurately model dose perturbations due to increased electron scatter within high-density volumes. Methods: Acuros XB, AAA, and EGSnrc based Monte Carlo are used to calculate dose distributions from 18 MV and 6 MV photon beams delivered to a cubic water phantom containing a rectangular high density (4.0-8.0 g/cm{sup 3}) volume at its center. The algorithms are also used to recalculate a clinical prostate treatment plan involving a unilateral hip prosthesis, originally evaluated using AAA. These results are compared graphically and numerically using gamma-index analysis. Radio-chromic film measurements are presented to augment Monte Carlo and Acuros XB dose perturbation data. Results: Using a 2% and 1 mm gamma-analysis, between 91.3% and 96.8% of Acuros XB dose voxels containing greater than 50% the normalized dose were in agreement with Monte Carlo data for virtual phantoms involving 18 MV and 6 MV photons, stainless steel and titanium alloy implants and for on-axis and oblique field delivery. A similar gamma-analysis of AAA against Monte Carlo data showed between 80.8% and 87.3% agreement. Comparing Acuros XB and AAA evaluations of a clinical prostate patient plan involving a unilateral hip prosthesis, Acuros XB showed good overall agreement with Monte Carlo while AAA underestimated dose on the upstream medial surface of the prosthesis due to electron scatter from the high-density material. Film measurements

  18. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  19. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  20. Defect reduction of high-density full-field patterns in jet and flash imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lovejeet; Luo, Kang; Ye, Zhengmao; Xu, Frank; Haase, Gaddi; Curran, David; LaBrake, Dwayne; Resnick, Douglas; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2011-04-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FIL) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. Acceptance of imprint lithography for manufacturing will require demonstration that it can attain defect levels commensurate with the defect specifications of high end memory devices. Typical defectivity targets are on the order of 0.10/cm2. This work summarizes the results of defect inspections focusing on two key defect types; random non-fill defects occurring during the resist filling process and repeater defects caused by interactions with particles on the substrate. Non-fill defectivity must always be considered within the context of process throughput. The key limiting throughput step in an imprint process is resist filling time. As a result, it is critical to characterize the filling process by measuring non-fill defectivity as a function of fill time. Repeater defects typically have two main sources; mask defects and particle related defects. Previous studies have indicated that soft particles tend to cause non-repeating defects. Hard particles, on the other hand, can cause either resist plugging or mask damage. In this work, an Imprio 500 twenty wafer per hour (wph) development tool was used to study both defect types. By carefully controlling the volume of inkjetted resist, optimizing the drop pattern and controlling the resist fluid front during spreading, fill times of 1.5 seconds were achieved with non-fill defect levels of approximately 1.2/cm2. Longevity runs were used to study repeater defects and a nickel

  1. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  2. The elastic and yield behavior of polyethylene tubes subjected to biaxial loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. E.; Semeliss, M.; Wong, R.

    1992-01-01

    The elastic and yield response of extruded thin-walled high-density polyethylene tubes with a density in the range of 0.961 to 0.964 gm/cu cm was investigated. Material properties in the axial and hoop directions were measured, and the tubes were found to be mildly transversely isotropic. The yield response was pressure sensitive, and was well predicted using the pressure-modified Hill criterion using a compressive to tensile yield strength ratio of 1:12.

  3. Patterning protein molecules on poly(ethylene glycol) coated Si(111).

    PubMed

    Jun, Yongseok; Cha, Taewoon; Guo, Athena; Zhu, X-Y

    2004-08-01

    We demonstrate spatially localized immobilization of protein molecules on high-density poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coated Si(111). Patterns of HO- and CH3O-terminated PEG regions are formed on silicon surfaces based on soft lithography techniques and an efficient reaction between alcohol functional groups and chlorine-terminated silicon. Activation of the HO-terminated PEG brush is achieved via either partial oxidation to form aldehyde groups or via attachment of efficient leaving groups. Protein molecules are covalently immobilized to these activated regions on the PEG/Si surface.

  4. Screening of upregulated genes induced by high density in the vetch aphid Megoura crassicauda.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Asano; Ishikawa, Yuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Brisson, Jennifer A; Miura, Toru

    2012-03-01

    Aphids exhibit several polyphenisms in which discontinuous, alternative phenotypes are produced depending on environmental conditions. One representative example is the wing polyphenism, where winged and wingless females are produced through parthenogenesis. Previous work has shown that, in some aphid species, the density condition sensed by the mother aphid determines the developmental fate of embryos in her ovary, with high densities leading to winged progeny and low densities to wingless progeny. However, little is known about the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the wing polyphenism. To identify genes involved in the wing-morph determination in the vetch aphid, Megoura crassicauda, we compared maternal and embryonic transcripts between high- and low-density conditions using differential display, followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Under the high-density condition, two genes (Uba1 and Naca) were found to be upregulated in maternal tissues without ovaries, while one gene (ClpP) was upregulated in ovaries containing embryos. Uba1 and Naca encode factors that function in protein modification or transcriptional/translational regulation, respectively. In addition to differential display, candidate gene approaches focusing on morphogenetic and endocrine genes, i.e., wg, dpp, ap, hh, InR, IRS, Foxo, EcR, and USP, were also carried out. We found that wg was upregulated in maternal tissues under the high-density condition. The identified genes from both approaches are candidates for further study of their involvement in the transduction of density signals in mother aphids and/or the initial process of wing differentiation in embryos.

  5. Blu-ray-sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance for high-density optical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Shencheng; Zhang, Xintong; Han, Qiang; Liu, Shuangyan; Han, Xiuxiu; Liu, Yichun

    2016-11-01

    Tunable spectrum-response is desired for efficient photo-energy transformation. Blu-ray (~405 nm) and polarization sensitive Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite films are thus fascinating in application of fast-response and high-density optical memory device. The Ag/TiO2 film has the ability of replicating hologram based on optical coherence by laser-stimulated dissolution of Ag nanoparticles (NPs). The rate and efficiency of the dissolution are supposed to be enhanced by introducing uniform and small-sized Ag NPs in TiO2 nanoporous films. However, no effective methods have been proposed to resolve this issue by now. Here, we develop a simple method of thermal-reduction to obtain high-density, space-dispersed and extremely small-sized Ag NPs in TiO2 nanoporous films pretreated with tannic acid. The film shows both high and narrow absorbance band centered at ~405 nm. Diffraction efficiency of the blu-ray holographic storage in the Ag/TiO2 film is improved by one order of magnitude compared to the traditional UV-reduced sample. Based on such properties, polarization-multiplexing holograms are able to be written at 405 nm and readout with little crosstalk. This work provides effective solutions for sensitizing localized surface plasmon resonance at near-UV region, extending the growth range of Ag NPs in the volume of TiO2, and resultantly, realizing high-density optical memory.

  6. Nuclear matter at high density: Phase transitions, multiquark states, and supernova outbursts

    SciTech Connect

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Nadyozhin, D. K.; Rasinkova, T. L.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Trusov, M. A. Yudin, A. V.

    2011-03-15

    Phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon matter is discussed for various regimes of temperature and baryon number density. For small and medium densities, the phase transition is accurately described in the framework of the Field Correlation Method, whereas at high density predictions are less certain and leave room for the phenomenological models. We study formation of multiquark states (MQS) at zero temperature and high density. Relevant MQS components of the nuclear matter can be described using a previously developed formalism of the quark compound bags (QCB). Partialwave analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering indicates the existence of 6QS which manifest themselves as poles of P matrix. In the framework of the QCB model, we formulate a self-consistent system of coupled equations for the nucleon and 6QS propagators in nuclear matter and the G matrix. The approach provides a link between high-density nuclear matter with the MQS components and the cumulative effect observed in reactions on the nuclei, which requires the admixture of MQS in the wave functions of nuclei kinematically. 6QS determines the natural scale of the density for a possible phase transition into theMQS phase of nuclear matter. Such a phase transition can lead to dynamic instability of newly born protoneutron stars and dramatically affect the dynamics of supernovae. Numerical simulations show that the phase transition may be a good remedy for the triggering supernova explosions in the spherically symmetric supernovamodels. A specific signature of the phase transition is an additional neutrino peak in the neutrino light curve. For a Galactic core-collapse supernova, such a peak could be resolved by the present neutrino detectors. The possibility of extracting the parameters of the phase of transition from observation of the neutrino signal is discussed also.

  7. Blu-ray-sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance for high-density optical memory

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shencheng; Zhang, Xintong; Han, Qiang; Liu, Shuangyan; Han, Xiuxiu; Liu, Yichun

    2016-01-01

    Tunable spectrum-response is desired for efficient photo-energy transformation. Blu-ray (~405 nm) and polarization sensitive Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite films are thus fascinating in application of fast-response and high-density optical memory device. The Ag/TiO2 film has the ability of replicating hologram based on optical coherence by laser-stimulated dissolution of Ag nanoparticles (NPs). The rate and efficiency of the dissolution are supposed to be enhanced by introducing uniform and small-sized Ag NPs in TiO2 nanoporous films. However, no effective methods have been proposed to resolve this issue by now. Here, we develop a simple method of thermal-reduction to obtain high-density, space-dispersed and extremely small-sized Ag NPs in TiO2 nanoporous films pretreated with tannic acid. The film shows both high and narrow absorbance band centered at ~405 nm. Diffraction efficiency of the blu-ray holographic storage in the Ag/TiO2 film is improved by one order of magnitude compared to the traditional UV-reduced sample. Based on such properties, polarization-multiplexing holograms are able to be written at 405 nm and readout with little crosstalk. This work provides effective solutions for sensitizing localized surface plasmon resonance at near-UV region, extending the growth range of Ag NPs in the volume of TiO2, and resultantly, realizing high-density optical memory. PMID:27819328

  8. BioMEA: a versatile high-density 3D microelectrode array system using integrated electronics.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Guillaume; Rousseau, Lionel; Billoint, Olivier; Gharbi, Sadok; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Joucla, Sébastien; Trevisiol, Michel; Bourgerette, Alain; Chauvet, Philippe; Moulin, Céline; Goy, François; Mercier, Bruno; Colin, Mikael; Spirkovitch, Serge; Fanet, Hervé; Meyrand, Pierre; Guillemaud, Régis; Yvert, Blaise

    2010-04-15

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer a powerful tool to both record activity and deliver electrical microstimulations to neural networks either in vitro or in vivo. Microelectronics microfabrication technologies now allow building high-density MEAs containing several hundreds of microelectrodes. However, dense arrays of 3D micro-needle electrodes, providing closer contact with the neural tissue than planar electrodes, are not achievable using conventional isotropic etching processes. Moreover, increasing the number of electrodes using conventional electronics is difficult to achieve into compact devices addressing all channels independently for simultaneous recording and stimulation. Here, we present a full modular and versatile 256-channel MEA system based on integrated electronics. First, transparent high-density arrays of 3D-shaped microelectrodes were realized by deep reactive ion etching techniques of a silicon substrate reported on glass. This approach allowed achieving high electrode aspect ratios, and different shapes of tip electrodes. Next, we developed a dedicated analog 64-channel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) including one amplification stage and one current generator per channel, and analog output multiplexing. A full modular system, called BIOMEA, has been designed, allowing connecting different types of MEAs (64, 128, or 256 electrodes) to different numbers of ASICs for simultaneous recording and/or stimulation on all channels. Finally, this system has been validated experimentally by recording and electrically eliciting low-amplitude spontaneous rhythmic activity (both LFPs and spikes) in the developing mouse CNS. The availability of high-density MEA systems with integrated electronics will offer new possibilities for both in vitro and in vivo studies of large neural networks.

