Science.gov

Sample records for fillers materials

  1. Gap filler material

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-04

    S114-E-6674 (4 August 2005) --- On Discovery's middeck, one of the STS-114 crew members holds a piece of the gap filler material that had been protruding from between TPS tiles and retrieved the day before by Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, during the third spacewalk of the flight. Robinson used his gloved fingers to pull out this gap filler and another one from Discovery's belly while carefully supported and maneuvered by the Canadian-built remote manipulator system, operated inside Discovery's cabin by astronauts Wendy B. Lawrence and James M. Kelly. Gap fillers like those Robinson removed are thin, coated Nextel fabric. The protruding gap fillers were identified in photos taken by Station crewmembers using telephoto lenses as Discovery did a slow back flip about 600 feet below before docking.

  2. Initial investigation of cryogenic wind tunnel model filler materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, H. F.; Firth, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Various filler materials are being investigated for applicability to cryogenic wind tunnel models. The filler materials will be used to fill surface grooves, holes and flaws. The severe test environment of cryogenic models precludes usage of filler materials used on conventional wind tunnel models. Coefficients of thermal expansion, finishing characteristics, adhesion and stability of several candidate filler materials were examined. Promising filler materials are identified.

  3. New Manufacturing Method for Paper filler and Fiber Material

    SciTech Connect

    Doelle, Klaus

    2011-11-22

    The study compares commercial available filler products with a new developed “Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material” and how main structural, optical and strength properties are affected by increasing the filler content of at least 5% over commercial values. The study consists of: (i) an overview of paper filler materials used in the paper production process, (ii) discusses the manufacturing technology of lime based filler materials for paper applications, (iii) gives an overview of new emerging paper filler technologies, (iv) discusses a filler evaluation of commercial available digital printing paper products, (v) reports from a detailed handsheet study and 12” pilot plant paper machine trial runs with the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material, and (vi) evaluates and compares commercial filler products and the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material with a life cycle analyses that explains manufacturing, economic and environmental benefits as they are applied to uncoated digital printing papers.

  4. Thermal pretreatment of silica composite filler materials

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Quan; Ramsey, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Three different silica filler materials were thermally treated in order to effect dehydration, dehydroxylation, and rehydroxylation. Samples were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), pycnometry, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For all fillers, our results indicate incremental removal of silanol groups at higher heating temperatures and irreversible dehydroxylation at over 673 K. To remove the organic content and maintain adequate silanol density for subsequent silanization on Stöber-type silica, we suggest heating at 673 K followed by overnight boiling in water. PMID:20445821

  5. Initial Investigation of Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Model Filler Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firth, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Filler materials are used for surface flaws, instrumentation grooves, and fastener holes in wind tunnel models. More stringent surface quality requirements and the more demanding test environment encountered by cryogenic wind tunnels eliminate filler materials such as polyester resins, plaster, and waxes used on conventional wind tunnel models. To provide a material data base for cryogenic models, various filler materials are investigated. Surface quality requirements and test temperature extremes require matching of coefficients of thermal expansion or interfacing materials. Microstrain versus temperature curves are generated for several candidate filler materials for comparison with cryogenically acceptable materials. Matches have been achieved for aluminum alloys and austenitic steels. Simulated model surfaces are filled with candidate filler materials to determine finishing characteristics, adhesion and stability when subjected to cryogenic cycling. Filler material systems are identified which meet requirements for usage with aluminum model components.

  6. Filler Materials for Polyphenylenesulphide Composite Coatings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Gawlik, K.

    2001-07-17

    Researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have tested polymer-based coating systems to reduce the capital equipment and maintenance costs of heat exchangers in corrosive and fouling geothermal environments. These coating systems act as barriers to corrosion to protect low-cost carbon steel tubing; they are formulated to resist wear from hydroblasting and to have high thermal conductivity. Recently, new filler materials have been developed for coating systems that use polyphenylenesulphide as a matrix. These materials include boehmite crystals (orthorhombic aluminum hydroxide, which is grown in situ as a product of reaction with the geothermal fluid), which enhance wear and corrosion resistance, and carbon fibers, which improve mechanical, thermal, and corrosion-resistance properties of the composite.

  7. Fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLain, Leslie; Ingle, Danny

    The American Heritage dictionary defines filler as ‘something added to augment weight or size or fill space'. Historically, commercial papermakers have used a variety of inexpensive, minimally beneficiated minerals as fillers for economic extension of more costly wood fibre. As such, these fillers played a relatively inconsequential role in contributing specific quality characteristics to the final sheet. However, as paper grades have evolved, the role of mineral fillers has dramatically expanded to contribute specific functionality to final paper grades. In general, this has resulted in a broader offering of mineral products to the papermaker delivering a range of optical and physical properties. Additionally, the use of mineral fillers may significantly impact dynamics on the paper machine itself. For example, the type and level of filler can dramatically affect chemical demand, drainage, speed and drying rates. A basic understanding of the fundamental characteristics of fillers and their resulting impact, both within the paper matrix and on the paper machine, is a critical requirement for cost-effective grade optimization.

  8. Composite materials with metallic matrix and ceramic porous filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakarinova, V. I.; Portnoi, V. K.

    1995-08-01

    Composite materials with a reduced density reinforced with hollow corundum particles can be of interest as damping and abrasive materials for decreasing the mass of a structure. Methods for mixing powders and their hot pressing are suggested in order to produce such composite materials without fracture of the brittle hollow particles of the filler.

  9. Neutron Spectrometry for Identification of Filler Material in UXO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    whether ordnance is filled with explosives or inert material (e.g., concrete, Plaster of Paris, wax , etc.) or whether it is empty. Without verification...Plaster of Paris, wax , etc.) or whether it is empty. Without verification of the filler material, handling procedures often necessitate that the...S. Chmelik, R. J. Rasmussen, R. M. S. Schofield, G. E. Sieger, and J. C. Overley, Using Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS) to Candle

  10. New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material

    SciTech Connect

    Doelle, Klaus

    2013-08-25

    The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections. and it is important to understand the effect that new manufacturing methods of calcium carbonates have on the energy efficiency and paper production. Research conducted under this award showed that the new fiber filler composite material has the potential to increase the paper filler content by up to 5% without losing mechanical properties. Benefits of the technology can be summarized as follows for a 1% filler increase per metric ton of paper produced: (i) production cost savings over $12, (ii) Energy savings of 100,900 btu, (iii) CO{sub 2} emission savings of 33 lbs, and additional savings for wood preparation, pulping, recovery of 203593 btu with a 46lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per 1% filler increase. In addition the technology has the potential to save: (i) additional $3 per ton of bleached pulp produced, (ii) bleaching energy savings of 170,000 btu, (iii) bleaching CO{sub 2} emission savings of 39 lbs, and (iv) additional savings for replacing conventional bleaching chemicals with a sustainable bleaching chemical is estimated to be 900,000 btu with a 205 lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per ton of bleached pulp produced. All the above translates to a estimated annual savings for a 12% filler increase of 296 trillion buts or 51 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) or 13.7% of the industries energy demand. This can lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 70% for the industry sector. CO{sub 2} emission of the industry at a 12% filler increase could be lowered by over 39 million tons annually

  11. New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material

    SciTech Connect

    Doelle, Klaus

    2011-06-26

    The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections and it is important to understand the effect that different types of calcium carbonates have on the paper properties made of 100% eucalyptus pulp. The current study is focused on selecting the most suitable market available calcium carbonate for the production of uncoated Eucalyptus digital printing paper, targeting a potential filler increase of 5% above the currently used filler content. We made hand sheets using 13 different varieties of widely used calcium carbonates [Nine samples of PCC (two rhombic and seven scalenohedral, covering a wide particle size range from 1.2 {micro}m to 2.9 {micro}m), and four samples of GCC (three anionic and one cationic, with a particle size range from 0.7 {micro}m to 1.5 {micro}m)] available in the market followed by a 12” pilot plant paper machine run. The detailed analysis on the main structural, optical and strength properties of the hand sheets found that the most suitable calcium carbonate for uncoated Eucalyptus digital printing paper production is scalenohedral PCC, with a particle size of 1.9 {micro}m for its positive effects on thickness, stiffness, brightness and opacity of paper.

  12. Development of a Cigarette Tobacco Filler Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Sander, Lane C; Pritchett, Jeanita S; Daniels, Yasmine C; Wood, Laura J; Lang, Brian E; Wise, Stephen A; Yen, James H; Johnson, Tricia L; Walters, Matthew J; Phillips, Tracy; Holman, Matthew R; Lee, Grace E; Lisko, Joseph G; Lane, Brian; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford

    2017-10-03

    A new tobacco filler Standard Reference Material (SRM) has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in September 2016 with certified and reference mass fraction values for nicotine, N-nitrosonornicotine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, and volatiles. The constituents have been determined by multiple analytical methods with measurements at NIST and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and with confirmatory measurements by commercial laboratories. This effort highlights the development of the first SRM for reduced nicotine and reduced tobacco-specific nitrosamines with certified values for composition.

  13. Hair as a filler material for reconstructive or cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kaakedjian, G; Taylor, P

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible use of hair as a filler material for reconstructive or cosmetic surgery. Many implant materials tested so far have proved to be of limited usefulness due to a lack of staying power or to fears of a host immune response, among other problems. In this study, pellets of rat hair were placed subcutaneously or beneath the pectoral muscle of Lewis rats (10 rats per group). A thin vascularized fibrous pouch containing inflammatory cells had formed around the hair pellet at 4 months. By 8 to 12 months, the hair had compacted, and the fibrous matrix of the pouch showed very few inflammatory cells surrounding the embedded hairs. There was no evidence of implant rejection, granuloma formation, or hair degradation up to 12 months after implantation. The results indicate that hair merits further study as a surgical implant material.

  14. ANALYSIS OF MPC ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR ADDITION OF FILLER MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    W. Wallin

    1996-09-03

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) in response to a request received via a QAP-3-12 Design Input Data Request (Ref. 5.1) from WAST Design (formerly MRSMPC Design). The request is to provide: Specific MPC access requirements for the addition of filler materials at the MGDS (i.e., location and size of access required). The objective of this analysis is to provide a response to the foregoing request. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a documented record of the basis for the response. The response is stated in Section 8 herein. The response is based upon requirements from an MGDS perspective.

  15. Acoustic Identification of Filler Materials in Unexploded Ordnance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    amplitude Calculate filler velocity and attenuation Match measured properties with database Sender Receiver Top view ordnance case Filler Acoustic...time of this signal peak is at the middle of the rise of the leading signal, not at the time where the signal rises from zero amplitude which is the...differentiate it from the case noise that will always be present. First, the time signal must 10 rapidly increase in amplitude from the baseline noise level

  16. Investigation of Thermostability of a Composite Resistive Material with Nanodimensional Carbon Fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Vlasov, V. A.; Volokitin, G. G.; Melentyev, S. V.

    2014-06-01

    Thermostability of resistive materials based on polyurethane used as heat-liberating elements in the design of heating elements of thermoactive formworks is investigated. The application of polyurethane as a binder provides solid contact of polymer molecules with nanodimensional carbon fillers and their uniform distribution in a composite material. The influence of thermal treatment and dispersed fillers on the stability of electrophysical and thermophysical properties of carbon-filled polyurethane coatings is established.

  17. PMMA denture base material enhancement: a review of fiber, filler, and nanofiller addition

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Mohammed M; Fouda, Shaimaa M; Al-Harbi, Fahad A; Näpänkangas, Ritva; Raustia, Aune

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews acrylic denture base resin enhancement during the past few decades. Specific attention is given to the effect of fiber, filler, and nanofiller addition on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) properties. The review is based on scientific reviews, papers, and abstracts, as well as studies concerning the effect of additives, fibers, fillers, and reinforcement materials on PMMA, published between 1974 and 2016. Many studies have reported improvement of PMMA denture base material with the addition of fillers, fibers, nanofiller, and hybrid reinforcement. However, most of the studies were limited to in vitro investigations without bioactivity and clinical implications. Considering the findings of the review, there is no ideal denture base material, but the properties of PMMA could be improved with some modifications, especially with silanized nanoparticle addition and a hybrid reinforcement system. PMID:28553115

  18. Improving the Erosion Resistance of Electrical Insulating Materials Using Nano Fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hag, A.; Ul-Haq, S.; Jayaram, S.; Cherney, E.

    2007-08-01

    The paper presents the experimental results obtained to test the effect of nano-fillers on the aging performance of silicone rubber for outdoor applications and enamelled wire for motor insulation. The erosion resistance of silicone rubber (SIR) filled with 12 nm size fumed silica is compared to those filled with 5 μm size silica filler using the ASTM 2303 Inclined Plane Tracking and Erosion Test. The erosion resistance of the SIR materials increased with increasing percentage of the fillers, and it was observed that 10% by weight of nano-filled SIR gives a performance that is similar to that obtained with 50% by weight of micro-filled SIR. The paper discusses the possible reasons for the improvement in the erosion resistance of nano-filled silicone composites using different material analysis techniques like Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Also, the effect of using different nano fillers like alumina, fumed silica and titanium oxide on the erosion resistance of enamel wire insulating material subjected to different electrical stresses will be addresses. Surface roughness is used to evaluate the effect of different nano-fillers on the erosion resistance of enamel wire insulation.

  19. Use of filler materials to aid spent nuclear fuel dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.J.

    1981-09-01

    The use of filler materials (also known as stabilizer or encapsulating materials) was investigated in conjunction with the dry storage of irradiated light water reactor (LWR) fuel. The results of this investigation appear to be equally valid for the wet storage of fuel. The need for encapsulation and suitable techniques for closing was also investigated. Various materials were reviewed (including solids, liquids, and gases) which were assumed to fill the void areas within a storage can containing either intact or disassembled spent fuel. Materials were reviewed and compared on the basis of cost, thermal characteristics, and overall suitability in the proposed environment. A thermal analysis was conducted to yield maximum centerline and surface temperatures of a design basis fuel encapsulated within various filler materials. In general, air was found to be the most likely choice as a filler material for the dry storage of spent fuel. The choice of any other filler material would probably be based on a desire, or need, to maximize specific selection criteria, such as surface temperatures, criticality safety, or confinement.

  20. Hybrid waste filler filled bio-polymer foam composites for sound absorbent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Soon, Leong Bong; Zaliran, M. Taufiq; Ahraz Sadrina M. F., L.

    2017-09-01

    Sound absorption materials are one of the major requirements in many industries with regards to the sound insulation developed should be efficient to reduce sound. This is also important to contribute in economically ways of producing sound absorbing materials which is cheaper and user friendly. Thus, in this research, the sound absorbent properties of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers of wood dust and waste tire rubber has been investigated. Waste cooking oil from crisp industries was converted into bio-monomer, filled with different proportion ratio of fillers and fabricated into bio-polymer foam composite. Two fabrication methods is applied which is the Close Mold Method (CMM) and Open Mold Method (OMM). A total of four bio-polymer foam composite samples were produce for each method used. The percentage of hybrid fillers; mixture of wood dust and waste tire rubber of 2.5 %, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% weight to weight ration with bio-monomer. The sound absorption of the bio-polymer foam composites samples were tested by using the impedance tube test according to the ASTM E-1050 and Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the morphology and porosity of the samples. The sound absorption coefficient (α) at different frequency range revealed that the polymer foam of 10.0 % hybrid fillers shows highest α of 0.963. The highest hybrid filler loading contributing to smallest pore sizes but highest interconnected pores. This also revealed that when highly porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules at the surface of the material and within the pores of the material are forced to vibrate and loses some of their original energy. This is concluded that the suitability of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers to be used in acoustic application of automotive components such as dashboards, door panels, cushion and etc.

  1. Investigation on Using SBS and Active Carbon Filler to Reduce the VOC Emission from Bituminous Materials

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Peiqiang; Wu, Shaopeng; Li, Fuzhou; Xiao, Yue; Zhang, Honghua

    2014-01-01

    Bituminous materials are playing a vital role in pavement design and the roofing industry because of outstanding properties. Unfortunately, bituminous materials will release volatile organic compounds (VOC), making them non-environmentally friendly. Therefore, technologies that can be used to decrease the VOC emission are urgently required. In this research, the VOC emission and material behaviors were analyzed and compared to investigate the possibility of adding styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) and active carbon filler into bituminous materials to develop environmentally-friendly materials. Thermal gravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy testing (UV-Vis) were employed to characterize the VOC emission process. Temperature sweep testing and frequency sweep testing were conducted to evaluate the rheological properties of bituminous materials. Research results indicated that the combined introduction of 4 wt% styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) and 4 wt% active carbon filler cannot only significantly lower the VOC emission speed and amount, but also improve the deformation resistance behavior at a higher temperature. SBS and active carbon filler can be used to reduce the VOC emission form bituminous materials. PMID:28788181

  2. Long-term performance of thermoplastic composite material with cotton burr and stem (CBS) as a partial filler

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rationale: Cotton burr and stem (CBS) fraction of cotton gin byproducts has shown promise as a fiber filler in thermoplastic composites, with physical and mechanical properties comparable to that made with wood fiber fillers. However, the long-term performance of this composite material is not known...

  3. Neutron Spectrometry for Identification of filler material in UXO - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2007-09-12

    Unexploded ordnance (UXO)-contaminated sites often include ordnance filled with inert substances that were used in dummy rounds. During UXO surveys, it is difficult to determine whether ordnance is filled with explosives or inert material (e.g., concrete, plaster-of-paris, wax, etc.) or is empty. Without verification of the filler material, handling procedures often necessitate that the object be blown in place, which has potential impacts to the environment, personnel, communities and survey costs. The Department of Defense (DoD) needs a reliable, timely, non-intrusive and cost-effective way to identify filler material before a removal action. A new technology that serves this purpose would minimize environmental impacts, personnel safety risks and removal costs; and, thus, would be especially beneficial to remediation activities.

  4. Development of sputtered techniques for thrust chambers, task 1. [evaluation of filler materials for regeneratively cooled thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullaly, J. R.; Schmid, T. E.; Hecht, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Filler materials proposed for use in the sputter fabrication regeneratively cooled thrust chambers were evaluated. Low melting castable alloys, CERROBEND. CERROCAST, and CERROTRU, slurry applied SERMETEL 481 and flame-sprayed aluminum were investigated as filler materials. Sputter deposition from a cylindrical cathode inverted magnestron was used to apply an OFHC copper closeout layer to filled OFHC copper ribbed-wall cylindrical substrates. The sputtered closeout layer structure was evaluated with respect to filler material contamination, predeposition machining and finishing operations, and deposition parameters. The application of aluminum by flame-spraying resulted in excessiver filler porosity. Though the outgassing from this porosity was found to be detrimental to the closeout layer structure, bond strengths in excess of 10,500 psi were achieved. Removal of the aluminum from the grooves was readily accomplished by leaching in a 7.0 molar solution of sodium hydroxide at 353 K. Of the other filler materials evaluated, CERROTRU was found to be the most suitable material with respect to completely filling the ribbed-wall cylinders and vacuum system compatibility. However, bond contamination resulted in low closeout layer bond strength with the CERROTRU filler. CERROBEND, CERROCAST, and SERMETEL 481 were found to be unacceptable as filler materials.

  5. Aluminum-matrix composite materials with shungite rock fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikov, I. E.; Kovalevski, V. V.; Chernyshova, T. A.; Bolotova, L. K.

    2010-11-01

    A method is proposed for the introduction of shungite rocks into aluminum melts by mechanical mixing with carriers, namely, aluminum granules and reactive titanium powders taking part in exothermic in situ reactions. The structures of composite materials with shungite rock additions are studied, and a stabilizing effect of these additions on dry sliding friction is revealed.

  6. Dual morphology (fibres and particles) cellulosic filler for WPC materials

    SciTech Connect

    Valente, Marco Tirillò, Jacopo; Quitadamo, Alessia; Santulli, Carlo

    2016-05-18

    Wood-plastic composites (WPC) were fabricated by using a polyethylene (PE) matrix and filling it with wood flour in the amount of 30 wt.%, and compared with the same composites with further amount of 10 wt.% of cellulosic recycled fibres added. The materials were produced by turbomixing and subsequent moulding under pressure. Mechanical properties of both WPC and WPC with cellulosic recycled fibres were evaluated through mechanical and physical-chemical tests. Tensile tests clarified that a moderate reduction is strength is observed with the bare introduction of wood flour with respect to the neat PE matrix, whilst some recovery is offered by the addition of recycled cellulose fibres. Even more promisingly, the elastic modulus of PE matrix is substantially improved by the addition of wood flour (around 8% on average) and much more so with the further addition of recycled cellulose (around 20% on average). The fracture surfaces from the tensile test were analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicating a reduction in microporosity as an effect of added cellulose. The water absorption test and the hardness measure (Shore D) were also performed. SEM analysis underlined the weak interface between both wood particle and cellulosic recycled fibres and matrix. The water absorption test showed a higher mass variation for pure WPC than WPC with cellulosic recycled fibres. The hardness measurement showed that the presence of cellulosic recycled fibres improves both superficial hardness of the composite and temperature resistance.

  7. Dual morphology (fibres and particles) cellulosic filler for WPC materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Marco; Tirillò, Jacopo; Quitadamo, Alessia; Santulli, Carlo

    2016-05-01

    Wood-plastic composites (WPC) were fabricated by using a polyethylene (PE) matrix and filling it with wood flour in the amount of 30 wt.%, and compared with the same composites with further amount of 10 wt.% of cellulosic recycled fibres added. The materials were produced by turbomixing and subsequent moulding under pressure. Mechanical properties of both WPC and WPC with cellulosic recycled fibres were evaluated through mechanical and physical-chemical tests. Tensile tests clarified that a moderate reduction is strength is observed with the bare introduction of wood flour with respect to the neat PE matrix, whilst some recovery is offered by the addition of recycled cellulose fibres. Even more promisingly, the elastic modulus of PE matrix is substantially improved by the addition of wood flour (around 8% on average) and much more so with the further addition of recycled cellulose (around 20% on average). The fracture surfaces from the tensile test were analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicating a reduction in microporosity as an effect of added cellulose. The water absorption test and the hardness measure (Shore D) were also performed. SEM analysis underlined the weak interface between both wood particle and cellulosic recycled fibres and matrix. The water absorption test showed a higher mass variation for pure WPC than WPC with cellulosic recycled fibres. The hardness measurement showed that the presence of cellulosic recycled fibres improves both superficial hardness of the composite and temperature resistance.

  8. Space charge suppression effect of nano-size fillers added to polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayase, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Takada, T.; Murata, Y.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Reddy, C. C.

    2009-08-01

    Space charge suppression mechanism in nano-composite polymer material is studied using experimental results and numerical simulation. Recently, many kinds of nano-composite polymeric materials have been reported to have improved their characteristics under high electric field. For example, LDPE/MgO nano-composite, which is made up of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and nano size filler of magnesium oxide (MgO), exhibits high volume resistivity and high dielectric strength under dc electric field. Authors have investigated the space charge behaviour in LDPE/MgO nano-composite under high electric field using pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method. It has been found that, compared to LDPE, the space charge formation is also suppressed in the nano-composite material. As a reason for the suppression, we have suggested that the induced dipole polarization around MgO filler formed by dc stress application might play a role of carrier trap sites. From the numerical calculation, distortion of electric potential around MgO is seen to be much larger than that around naturally included dipole. It means that the MgO acts as a deep trap site as different from some defect or ions included in LDPE. Using the numerical calculation based on such electric potential distortion, we have tried to simulate the space charge distribution in LDPE/MgO under high dc electric field. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Investigating the weight ratio variation of alginate-hydroxyapatite composites for vertebroplasty method bone filler material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Gusti Ruri; Yuwono, Akhmad Herman; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Ramahdita, Ghiska

    2017-02-01

    One of the newly developed methods for curing spinal fracture due to osteoporosis is vertebroplasty. The method is basically based on injection of special material directly to the fractured spine in order to commence the formation of new bone. Therefore, appropriate injectable materials are very important to the curing success. In this study, injectable alginate-hydroxyapatite (HA) composites were fabricated varying the weight percentage of alginate upon synthesis procedure. The result of injection capability and compressive tests as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) suggested that bone filler composite containing 60 wt% alginate is the optimum composition obtaining a compressive modulus up to 0.15 MPa, injection capability of more than 85% and morphology with uniform porous and fibrous structure. This injectable composite fabrication process can be used for the development of injectable materials system for vertebroplasty method.

  10. The effect of filler content and processing variables on dimensional accuracy of experimental composite inlay material.

    PubMed

    Razak, A A; Harrison, A

    1997-04-01

    Dimensional accuracy of a composite inlay restoration is important to ensure an accurate fit and to minimize cementation stresses. A method was developed to measure dimensional accuracy and stability of a composite inlay. A standard Class II (MOD) inlay cavity stainless steel mold was made with six circular indentations placed on the occlusal floor of the cavity and four indentations on each gingival floor to act as datum points in the measurement of linear polymerization shrinkage. The inlay restorations were prepared from an inlay-onlay composite material of different filler contents (50%, 65%, and 79% by weight). For each filler content group, three curing methods were used: light curing only, light curing and heat curing at 100 degrees C for 5 minutes, and light curing and heat curing at 100 degrees C for 5 minutes and then storage in distilled water for 7 days. The accuracy of the MOD inlays was determined by measuring the shrinkage of the restoration on the occlusal floor areas and the gingival seats. The results demonstrated an inverse linear relationship between filler content and polymerization shrinkage. There was a tendency for the light-curing and heat-curing method to show an increase in polymerization shrinkage. An expansion was recorded between the mesial and distal boxes when the specimens were soaked in water for 7 days. This study suggested that the inlay mold limits the physical shrinkage that can occur between the mesial and distal axial walls of the inlay restoration because the inlay cannot shrink to a smaller dimension than the mold. Water sorption then causes hygroscopic expansion, which enlarges the distance between the mesial and distal walls.

  11. Filler-depletion layer adjacent to interface impacts performance of thermal interface material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yada, Susumu; Oyake, Takafumi; Sakata, Masanori; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2016-01-01

    When installing thermal interface material (TIM) between heat source and sink to reduce contact thermal resistance, the interfacial thermal resistance (ITR) between the TIM and heat source/sink may become important, especially when the TIM thickness becomes smaller in the next-generation device integration. To this end, we have investigated ITR between TIM and aluminum surface by using the time-domain thermoreflectance method. The measurements reveal large ITR attributed to the depletion of filler particles in TIM adjacent to the aluminum surface. The thickness of the depletion layer is estimated to be about 100 nm. As a consequence, the fraction of ITR to the total contact thermal resistance becomes about 20% when the TIM thickness is about 50 μm (current thickness), and it exceeds 50% when the thickness is smaller than 10 μm (next-generation thickness).

  12. Beyond waste: new sustainable fillers from fly ashes stabilization, obtained by low cost raw materials.

    PubMed

    Rodella, N; Pasquali, M; Zacco, A; Bilo, F; Borgese, L; Bontempi, N; Tomasoni, G; Depero, L E; Bontempi, E

    2016-09-01

    A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www.cosmos-rice.csmt.eu). This process is based on a chemical reaction that occurs properly mixing three waste fly ashes with rice husk ash, an agricultural by-product. COSMOS inert can replace critical raw materials (i.e. silica, fluorspar, clays, bentonite, antimony and alumina) as filler. Moreover the materials employed in the stabilization procedure may be not available in all areas. This paper investigates the possibility of substituting silica fume with corresponding condensed silica fume and to substitute flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) residues with low-cost calcium hydroxide powder. The removal of coal fly ash was also considered. The results will be presented and a possible substitution of the materials to stabilize fly ash will be discussed.

  13. Injectable Cartilage Shaving: An Autologous and Long Lasting Filler Material for Correction of Minor Contour Deformities in Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Manafi, Ali; Hamedi, Zahra Sadat; Manafi, Amir; Rajabiani, Afsaneh; Rajaee, Ahmadreza; Manafi, Farzad

    2015-07-01

    Filler materials are gaining popularity in nonsurgical rhinoplasty the major advantages are the ability to camouflage the surface deformities, and also the soft and malleable consistency; while the major drawback of the safe fillers such as hyaluronic acid is short durability. In this study, we evaluated the injectable cartilage shaving as an autologous filler material for correction of minor contour deformities in rhinoplasty. Injectable cartilage shaving was used for correction of surface irregularities in primary or secondary rhinoplasty, and long term results of 128 patients were evaluated. The source of cartilage was autologous septum, rib or less frequently, the ear concha. The material was injected with 14 to 18 gauge needles or blunted tip lipofilling cannulas with 1.3-1.7 mm internal diameters. It was performed whether during the septorhinoplasty or as a separate single procedure without elevation of the flap. Success was defined as the long term survival of the graft in the desired site and absence of recurrent deformity or complications such as extrusion, infection or displacement. Twenty seven males and 101 females underwent the procedure from May 2008 to January 2014. Mean follow up period was 31 (13-58) months. Ninety five percent of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the results at the last follow up visits and touch up procedure was performed for the unsatisfied patients. Injectable cartilage shaving is a reliable filler to correct and camouflage the surface irregularities, and it is durable and predictable in long term follow ups.

  14. Injectable Cartilage Shaving: An Autologous and Long Lasting Filler Material for Correction of Minor Contour Deformities in Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Manafi, Ali; Hamedi, Zahra Sadat; Manafi, Amir; Rajabiani, Afsaneh; Rajaee, Ahmadreza; Manafi, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Filler materials are gaining popularity in nonsurgical rhinoplasty the major advantages are the ability to camouflage the surface deformities, and also the soft and malleable consistency; while the major drawback of the safe fillers such as hyaluronic acid is short durability. In this study, we evaluated the injectable cartilage shaving as an autologous filler material for correction of minor contour deformities in rhinoplasty. METHODS Injectable cartilage shaving was used for correction of surface irregularities in primary or secondary rhinoplasty, and long term results of 128 patients were evaluated. The source of cartilage was autologous septum, rib or less frequently, the ear concha. The material was injected with 14 to 18 gauge needles or blunted tip lipofilling cannulas with 1.3-1.7 mm internal diameters. It was performed whether during the septorhinoplasty or as a separate single procedure without elevation of the flap. Success was defined as the long term survival of the graft in the desired site and absence of recurrent deformity or complications such as extrusion, infection or displacement. RESULTS Twenty seven males and 101 females underwent the procedure from May 2008 to January 2014. Mean follow up period was 31 (13-58) months. Ninety five percent of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the results at the last follow up visits and touch up procedure was performed for the unsatisfied patients. CONCLUSION Injectable cartilage shaving is a reliable filler to correct and camouflage the surface irregularities, and it is durable and predictable in long term follow ups. PMID:26284177

  15. Injectable redox-polymerized methylcellulose hydrogels as potential soft tissue filler materials.

    PubMed

    Gold, Gittel T; Varma, Devika M; Harbottle, David; Gupta, Michelle S; Stalling, Simone S; Taub, Peter J; Nicoll, Steven B

    2014-12-01

    There is a significant clinical need for long-lasting, injectable materials for soft tissue reconstruction. Methylcellulose (MC) is an FDA-approved polysaccharide derivative of cellulose that is inexpensive, renewable, and biocompatible, and may serve as an alternative to existing synthetic and natural fillers. In this study, MC was modified with functional methacrylate groups and polymerized using a redox-initiation system to produce hydrogels with tunable properties. By varying the percent methacrylation and macromer concentration, the equilibrium moduli of the hydrogels were found to range between 1.29 ± 0.46 and 12.8 ± 2.94 kPa, on par with human adipose tissue, and also displayed an inverse relationship to the swelling properties. Rheological analyses determined gelation onset and completion to be in accordance with the ISO standard for injectable materials. Cellulase enzymatic treatment resulted in complete degradation of the hydrogels by 48 h, presenting the possibility of minimally invasive removal of the materials in the event of malposition or host reaction. In addition, co-culture experiments with human dermal fibroblasts showed the gels to be cytocompatible based on DNA measurements and Live/Dead staining. Taken together, these redox-polymerized MC hydrogels may be of use for a wide range of clinical indications requiring soft tissue augmentation.

  16. Novel nano-particles as fillers for an experimental resin-based restorative material.

    PubMed

    Rüttermann, S; Wandrey, C; Raab, W H-M; Janda, R

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the properties of two experimental materials, nano-material (Nano) and Microhybrid, and two trade products, Clearfil AP-X and Filtek Supreme XT. The flexural strength and modulus after 24h water storage and 5000 thermocycles, water sorption, solubility and X-ray opacity were determined according to ISO 4049. The volumetric behavior (DeltaV) after curing and after water storage was investigated with the Archimedes principle. ANOVA was calculated with p<0.05. Clearfil AP-X showed the highest flexural strength (154+/-14 MPa) and flexural modulus (11,600+/-550 MPa) prior to and after thermocycling (117+/-14 MPa and 13,000+/-300 MPa). The flexural strength of all materials decreased after thermocycling, but the flexural modulus decreased only for Filtek Supreme XT. After thermocycling, there were no significant differences in flexural strength and modulus between Filtek Supreme XT, Microhybrid and Nano. Clearfil AP-X had the lowest water sorption (22+/-1.1 microg mm(-3)) and Nano had the highest water sorption (82+/-2.6 microg mm(-3)) and solubility (27+/-2.9 microg mm(-3)) of all the materials. No significant differences occurred between the solubility of Clearfil AP-X, Filtek Supreme XT and Microhybrid. Microhybrid and Nano provided the highest X-ray opacity. Owing to the lower filler content, Nano showed higher shrinkage than the commercial materials. Nano had the highest expansion after water storage. After thermocycling, Nano performed as well as Filtek Supreme XT for flexural strength, even better for X-ray opacity but significantly worse for flexural modulus, water sorption and solubility. The performances of microhybrids were superior to those of the nano-materials.