  9. Folded functional lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I obtained by heating of high-density lipoproteins: relevance to high-density lipoprotein biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Shobini; Cavigiolio, Giorgio; Gursky, Olga

    2012-03-15

    HDL (high-density lipoproteins) remove cell cholesterol and protect from atherosclerosis. The major HDL protein is apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I). Most plasma apoA-I circulates in lipoproteins, yet ~5% forms monomeric lipid-poor/free species. This metabolically active species is a primary cholesterol acceptor and is central to HDL biogenesis. Structural properties of lipid-poor apoA-I are unclear due to difficulties in isolating this transient species. We used thermal denaturation of human HDL to produce lipid-poor apoA-I. Analysis of the isolated lipid-poor fraction showed a protein/lipid weight ratio of 3:1, with apoA-I, PC (phosphatidylcholine) and CE (cholesterol ester) at approximate molar ratios of 1:8:1. Compared with lipid-free apoA-I, lipid-poor apoA-I showed slightly altered secondary structure and aromatic packing, reduced thermodynamic stability, lower self-associating propensity, increased adsorption to phospholipid surface and comparable ability to remodel phospholipids and form reconstituted HDL. Lipid-poor apoA-I can be formed by heating of either plasma or reconstituted HDL. We propose the first structural model of lipid-poor apoA-I which corroborates its distinct biophysical properties and postulates the lipid-induced ordering of the labile C-terminal region. In summary, HDL heating produces folded functional monomolecular lipid-poor apoA-I that is distinct from lipid-free apoA-I. Increased adsorption to phospholipid surface and reduced C-terminal disorder may help direct lipid-poor apoA-I towards HDL biogenesis.

  10. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Scharnagl, Hubert; Kist, Manfred; Grawitz, Andrea Busse; Koenig, Wolfgang; Wieland, Heinrich; März, Winfried

    2004-01-15

    We examined the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication on lipids and apolipoproteins in 87 patients with duodenal ulcers. A significant increase was observed in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (+24.7%, p <0.001), apolipoprotein AI (+9.0%, p <0.001), and apolipoprotein AII (+11.7%, p <0.001) after eradication. Minor increases occurred in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B, whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol remained unchanged. Our results suggest that chronic H. pylori infection reduces plasma levels of HDL cholesterol and that eradication improves the lipoprotein pattern.

  11. Stimulatory and possible antioxidant effects of High Density Green Photons (HDGP) on cellular systems.

    PubMed

    Paslaru, L; Nastase, A; Stefan, L; Florea, R; Sorop, A; Ionescu, E; Popescu, I; Comorasan, S

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between the electromagnetic field and the biological systems were extensively investigated, with remarkable results and advanced technologies. Nevertheless, the visible domain of the spectrum has been rather neglected, since the classic physics did not allow electronic transitions induced by visible light. Recently, the interaction of light with the matter has generated a new scientific domain known in Physics as optical manipulation, with the new concepts of optical matter and optical force. This article presents the results of our work concerning in vitro effects of High Density Green Photons (HDGP) irradiation on cell cultures: stimulation of cell proliferation and migration and a possible antioxidant action.

  12. The mantle of Mars - Some possible geological implications of its high density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.; Smyth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The high density of the Martian mantle probably implies an iron-rich composition expressed by a higher concentration of FeO than that in the earth's mantle. Examination of high-pressure mineralogies suggests that the model Martian mantle has an oxide-garnet wehrlite phase assemblage. This mantle model would be likely to yield ultrabasic (ferrobasaltic) melts of very low viscosity. The prevalence of low-viscosity material is consistent with large eruption rate and copious lava flow on the planet. Furthermore, ferro-kimberlite volcanic ash may be an abundant constituent in the Martian soil, especially if there was much volatile material within the early accreting Mars.

  13. Laser drilling of vias in dielectric for high density multilayer LSHI thick film circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocca, T.; Dakesian, S.

    1977-01-01

    A design analysis of a high density multilevel thick film digital microcircuit used for large scale integration is presented. The circuit employs 4 mil lines, 4 mil spaces and requires 4 mil diameter vias. Present screened and fired thick film technology is limited on a production basis to 16 mil square vias. A process whereby 4 mil diameter vias can be fabricated in production using laser technology was described along with a process to produce 4 mil diameter vias for conductor patterns which have 4 mil lines and 4 mil spacings.

  14. Health benefits of high-density lipoproteins in preventing cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, Hicham; Momo, Claudia N; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2012-01-01

    Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are strongly and inversely correlated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. However, it is becoming clear that a functional HDL is a more desirable target than simply increasing HDL-cholesterol levels. The best known antiatherogenic function of HDL particles relates to their ability to promote reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral cells. However, HDL also possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic effects. This review focuses on the state of knowledge regarding assays of HDL heterogeneity and function and their relationship to cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Pesticide occurrence in groundwater in areas of high-density row crop production in Alabama, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreland, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    High-density row crop production occurs in three areas of Alabama that are underlain by productive aquifers, northern Alabama, southeastern Alabama, and Baldwin County in southwestern Alabama. The U.S. Geological Survey collected five groundwater samples from each of these three areas during 2009 for analysis of selected pesticides. Results of these analyses showed detections for 37 of 152 analytes. The three most frequently detected compounds were atrazine, 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-triazine (CIAT), and metolachlor. The highest concentration for any analyte was 4.08 micrograms per liter for metolachlor.

  16. Nanocrystal core high-density lipoproteins: A multimodality contrast agent platform

    PubMed Central

    Cormode, David P.; Skajaa, Torjus; van Schooneveld, Matti M.; Koole, Rolf; Jarzyna, Peter; Lobatto, Mark E.; Calcagno, Claudia; Barazza, Alessandra; Gordon, Ronald E.; Zanzonico, Pat; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2009-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL), is an important natural nanoparticle that may be modified for biomedical imaging purposes. Here we developed a novel technique to create unique multimodality HDL mimicking nanoparticles by inclusion of gold, iron oxide or quantum dot nanocrystals for computed tomography, magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging, respectively. By including additional labels in the corona of the particles, they were made multi-functional. The characterization of these nanoparticles, as well as their in vitro and in vivo behavior revealed that they closely mimic native HDL. PMID:18939808

  17. Nanocrystal core high-density lipoproteins: a multimodality contrast agent platform.

    PubMed

    Cormode, David P; Skajaa, Torjus; van Schooneveld, Matti M; Koole, Rolf; Jarzyna, Peter; Lobatto, Mark E; Calcagno, Claudia; Barazza, Alessandra; Gordon, Ronald E; Zanzonico, Pat; Fisher, Edward A; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M

    2008-11-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) is an important natural nanoparticle that may be modified for biomedical imaging purposes. Here we developed a novel technique to create unique multimodality HDL mimicking nanoparticles by incorporation of gold, iron oxide, or quantum dot nanocrystals for computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and fluorescence imaging, respectively. By including additional labels in the corona of the particles, they were made multifunctional. The characteristics of these nanoparticles, as well as their in vitro and in vivo behavior, revealed that they closely mimic native HDL.

  18. Synthetic high-density lipoprotein-like nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Foit, Linda; Giles, Francis J.; Gordon, Leo I.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2015-01-01

    Summary High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are a diverse group of natural nanoparticles that are most well-known for their role in cholesterol transport. However, HDLs have diverse functions that provide significant opportunities for cancer therapy. Presented is a focused review of the ways that synthetic versions of HDL have been used as targeted therapies for cancer, and as vehicles for the delivery of diverse therapeutic cargo to cancer cells. As such, synthetic HDLs are likely to play a central role in the development of next generation cancer therapies. PMID:25487833

  19. Matrix sublimation method for the formation of high-density amorphous ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchi, A.; Hama, T.; Kimura, Y.; Hidaka, H.; Escribano, R.; Watanabe, N.

    2016-08-01

    A novel method for the formation of amorphous ice involving matrix sublimation has been developed. A CO-rich CO:H2O mixed ice was deposited at 8-10 K under ultra-high vacuum condition, which was then allowed to warm. After the sublimation of matrix CO at 35 K, amorphous ice remained. The amorphous ice formed exhibits a highly porous microscale texture; however, it also rather exhibits a density similar to that of high-density amorphous ice formed under high pressure. Furthermore, unlike conventional vapor-deposited amorphous ice, the amorphous ice is stable up to 140 K, where it transforms directly to cubic ice Ic.

  20. Optimization towards high density quantum dots for intermediate band solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, D.; Sharma, G.; Fimland, B. O.; Thomassen, S. F.; Reenaas, T. W.

    2010-02-08

    We report high density quantum dots (QDs) formation with optimized growth temperature and V/III ratio. At lower growth temperature, QD density is increased, due to smaller surface migration length of In adatoms. With higher V/III, the QD density is higher but it results in large clusters formation and decreases the QD uniformity. The QD solar cell was fabricated and examined. An extended spectral response in contrast to the GaAs reference cell was presented but the external quantum efficiency at energies higher than GaAs band gap is reduced, resulting from the degradation for the emitter above the strained QD layers.

  1. Highly linear high-density vector quantiser and vector-matrix multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedroni, V. A.

    1994-06-01

    Simplicity is a key factor in the development of high-density systems. The authors discuss a balanced, four-quadrant, fully-analogue vector-matrix multiplier (VMM) and a vector quantiser (VQ) which require very small silicon area for their implementations, while presenting high linearity, a totally flexible input dynamic range, a symmetric power consumption behaviour, and are inherently suitable for parallel operation. The circuits require only four transistors per synapse in the VMM and two in the VQ, plus two (small) refresh transistors.

  2. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  3. Rapid inactivation of Penicillium digitatum spores using high-density nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Iseki, Sachiko; Hori, Masaru; Ohta, Takayuki; Aomatsu, Akiyoshi; Ito, Masafumi; Kano, Hiroyuki; Higashijima, Yasuhiro

    2010-04-12

    A promising, environmentally safe method for inactivating fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum, a difficult-to-inactivate food spoilage microorganism, was developed using a high-density nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). The NEAPP employing Ar gas had a high electron density on the order of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. The spores were successfully and rapidly inactivated using the NEAPP, with a decimal reduction time in spores (D value) of 1.7 min. The contributions of ozone and UV radiation on the inactivation of the spores were evaluated and concluded to be not dominant, which was fundamentally different from the conventional sterilizations.

  4. Feedforward, high density, programmable read only neural network based memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, Taher; Moopenn, Alex; Lamb, James; Thakoor, Anil; Khanna, Satish

    1988-01-01

    Neural network-inspired, nonvolatile, programmable associative memory using thin-film technology is demonstrated. The details of the architecture, which uses programmable resistive connection matrices in synaptic arrays and current summing and thresholding amplifiers as neurons, are described. Several synapse configurations for a high-density array of a binary connection matrix are also described. Test circuits are evaluated for operational feasibility and to demonstrate the speed of the read operation. The results are discussed to highlight the potential for a read data rate exceeding 10 megabits/sec.

  5. High-Density Optical Data Storage Enabled by the Photonic Nanojet from a Dielectric Microsphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Soon-Cheol; Sahakian, Alan V.; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2009-03-01

    We discuss the usage of the photonic nanojet to detect deeply subwavelength pits in a metal substrate for the purpose of high-density optical data storage. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) computational solutions of Maxwell's equations are used to analyze and design the system. We find that nanojet-illuminated pits having lateral dimensions of only 100×150 nm2 yield a 40-dB contrast ratio. The FDTD simulation results show that pit-depth modulation and pit-width modulation can significantly increase the optical data-storage capacity.

  6. High-density display of protein ligands on self-assembled capsules via noncovalent fluorous interactions.

    PubMed

    Harano, Koji; Yamada, Junya; Mizuno, Shinichiro; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Ligand display on self-assembled nanostructures is an important tool in generating bioactive materials. Here, we demonstrate the display of sugar and biotin molecules on sub-100 nm-sized capsules with a high surface coverage, which was achieved by the use of noncovalent fluorous interactions between a fluorous-tagged ligand molecule and a fullerene vesicle covered with fluorous chains. Even after the high-density ligand display and protein binding, the vesicle stably maintains its spherical structure because the fluorous binding of the sugar does not affect the structural integrity of the vesicle that originates from strong fullerene-fullerene interactions.

  7. Space-filling percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Manna, S. S.

    2014-03-01

    A region of two-dimensional space has been filled randomly with a large number of growing circular disks allowing only a "slight" overlapping among them just before their growth stops. More specifically, each disk grows from a nucleation center that is selected at a random location within the uncovered region. The growth rate δ is a continuously tunable parameter of the problem which assumes a specific value while a particular pattern of disks is generated. When a growing disk overlaps for the first time with at least one other disk, its growth is stopped and is said to be frozen. In this paper we study the percolation properties of the set of frozen disks. Using numerical simulations we present evidence for the following: (i) The order parameter appears to jump discontinuously at a certain critical value of the area coverage; (ii) the width of the window of the area coverage needed to observe a macroscopic jump in the order parameter tends to vanish as δ →0; and on the contrary (iii) the cluster size distribution has a power-law-decaying functional form. While the first two results are the signatures of a discontinuous transition, the third result is indicative of a continuous transition. Therefore we refer to this transition as a sharp but continuous transition similar to what has been observed in the recently introduced Achlioptas process of explosive percolation. It is also observed that in the limit of δ →0, the critical area coverage at the transition point tends to unity, implying that the limiting pattern is space filling. In this limit, the fractal dimension of the pore space at the percolation point has been estimated to be 1.42(10) and the contact network of the disk assembly is found to be a scale-free network.

  8. Raman spectroscopy of biomedical polyethylenes.

    PubMed

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2017-03-27

    With the development of three-dimensional Raman algorithms for local mapping of oxidation and plastic strain, and the ability to resolve molecular orientation patterns with microscopic spatial resolution, there is an opportunity to re-examine many of the foundations on which our understanding of biomedical grade ultra-high molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPEs) are based. By implementing polarized Raman spectroscopy into an automatized tool with an improved precision in non-destructively resolving Euler angles, oxidation levels, and microscopic strain, we become capable to make accurate and traceable measurements of the in vitro and in vivo tribological responses of a variety of commercially available UHMWPE bearings for artificial hip and knee joints. In this paper, we first review the foundations and the main algorithms for Raman analyses of oxidation and strain of biomedical polyethylene. Then, we critically re-examine a large body of Raman data previously collected on different polyethylene joint components after in vitro testing or in vivo service, in order to shed new light on an area of particular importance to joint orthopedics: the microscopic nature of UHMWPE surface degradation in the human body. A complex scenario of physical chemistry appears from the Raman analyses, which highlights the importance of molecular-scale phenomena besides mere microstructural changes. The availability of the Raman microscopic probe for visualizing oxidation patterns unveiled striking findings related to the chemical contribution to wear degradation: chain-breaking and subsequent formation of carboxylic acid sites preferentially occur in correspondence of third-phase regions, and they are triggered by emission of dehydroxylated oxygen from ceramic oxide counterparts. These findings profoundly differ from more popular (and simplistic) notions of mechanistic tribology adopted in analyzing joint simulator data.

  9. Single electron states in polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; MacKernan, D.; Cubero, D. E-mail: n.quirke@imperial.ac.uk; Coker, D. F.; Quirke, N. E-mail: n.quirke@imperial.ac.uk

    2014-04-21

    We report computer simulations of an excess electron in various structural motifs of polyethylene at room temperature, including lamellar and interfacial regions between amorphous and lamellae, as well as nanometre-sized voids. Electronic properties such as density of states, mobility edges, and mobilities are computed on the different phases using a block Lanczos algorithm. Our results suggest that the electronic density of states for a heterogeneous material can be approximated by summing the single phase density of states weighted by their corresponding volume fractions. Additionally, a quantitative connection between the localized states of the excess electron and the local atomic structure is presented.

  10. Shock induced dissociation of polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.E.; Loughran, E.D.; Mortensen, G.F.; Gray, G.T. III; Shaw, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    To identify the physical processes occurring on the Hugoniot, shock-recovery experiments were performed. Cylindrical recovery systems were used that enabled a wide range of single-shock Hugoniot states to be examined. Mass spectroscopy was used to examine the gaseous dissociation products. X-ray and TEM measurements were made to characterize the post-shock carbon structures. A dissociation product equation of state is presented to interpret the observed results. Polyethylene (PE) samples that were multiply shocked to their final states dissociated at much higher pressures than single-shocked samples. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization

    DOEpatents

    Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2014-04-08

    A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.

  12. Utilization of star-shaped polymer architecture in the creation of high-density polymer brush coatings for the prevention of platelet and bacteria adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Totani, Masayasu; Terada, Kayo; Terashima, Takaya; Kim, Ill Yong; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Xi, Chuanwu; Tanihara, Masao

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate utilization of star-shaped polymers as high-density polymer brush coatings and their effectiveness to inhibit the adhesion of platelets and bacteria. Star polymers consisting of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and/or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), were synthesized using living radical polymerization with a ruthenium catalyst. The polymer coatings were prepared by simple drop casting of the polymer solution onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) surfaces and then dried. Among the star polymers prepared in this study, the PHEMA star polymer (star-PHEMA) and the PHEMA/PMMA (mol. ratio of 71/29) heteroarm star polymer (star-H71M29) coatings showed the highest percentage of inhibition against platelet adhesion (78–88% relative to noncoated PET surface) and Escherichia coli (94–97%). These coatings also showed anti-adhesion activity against platelets after incubation in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline or surfactant solution for 7 days. In addition, the PMMA component of the star polymers increased the scratch resistance of the coating. These results indicate that the star-polymer architecture provides high polymer chain density on PET surfaces to prevent adhesion of platelets and bacteria, as well as coating stability and physical durability to prevent exposure of bare PET surfaces. The star polymers provide a simple and effective approach to preparing anti-adhesion polymer coatings on biomedical materials against the adhesion of platelets and bacteria. PMID:25485105

  13. Utilization of star-shaped polymer architecture in the creation of high-density polymer brush coatings for the prevention of platelet and bacteria adhesion.

    PubMed

    Totani, Masayasu; Ando, Tsuyoshi; Terada, Kayo; Terashima, Takaya; Kim, Ill Yong; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Xi, Chuanwu; Kuroda, Kenichi; Tanihara, Masao

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate utilization of star-shaped polymers as high-density polymer brush coatings and their effectiveness to inhibit the adhesion of platelets and bacteria. Star polymers consisting of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and/or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), were synthesized using living radical polymerization with a ruthenium catalyst. The polymer coatings were prepared by simple drop casting of the polymer solution onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) surfaces and then dried. Among the star polymers prepared in this study, the PHEMA star polymer (star-PHEMA) and the PHEMA/PMMA (mol. ratio of 71/29) heteroarm star polymer (star-H71M29) coatings showed the highest percentage of inhibition against platelet adhesion (78-88% relative to noncoated PET surface) and Escherichia coli (94-97%). These coatings also showed anti-adhesion activity against platelets after incubation in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline or surfactant solution for 7 days. In addition, the PMMA component of the star polymers increased the scratch resistance of the coating. These results indicate that the star-polymer architecture provides high polymer chain density on PET surfaces to prevent adhesion of platelets and bacteria, as well as coating stability and physical durability to prevent exposure of bare PET surfaces. The star polymers provide a simple and effective approach to preparing anti-adhesion polymer coatings on biomedical materials against the adhesion of platelets and bacteria.