  17. Ethanol production waste as rubber composite filler: examining the pyrolysis of dried distillers grains and other dry milling byproducts as potential rubber reinforcement materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current push for corn-based ethanol is creating a large surplus of affordable by-products that can potentially serve as filler material for rubber composites. Biomaterial fillers can help replace carbon black and reduce dependence on petroleum. This research examines the reinforcement behavior...

  18. Dermal fillers: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dermal fillers have been used for decades in soft tissue augmentation. Currently, filler implementation is among the most common minimally invasive procedures for rejuvenation and body sculpturing. There is a broad variety of filler materials and products. Despite immense experience, a number of controversies in this topic exist. Some of these controversies are addressed in this review, for example, who should perform filler injections, the difference between permanent and nonpermanent fillers, the off-label use of liquid silicone, and the role of pain reduction. Implementation of guidelines and restriction of filler use by trained physicians can improve safety for patients. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dual-Component Gelatinous Peptide/Reactive Oligomer Formulations as Conduit Material and Luminal Filler for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kohn-Polster, Caroline; Bhatnagar, Divya; Woloszyn, Derek J; Richtmyer, Matthew; Starke, Annett; Springwald, Alexandra H; Franz, Sandra; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Kaplan, Hilton M; Kohn, Joachim; Hacker, Michael C

    2017-05-21

    Toward the next generation of nerve guidance conduits (NGCs), novel biomaterials and functionalization concepts are required to address clinical demands in peripheral nerve regeneration (PNR). As a biological polymer with bioactive motifs, gelatinous peptides are promising building blocks. In combination with an anhydride-containing oligomer, a dual-component hydrogel system (cGEL) was established. First, hollow cGEL tubes were fabricated by a continuous dosing and templating process. Conduits were characterized concerning their mechanical strength, in vitro and in vivo degradation and biocompatibility. Second, cGEL was reformulated as injectable shear thinning filler for established NGCs, here tyrosine-derived polycarbonate-based braided conduits. Thereby, the formulation contained the small molecule LM11A-31. The biofunctionalized cGEL filler was assessed regarding building block integration, mechanical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity, and growth permissive effects on human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. A positive in vitro evaluation motivated further application of the filler material in a sciatic nerve defect. Compared to the empty conduit and pristine cGEL, the functionalization performed superior, though the autologous nerve graft remains the gold standard. In conclusion, LM11A-31 functionalized cGEL filler with extracellular matrix (ECM)-like characteristics and specific biochemical cues holds great potential to support PNR.

  20. Dual-Component Gelatinous Peptide/Reactive Oligomer Formulations as Conduit Material and Luminal Filler for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kohn-Polster, Caroline; Bhatnagar, Divya; Woloszyn, Derek J.; Richtmyer, Matthew; Starke, Annett; Springwald, Alexandra H.; Franz, Sandra; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Kaplan, Hilton M.; Kohn, Joachim; Hacker, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Toward the next generation of nerve guidance conduits (NGCs), novel biomaterials and functionalization concepts are required to address clinical demands in peripheral nerve regeneration (PNR). As a biological polymer with bioactive motifs, gelatinous peptides are promising building blocks. In combination with an anhydride-containing oligomer, a dual-component hydrogel system (cGEL) was established. First, hollow cGEL tubes were fabricated by a continuous dosing and templating process. Conduits were characterized concerning their mechanical strength, in vitro and in vivo degradation and biocompatibility. Second, cGEL was reformulated as injectable shear thinning filler for established NGCs, here tyrosine-derived polycarbonate-based braided conduits. Thereby, the formulation contained the small molecule LM11A-31. The biofunctionalized cGEL filler was assessed regarding building block integration, mechanical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity, and growth permissive effects on human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. A positive in vitro evaluation motivated further application of the filler material in a sciatic nerve defect. Compared to the empty conduit and pristine cGEL, the functionalization performed superior, though the autologous nerve graft remains the gold standard. In conclusion, LM11A-31 functionalized cGEL filler with extracellular matrix (ECM)-like characteristics and specific biochemical cues holds great potential to support PNR. PMID:28531139

  1. Two-beam Laser Brazing of Thin Sheet Steel for Automotive Industry Using Cu-base Filler Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstädt, C.; Seefeld, T.; Reitemeyer, D.; Vollertsen, F.

    This work shows the potential of two-beam laser brazing for joining both Zn-coated steel and 22MnB5. Brazing of Zn-coated steel sheets using Cu-Si filler wire is already state of the art in car manufacturing. New press-hardened steels like 22MnB5 are more and more used in automotive industry, offering high potential to save costs and improve structural properties (reduced weight / higher stiffness). However, for joining of these ultra-high strength steels investigations are mandatory. In this paper, a novel approach using a two-beam laser brazing process and Cu-base filler material is presented. The use of Cu-base filler material leads to a reduced heat input, compared to currently applied welding processes, which may result in benefits concerning distortion, post processing and tensile strength of the joint. Reliable processing at desired high speeds is attained by means of laser-preheating. High feed rates prevent significant diffusion of copper into the base material.

  2. Electrical Properties of Composite Materials with Electric Field-Assisted Alignment of Nanocarbon Fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovenko, Olena; Matzui, Ludmila; Danylova, Ganna; Zadorozhnii, Victor; Vovchenko, Ludmila; Perets, Yulia; Lazarenko, Oleksandra

    2017-07-01

    The article reports about electric field-induced alignment of the carbon nanoparticles embedded in epoxy matrix. Optical microscopy was performed to consider the effect of the electric field magnitude and configuration, filler morphology, and aspect ratio on alignment process. Characteristic time of aligned network formation was compared with modeling predictions. Carbon nanotube and graphite nanoplatelet rotation time was estimated using an analytical model based on effective medium approach. Different depolarization factor was applied according to the geometries of the particle and electric field. Solid nanocomposites were fabricated by using AC electric field. We have investigated concentration dependence of electrical conductivity of graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy composites using two-probe technique. It was established that the electrical properties of composites with random and aligned filler distribution are differ by conductivity value at certain filler content and distinguish by a form of concentration dependence of conductivity for fillers with different morphology. These differences were explained in terms of the dynamic percolation and formation of various conductive networks: chained in case of graphite nanoplatelets and crossed framework in case of carbon nanotubes filler.

  3. LDH dye hybrid material as coloured filler into polystyrene: Structural characterization and rheological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taviot-Gueho, C.; Illaik, A.; Vuillermoz, C.; Commereuc, S.; Verney, V.; Leroux, F.

    2007-05-01

    The organic inorganic hybrid assembly composed of a dye molecule of large size, direct yellow®50, as interleaved anionic molecule and layered double hydroxide host was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Upon hydrothermal post-synthesis treatment, the basal spacing is strongly decreased, explained by a drastic change in the orientation of the organic molecule against the LDH sheets, from perpendicular to parallel. The interactions were studied by 13C CPMAS NMR technique. Dispersed into polystyrene, the coloured filler was found to behave better in the viscoelastic domain than conventional surfactant LDH filler, maintaining similar rheological properties to filler-free PS. We demonstrate here that an intercalated nanocomposite polymer structure, providing an additional function as colour, is not preposterous.

  4. The development, fabrication, and material characterization of polypropylene composites reinforced with carbon nanofiber and hydroxyapatite nanorod hybrid fillers

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Cheng Zhu; Wong, Hoi Man; Yeung, Kelvin Wai Kwok; Tjong, Sie Chin

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the design, fabrication, microstructural and property characterization, and biocompatibility evaluation of polypropylene (PP) reinforced with carbon nanofiber (CNF) and hydroxyapatite nanorod (HANR) fillers. The purpose is to develop advanced PP/CNF–HANR hybrids with good mechanical behavior, thermal stability, and excellent biocompatibility for use as craniofacial implants in orthopedics. Several material-examination techniques, including X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, tensile tests, and impact measurement are used to characterize the microstructural, mechanical, and thermal properties of the hybrids. Furthermore, osteoblastic cell cultivation and colorimetric assay are also employed for assessing their viability on the composites. The CNF and HANR filler hybridization yields an improvement in Young’s modulus, impact strength, thermal stability, and biocompatibility of PP. The PP/2% CNF–20% HANR hybrid composite is found to exhibit the highest elastic modulus, tensile strength, thermal stability, and biocompatibility. PMID:24648729

  5. The development, fabrication, and material characterization of polypropylene composites reinforced with carbon nanofiber and hydroxyapatite nanorod hybrid fillers.

    PubMed

    Liao, Cheng Zhu; Wong, Hoi Man; Yeung, Kelvin Wai Kwok; Tjong, Sie Chin

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the design, fabrication, microstructural and property characterization, and biocompatibility evaluation of polypropylene (PP) reinforced with carbon nanofiber (CNF) and hydroxyapatite nanorod (HANR) fillers. The purpose is to develop advanced PP/CNF-HANR hybrids with good mechanical behavior, thermal stability, and excellent biocompatibility for use as craniofacial implants in orthopedics. Several material-examination techniques, including X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, tensile tests, and impact measurement are used to characterize the microstructural, mechanical, and thermal properties of the hybrids. Furthermore, osteoblastic cell cultivation and colorimetric assay are also employed for assessing their viability on the composites. The CNF and HANR filler hybridization yields an improvement in Young's modulus, impact strength, thermal stability, and biocompatibility of PP. The PP/2% CNF-20% HANR hybrid composite is found to exhibit the highest elastic modulus, tensile strength, thermal stability, and biocompatibility.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of polymer matrix composite material with combination of ZnO filler and nata de coco fiber as a candidate of semiconductor material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Anindita, Hana Nabila

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of semiconductor composite using acrylic matrix filled with ZnO and nata de coco fiber has been conducted in this research. The purpose of this research is to obtain semiconductor composite material that has a good mechanical strength and thermal resistance. In situ polymerization method is used in this research and the composites are ready to be characterized after 12 hours. The main parameter that is characterized is the electric conductivity of the composite. Additional parameters are also characterized such as composite's elastic modulus and glass transition temperature. The composites that has been made in this research can be classified as semiconductor material because the conductivity is in the range of 10-8-103 S/cm. In general the addition of ZnO and nata de coco filler can increase the conductivity of the composite. The highest semiconductor characteristic in acrylic/ZnO composite is obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 3.4 x 10-7 S/cm. Similar with acrylic/ZnO composite, in acrylic/nata de coco fiber composite the highest semiconductor characteristic is also obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 1.15 x 10-7 S/cm. Combination of 20% volume of ZnO, 10% volume of nata de coco, and 70% volume of acrylic resulting in composite with electric conductivity of 1.92 x 10-7 S/cm. In addition, combination of ZnO and nata de coco fiber as filler in composite can also improve the characteristic of composite where composite with 20% volume of ZnO filler and 10% volume of nata de coco fiber resulting in composite with elastic modulus of 1.79 GPa and glass transition temperature of 175.73°C which is higher than those in acrylic/ZnO composite.

  7. Processing of oil palm empty fruit bunch as filler material of polymer recycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saepulloh, D. R.; Nikmatin, S.; Hardhienata, H.

    2017-05-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) is waste from crude palm oil (CPO) processing plants. This research aims to process OPEFB to be a reinforcement polymer recycle with the mechanical milling method and identify each establishment molecular with the orbital hybridization theory. OPEFB fibers were synthesized using a mechanical milling until the size shortfiber and microfiber. Then do the biocomposite granular synthesis with single screw extruder. TAPPI chemical test shows levels of α-cellulose fibers amounted 41.68%. Based on density, the most optimum composition contained in the filler amounted 15% with the size is the microfiber. The test results of morphology with SEM showed deployment of filler OPEFB fiber is fairly equitable distributed. Regarding the molecular interaction between matrix with OPEFB fiber, described by the theory of orbital hybridization. But the explanation establishment of the bond for more complex molecules likes this from the side of the molecular orbital theory is necessary complete information of the hybrid levels.

  8. Testing thermocline filler materials and molten-salt heat transfer fluids for thermal energy storage systems used in parabolic trough solar power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Michael James; Hlava, Paul Frank; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2004-07-01

    Parabolic trough power systems that utilize concentrated solar energy to generate electricity are a proven technology. Industry and laboratory research efforts are now focusing on integration of thermal energy storage as a viable means to enhance dispatchability of concentrated solar energy. One option to significantly reduce costs is to use thermocline storage systems, low-cost filler materials as the primary thermal storage medium, and molten nitrate salts as the direct heat transfer fluid. Prior thermocline evaluations and thermal cycling tests at the Sandia National Laboratories' National Solar Thermal Test Facility identified quartzite rock and silica sand as potential filler materials. An expanded series of isothermal and thermal cycling experiments were planned and implemented to extend those studies in order to demonstrate the durability of these filler materials in molten nitrate salts over a range of operating temperatures for extended timeframes. Upon test completion, careful analyses of filler material samples, as well as the molten salt, were conducted to assess long-term durability and degradation mechanisms in these test conditions. Analysis results demonstrate that the quartzite rock and silica sand appear able to withstand the molten salt environment quite well. No significant deterioration that would impact the performance or operability of a thermocline thermal energy storage system was evident. Therefore, additional studies of the thermocline concept can continue armed with confidence that appropriate filler materials have been identified for the intended application.

  9. The anatomy of a pipe bomb explosion: the effect of explosive filler, container material and ambient temperature on device fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Bors, Dana; Cummins, Josh; Goodpaster, John

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of different piping material under various conditions is important to predicting the behavior of pipe bombs. In this study, the effect of temperature on pipe bomb containers (i.e., PVC, black steel and galvanized steel) containing low explosive fillers (i.e., Pyrodex and double-base smokeless powder (DBSP)) was investigated. Measurements of fragment velocity and mass were compared for similar devices exploded in the spring (low/high temperature was 8°C/21°C) and winter (low/high temperature range was -9°C/-3°C). The explosions were captured using high speed filmography and fragment velocities were plotted as particle vector velocity maps (PVVM). The time that elapsed between the initiation of the winter devices containing double-base smokeless powder (DBSP) and the failure of their pipe containers ranged from 5.4 to 8.1 ms. The maximum fragment velocities for these devices ranged from 332 to 567 m/s. The steel devices ruptured and exploded more quickly than the PVC device. The steel devices also generated fragments with higher top speeds. Distributions of fragment masses were plotted as histograms and fragment weight distribution maps (FWDM). As expected, steel devices generated fewer, larger fragments than did the PVC devices. Comparison to devices exploded in the spring revealed several pieces of evidence for temperature effects on pipe bombs. For example, the mean fragment velocities for the winter devices were at or above those observed in the spring. The maximum fragment velocity was also higher for the winter steel devices. Although there were no significant differences in mean relative fragment mass, the fragment weight distribution maps (FWDMs) for two winter devices had anomalous slopes, where lower energy filler caused more severe fragmentation than higher energy filler.

  10. Antifriction and Construction Materials Based on Modified Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins Reinforced with Mineral and Synthetic Fibrous Fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmistr, M. V.; Boiko, V. S.; Lipko, E. O.; Gerasimenko, K. O.; Gomza, Yu. P.; Vesnin, R. L.; Chernyayev, A. V.; Ananchenko, B. A.; Kovalenko, V. L.

    2014-05-01

    Novel polymer composite materials (PCM) based on resole phenol-formaldehyde resins modified with polyamide and reinforced with a combination of organic and inorganic fibrous fillers have been developed. PCM are characterized by a Charpy impact strength of up to 250 kJ/m2, an ultimate strength in static bending of up to 468 MPa, an ultimate strength in compression of up to 178 MPa, a Martens thermal stability of up to 300 °C, a friction coefficient of up to 0.12, and mass wear of up to 0.76 mg/(cm2 · km). They can be used for the fabrication of products intended for antifriction and constructional purposes.

  11. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with Zirconia filler containing composite core material and fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Jeaidi, Zaid Al

    2016-01-01

    To assess the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with a novel Zirconia (Zr) nano-particle filler containing bulk fill resin composite. Forty-five freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated using conventional step back preparation and warm lateral condensation filling. Post space preparation was performed using drills compatible for fiber posts (Rely X Fiber Post) on all teeth (n=45), and posts were cemented using self etch resin cement (Rely X Unicem). Samples were equally divided into three groups (n=15) based on the type of core materials, ZirconCore (ZC) MulticCore Flow (MC) and Luxacore Dual (LC). All specimens were mounted in acrylic resin and loads were applied (Universal testing machine) at 130° to the long axis of teeth, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. The loads and the site at which the failures occurred were recorded. Data obtained was tabulated and analyzed using a statistical program. The means and standard deviations were compared using ANOVA and Multiple comparisons test. The lowest and highest failure loads were shown by groups LC (18.741±3.02) and MC (25.16±3.30) respectively. Group LC (18.741±3.02) showed significantly lower failure loads compared to groups ZC (23.02±4.21) and MC (25.16±3.30) (p<0.01). However groups ZC (23.02±4.21) and MC (25.16±3.30) showed comparable failure loads (p=0.23). Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with Zr filler containing bulk fill composite cores was comparable to teeth restored with conventional Zr free bulk fill composites. Zr filled bulk fill composites are recommended for restoration of endodontically treated teeth as they show comparable fracture resistance to conventional composite materials with less catastrophic failures.

  12. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with Zirconia filler containing composite core material and fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Jeaidi, Zaid Al

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with a novel Zirconia (Zr) nano-particle filler containing bulk fill resin composite. Methods: Forty-five freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated using conventional step back preparation and warm lateral condensation filling. Post space preparation was performed using drills compatible for fiber posts (Rely X Fiber Post) on all teeth (n=45), and posts were cemented using self etch resin cement (Rely X Unicem). Samples were equally divided into three groups (n=15) based on the type of core materials, ZirconCore (ZC) MulticCore Flow (MC) and Luxacore Dual (LC). All specimens were mounted in acrylic resin and loads were applied (Universal testing machine) at 130° to the long axis of teeth, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. The loads and the site at which the failures occurred were recorded. Data obtained was tabulated and analyzed using a statistical program. The means and standard deviations were compared using ANOVA and Multiple comparisons test. Results: The lowest and highest failure loads were shown by groups LC (18.741±3.02) and MC (25.16±3.30) respectively. Group LC (18.741±3.02) showed significantly lower failure loads compared to groups ZC (23.02±4.21) and MC (25.16±3.30) (p<0.01). However groups ZC (23.02±4.21) and MC (25.16±3.30) showed comparable failure loads (p=0.23). Conclusions: Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with Zr filler containing bulk fill composite cores was comparable to teeth restored with conventional Zr free bulk fill composites. Zr filled bulk fill composites are recommended for restoration of endodontically treated teeth as they show comparable fracture resistance to conventional composite materials with less catastrophic failures. PMID:28083048

  13. Effect of Storage in Distilled Water for Three Months on the Antimicrobial Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Denture Base Material Doped with Inorganic Filler.

    PubMed

    Chladek, Grzegorz; Basa, Katarzyna; Mertas, Anna; Pakieła, Wojciech; Żmudzki, Jarosław; Bobela, Elżbieta; Król, Wojciech

    2016-04-29

    The colonization of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture base materials by pathogenic microorganisms is a major problem associated with the use of prostheses, and the incorporation of antimicrobial fillers is a method of improving the antimicrobial properties of these materials. Numerous studies have demonstrated the initial in vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of this type of material; however, reports demonstrating the stability of these fillers over longer periods are not available. In this study, silver sodium hydrogen zirconium phosphate was introduced into the powder component of a PMMA denture base material at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, and 8% (w/w). The survival rates of the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and yeast-type fungus Candida albicans were established after fungal or bacterial suspensions were incubated with samples that had been previously stored in distilled water. Storage over a three-month period led to the progressive reduction of the initial antimicrobial properties. The results of this study suggest that additional microbiological tests should be conducted for materials that are treated with antimicrobial fillers and intended for long-term use. Future long-term studies of the migration of silver ions from the polymer matrix and the influence of different media on this ion emission are required.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical and Thermal properties of sisal fibre reinforced composite and effect of sic filler material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surya Teja, Malla; Ramana, M. V.; Sriramulu, D.; Rao, C. J.

    2016-09-01

    With a view of exploring the potential use of natural recourses, we made an attempt to fabricate sisal fibre polymer composites by hand lay-up method. Natural fiber composites are renewable, cheap and biodegradable. Their easy availability, lower density, higher specific properties, lower cost, satisfactory mechanical and thermal properties, non-corrosive nature, makes them an attractive ecological alternative to glass, carbon or other man-made synthetic fibers. In this work, the effect of SiC on mechanical and thermal properties of natural sisal fiber composites are investigated. The composite has been made with and without SiC incorporating natural sisal fiber with polyester as bonding material. The experimental outcomes exhibited that the tensile strength of composite with 10%SiC 2.53 times greater than that of composite without SiC. The impact strength of composite with 10% SiC is 1.73 times greater than that of composite without SiC plain polyester. Thermal properties studied include thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, thermal degradation and stability. Three different samples with 0%, 5%, 10% SiC powder are considered. With the addition of SiC filler powder, thermal conductivity increases, specific heat capacity gradually increases then decreases, thermal diffusivity increases and thermal stability improves with Sic powder.

  15. Biodegradation rate of shellac coated bovine hydroxyapatite for bone filler material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triyono, Joko; Triyono, Susilowati, Endang; Murdiyantara, Suci Anindya

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on the effect of shellac coated hydroxyapatite (HA) on the biodegradation rate. The HA was processed from bovine bone. Shellac was derived from the resinous secretion of the lac insect. The aims of the addition of shellac solution is to know how the biodegradation rate material in the Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) solution. The four different of shellac solutions (2,5%; 5%; 7,5%; and 10% weight) coated HA scaffoldand one ratio as a control. It was concluded that the ability of biodegradation rate a materialwas not influenced by the ratio of shellac. All materials were biodegradedwhen they were soaked in PBS solution.

  16. The Influence of Processing and the Polymorphism of Lignocellulosic Fillers on the Structure and Properties of Composite Materials-A Review.

    PubMed

    Paukszta, Dominik; Borysiak, Slawomir

    2013-07-11

    Cellulose is the most important and the most abundant plant natural polymer. It shows a number of interesting properties including those making it attractive as a filler of composite materials with a thermoplastic polymer matrix. Production of such composite materials, meeting the standards of green technology, has increased from 0.36 million tons in 2007 to 2.33 million tons in 2012. It is predicted that by 2020 their production will reach 3.45 million tons. Production of biocomposites with lignocellulosic components poses many problems that should be addressed. This paper is a review of the lignocellulosic materials currently used as polymer fillers. First, the many factors determining the macroscopic properties of such composites are described, with particular attention paid to the poor interphase adhesion between the polymer matrix and a lignocellulosic filler and to the effects of cellulose occurrence in polymorphic varieties. The phenomenon of cellulose polymorphism is very important from the point of view of controlling the nucleation abilities of the lignocellulosic filler and hence the mechanical properties of composites. Macroscopic properties of green composites depend also on the parameters of processing which determine the magnitude and range of shearing forces. The influence of shearing forces appearing upon processing the supermolecular structure of the polymer matrix is also discussed. An important problem from the viewpoint of ecology is the possibility of composite recycling which should be taken into account at the design stage. The methods for recycling of the composites made of thermoplastic polymers filled with renewable lignocellulosic materials are presented and discussed. This paper is a review prepared on the basis of currently available literature which describes the many aspects of the problems related to the possibility of using lignocellulosic components for production of composites with polymers.

  17. Shear bond strengths of tooth coating materials including the experimental materials contained various amounts of multi-ion releasing fillers and their effects for preventing dentin demineralization.

    PubMed

    Arita, Shoko; Suzuki, Masaya; Kazama-Koide, Miku; Shinkai, Koichi

    2017-01-24

    We examined shear bond strengths (SBSs) of various tooth-coating-materials including the experimental materials to dentin and demineralization resistance of a fractured adhesive surface after the SBS testing. Three resin-type tooth-coating-materials (BC, PRG Barrier Coat; HC, Hybrid Coat II; and SF, Shield force plus) and two glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials (CV, Clinpro XT Varnish; and FJ, Fuji VII) were selected. The experimental PRG Barrier Coat containing 0, 17, and 33 wt% S-PRG filler (BC0, BC17, and BC33, respectively) were developed. Each tooth-coating-material was applied to flattened dentin surfaces of extracted human teeth for SBS testing. After storing in water for 32 days with 4000 thermal cycling, the specimens were subjected to the SBS test. Specimens after SBS testing were subjected to a pH cycling test, and then, demineralization depths were measured using a polarized-light microscope. ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test were used for statistical analysis. The SBS value of FJ and CV was significantly lower than those of other materials except for BC (p < 0.01). The lesion depth of FJ was significantly shallower than those of other materials (p < 0.01); that of CV was significantly shallower than those of BC, HC, SF, and the control; and those of BC0 and BC17 were significantly shallower than that of the control (p < 0.05). The resin-type tooth-coating-materials demonstrated significantly higher SBS for dentin than the glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials; however, they were inferior to the glass ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials in regards to the acid resistance of the fractured adhesion surface.

  18. What's new in fillers?

    PubMed

    Brown, Lance H; Frank, Paul J

    2003-06-01

    This article is an in-depth review of various materials and products that have been used for the augmentation of soft tissue in the past, and covers several new products, methods, and techniques that may provide new options for dermatologists who use fillers in their practice. Pros and cons of each are discussed, along with mechanisms of action, dosages, approved and off-label uses, as well as a look ahead at some prospective technology.

  19. Enhanced heat transfer through filler-polymer interface by surface-coupling agent in heat-dissipation material: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kouichi; Ogata, Shuji; Kobayashi, Ryo; Tamura, Tomoyuki; Kitsunezuka, Masashi; Shinma, Atsushi

    2013-11-21

    Developing a composite material of polymers and micrometer-sized fillers with higher heat conductance is crucial to realize modular packaging of electronic components at higher densities. Enhancement mechanisms of the heat conductance of the polymer-filler interfaces by adding the surface-coupling agent in such a polymer composite material are investigated through the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. A simulation system is composed of α-alumina as the filler, bisphenol-A epoxy molecules as the polymers, and model molecules for the surface-coupling agent. The inter-atomic potential between the α-alumina and surface-coupling molecule, which is essential in the present MD simulation, is constructed to reproduce the calculated energies with the electronic density-functional theory. Through the non-equilibrium MD simulation runs, we find that the thermal resistance at the interface decreases significantly by increasing either number or lengths of the surface-coupling molecules and that the effective thermal conductivity of the system approaches to the theoretical value corresponding to zero thermal-resistance at the interface. Detailed analyses about the atomic configurations and local temperatures around the interface are performed to identify heat-transfer routes through the interface.

  20. Granulomatous reaction to hyaluronic acid filler material in oral and perioral region: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Alcântara, Carlos Eduardo P; Noronha, Mariana S; Cunha, Joanna F; Flores, Isadora L; Mesquita, Ricardo A

    2017-07-17

    The use of cosmetic fillers agents in orofacial region has become more often used for esthetic concern. Although adverse effects are rare, some patients may develop foreign body reaction to such fillers. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a biomaterial in the spotlight, because it is normally present in several tissues of human body. The aim of this study was to report a case of a 54-year-old white woman with granulomatous reaction to the HA located in the lips. In addition, a review of the English-language literature of all previously described cases of this condition in oral and perioral region was performed. The location, clinical features, symptoms, time between injection and reaction, type of treatment and treatment outcome of 17 cases were summarized. The clinical and histopathological examination along with a detailed history about this condition is very important to management of patients with nodular lesions in maxillofacial region. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Wrinkle Fillers

    MedlinePlus

    ... PLLA): PLLA is a biodegradable, biocompatible man-made polymer. This material has wide uses in absorbable stitches ... PMMA is a non-biodegradable, biocompatible, man-made polymer. This material is used in other medical devices, ...

  2. 7 CFR 58.914 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., shall be made of stainless steel or equally corrosion-resistant material; except that, certain... Standards for Plastic, and Rubber and Rubber-Like Materials. Fillers shall be designed so that they in no...

  3. Void Filler Foam Accelerated Load Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    filler foam for use in military aircraft. Phases 1, I1, and III of this task also are summarized in this report to show the evolution of the void filler...this program, MCAIR evaluated four types of foam material. i. Scott LAS-103ZF ( reticulated foam) 2. Goodyear DZ-70D461 (flexible foam) 3. NOPCO BX-249

  4. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Welded Corten Steel A588 Grade Plate Using ER70S - 6 Filler Material for Construction Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepak, J. R.; Bupesh Raja, V. K.; Janardhan Guptha, Mittapalli; Durga Prasad, Palaparthi Hari; Sriram, V.

    2017-05-01

    ASTM A588 Grade A steel plate is a high strength, low alloy structural steel with 0.19 % of carbon content. When exposed to the atmosphere, A588 Grade A is suitable for construction in the bare (paint - free) condition. The main problems are lack of fusion, lack of penetration and corrosion on heat affected zone. In this research work Corten ASTM A588 Grade steel of 3mm thickness is electroplated with copper and then both raw and copper electroplated are welded by GMAW welding process with ER70S-6 as a filler material. The welded ASTM A588 is cut according to ASTM size for further testing of mechanical properties. Considering its welding strength after the process of electroplating, this research clearly states the metal can be utilized for better results in any given field. Here both the tensile and hardness are higher in copper electroplated welded when compare to raw welded.

  5. Evaluation of Wood and Cellulosic Materials as Fillers in Artificial Diets for Lyctus africanus Lesne (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kartika, Titik; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We studied the usefulness of wood- and cellulose-based diets for L. africanus Lesne. Three diets were prepared which differed on the base ingredients; wood particles (Diet 1), cellulose powder (Diet 2), and alpha-cellulose (Diet 3). The diets were provided to adult L. africanus and the number of larvae, as well as the number of adults that emerged sex ratio, and body weight of the progeny was determined. Findings indicated similar results for the number of larvae, sex ratio and body weight of the emerged L. africanus fed on each diet. However, the number of adult produced by L. africanus on Diet 3 was significantly lower. The results indicate that the amount of vital nutrients is not the only important factor in selecting a suitable diet for L. africanus because the filler used in artificial diets influences the beetles overall population growth. For the population upon which the diets were tested, Diet 1 and Diet 2 could be utilized to rear beetles in the laboratory. PMID:26463410

  6. Evaluation of Wood and Cellulosic Materials as Fillers in Artificial Diets for Lyctus africanus Lesne (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    PubMed

    Kartika, Titik; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi

    2015-07-23

    We studied the usefulness of wood- and cellulose-based diets for L. africanus Lesne. Three diets were prepared which differed on the base ingredients; wood particles (Diet 1), cellulose powder (Diet 2), and alpha-cellulose (Diet 3). The diets were provided to adult L. africanus and the number of larvae, as well as the number of adults that emerged sex ratio, and body weight of the progeny was determined. Findings indicated similar results for the number of larvae, sex ratio and body weight of the emerged L. africanus fed on each diet. However, the number of adult produced by L. africanus on Diet 3 was significantly lower. The results indicate that the amount of vital nutrients is not the only important factor in selecting a suitable diet for L. africanus because the filler used in artificial diets influences the beetles overall population growth. For the population upon which the diets were tested, Diet 1 and Diet 2 could be utilized to rear beetles in the laboratory.

  7. Cosmetic Fillers: Perspectives on the Industry.

    PubMed

    Basta, Steven L

    2015-11-01

    The cosmetic filler industry has evolved substantially over the last 30 years. The market is characterized by multiple fillers and a competitive dynamic among major aesthetics companies. Marketing in the United States and Europe has been different owing to regulatory constraints. Differences have led to more rapid growth in the European market. The US market has evolved owing to growth of major companies with multiple product portfolios and leverage in consumer promotion and aesthetics office marketing owing to scale. The evolution of the filler market will include new materials, injection techniques, and facilitation devices, and new areas of injection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Utilization starch of jackfruit seed (Artocarpus heterophyllus) as raw material for bioplastics manufacturing using sorbitol as plasticizer and chitosan as filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, M.; Harahap, M. B.; Manullang, A.; Alfarodo; Ginting, M. H. S.; Sartika, M.