  14. NOTE: X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in cryosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jikun; Sandison, George A.; Chen, Laigao; Liang, Yun; Xu, Lisa X.

    2002-12-01

    Advantages of x-ray CT for imaging guidance of cryosurgery include 3D visualization of frozen and unfrozen tissue and calibration of temperature in the tissue water-ice interface (0-10 °C) to Hounsfield units. However, use of x-ray CT images and their thermal calibration can be compromised by the cryoprobes generating high-density streak artefacts. A new subtraction technique for artefact suppression is proposed and tested in prostate cryosurgery simulations. By subtracting the measured CT x-ray projection profile without cryoprobes from the profile with cryoprobes plus iceballs, one obtains the combined profile of the cryoprobes and a low value background. Polynomial interpolation to obtain the background profile allows its addition to the original profile without probes. The result may then be fed to a conventional filtered back-projection routine to reconstruct the probe-free image. Finally the cryoprobe pixels in the originally constructed image with probes and iceballs are added back to the probe-free image to get the final artefact-suppressed image. The major advantage of this subtraction technique is that it can successfully suppress the high-density artefacts in bone-abundant body regions such as the pelvis. X-ray CT images of cryoprobe arrays in a homogeneous gelatin phantom and the pelvic region of an anthropomorphic Rando phantom containing a human skeleton were generated. After suppression, cryoprobe metal artefact streaks are reduced and visualization of the positions and dimensions of the cryoprobes are well preserved.

  15. Anisotropic viscoelastic-viscoplastic continuum model for high-density cellulose-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjanto, D. D.; Girlanda, O.; Östlund, S.

    2015-11-01

    A continuum material model is developed for simulating the mechanical response of high-density cellulose-based materials subjected to stationary and transient loading. The model is formulated in an infinitesimal strain framework, where the total strain is decomposed into elastic and plastic parts. The model adopts a standard linear viscoelastic solid model expressed in terms of Boltzmann hereditary integral form, which is coupled to a rate-dependent viscoplastic formulation to describe the irreversible plastic part of the overall strain. An anisotropic hardening law with a kinematic effect is particularly adopted in order to capture the complex stress-strain hysteresis typically observed in polymeric materials. In addition, the present model accounts for the effects of material densification associated with through-thickness compression, which are captured using an exponential law typically applied in the continuum description of elasticity in porous media. Material parameters used in the present model are calibrated to the experimental data for high-density (press)boards. The experimental characterization procedures as well as the calibration of the parameters are highlighted. The results of the model simulations are systematically analyzed and validated against the corresponding experimental data. The comparisons show that the predictions of the present model are in very good agreement with the experimental observations for both stationary and transient load cases.

  16. Cryogenic THD and DT layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Khan, S. F.; Pak, A. E.; Divol, L.; Ho, D. D.; Ma, T.; Doeppner, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Field, J. E.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Hamza, A. V.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2014-10-01

    High Density Carbon (HDC or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations <10 ns. A series of experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility culminated in a DT layered implosion driven by a 6.5 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This talk describes these experiments and comparisons with the design code HYDRA. Backlit radiography of a THD layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape; however, other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. The streak camera-based SPIDER diagnostic showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of a low-temperature hot spot. Changes to the laser pulse-shape and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot-spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1 . 8 ×1015 neutrons. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Spike Detection for Large Neural Populations Using High Density Multielectrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Muthmann, Jens-Oliver; Amin, Hayder; Sernagor, Evelyne; Maccione, Alessandro; Panas, Dagmara; Berdondini, Luca; Bhalla, Upinder S; Hennig, Matthias H

    2015-01-01

    An emerging generation of high-density microelectrode arrays (MEAs) is now capable of recording spiking activity simultaneously from thousands of neurons with closely spaced electrodes. Reliable spike detection and analysis in such recordings is challenging due to the large amount of raw data and the dense sampling of spikes with closely spaced electrodes. Here, we present a highly efficient, online capable spike detection algorithm, and an offline method with improved detection rates, which enables estimation of spatial event locations at a resolution higher than that provided by the array by combining information from multiple electrodes. Data acquired with a 4096 channel MEA from neuronal cultures and the neonatal retina, as well as synthetic data, was used to test and validate these methods. We demonstrate that these algorithms outperform conventional methods due to a better noise estimate and an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) through combining information from multiple electrodes. Finally, we present a new approach for analyzing population activity based on the characterization of the spatio-temporal event profile, which does not require the isolation of single units. Overall, we show how the improved spatial resolution provided by high density, large scale MEAs can be reliably exploited to characterize activity from large neural populations and brain circuits.

  18. A high density of cis-information terminates RNA Polymerase III on a 2-rail track

    PubMed Central

    Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G.; Maraia, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transcription termination delineates the 3′ ends of transcripts, prevents otherwise runaway RNA polymerase (RNAP) from intruding into downstream genes and regulatory elements, and enables release of the RNAP for recycling. While other eukaryotic RNAPs require complex cis-signals and/or accessory factors to achieve these activities, RNAP III does so autonomously with high efficiency and precision at a simple oligo(dT) stretch of 5–6 bp. A basis for this high density cis-information is that both template and nontemplate strands of the RNAP III terminator carry distinct signals for different stages of termination. High-density cis-information is a feature of the RNAP III system that is also reflected by dual functionalities of the tRNA promoters as both DNA and RNA elements. We review emerging developments in RNAP III termination and single strand nontemplate DNA use by other RNAPs. Use of nontemplate signals by RNAPs and associated transcription factors may be prevalent in gene regulation. PMID:26636900

  19. Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes obtained by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousinho, A. P.; Mansano, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition represents an assembly approach to place and orient nanotubes at a stage as early as when they are synthesized. In this work, the carbon nanotubes were obtained at room temperature by High Density Plasmas Chemical Vapor Deposition (HDPCVD) system. This CVD system uses a new concept of plasma generation, where a planar coil coupled to an RF system for plasma generation was used with an electrostatic shield for plasma densification. In this mode, high density plasmas are obtained. We also report the patterned growth of carbon nanotubes on full 4-in Si wafers, using pure methane plasmas and iron as precursor material (seed). Photolithography processes were used to pattern the regions on the silicon wafers. The carbon nanotubes were characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy, the spectra showed very single-walled carbon nanotubes axial vibration modes around 1590 cm-1 and radial breathing modes (RBM) around 120-400 cm-1, confirming that high quality of the carbon nanotubes obtained in this work. The carbon nanotubes were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy too. The results showed that is possible obtain high-aligned carbon nanotubes with patterned growth on a silicon wafer with high reproducibility and control.

  20. High-density biosynthetic fuels: the intersection of heterogeneous catalysis and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Benjamin G; Meylemans, Heather A; Gough, Raina V; Quintana, Roxanne L; Garrison, Michael D; Bruno, Thomas J

    2014-05-28

    Biosynthetic valencene, premnaspirodiene, and natural caryophyllene were hydrogenated and evaluated as high performance fuels. The parent sesquiterpenes were then isomerized to complex mixtures of hydrocarbons with the heterogeneous acid catalyst Nafion SAC-13. High density fuels with net heats of combustion ranging from 133-141 000 Btu gal(-1), or up to 13% higher than commercial jet fuel could be generated by this approach. The products of caryophyllene isomerization were primarily tricyclic hydrocarbons which after hydrogenation increased the fuel density by 6%. The isomerization of valencene and premnaspirodiene also generated a variety of sesquiterpenes, but in both cases the dominant product was δ-selinene. Ab initio calculations were conducted to determine the total electronic energies for the reactants and products. In all cases the results were in excellent agreement with the experimental distribution of isomers. The cetane numbers for the sesquiterpane fuels ranged from 20-32 and were highly dependent on the isomer distribution. Specific distillation cuts may have the potential to act as high density diesel fuels, while use of these hydrocarbons as additives to jet fuel will increase the range and/or time of flight of aircraft. In addition to the ability to generate high performance renewable fuels, the powerful combination of metabolic engineering and heterogeneous catalysis will allow for the preparation of a variety of sesquiterpenes with potential for pharmaceutical, flavor, and fragrance applications.

  1. Novel Changes in Discoidal High Density Lipoprotein Morphology: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Catte, Andrea; Patterson, James C.; Jones, Martin K.; Jerome, W. Gray; Bashtovyy, Denys; Su, Zhengchang; Gu, Feifei; Chen, Jianguo; Aliste, Marcela P.; Harvey, Stephen C.; Li, Ling; Weinstein, Gilbert; Segrest, Jere P.

    2006-01-01

    ApoA-I is a uniquely flexible lipid-scavenging protein capable of incorporating phospholipids into stable particles. Here we report molecular dynamics simulations on a series of progressively smaller discoidal high density lipoprotein particles produced by incremental removal of palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine via four different pathways. The starting model contained 160 palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholines and a belt of two antiparallel amphipathic helical lipid-associating domains of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. The results are particularly compelling. After a few nanoseconds of molecular dynamics simulation, independent of the starting particle and method of size reduction, all simulated double belts of the four lipidated apoA-I particles have helical domains that impressively approximate the x-ray crystal structure of lipid-free apoA-I, particularly between residues 88 and 186. These results provide atomic resolution models for two of the particles produced by in vitro reconstitution of nascent high density lipoprotein particles. These particles, measuring 95 Å and 78 Å by nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, correspond in composition and in size/shape (by negative stain electron microscopy) to the simulated particles with molar ratios of 100:2 and 50:2, respectively. The lipids of the 100:2 particle family form minimal surfaces at their monolayer-monolayer interface, whereas the 50:2 particle family displays a lipid pocket capable of binding a dynamic range of phospholipid molecules. PMID:16581834

  2. Cryogenic THD and DT layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    DOE PAGES

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; ...