    2017-01-01

    Starch is a natural polymer that can be used for the production of bioplastics because its source is abundant, renewable and easily degraded. Jackfruit seeds can be used as raw material for bioplastics because its contains starch. The aim of this study to determine the characteristics of jackfruit seeds and determine the effect of chitosan and sorbitol on the physicochemical properties of bioplastics from jackfruit seeds. Starch is extracted from jackfruit seeds were then characterized to determine its chemical composition. In the manufacture of bioplastics starch composition jackfruit seeds - chitosan used was 7: 3, 8: 2 and 9: 1 (g/g), while the concentration of sorbitol used was 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40% by weight dry ingredients. From the analysis of jackfruit seed starch obtained water content of 6.04%, ash content of 1.08%, the starch content of 70.22%, 16.39% amylose content, amylopectin content of 53.83%, 4.68% protein content, fat content 0.54%. The best conditions of starch bioplastics jackfruit seeds obtained at a ratio of starch: chitosan (w/w) = 8: 2 and the concentration of plasticizer sorbitol 25% with tensile strength 13.524 MPa. From the results of FT-IR analysis indicated an increase for the OH group and the group NH on bioplastics due to the addition of chitosan and sorbitol. The results of mechanical tests is further supported by analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing jackfruit seed starch has a small granule size with the size of 7.6 μm and in bioplastics with chitosan filler and plasticizer sorbitol their fracture surface is smooth and slightly hollow compared bioplastics without fillers chitosan and plasticizer sorbitol.

  9. Effect of Ca-Al-Si-O common glass on dielectric properties of low-temperature co-fired ceramic materials with different fillers.

    PubMed

    Park, Zee-Hoon; Yeo, Dong-Hun; Shin, Hyo-Soon

    2014-11-14

    High-density integration in single component used for mobile communication is highly demanded with the miniaturization trend in multi-functional light-weighted mobile communication devices. Embedding passive components into multi-layered ceramic chips is also increasingly needed for high integrity. The need for high strength materials to be used in handheld devices has also increased. To this end, many attempts to join different low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) materials with different dielectric constants have been made, but failed with de-laminations or internal cracks mainly due to difference of thermal expansion coefficients. It is thought that this difference could be minimized with the use of common glass in different LTCC materials. In this study, several candidates of common glass were mixed with various fillers of LTCC to have various dielectric constants in the radio-frequency, and to minimize the mismatch in joining. Ca-Al-Si-O glass was mixed with 1.3MgO-TiO2, cordierite and CaTiO3. Mixtures were tape-cast and sintered to be compared with their micro-structures, dielectric properties and thermo-mechanical characteristics. When 1.3MgO-TiO2 with volumetric ratio of 30% was mixed with Ca-Al-Si-O glass, the measured dielectric constant was 7.9, the quality factor was 3708. With 45 volumetric percent of cordierite, the dielectric constant was 5 and the quality factor was 1052.

  10. Polyurethane Filler for Electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Polyurethane foam proves suitable as filler for slots in parts electroplated with copper or nickel. Polyurethane causes less contamination of plating bath and of cleaning and filtering tanks than wax fillers used previously. Direct cost of maintenance and indirect cost of reduced operating time during tank cleaning also reduced.

  11. Polyurethane Filler for Electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Polyurethane foam proves suitable as filler for slots in parts electroplated with copper or nickel. Polyurethane causes less contamination of plating bath and of cleaning and filtering tanks than wax fillers used previously. Direct cost of maintenance and indirect cost of reduced operating time during tank cleaning also reduced.

  12. Adverse effects of fillers and their histopathology.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Injectable fillers nowadays represent a pillar in facial rejuvenation and make a significant contribution to the success of the treatment. Despite their obvious benefits, a wide range of possible complications such as immediate, late, delayed, temporary, or irreversible adverse effects have to be respected. Differentiating the various filler materials, these effects are assigned to histopathology findings and currently available treatment options. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Fillers: from the past to the future.

    PubMed

    Glogau, Richard G

    2012-06-01

    Modern medical use of injectable soft-tissue augmentation fillers has evolved from the introduction of bovine collage implants to an array of synthesized materials in the current domestic and foreign markets. The concept of augmentation has moved from simple lines, scars, and wrinkles to revolumizing the aging face. A brief overview of the past, present, and future injectable fillers is presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Army Evaluation of JP-8 and Diesel Fuel Exposed to Anti-Detonation Material Filler (ADMF) for Fuel Tank Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    materials had very minimal effects on HSF properties, as shown in Appendix A. ADMF Chaff Investigations ADMF chaff investigations were initiated for...impact microbiological growth in JP-8 fuel. High-Sulfur Fuel Inoculated high sulfur fuel ( HSF ), neat and with ADMF materials completed 16 weeks of...by Low- Temperature Flow Test (LTFT).” The tests were conducted using the HSF (AL-26971), neat and with each ADMF material. The ADMF material did not

  15. Thermal Analysis of Filler Reinforced Polymeric Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadge, Mahesh Devidas

    Improving heat dissipating property of composite materials is becoming increasingly important in domains ranging from the automotive industry, electronic devices to aeronautical industry. Effective heat dissipation is required especially in aircraft and racing tires to guarantee high performance and good service life [1]. The present study is focused on improving the thermal conductivity of Emulsion-styrene butadiene rubber (ESBR) which is a cheap alternative to other rubber composites. The disadvantages of ESBR are low thermal conductivity and high heat generation. Adding fillers with high thermal conductivity to ESBR is proposed as a technique for improving the thermal conductivity of ESBR. The purpose of the research is to predict the thermal conductivity of ESBR when filled with fillers of much higher thermal conductivity and also to find out to what extent the filler properties affect the heat transfer capabilities of the composite matrix. The influence of different filler shapes i.e. spherical, cylindrical and platelets on the overall thermal capability of composite matrix is studied, the finite element modelings are conducted using Abaqus. Three-dimensional and two-dimensional models are created in Abaqus to simulate the microstructure of the composite matrix filled with fillers. Results indicate that the overall thermal conductivity increases with increasing filler loading i.e. for a filler volume fraction of 0.27, the conductivity increased by around 50%. Filler shapes, orientation angle, and aspect ratio of the fillers significantly influences the thermal conductivity. Conductivity increases with increasing aspect ratio (length/diameter) of the cylindrical fillers since longer conductive chains are able to form at the same volume percentage as compared to spherical fillers. The composite matrix reaches maximum thermal conductivity when the cylindrical fillers are oriented in the direction of heat flow. The heat conductivity predicted by FEM for ESBR is

  16. Laser Weldability of High-Strength Al-Zn Alloys and Its Improvement by the Use of an Appropriate Filler Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enz, Josephin; Riekehr, Stefan; Ventzke, Volker; Huber, Norbert; Kashaev, Nikolai

    2016-06-01

    Heat-treatable Al-Zn alloys are promising candidates for use as structural lightweight materials in automotive and aircraft applications. This is mainly due to their high strength-to-density ratio in comparison to conventionally employed Al alloys. Laser beam welding is an efficient method for producing joints with high weld quality and has been established in the industry for many years. However, it is well known that aluminum alloys with a high Zn content or, more precisely, with a high (Zn + Mg + Cu) content are difficult to fusion weld due to the formation of porosity and hot cracks. The present study concerns the laser weldability of these hard-to-weld Al-Zn alloys. In order to improve weldability, it was first necessary to understand the reasons for weldability problems and to identify crucial influencing factors. Based on this knowledge, it was finally possible to develop an appropriate approach. For this purpose, vanadium was selected as additional filler material. Vanadium exhibits favorable thermophysical properties and, thereby, can improve the weldability of Al-Zn alloys. The effectiveness of the approach was verified by its application to several Al-Zn alloys with differing amounts of (Zn + Mg + Cu).

  17. Fillers used in papermaking. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning organic and inorganic fillers used in paper products and their effect on the properties and manufacture of paper. The citations examine a variety of fillers, including natural calcium carbonate, bentonite, polymeric fillers, titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, calcium silicate, barium sulphate, agalite, talc, clay, kaolin, limestone, mica, and ash. Filler effects on thermal strength, coloring, acidity, surface coatings, porosity, production efficiency, absorption, opacity, printability, and deposit control are presented. Also discussed are the microanalysis of fillers, recovery of fillers from wastes, availability of filler and pigment raw materials, and the determination of filler content in paper products. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Performance Testing of Thermal Interface Filler Materials in a Bolted Aluminum Interface Under Thermal/Vacuum Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, S. D.; Kittredge, K. B.

    2003-01-01

    A thermal interface material is one of the many tools often used as part of the thermal control scheme for space-based applications. Historically, at Marshall Space Flight Center, CHO-THERM 1671 has primarily been used for applications where an interface material was deemed necessary. However, numerous alternatives have come on the market in recent years. It was decided that a number of these materials should be tested against each other to see if there were better performing alternatives. The tests were done strictly to compare the thermal performance of the materials relative to each other under repeatable conditions and do not take into consideration other design issues, such as off-gassing, electrical conduction, isolation, etc. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to detail the materials tested, test apparatus, procedures, and results of these tests. The results show that there are a number of better performing alternatives now available.

  19. Performance Testing of Thermal Interface Filler Materials in a Bolted Aluminum Interface Under Thermal/Vacuum Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, Shaun; Kittredge, Ken

    2003-01-01

    A thermal interface material is one of the many tools that are often used as part of the thermal control scheme for space-based applications. These materials are placed between, for example, an avionics box and a cold plate, in order to improve the conduction heat transfer so that proper temperatures can be maintained. Historically at Marshall Space Flight Center, CHO-THERM@ 1671 has primarily been used for applications where an interface material was deemed necessary. However, there have been numerous alternatives come on the market in recent years. It was decided that a number of these materials should be tested against each other to see if there were better performing alternatives. The tests were done strictly to compare the thermal performance of the materials relative to each other under repeatable conditions and they do not take into consideration other design issues such as off-gassing, electrical conduction or isolation, etc. This paper details the materials tested, test apparatus, procedures, and results of these tests.

  20. Microstructural Evolution and Bonding Behavior during Transient Liquid-Phase Bonding of a Duplex Stainless Steel using two Different Ni-B-Based Filler Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xinjian; Kim, Myung Bok; Kang, Chung Yun

    2011-05-01

    Microstructural evolution and bonding behavior of transient liquid-phase (TLP) bonded joint for a duplex stainless steel using MBF-30 (Ni -4.5Si -3.2B [wt pct]) and MBF-50 (Ni -7.5Si -1.4B -18.5Cr [wt pct]) were investigated. Using MBF-30, the microstructure of the athermally solidified zone was dependent on B diffusion at 1333.15 K (1060 °C). Ni3B and a supersaturated γ-Ni phase were observed in this zone. BN appeared in the bonding-affected zone. However, using MBF-50, the influences of base metal alloying elements, particularly N and Cr as well as Si in the filler material, on the bond microstructure development were more pronounced at 1448.15 K (1175 °C). BN and (Cr, Ni)3Si phase were present in the bond centerline. The formation of BN precipitates in the bonding-affected zone was suppressed. A significant deviation in the isothermal solidification rate from the conventional TLP bonding diffusion models was observed in the joints prepared at 1448.15 K (1175 °C) using MBF-50.

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of radioactive waste encapsulated by bisphenol-A polycarbonate and effect of bismuth-III oxide filler material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Tonguç

    2017-06-01

    Radioactive waste generated from the nuclear industry and non-power applications should carefully be treated, conditioned and disposed according to the regulations set by the competent authority(ies). Bisphenol-a polycarbonate (BPA-PC), a very widely used polymer, might be considered as a potential candidate material for low level radioactive waste encapsulation. In this work, the dose rate distribution in the radioactive waste drum (containing radioactive waste and the BPA-PC polymer matrix) was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, the change of mechanical properties of BPA-PC was estimated and their variation within the waste drum was determined for the periods of 15, 30 and 300 years after disposal to the final disposal site. The change of the dose rate within the waste drum with different contents of bismuth-III oxide were also simulated. It was concluded that addition of bismuth-III oxide filler decreases the dose delivered to the polymeric matrix due to photoelectric effect.

  2. Evolution of Microstructure in Brazed Joints of Austenitic-Martensitic Stainless Steel with Pure Silver Obtained with Ag-27Cu-5Sn Brazing Filler Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangadharan, S.; Sivakumar, D.; Venkateswaran, T.; Kulkarni, Kaustubh

    2016-12-01

    Brazing of an austenitic-martensitic stainless steel (AMSS) with pure silver was carried out at 1053 K, 1073 K, and 1093 K (780 °C, 800 °C, and 820 °C) with Ag-27Cu-5Sn (wt pct) as brazing filler material (BFM). Wettability of the liquid BFM over base AMSS surface was found to be poor. Application of nickel coating to the steel was observed to enhance the wettability and to enable the formation of a good bond between BFM and the steel. The mechanism responsible for enhanced metallurgical bonding of the BFM with AMSS in the presence of nickel coating was explained based on diffusional interactions and uphill diffusion of iron, chromium and nickel observed in the brazed microstructure. Good diffusion-assisted zone was observed to form on silver side at all three temperatures. Four phases were encountered within the joint including silver solid solution, copper solid solution, Cu3Sn intermetallic and Ni-Fe solid solution. The Cu3Sn intermetallic was present in small amounts in the joints brazed at 1053 K and 1073 K (780 °C and 800 °C). The joint formed at 1093 K (820 °C) exhibited the absence of Cu3Sn, fewer defects and larger diffusion-assisted zone. Hardness of base AMSS was found to reduce during brazing due to austenite reversion and post-brazing sub-zero treatment for 2.5 hours was found suitable to recover the hardness.

  3. Shaping Lips with Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Luthra, Amit

    2015-01-01

    The lips and the eyes enhance facial beauty, and they have been highlighted since time immemorial. Rejuvenating the lips with fillers, frequently hyaluronic acid (HA), is a common procedure but requires expertise. The objective of this text is to describe the procedure in detail and cover the practical aspects of injecting lips with fillers. An analysis of treating lips with needles and cannulae has been made with special emphasis on achieving optimum results. PMID:26644736

  4. Waste-wood-derived fillers for plastics

    Treesearch

    Brent English; Craig M. Clemons; Nicole Stark; James P. Schneider

    1996-01-01

    Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper...

  5. A comparative study of the effects of different bioactive fillers in PLGA matrix composites and their suitability as bone substitute materials: A thermo-mechanical and in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R L; Nazhat, S N; Blaker, J J; Bismarck, A; Hill, R; Boccaccini, A R; Hansen, U N; Amis, A A

    2015-10-01

    Bone substitute composite materials with poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) matrices and four different bioactive fillers: CaCO3, hydroxyapatite (HA), 45S5 Bioglass(®) (45S5 BG), and ICIE4 bioactive glass (a lower sodium glass than 45S5 BG) were produced via melt blending, extrusion and moulding. The viscoelastic, mechanical and thermal properties, and the molecular weight of the matrix were measured. Thermogravimetric analysis evaluated the effect of filler composition on the thermal degradation of the matrix. Bioactive glasses caused premature degradation of the matrix during processing, whereas CaCO3 or HA did not. All composites, except those with 45S5 BG, had similar mechanical strength and were stiffer than PLGA alone in compression, whilst all had a lower tensile strength. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated an increased storage modulus (E') in the composites (other than the 45S5 BG filled PLGA). The effect of water uptake and early degradation was investigated by short-term in vitro aging in simulated body fluid, which indicated enhanced water uptake over the neat polymer; bioactive glass had the greatest water uptake, causing matrix plasticization. These results enable a direct comparison between bioactive filler type in poly(α-hydroxyester) composites, and have implications when selecting a composite material for eventual application in bone substitution.

  6. Heat-Shield Gap Filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, D. B.; Stewart, D. A.; Smith, M.; Estrella, C.; Goldstein, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    Ceramic cloth strips provide flexible, easily replaceable insulating filler. Filler prevents hot gas from flowing between heat-shield tiles while allowing space for thermal expansion and contraction. Strips easily replaced when necessary.

  7. Effect of biobased fillers nature on biodeterioration of hybrid polyethylene composites by mold fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastalygina, E. E.; Popov, A. A.; Pantyukhov, P. V.

    2017-06-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of deterioration of natural fillers and polyethylene composites on their basis (polyethylene/filler=70/30) due to the action of mold fungi. The fillers chemical composition, dimensional parameters and biodegradability have been analyzed as factors exert a considerable impact on composite materials biodeterioration. It has been found that the principal factor determining the biodeterioration of polyethylene/filler composites by mold fungi is chemical composition of a filler and, in turn, its biodegradability. The excess of holocellulose content over lignin content and high protein content in a filler are able to induce biofouling of the polymeric composite materials. The presence of soluble and easy hydrolysed fraction in a filler increases its availability in a polymeric matrix. According to the study results, most effective natural fillers as additives stimulating polyethylene composites biodegradability are milled straw of seed flax and hydrolyzed keratin of bird’s feather.

  8. High-Temperature Insulating Gap Filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toombs, Gordon R.; Oyoung, Kevin K.; Stevens, Everett G.

    1991-01-01

    New inorganic, ceramic filler for gaps between refractory ceramic tiles offers high resistance to heat and erosion. Consists of ceramic-fiber fabric precoated with silica and further coated with silica containing small amount of silicon carbide powder to increase thermal emittance. Developed as replacement for organic filler used on thermal-protection system of Space Shuttle. Promises to serve for many missions and to reduce cost and delay of refurbishing aerospace craft. Used as sealing material in furnaces or as heat shield for sensitive components in automobiles, aircraft, and home appliances.

  9. Platable Filler And Sealant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heerman, Todd R.; Volkenant, Jerome G.

    1992-01-01

    Mixture of facsimile compound and silver powder forms positive seal in small hole in metal sheet. Filled hole plated over by standard electrodeposition. Compound does not deteriorate in high plating-bath temperatures, unlike wax and other fillers. Provides surface to which plated metals readily adhere.

  10. Platable Filler And Sealant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heerman, Todd R.; Volkenant, Jerome G.

    1992-01-01

    Mixture of facsimile compound and silver powder forms positive seal in small hole in metal sheet. Filled hole plated over by standard electrodeposition. Compound does not deteriorate in high plating-bath temperatures, unlike wax and other fillers. Provides surface to which plated metals readily adhere.

  11. Process for recovering filler from polymer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Maurice L.; Smith, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a process for recovering filler material from a polymeric matrix by reacting the matrix at an elevated temperature in a gas atmosphere with a controlled oxidizing potential and thereafter separating and cleaning the residue from the reaction mixture.

  12. Dermal Fillers: Do's and Dont's

    PubMed Central

    Vedamurthy, Maya; Vedamurthy, Amar; Nischal, KC

    2010-01-01

    Dermal fillers are an important tool in the armamentarium of an aesthetic dermatologist in the management of ageing skin. A surge in the use of fillers has been witnessed due to increasing awareness among people, easy availability of fillers and increased enthusiasm amongst the dermatologists and plastic surgeons to use this modality. In this era of evidence-based medicine and litigations against doctors, Dermatologists should be vigilant about different acts of omission and commission in the use of fillers. This article briefly discusses the dos and don'ts with respect to dermal fillers. PMID:20606986

  13. Clinical experience with hyaluronic acid-filler complications.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae-Hwan; Seo, Sang-Won; Kim, June-Kyu; Chang, Choong-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have become the material of choice for soft-tissue augmentation. HA fillers are longer lasting, less immunogenic and can be broken down by hyaluronidase. These advantages make HA fillers the most common of the temporary fillers on the market. However, early and delayed complications, ranging from minor to severe, can occur following HA-filler injection. We evaluated and treated 28 cases of HA-filler-related complications that were referred to our hospital over a period of 5 years from July 2004 to October 2009. Twenty-eight patients were included in our study; 82.1% of the patients were female and 17.9% were male. Complications were roughly classified as nodular masses, inflammation, tissue necrosis and dyspigmentation. Affected locations, in descending order of frequency, were the perioral area, forehead, including glabella, nose, nasolabial fold, mentum, including marionette wrinkles, cheek area and periocular wrinkles. The most disastrous complication was alar rim necrosis following injection of the nasolabial fold. We propose two 'danger zones' that are particularly vulnerable to tissue necrosis following filler injection: the glabella and nasal ala. Although there is no definite treatment modality for the correction of HA-filler complications, we have managed them with various available treatment modalities aimed at minimising patient morbidity. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inorganic and prepolymerized filler analysis of four resin composites.

    PubMed

    Salazar, D C; Dennison, J; Yaman, P

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the filler content by weight percentage of four resin composites and examined the morphology, size, and elemental distribution of the filler particles. Four commercially available light-cured resin composites were evaluated for filler content by weight using ashing in air and acetone dissolution techniques. Ten specimens were analyzed for each material and technique. Specimens for ashing were heated to 650°C for 30 minutes. For the acetone dilution, the uncured specimens were dissolved, centrifuged, and decanted. In addition, scanning electron microscopy evaluation and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis were performed to determine morphologic characteristics and elemental distribution, respectively. Filler percentages by weight for Aelite LS, Filtek LS, IPS Empress Direct, and Kalore from ashed in air were 86.44%, 77.86%, 72.17%, and 70.62%, and from acetone dissolution percentages were 85.05%, 75.56%, 78.88%, and 77.73%, respectively. Aelite LS had significantly higher filler content for both techniques. Kalore had significantly lower filler content for the ashing technique (70.62%), and Filtek LS had significantly lower filler content for the acetone dissolution technique (75.55%). Manufacturer reported filler content for Aelite LS (88%) and Filtek LS (76%) approximated the study results for both techniques, while Kalore (82%) and IPS Empress Direct (79%) were only similar for acetone dissolution, indicating higher content of prepolymerized particles. Morphologic examination showed spherical shaped particles for Aelite LS and splintered and irregular shaped particles for all other materials. Aelite LS had the highest filler content for both techniques. Values for filler content by weight using the acetone dissolution were closer to manufacturer reported values.

  15. Wear of nanofilled dental composites at varying filler concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of nanofiller concentration on the mechanisms of wear of a dental composite. Nanofilled composites were fabricated with a bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate polymer and 40 nm SiO2 filler particles at three filler loads (25, 50, and 65 wt %). The elastic modulus, flexural strength, and hardness of the composites and the unfilled resin were measured. The materials (n = 8) were tested in the modified wear testing device at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 cycles with 20N force at 1 Hz. A 33% glycerine lubricant and stainless steel antagonist were used. The worn composite and antagonist surfaces were analyzed with noncontact profilometry and SEM. The volumetric wear data indicated that there are significant differences between filler concentrations and cycles (p < 0.05). A trend was noted that increasing filler content beyond 25% decreased the wear resistance of the composites. Increasing filler content increased hardness and modulus and increased flexural strength up to 50% fill. SEM evaluation of the worn specimens indicated that the resin and 25% filled materials exhibited cracking and failed by fatigue and the 50 and 65% filled materials exhibited microcutting and failed by abrasive wear. Based on the results of this study, composite manufacturers are recommended to use a filler concentration between 25 and 50% when using nanosized filler particles.

  16. [Cutaneous ultrasound and dermal fillers].

    PubMed

    Villegas Fernández, C; Burón Álvarez, I; Fernández-Tresguerres Centeno, A; Alfageme Roldán, F; de Cabo Francés, F

    2015-11-01

    Requests for fillers or dermatological implants have dramatically increased in dermatology consultations in the last few years, either for the correction of superficial age-related wrinkles and cutaneous creases or to increase the volume of specific areas (cheeks, lips...). Dermatologists are often the first professionals to provide these treatments. Nevertheless, in other situations, the patients have already been treated, and many of them do not know the type of material that has been implanted or may even deny previous treatment, even when evident on clinical examination. In these occasions, cutaneous ultrasound is an effective and reliable tool for the real-time diagnosis of the kind of implant that has been used, its location, and the study of its possible complications.

  17. 7 CFR 30.14 - Cigar filler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cigar filler. 30.14 Section 30.14 Agriculture... Cigar filler. The tobacco that forms the core or inner part of a cigar. Cigar-filler tobacco is tobacco of the kind and quality commonly used for cigar fillers. Cigar-filler types are those which produce...

  18. 7 CFR 30.14 - Cigar filler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cigar filler. 30.14 Section 30.14 Agriculture... Cigar filler. The tobacco that forms the core or inner part of a cigar. Cigar-filler tobacco is tobacco of the kind and quality commonly used for cigar fillers. Cigar-filler types are those which produce...

  19. 7 CFR 30.14 - Cigar filler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cigar filler. 30.14 Section 30.14 Agriculture... Cigar filler. The tobacco that forms the core or inner part of a cigar. Cigar-filler tobacco is tobacco of the kind and quality commonly used for cigar fillers. Cigar-filler types are those which produce...

  20. 7 CFR 30.14 - Cigar filler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cigar filler. 30.14 Section 30.14 Agriculture... Cigar filler. The tobacco that forms the core or inner part of a cigar. Cigar-filler tobacco is tobacco of the kind and quality commonly used for cigar fillers. Cigar-filler types are those which produce...

  1. 7 CFR 30.14 - Cigar filler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cigar filler. 30.14 Section 30.14 Agriculture... Cigar filler. The tobacco that forms the core or inner part of a cigar. Cigar-filler tobacco is tobacco of the kind and quality commonly used for cigar fillers. Cigar-filler types are those which produce...

  2. Rapid Polymer Concrete Repairs Using Available Fillers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    report was reviewed and cleared for public release by the Air Force Research Laboratory Tyndall Site (AFRL/MLQ) Public Affairs Office (PAO) and is...AFRL-ML-TY-TP-2005-4544 RAPID POLYMER CONCRETE REPAIRS USING AVAILABLE FILLERS David W. Fowler, Ph. D, P.E., Chul Suh, P.E., and...February 2006 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and

  3. Experimental determination of TRIP-parameter K for mild- and high-strength low-alloy steels and a super martensitic filler material.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Sebastian; Pittner, Andreas; Rethmeier, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A combined experimental numerical approach is applied to determine the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP)-parameter K for different strength low-alloy steels of grade S355J2+N and S960QL as well as the super martensitic filler CN13-4-IG containing 13 wt% chromium and 4 wt% nickel. The thermo-physical analyses were conducted using a Gleeble (®) 3500 facility. The thermal histories of the specimens to be tested were extracted from corresponding simulations of a real gas metal arc weldment. In contrast to common TRIP-experiments which are based on complex specimens a simple flat specimen was utilized together with an engineering evaluation method. The evaluation method was validated with literature values for the TRIP-parameter. It could be shown that the proposed approach enables a correct description of the TRIP behavior.

  4. Bio-inspired Fillers for Mechanical Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korley, Lashanda

    2012-02-01

    An examination of natural materials has offered a new perspective on the development of multi-functional materials with enhanced mechanical properties. One important lesson from nature is the utilization of composite structures to impart improved mechanical behavior and enhanced functionality using nanofillers. A relatively unexplored expansion of this bio-inspired, nanoscale filler approach to high performance materials is the incorporation of responsive, multi-functional reinforcing elements in polymeric composites with the goal of combining superior mechanical behavior that can be tuned with additional functionality, such as sensing and bioactivity. One approach is the use of self-assembling small molecules that form uniform, one-dimensional nanostructures as an emerging class of filler components. Another pathway toward mechanical enhancement is the incorporation of stimuli-responsive and high-modulus electrospun nanofibers. We have probed the utilization of high-aspect ratio, self-assembled small molecules and responsive electrospun nanofibers as all-organic nanofillers to achieve significant modulus changes within elastomeric matrices. The influence of matrix-filler interactions and the role of hierarchical organization in these nature-inspired composites will be discussed. Potential applications in barrier technology and drug delivery have also been explored.

  5. Ductility dip cracking susceptibility of Inconel Filler Metal 52 and Inconel Alloy 690

    SciTech Connect

    Kikel, J.M.; Parker, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    Alloy 690 and Filler Metal 52 have become the materials of choice for commercial nuclear steam generator applications in recent years. Filler Metal 52 exhibits improved resistance to weld solidification and weld-metal liquation cracking as compared to other nickel-based filler metals. However, recently published work indicates that Filler Metal 52 is susceptible to ductility dip cracking (DDC) in highly restrained applications. Susceptibility to fusion zone DDC was evaluated using the transverse varestraint test method, while heat affected zone (HAZ) DDC susceptibility was evaluated using a newly developed spot-on-spot varestraint test method. Alloy 690 and Filler Metal 52 cracking susceptibility was compared to the DDC susceptibility of Alloy 600, Filler Metal 52, and Filler Metal 625. In addition, the effect of grain size and orientation on cracking susceptibility was also included in this study. Alloy 690, Filler Metal 82, Filler Metal 52, and Filler Metal 625 were found more susceptible to fusion zone DDC than Alloy 600. Filler Metal 52 and Alloy 690 were found more susceptible to HAZ DDC when compared to wrought Alloy 600, Filler Metal 82 and Filler Metal 625. Filler Metal 52 exhibited the greatest susceptibility to HAZ DDC of all the weld metals evaluated. The base materials were found much more resistant to HAZ DDC in the wrought condition than when autogenously welded. A smaller grain size was found to offer greater resistance to DDC. For weld metal where grain size is difficult to control, a change in grain orientation was found to improve resistance to DDC.

  6. Bioactive glass particulate filler composite: Effect of coupling of fillers and filler loading on some physical properties.

    PubMed

    Oral, Onur; Lassila, Lippo V; Kumbuloglu, Ovul; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silanization of biostable and bioactive glass fillers in a polymer matrix on some of the physical properties of the composite. The water absorption, solubility, flexural strength, flexural modulus and toughness of different particulate filler composite resins were studied in vitro. Five different specimen groups were analyzed: A glass-free control, a non-silanized bioactive glass, a silanized bioactive glass, a non-silanized biostable glass and a silanized biostable glass groups. All of these five groups were further divided into sub-groups of dry and water-stored materials, both of them containing groups with 3wt%, 6wt%, 9wt% or 12wt% of glass particles (n=8 per group). The silanization of the glass particles was carried out with 2% of gamma-3-methacryloxyproyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). For the water absorption and solubility tests, the test specimens were stored in water for 60 days, and the percentages of weight change were statistically analyzed. Flexural strength, flexural modulus and toughness values were tested with a three-point bending test and statistically analyzed. Higher solubility values were observed in non-silanized glass in proportion to the percentage of glass particles. Silanization, on the other hand, decreased the solubility values of both types of glass particles and polymer. While 12wt% non-silanized bioactive glass specimens showed -0.98wt% solubility, 12wt% silanized biostable glass specimens were observed to have only -0.34wt% solubility. The three-point bending results of the dry specimens showed that flexural strength, toughness and flexural modulus decreased in proportion to the increase of glass fillers. The control group presented the highest results (106.6MPa for flexural strength, 335.7kPA for toughness, 3.23GPa for flexural modulus), whereas for flexural strength and toughness, 12wt% of non-silanized biostable glass filler groups presented the lowest (70.3MPa for flexural strength

  7. Stable, Thermally Conductive Fillers for Bolted Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVesque, Raymond J., II; Jones, Cherie A.; Babel, Henry W.

    2003-01-01

    A commercial structural epoxy [Super Koropon (or equivalent)] has been found to be a suitable filler material for bolted joints that are required to have large thermal conductances. The contact area of such a joint can be less than 1 percent of the apparent joint area, the exact value depending on the roughnesses of the mating surfaces. By occupying the valleys between contact peaks, the filler widens the effective cross section for thermal conduction. In comparison with prior thermal joint-filler materials, the present epoxy offers advantages of stability, ease of application, and -- as a byproduct of its stability -- lasting protection against corrosion. Moreover, unlike silicone greases that have been used previously, this epoxy does not migrate to contaminate adjacent surfaces. Because this epoxy in its uncured state wets metal joint surfaces and has low viscosity, it readily flows to fill the gaps between the mating surfaces: these characteristics affect the overall thermal conductance of the joint more than does the bulk thermal conductivity of the epoxy, which is not exceptional. The thermal conductances of metal-to-metal joints containing this epoxy were found to range between 5 and 8 times those of unfilled joints.

  8. The use of agar as a novel filler for monolithic matrices produced using hot melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Lyons, John G; Devine, Declan M; Kennedy, James E; Geever, Luke M; O'Sullivan, Patrick; Higginbotham, Clement L

    2006-08-01

    The use of filler materials in an extended release monolithic polymer matrix can lead to a vastly altered release profile for the active pharmaceutical ingredient. A range of excipients for use in monolithic matrices have been discussed in the literature. The body of work described in this research paper outlines the use of agar as a novel filler material in a hot melt extruded polymer matrix. Several batches of matrix material were prepared with Diclofenac sodium used as the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Agar and microcrystalline cellulose were used as the filler materials in varying ratios, to examine the effect of % filler content as well as filler type on the properties of the hot melt extruded matrix. The resultant extrudates were characterised using steady state parallel plate rheometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dissolution testing. The rheometry analysis concluded that the fillers used resulted in an increase in the matrix viscosity. The DSC scans obtained showed negligible effects on the melting behavior of the matrix as a result of the filler inclusion. Dissolution analysis showed that the presence of the fillers resulted in a slower release rate of API than for the matrix alone. The results detailed within this paper indicate that agar is a viable filler for extended release hot melt produced dosage forms.