    2015-06-02

    High Density Carbon (HDC or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a DT layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a THD layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightlymore » oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 x 10¹⁵ neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.« less

  3. Cryogenic THD and DT layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Ross, J. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Izumi, N.; Kyrala, G. A.; Moody, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Rygg, J. R.; Sepke, S. M.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P. J.; Biener, J.; Bionta, R. M.; Bond, E. J.; Caggiano, J. A.; Eckart, M. J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G. P.; Hamza, A. V.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hoover, D. E.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Kroll, J. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Nikroo, A.; Sayre, D. B.; Stadermann, M.; Wild, C.; Yoxall, B. E.; Landen, O. L.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-06-02

    High Density Carbon (HDC or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a DT layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a THD layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 x 10¹⁵ neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.

  4. High-density linkage mapping revealed suppression of recombination at the sex determination locus in papaya.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hao; Moore, Paul H; Liu, Zhiyong; Kim, Minna S; Yu, Qingyi; Fitch, Maureen M M; Sekioka, Terry; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

    2004-01-01

    A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F(2) plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. These markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a LOD score of 5.0 and recombination frequency of 0.25. The 12 major linkage groups covered a total length of 3294.2 cM, with an average distance of 2.2 cM between adjacent markers. This map revealed severe suppression of recombination around the sex determination locus with a total of 225 markers cosegregating with sex types. The cytosine bases were highly methylated in this region on the basis of the distribution of methylation-sensitive and -insensitive markers. This high-density genetic map is essential for cloning of specific genes of interest such as the sex determination gene and for the integration of genetic and physical maps of papaya. PMID:15020433

  5. StreamMap: Smooth Dynamic Visualization of High-Density Streaming Points.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenhui; Baciu, George; Yu, Han

    2017-02-13

    Interactive visualization of streaming points for real-time scatterplots and linear blending of correlation patterns is increasingly becoming the dominant mode of visual analytics for both big data and streaming data from active sensors and broadcasting media. To better visualize and interact with inter-stream patterns, it is generally necessary to smooth out gaps or distortions in the streaming data. Previous approaches either animate the points directly or present a sampled static heatmap. We propose a new approach, called StreamMap, to smoothly blend high-density streaming points and create a visual flow that emphasizes the density pattern distributions. In essence, we present three new contributions for the visualization of high-density streaming points. The first contribution is a density-based method called super kernel density estimation that aggregates streaming points using an adaptive kernel to solve the overlapping problem. The second contribution is a robust density morphing algorithm that generates several smooth intermediate frames for a given pair of frames. The third contribution is a trend representation design that can help convey the flow directions of the streaming points. The experimental results on three datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of StreamMap when dynamic visualization and visual analysis of trend patterns on streaming points are required.

  6. Ignition relevant ablator response of boron carbide and high-density carbon driven by multiple shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisbrey, Shon T.; Baker, Kevin; Celliers, Peter; Dittrich, Tom; Moore, Alastair; Wu, Kuang Jen; Kervin, Peggy; Hurricane, Omar

    2013-10-01

    The attainment of self-propagating fusion burn in an inertial confinement target at the National Ignition Facility will require the use of an ablator with high rocket-efficiency and ablation pressure. The current ablation material, a glow-discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile. In an effort to evaluate the performance of other possible ablators that could be suitable for achieving self-propagating fusion burn we have inferred the ablation performance of two possible ablators, boron carbide and high-density carbon, by measuring the shock speed of induced shocks while subjecting the ablators to a multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. We present the platform used, velocity measurements used to infer the ablation response, and matching simulations to show the relative performance of boron carbide and high-density carbon with a general comparison to current performance of the currently used glow-discharge polymer ablator. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-640519.

  7. Spike Detection for Large Neural Populations Using High Density Multielectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Muthmann, Jens-Oliver; Amin, Hayder; Sernagor, Evelyne; Maccione, Alessandro; Panas, Dagmara; Berdondini, Luca; Bhalla, Upinder S.; Hennig, Matthias H.

    2015-01-01

    An emerging generation of high-density microelectrode arrays (MEAs) is now capable of recording spiking activity simultaneously from thousands of neurons with closely spaced electrodes. Reliable spike detection and analysis in such recordings is challenging due to the large amount of raw data and the dense sampling of spikes with closely spaced electrodes. Here, we present a highly efficient, online capable spike detection algorithm, and an offline method with improved detection rates, which enables estimation of spatial event locations at a resolution higher than that provided by the array by combining information from multiple electrodes. Data acquired with a 4096 channel MEA from neuronal cultures and the neonatal retina, as well as synthetic data, was used to test and validate these methods. We demonstrate that these algorithms outperform conventional methods due to a better noise estimate and an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) through combining information from multiple electrodes. Finally, we present a new approach for analyzing population activity based on the characterization of the spatio-temporal event profile, which does not require the isolation of single units. Overall, we show how the improved spatial resolution provided by high density, large scale MEAs can be reliably exploited to characterize activity from large neural populations and brain circuits. PMID:26733859

  8. Single Step Reconstitution of Multifunctional High-Density Lipoprotein-Derived Nanomaterials Using Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, YongTae; Fay, Francois; Cormode, David P.; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Tang, Jun; Hennessy, Elizabeth J.; Ma, Mingming; Moore, Kathryn; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Fisher, Edward Allen; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that transports peripheral cholesterol to the liver. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) exhibits antiatherothrombotic properties and is being considered as a natural treatment for cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, HDL nanoparticle platforms have been created for targeted delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. The current methods for HDL reconstitution involve lengthy procedures that are challenging to scale up. A central need in the synthesis of rHDL, and multifunctional nanomaterials in general, is to establish large-scale production of reproducible and homogeneous batches in a simple and efficient fashion. Here, we present a large-scale microfluidics-based manufacturing method for single-step synthesis of HDL-mimicking nanomaterials (µHDL). µHDL is shown to have the same properties (e.g., size, morphology, bioactivity) as conventionally reconstituted HDL and native HDL. In addition, we were able to incorporate simvastatin (a hydrophobic drug) into µHDL, as well as gold, iron oxide, quantum dot nanocrystals or fluorophores to enable its detection by computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Our approach may contribute to effective development and optimization of lipoprotein-based nanomaterials for medical imaging and drug delivery. PMID:24079940

  9. Evolutionary Agroecology: the potential for cooperative, high density, weed-suppressing cereals

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Jacob; Andersen, Sven B; Wille, Wibke K-M; Griepentrog, Hans W; Olsen, Jannie M

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary theory can be applied to improve agricultural yields and/or sustainability, an approach we call Evolutionary Agroecology. The basic idea is that plant breeding is unlikely to improve attributes already favored by millions of years of natural selection, whereas there may be unutilized potential in selecting for attributes that increase total crop yield but reduce plants’ individual fitness. In other words, plant breeding should be based on group selection. We explore this approach in relation to crop-weed competition, and argue that it should be possible to develop high density cereals that can utilize their initial size advantage over weeds to suppress them much better than under current practices, thus reducing or eliminating the need for chemical or mechanical weed control. We emphasize the role of density in applying group selection to crops: it is competition among individuals that generates the ‘Tragedy of the Commons’, providing opportunities to improve plant production by selecting for attributes that natural selection would not favor. When there is competition for light, natural selection of individuals favors a defensive strategy of ‘shade avoidance’, but a collective, offensive ‘shading’ strategy could increase weed suppression and yield in the high density, high uniformity cropping systems we envision. PMID:25567940

  10. Effects of high density on spacing behaviour and reproduction in Akodon azarae: A fencing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Belén; Bonatto, Florencia; Priotto, José; Steinmann, Andrea R.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the short term spacing behavioural responses of Pampean grassland mouse (Akodon azarae) with regard to population density in four 0.25 ha enclosures (two control and two experimental) in the 2011 breeding season. Based on the hypothesis that A. azarae breeding females exhibit spacing behaviour, and breeding males show a fusion spatial response, we tested the following predictions: (1) home range size and intrasexual overlap degree of females are independent of population density values; (2) at high population density, home range size of males decreases and the intrasexual home range overlap degree increases. To determine if female reproductive success decreases at high population density, we analyzed pregnancy rate, size and weight of litters, and period until fecundation in both low and high enclosure population density. We found that both males and females varied their home range size in relation to population density. Although male home ranges were always bigger than those of females in populations with high density, home range sizes of both sexes decreased. Females kept exclusive home ranges independent of density values meanwhile males decreased home range overlap in high breeding density populations. Although females produced litters of similar size in both treatments, weight of litter, pregnant rate and period until fecundation varied in relation to population density. Our results did not support the hypothesis that at high density females of A. azarae exhibit spacing behaviour neither that males exhibit a fusion spatial response.

  11. Evolutionary Agroecology: the potential for cooperative, high density, weed-suppressing cereals.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Jacob; Andersen, Sven B; Wille, Wibke K-M; Griepentrog, Hans W; Olsen, Jannie M

    2010-09-01

    Evolutionary theory can be applied to improve agricultural yields and/or sustainability, an approach we call Evolutionary Agroecology. The basic idea is that plant breeding is unlikely to improve attributes already favored by millions of years of natural selection, whereas there may be unutilized potential in selecting for attributes that increase total crop yield but reduce plants' individual fitness. In other words, plant breeding should be based on group selection. We explore this approach in relation to crop-weed competition, and argue that it should be possible to develop high density cereals that can utilize their initial size advantage over weeds to suppress them much better than under current practices, thus reducing or eliminating the need for chemical or mechanical weed control. We emphasize the role of density in applying group selection to crops: it is competition among individuals that generates the 'Tragedy of the Commons', providing opportunities to improve plant production by selecting for attributes that natural selection would not favor. When there is competition for light, natural selection of individuals favors a defensive strategy of 'shade avoidance', but a collective, offensive 'shading' strategy could increase weed suppression and yield in the high density, high uniformity cropping systems we envision.