  9. Natural Rubber-Filler Interactions: What Are the Parameters?

    PubMed

    Chan, Alan Jenkin; Steenkeste, Karine; Canette, Alexis; Eloy, Marie; Brosson, Damien; Gaboriaud, Fabien; Fontaine-Aupart, Marie-Pierre

    2015-11-17

    Reinforcement of a polymer matrix through the incorporation of nanoparticles (fillers) is a common industrial practice that greatly enhances the mechanical properties of the composite material. The origin of such mechanical reinforcement has been linked to the interaction between the polymer and filler as well as the homogeneous dispersion of the filler within the polymer matrix. In natural rubber (NR) technology, knowledge of the conditions necessary to achieve more efficient NR-filler interactions is improving continuously. This study explores the important physicochemical parameters required to achieve NR-filler interactions under dilute aqueous conditions by varying both the properties of the filler (size, composition, surface activity, concentration) and the aqueous solution (ionic strength, ion valency). By combining fluorescence and electron microscopy methods, we show that NR and silica interact only in the presence of ions and that heteroaggregation is favored more than homoaggregation of silica-silica or NR-NR. The interaction kinetics increases with the ion valence, whereas the morphology of the heteroaggregates depends on the size of silica and the volume percent ratio (dry silica/dry NR). We observe dendritic structures using silica with a diameter (d) of 100 nm at a ∼20-50 vol % ratio, whereas we obtain raspberry-like structures using silica with d = 30 nm particles. We observe that in liquid the interaction is controlled by the hydrophilic bioshell, in contrast to dried conditions, where hydrophobic polymer dominates the interaction of NR with the fillers. A good correlation between the nanoscopic aggregation behavior and the macroscopic aggregation dynamics of the particles was observed. These results provide insight into improving the reinforcement of a polymer matrix using NR-filler films.

  10. Filler migration to the forehead due to multiple filler injections in a patient addicted to cosmetic fillers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hua; Chiang, Chien-Ping; Wu, Bai-Yao; Gao, Hong-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Filler migration is a potential complication following the injection of multiple fillers. With the increasing popularity of multiple filler injections, migrated granulomas should be an essential differential diagnosis for newly growing facial lumps. It is important for all physicians to be aware that complication induced by dermal fillers can occur in locations other than the planned injected sites. We described a case of filler migration to the forehead in a patient addicted to cosmetic fillers. To our knowledge, it has never been published in dermatology literature so far. A detailed history of cosmetic procedures from the patient addicted to filler injections is necessary for accurate diagnosis. Because account of previous cosmetic filler injections is not always reliable, an early skin biopsy with pathological examination is the gold standard for determining whether multiple filler injections have been performed.

  11. Coaggregation of mineral filler particles and starch granules as a basis for improving filler-fiber interaction in paper production.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Fan, Jun; Chen, Wensen; Shu, Jiayan; Qian, Xueren; Wei, Haifeng; Wang, Qingwen; Shen, Jing

    2016-09-20

    The sustainable, efficient use of renewable bio-based additives in the production of various materials fits well into the concept of sustainability. Here, the concept of coaggregation of mineral filler particles and starch granules for improving filler-fiber interaction in paper-based cellulosic networks is presented. Coaggregation of precipitated calcium carbonate filler particles and uncooked, unmodified corn starch granules by cationic polyacrylamide (a cationic high molecular weight polymer flocculant) in combination with bentonite (an anionic microparticle) prior to addition to cellulosic fiber slurry delivered enhanced filler bondability with cellulosic fibers. For instance, under the conditions studied, preaggregation resulted in an increase in filler bondability factor from 9.24 to 15.21 at starch dosage of 1% (on the basis of the dry weight of papermaking stock). The swelling and gelatinization of the starch granules in starch-filler preaggregates or hybrids enabled the "bridging" of the gaps in cellulosic networks, leading to structural consolidation and strength enhancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PIM-1 mixed matrix membranes for gas separations using cost-effective hypercrosslinked nanoparticle fillers.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Tamoghna; Bhavsar, Rupesh S; Adams, Dave J; Budd, Peter M; Cooper, Andrew I

    2016-04-25

    High-free-volume glassy polymers, such as polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and poly(trimethylsilylpropyne), have attracted attention as membrane materials due to their high permeability. However, loss of free volume over time, or aging, limits their applicability. Introduction of a secondary filler phase can reduce this aging but either cost or instability rules out scale up for many fillers. Here, we report a cheap, acid-tolerant, nanoparticulate hypercrosslinked polymer 'sponge' as an alternative filler. On adding the filler, permeability is enhanced and aging is strongly retarded. This is accompanied by a CO2/N2 selectivity that increases over time, surpassing the Robeson upper bound.

  13. Effect of filler size and shape on local nanoindentation modulus of resin-composites.

    PubMed

    Masouras, Konstantinos; Akhtar, Riaz; Watts, David C; Silikas, Nick

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the Young's moduli (E) of a series of model dental resin-composites using nanoindentation, and to examine how E was influenced by differences in filler-size and shape. Materials with different filler-sizes and shapes but constant filler volume-fraction were investigated. Disc specimens, mounted in polystyrene resin were mechanically polished and tested with a nanoindenter. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test were used for the statistical analysis. Regression analysis was used to investigate the correlation between E and filler-size. E ranged from 9.31 to 12.54 GPa for spherical fillers and from 14.09 to 17.03 GPa for irregular fillers. Statistically significant differences were found among the groups. Strong quadratic correlations were observed between E and filler-size for unimodal materials with spherical and irregular fillers, but were not statistically significant. Filler-size and shape seemed to be fine-tuning factors for E.

  14. Wetting and spreading behavior of molten brazing filler metallic alloys on metallic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogi, Satoshi; Kajiura, Tetsurou; Hanada, Yukiakira; Miyazawa, Yasuyuki

    2014-08-01

    Wetting and spreading of molten brazing filler material are important factors that influence the brazing ability of a joint to be brazed. Several investigations into the wetting ability of a brazing filler alloy and its surface tension in molten state, in addition to effects of brazing time and temperature on the contact angle, have been carried out. In general, dissimilar-metals brazing technology and high-performance brazed joint are necessities for the manufacturing field in the near future. Therefore, to address this requirement, more such studies on wetting and spreading of filler material are required for a deeper understanding. Generally, surface roughness and surface conditions affect spreading of molten brazing filler material during brazing. Wetting by and interfacial reactions of the molten brazing filler material with the metallic substrate, especially, affect strongly the spreading of the filler material. In this study, the effects of surface roughness and surface conditions on the spreading of molten brazing filler metallic alloys were investigated. Ag-(40-x)Cu-xIn and Ag- (40-x)Cu-xSn (x=5, 10, 15, 20, 25) alloys were used as brazing filler materials. A mild-steel square plate (S45C (JIS); side: 30 mm; thickness: 3mm) was employed as the substrate. A few surfaces with varying roughness were prepared using emery paper. Brazing filler material and metallic base plate were first washed with acetone, and then a flux was applied to them. The filler, 50 mg, was placed on the center of the metallic base with the flux. A spreading test was performed under Ar gas using an electrically heated furnace, after which, the original spreading area, defined as the sessile drop area, and the apparent spreading area, produced by the capillary grooves, were both evaluated. It was observed that the spreading area decreased with increasing In and Sn content.

  15. An investigation of tendon sheathing filler migration into concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1998-03-01

    During some of the inspections at nuclear power plants with prestressed concrete containments, it was observed that the containments has experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler (i.e., streaks). The objective of this activity was to provide an indication of the extent of tendon sheathing filler leakage into the concrete and its affects on concrete properties. Literature was reviewed and concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant and tested. The literature primarily addressed effects of crude or lubricating oils that are known to cause concrete damage. However, these materials have significantly different characteristics relative to the materials used as tendon sheathing fillers. Examination and testing of the concrete cores indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the concrete surface was due to leakage from the conduits and its subsequent migration through cracks that were present. Migration of the tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks and there was no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength testing indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased over 40% in 25.4 years relative to the average compressive strength at 28-days age.

  16. A study of retentive filler and its use in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Xu, H C; Wang, T; Heindl, D; Zheng, G; Liu, W Y; Nagel, J R

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a fine compound inorganic filler with special surface microstructure (called retentive filler or RF) and to investigate its use in composite resin and synthetic resin teeth. Barium silicate glass and fine silicon dioxide or barium silicate glass were mixed and sintered, then dispersed and classified by sedimentation. The surface microstructure and the particle size distribution of retentive filler were surveyed, and the mechanical properties of the composite resin and the resin tooth material reinforced with RF were tested. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the surface of RF particles is distinguished for its retentive contour microstructure. The particle size of RF is smaller than 3 microns. The mechanical properties of composite resin reinforced with RF are better than that of composites containing normal fillers, and the wear resistance of the resin tooth material containing RF is better than that of normal synthetic resin. The RF can be successfully prepared by the technological process in this study. Because of the special surface microstructure, RF has a good bonding to the resin matrix. The testing results suggest that it is feasible to improve the mechanical properties, especially the wear resistance of the composite resin and resin teeth, by using retentive filler.

  17. Effect of inorganic fillers in paper on the adhesion of pressure-sensitive adhesives

    Treesearch

    Weixu Chen; Xiaoyan Tang; John Considine; Kevin T. Turner

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic fillers are inexpensive materials used to increase the density, smoothness and other properties of paper that are important for printing. In the current study, the adhesion of pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs), a common type of adhesive used in labels and tapes, to papers containing varying amounts and types of fillers is investigated. Papers with three...

  18. Up Close and Personal: A Case Study of the Development of Three English Fillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Andrea; Menn, Lise

    2003-01-01

    As Peters (2001) has suggested, the young child's use of fillers seems to indicate awareness of distributionally-defined slots in which some as yet unidentified material belongs. One may view a filler as an emergent transitional form; as a slot that serves as an underspecified lexical entry for the accumulation of phonological and functional…

  19. Dermal fillers. The next generation.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Tracey

    2004-01-01

    In today's busy and demanding world, we no longer have the luxury of taking weeks to recover from a surgical procedure and are more frequently seeking quicker alternatives. The use of dermal fillers meets this need but in no way replaces a surgical intervention. Previously, bovine collagen was the only approved dermal filler. However, today there are several options available including a human collagen, a variety of hyaluronic acids, and a permanent injectable product. Each of the products has different uses, indications, and adverse reactions. The experienced injector now has a wider selection of products from which to choose to ensure that the patient receives what is best suited for his or her particular situation. These new products are becoming increasingly popular, due to acceptability and affordability, but are not without potential complications and adverse reactions. This article discusses the use of Cosmoderm/Cosmoplast, Hylaform, Restylane/Perlane, and Artecoll dermal fillers.

  20. Use of Fillers in Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyoung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Surgical rhinoplasty is the one of the most common cosmetic procedures in Asians. But there are limitations, such as down time, high cost, and a steep learning curve. Most complications are implant related. A safer and less invasive procedure is rhinoplasty using fillers. Good knowledge of the nasal anatomy is essential for rhinoplasty using fillers. Knowledge of nerves, blood supply, and injection plane allows avoiding complications. There are several planes in the nose. The deep fatty layer is recommended for injection, because it is wide and loose and there are less important neurovascular structures. Botulinum toxin also can be used for noninvasive rhinoplasty.

  1. The Microstructural Evolution of Vacuum Brazed 1Cr18Ni9Ti Using Various Filler Metals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunxia; Cui, Haichao; Lu, Binfeng; Lu, Fenggui

    2017-04-05

    The microstructures and weldability of a brazed joint of 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel with BNi-2, BNi82CrSiBFe and BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metals in vacuum were investigated. It can be observed that an interdiffusion region existed between the filler metal and the base metal for the brazed joint of Ni-based filler metals. The width of the interdiffusion region was about 10 μm, and the microstructure of the brazed joint of BNi-2 filler metal was dense and free of obvious defects. In the case of the brazed joint of BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metal, there were pits, pores and crack defects in the brazing joint due to insufficient wettability of the filler metal. Crack defects can also be observed in the brazed joint of BNi82CrSiBFe filler metal. Compared with BMn50NiCuCrCo and BNi82CrSiBFe filler metals, BNi-2 filler metal is the best material for 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel vacuum brazing because of its distinct weldability.

  2. The utility of high-frequency ultrasound in dermal filler evaluation.

    PubMed

    Grippaudo, Francesca Romana; Mattei, Mauro

    2011-11-01

    Aim of this study is to describe the use of high-frequency ultrasound to ascertain the site, quantity, and type of filler injected in the soft tissue of the face, with respect to reliability of the procedure and the analysis costs. Between December 2006 and August 2010, 80 subjects aged 25 to 65 years, who underwent facial filler augmentation, were submitted to high-frequency sonography. Of total, 42 patients (22 after temporary filler and 20 after permanent filler) were healthy and satisfied of the treatment, and 38 patients sought consultation for filler-related problems. The nature of the injected filler was known in 86.25% of the patients, whereas it was unknown in 13.75% of the patients. Besides 4 patients, previously treated with temporary products, in which no foreign material was detected, high-frequency sonography was able to identify and quantify the presence of filler in the soft tissue of 97% of patients. Moreover, it was possible to detect inflammatory reaction (that were often silent), granulomas, and recognize the presence of diverse fillers in the same area. Ultrasonography has proved to be a useful, inexpensive, noninvasive tool for the identification of the site, quantity, and often even nature of the filler injected.

  3. The Microstructural Evolution of Vacuum Brazed 1Cr18Ni9Ti Using Various Filler Metals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunxia; Cui, Haichao; Lu, Binfeng; Lu, Fenggui

    2017-01-01

    The microstructures and weldability of a brazed joint of 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel with BNi-2, BNi82CrSiBFe and BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metals in vacuum were investigated. It can be observed that an interdiffusion region existed between the filler metal and the base metal for the brazed joint of Ni-based filler metals. The width of the interdiffusion region was about 10 μm, and the microstructure of the brazed joint of BNi-2 filler metal was dense and free of obvious defects. In the case of the brazed joint of BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metal, there were pits, pores and crack defects in the brazing joint due to insufficient wettability of the filler metal. Crack defects can also be observed in the brazed joint of BNi82CrSiBFe filler metal. Compared with BMn50NiCuCrCo and BNi82CrSiBFe filler metals, BNi-2 filler metal is the best material for 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel vacuum brazing because of its distinct weldability. PMID:28772745

  4. 7 CFR 58.914 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fillers. 58.914 Section 58.914 Agriculture Regulations... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.914 Fillers. Both gravity and vacuum type fillers shall be of sanitary design and all product contact surfaces, if metal...

  5. 7 CFR 58.710 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fillers. 58.710 Section 58.710 Agriculture Regulations... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.710 Fillers. A strainer should be installed between the cooker and the filler. The hoppers of all filters shall be covered...

  6. 7 CFR 58.710 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fillers. 58.710 Section 58.710 Agriculture Regulations... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.710 Fillers. A strainer should be installed between the cooker and the filler. The hoppers of all filters shall be covered...

  7. 7 CFR 58.710 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fillers. 58.710 Section 58.710 Agriculture Regulations... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.710 Fillers. A strainer should be installed between the cooker and the filler. The hoppers of all filters shall be covered...

  8. 7 CFR 58.710 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fillers. 58.710 Section 58.710 Agriculture Regulations... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.710 Fillers. A strainer should be installed between the cooker and the filler. The hoppers of all filters shall be covered...

  9. 7 CFR 58.914 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fillers. 58.914 Section 58.914 Agriculture Regulations... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.914 Fillers. Both gravity and vacuum type fillers shall be of sanitary design and all product contact surfaces, if metal...

  10. 7 CFR 58.710 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fillers. 58.710 Section 58.710 Agriculture Regulations... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.710 Fillers. A strainer should be installed between the cooker and the filler. The hoppers of all filters shall be covered...

  11. System compliance dictates the effect of composite filler content on polymerization shrinkage stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengzhi; Chiang, Martin Y M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of filler content in dental restorative composites on the polymerization shrinkage stress (PS) is not straightforward and has caused much debate in the literature. Our objective in this study was to clarify the PS/filler content relationship based on analytical and experimental approaches, so that guidelines for materials comparison in terms of PS and clinical selection of dental composites with various filler content can be provided. Analytically, a simplified model based on linear elasticity was utilized to predict PS as a function of filler content under various compliances of the testing system, a cantilever beam-based instrument used in this study. The predictions were validated by measuring PS of composites synthesized using 50/50 mixtures of two common dimethacrylate resins with a variety of filler contents. Both experiments and predictions indicated that the influence of filler content on the PS highly depended on the compliance of the testing system. Within the clinic-relevant range of compliances and for the specific sample configuration tested, the PS increased with increasing filler content at low compliance of instrument, while increasing the compliance caused the effect of filler content on the PS to gradually diminish. Eventually, at high compliance, the PS inverted and decreased with increasing filler content. This compliance-dependent effect of filler content on PS suggests: (1) for materials comparison in terms of PS, the specific compliance at which the comparison being done should always be reported and (2) clinically, composites with relatively lower filler content could be selected for such cavities with relatively lower compliance (e.g. a Class-I cavity with thick tooth walls or the basal part in a cavity) and vice versa in order to reduce the final PS. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. System compliance dictates the effect of composite filler content on polymerization shrinkage stress☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengzhi; Chiang, Martin Y.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The effect of filler content in dental restorative composites on the polymerization shrinkage stress (PS) is not straightforward and has caused much debate in the literature. Our objective in this study was to clarify the PS/filler content relationship based on analytical and experimental approaches, so that guidelines for materials comparison in terms of PS and clinical selection of dental composites with various filler content can be provided. Methods Analytically, a simplified model based on linear elasticity was utilized to predict PS as a function of filler content under various compliances of the testing system, a cantilever beam-based instrument used in this study. The predictions were validated by measuring PS of composites synthesized using 50/50 mixtures of two common dimethacrylate resins with a variety of filler contents. Results Both experiments and predictions indicated that the influence of filler content on the PS highly depended on the compliance of the testing system. Within the clinic-relevant range of compliances and for the specific sample configuration tested, the PS increased with increasing filler content at low compliance of instrument, while increasing the compliance caused the effect of filler content on the PS to gradually diminish. Eventually, at high compliance, the PS inverted and decreased with increasing filler content. Significance This compliance-dependent effect of filler content on PS suggests: (1) for materials comparison in terms of PS, the specific compliance at which the comparison being done should always be reported and (2) clinically, composites with relatively lower filler content could be selected for such cavities with relatively lower compliance (e.g. a Class-I cavity with thick tooth walls or the basal part in a cavity) and vice versa in order to reduce the final PS. PMID:26916062

  13. Dry bin filler for apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  14. Silica Fillers for elastomer Reinforement

    SciTech Connect

    Kohls, D.J.; Schaefer, D.W.

    2012-09-10

    This article summarizes recent work on the structure of precipitated silica used in the reinforcement of elastomers. Silica has a unique morphology, consisting of multiple structural levels that can be controlled through processing. The ability to control and characterize the multiple structures of precipitated silica is an example of morphological engineering for reinforcement applications. In this summary of some recent research efforts using precipitated silica, small-angle scattering techniques are described and their usefulness for determining the morphology of silica in terms of primary particles, aggregates, and agglomerates are discussed. The structure of several different precipitated silica powders is shown as well as the mechanical properties of elastomers reinforced with these silica particles. The study of the mechanical properties of filled elastomer systems is a challenging and exciting topic for both fundamental science and industrial application. It is known that the addition of hard particulates to a soft elastomer matrix results in properties that do not follow a straightforward rule of mixtures. Research efforts in this area have shown that the properties of filled elastomers are influenced by the nature of both the filler and the matrix, as well as the interactions between them. Several articles have reviewed the influence of fillers like silica and carbon black on the reinforcement of elastomers. In general, the structure-property relationships developed for filled elastomers have evolved into the following major areas: Filler structure, hydrodynamic reinforcement, and interactions between fillers and elastomers.

  15. Silica Fillers for elastomer Reinforement

    SciTech Connect

    Kohls, D.J.; Schaefer, D.W.

    2009-08-26

    This article summarizes recent work on the structure of precipitated silica used in the reinforcement of elastomers. Silica has a unique morphology, consisting of multiple structural levels that can be controlled through processing. The ability to control and characterize the multiple structures of precipitated silica is an example of morphological engineering for reinforcement applications. In this summary of some recent research efforts using precipitated silica, small-angle scattering techniques are described and their usefulness for determining the morphology of silica in terms of primary particles, aggregates, and agglomerates are discussed. The structure of several different precipitated silica powders is shown as well as the mechanical properties of elastomers reinforced with these silica particles. The study of the mechanical properties of filled elastomer systems is a challenging and exciting topic for both fundamental science and industrial application. It is known that the addition of hard particulates to a soft elastomer matrix results in properties that do not follow a straightforward rule of mixtures. Research efforts in this area have shown that the properties of filled elastomers are influenced by the nature of both the filler and the matrix, as well as the interactions between them. Several articles have reviewed the influence of fillers like silica and carbon black on the reinforcement of elastomers. In general, the structure-property relationships developed for filled elastomers have evolved into the following major areas: Filler structure, hydrodynamic reinforcement, and interactions between fillers and elastomers.

  16. Study of Diamond like Carbon as template for nanoimprint lithography and as a filler material for vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Seetharaman

    Due to its tunable properties like hardness, optical gap, chemical inertness, electrical resistivity, biocompatibility etc., coatings of the material Diamond like Carbon (DLC) have been used as protective layers for various applications. In this research effort, we add to the growing list of its potential applications by proposing them as a template material for the emerging field of nanoimprint lithography. Using capacitive and inductive plasmas, we demonstrate the possibility of depositing DLC films of reasonable hardness (10-25 GPa) and wear resistance (2X that of Si and 3X that of Quartz). We have successfully used these films as a mold material to obtain feature sizes as small as 40 nm. In addition, to further the understanding of the effect of the gas phase chemistry on the film properties, the Methane discharge used for obtaining these films has been studied using techniques like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Emission Spectroscopy. The higher degree of dissociation (up to 70%) of the precursor in case of inductive plasmas leads to selected conditions under which hard DLC films are obtained. We also show that for the same deposition conditions, films deposited on the insulating Quartz substrates are softer and more polymeric than those deposited on Si substrates. Carbon nanotubes with their unique physical properties are seen as ideal candidates for applications like field effect transistors, supercapacitors, AFM tips and electronic devices. One of the chief challenges in using them for these applications is obtaining them in a form that is easier to handle, thus enabling them to withstand the various post-processing steps. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the possibility of obtaining a Carbon-Carbon composite structure by subjecting vertically aligned Carbon nanotube forests to a PECVD based process. The distance from the top of the CNT forest that is coated with the deposited film (termed as the depth of infusion) shows

  17. Improved TIG weld joint strength in aluminum alloy 2219-T87 by filler metal substitution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, R. M.; Lovoy, C. V.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an investigation on weld joint characteristics of aluminum alloy 2219-T87 are given. Five different alloys were utilized as filler material. The mechanical properties of the joints were determined at ambient and cryogenic temperatures for weldments in the as-welded condition and also, for weldments after elevated temperature exposures. Other evaluations included hardness surveys, stress corrosion susceptibility, and to a limited extent, the internal metallurgical weld structures. The overall results indicate that M-943 filler weldments are superior in strength to weldments containing either the standard 2319 filler or fillers 2014, 2020, and a dual wire feed consisting of three parts 2319 and one part 5652. In addition, no deficiencies were evident in M-934 filler weldments with regard to ductility, joint strength after elevated temperature exposure, weld hardness, metallographic structures, or stress corrosion susceptibility.

  18. Effects of age condition on the distribution and integrity of inorganic fillers in dental resin composites.

    PubMed

    D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Svizero, Nádia da Rocha; Bim Júnior, Odair; Valduga, Claudete Justina; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Sauro, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the distribution of the filler size along with the zeta potential, and the integrity of silane-bonded filler surface in different types of restorative dental composites as a function of the material age condition. Filtek P60 (hybrid composite), Filtek Z250 (small-particle filled composite), Filtek Z350XT (nanofilled composite), and Filtek Silorane (silorane composite) (3M ESPE) were tested at different stage condition (i.e., fresh/new, aged, and expired). Composites were submitted to an accelerated aging protocol (Arrhenius model). Specimens were obtained by first diluting each composite specimen in ethanol and then dispersed in potassium chloride solution (0.001 mol%). Composite fillers were characterized for their zeta potential, mean particle size, size distribution, via poly-dispersion dynamic light scattering. The integrity of the silane-bonded surface of the fillers was characterized by FTIR. The material age influenced significantly the outcomes; Zeta potential, filler characteristics, and silane integrity varied both after aging and expiration. Silorane presented the broadest filler distribution and lowest zeta potential. Nanofilled and silorane composites exhibited decreased peak intensities in the FTIR analysis, indicating a deficiency of the silane integrity after aging or expiry time. Regardless to the material condition, the hybrid and the small-particle-filled composites were more stable overtime as no significant alteration in filler size distribution, diameter, and zeta potential occurred. A deficiency in the silane integrity in the nanofilled and silorane composites seems to be affected by the material stage condition. The materials conditions tested in this study influenced the filler size distribution, the zeta potential, and integrity of the silane adsorbed on fillers in the nanofilled and silorane composites. Thus, this may result in a decrease of the clinical performance of aforementioned composites, in

  19. Anterior filler displacement following injection of calcium hydroxylapatite gel (Radiesse) for anophthalmic orbital volume augmentation.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Adam G; Holds, John B; Vagefi, M Reza; Bidar, Maziar; McCann, John D; Anderson, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    To describe the complication of anterior filler displacement following injection of calcium hydroxylapatite gel (Radiesse) for anophthalmic enophthalmos correction. Retrospective case series of patients who experienced anterior filler displacement following orbital injection of calcium hydroxylapatite. Data includes patient demographics, indication for injection, route and volume of injection, description of postinjection complications, and final outcome. Four cases of anterior filler displacement and expansion following injection of calcium hydroxylapatite were identified. The patients' ages ranged from 33 to 64 years old. All 4 patients underwent multiple prior orbital surgeries and suffered from anophthalmic enophthalmos. Injectable calcium hydroxylapatite was delivered transcutaneously, to the deep extraconal orbital space, via 27-gauge, 1.25-inch retrobulbar needles. Each patient received an initial 1.3 ml of filler, with 1 patient receiving an additional 0.8 ml. Within 1 week, all patients experienced prominent, edematous lower eyelids. A CT scan of 1 patient radiographically documented anterior migration of the filler material. Two patients required transconjunctival excision of the filler and infiltrated orbital fat. Histopathologic examination of 1 specimen revealed chronic foreign body granulomatous inflammation. Two patients were treated medically, with resolution of clinical findings over 6 to 9 months. Anterior filler displacement is a potential complication of orbital volume augmentation with injectable calcium hydroxylapatite. Patients should be counseled regarding this possibility when considering options for the treatment of anophthalmic enophthalmos. A history of multiple prior orbital surgeries, with associated tissue disruption and scarring, may be a risk factor for filler displacement.

  20. Role of filler and functional group conversion in the evolution of properties in polymeric dental restoratives.

    PubMed

    Shah, Parag K; Stansbury, Jeffrey W

    2014-05-01

    To examine effects of shrinkage and modulus on the dynamic development of shrinkage stress as a function of methacrylate conversion and filler loading in a model photocurable dimethacrylate-based resin with a silanized barium glass filler. BisGMA/TEGDMA samples with filler loading levels of 0-70wt% were evaluated. Irradiation times and intensities were varied to achieve a wide range of conversion. Shrinkage stress measurements were accompanied with real-time conversion monitoring, while shrinkage and modulus measurements were made at different static conversion points. Shrinkage increased nearly linearly with respect to conversion, while for a given value of conversion, it decreased proportionally with increasing filler content. Modulus advanced in an exponential fashion with conversion and also increased incrementally with filler content; however, modulus values rose disproportionately rapidly for the highest filler loading. At either high or low filler loading levels, stress at limiting conversion, which was inversely proportional to the filler load, was high while at an intermediate filler content, a minimum in stress was observed due to the combined effects of filler based shrinkage reduction, restricted limiting conversion and only moderately enhanced modulus. The level of polymerization stress predicted from the conversion-indexed shrinkage and modulus measurements over-estimated the experimental stress states as modulus evolved due to system compliance that to some degree mimics the clinical situation presented by photocuring bonded composite restorations. Significance Measurement of monomer conversion provides a common basis by which different material properties can be rationally compared. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Soy-based fillers for thermoset composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Paula

    Considerable work has been done with bio-based fillers in thermoplastics. Wood dust has been used for decades in wood plastic composites in conjunction with recycled high HDPE and PET. In recent years rapidly renewable fillers derived from dried distillery grains and from wood have been introduced commercially for thermoset polymers. These fillers provide bio-content and weight reduction to thermoset molding compounds but issues with moisture absorption and polymerization inhibition have limited their commercial acceptance. The intent of this research was to develop a bio-based filler suitable for thermoset composites. This filler would provide a low density alternative to mined mineral filler, such as CaCO3 or clay. Composites made with these fillers would be lighter in weight, which is desirable for many markets, particularly transportation. Cost parity to the mineral fillers, on a volume basis, was desirable and the use of green chemistry principles was a key objective of the project. This work provides a basis from which further development of modified soy flours as fillers for thermoset composites will continue. Biomass has been evaluated as fillers for thermoset composites since the early 1980s but failed to gain commercial acceptance due to excessive water absorption and inhibition issues with free radical curing. Biomass, with a large percentage of carbohydrates, are very hydrophilic due to their abundance of hydroxyl groups, while biomass, high in lignin, resulted in inhibition of the free radical cure of the unsaturated styrenated polyester matrix systems. Generally protein use as a filler is not desirable due to its food value. Torrefaction has proved to be a good, cost effective, process to reduce hydrophilicity of high cellulose feedstock. Surprising, however, some levels of torrefaction were found to induce the inhibition effect of the filler. Scientific inquiry into this problem proved that aromatics form during the torrefaction process and can

  2. Effect of Geopolymer filler in Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) Pipe for Piping Application: Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus Abu Hashim, Mohammad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che; Hussin, Kamarudin; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The present work is aimed to carry out the effect of geopolymer material which is fly ash as filler in the glass reinforced epoxy pipe on the micro structure of fly ash geopolymer, compression properties, and bulk density using the filament winding method. Conventional glass reinforced epoxy pipes has its own disadvantages such as high corrosion resistance at acidic environment and low strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymer is a type of amorphous alumino-silicate and can be synthesized by geopolymerization process. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is fly ash with 4 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of the raw material fly ash and fly ash based-geopolymer surface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the additions of fly ash at the beginning with 10 wt% are showing higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without fly ash geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these series of samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples fly ash based-geopolymer filler are higher as compared to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with fly ash geopolymer filler continues to decline when added to 20 wt% - 40 wt% of geopolymer filler loading. The results showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  3. A concept for improved fire-safety through coated fillers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1977-01-01

    A possible method is examined for obtaining a high value of thermal conductivity before ignition and a low value after ignition in standard composite materials. The idea is to coat fiberglass, alumina trihydrate, and similar fillers with specially selected chemicals prior to using polymer resins. The amount of the coat constitutes typically less than 5% of the material's total weight. The experimental results obtained are consistent with the basic concept.

  4. A novel technique for preparing dental CAD/CAM composite resin blocks using the filler press and monomer infiltration method.

    PubMed

    Okada, Koichi; Kameya, Takehiro; Ishino, Hiroshige; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    The authors have developed a new technique for preparing dental CAD/CAM composite resin blocks (CRBs): the filler press and monomer infiltration (FPMI) method. In this method, surface-treated filler is molded into a green body in which the filler particles are compressed to form an agglomeration. The green body is then infiltrated with a monomer mixture before being polymerized. It is possible to produce CRBs using this method through which densely packed nanofiller is uniformly dispersed. The greater the pressure of the filler molding, the more filler in the CRB, resulting at high pressure in a very dense CRB. A CRB obtained by applying 170 MPa of pressure contained up to 70 wt% of nano-silica filler and had a flexural strength of 200 MPa, as well. It is anticipated that CRBs obtained using the FPMI method will be useful as a dental CAD/CAM material for the fabrication of permanent crown restorations.

  5. Effect of resin-composite filler particle size and shape on shrinkage-stress.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, Julian D; Maisuria, Amit; Vogel, Karin; Watts, David C

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variations in filler particle size and shape on the polymerization shrinkage-stress kinetics of resin-composites. A model series of 12 VLC resin-composites were studied. The particulate dispersed phase volume fraction was 56.7%: these filler particles were systematically graded in size, and further were either spherical or irregular. A Bioman instrument (cantilever beam method) was employed to determine the shrinkage-stress kinetics following 40s irradiation (600 mW/cm(2)) at 23°C (n=3). All data were captured for 60 min and the final shrinkage-stress calculated. Shrinkage-stress varied between 3.86 MPa (SD 0.14) for S3 (spherical filler particles of 500 nm) and 8.44 MPa (SD 0.41) for I1 (irregular filler particles of 450 nm). The shrinkage-stress values were generally lower for those composites with spherical filler particles than those with irregular filler particles. The differences in shrinkage-stress with filler particle size and shape were statistically significant (p<0.001). Composites with spherical filler particles exhibit lower shrinkage-stress values compared to those with irregular filler particles. Shrinkage-stress and shrinkage-stress rate vary in a complex manner with variations in the size of the dispersed phase particles: a hypothesized explanation for the effect of filler particle size and shape is presented. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of fillers in aesthetic medicine: medico-legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, E; Montanari Vergallo, G; Reale, G; di Luca, A; Catarinozzi, I; Napoletano, S; Zaami, S

    2016-11-01

    In recent years there has been an exponential increase of fillers use in aesthetic medicine. The popularity of this anti-wrinkle product is based on their capacity to offer significant improvement in the aesthetic field, particularly to skin rejuvenating processes with non-invasive and less expensive techniques, if compared to the surgical methods (i.e. surgical lifting). The great number of fillers on the market is composed of a large heterogenic number of biomaterials. The aim of this review was to provide an overview and a classification of the filling materials that are most commonly used. A synthesis of the literature concerning fillers and related side effects was also reported. The law decree no. 23 of 1998, converted in the law no. 94 of 1998 and the principal judgments of the Italian Court of Cassation have been examined with the medico-legal issues related to fillers use in medicine. With respect to their degradation, filler materials may be classified as temporary (degradable), semi-permanent and permanent (not degradable). The temporary fillers such as hyaluronic acid and collagen are completely degraded by the surrounding tissue in a few months. The permanent fillers, such as the ones derived from silicon oil and minerals are not biodegradable and may cause serious and irreversible side effects. Their use requires a physician with a high level of specialization to perform the treatment, a deep knowledge of face anatomy and a great degree of experience.

  7. Fluoride release from aged resin composites containing fluoridated glass filler.

    PubMed

    Itota, Toshiyuki; Al-Naimi, Omar T; Carrick, Thomas E; Yoshiyama, Masahiro; McCabe, John F

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride release from aged resin composites containing different types of fluoridated glass filler into both deionized distilled water and lactic acid solution. Three resin composites, UniFil S (containing fluoro-alumino-silicate glass filler), Reactmer (containing pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler) and Beautifil (containing both types of fillers) were used. A conventional glass-ionomer cement, Ketac-Fil, was used as a control. Five disk specimens of each material were prepared and aged in water for 10 weeks. After aging, specimens were immersed in deionized distilled water for a further 6 days and then in aqueous lactic acid (pH 4.0) for 2 days. This process was repeated twice more and the specimens were subsequently immersed in water for a further 12 days. Fluoride release was measured every 2 days throughout the post-aging period. The amount of fluoride release for aged UniFil S and Beautifil markedly increased in acid solution compared with water storage. The difference was not so great for aged Reactmer and Ketac-Fil. UniFil S and Beautifil gave significantly greater fluoride release in water following immersion in acid solution (p<0.05, two-way ANOVA and Scheffe's test), but Reactmer and Ketac-Fil showed no such increase in fluoride release after acid immersion. These results suggested that the nature of the fluoridated glass filler within a resin composite and the way in which the material interacts with an acidic environment affected the amount of fluoride released.

  8. Prolonging the Life of Refractory Fillers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Useful life of refractory glass-cloth gap filler is increased by coating it with a suspension of silicon carbide in butanol and polyethylene. Coating is applied to refractory-fiber cloth filler that seals gaps between insulating tiles on Space Shuttle orbiter. Tests showed that cloth fibers would be embrittled by extreme temperatures encountered on reentry into Earth's atmosphere and that only 25 percent of the thousands of fillers would be reusable after a mission. With coating, 85 percent of fillers would be reusable.

  9. Amorphous Ti-Zr; Base Metglas brazing filler metals

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinkin, A.; Liebermann, H.; Pounds, S.; Taylor, T. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper is the first report on processing, properties and potential application of amorphous titanium/zirconium-base alloys produced in the form of a good quality continuous and ductile ribbon having up to 12.5 mm width. To date, the majority of titanium brazing is accomplished using cooper and aluminum-base brazing filler metals. The brazements produced with these filler metals have rather low ({approximately}300{degrees} C) service temperature, thus impeding progress in aircraft and other technologies and industries. The attempt to develop a generation of high temperature brazing filler metals was made in the late sixties-early seventies studies in detail were a large number of Ti-, Zr-Ti-Zr, Ti-V and Zr-V-Ti based alloys. The majority of these alloys has copper and nickel as melting temperature depressants. The presence of nickel and copper converts them into eutectic alloys having (Ti(Zr)) (Cu(Ni)), intermetallic phases as major structural constituents. This, in turn, results in high alloy brittleness and poor, if any, processability by means of conventional, i.e. melting-ingot casting-deformation technology. In spite of good wettability and high joint strength achieved in dozens of promising alloys, only Ti-15Cu-15Ni is now widely used as a brazing filler metal for high service temperature. Up until now this material could not be produced as a homogeneous foil and is instead applied as a clad strip consisting of three separate metallic layers.

  10. The use of Ni-Cr-Si-Be filler metals for brazing of stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivannikov, A.; Fedotov, V.; Suchkov, A.; Penyaz, M.; Fedotov, I.; Tarasov, B.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline ribbon filler metal-alloys of system Ni-Cr-Si-Be are produced by the rapidly quenching of the melt method. By these filler metals carried out hight temperature vacuum brazing of austenitic steels (12Kh18N10T and Kh18N8G2) and austenitic-ferritic class EI-811 (12Kh21N5T). The basic laws of structure-phase state foundation of brazed joints are determined, features of the interaction of the molten filler metal to the brazed materials are identified, the optimal temperature and time parameters of the brazing process are determined.

  11. Current Concepts in Filler Injection.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Amir; Watson, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    When evaluating the face in thirds, the upper face, midface, and lower face, one may assume the lateral the temple, midface, and lateral mandible as the pillars of these subdivisions. Many of our facial aesthetic procedures address these regions, including the lateral brow lift, midface lift, and lateral face lift. As the use of facial fillers has advanced, more emphasis is placed on the correction of the temples, midlateral face, and lateral jaw line. This article is dedicated to these facial aesthetic pillars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanical behavior of glass fiber polyester hybrid composite filled with natural fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, G.; Gupta, A.; Dhanola, A.; Raturi, A.

    2016-09-01

    Now-a-days, the natural fibers and fillers from renewable natural resources offer the potential to act as a reinforcing material for polymer composite material alternative to the use of synthetic fiber like as; glass, carbon and other man-made fibers. Among various natural fibers and fillers like banana, wheat straw, rice husk, wood powder, sisal, jute, hemp etc. are the most widely used natural fibers and fillers due to its advantages like easy availability, low density, low production cost and reasonable physical and mechanical properties This research work presents the effect of natural fillers loading with 5%, 10% and 15% on mechanical behavior of polyester based hybrid composites. The result of test depicted that hybrid composite has far better properties than single fibre glass reinforced composite under impact and flexural loads. However it is found that the hybrid composite have better strength as compared to single glass fibre composites.

  13. Visibly transparent & radiopaque inorganic organic composites from flame-made mixed-oxide fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mädler, Lutz; Krumeich, Frank; Burtscher, Peter; Moszner, Norbert

    2006-08-01

    Radiopaque composites have been produced from flame-made ytterbium/silica mixed oxide within a crosslinked methacrylate resin matrix. The refractive index of the filler powder increased with ytterbium oxide loading. A high transparency was achieved for a matching refractive index of the filler powder and the polymer in comparison to commercial materials with 52 wt% ceramic filling. It was demonstrated that powder homogeneity with regard to particle morphology and distribution of the individual metal atoms is essential to obtain a highly transparent composite. In contrast, segregation of crystalline single-oxide phases drastically decreased the composite transparency despite similar specific surface areas, refractive indices and overall composition. The superior physical strength, transparency and radiopacity compared to composites made from conventional silica based-fillers makes the flame-made mixed-oxide fillers especially attractive for dental restoration materials.

  14. Filler segmentation of SEM paper images based on mathematical morphology.

    PubMed

    Ait Kbir, M; Benslimane, Rachid; Princi, Elisabetta; Vicini, Silvia; Pedemonte, Enrico

    2007-07-01

    Recent developments in microscopy and image processing have made digital measurements on high-resolution images of fibrous materials possible. This helps to gain a better understanding of the structure and other properties of the material at micro level. In this paper SEM image segmentation based on mathematical morphology is proposed. In fact, paper models images (Whatman, Murillo, Watercolor, Newsprint paper) selected in the context of the Euro Mediterranean PaperTech Project have different distributions of fibers and fillers, caused by the presence of SiAl and CaCO3 particles. It is a microscopy challenge to make filler particles in the sheet distinguishable from the other components of the paper surface. This objectif is reached here by using switable strutural elements and mathematical morphology operators.

  15. Low filler volume concentration composite dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Lynell Joy

    One avenue for synthesizing a high energy density capacitor while circumventing the manufacturing problems and low breakdown strength associated with dense, sintered ceramics, is to incorporate low volume concentrations of well dispersed high permittivity filler, such as barium titanate, in conjunction with polymers, naturally high breakdown strength materials. The focus of this work was to examine the factors that influence the energy density of a composite: the breakdown strength and dielectric constant. First, the breakdown strength of composites synthesized with low filler volume concentrations of particles, barium titanate and titanium dioxide, in an epoxy matrix, was determined. The impact of commercial dispersants, phosphate esters and menhaden fish oil particle size, and solvent polarity on the electrical performance of the epoxy based composite was assessed by thermogravimetrie analysis, and Weibull distributions of the breakdown strength data. The surface of BaTiO3 was found to contain BaCO3 using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Dispersion quality of acid washed BaTiO3 improved over as-received powder with comparable incorporation of dispersant and solvent system. T1O2 was used as a model to simulate the Ti-rich surface created after acid washing. A range of solids loading, from 5 to 40% volume, for a BaTiO3/epoxy composite system was used to determine the optimum trade-off in factors influencing energy density, dielectric constant or breakdown strength. The composites' components and electrical properties were characterized. Sample and electrode geometry were modified to impart a calculated dielectric constant without the influence of enhanced electric field lines.

  16. Market opportunities for fly ash fillers in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.; Harris, T.; Gledhill, J. )

    1990-11-01

    Direct Acid Leaching (DAL) processed fly ash is derived from treating raw and beneficiated coal fly ash with hydrochloric acid. The DAL process allows for the production of fly ash with greater chemical purity and consistency than raw fly ash alone. In addition, DAL fly ash is similar to various minerals used in a wide range of applications that require filler minerals. This project investigates the feasibility of using three grades of DAL fly ash ranging from 10 microns to 30 microns in diameter as an alternative filler material to mineral fillers. Six major applications in North America, requiring large volumes of filler minerals were investigated by region including: (1) asphalt roofing shingles (2) carpet backing (3) joint compound and wallboard (4) industrial coatings (5) plastics (6) vinyl flooring. It is determined that calcium carbonate was the primary mineral filler DAL fly ash would be competing with in the applications investigated. Calcium carbonate is used in all applications investigated. The application which demonstrated the greatest potential for using DAL fly ash is asphalt shingles. Asphalt shingles were the largest calcium carbonate consuming application identified, consuming 4.8 million tons in 1988, and is the least sensitive to the dark color of the DAL fly ash. Although the DAL fly ash typically has a smaller particle size, in comparison to calcium carbonate, the asphalt shingle manufacturers felt it would be a good substitute. Other promising applications for DAL fly ash were industrial coatings and plastics where the calcium carbonate particle size requirements of 3 to 6 microns very closely matches the particle size of the DAL fly ash considered in this project. 17 figs., 36 tabs.

  17. Tumescent anesthesia for reducing pain, swelling, and ecchymosis during polycaprolactone filler injections in the face.

    PubMed

    Kim, JongSeo

    2017-06-28

    PCL filler can be injected in two major ways to control pain. One such method involves mixing 0.3cc of PCL filler with lidocaine, and the other is the method introduced in this report, which involves pre-injection with a tumescent solution. It is hard to reduce pain effectively with pre-mixing PCL filler with lidocaine because there may be not enough time to act lidocaine solution effect immediately for pain control. The pre-mixing method changes the properties of the original filler, especially the property of the CMC portion. Therefore, in my simple and novel technique, tumescent solution is injected, followed by PCL filler which preserves the original CMC property. This is done after sedation of the tissue by the tumescent solution and dissection of soft tissue to create a space for the ensuing PCL injection. After pre-injection with tumescent solution, histological analysis indicated that the tissue did not become irritated in response to the foreign body material (PCL filler) or the mechanical trauma caused by the needle. That is the key mechanism of the tumescent injection method for reducing tissue reaction and that may reduce pain and swelling during and after PCL filler injections.

  18. Fluoride release, recharge and flexural properties of polymethylmethacrylate containing fluoridated glass fillers.

    PubMed

    Al-Bakri, I A; Swain, M V; Naoum, S J; Al-Omari, W M; Martin, E; Ellakwa, A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoridated glass fillers on fluoride release, recharge and the flexural properties of modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Specimens of PMMA denture base material with various loading of fluoridated glass fillers (0%, 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% by weight) were prepared. Flexural properties were evaluated on rectangular specimens (n = 10) aged in deionized water after 24 hours, 1 and 3 months. Disc specimens (n = 10) were aged for 43 days in deionized water and lactic acid (pH 4.0) and fluoride release was measured at numerous intervals. After ageing, specimens were recharged and fluoride re-release was recorded at 1, 3 and 7 days after recharge. Samples containing 2.5%, 5% and 10% glass fillers showed significantly (p < 0.05) greater levels of fluoride release compared with the control and 1% glass fillers specimens. All experimental specimens exhibited fluoride release in both media. The flexural strength of specimens decreased in proportion to the percentage filler inclusion with the modulus of elasticity values remaining within ISO Standard 1567. The modified PMMA with fluoridated glass fillers has the ability to release and re-release fluoride ion. Flexural strength decreased as glass filler uploading increased. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Degradation kinetics of ethylene-octene copolymer/wood flour biocomposites in dependence to filler content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykova, A. K.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Monakhova, T. V.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    This article is focused on thermal oxidative degradation and biodegradation in soil of biocomposites based on ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC), filled by wood flour (from 30 to 70% wt.), in dependence to the filler content. The study of oxidative degradation of composites was carried out at two temperatures (80 and 130°C respectively). The induction period and the rates of oxidation were determined. It was concluded that as filler content raises, the induction period increases. It can be explained by the higher specific area of composites in comparison with pure EOC. However, high filled composites (60 and 70 % of the filler) are oxidized with a huge induction period because polyphenols in the filler inhibit the oxidation process. Biodegradation test under laboratory conditions was carried out to investigate the biodegradability of the material. Composites with lower filler content have lower weight loss rate. Small particles are capsulated by polymer and are isolated from moisture and microorganisms. On the other hand, at a high filling of the composite small particles stick together and act as large ones. Such filler agglomerates are connected with each other and allow microorganisms to penetrate into the composite. It was concluded as filler content raises the mass loss increases.

  20. Intumescent-ablator coatings using endothermic fillers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An intumescent-ablator coating composition which contains the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid or 4,4 dinitrosul fanilide, a polymeric binder system and about 5 to 30% weight of an endothermic filler is reported. The filler has a decomposition temperature about or within the exothermic region of the intumescent agent.

  1. 7 CFR 58.514 - Container fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container fillers. 58.514 Section 58.514 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....514 Container fillers. Shall comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen...

  2. Fillers as Signs of Distributional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taelman, Helena; Durieux, Gert; Gillis, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal analysis is presented of the fillers of a Dutch-speaking child between 1;10 and 2;7. Our analysis corroborates familiar regularities reported in the literature: most fillers resemble articles in shape and distribution, and are affected by rhythmic and positional constraints. A novel finding is the impact of the lexical environment:…

  3. Filler functionality in edible solid foams.

    PubMed

    van der Sman, R G M

    2016-05-01

    We review the functionality of particulate ingredients in edible brittle foams, such as expanded starchy snacks. In food science and industry there is not a complete awareness of the full functionality of these filler ingredients, which can be fibers, proteins, starch granules and whole grains. But, we show that much can be learned about that from the field of synthetic polymeric foams with (nano)fillers. For edible brittle foams the enhancement of mechanical strength by filler ingredients is less relevant compared to the additional functionalities such as 1) the promotion of bubble nucleation and 2) cell opening-which are much more relevant for the snack texture. The survey of particulate ingredients added to snack formulations shows that they cannot be viewed as inert fillers, because of their strong hygroscopic properties. Hence, these fillers will compete with starch for water, and that will modify the glass transition and boiling point, which are important factors for snack expansion. Filler properties can be modified via extrusion, but it is better if that processing step is decoupled from the subsequent processing steps as mixing and expansion. Several filler ingredients are also added because of their nutritional value, but can have adverse effect on snack expansion. These adverse effects can be reduced if the increase of nutritional value is decoupled from other filler functionality via compartmentalization using micropellets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prolonging the Life of Refractory Fillers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Useful life of a refractory glass cloth gap filler is increased by coating it with a suspension of silicon carbide in butanol and polyethylene. Coating is applied to the refractory filler that seals gaps between insulating tiles on the Space Shuttle orbiter. Silicon carbide coating prevents embrittlement at high temperatures such as those encountered on reentry into Earth's atmosphere.

  5. Wind-Resistant Filler for Tile Gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellavia, J.; Quigley, I. A.; Callahan, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Filler developed for gaps between insulating tiles on Space Shuttle finds application in industries that use tiles for thermal or environmental protection. Filler consists of tight-fitting ceramic tubes and fibrous alumina. Combination resists high wind loads while providing requisite heat protection. Quartz-thread stitching holds envelope together.

  6. 7 CFR 58.514 - Container fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Container fillers. 58.514 Section 58.514 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....514 Container fillers. Shall comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen...

  7. 7 CFR 58.514 - Container fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Container fillers. 58.514 Section 58.514 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....514 Container fillers. Shall comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen...

  8. 7 CFR 58.514 - Container fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Container fillers. 58.514 Section 58.514 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....514 Container fillers. Shall comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen...

  9. 7 CFR 58.514 - Container fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Container fillers. 58.514 Section 58.514 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....514 Container fillers. Shall comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen...

  10. 7 CFR 58.914 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fillers. 58.914 Section 58.914 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections... gravity and vacuum type fillers shall be of sanitary design and all product contact surfaces, if...

  11. 7 CFR 58.914 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fillers. 58.914 Section 58.914 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections... gravity and vacuum type fillers shall be of sanitary design and all product contact surfaces, if...

  12. Volumizing the face with soft tissue fillers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek

    2011-07-01

    This article discusses the role of injectable soft-tissue fillers in the aging face, and their clinical and chemical behavior. Temporary and permanent fillers are discussed, namely hyaluronic acids, calcium hydroxylapatite, poly-l-lactic acid, liquid silicone, and polymethylmethacrylate. Techniques and outcomes are presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatigue and Creep Properties of Al-Si Brazing Filler Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edo, Masakazu; Enomoto, Masatoshi; Takayama, Yoshimasa

    The manufacturing process for automotive heat exchangers involves brazing using an aluminum brazing sheet. To ensure structural strength and improve durability, it is necessary to acquire mechanical properties for each of the materials. Al-Si alloys are most commonly used as the filler metal; however, the properties of the fillets formed by the solidification of the Al-Si filler melt have scarcely been reported previously.

  14. Injectable carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels for soft tissue filler applications.

    PubMed

    Varma, Devika M; Gold, Gittel T; Taub, Peter J; Nicoll, Steven B

    2014-12-01

    Disease, trauma and aging all lead to deficits in soft tissue. As a result, there is a need to develop materials that safely and effectively restore areas of deficiency. While autogenous fat is the current gold standard, hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers are commonly used. However, the animal and bacterial origin of HA-based materials can induce adverse reactions in patients. With the aim of developing a safer and more affordable alternative, this study characterized the properties of a plant-derived, injectable carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) soft tissue filler. Specifically, methacrylated CMC was synthesized and crosslinked to form stable hydrogels at varying macromer concentrations (2-4% w/v) using an ammonium persulfate and ascorbic acid redox initiation system. The equilibrium Young's modulus was shown to vary with macromer concentration (ranging from ∼2 to 9.25kPa), comparable to values of native soft tissue and current surgical fillers. The swelling properties were similarly affected by macromer concentration, with 4% gels exhibiting the lowest swelling ratio and mesh size, and highest crosslinking density. Rheological analysis was performed to determine gelation onset and completion, and was measured to be within the ISO standard for injectable materials. In addition, hydrolytic degradation of these gels was sensitive to macromer concentration, while selective removal using enzymatic treatment was also demonstrated. Moreover, favorable cytocompatibility of the CMC hydrogels was exhibited by co-culture with human dermal fibroblasts. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the tunability of redox-crosslinked CMC hydrogels by varying fabrication parameters, making them a versatile platform for soft tissue filler applications.

  15. Effect on mechanical properties of glass reinforced epoxy (GRE) pipe filled with different geopolymer filler molarity for piping application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, M. F. Abu; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Hussin, K.; Binhussain, M.

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the use of a novel white clay geopolymer as a filler to produce high strength glass reinforced epoxy pipe. It was found that using white clay geopolymer as filler gives better compressive strength to the glass reinforced epoxy pipe. The disadvantages of current glass reinforced epoxy pipes such low compressive strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymerization is an innovative technology that can transform several aluminosilicate materials into useful products called geopolymers or inorganic polymers. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentages white clay geopolymer filler with 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of white clay geopolymer filler surface was indicates using scanning electron microscopy. The additions of white clay geopolymer filler for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity show higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without any geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these epoxy geopolymer pipe samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. Nonetheless, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with white clay geopolymer filler continues to drop when added to 40 wt% of the geopolymer filler loading for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity. These outcomes showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be attained in this research.

  16. Effect of filler mass and binding on thermal conductivity of fully filled skutterudites

    SciTech Connect

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan; Yiang, J; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2010-11-22

    The relations between the thermal conductivity of cagelike structures and their crystal parameters are investigated using a two-dimensional toy model. The model consists of host atoms on a rectangular lattice with fillers at the center of each rectangle. The effect of mass and size of the filler on thermal conductivity is investigated using equilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. We show that the thermal conductivity decreases with increasing atomic displacement parameter while it has local minima versus the filler to host mass ratio. Similar trends were observed in experiments on filled skutterudites. The trends are explained by analyzing the effect of the filler on the phonon dispersion and relaxation times of the host material.

  17. Effect of elastic filler on the fatigue failure of thermoplastic polyurethane film at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishetskii, I. V.; Parfeev, V. M.; Erykalova, T. A.; Borisova, E. Yu.

    1989-11-01

    It was established by mathematical modeling of the curves of spectral transmissivity and by comparing them with experiments that in the mixture of polyurethane with caoutchouc an increase of the volume fraction of filler entails changes of the characteristic dimensions of its particles. With small volume fractions of filler (less than 10%), in consequence of the predominantly small size of the impurities, the mechanism of quasibrittle failure is realized without development of bulk damage to the mixture. When the mixture contains 20-30% filler, satisfactory static elastic and strength properties are retained, and in case of fatigue a considerable amount of damage accumulates and the mechanism of inhibiting macrocracks on the boundaries of impurities begins to act. When the proportion of filler increases further, the elastic and strength properties of the mixture are rapidly impaired, and as a consequence the material becomes practically unusable in operation.

  18. Adjustable high emittance gap filler. [reentry shielding for space shuttle vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, D. B.; Stewart, D. A.; Smith, M.; Estrella, C. A.; Goldstein, H. E. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A flexible, adjustable refractory filler is disclosed for filling gaps between ceramic tiles forming the heat shield of a space shuttle vehicle, to protect its aluminum skin during atmospheric reentry. The easily installed and replaced filler consists essentially of a strip of ceramic cloth coated, at least along both its longitudinal edges with a room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber compound with a high emittance colored pigment. The filler may have one or more layers as the gap width requires. Preferred materials are basket weave aluminoborosilicate cloth, and a rubber compounded with silicon tetraboride as the emittance agent and finely divided borosilicate glass containing about 7.5% B2O3 as high temperature binder. The filler cloth strip or tape is cut to proper width and length, inserted into the gap, and fastened with previously applied drops of silicone rubber adhesive.

  19. Chitosan nanocomposites based on distinct inorganic fillers for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Moura, Duarte; Mano, João F; Paiva, Maria C; Alves, Natália M

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (CHI), a biocompatible and biodegradable polysaccharide with the ability to provide a non-protein matrix for tissue growth, is considered to be an ideal material in the biomedical field. However, the lack of good mechanical properties limits its applications. In order to overcome this drawback, CHI has been combined with different polymers and fillers, leading to a variety of chitosan-based nanocomposites. The extensive research on CHI nanocomposites as well as their main biomedical applications are reviewed in this paper. An overview of the different fillers and assembly techniques available to produce CHI nanocomposites is presented. Finally, the properties of such nanocomposites are discussed with particular focus on bone regeneration, drug delivery, wound healing and biosensing applications.

  20. Chitosan nanocomposites based on distinct inorganic fillers for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Duarte; Mano, João F.; Paiva, Maria C.; Alves, Natália M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chitosan (CHI), a biocompatible and biodegradable polysaccharide with the ability to provide a non-protein matrix for tissue growth, is considered to be an ideal material in the biomedical field. However, the lack of good mechanical properties limits its applications. In order to overcome this drawback, CHI has been combined with different polymers and fillers, leading to a variety of chitosan-based nanocomposites. The extensive research on CHI nanocomposites as well as their main biomedical applications are reviewed in this paper. An overview of the different fillers and assembly techniques available to produce CHI nanocomposites is presented. Finally, the properties of such nanocomposites are discussed with particular focus on bone regeneration, drug delivery, wound healing and biosensing applications. PMID:27877909

  1. Weldability testing of Inconel{trademark} filler metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, B.B.; Lin, W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the findings of a research program aimed at quantifying the weld solidification cracking susceptibility and weld metal liquation cracking susceptibility of Inconel{trademark} filler materials 52, 82, 152 and 182 deposited on a variety of materials intended for pressurized water reactor applications. A cursory investigation on the repair weldability of Filler Metal 52 using the Gleeble{trademark} thermo-mechanical simulation technique is also included. The brittle temperature range (BTR) in the fusion zone and HAZ was determined using the longitudinal-Varestraint test and spot-Varestraint test, respectively, and used as a weldability index for quantification of susceptibility to weld solidification cracking and HAZ liquation cracking. Results from this study showed that Filler Metals 52 exhibited the best resistance to both weld solidification cracking and weld metal liquation cracking followed by 82, 152 and 182 for the base metal combinations tested in this study. Repair weldability study suggested that the resistance to weld metal liquation cracking of 52 all weld metal would not be significantly reduced after ten times of weld simulation at peak temperatures of 900 C and 1,300 C.

  2. Xanthelasma-Like Reaction to Filler Injection.

    PubMed

    Or, Lior; Eviatar, Joseph A; Massry, Guy G; Bernardini, Francesco P; Hartstein, Morris E

    The purpose of this study is to describe a new complication of a xanthelasma-like reaction which appeared after dermal filler injection in the lower eyelid region. A retrospective case analysis was performed on 7 patients presenting with xanthelasma-like reaction after filler injection to the lower eyelids. Seven female subjects with no history of xanthelasma presented with xanthelasma-like reaction in the lower eyelids post filler injection. Fillers included hyaluronic acid (2 patients), synthetic calcium hydroxyapatite (4 patients), and polycaprolactone microspheres (one patient). Average time interval between filler injection and development of xanthelasma-like reaction was 12 months (range: 6-18 months). Treatment included steroid injections, 5FU injections, ablative or fractionated CO2 laser, and direct excision. Pathology confirmed the lesion was a true xanthelasma in one patient. In treated patients, there was subtotal resolution after laser. Xanthelasma-like reaction resolved completely after direct excision. Three patients elected to have no treatment. Previously there has been one reported case of xanthelasma after filler injection. This case series is the largest to date. Furthermore, this series is notable because xanthelasma-like reactions appeared after injection with 3 different types of fillers. None of the patients had evidence of xanthelasma prefiller injection. The precise mechanism by which filler injection can lead to the formation of xanthelasma-like reaction is unclear. A possible mechanism may be related to binding of low-density lipoprotein and internalization by macrophages. Further investigation is required. Nevertheless, physicians performing filler injections should be aware of this new complication and treatment options.

  3. Filler characteristics of modern dental resin composites and their influence on physico-mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Luc D; Palin, William M; Leloup, Gaëtane; Leprince, Julian G

    2016-12-01

    The mechanical properties of dental resin-based composites (RBCs) are highly dependent on filler characteristics (size, content, geometry, composition). Most current commercial materials are marketed as "nanohybrids" (i.e. filler size <1μm). In the present study, filler characteristics of a selection of RBCs were described, aiming at identifying correlations with physico-mechanical properties and testing the relevance of the current classification. Micron/sub-micron particles (> or <500nm) were isolated from 17 commercial RBCs and analyzed by laser diffractrometry and/or electron microscopy. Filler and silane content were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and a sedimentation technique. The flexural modulus (Eflex) and strength (σflex) and micro-hardness were determined by three-point bending or with a Vickers indenter, respectively. Sorption was also determined. All experiments were carried out after one week of incubation in water or 75/25 ethanol/water. Average size for micron-sized fillers was almost always higher than 1μm. Ranges for mechanical properties were: 3.7filler contents (>75wt%) were associated with the highest mechanical properties (Eflex and σflex>12GPa and 130MPa, respectively) and lowest solvent sorption (∼0.3%). Mechanical properties and filler characteristics significantly vary among modern RBCs and the current classification does not accurately illustrate either. Further, the chemical stability of RBCs differed, highlighting differences in resin and silane composition. Since Eflex and sorption were well correlated to the filler content, a simple and unambiguous classification based on such characteristic is suggested, with three levels (ultra-low fill, low-fill and compact resin composites). Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  4. 14 CFR 23.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 23.973 Section....973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must be marked as prescribed in... the airplane other than the tank itself. (c) Each filler cap must provide a fuel-tight seal for the...

  5. 14 CFR 23.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 23.973 Section....973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must be marked as prescribed in... the airplane other than the tank itself. (c) Each filler cap must provide a fuel-tight seal for the...

  6. 14 CFR 23.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 23.973 Section....973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must be marked as prescribed in... the airplane other than the tank itself. (c) Each filler cap must provide a fuel-tight seal for the...

  7. Mechanical properties of ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC) - lignocellulosic fillers biocomposites in dependence to filler content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykova, Anna; Pantyukhov, Petr; Popov, Anatoly

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical properties of biocomposites based on ethylene-octene copolymer were studied. The aim of present work was to investigate the mechanical properties of composites based on ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC) in dependence to type of the filler, filler content and trade mark of EOC. Addition of fillers (wood flour or seed flax straw) decreases elongation at break and decreases unsignificantly tensile strenght of examined copolymers. Particles of filler increase the toughness of polymer chain, which leads to decline of elongation at break. Biocomposites with wood flour had higher tensile strength and elongation at break than the composites with flax straw.

  8. Epoxy coatings over latex block fillers

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.D.

    1997-12-01

    Failures of polymerized epoxy coatings applied over latex/acrylic block fillers continue to plague owners of commercial buildings, particularly those with high architectural content such as condominiums, high rise offices, etc. Water treatment facilities in paper mills are especially prone to this problem. The types of failures include delamination of the topcoats, blisters in both the block fillers and the topcoats and disintegration of the block filler itself. While the problem is well known, the approach to a solution is not. A study of several coatings manufacturer`s Product Data Sheets shows a wide variance in the recommendations for what are purportedly generically equivalent block fillers. While one manufacturer might take an essentially architectural approach, another will take a heavy-duty industrial approach. To the specifying architect or engineer who has little training in the complexities of protective coating systems, this presents a dilemma. Who does he believe? What does he specify? To whom can he turn for independent advice?

  9. Filler Content, Surface Microhardness, and Rheological Properties of Various Flowable Resin Composites.

    PubMed

    Jager, S; Balthazard, R; Dahoun, A; Mortier, E

    The objectives of this study were to determine the filler content, the surface microhardness (at baseline and after immersion in water for 2 years), and the rheological properties of various flowable resin composites. Three flowable resin composites (Grandioso Heavy Flow [GHF], Grandio Flow [GRF], Filtek Supreme XTE Flow [XTE]), one pit and fissure sealant resin composite (ClinPro [CLI]), and three experimental flowable resin composites with the same matrix and a variable filler content (EXPA, EXPB, EXPC) were tested. The filler content was determined by calcination. The Vickers surface microhardness was determined after polymerization and then after immersion in distilled water at 37°C for 7, 60, 180, 360, and 720 days. The rheological measurements were performed using a dynamic shear rheometer. The determined filler contents differed from the manufacturers' data for all the materials. The materials with the highest filler content presented the highest microhardness, but filler content did not appear to be the only influencing parameter. With respect to the values recorded after photopolymerization, the values were maintained or increased after 720 days compared with the initial microhardness values, except for GHF. For the values measured after immersion for 7 days, an increase in microhardness was observed for all the materials over time. All the materials were non-Newtonian, with shear-thinning behavior. At all the shear speeds, GRF presented a lower viscosity to GHF and XTE. GRF presented a low viscosity before photopolymerization, associated with high filler content, thereby providing a good compromise between spreadability and mechanical properties after photopolymerization.