  12. Treatment concept with CAD/CAM-fabricated high-density polymer temporary restorations.

    PubMed

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Almeida E Silva, Júnio S; Ramberger, Marc; Beuer, Florian; Edelhoff, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Tooth wear in younger patients is perceived worldwide as an increasing problem. Its etiology is multifactorial (erosion, abrasion, attrition), and its treatment is challenging for the dental practitioner specifically when a great loss of the vertical dimension of occlusion has occurred. The aim of this article is to present a treatment approach for complex cases with high loss of tooth structure using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-fabricated temporary high-density polymer restorations without any preparations. New manufacturing technologies and innovative materials such as high-density polymers offer good possibilities for restorations during the pretreatment period. This is especially important in circumstances requiring massive corrections of color, form, or position. Pretreatment periods are indispensable in refining important factors such as lip-position dynamics as well as the correct position of the smile line, which cannot be adequately assessed in the dental laboratory. In the presented case report, CAD/CAM-fabricated non-preparation restorations were adhesively placed on the worn dentition without any further loss of tooth structure. Such an approach provides the opportunity to "test-drive" the new restoration design in terms of function, phonetics, and esthetics, thus improving the predictability of the definitive restorations design. If any change in the design is required, it can be cost-effectively achieved through simple modification or replacement of the restorations.

  13. High-energy side-peak emission of exciton-polariton condensates in high density regime

    PubMed Central

    Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Kamide, Kenji; Matsuo, Yasuhiro; Byrnes, Tim; Ishida, Natsuko; Löffler, Andreas; Höfling, Sven; Shikano, Yutaka; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Forchel, Alfred; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    In a standard semiconductor laser, electrons and holes recombine via stimulated emission to emit coherent light, in a process that is far from thermal equilibrium. Exciton-polariton condensates–sharing the same basic device structure as a semiconductor laser, consisting of quantum wells coupled to a microcavity–have been investigated primarily at densities far below the Mott density for signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation. At high densities approaching the Mott density, exciton-polariton condensates are generally thought to revert to a standard semiconductor laser, with the loss of strong coupling. Here, we report the observation of a photoluminescence sideband at high densities that cannot be accounted for by conventional semiconductor lasing. This also differs from an upper-polariton peak by the observation of the excitation power dependence in the peak-energy separation. Our interpretation as a persistent coherent electron-hole-photon coupling captures several features of this sideband, although a complete understanding of the experimental data is lacking. A full understanding of the observations should lead to a development in non-equilibrium many-body physics. PMID:27193700

  14. An Ultra-High-Density, Transcript-Based, Genetic Map of Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Truco, Maria José; Ashrafi, Hamid; Kozik, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Hans; Bowers, John; Wo, Sebastian Reyes Chin; Stoffel, Kevin; Xu, Huaqin; Hill, Theresa; Van Deynze, Allen; Michelmore, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    We have generated an ultra-high-density genetic map for lettuce, an economically important member of the Compositae, consisting of 12,842 unigenes (13,943 markers) mapped in 3696 genetic bins distributed over nine chromosomal linkage groups. Genomic DNA was hybridized to a custom Affymetrix oligonucleotide array containing 6.4 million features representing 35,628 unigenes of Lactuca spp. Segregation of single-position polymorphisms was analyzed using 213 F7:8 recombinant inbred lines that had been generated by crossing cultivated Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas and L. serriola acc. US96UC23, the wild progenitor species of L. sativa. The high level of replication of each allele in the recombinant inbred lines was exploited to identify single-position polymorphisms that were assigned to parental haplotypes. Marker information has been made available using GBrowse to facilitate access to the map. This map has been anchored to the previously published integrated map of lettuce providing candidate genes for multiple phenotypes. The high density of markers achieved in this ultradense map allowed syntenic studies between lettuce and Vitis vinifera as well as other plant species. PMID:23550116

  15. Optimization of write heads and media for ultra high density and data rate magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Kai-Zhong

    Several issues related to the optimization of write heads and media for ultra high density and data rate magnetic recording are analyzed in this thesis. On the writing side, the tapered neck pole with a very small throat height has been suggested for ultra-high density perpendicular recording. An optimal write-pole design must fit the following criteria. (1) The down-track field and field gradient must be sufficiently large to write high anisotropy (HK) media with sharp transitions. (2) The off-track field must decrease very quickly to avoid erasure of neighboring tracks. (3) The remanent field should be small enough to prevent overwrite of the previous written data. (4) The switching speed must be 0.2--0.5 ns for high data rate recording (>1Gbit/s). (5) The skew effect should be limited, or a solution found for small skew angle. Our micromagnetic simulations show that by utilizing a tapered neck pole with a very small throat height optimizes these conditions and therefore is a good candidate for ultra-high density perpendicular recording. On the media side, tilted perpendicular (TP) recording has been proposed as an effective method for ultra-high density and ultra-high data rate magnetic recording. The central design includes a medium anisotropy direction tilted at a certain angle, optimally about 45°, with respect to the perpendicular direction. The main effect is that a medium with much higher anisotropy can be utilized as compared to conventional perpendicular (CP) recording. For a given thermal stability criterion, a much smaller medium grain diameter can be utilized. Both analytical and numerical analyses show that at a fixed density, there is approximately a 10 dB gain in SNR for TP media vs. CP media. TP recording allows for a higher data rate than CP recording, due to enhanced reversal torque. TP recording also provides a narrower erase band and therefore a larger track density due to increased grain energy stability at the track edges. The specific

  16. Triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and low ankle brachial index in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Yu, Jinming; Ding, Rongjing; Sun, Yihong; Hu, Dayi

    2014-05-01

    Hintergrund: Der Zusammenhang zwischen den Quotienten aus Triglycerid (TG) und High-density-lipoprotein-cholesterin (HDL‑C) sowie Gesamtcholesterin (TC) und HDL‑C und dem Knöchel-Arm-Index (ABI) wurde selten untersucht. Patienten und Methoden: Insgesamt 2.982 Teinehmer, die über 60 Jahre alt waren, wurden für die bevölkerungsbasierte Querschnittstudie rekrutiert. TG, TC, HDL‑C, und low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) wurden bei allen Teilnehmern getestet. Ein niedriger ABI wurde als ABI ≤ 0.9 definiert. Multiple Regressionsmodelle wurden für die Untersuchung der Assoziation zwischen TG/HDL‑C Ratio und TC/HDL‑C Ratio und niedrigem ABI angewendet. Ergebnisse: Die TG/HDL‑C Ratios für ABI > 0.9 und ABI ≤ 0.9 waren 1.28 ± 1.20 und 1.48 ± 1.13 (P < 0.0001), während die TC/HDL‑C Ratios 3.96 ± 1.09 bzw. 4.32 ± 1.15 (P < 0.0001) waren. Nach der Angleichung von Alter, Geschlecht, Body-Mass-Index, Fettleibigkeit, Alkoholkonsum, köperliche Aktivität, Hypertonie, Diabetes, Einnahme von lipidsenkenden Medikamenten, und Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen waren die Odds Ratios (OR) mit 95 % Konfidenzintervall (KI) bei dem niedrigen ABI und TG/HDL‑C Quotient 1,10 (0,96 - 1,26) und 1,34 (1,14 - 1,59) für TC/HDL‑C in der Nichtrauchergruppe. Wenn das TC weiter angeglichen wurde, waren die ORs (95 % CIs) 1.40 (0.79, 2.52) und 1.53 (1.21, 1.93) für die TG/HDL‑C Ratio und TC/HDL‑C Ratio. Nichtlineare Zusammenhänge wurden zwischen der TG/HDL‑C Ratio und TC/HDL‑C Ratio und dem niedrigen ABI in der Raucher- und Nichtrauchergruppe entdeckt. Schlussfolgerungen: Die TC/HDL‑C Ratio war signifikant mit einem niedrigen ABI in der Nichtrauchergruppe verbunden und die Assoziation war unabhängig von TC, TG, HDL‑C und LDL-C. TC/HDL‑C könnte als potentieller Biomarker für die frühe periphere arterielle Verschlusskrankheit beim Screening berücksichtigt werden.

  17. Dynamics in entangled polyethylene melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, K. Michael; Agrawal, Anupriya; Peters, Brandon L.; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2016-10-01

    Polymer dynamics creates distinctive viscoelastic behavior as a result of a coupled interplay of motion at the atomic length scale and motion of the entire macromolecule. Capturing the broad time and length scales of polymeric motion however, remains a challenge. Using linear polyethylene as a model system, we probe the effects of the degree of coarse graining on polymer dynamics. Coarse-grained (CG) potentials are derived using iterative Boltzmann inversion with λ methylene groups per CG bead (denoted CGλ) with λ = 2,3,4 and 6 from a fully-atomistic polyethylene melt simulation. By rescaling time in the CG models by a factor α, the chain mobility for the atomistic and CG models match. We show that independent of the degree of coarse graining, all measured static and dynamic properties are essentially the same once the dynamic scaling factor α and a non-crossing constraint for the CG6 model are included. The speedup of the CG4 model is about 3 times that of the CG3 model and is comparable to that of the CG6 model. Using these CG models we were able to reach times of over 500 μs, allowing us to measure a number of quantities, including the stress relaxation function, plateau modulus and shear viscosity, and compare directly to experiment.

  18. Diffusion of limonene in polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Limm, W; Begley, T H; Lickly, T; Hentges, S G

    2006-07-01

    Diffusion coefficients of limonene in various linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) resins have been determined from sorption data using a thermogravimetric methodology. From these data, one can determine whether polymer synthesis parameters such as the choice of catalytic process or co-monomer result in substantial differences in how much food packaging additives might migrate to food. For example, LLDPE is currently manufactured using either one of two distinct catalytic processes: Ziegler-Natta (ZN) and metallocene, a single-site catalyst. ZN catalysis is a heterogeneous process that has dominated polyolefin synthesis over the last half-century. It involves a transition metal compound containing a metal-carbon bond that can handle repeated insertion of olefin units. In contrast, metallocene catalysis has fewer than 20 years of history, but has generated much interest due to its ability to produce highly stereospecific polymers at a very high yield. In addition to high stereospecificity, metallocene-catalysed polymers are significantly lower in polydispersity than traditional ZN counterparts. Absorption and desorption testing of heat-pressed films made from LLDPE and LDPE resins of varying processing parameters indicates that diffusion coefficients of limonene in these resins do not change substantially.