  10. Effects of copper filler sizes on the dielectric properties and the energy harvesting capability of nonpercolated polyurethane composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putson, C.; Lebrun, L.; Guyomar, D.; Muensit, N.; Cottinet, P.-J.; Seveyrat, L.; Guiffard, B.

    2011-01-01

    Nonpercolated composites based on polyurethane (PU) filled with low concentrations copper (Cu) powders of varying sizes were studied as electrostrictive materials for mechanical energy harvesting. The dispersion of the fillers within the polymeric matrix was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and results showed a relatively homogeneous dispersion for the microsized fillers and the existence of agglomerates for their nanosized counterparts. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements displayed that there occurred no interaction between the polymeric matrix and the microsized fillers whereas the nanosized fillers slightly enhanced the glass transition of the soft segments of PU and significantly affected the recrystallization temperature. The dependence of the dielectric properties of the composites as a function of the filler volume fraction and filler size was investigated over a broad range of frequencies, showing an increase in the permittivity when fillers were used. This increase was more pronounced for the composites containing nanosized fillers. The measurement of the harvested current and of the harvested power also demonstrated an enhancement of the energy harvesting capability when nanofillers were employed. From the experimental data, it appeared that the electrostrictive coefficient Q was not proportional to the inverse ratio of the permittivity and the Young modulus for the studied composites. Finally, analytical modeling of the harvested current and of the harvested energy offered an accurate description of the experimental data.

  11. Fillers for the improvement in acne scars

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Acne is a common inflammatory disease. Scarring is an unwanted end point of acne. Both atrophic and hypertrophic scar types occur. Soft-tissue augmentation aims to improve atrophic scars. In this review, we will focus on the use of dermal fillers for acne scar improvement. Therefore, various filler types are characterized, and available data on their use in acne scar improvement are analyzed. PMID:26491364

  12. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare; Gungor, Ahmet; Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-01

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  13. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, M. R. S.; Furtado, C. R. G. E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com; Sousa, A. M. F. de E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  14. The Influence of Chicken Egg Shell as Fillers on Biocomposite Acrylic Resin for Denture Based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, M.; Ginting, M. H. S.; Dalimunthe, N. F.; Hasibuan, D. M. T.; Sastrodihardjo, S.

    2017-03-01

    This research was conducted to discover the influence of the addition of chicken egg shells microparticle as filler on the mechanical properties such as modulus of elasticity, modulus of rapture and particle size analysis on biocomposite acrylic resin for denture based. The raw materials used in this research were acrylic resin, egg shell, cold mold seals, gypsum, Vaseline and wax. The process of making biocomposite acrylic resin for denture based with mix the acrylic resin in ratio 2:1 (w/w). Then added the microparticle filler 0,10,20,30 (%w) to mold and boil in 75°C for 90 minutes and increase the temperature to 90 °C for 30 minutes. Took the sample and let it dried. The results of research showed the increase of modulus elasticity and modulus of rapture. The modulus of elasticity showed a very significant increase by adding fillers 10% of 2.123 GPa, which was only 1.932 GPa without adding the filler of chicken egg shells. For modulus of rapture showed the increase by adding fillers 20% of 48,311MPa, which was only 46,865 GPa without adding the filler of chicken egg shells

  15. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches

    PubMed Central

    Funt, David; Pavicic, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Background The ever-expanding range of dermal filler products for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation is of benefit for patients and physicians, but as indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications will likely also increase. Objective To describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide structured and clear guidance on their treatment and avoidance. Methods Reports of dermal filler complications in the medical literature were reviewed and, based on the publications retrieved and the authors’ extensive experience, recommendations for avoiding and managing complications are provided. Results Different dermal fillers have widely varying properties, associated risks, and injection requirements. All dermal fillers have the potential to cause complications. Most are related to volume and technique, though some are associated with the material itself. The majority of adverse reactions are mild and transient, such as bruising and trauma-related edema. Serious adverse events are rare, and most are avoidable with proper planning and technique. Conclusion For optimum outcomes, aesthetic physicians should have a detailed understanding of facial anatomy; the individual characteristics of available fillers; their indications, contraindications, benefits, and drawbacks; and ways to prevent and avoid potential complications. PMID:24363560

  16. Enhanced dielectric performance in polymer composite films with carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide hybrid filler.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Young; Kim, TaeYoung; Suk, Ji Won; Chou, Harry; Jang, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Jong Ho; Kholmanov, Iskandar N; Akinwande, Deji; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2014-08-27

    The electrical conductivity and the specific surface area of conductive fillers in conductor-insulator composite films can drastically improve the dielectric performance of those films through changing their polarization density by interfacial polarization. We have made a polymer composite film with a hybrid conductive filler material made of carbon nanotubes grown onto reduced graphene oxide platelets (rG-O/CNT). We report the effect of the rG-O/CNT hybrid filler on the dielectric performance of the composite film. The composite film had a dielectric constant of 32 with a dielectric loss of 0.051 at 0.062 wt% rG-O/CNT filler and 100 Hz, while the neat polymer film gave a dielectric constant of 15 with a dielectric loss of 0.036. This is attributed to the increased electrical conductivity and specific surface area of the rG-O/CNT hybrid filler, which results in an increase in interfacial polarization density between the hybrid filler and the polymer.

  17. Plasma-modified graphene nanoplatelets and multiwalled carbon nanotubes as fillers for advanced rubber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicinski, M.; Gozdek, T.; Bielinski, D. M.; Szymanowski, H.; Kleczewska, J.; Piatkowska, A.

    2015-07-01

    In modern rubber industry, there still is a room for new fillers, which can improve the mechanical properties of the composites, or introduce a new function to the material. Modern fillers like carbon nanotubes or graphene nanoplatelets (GnP), are increasingly applied in advanced polymer composites technology. However, it might be hard to obtain a well dispersed system for such systems. The polymer matrix often exhibits higher surface free energy (SFE) level with the filler, which can cause problems with polymer-filler interphase adhesion. Filler particles are not wet properly by the polymer, and thus are easier to agglomerate. As a consequence, improvement in the mechanical properties is lower than expected. In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and GnP surface were modified with low-temperature plasma. Attempts were made to graft some functionalizing species on plasma-activated filler surface. The analysis of virgin and modified fillers’ SFE was carried out. MWCNT and GnP rubber composites were produced, and ultimately, their morphology and mechanical properties were studied.

  18. Physicochemical Characterization of Functional Lignin–Silica Hybrid Fillers for Potential Application in Abrasive Tools

    PubMed Central

    Strzemiecka, Beata; Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Jamrozik, Artur; Szalaty, Tadeusz J.; Matykiewicz, Danuta; Sterzyński, Tomasz; Voelkel, Adam; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2016-01-01

    Functional lignin–SiO2 hybrid fillers were prepared for potential application in binders for phenolic resins, and their chemical structure was characterized. The properties of these fillers and of composites obtained from them with phenolic resin were compared with those of systems with lignin or silica alone. The chemical structure of the materials was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C CP MAS NMR). The thermal stability of the new functional fillers was examined by thermogravimetric analysis–mass spectrometry (TG-MS). Thermo-mechanical properties of the lignin–silica hybrids and resin systems were investigated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The DMTA results showed that abrasive composites with lignin–SiO2 fillers have better thermo-mechanical properties than systems with silica alone. Thus, fillers based on lignin might provide new, promising properties for the abrasive industry, combining the good properties of lignin as a plasticizer and of silica as a filler improving mechanical properties. PMID:28773639

  19. Nanoparticle fillers obtained from wood processing wastes for reinforcing of paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laka, Marianna; Vikele, Laura; Rozenberga, Linda; Janceva, Sarmite

    2016-05-01

    Paper sheets were produced from bleached kraft pulp, and office and newsprint waste paper. Nanoparticles from black alder bark, grey alder bark and pine bark as well as birch sawdust were obtained for using them as reinforcing fillers in paper. Non-extracted bark and that extracted in biorefinery were used. For producing nanoparticles, the materials were destructed using the thermocatalytic destruction method and then dispersed in water medium in a ball mill. At a sufficient concentration, gel-like dispersions were obtained, which contained nanoparticles with the size ~300 nm. The dispersions were introduced in paper furnish in different amounts. It has been established that all the nanoparticle fillers increase the tensile index and burst index in dry and wet states. The nanoparticle fillers from extracted bark increase the mechanical indices to a higher extent. At 20% filler content, tensile index in a dry state increases in the case of non-extracted grey alder bark, black alder bark and pine bark by 28, 30 and 15%, and in the case of extracted ones - by 44, 40 and 30%, respectively; the burst index increases by 78, 19 and 4%, and 91, 25 and 14%, respectively. The nanoparticle filler from birch sawdust increases the tensile strength in a dry state by 9% and burst index by 20%. The obtained nanoparticle fillers slightly improve also the water resistance of paper.

  20. Crospovidone and Microcrystalline Cellulose: A Novel Description of Pharmaceutical Fillers in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Shaddy, Sophia M; Arnold, Michael A; Shilo, Konstantin; Frankel, Wendy L; Harzman, Alan E; Stanich, Peter P; Singhi, Aatur D; Yearsley, Martha M; Arnold, Christina A

    2017-04-01

    Crospovidone and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) are pharmaceutical fillers well known in the pulmonary pathology literature. Fillers are inactive substances incorporated into medications to facilitate drug delivery. By examining 545 consecutive gastrointestinal surgical specimens from 302 patients between September 11, 2015 and October 23, 2015, we identified the fillers in 29 specimens from 26 patients. The control group consisted of an equal number of consecutive site-matched specimens collected during this same time. Pertinent clinicopathologic data were analyzed, and 1 case was subject to special stains. To confirm the histologic diagnosis, a variety of fillers and medications common to the patients were processed. The fillers were found in 9% of all patients, and there were no specific clinicopathologic associations. In the gastrointestinal tract, crospovidone is nonbirefringent and has a coral shape with each segment composed of a pink core and purple coat; MCC is brightly birefringent with matchstick shape and clear color. Identical material was seen in the processed crospovidone and MCC powders, as well as oxycodone-acetaminophen and omeprazole tablets. In summary, crospovidone and MCC are common, biologically inert, and they are most often seen in the small bowel. Their presence outside of the luminal bowel may serve as a surrogate marker for perforation. Awareness of their morphology is important to distinguish fillers from parasites, calcifications, and other medications, particularly those linked to mucosal injury. We report the unique histomorphologic profile of these fillers as a helpful diagnostic aide, and caution that the fillers have slightly divergent features when compared with those described in the lung.

  1. Filler leachability of composites stored in distilled water or artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Söderholm, K J; Mukherjee, R; Longmate, J

    1996-09-01

    Though dental composite materials leach filler elements when stored in distilled water, it is not known whether similar leaching occurs in saliva. The hypothesis to be tested was that due to ion exchange occurring at the filler surfaces, more filler elements leach from composites stored in a salt solution simulating saliva than from composites stored in distilled water. Another aim was to determine how matrix selection, filler composition, and filler silanization affect filler leachability of composites after storage in the simulated saliva and water media. We made 128 batches of experimental composites. Half of these used a bis-GMA/TEGDMA matrix and the other a UEDMA/TEGDMA matrix. Either silica or barium glass filler particles were incorporated into these matrices. Filler silanization was followed by a filler drying at 60 degrees C for 24 h. Half of the silanized particles received an additional heat treatment for 1 h at 110 degrees C in vacuum. One specimen per batch was stored in distilled water and the other in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. After each 30-day interval for one year, the specimens were transferred to either freshly distilled water or newly mixed artificial saliva. The "old" solutions were analyzed by ICP for determination of the Si, Ba, and Al concentrations. Analysis of variance revealed that storage solution, filler composition, and total time in the storage solution had strong effects on the leachability (p < 0.0001 in all cases). The average monthly leakage of Si for quartz-filled composites was 0.22 +/- 0.20 microgram/mL (distilled water) and 2.80 +/- 1.20 microgram/mL (artificial saliva). For barium-glass-filled composites, the corresponding Si leaching values were 0.73 +/- 0.48 microgram/mL and 5.00 +/- 2.20 microgram/mL. The monthly means of the barium leaching values were 2.00 +/- 1.00 microgram/mL (distilled water) and 3.10 +/- 1.80 microgram/mL (artificial saliva). The large difference between leaching in artificial saliva and in

  2. Investigation of mineral filler effects on the aging process of asphalt mastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, Raquel

    Aging of asphalt binders is induced by chemical and/or physicochemical changes during production of pavement and throughout its service life. Although binder aging in pavement always occurs while binder is in contact with aggregates and mineral filler, in most laboratory aging studies, and in current specifications, asphalt binders are individually aged without accounting for aggregate induced interactions. Past research has had conflicting findings, attributing both mitigating and/or catalytic effects to the presence of mineral filler in asphalt binder with regards to oxidative aging. Thus, in the present study it was hypothesized that evaluation of asphalt oxidative aging without regard to interactive effect of the presence of mineral filler is inadequate as a specification tool. Effects of mineral fillers on oxidative aging of asphalt is investigated by means of accelerated aging of mastics (asphalt and fillers) in Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV). Testing matrix included aging evaluation of mastics containing different fillers content, mineralogy, and surface area. Results showed that low-temperature behavior of aged mastic can be modified by controlling filler concentration and type. Fillers acts as an agent adsorbing heavy fractions of asphalt binder, therefore reducing stiffness and changing glass-transition temperature. Also, during oxidative aging of asphalt binders and mastics, both diffusion and adsorption mechanisms play a role in the rate of aging of asphaltic material. A method to characterize the behavior of mastics with aging was also developed by monitoring the mastics |G*| aging index (ratio of complex modulus before and after aging). Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) testing results supported mentioned findings regarding |G*| changes, as the presence of mineral filler appears to decelerate the rate of production of larger molecular size oxidation products in the binder phase of mastics. Implication of the findings is that change in molecular size

  3. Antimicrobial activity of ethylene-vinyl acetate containing bioactive filler against oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Kosuke; Domon, Hisanori; Oda, Masataka; Shirai, Tomoe; Ohsumi, Tatsuya; Terao, Yutaka; Arai, Yoshiaki

    2017-07-26

    We developed an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) containing surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler, as a new mouthguard material for preventing intraoral bacterial infection. We examined its physical properties, antimicrobial activity against a major cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans and a periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, and its cytotoxicity toward human gingival epithelial cells. S-PRG filler was added to EVA copolymer at 5, 10, 20, or 40 wt% and was processed into disc-shaped test specimens. Only minor differences between the Shore hardness and rebound resilience properties of EVA materials with and without the S-PRG filler were observed. The specimens with S-PRG filler showed bacteriostatic activity toward S. mutans and P. gingivalis and inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation. No cytotoxicity against the gingival epithelial cells was observed. Our findings show that EVA containing S-PRG filler has antimicrobial activity toward pathogenic oral bacteria and may be an effective material for maintaining the oral health of athletes.

  4. High-performance field emission of carbon nanotube paste emitters fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuning; Yun, Ki Nam; Leti, Guillaume; Lee, Sang Heon; Song, Yoon-Ho; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2017-02-10

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) paste emitters were fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler. The CNT paste emitters consist of CNTs as the emitting material, graphite nanopowder as the filler and a graphite rod as the cathode. Rather than metal or inorganic materials, graphite nanopowder was adapted as a filler material to make the CNT paste emitters. After fabricating the emitters, sandpaper treatment was applied to increase the density of emission sites. The CNT paste emitters showed a high field emission performance, for example a high emission current of 8.5 mA from a cylindrical emitter with a diameter of 0.7 mm (corresponding to a current density of 2.2 A cm(-2)) and an extremely stable emission current at 1 mA (260 mA cm(-2) for 20 h). Interestingly, after a number of electrical arcing events, the emitters still showed a high emission current of 5-8 mA (higher than 1 A cm(-2)). In addition to the sound electrical and thermal properties of the graphite filler, effective mechanical adhesion of the CNTs onto the graphite cathode induced by the use of the graphite nanopowder filler contributed the excellent field emission properties of the CNT paste emitters.

  5. High-performance field emission of carbon nanotube paste emitters fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuning; Yun, Ki Nam; Leti, Guillaume; Lee, Sang Heon; Song, Yoon-Ho; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2017-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) paste emitters were fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler. The CNT paste emitters consist of CNTs as the emitting material, graphite nanopowder as the filler and a graphite rod as the cathode. Rather than metal or inorganic materials, graphite nanopowder was adapted as a filler material to make the CNT paste emitters. After fabricating the emitters, sandpaper treatment was applied to increase the density of emission sites. The CNT paste emitters showed a high field emission performance, for example a high emission current of 8.5 mA from a cylindrical emitter with a diameter of 0.7 mm (corresponding to a current density of 2.2 A cm-2) and an extremely stable emission current at 1 mA (260 mA cm-2 for 20 h). Interestingly, after a number of electrical arcing events, the emitters still showed a high emission current of 5-8 mA (higher than 1 A cm-2). In addition to the sound electrical and thermal properties of the graphite filler, effective mechanical adhesion of the CNTs onto the graphite cathode induced by the use of the graphite nanopowder filler contributed the excellent field emission properties of the CNT paste emitters.

  6. Effect of electromagnetic Stirring on the Element Distribution in Laser Beam Welding of Aluminium with Filler Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatzen, M.; Tang, Z.; Vollertsen, F.

    Additional external electromagnetic fields are used in laser beam welding of aluminium with silicon containing filler wire to manipulate the flow of the liquid metal due to induced volume forces and hence to modify the element distribution. Aiming for a better understanding of the fluid-dynamic processes inside the meld pool, a CFD model has been implemented to simulate the melt flow. In this paper, simulation results on the resulting element distribution of filler wire material under a coaxial magnetic field with different frequencies is compared to experimental results for the same parameters. It is shown that in both cases the concentration of alloying elements of the filler material has a spatial periodicity. From the CFD model it can be concluded that the change of the distribution of the filler material results from a modulation of the melt flow due to the periodic induced electromagnetic volume forces.

  7. Passive Cooling Enabled by Polymer Composite Coating: Dependence on Filler, Filler Size and Coating Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yue; Shi, Frank G.

    2017-07-01

    The effective passive radiation cooling that is enabled by silicone-based composites is investigated for its dependence on coating thickness and filler size in the range of nanometers to micrometers. It is established, contrary to prior reports, that the effective passive radiation cooling does not exhibit a filler size dependence, i.e., there is no optimal size at which a maximum cooling would be reached. However, the apparent cooling effect is filler type dependent and among the fillers investigated, Al2O3 exhibits the best apparent cooling effect. In addition, the apparent cooling effect is dependent on coating thickness: the thickness dependence is non-monotonic, and the maximum cooling occurs at an optimal thickness of 70 μm, regardless of filler type. Potential significant implications of the findings are also discussed.

  8. Passive Cooling Enabled by Polymer Composite Coating: Dependence on Filler, Filler Size and Coating Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yue; Shi, Frank G.

    2017-02-01

    The effective passive radiation cooling that is enabled by silicone-based composites is investigated for its dependence on coating thickness and filler size in the range of nanometers to micrometers. It is established, contrary to prior reports, that the effective passive radiation cooling does not exhibit a filler size dependence, i.e., there is no optimal size at which a maximum cooling would be reached. However, the apparent cooling effect is filler type dependent and among the fillers investigated, Al2O3 exhibits the best apparent cooling effect. In addition, the apparent cooling effect is dependent on coating thickness: the thickness dependence is non-monotonic, and the maximum cooling occurs at an optimal thickness of 70 μm, regardless of filler type. Potential significant implications of the findings are also discussed.

  9. Nano-porous thermally sintered nano silica as novel fillers for dental composites.

    PubMed

    Atai, Mohammad; Pahlavan, Ayoub; Moin, Niloofar

    2012-02-01

    The study evaluates properties of an experimental dental composite consisting of a porous thermally sintered nano-silica as filler. The properties are compared with those of an experimental composite containing micro fillers and a commercially available nano-composite, Filtek Supreme(®) Translucent. Different models are used to predict the elastic modulus and strength of the composites. Nano-silica with primary particles of 12 nm was thermally sintered to form nanoporous filer particles. The experimental composites were prepared by incorporating 70 wt.% of the fillers into a mixture of Bis-GMA and TEGDMA as matrix phase. Having added photoinitiator system the composites were inserted into the test molds and light-cured. The microfiller containing composites were also prepared using micron size glass fillers. Degree of conversion (DC%) of the composites was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. Diametral tensile strength (DTS), flexural strength, flexural modulus and fracture toughness were measured. SEM was utilized to study the cross section of the fractured specimens. The surface topography of the specimens was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The specific surface area of the sintered nano silica was measured using BET method. The data were analyzed and compared by ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (significance level=0.05). The results showed improvements in flexural modulus and fracture toughness of the composites containing sintered filler. AFM revealed a lower surface roughness for sintered silica containing composites. No significant difference was observed between DTS, DC%, and flexural strength of the sintered nanofiller composite and the Filtek Supreme(®). The results also showed that the modulus of the composite with sintered filler was higher than the model prediction. The thermally sintered nano-porous silica fillers significantly enhanced the mechanical properties of dental composites introducing a new approach to develop materials with

  10. Effect of filler porosity on the abrasion resistance of nanoporous silica gel/polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Lannutti, J J; Seghi, R R

    1998-01-01

    This laboratory study was designed to investigate the effect of controlled nanoporosity on the wear resistance of polymeric composites reinforced with silica gel powders and to determine the mechanisms controlling the abrasive wear properties of these unique nanostructured materials. Silica gels were prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) using four different catalysts to modify the porous structure of the resulting polysilicate silanation, an organic monomer (TEGDMA) containing various initiators was introduced into the gel powders to form a paste. The various pastes were then polymerized inside a glass mold. A pin-on-disk apparatus was then used to record the specimen length and number of revolutions. Abrasive wear rates were determined by regression analysis and statistical differences were determined by analysis of variance and multiple comparisons. BET was used to characterize the filler pore structure and scanning electron microscopy was used used to visually examine the abraded surfaces. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the wear rates of the experimental composites were noted. Within the range of filler porosities examined, wear resistance was found to be linearly dependent (R2 = 0.983) on filler pore volume. The wear rates decreased with increasing filler porosity. HCl-catalyzed gels having low porosity produced composites having relatively limited abrasion resistance. In contrast, high porosity HF-catalyzed gels produced more wear-resistant composites. The abrasive wear resistance of these nanocomposites was not significantly affected by the level of silane coupling used in these experiments. SEM evaluation suggested that better wear resistance was associated with fine-scale plastic deformation of the wear surface and the absence of filler particle pullout. Porous particles prepared via sol-gel show some promise as fillers that improve the wear resistance of photopolymerized resins. The wear resistance of the fillers

  11. Microwave properties of polymer composites containing combinations of micro- and nano-sized magnetic fillers.

    PubMed

    Kolev, Svetoslav; Koutzarova, Tatyana; Yanev, Andrey; Ghelev, Chavdar; Nedkov, Ivan

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the microwave absorbing properties of composite bulk samples with nanostructured and micron-sized fillers. As magnetic fillers we used magnetite powder (Fe3O4 with low magnetocrystalline anisotropy) and strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O9 with high magnetocrystalline anisotropy). The dielectric matrix consisted of silicone rubber. The average particle size was 30 nm for the magnetite powder and 6 micro/m for the strontium hexaferrite powder. The micron-sized SrFe12O19 powder was prepared using a solid-state reaction. We investigated the influence of the filler concentration and the filler ratio (Fe3O4/SrFe12O19) in the polymer matrix on the microwave absorption in a large frequency range (1 / 18 GHz). The results obtained showed that the highly anisotropic particles become centers of clusterification and the small magnetite particles form magnetic balls with different diameter depending on the concentration. The effect of adding micron-sized SrFe12O19 to the nanosized Fe3O4 filler in composites absorbing structures has to do with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) shifting to the higher frequencies due to the changes in the ferrite filler's properties induced by the presence of a magnetic material with high magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The two-component filler possesses new values of the saturation magnetization and of the anisotropy constant, differing from those of both SrFe12O1919 and Fe3O4, which leads to a rise in the effective anisotropy field. The results demonstrate the possibility to vary the composite's absorption characteristics in a controlled manner by way of introducing a second magnetic material.

  12. Properties of vacuum brazed Si3N4/steel joint using active brazing filler metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Fanghan; Ren, Jialie; Zhou, Yunhong; Yan, Ping

    The influence of active element Ti in Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal on wettability and joint strength is studied. Filler metal with 3 percent Ti achieves good results in direct brazing of silicon nitride to steel. For improving joint strength different interlayers are synthetically investigated. Experiments showed that an interlayer of low yield strength material can reduce the residual stress in the joint and increase joint strength more effectively than that of an interlayer of low coefficient of expansion material. Active element Ti in the brazing alloy diffused into Si3N4, and chemical reactions occurred in ceramic-metal interface producing certain chemical compounds consist of N and Ti.

  13. Waste-wood-derived fillers for plastics. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    English, B.; Clemons, C.M.; Stark, N.; Schneider, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    Filled thermosplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper fiber, are also effective as fillers. The goal of this project was to generate commercial interest in using waste-wood-paper-derived fillers (WPFs) to reinforce thermoplastics. The research strategy was twofold: developmental research and outreach. Specific objectives were (1) to improve wastepaper fiber preparation, feeding, and compounding methods, and optimize composite performance, and (2) to communicate to end-product manufacturers the advantages of WPF thermoplastics.

  14. Influence of carbon fillers nature on the structural and morphological properties of polyurethane-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, S. V.; Malinovskaya, T. D.; Pavlov, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to studying structural and morphological properties of the resistive composite materials based on the polyurethane binder. The paper shows the influence of nature, size, shape, concentration of conductive carbon fillers (channel black K-163, graphite element GE-3, colloidal-graphite preparation C-1) and the method of their introduction into the binder to form the electrical conductivity of composites. Experimentally it was found out that a homogeneous composite structure reaches dispersive mixing filler and binder within 120 min. The analysis of the morphological pattern surfaces and chipping resistance materials has demonstrated that composites with colloidal-graphite preparation C-1 are more unimodal with the same concentrations of the investigated fillers.

  15. Temporal fossa defects: techniques for injecting hyaluronic acid filler and complications after hyaluronic acid filler injection.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2015-09-01

    Facial changes with aging include thinning of the epidermis, loss of skin elasticity, atrophy of muscle, and subcutaneous fat and bony changes, all which result in a loss of volume. As temporal bones become more concave, and the temporalis atrophies and the temporal fat pad decreases, volume loss leads to an undesirable, gaunt appearance. By altering the temporal fossa and upper face with hyaluronic acid filler, those whose specialty is injecting filler can achieve a balanced and more youthful facial structure. Many techniques have been described to inject filler into the fossa including a "fanned" pattern of injections, highly diluted filler injection, and the method we describe using a three-injection approach. Complications of filler in the temporal fossa include bruising, tenderness, swelling, Tyndall effect, overcorrection, and chewing discomfort. Although rare, more serious complications include infection, foreign body granuloma, intravascular necrosis, and blindness due to embolization into the ophthalmic artery. Using reversible hyaluronic acid fillers, hyaluronidase can be used to relieve any discomfort felt by the patient. Injectors must be aware of the complications that may occur and provide treatment readily to avoid morbidities associated with filler injection into this sensitive area.

  16. Effect of particle size and crystallinity of cellulose filler on the properties of poly(L-lactic acid): Mechanical property and thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni'mah, Hikmatun; Ningrum, Eva Oktavia; Sumarno, Rizkiyah, Dwila Nur; Divta, I. G. A. Gede Chandra; Meiliefiana, Subaghio, Mayang Ayudhawara

    2017-05-01

    Two types of cellulose materials were utilized as filler in biodegradable polymer poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) to obtain new biocomposite materials with better properties. The physical properties of those biocomposite materials which include transparency, mechanical property, and thermal stability were investigated by using visual observation, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. In this study, two different particle sizes and crystallinity of cellulose were used to show the effect of particle size and crystallinity of cellulose filler on the properties of PLLA. The cellulose materials used in this research include the following: microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from Avicel and cellulose fiber from rice straw biomass (CF-RS). The filler content in PLLA matrix was adjusted to be varied: 0 wt%, 2.5 wt%, 5 wt%, 7.5 wt%, and 10 wt%. The crystallinity of MCC and CF-RS measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD) shows the value of 70.25% and 34.9%, respectively. The transparency of PLLA/MCC and PLLA/CF-RS biocomposite films decrease with the increase in cellulose filler content. However, the transparency of PLLA/MCC biocomposite films is better than that of PLLA/CF-RS biocomposite films because the particle size of MCC filler is smaller than that of CF-RS filler so that the dispersion of the MCC filler in PLLA matrix is also better. The mechanical property in term of tensile strength of two types of biocomposite films decrease with the increasing of cellulose content. The decrease in tensile strength after the addition of cellulose filler is due to the agglomeration of the filler since the adhesion between filler and polymer matrix is weaker than that between each of the filler. Because the dispersion of filler MCC in the PLLA matrix is better than that of filler CF-RS in PLLA matrix, the decrease in tensile strength value of PLLA/MCC films is not significant compare to that of PLLA/CF-RS films. Moreover, the high crystallinity of

  17. Mesoporous silica fillers and resin composition effect on dental composites cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Attik, Nina; Hallay, Franck; Bois, Laurence; Brioude, Arnaud; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Colon, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Many new dental composites containing mesoporous silica fillers have been developed to improve rheological properties and enhance the resin-filler interface. To investigate the correlation between the cytocompatibility of several dental composites and their composition; two aspects have been considered: presence of bisphenol A (BPA)-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) or triethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) among the resin monomers and presence of porous particles among the filler blends. Five commercial composites with different resin matrices and mineral fillers were compared to four experimental composites designed without any BPA-based monomers or TEGDMA. Porous fillers, with or without silanation, were added in some of the experimental composites. Two reference resin matrices were also selected. Cytocompatibility with cultured primary human gingival fibroblasts was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy with time-lapse imaging. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to control monomer conversion rate. Conversion rates of the experimental composites ranged from 57% to 71%, a comparable ratio for dental composites. Experimental samples were better tolerated than tested commercial samples not containing TEGDMA and significantly better than those containing TEGDMA. Experimental composites with porous fillers exhibited good cytocompatibility, especially when surfaces were silanated. Cytotoxicity was associated with resin amount and especially resin nature. Composites containing porous fillers might behave as if the resin trapped into pores has no effect on toxicity. The cytotoxicity of composites with and without BPA derivatives was mainly attributed to the release of residual TEGDMA rather than the BPA derivatives. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of Tetrapodal ZnO-PDMS Composites: A Comparison of Fillers Shapes in Stiffness and Hydrophobicity Improvements

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Deng, Mao; Kaps, Sören; Zhu, Xinwei; Hölken, Iris; Mess, Kristin; Adelung, Rainer; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    ZnO particles of different size and structures were used as fillers to modify the silicone rubber, in order to reveal the effect of the filler shape in the polymer composites. Tetrapodal shaped microparticles, short microfibers/whiskers, and nanosized spherical particles from ZnO have been used as fillers to fabricate the different ZnO-Silicone composites. The detailed microstructures of the fillers as well as synthesized composites using scanning electron microscopy have been presented here. The tensile elastic modulus and water contact angle, which are important parameters for bio-mimetic applications, of fabricated composites with different fillers have been measured and compared. Among all three types of fillers, tetrapodal shaped ZnO microparticles showed the best performance in terms of increase in hydrophobicity of material cross-section as well as the stiffness of the composites. It has been demonstrated that the tetrapodal shaped microparticles gain their advantage due to the special shape, which avoids agglomeration problems as in the case for nanoparticles, and the difficulty of achieving truly random distribution for whisker fillers. PMID:25208080

  19. The filler revolution: a six-year retrospective.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Naissan O; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2009-10-01

    There are currently more than 20 FDA-approved fillers in the United States (U.S.), noteworthy considering that it was only six years ago that the first hyaluronic acid filler was approved. The pace of development of filler substances in the last few years has been extremely rapid. The authors review the development, advantages, and disadvantages of fillers currently available in the U.S.

  20. 46 CFR 56.75-5 - Filler metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filler metal. 56.75-5 Section 56.75-5 Shipping COAST... Brazing § 56.75-5 Filler metal. (a) The filler metal used in brazing must be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1,000 °F. and below that of the metal being joined. The filler metal...

  1. 46 CFR 56.75-5 - Filler metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filler metal. 56.75-5 Section 56.75-5 Shipping COAST... Brazing § 56.75-5 Filler metal. (a) The filler metal used in brazing must be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1,000 °F. and below that of the metal being joined. The filler metal...

  2. 46 CFR 56.75-5 - Filler metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filler metal. 56.75-5 Section 56.75-5 Shipping COAST... Brazing § 56.75-5 Filler metal. (a) The filler metal used in brazing must be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1,000 °F. and below that of the metal being joined. The filler metal...

  3. 46 CFR 56.75-5 - Filler metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filler metal. 56.75-5 Section 56.75-5 Shipping COAST... Brazing § 56.75-5 Filler metal. (a) The filler metal used in brazing must be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1,000 °F. and below that of the metal being joined. The filler metal...

  4. 46 CFR 56.75-5 - Filler metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filler metal. 56.75-5 Section 56.75-5 Shipping COAST... Brazing § 56.75-5 Filler metal. (a) The filler metal used in brazing must be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1,000 °F. and below that of the metal being joined. The filler metal...

  5. 14 CFR 23.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 23.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must be marked as prescribed...

  6. 14 CFR 25.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 25.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.973 Fuel tank filler connection. Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the...

  7. 14 CFR 29.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 29.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the...

  8. 7 CFR 58.229 - Filler and packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filler and packaging equipment. 58.229 Section 58.229....229 Filler and packaging equipment. All filling and packaging equipment shall be of sanitary construction and all parts, including valves and filler heads accessible for cleaning. New or replacement...

  9. 14 CFR 25.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 25.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.973 Fuel tank filler connection. Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the airplane...

  10. 7 CFR 58.229 - Filler and packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Filler and packaging equipment. 58.229 Section 58.229....229 Filler and packaging equipment. All filling and packaging equipment shall be of sanitary construction and all parts, including valves and filler heads accessible for cleaning. New or replacement...

  11. 14 CFR 27.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 27.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the...

  12. 14 CFR 27.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 27.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the...

  13. 14 CFR 29.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 29.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the...

  14. 14 CFR 25.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 25.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.973 Fuel tank filler connection. Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the airplane...

  15. 14 CFR 27.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 27.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the...

  16. 14 CFR 25.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 25.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.973 Fuel tank filler connection. Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the airplane...

  17. 14 CFR 29.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 29.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the...

  18. 14 CFR 29.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 29.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the...

  19. 14 CFR 27.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 27.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the...

  20. 14 CFR 27.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 27.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the...

  1. 14 CFR 25.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 25.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.973 Fuel tank filler connection. Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the airplane...

  2. 7 CFR 58.229 - Filler and packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filler and packaging equipment. 58.229 Section 58.229....229 Filler and packaging equipment. All filling and packaging equipment shall be of sanitary construction and all parts, including valves and filler heads accessible for cleaning. New or replacement...

  3. 14 CFR 29.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 29.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the...

  4. 14 CFR 23.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 23.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must be marked as prescribed in...

  5. 46 CFR 57.02-5 - Filler metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filler metals. 57.02-5 Section 57.02-5 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 57.02-5 Filler metals. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, when filler metal is used in a welded fabrication that is required to meet the requirements of this part the...

  6. 46 CFR 57.02-5 - Filler metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filler metals. 57.02-5 Section 57.02-5 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 57.02-5 Filler metals. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, when filler metal is used in a welded fabrication that is required to meet the requirements of this part the...

  7. 46 CFR 57.02-5 - Filler metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filler metals. 57.02-5 Section 57.02-5 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 57.02-5 Filler metals. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, when filler metal is used in a welded fabrication that is required to meet the requirements of this part the...

  8. 46 CFR 57.02-5 - Filler metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filler metals. 57.02-5 Section 57.02-5 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 57.02-5 Filler metals. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, when filler metal is used in a welded fabrication that is required to meet the requirements of this part the...

  9. 46 CFR 57.02-5 - Filler metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filler metals. 57.02-5 Section 57.02-5 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 57.02-5 Filler metals. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, when filler metal is used in a welded fabrication that is required to meet the requirements of this part the...

  10. A facile approach to spinning multifunctional conductive elastomer fibres with nanocarbon fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedin, Shayan; Razal, Joselito M.; Innis, Peter C.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2016-03-01

    Electrically conductive elastomeric fibres prepared using a wet-spinning process are promising materials for intelligent textiles, in particular as a strain sensing component of the fabric. However, these fibres, when reinforced with conducting fillers, typically result in a compromise between mechanical and electrical properties and, ultimately, in the strain sensing functionality. Here we investigate the wet-spinning of polyurethane (PU) fibres with a range of conducting fillers such as carbon black (CB), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and chemically converted graphene. We show that the electrical and mechanical properties of the composite fibres were strongly dependent on the aspect ratio of the filler and the interaction between the filler and the elastomer. The high aspect ratio SWCNT filler resulted in fibres with the highest electrical properties and reinforcement, while the fibres produced from the low aspect ratio CB had the highest stretchability. Furthermore, PU/SWCNT fibres presented the largest sensing range (up to 60% applied strain) and the most consistent and stable cyclic sensing behaviour. This work provides an understanding of the important factors that influence the production of conductive elastomer fibres by wet-spinning, which can be woven or knitted into textiles for the development of wearable strain sensors.

  11. Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, A.S.K.

    2008-09-15

    This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

  12. Organic inorganic dye filler for polymer: blue-coloured layered double hydroxides into polystyrene.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Rafael; Taviot-Guého, Christine; Illaik, Abdallah; Wypych, Fernando; Leroux, Fabrice

    2008-10-15

    A series of blue dye molecules, Evans blue (EB), Chicago sky blue (CB), Niagara blue (NB) were incorporated by direct co-precipitation within the galleries of negatively charge layered double hydroxide (LDH). The materials of cation composition Zn/Al = 2 lead to well-defined organic inorganic assemblies. The molecular arrangement of the interleaved dye molecule is proposed by 1D electronic density projection along the stacking direction for the hydrothermally treated samples with alternatively a highly inclined orientation of EB and CB and a parallel-bilayer arrangement for NB. Blue coloured LDH assemblies were subsequently dispersed into polystyrene (PS). It was found that the hybrid fillers do not interfere in the radical polymerization of styrene, giving rise to similar molecular weight and polydispersity than filler free PS, while higher glass transition temperatures were obtained for the nanocomposites. This was consistent with the rheological behaviour with the observation for LDH/NB filler based nanocomposite of shear thinning exponent different from zero, underlining frictional interaction between filler and PS chain. The absorption maximum slightly blue-shifted for the hybrid filler in comparison to the corresponding organic dye was found unmodified for the PS nanocomposite, thus giving rise to blue coloured plastic films, reminiscent somehow of the blue Maya effect.

  13. The effect of fullerene fillers on the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, V. V.; Kostromin, S. V.; Shlykov, A. V.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of fullerene and carbon fillers on the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites based on thermoreactive (epoxy resin) and thermoplastic (polyamide-12) matrices was investigated. It was found that the introduction of these fillers did not affect the properties of the thermoreactive blends, but Young's modulus and the tensile strength of the thermoplastic ones increased by about 30-40% upon addition of 0.02-0.08 wt.% fullerene materials. The best results were obtained for a mixture of C 60/ C 70.

  14. High Temperature Filler for Tile Gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, J. W.; Wang, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    Gaps between ceramic tiles filled with ceramic-coated fabric that withstands temperatures as high as 2,000 degrees F (1,300 degrees C). Reusable high-temperature gap filler is made of fabric coated with ceramic slurry and bonded in place with room-temperature-vulcanized adhesive. Procedure used in kilns and furnaces.

  15. Nickel-chromium-silicon brazing filler metal

    DOEpatents

    Martini, Angelo J.; Gourley, Bruce R.

    1976-01-01

    A brazing filler metal containing, by weight percent, 23-35% chromium, 9-12% silicon, a maximum of 0.15% carbon, and the remainder nickel. The maximum amount of elements other than those noted above is 1.00%.

  16. Iatrogenic occlusion of the ophthalmic artery after cosmetic facial filler injections: a national survey by the Korean Retina Society.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu Hyung; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Woo, Se Joon; Kang, Se Woong; Lee, Won Ki; Choi, Kyung Seek; Kwak, Hyung Woo; Yoon, Ill Han; Huh, Kuhl; Kim, Jong Woo

    2014-06-01

    Iatrogenic occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and its branches is a rare but devastating complication of cosmetic facial filler injections. To investigate clinical and angiographic features of iatrogenic occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and its branches caused by cosmetic facial filler injections. Data from 44 patients with occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and its branches after cosmetic facial filler injections were obtained retrospectively from a national survey completed by members of the Korean Retina Society from 27 retinal centers. Clinical features were compared between patients grouped by angiographic findings and injected filler material. Visual prognosis and its relationship to angiographic findings and injected filler material. Ophthalmic artery occlusion was classified into 6 types according to angiographic findings. Twenty-eight patients had diffuse retinal and choroidal artery occlusions (ophthalmic artery occlusion, generalized posterior ciliary artery occlusion, and central retinal artery occlusion). Sixteen patients had localized occlusions (localized posterior ciliary artery occlusion, branch retinal artery occlusion, and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy). Patients with diffuse occlusions showed worse initial and final visual acuity and less visual gain compared with those having localized occlusions. Patients receiving autologous fat injections (n = 22) had diffuse ophthalmic artery occlusions, worse visual prognosis, and a higher incidence of combined brain infarction compared with patients having hyaluronic acid injections (n = 13). Clinical features of iatrogenic occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and its branches following cosmetic facial filler injections were diverse according to the location and extent of obstruction and the injected filler material. Autologous fat injections were associated with a worse visual prognosis and a higher incidence of combined cerebral infarction. Extreme caution and care should be taken during

  17. The Role of Bacterial Biofilm in Adverse Soft-Tissue Filler Reactions: A Combined Laboratory and Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Saththianathan, Mayuran; Johani, Khalid; Taylor, Alaina; Hu, Hongua; Vickery, Karen; Callan, Peter; Deva, Anand K

    2017-03-01

    The development of chronic nodules and granulomatous inflammation after filler injections has been attributed to bacterial biofilm infection. The authors aimed to investigate the relationship between filler and bacterial biofilm using a combined in vitro and in vivo study. In vitro assays to investigate the ability of filler materials to support the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm and the effect of multiple needle passes through a biofilm-contaminated surface were designed. Analysis of clinical biopsy specimens from patients presenting with chronic granulomas following filler administration using a number of laboratory tests for biofilm was performed. All fillers (i.e., hyaluronic acid, polyacrylamide gel, and poly-L-lactic acid) supported the growth of S. epidermidis biofilm in vitro. Multiple needle passes through a biofilm-contaminated surface resulted in significantly increased contamination of filler material by a factor of 10,000 (p < 0.001). Six clinical samples from five patients all demonstrated bacterial biofilm. The mean number of bacteria was found to be 2.2 × 10 bacteria/mg tissue (range, 5.6 × 10 to 3.7 × 10 bacteria/mg tissue). Microbiome analysis detected a predominance of Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Propionibacterium as present in these samples. Filler material can support the growth of bacterial biofilm in vitro. Multiple needle passes can significantly increase the risk of filler contamination. Biofilm appears to be associated with high numbers in clinical samples of patients presenting with chronic granulomatous inflammation. Strategies to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination need to be further studied and translated into clinical practice. Therapeutic, V.

  18. Oil removal from runoff with natural sorbing filter fillers.

    PubMed

    Mažeikienė, Aušra; Vaiškūnaitė, Rasa; Vaišis, Vaidotas

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the ability of Lithuanian sheep wool waste and reeds (Phragmites australis) to absorb oil from runoff when it flows through filters filled with these materials. The third material that was analysed, the synthetic sorbent Fibroil, was chosen for comparing the results. The laboratory experiments were performed in several stages, with the following being filtrated: tap water with a diesel admixture, road runoff contaminated with oils, and also suspended solids. The significance of this work is due to the high runoff filtering rate (∼10 m/h) and high oil concentrations in the runoff (50-230 mg/L) used in the experiment. In these cases the use of sorbents is limited. Wool waste and reed (Phragmites australis) fillers are quite efficient (98-99%) in oil removal from runoff at a 10 m/h filtering rate. However, wool fillers clog up quickly. Reeds of the genus Phragmites australis are a natural source for the production of oil sorbents. The results obtained in this experimental work can be used in the design of equipment for the treatment of oil-contaminated runoff from gas stations as well as sullage from roads and tunnels.

  19. Potential of using multiscale kenaf fibers as reinforcing filler in cassava starch-kenaf biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Zainuddin, Siti Yasmine Zanariah; Ahmad, Ishak; Kargarzadeh, Hanieh; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Dufresne, Alain

    2013-02-15

    Biodegradable materials made from cassava starch and kenaf fibers were prepared using a solution casting method. Kenaf fibers were treated with NaOH, bleached with sodium chlorite and acetic buffer solution, and subsequently acid hydrolyzed to obtain cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). Biocomposites in the form of films were prepared by mixing starch and glycerol/sorbitol with various filler compositions (0-10 wt%). X-ray diffraction revealed that fiber crystallinity increased after each stage of treatment. Morphological observations and size reductions of the extracted cellulose and CNCs were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of different treatments and filler contents of the biocomposites were evaluated through mechanical tests. Results showed that the tensile strengths and moduli of the biocomposites increased after each treatment and the optimum filler content was 6%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Highly ductile UV-shielding polymer composites with boron nitride nanospheres as fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuqiao; Huang, Yan; Meng, Wenjun; Wang, Zifeng; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Tang, Chengchun; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-03-01

    Polymer composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal or optical performance usually suffer from poor ductility induced by confined mobility of polymer chains. Herein, highly ductile UV-shielding polymer composites are successfully fabricated. Boron nitride (BN) materials, with a wide band gap of around ∼6.0 eV, are used as fillers to achieve the remarkably improved UV-shielding performance of a polymer matrix. In addition, it is found that spherical morphology BN as a filler can keep the excellent ductility of the composites. For a comparison, it is demonstrated that traditional fillers, including conventional BN powders can achieve the similar UV-shielding performance but dramatically decrease the composite ductility. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is believed to be lubricant effects of BN nanospheres for sliding of polymer chains, which is in consistent with the thermal analyses. This study provides a new design to fabricate UV-shielding composite films with well-preserved ductility.

  1. Highly ductile UV-shielding polymer composites with boron nitride nanospheres as fillers.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuqiao; Huang, Yan; Meng, Wenjun; Wang, Zifeng; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Tang, Chengchun; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-03-20

    Polymer composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal or optical performance usually suffer from poor ductility induced by confined mobility of polymer chains. Herein, highly ductile UV-shielding polymer composites are successfully fabricated. Boron nitride (BN) materials, with a wide band gap of around ∼6.0 eV, are used as fillers to achieve the remarkably improved UV-shielding performance of a polymer matrix. In addition, it is found that spherical morphology BN as a filler can keep the excellent ductility of the composites. For a comparison, it is demonstrated that traditional fillers, including conventional BN powders can achieve the similar UV-shielding performance but dramatically decrease the composite ductility. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is believed to be lubricant effects of BN nanospheres for sliding of polymer chains, which is in consistent with the thermal analyses. This study provides a new design to fabricate UV-shielding composite films with well-preserved ductility.

  2. Magnetorheological and deformation properties of magnetically controlled elastomers with hard magnetic filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, G. V.; Chertovich, A. V.; Kramarenko, E. Yu.

    2012-10-01

    Viscoelastic and deformational behavior of soft magnetic elastomers with hard magnetic fillers under the influence of a magnetic field is studied by different experimental techniques. The magnetic elastomers used in this work were synthesized on the basis of silicone rubber filled with FeNdB particles and were magnetized in a field of 3 and 15 kOe. We have shown that due to high residual magnetization the materials demonstrate well pronounced non-elastic behavior already in the absence of any external magnetic field. In particular, in contrast to magnetic elastomers based on soft magnetic fillers their elastic modulus is strain-dependent. Under the influence of external magnetic field the storage and loss moduli of magnetic elastomers with hard magnetic filler can both increase and decrease tremendously.

  3. Nuclear Technology. Course 28: Welding Inspection. Module 28-8, Filler Metal Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John

    This eighth in a series of ten modules for a course titled Welding Inspection describes controls necessary to place the proper electrode or rod at each welding station. More specifically, the module describes use of the American Welding Society specifications, control of weld filler material after receipt from the supplier, and methods of ensuring…

  4. Effects of Filler Concentration and Geometry on Performance of Cylindrical Injection Molded Composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is growing interest in using fillers in plastic products to displace petroleum components, reduce cost, and improve mechanical properties. Many studies have examined the use of materials such as clay, talc, paper, wood flour, lignin, flax, and bamboo, to name just a few. For successful utili...

  5. Examining the Effects of Filler Concentration and Mold Geometry on Performance of Cylindrical Injection Molded Composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is growing interest in using fillers in plastic products to displace petroleum components, reduce cost, and improve mechanical properties. Many studies have examined the use of materials such as clay, talc, paper, wood flour, lignin, flax, and bamboo, to name just a few. For successful utili...

  6. Nuclear Technology. Course 28: Welding Inspection. Module 28-8, Filler Metal Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John

    This eighth in a series of ten modules for a course titled Welding Inspection describes controls necessary to place the proper electrode or rod at each welding station. More specifically, the module describes use of the American Welding Society specifications, control of weld filler material after receipt from the supplier, and methods of ensuring…

  7. Thermally conductive polyamide 6/carbon filler composites based on a hybrid filler system

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sung Min; Kwon, O Hwan; Oh, Yu Gyeong; Kim, Yong Seok; Lee, Sung-Goo; Won, Jong Chan; Cho, Kwang Soo; Kim, Byoung Gak; Yoo, Youngjae

    2015-01-01

    We explored the use of a hybrid filler consisting of graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a polyamide 6 (PA 6) matrix. The composites containing PA 6, powdered GNP, and SWCNT were melt-processed and the effect of filler content in the single filler and hybrid filler systems on the thermal conductivity of the composites was examined. The thermal diffusivities of the composites were measured by the standard laser flash method. Composites containing the hybrid filler system showed enhanced thermal conductivity with values as high as 8.8 W (m · K)−1, which is a 35-fold increase compared to the thermal conductivity of pure PA 6. Thermographic images of heat conduction and heat release behaviors were consistent with the thermal conductivity results, and showed rapid temperature jumps and drops, respectively, for the composites. A composite model based on the Lewis–Nielsen theory was developed to treat GNP and SWCNT as two separate types of fillers. Two approaches, the additive and multiplicative approaches, give rather good quantitative agreement between the predicted values of thermal conductivity and those measured experimentally. PMID:27877843

  8. Thermally conductive polyamide 6/carbon filler composites based on a hybrid filler system.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung Min; Kwon, O Hwan; Oh, Yu Gyeong; Kim, Yong Seok; Lee, Sung-Goo; Won, Jong Chan; Cho, Kwang Soo; Kim, Byoung Gak; Yoo, Youngjae

    2015-12-01

    We explored the use of a hybrid filler consisting of graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a polyamide 6 (PA 6) matrix. The composites containing PA 6, powdered GNP, and SWCNT were melt-processed and the effect of filler content in the single filler and hybrid filler systems on the thermal conductivity of the composites was examined. The thermal diffusivities of the composites were measured by the standard laser flash method. Composites containing the hybrid filler system showed enhanced thermal conductivity with values as high as 8.8 W (m · K)(-1), which is a 35-fold increase compared to the thermal conductivity of pure PA 6. Thermographic images of heat conduction and heat release behaviors were consistent with the thermal conductivity results, and showed rapid temperature jumps and drops, respectively, for the composites. A composite model based on the Lewis-Nielsen theory was developed to treat GNP and SWCNT as two separate types of fillers. Two approaches, the additive and multiplicative approaches, give rather good quantitative agreement between the predicted values of thermal conductivity and those measured experimentally.

  9. Steam Cured Self-Consolidating Concrete and the Effects of Limestone Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqel, Mohammad A.

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine the effect and the mechanisms associated with replacing 15% of the cement by limestone filler on the mechanical properties and durability performance of self-consolidating concrete designed and cured for precast/prestressed applications. This study investigates the role of limestone filler on the hydration kinetics, mechanical properties (12 hours to 300 days), microstructural and durability performance (rapid chloride permeability, linear shrinkage, sulfate resistance, freeze-thaw resistance and salt scaling resistance) of various self-consolidating concrete mix designs containing 5% silica fume and steam cured at a maximum holding temperature of 55°C. This research also examines the resistance to delayed ettringite formation when the concrete is steam cured at 70°C and 82°C and its secondary consequences on the freeze-thaw resistance. The effect of several experimental variables related to the concrete mix design and also the curing conditions are examined, namely: limestone filler fineness, limestone filler content, cement type, steam curing duration and steam curing temperature. In general, the results reveal that self-consolidating concrete containing 15% limestone filler, steam cured at 55°C, 70°C and 82°C, exhibited similar or superior mechanical and transport properties as well as long term durability performance compared to similar concrete without limestone filler. When the concrete is steam cured at 55°C, the chemical reactivity of limestone filler has an important role in enhancing the mechanical properties at 16 hours (compared to the concrete without limestone filler) and compensating for the dilution effect at 28 days. Although, at 300 days, the expansion of all concrete mixes are below 0.05%, the corresponding freeze-thaw durability factors vary widely and are controlled by the steam curing temperature and the chemical composition of the cement. Overall, the material properties indicate that the use

  10. Effect of film thickness and filler properties on sulphuric acid permeation in various commercially available epoxy mortar coatings.

    PubMed

    Valix, M; Mineyama, H; Chen, C; Cheung, W H; Shi, J; Bustamante, H

    2011-01-01

    The performance of various commercially available epoxy mortar coatings was compared by measuring their sulphuric acid diffusivity. Apparent diffusivities, which were measured gravimetrically, were found to be dependent on coating tortuosity. In composite materials like epoxy mortars, the tortuosity was determined by filler properties and polymer alignment. Tortuosity was found to depend on the filler size, their dispersion, filler aspect ratio and concentration. The order and greater alignment of polymer aggregates, which characterises thinner coatings effects higher tortuosity and thus lower permeabilities. The result is that sulphuric acid diffusivities were observed to increase with coating thickness, which challenges the notion that greater coating thicknesses provide greater protection or environmental barrier. The effect of film thickness and filler properties observed in this study has significant implications to the current selection of coatings and sewer protection.

  11. Effect of filler loading and silane modification on the biodegradability of SBR composites reinforced with peanut shell powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaniba, V.; Balan, Aparna K.; Sreejith, M. P.; Jinitha, T. V.; Subair, N.; Purushothaman, E.

    2017-06-01

    The development of biocomposites and their applications are important in material science due to environmental and sustainability issues. The extent of degradation depends on the nature of reinforcing filler, particle size and their modification. In this article, we tried to focus on the biodegradation of composites of Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) reinforced with Peanut Shell Powder (PSP) by soil burial test. The composites of SBR with untreated PSP (UPSP) and silane modified PSP (SPSP) of 10 parts per hundred rubber (phr) and 20 phr filler loading in two particle size were buried in the garden soil for six months. The microbial degradation were assessed through the measurement of weight loss, tensile strength and hardness at definite period. The study shows that degradation increases with increase in filler loading and particle size. The chemical treatment of filler has been found to resist the degradation. The analysis of morphological properties by the SEM also confirmed biodegradation process by the microorganism in the soil.

  12. Chemical interaction of polyethylene matrix with vegetable fillers in biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantyukhov, Petr; Monakhova, Tatiana; Popov, Anatoly; Zykova, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The paper studies the diffusion of low molecular weight components from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites. In order to identify the diffusible substances a model experiment used where the hexadecane acted as a model of polyethylene. It was determined that polyphenolic compounds and chlorophyll penetrate from vegetable fillers to hexadecane to the maximum extent. There was found a correlation between the amount of polyphenolic compounds diffusible from the fillers to hexadecane and thermal oxidation kinetics of real biocomposites based on polyethylene and vegetable fillers. Thus, it has been assumed the diffusion of polyphenols and chlorophyll from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites.

  13. Detecting Filler Spaces Under Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, Paul; Shinkevich, David; Scheuer, John

    1991-01-01

    Eddy-current probe nondestructively and indirectly indicates whether screed present under ceramic tile on aluminum substrate. Transducer coil excites eddy currents in aluminum substrate material. Response appears on oscilloscope or meter. Changes in response indicate spatially abrupt changes in substrate. Intended for use on insulating tiles on Space Shuttle, potential terrestrial applications in nondestructive testing.

  14. Effect of acidulated phosphate fluoride solution on veneering particulate filler composite.

    PubMed

    Soeno, K; Matsumura, P H; Atsuta, P M; Kawasaki, K

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the surface morphologic characteristics of prosthodontic composite materials treated with an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) agent. Seven composite materials (Artglass, Axis, Belleglass, Cesead II, Dentacolor, Solidex, and Targis) were examined. Each material was packed into a split plastic mold and was polymerized with a laboratory photo-curing unit. Half of each composite disk surface was coated with a varnish, and the entire surface of the sample was treated with an APF agent. After removal of the varnish, surface roughness values (Ra) for the treated and untreated (ie, previously varnish coated) sides of all specimens were recorded with a surface analyzer and observed with a scanning electron microscope. Ra values for Cesead II, Solidex, and Targis showed a significant increase as a result of treatment with the APF solution. Microphotographs demonstrated that the macroinorganic fillers in the Cesead II and Solidex materials showed substantial dissolution caused by the APF agent. There were no significant statistical differences in the Ra values between the treated and untreated halves for any of the materials containing inorganic fillers composed entirely of diameters up to 1.0 microm. In particular, microphotographs of prepolymerized silica composite (classified as microfilled materials in Axis and Dentacolor) did not reveal any change of the specimen surfaces. The APF agent attacked inorganic fillers in the composite materials. Microfilled material surfaces were insensitive to the agent in comparison with macroinorganic filled material surfaces.

  15. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmetli, Gulnare Gungor, Ahmet Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-15

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  16. Brazing of titanium by Cu-P brazing filler metals

    SciTech Connect

    Ariga, Tadashi; Matsu, Kotaro; Miyazawa, Yasuyuki

    1994-12-31

    Brazing of commercially pure titanium materials was made using the two types of the copper-phosphorus brazing filler metal foil. Two types of the brazing filler metal foils, BCuP-2 and -3 (AWS classification number), were used in this study. The chemical compositions of BCuP-2 and -3 were Cu-7.2P and Cu-6P-5Ag. Brazing was done in an argon gas atmosphere. After brazing, cutting, and polishing of the specimen, the mechanical properties of the specimen were estimated by shear strength test. And the cross-sectional microstructures at the brazed joint were observed by optical microscope and the elemental distributions at the brazed joint were analyzed by SENM and EPMA examinations. A sound brazed joint was obtained in this study. The maximum shear strength of the specimen was about 300 MPa in this study. According to observation of the cross-sectional microstructures, the reaction layer was formed at the base metal/brazed layer interface. The fracture during the shear test occurred in this reaction layer. And the phosphorus element was concentrated in this layer. Therefore, it appeared that the behavior of phosphorus element influenced the brazeability of these specimen.

  17. Facial Rejuvenation with Fillers: The Dual Plane Technique

    PubMed Central

    Salti, Giovanni; Rauso, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Facial aging is characterized by skin changes, sagging and volume loss. Volume is frequently addressed with reabsorbable fillers like hyaluronic acid gels. Materials and Methods: From an anatomical point of view, the deep and superficial fat compartments evolve differently with aging in a rather predictable manner. Volume can therefore be restored following a technique based on restoring first the deep volumes and there after the superficial volumes. We called this strategy “dual plane”. A series of 147 consecutive patients have been treated with fillers using the dual plane technique in the last five years. Results: An average of 4.25 session per patient has been carried out for a total of 625 treatment sessions. The average total amount of products used has been 12 ml per patient with an average amount per session of 3.75 ml. We had few and limited adverse events with this technique. Conclusion: The dual plane technique is an injection technique based on anatomical logics. Different types of products can be used according to the plane of injection and their rheology in order to obtain a natural result and few side effects. PMID:26644734

  18. Evaluation of Polymer-Filler Interaction Characteristics by Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratto, T; Saab, A

    2007-04-23

    Silicone polymers are frequently used as cushions and inserts between load bearing parts. In this capacity, they must act to position their associated parts and distribute mechanical force as appropriate. One type of failure is specific to silicones that are filled with high surface area particulates for purposes of tailoring the polymer compressive properties. Additives such as fumed silicon oxide are presumed to have a high degree of surface interaction with the polymer matrix, thus causing the polymer to stiffen and to display greater dimensional stability as a function of temperature. However, it has been observed that the compressive behavior of these materials is not always invariant over long times. There is evidence that suggests changes in humidity and temperature can irreversibly alter the silicone-filler interaction, thereby changing the overall characteristics of parts made from such materials. As before, changes in compressive or shear stability can have serious effects on the ability of these materials to effectively position precision parts or distribute high mechanical loads. We approach the analysis of the filled systems by creating controlled layers of silicone polymers attached to silicon oxide substrates. Straight chain vinyl-silicone polymers identical to those used in the formulation of pads for stockpile systems are chemically appended to a substrate surface, and cross-linked to form a three dimensional network. This type of structure serves as a model of silicone polymer coating a silicon oxide filler particle. We study these model systems first by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to image the samples with nanometer resolution, and then by measuring the forces of interactions between single model silica filler particles and polymer-coated surfaces. We use normal longitudinal force AFM to measure adhesion, and a relatively newly developed technique, lateral force AFM, to determine the frictional forces between the silica particles and the

  19. Effects of PMMA and Cross-Linked Dextran Filler for Soft Tissue Augmentation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jung-Bo; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Soyun; Lee, So-Hyoun; Shim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Se Eun; Kang, Seong Soo; Jeong, Chang-Mo

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted for evaluation of the ability to maintain efficacy and biocompatibility of cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (DiHM) and cross-linked dextran mixed with PMMA in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (PDiHM), compared with hyaluronic acid (HA) filler. Saline and HA solution was administered in the negative and positive control groups, and DiHM and PDiHM were administered in the test groups (n = 10 in each group). The site of cranial subcutaneous injection was the mid-point of the interpupillary line, and the site of intraoral submucosal injection was the ridge crest 2 mm below the cervical line of the mandibular left incisor. Before and immediately after filler injection, intraoral photos and lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for analysis and comparison of the effect of the filler on the injection sites. The filler injected areas were converted into sequential size changes (%) of the baseline. Histomorphologic examination was performed after 12 weeks. The smallest value in the filler injected area was observed during the experimental period in the normal saline group (p < 0.001), which was almost absorbed at 4 weeks (7.19% ± 12.72%). The HA group exhibited a steady decrease in sequential size and showed a lower value than the DiHM and PDiHM groups (saline < HA < DHiM, PDHiM, p < 0.001). DiHM and PDiHM tended to increase for the first 4 weeks and later decreased until 12 weeks. In this study on DiHM and PDiHM, there was no histological abnormality in cranial skin and oral mucosa. DiHM and PDiHM filler materials with injection system provide an excellent alternative surgical method for use in oral and craniofacial fields.

  20. Effects of PMMA and Cross-Linked Dextran Filler for Soft Tissue Augmentation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jung-Bo; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Soyun; Lee, So-Hyoun; Shim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Se Eun; Kang, Seong Soo; Jeong, Chang-Mo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted for evaluation of the ability to maintain efficacy and biocompatibility of cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (DiHM) and cross-linked dextran mixed with PMMA in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (PDiHM), compared with hyaluronic acid (HA) filler. Saline and HA solution was administered in the negative and positive control groups, and DiHM and PDiHM were administered in the test groups (n = 10 in each group). The site of cranial subcutaneous injection was the mid-point of the interpupillary line, and the site of intraoral submucosal injection was the ridge crest 2 mm below the cervical line of the mandibular left incisor. Before and immediately after filler injection, intraoral photos and lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for analysis and comparison of the effect of the filler on the injection sites. The filler injected areas were converted into sequential size changes (%) of the baseline. Histomorphologic examination was performed after 12 weeks. The smallest value in the filler injected area was observed during the experimental period in the normal saline group (p < 0.001), which was almost absorbed at 4 weeks (7.19% ± 12.72%). The HA group exhibited a steady decrease in sequential size and showed a lower value than the DiHM and PDiHM groups (saline < HA < DHiM, PDHiM, p < 0.001). DiHM and PDiHM tended to increase for the first 4 weeks and later decreased until 12 weeks. In this study on DiHM and PDiHM, there was no histological abnormality in cranial skin and oral mucosa. DiHM and PDiHM filler materials with injection system provide an excellent alternative surgical method for use in oral and craniofacial fields. PMID:26633376

  1. Technical Considerations for Filler and Neuromodulator Refinements

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anthony J.; Chang, Brian L.; Percec, Ivona

    2016-01-01

    Background: The toolbox for cosmetic practitioners is growing at an unprecedented rate. There are novel products every year and expanding off-label indications for neurotoxin and soft-tissue filler applications. Consequently, aesthetic physicians are increasingly challenged by the task of selecting the most appropriate products and techniques to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Methods: We employed a PubMed literature search of facial injectables from the past 10 years (2005–2015), with emphasis on those articles embracing evidence-based medicine. We evaluated the scientific background of every product and the physicochemical properties that make each one ideal for specific indications. The 2 senior authors provide commentary regarding their clinical experience with specific technical refinements of neuromodulators and soft-tissue fillers. Results: Neurotoxins and fillers are characterized by unique physical characteristics that distinguish each product. This results in subtle but important differences in their clinical applications. Specific indications and recommendations for the use of the various neurotoxins and soft-tissue fillers are reviewed. The discussion highlights refinements in combination treatments and product physical modifications, according to specific treatment zones. Conclusions: The field of facial aesthetics has evolved dramatically, mostly secondary to our increased understanding of 3-dimensional structural volume restoration. Our work reviews Food and Drug Administration–approved injectables. In addition, we describe how to modify products to fulfill specific indications such as treatment of the mid face, décolletage, hands, and periorbital regions. Although we cannot directly evaluate the duration or exact physical properties of blended products, we argue that “product customization” is safe and provides natural results with excellent patient outcomes. PMID:28018778

  2. Salt Filler For Making Covered Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Holmes, Richard R.

    1991-01-01

    In simple fabrication technique, metal salts used to create such subsurface channels as those for coolant in metallic heat exchanger. Layer of metal deposited on structure by vacuum plasma spraying, sealing channels. Metal salt or salt mixture has melting temperature higher than those of waxes and aluminum and withstands high temperature of plasma spraying. After plasma spraying, salt filler dissolved quickly and easily and flushed away with water or other appropriate solvent, leaving behind covered channels.