  19. Lava-Filled Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 June 2003

    Craters and hills form high standing streamlined plateaus or islands in a channeled area. The plateaus are rounded in the upstream direction and taper to a point in the downstream direction, indicating that the direction of flow in this area was roughly south to north, or bottom to top. The channels appear to be filled with lava flow deposits that are raised above the channel in some areas. A lava flow diverges around a small streamlined hill near the bottom of the image and then merges again around the northern end of it. Near the top of the image is a crater with a breach on the east (right) side that allowed the lava to flow in, leaving a lobate, high standing deposit. The channels may have been formed by the lava flows that currently fill them or there may have been flow of liquid water that created them before the lava was emplaced.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 16, Longitude 183 East (177 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built

  20. Optimization of high filler loading on tensile properties of recycled HDPE/PET blends filled with rice husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruey Shan; Ahmad, Sahrim; Ghani, Mohd Hafizuddin Ab; Salleh, Mohd Nazry

    2014-09-01

    Biocomposites of recycled high density polyethylene / recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rHDPE/rPET) blend incorporated with rice husk flour (RHF) were prepared using a corotating twin screw extruder. Maleic anhydride polyethylene (MAPE) was added as a coupling agent to improve the fibre-matrix interface adhesion. The effect of high filler loadings (50-90 wt%) on morphology and tensile properties of compatibilized rHDPE/rPET blend was investigated. The results of our study shown that composite with 70 wt% exhibited the highest tensile strength and Young's modulus, which are 22 MPa and 1752 MPa, respectively. The elongation at break decreased with increasing percentage of RHF. SEM micrograph confirmed fillers dispersion, morphological interaction and enhanced interfacial bonding between recycled polymer blends and rice husk. It can be concluded that the optimum RHF content is 70 wt% with maximum tensile strength.

  1. Isotopic studies of high-density interstellar graphite from the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amari, S.; Zinner, E.; Lewis, R. S.

    1994-07-01

    We continue with multielement isotopic analyses of single graphite grains from various density fractions extracted from Murchison. Previous measurements have shown that different density fractions have different isotopic ratios and trace-element contents, suggesting multiple stellar sources for interstellar graphite. One goal is to identify these stellar sources. In this work we report isotopic ratios of graphite grains from the high-density fraction KFC1 (2.15-2.20 g/cu cm, greater than 1 micron) and compare them with results on the low-density fraction KE3 (1.68-1.71 g/cu cm, greater than 3 microns). To be able to obtain multielement isotopic data, we chose larger grains. Forty-five grains were analyzed for their C and N isotopic ratios and the C and N isotopic compositions of KFC1 and KE3 are plotted. As previously observed, most grains in this fraction have isotopically light C. Only three grains have heavy N with N-14/N-15 ratios less than 250 (2 sigma) (solar ratio; 272). The others have normal N. Of 40 grains measured for their O-18/O-16 ratios, all have normal ratios within errors. This is in contrast to graphite grains from KE3, of which two-thirds have O-18 excesses that range up to 100 times solar. Since large O-18 excesses can be generated in massive stars such as Wolf Rayet stars or supernovae, the O-18 excesses in KE3 suggest that a large fraction of low-density graphite grains originate from massive stars, while the contribution from massive stars is small to negligible in the high-density fraction KFC1. This agrees with the conclusions derived from Kr isotopic ratios for these fractions. A striking difference between the density fractions can also be seen for Al-26/Al-27 ratios. The Kr isotopic ratios measured in KFC1 suggest that AGB stars of low metallicity contributed high-density graphite grains.

  2. High-density stretchable microelectrode arrays: An integrated technology platform for neural and muscular surface interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang

    2011-12-01

    Numerous applications in neuroscience research and neural prosthetics, such as retinal prostheses, spinal-cord surface stimulation for prosthetics, electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording for epilepsy detection, etc., involve electrical interaction with soft excitable tissues using a surface stimulation and/or recording approach. These applications require an interface that is able to set up electrical communications with a high throughput between electronics and the excitable tissue and that can dynamically conform to the shape of the soft tissue. Being a compliant and biocompatible material with mechanical impedance close to that of soft tissues, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) offers excellent potential as the substrate material for such neural interfaces. However, fabrication of electrical functionalities on PDMS has long been very challenging. This thesis work has successfully overcome many challenges associated with PDMS-based microfabrication and achieved an integrated technology platform for PDMS-based stretchable microelectrode arrays (sMEAs). This platform features a set of technological advances: (1) we have fabricated uniform current density profile microelectrodes as small as 10 mum in diameter; (2) we have patterned high-resolution (feature as small as 10 mum), high-density (pitch as small as 20 mum) thin-film gold interconnects on PDMS substrate; (3) we have developed a multilayer wiring interconnect technology within the PDMS substrate to further boost the achievable integration density of such sMEA; and (4) we have invented a bonding technology---via-bonding---to facilitate high-resolution, high-density integration of the sMEA with integrated circuits (ICs) to form a compact implant. Taken together, this platform provides a high-resolution, high-density integrated system solution for neural and muscular surface interfacing. sMEAs of example designs are evaluated through in vitro and in vivo experimentations on their biocompatibility, surface conformability

  3. Intermittent Surface Water Connectivity: Fill and Spill vs. Fill ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intermittent surface connectivity can influence aquatic systems, since chemical and biotic movements are often associated with water flow. Although often referred to as fill and spill, wetlands also fill and merge. We examined the effects of these connection types on water levels, ion concentrations, and biotic communities of eight prairie pothole wetlands between 1979 and 2015. Fill and spill caused pulsed surface water connections that were limited to periods following spring snow melt. In contrast, two wetlands connected through fill and merge experienced a nearly continuous, 20-year surface water connection and had completely coincident water levels. Fill and spill led to minimal convergence in dissolved ions and macroinvertebrate composition, while these constituents converged under fill and merge. The primary factor determining difference in responses was duration of the surface water connection between wetland pairs. Our findings suggest that investigations into the effects of intermittent surface water connections should not consider these connections generically, but need to address the specific types of connections. In particular, fill and spill promotes external water exports while fill and merge favors internal storage. The behaviors of such intermittent connections will likely be accentuated under a future with more frequent and severe climate extremes. Under the Safe and Sustainable Water Resources National Program, work is being done to qu

  4. Fundamental properties of high-quality carbon nanofoam: from low to high density

    PubMed Central

    Frese, Natalie; Taylor Mitchell, Shelby; Neumann, Christof; Bowers, Amanda; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Highly uniform samples of carbon nanofoam from hydrothermal sucrose carbonization were studied by helium ion microscopy (HIM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Foams with different densities were produced by changing the process temperature in the autoclave reactor. This work illustrates how the geometrical structure, electron core levels, and the vibrational signatures change when the density of the foams is varied. We find that the low-density foams have very uniform structure consisting of micropearls with ≈2–3 μm average diameter. Higher density foams contain larger-sized micropearls (≈6–9 μm diameter) which often coalesced to form nonspherical μm-sized units. Both, low- and high-density foams are comprised of predominantly sp2-type carbon. The higher density foams, however, show an advanced graphitization degree and a stronger sp3-type electronic contribution, related to the inclusion of sp3 connections in their surface network. PMID:28144554

  5. High density lipoprotein: it’s not just about lipid transport anymore

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Scott M.; Hofmann, Susanna; Askew, David S.; Davidson, W. Sean

    2011-01-01

    Plasma levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have long been associated with protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large populations. However, HDL-C has been significantly less useful for predicting CVD risk in individual patients. This has ignited a new debate on the merits of measuring HDL quantity versus quality in terms of protective potential. In addition, numerous recent studies have begun to uncover HDL functions that vary surprisingly from traditional lipid transport roles. In this paper, we review recent findings that point to important functions for HDL that go well beyond lipid transport. These discoveries suggest that HDL might be a platform that mediates protection from a host of disease states ranging from CVD to diabetes to infectious disease. PMID:21067941

  6. High density lipoprotein and metabolic disease: Potential benefits of restoring its functional properties

    PubMed Central

    Klancic, Teja; Woodward, Lavinia; Hofmann, Susanna M.; Fisher, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Background High density lipoproteins (HDLs) are thought to be atheroprotective and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Besides their antioxidant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic properties in the vasculature, HDLs also improve glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Scope of the review Herein, we review the functional role of HDLs to improve metabolic disorders, especially those involving insulin resistance and to induce regression of CVD with a particular focus on current pharmacological treatment options as well as lifestyle interventions, particularly exercise. Major conclusions Functional properties of HDLs continue to be considered important mediators to reverse metabolic dysfunction and to regress atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle changes are often recommended to reduce the risk of CVD, with exercise being one of the most important of these. Understanding how exercise improves HDL function will likely lead to new approaches to battle the expanding burden of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:27110484

  7. Reduction in thermal conductivity of Bi thin films with high-density ordered nanoscopic pores.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gil-Sung; Lee, Mi-Ri; Lee, Seung-Yong; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Park, No-Won; Lee, Eun Sun; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2013-08-30

    We prepared two-dimensional Bi thin films with high-density ordered nanoscopic pores by e-beam evaporation of Bi metal. For this structure, we used polystyrene beads ranging from 200 to 750 nm in diameter as an etch mask. The typical hole and neck sizes of the Bi thin films with approximately 50 nm in thickness on SiO2/Si substrates were in the range of 135 to 490 nm and 65 to 260 nm, respectively. By measuring the thermal characteristics through a 3ω technique, we found that the thermal conductivities of nanoporous Bi thin films are greatly suppressed compared with those of corresponding bulk materials. With a decrease in pore size to approximately 135 nm, the thermal conductivity decreased significantly to approximately 0.46 W/m·K at 300 K.

  8. High-energy ion generation in interaction. of short laser pulse with high-density plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentoku, Y.; Bychenkov, V. Y.; Flippo, K.; Maksimchuk, A.; Mima, K.; Mourou, G.; Sheng, Z. M.; Umstadter, D.

    2002-03-01

    Multi-MeV ion production from the interaction of a short laser pulse with a high-density plasma, accompanied by an underdense preplasma, has been studied with a particle-in-cell simulation and good agreement is found with experiment. The mechanism primarily responsible for the acceleration of ions is identified. Comparison with experiments sheds light on the ion-energy dependence on laser intensity, preplasma scale length, and relative ion energies for a multi-species plasma. Two regimes of maximum ion-energy dependence on laser intensity, I, have been identified: subrelativistic, ∝I; and relativistic, ∝. Simulations show that the energy of the accelerated ions versus the preplasma scale length increases linearly and then saturates. In contrast, the ion energy decreases with the thickness of the solid-density plasma.

  9. Visualization of high-density 3D graphs using nonlinear visual space transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Garg, Pankaj; Machiraju, Vijay

    2002-03-01

    The real world data distribution is seldom uniform. Clutter and sparsity commonly occur in visualization. Often, clutter results in overplotting, in which certain data items are not visible because other data items occlude them. Sparsity results in the inefficient use of the available display space. Common mechanisms to overcome this include reducing the amount of information displayed or using multiple representations with a varying amount of detail. This paper describes out experiments on Non-Linear Visual Space Transformations (NLVST). NLVST encompasses several innovative techniques: (1) employing a histogram for calculating the density of data distribution; (2) mapping the raw data values to a non-linear scale for stretching a high-density area; (3) tightening the sparse area to save the display space; (4) employing different color ranges of values on a non-linear scale according to the local density. We have applied NLVST to several web applications: market basket analysis, transactions observation, and IT search behavior analysis.

  10. Technical and investigative support for high density digital satellite recording systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods and results of examinations and tests conducted on magnetic recording tapes under consideration for a high density digital (HDDR) satellite recording system are described. The examinations and tests investigate the performance of tapes with respect to their physical, magnetic and electrical characteristics. The objective of the tests, the likely significance of typical results, and the importance of the characteristics under investigation to the application are included. Theoretical discussions of measurement methods are provided where appropriate. Methods and results are discussed; the results of some sections are tabulated together to facilitate their comparison. The conclusion of each test section relates the test results to their possible significance and attempts to correlate the results of that section with the results of other tests. Some of the sections analyze sources of error inherent in the measurement methods or relate the value of the information obtained to the objectives of the test or the overall purpose of the project.

  11. Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Allen, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    The space radiation environment poses a certain risk to all electronic components on Earth-orbiting and planetary mission spacecraft. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of high-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories in space because of ever-increasing data volumes and strict power requirements. They are used in a wide variety of spacecraft subsystems. At one end of the spectrum, flash memories are used to store small amounts of mission-critical data such as boot code or configuration files and, at the other end, they are used to construct multi-gigabyte data recorders that record mission science data. This report examines single-event effect (SEE) and total ionizing dose (TID) response in single-level cell (SLC) 32-Gb, multi-level cell (MLC) 64-Gb, and Triple-level (TLC) 64-Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology with feature size of 25 nm.

  12. Newer therapeutic strategies to alter high-density lipoprotein level and function.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Nicholas; Frishman, William H

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol have been identified as a risk factor for premature coronary artery disease, however, to date, current pharmacologic approaches for raising HDL have provided little benefit, if at all, in reducing cardiovascular outcomes. It has been shown that HDL can modify many aspects of plaque pathogenesis. Its most established role is in reverse cholesterol transportation, but HDL can also affect oxidation, inflammation, cellular adhesion, and vasodilatation. Considering these potential benefits of HDL, newer treatments have been developed to modify HDL activity, which include the use of oral cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, apolipoprotein (apo)A-I infusions, apoA-I mimetics, drugs to increase apoA-I synthesis, and agonists of the liver X receptor. These new therapies are reviewed in this article.

  13. Evidence of a High Density Population of Harvested Leopards in a Montane Environment

    PubMed Central

    Chase Grey, Julia N.; Kent, Vivien T.; Hill, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    Populations of large carnivores can persist in mountainous environments following extensive land use change and the conversion of suitable habitat for agriculture and human habitation in lower lying areas of their range. The significance of these populations is poorly understood, however, and little attention has focussed on why certain mountainous areas can hold high densities of large carnivores and what the conservation implications of such populations might be. Here we use the leopard (Panthera pardus) population in the western Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa, as a model system and show that montane habitats can support high numbers of leopards. Spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) analysis recorded the highest density of leopards reported outside of state-protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This density represents a temporally high local abundance of leopards and we explore the explanations for this alongside some of the potential conservation implications. PMID:24349375

  14. High-density ultracold neutron sources for the WWR-M and PIK reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Serebrov, A. P. Fomin, A. K.; Kharitonov, A. G.; Lyamkin, V. A.; Prudnikov, D. V.; Ivanov, S. A.; Erykalov, A. N.; Onegin, M. S.; Gridnev, K. A.

    2016-01-15

    It is proposed to equip the PIK and WWR-M research reactors at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) with high-density ultracold neutron (UCN) sources, where UCNs will be obtained based on the effect of their accumulation in superfluid helium (due to the specific features of this quantum fluid). The maximum UCN storage time in superfluid helium is obtained at temperatures on the order of 1 K. These sources are expected to yield UCN densities of 10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}, i.e., approximately three orders of magnitude higher than the density from existing UCN sources throughout the world. The development of highest intensity UCN sources will make PNPI an international center of fundamental UCN research.

  15. ORDEM 3.0 and the Risk of High-Density Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark; Anz-Meador, Philip

    2014-01-01

    NASA’s Orbital Debris Engineering Model was designed to calculate orbital debris fluxes on spacecraft in order to assess collision risk. The newest of these models, ORDEM 3.0, has a number of features not present in previous models. One of the most important is that the populations and fluxes are now broken out into material density groups. Previous models concentrated on debris size alone, but a particle’s mass and density also determine the amount of damage it can cause. ORDEM 3.0 includes a high-density component, primarily consisting of iron/steel particles that drive much of the risk to spacecraft. This paper will outline the methods that were used to separate and identify the different densities of debris, and how these new densities affect the overall debris flux and risk.

  16. Scatterometry of Slant Incidence to Isolated Scatterers for High-Density Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tetsuya; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Itoh, Masahide

    2013-09-01

    The turning on and off of a convex scatterer can be used to store information in digital versatile disc (DVD) or Blu-ray technology. In addition, the distance between scatterers can be used as information, if it is precisely measured. Using a recently developed method, a single Fourier transformation of a diffraction pattern can be used to measure the distance between scatterers with high precision and without a lens. To enhance the precision for high-density memory, we examined a method to improve the resolution of measuring isolated convexes. We show by simulation of RCWA that slant incident light is useful for this purpose. We also show by experiment the validity of the method using gratings and the wing of a butterfly.

  17. High-density EMG E-textile systems for the control of active prostheses.

    PubMed

    Farina, Dario; Lorrain, Thomas; Negro, Francesco; Jiang, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Myoelectric control of active prostheses requires electrode systems that are easy to apply for daily repositioning of the electrodes by the user. In this study we propose the use of Smart Fabric and Interactive Textile (SFIT) systems as an alternative solution for recording high-density EMG signals for myoelectric control. A sleeve covering the upper and lower arm, which contains 100 electrodes arranged in four grids of 5 × 5 electrodes, was used to record EMG signals in 3 subjects during the execution of 9 tasks of the wrist and hand. The signals were analyzed by extracting wavelet coefficients which were classified with linear discriminant analysis. The average classification accuracy for the nine tasks was 89.1 ± 1.9 %. These results show that SFIT systems can be used as an effective way for muscle-machine interfacing.

  18. Reduction in thermal conductivity of Bi thin films with high-density ordered nanoscopic pores

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We prepared two-dimensional Bi thin films with high-density ordered nanoscopic pores by e-beam evaporation of Bi metal. For this structure, we used polystyrene beads ranging from 200 to 750 nm in diameter as an etch mask. The typical hole and neck sizes of the Bi thin films with approximately 50 nm in thickness on SiO2/Si substrates were in the range of 135 to 490 nm and 65 to 260 nm, respectively. By measuring the thermal characteristics through a 3ω technique, we found that the thermal conductivities of nanoporous Bi thin films are greatly suppressed compared with those of corresponding bulk materials. With a decrease in pore size to approximately 135 nm, the thermal conductivity decreased significantly to approximately 0.46 W/m·K at 300 K. PMID:24001222

  19. Unsupervised Spike Sorting for Large-Scale, High-Density Multielectrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Hilgen, Gerrit; Sorbaro, Martino; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Muthmann, Jens-Oliver; Kepiro, Ibolya Edit; Ullo, Simona; Ramirez, Cesar Juarez; Puente Encinas, Albert; Maccione, Alessandro; Berdondini, Luca; Murino, Vittorio; Sona, Diego; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca; Sernagor, Evelyne; Hennig, Matthias Helge

    2017-03-07

    We present a method for automated spike sorting for recordings with high-density, large-scale multielectrode arrays. Exploiting the dense sampling of single neurons by multiple electrodes, an efficient, low-dimensional representation of detected spikes consisting of estimated spatial spike locations and dominant spike shape features is exploited for fast and reliable clustering into single units. Millions of events can be sorted in minutes, and the method is parallelized and scales better than quadratically with the number of detected spikes. Performance is demonstrated using recordings with a 4,096-channel array and validated using anatomical imaging, optogenetic stimulation, and model-based quality control. A comparison with semi-automated, shape-based spike sorting exposes significant limitations of conventional methods. Our approach demonstrates that it is feasible to reliably isolate the activity of up to thousands of neurons and that dense, multi-channel probes substantially aid reliable spike sorting.

  20. Immunohistochemical detection of a very high density lipoprotein (VHDL) in ovarian follicles of Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    González, M S; Ronderos, J R; Rimoldi, O J; Brenner, R R

    2001-04-01

    The ability of Triatoma infestans ovarian follicles to synthesize a very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) has been examined by immunohistochemical methods. This kind of lipoprotein can be envisaged as a storage hexameric protein present in the hemolymph of some insect species. VHDL immunoreactivity is observed in oocytes at different stages of maturation. The antigen is present in the oocyte cytoplasm as well as in the follicular epithelial cells. The immunopositive reaction in the apical surface of follicle cells suggests both a VHDL synthesis and a secretion process. Furthermore, VHDL seems to be stored into oocyte in yolk granules. On the contrary, no immunopositive reaction is observed in the intracellular spaces between follicle cells, suggesting that VHDL is not incorporated from hemolymph into the oocyte.