  3. Technical Considerations for Filler and Neuromodulator Refinements.

    PubMed

    Montes, José Raúl; Wilson, Anthony J; Chang, Brian L; Percec, Ivona

    2016-12-01

    Background: The toolbox for cosmetic practitioners is growing at an unprecedented rate. There are novel products every year and expanding off-label indications for neurotoxin and soft-tissue filler applications. Consequently, aesthetic physicians are increasingly challenged by the task of selecting the most appropriate products and techniques to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Methods: We employed a PubMed literature search of facial injectables from the past 10 years (2005-2015), with emphasis on those articles embracing evidence-based medicine. We evaluated the scientific background of every product and the physicochemical properties that make each one ideal for specific indications. The 2 senior authors provide commentary regarding their clinical experience with specific technical refinements of neuromodulators and soft-tissue fillers. Results: Neurotoxins and fillers are characterized by unique physical characteristics that distinguish each product. This results in subtle but important differences in their clinical applications. Specific indications and recommendations for the use of the various neurotoxins and soft-tissue fillers are reviewed. The discussion highlights refinements in combination treatments and product physical modifications, according to specific treatment zones. Conclusions: The field of facial aesthetics has evolved dramatically, mostly secondary to our increased understanding of 3-dimensional structural volume restoration. Our work reviews Food and Drug Administration-approved injectables. In addition, we describe how to modify products to fulfill specific indications such as treatment of the mid face, décolletage, hands, and periorbital regions. Although we cannot directly evaluate the duration or exact physical properties of blended products, we argue that "product customization" is safe and provides natural results with excellent patient outcomes.

  4. Enhanced thermal conductivity of novel multifunctional polyphenylene sulfide composites embedded with heat transfer networks of hybrid fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Siu N.; Khan, Omer M.; Chan, Ellen; Naguib, Hani E.; Dawson, Francis; Adinkrah, Vincent; Lakatos-Hayward, Laszlo

    2011-04-01

    Today's smaller, more powerful electronic devices, communications equipment, and lighting apparatus required optimum heat dissipation solutions. Traditionally, metals are widely known for their superior thermal conductivity; however, their good electrical conductivity has limited their applications in heat management components for microelectronic applications. This prompts the requirement to develop novel plastic composites that satisfy multifunctional requirements thermally, electrically, and mechanically. Furthermore, the moldability of polymer composites would make them ideal for manufacturing three-dimensional, net-shape enclosures and/or heat management assembly. Using polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) as the matrix, heat transfer networks were developed and structured by embedding hexagonal boron nitride (BN) alone, blending BN fillers of different shapes and sizes, as well as hybridizing BN fillers with carbonaceous nano- and micro-fillers. Parametric studies were conducted to elucidate the effects of types, shapes, sizes, and hybridization of fillers on the composite's thermal and electrical properties. The use of hybrid fillers, with optimized material formulations, was found to effectively promote a composite's thermal conductivity. This was achieved by optimizing the development of an interconnected thermal conductive network through structuring hybrid fillers with appropriate shapes and sizes. The thermal conductive composite affords unique opportunities to injection mold three-dimensional, net-shape microelectronic enclosures with superior heat dissipation performance.

  5. Evaluation of dermal fillers with noncontact optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manmohan; Wang, Shang; Yee, Richard W.; Han, Zhaolong; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-02-01

    Over 2 million dermal filler procedures are performed each year in the USA alone, and this figure is only expected to increase as the aging population continues to grow. Dermal filler treatments can last from a few months to years depending on the type of filler and its placement. Although adverse reactions are rare, they can be quite severe due to ischemic events and filler migration. Previously, techniques such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging have been used to evaluate the filler injections. However, these techniques are not practical for real-time filler injection guidance due to limitations such as the physical presence of the transducer. In this work, we propose the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for image-guided dermal filler injections due to the high spatial and temporal resolution of OCT. In addition, we utilize a noncontact optical coherence elastography (OCE) technique, to evaluate the efficacy of the dermal filler injection. A grid of air-pulse OCE measurements was taken, and the dynamic response of the skin to the air-pulse was translated to the Young's modulus and shear viscosity. Our results show that OCT was able to visualize the dermal filler injection process, and that OCE was able to localize the dermal filler injection sites. Combined with functional techniques such as optical microangiography, and recent advanced in OCT hardware, OCT may be able to provide real-time injection guidance in 3D by visualizing blood vessels to prevent ischemic events.

  6. Quantitative Correlation Between Hyaluronic Acid Filler and Hyaluronidase.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Euna; Song, You Seong

    2017-05-01

    The hyaluronic acid-based filler (HA filler) is used worldwide in various applications. In particular, the HA filler is used in the plastics and cosmetic medical field for facial rejuvenation and contouring. In this setting, it is injected into the skin or underlying tissue. Complications of HA filler injection have been relieved using hyaluronidase. However, there is no standard dose to adjust for undesirable HA filler lumpness. In this study, the authors tried to analyze any quantitative correlation between HA filler and hyaluronidase. The back of each rat (total 14 rats) was divided into 4 sites. A volume of 0.5 mL HA filler was injected into the subdermal layer at each site and HA filler nodules were created on the dorsum of each rat. Each nodule was allocated to groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 according to the different concentrations of hyaluronidase. As a result, the injected HA filler volume doubled within 4 days of injection, and then decreased slowly thereafter in group 1 (control group with normal saline only). A 30 unit hyaluronidase treatment compensated for the initial volume increase (approximately 30%) with HA filler (0.5 ml) at the fourth day. Sixty units of hyaluronidase reduced the initial volume (0.5 mL) of overinjected or misplaced HA filler on the fourth day. Approximately 90 units of hyaluronidase can reduce to the volume by 0.25 mL (50%) of the injected HA filler on the fourth day. The authors believe that this quantitative analysis of hyaluronidase concentration is helpful to plan the amount of hyaluronidase for correction of HA filler injection errors.

  7. Anatomic and mechanical considerations in restoring volume of the face with use of hyaluronic acid fillers with a novel layered technique

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mohan K.; Dsilva, James A.; Borole, Ateesh J.; Naik, Sudhir M.; Sarkar, Soma G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Facial fillers have revolutionized the field of cosmetic facial rejuvenation as it has become the prime sought – after rejuvenation procedure offering youthful, 3-dimensional look with minimal invasiveness. Fillers are expensive and need to be redone periodically hence a sound understanding of structural basis on which they are laid is important in reducing the quantity of filler required in each sitting as well as increasing the longevity of results. Aim: The aim of the following study is to analyse a novel method of facial filling “The pillars pyramids and tie beams (PPT)” technique and its advantages over the conventional methods. Subjects and Methods: A novel technique of injecting the facial fillers was employed on 67 patients visiting our clinic. These patients were followed-up for a period of 3 years. Results: We observed that the amount of filler material required in initial sitting remains the same, however the frequency of touch up visits is decreased and so is the amount of filler material required for follow-up injections. Conclusion: Facial contour remodelling is being revolutionised by the new filler materials for volume augmentation and no uniform consensus has been reached on the techniques currently used in clinical practice. We advocate this novel PPT technique of facial filling in facial rejuvenation to restore a youthful look as a primary goal. PMID:24987203

  8. Development of highly-filled, bioactive acrylic-based composite bone cements for orthopedic and craniofacial surgery: Tuning of material properties after incorporation of calcium phosphate and antimicrobial fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Lucas Carlos

    Bone cements are used in a variety of healthcare specialties ranging from orthopedics to dentistry to craniofacial surgery to spinal disc reconstruction. These materials need characteristics which mimic their surrounding tissues. Currently available materials have struggled to maintain these necessary characteristics. Poly (methyl methacrylate) is a very high strength bio-inert polymer which has been utilized in healthcare since the 1940's. Calcium phosphate cements are well established as being bone mimicking, but cannot sustain the compressive loads in a weight bearing application. This study sought to solve the problem of currently available bone cements by filling calcium phosphates and antimicrobials into an acrylic polymer matrix. The intended outcome was a material capable of retaining high mechanical stability from the acrylic polymer phase, while becoming sufficiently bone mimicking and antimicrobial. This thesis work presented, characterizes the material properties of the developed materials and eventually isolates a material of interest for future studies.

  9. Filler Migration: A Number of Mechanisms to Consider.

    PubMed

    Jordan, David R; Stoica, Bazil

    2015-01-01

    To report 3 representative cases of soft tissue filler identified in locations other than their intended injected sites (possible migration) and review the literature on pathogenesis of filler migration. Soft tissue fillers are continuing to increase in popularity throughout North America and worldwide as a means of volume restoration and contour enhancement. With increasing recognition of their value in restoring a more youthful appearance and the ease of office injection, soft tissue fillers have become one of the most commonly performed nonsurgical cosmetic procedures. Soft tissue fillers are also foreign bodies in our system and therefore have the potential for a myriad of complications both immediately after the injection and potentially months or years later. Filler migration is one such complication and has a number of potential mechanisms. The authors reviewed the medical records of 3 patients with filler located in areas other than their intended injected sites possibly as a result of migration. All patients were from the practice of 1 individual (DRJ). A MEDLINE search of the English-language literature on filler migration was conducted to investigate the various causes responsible for migration of filler. Clinical manifestations of the possible filler migration in the 3 cases included eyelid swelling in 2 patients and a noninflammatory mass adjacent to the area of filler injection in the third patient. Surgery was performed on 1 patient, and filler was visualized in the tissue and dissolved with hyaluronidase. Hyaluronidase was also used to dissolve the suspected filler in a second patient, and the third patient has elected to continue with observation. Filler migration is one of the potential complications associated with the injection of soft tissue fillers. It is important all physicians assessing nodules/masses/swelling in the facial area be aware that soft tissue fillers may migrate to a location away from their intended site of injection by several

  10. Fillers for improved graphite fiber retention by polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Simpson, F. H.; House, E. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This program was designed to develop technology for fabrication of graphite/epoxy composites containing selected boron and boron-containing fillers, determine the effects of the fillers on physical and mechanical properties of composites, and evaluate the effectiveness of the boron fillers for fiber retention when the composites are exposed to fire conditions followed by impact. Fillers evaluated were crystalline and amorphous boron, boron carbide, and aluminum boride. The fillers were evaluated by mixing with Narmco 5208 resin matrix at quantities up to 5%. Graphite composites were fabricated and evaluated with respect to their mechanical properties, resistance to humidity, and burning characteristics. Also, the mechanism by which the fillers prevented fiber release was studied.

  11. Adverse reactions to dermal fillers: a review of European experiences.

    PubMed

    Andre, P; Lowe, N J; Parc, A; Clerici, T H; Zimmermann, U

    2005-12-01

    In Europe, numerous dermal fillers have been utilized for the past decade. A lot of drawbacks have been reported and sometimes, severe complications occurred. Our purpose is to report the clinical aspects of the adverse reactions following injections of some of the dermal fillers. Histological aspects of complications are also described. Adverse reactions secondary to biodegradable products are usually time limited, but with the non-biodegradable products, we have observed severe, persistent, and recurrent complications. Histological examinations, in cases of non-biodegradable products, may show the presence and persistence of the filler. For the moment, there is no ideal dermal filler. All fillers can lead to adverse events and we need to inform patients fully before injecting. Clinical studies with long-term follow-up before launching a new product on the market are recommended. We believe that in Europe, at present, the CE mark is not a guarantee of safety of dermal fillers.

  12. Surface Treated Natural Fibres as Filler in Biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzova, I.; Stevulova, N.; Singovszka, E.; Terpakova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Biocomposites based on natural fibres as organic filler have been studied for several years because traditional building materials such as concrete are increasingly being replaced by advanced composite materials. Natural fibres are a potential replacement of glass fibres in composite materials. Inherent advantages such as low density, biodegradability and comparable specific mechanical properties make natural fibres an attractive option. However, limitations such as poor thermal stability, moisture absorption and poor compatibility with matrix are challenges that need to be resolved. The primary objective of this research was to study the effect of surface treatment on properties of hemp hurds like a natural lignocellulosic material and composites made thereof. Industrial hemp fibre is the one of the most suitable fibres for use in composite materials because of its good specific properties, as well as it being biologically degradable and CO2 neutral. Improving interfacial bonding between fibres and matrix is an important factor in using hemp fibres as reinforcement in composites. In order to improve interfacial bonding, modifications can be made to the hemp fibres to remove non- cellulosic compounds, separate hemp fibres from their bundles, and modify the fibre surface. This paper contains the comparison of FTIR spectra caused by combination of physical and chemical treatment of hemp material with unmodified sample. Modification of hemp hurds was carried out by NaOH solution and by ultrasonic treatment (deionized water and NaOH solution were used as the cleaning mediums).

  13. Inorganic composition and filler particles morphology of conventional and self-adhesive resin cements by SEM/EDX.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Thaiane Rodrigues; Di Francescantonio, Marina; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Giannini, Marcelo

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the inorganic components and morphology of filler particles of conventional and self-adhesive, dual-curing, resin luting cements. The main components were identified by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX), and filler particles were morphologically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four resin cements were used in this study: two conventional resin cements (RelyX ARC/3M ESPE and Clearfil Esthetic Cement/Kuraray Medical) and two self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem/3M ESPE and Clearfil SA Luting/Kuraray Medical). The materials (n = 5) were manipulated according to manufacturers' instructions, immersed in organic solvents to eliminate the organic phase and observed under SEM/EDX. Although EDX measurements showed high amount of silicon for all cements, differences in elemental composition of materials tested were identified. RelyX ARC showed spherical and irregular particles, whereas other cements presented only irregular filler shape. In general, self-adhesive cements contained higher filler size than conventional resin luting cements. The differences in inorganic components and filler particles were observed between categories of luting material and among them. All resin cements contain silicon, however, other components varied among them.

  14. Changes in pulp web properties by addition of natural filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaludin, Nurul Hasanah; Ghazali, Arniza; Daud, Wan Rosli Wan; Ghazali, Salmi

    2012-09-01

    Development of the desired pulp-based products eco-properties are governed by factors like choice and suitability of raw material, the design and operation of pulping process and choice of additives. Fines recovered during refining discharge of an alkaline peroxide pulping system were collected based on their retention on varying mesh-sizes screens. Analysis shows that 12% of the 400-mesh fines added to the web enhances paper tensile strength by 100%. This defines the usefulness of fibrillar particles whose cell wall collapsibility increases the web density by increasing bonding ability and thus, strength of pulp-based products such as paper. The study acknowledges fines functioning as natural filler in pulp network and collection of fines from the refining discharge was found to reduce 70% turbidity and this improvement will help reduce the costs pertinent to generation of whitewater from the pulping system.

  15. Filler wire for aluminum alloys and method of welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, Jr., Gerald W. O. (Inventor); Cho, Alex (Inventor); Russell, Carolyn K. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A weld filler wire chemistry has been developed for fusion welding 2195 aluminum-lithium. The weld filler wire chemistry is an aluminum-copper based alloy containing high additions of titanium and zirconium. The additions of titanium and zirconium reduce the crack susceptibility of aluminum alloy welds while producing good weld mechanical properties. The addition of silver further improves the weld properties of the weld filler wire. The reduced weld crack susceptibility enhances the repair weldability, including when planishing is required.

  16. Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

  17. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  18. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1998-01-01

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  19. Investigating Filler Reinforcement and Nonlinear Viscoelastic Behavior in Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhiyong; Wang, Shi-Qing; von Meerwall, Ernst

    2004-03-01

    Solid fillers have been known to enhance the linear viscoelastic responses of polymer melts and elastomers. Nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of such systems is closely related to the reinforcement of the linear viscoelascity. Understanding such phenomena as the Payne effect (where the storage modulus is measured to decrease in oscillatory shear with the amplitude of the oscillation and with time for a fixed amplitude) requires a better understanding of the filler reinforcement mechanism. Recent publications, from two different groups (a) (b) prompted our present study. Using monodisperse 1,4-polybutadiene melts as the matrix and nano-silicon oxide particles of 15 nm diameter as the fillers, we carried out a variety of viscoelastic and NMR-spin-echo diffusion measurements to elucidate the important role of the filler-filler networking in controlling the observed linear and nonlinear behavior at temperatures over 100 degrees above the glass transition temperature of PBD. (a)S.S. Sternstein and A. Zhu, Macromolecules 35, 7262 (2002); Composites Sci. and Techn. 63, 1113 (2003). This work claims that the reinforcement arises primarily from the entrapped chain entanglement due to chain adsorption on filler surfaces instead of the filler-filler networking. (b) H. Montes, F. Lequeux and J. Berriot, Macromolecules, 36, 8107 (2003). This work advocates that a glassy layer formed around each filler is responsible for the enhanced linear viscoelascity and for the observed nonlinear viscoelastic behavior such as the Payne effect.

  20. Effect of filler particles morphology of resin-composites on cavity packing force for repeated condensation.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, Muhammad; Watts, David C

    2017-03-29

    Effect of variation in morphology and size of filler particles, temperature and increase in condensation speed on packability of resincomposites was investigated. Eight experimental light-cured resin-composites (RZDn series) were tested. Each material was placed in a cylindrical mould at 26 or 32ºC. A flat-ended stainless-steel probe (φ=6 mm) was mechanically lowered with two different speeds 2 and 8 mm/s onto and into at the surface of the unset sample until a compressive force of 1 N was reached. This was repeated for five cycles, and from each cycle Fp was calculated. All spherical and irregular filler particle resin-composites showed a decrease in Fp with increase in number of compressions. Increase in temperature also decreased Fp, but this effect was not very prominent in the case of irregular filler resin-composites. Filler particle morphology, increase in temperature and compression cycle speed has a prominent effect on packability of resin-composites.

  1. A study on engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using filler with recycled waste lime.

    PubMed

    Sung Do, Hwang; Hee Mun, Park; Suk keun, Rhee

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on determining the engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using mineral fillers with recycled waste lime, which is a by-product of the production of soda ash (Na(2)CO(3)). The materials tested in this study were made using a 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% mixing ratio based on the conventional mineral filler ratio to analyze the possibility of using recycled waste lime. The asphalt concretes, made of recycled waste lime, hydrated lime, and conventional asphalt concrete, were evaluated through their fundamental engineering properties such as Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength, resilient modulus, permanent deformation characteristics, moisture susceptibility, and fatigue resistance. The results indicate that the application of recycled waste lime as mineral filler improves the permanent deformation characteristics, stiffness and fatigue endurance of asphalt concrete at the wide range of temperatures. It was also determined that the mixtures with recycled waste lime showed higher resistance against stripping than conventional asphalt concrete. It was concluded from various test results that a waste lime can be used as mineral filler and, especially, can greatly improve the resistance of asphalt concrete to permanent deformation at high temperatures.

  2. Filler particles used in dental biomaterials induce production and release of inflammatory mediators in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ansteinsson, Vibeke E; Samuelsen, Jan Tore; Dahl, Jon E

    2009-04-01

    Although dental composites are in extensive use today, little is known about the biological effects of the filler particles. As composite materials are gradually broken down in the aggressive environment of the oral cavity, the filler particles may leak and induce toxic effects on the surrounding tissue and cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate possible adverse biological effects of commonly used dental filler particles; bariumaluminiumsilica (BaAlSi) and bariumaluminiumfluorosilica (BaAlFSi) with mean size of 1 microm. BEAS-2B cells were used as a model system. Particle morphology, mean particle size in solution, and particle surface charge were determined by scanning electron microscopy and Malvern zetasizer technology, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect secretion of cytokine and chemokine (IL-8 and IL-6) and quantitative PCR for detection of gene activity. Both types of particle increased the release of IL-6 and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. BaAlFSi particles induced a more marked IL-8 response compared to BaAlSi particles, whereas no significant difference was observed for the IL-6 response. Mechanistic studies using specific inhibitors and activators indicated that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A is partly involved in the observed IL-8 response. In conclusion, we consider dental filler particles to have potential to induce adverse biological response in cell cultures.

  3. Coconut shell powder as cost effective filler in copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene rubber.

    PubMed

    Keerthika, B; Umayavalli, M; Jeyalalitha, T; Krishnaveni, N

    2016-08-01

    Filler is one of the major additives in rubber compounds to enhance the physical properties. Even though numerous benefits obtained from agricultural by products like coconut shell, rice husk etc., still they constitute a large source of environmental pollution. In this investigation, one of the agricultural bye product coconut shell powder (CSP) is used as filler in the compounding KNB rubber. It shows the positive and satisfied result was achieved only by the use of filler Fast Extrusion Furnace (FEF) and coconut shell powder (CSP) which was used 50% in each. The effect of these fillers on the mechanical properties of a rubber material at various loading raging from 0 to 60PHP was studied. Mercaptodibanzothiazole disulphide (MBTS) was used as an accelerator. The result shows that presence of 25% and 50% of the composites has better mechanical properties like Hardness, Tensile strength, Elongation at break and Specific gravity when compared with other two combinations. Even though both 25% and 50% of composites shows good mechanical properties, 50% of CSP have more efficient than 25% of CSP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Use of Almond Shells and Rice Husk as Fillers of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Composites

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Alessandra; Lanari, Silvia; Santulli, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, wood fibres have often been applied as the reinforcement of thermoplastic materials, such as polypropylene, whereas their use in combination with thermosetting resin has been less widespread. This study concerns the production of PMMA-based composites by partly replacing alumina trihydrate (ATH) with wood waste fillers, namely rice husks and almond shells, which would otherwise be disposed by incineration. The amount of filler introduced was limited to 10% as regards rice husks and 10 or 15% almond shells, since indications provided by reactivity tests and viscosity measurements did not suggest the feasibility of total replacement of ATH. As a matter of fact, the introduction of these contents of wood waste filler in PMMA-based composite did not result in any significant deterioration of its mechanical properties (Charpy impact, Rockwell M hardness and flexural performance). Some reduction of these properties was only observed in the case of introduction of 15% almond shells. A further issue concerned the yellowing of the organic filler under exposure to UV light. On the other hand, a very limited amount of water was absorbed, never exceeding values around 0.6%, despite the significant porosity revealed by the filler’s microscopic evaluation. These results are particularly interesting in view of the application envisaged for these composites, i.e., wood replacement boards. PMID:28773234

  5. Effect of continuous longitudinal glass fiber reinforcement on the cantilever beam strength of particulate filler composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hun; Christopher Watts, David

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of continuous longitudinal glass fibers on the bending properties of particulate filler composite resins. Four particulate filler composite resins (Tetric Ceram, Point 4, Z250, P60) and one continuous longitudinal glass fiber material (everStick) as reinforcement were selected. Three groups of beam specimens (5 x 5 x 25 mm) for each material were fabricated. For group I, specimens were not reinforced with fibers and were tested as the control group. For group II, specimens were reinforced with 2 layers of the fiber (6.5 vol%), and for group III with 3 layers (9.8 vol%). The specimens were stored at 37 degrees C for 30 days. One end of the beam specimen (14 mm) was fixed in a device, while the other (11 mm) was left free. Cantilever beam strength was measured using a universal testing machine, loading at a distance of 10 mm from the upright support through a steel ball of 2 mm diameter. The loads and deflection at initial failure and at final failure for each specimen were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the multiple comparison Scheffé test (alpha = 0.05). The bending moments of particulate filler composite at final failure, when reinforced with 3 layers of the glass fibers (272.4-325.2 Ncm), were significantly higher than for the composites without fibers. However, the materials reinforced with 3 layers of fibers were not significantly different from the materials reinforced with 2 layers of fibers (234.1-282.6 Ncm). The materials reinforced with 3 layers of fibers exhibited severe deflection at final failure, ranging from 2.8 mm to 3.4 mm. The bending moments of the particulate composites increased linearly with the weight fraction of the fillers, but there was no linear correlation between them when reinforced with fibers. The cantilever beam strength of the particulate filler composites increased significantly when layers of fibers were added and as the

  6. Sculptra: the new three-dimensional filler.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Richard N

    2006-10-01

    Sculptra, the synthetic injectable poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), is a revolutionary three-dimensional filler lasting 18 to 24 months. This unique volumizing agent is best used to globally restore volume to the lower two thirds of the face in patients who have lipoatrophy. Sculptra is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nonimmunogenic derivative of the alpha-hydroxy-acid family. The size and the slow degradation kinetics of PLLA microparticles act as a stimulus for collagen production, providing lasting volume enhancement in lipoatrophy patients.

  7. 46 CFR 56.70-5 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Material. 56.70-5 Section 56.70-5 Shipping COAST GUARD..., Assembly and Erection § 56.70-5 Material. (a) Filler metal. All filler metal, including consumable insert material, must comply with the requirements of section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  8. 46 CFR 56.70-5 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Material. 56.70-5 Section 56.70-5 Shipping COAST GUARD..., Assembly and Erection § 56.70-5 Material. (a) Filler metal. All filler metal, including consumable insert material, must comply with the requirements of section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  9. 46 CFR 56.70-5 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Material. 56.70-5 Section 56.70-5 Shipping COAST GUARD..., Assembly and Erection § 56.70-5 Material. (a) Filler metal. All filler metal, including consumable insert material, must comply with the requirements of section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  10. 46 CFR 56.70-5 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Material. 56.70-5 Section 56.70-5 Shipping COAST GUARD..., Assembly and Erection § 56.70-5 Material. (a) Filler metal. All filler metal, including consumable insert material, must comply with the requirements of section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  11. 46 CFR 56.70-5 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Material. 56.70-5 Section 56.70-5 Shipping COAST GUARD..., Assembly and Erection § 56.70-5 Material. (a) Filler metal. All filler metal, including consumable insert material, must comply with the requirements of section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  12. A preliminary investigation into the physical and chemical properties of biomass ashes used as aggregate fillers for bituminous mixtures.

    PubMed

    Melotti, Roberto; Santagata, Ezio; Bassani, Marco; Salvo, Milena; Rizzo, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Fly and bottom ashes are the main by-products arising from the combustion of solid biomass. Since the production of energy from this source is increasing, the processing and disposal of the resulting ashes has become an environmental and economic issue. Such ashes are of interest as a construction material because they are composed of very fine particles similar to fillers normally employed in bituminous and cementitious mixtures. This research investigates the potential use of ash from biomass as filler in bituminous mixtures. The morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of 21 different ashes and two traditional fillers (calcium carbonate and "recovered" plant filler) were evaluated and discussed. Leaching tests, performed in order to quantify the release of pollutants, revealed that five ashes do not comply with the Italian environmental re-use limits. Experimental results show a wide range of values for almost all the investigated properties and a low correlation with biomass type in terms of origin and chemical composition. Furthermore, sieving and milling processes were found to improve the properties of the raw material in terms of grading and sample porosity. The effectiveness of these treatments and the low content of organic matter and harmful fines suggest that most of the biomass ashes investigated may be regarded as potential replacements for natural filler in bituminous mixtures.

  13. Impact of thio-urethane additive and filler type on light-transmission and depth of polymerization of dental composites.

    PubMed

    Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Pfeifer, Carmem Silvia

    2017-08-11

    This study evaluated the effects of filler type and the addition of thio-urethane oligomers on light-transmission, polymerization kinetics and depth of cure of resin composites. BisGMA:UDMA:TEGMA (5:3:2wt%) were mixed with 0 (control) or 20wt% thio-urethane. Fillers with various sizes and refractive indices were included and refractive index (RI) measured. Unfilled resins were used as controls. The RIs of materials were measured before and after polymerization. The irradiance reaching the bottom of 3-mm thick specimens was measured during the polymerization. Degree of conversion to a depth of 5mm was mapped. An optical bench was used to simultaneously follow conversion and light transmission. The addition of thio-urethane increased the RI for all composites. As expected, RI also increased with conversion for all materials. The one exception was for the material filled with OX-50, in which the RI of the composite decreased with conversion. In this case, the irradiance at the bottom of the 3mm specimen was also the lowest among all groups. The addition of thio-urethanes had only minimal effect on light transmission within a filler type, but led to increased conversion in depth for all groups. The filler type itself had a greater effect on light transmission, and that correlated well with the degree of conversion. The effect of the thio-urethane addition on degree of conversion in depth was dependent on filler type. The additive can be tailored to improve the RI match with the filler to optimize light transmission in dental composites. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hybrid Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticle Colloidal Gels are Injectable Fillers for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhen; Jamal, Syed; Detamore, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Injectable bone fillers have emerged as an alternative to the invasive surgery often required to treat bone defects. Current bone fillers may benefit from improvements in dynamic properties such as shear thinning during injection and recovery of material stiffness after placement. Negatively charged inorganic hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled with positively charged organic poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs to create a cohesive colloidal gel. This material is held together by electrostatic forces that may be disrupted by shear to facilitate extrusion, molding, or injection. Scanning electron micrographs of the dried colloidal gels showed a well-organized, three-dimensional porous structure. Rheology tests revealed that certain colloidal gels could recover after being sheared. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were also highly viable when seeded on the colloidal gels. HAp/PLGA NP colloidal gels offer an attractive scheme for injectable filling and regeneration of bone tissue. PMID:23815275

  15. Effects of filler composition and surface treatment on the characteristics of opaque resin composites.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Tanagawa, M; Atsuta, M

    2001-01-01

    The effects of filler composition and surface treatment of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on the shear bond strength to noble metal and mechanical properties of opaque dental resin composites were assessed. A series of fillers for resin composites were prepared with untreated TiO2 or treated silica/alumina-coated TiO2 with silane coupling agent; these fillers were replaced with silanized SiO2 in increasing amounts. Each of various powder compositions were mixed with the liquid and applied to the surface of a silver-palladium-copper-gold (Ag-Pd-Cu-Au) alloy and light cured. A light-activated resin-veneering composite material was placed on top with the use of a brass ring mold and light cured. Specimens were stored at 37 degrees C in water for a period of 24 h. Additionally some specimens were thermocycled at 4 degrees C and 60 degrees C in water baths for 1 min each for 5000 cycles before shear mode testing was performed. Light-activated opaque resin composites containing filler with specific filler compositions of 50 wt% of untreated TiO2-50 wt% of silanized SiO2 (untreated TiO2(50)) and 40 wt% of untreated TiO2-60 wt% of silanized SiO2 (untreated TiO2(40)) showed higher shear bond strengths to the Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy than any other specific compositions when no thermocycling was involved. Surface treatment of TiO2 filler and TiO2(50)- and TiO2(40)-opaque resin composites prepared thereof showed significantly higher shear bond strengths than untreated TiO2(50)- and TiO2(40)-opaque resin composites when subjected to thermocycling. Surface-treated opaque resin composite had significantly higher compressive and flexural strength than untreated opaque resin composite after immersion in water for 1 month. Scanning electron microscopy of the fractured opaque resin composite surface showed an interface failure between TiO2 and the matrix resin for untreated composite, and cohesive failure within the resin for surface-treated composite. Surface-treated TiO2(50) and TiO2(40) may be

  16. Effect of filler particles on surface roughness of experimental composite series

    PubMed Central

    MARGHALANI, Hanadi Yousif

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different filler sizes and shapes on the surface roughness of experimental resin-composite series. Material and Methods Thirty-three disc-shaped specimens of the series (Spherical-RZD 102, 105, 106, 107, 114 and Irregular-RZD 103, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112) were prepared in a split Teflon mold and irradiated with an halogen light-curing unit (450 mW/cm2 for 40 s) at both top and bottom surfaces. The specimens were stored for 3 months in distilled water. The surface roughness values in form of surface finish-vertical parameter (Ra), maximum roughness depth (Rmax) and horizontal roughness parameter (Sm) were recorded using a contact profilometer. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Scheffé post-hoc test (α=0.05). Results The lowest surface roughness (Ra) was observed in S-100 (0.079±0.013), while the roughest surface was noted in I-450/ 700/1000 (0.125±0.011) and I-450/1000 (0.124±0.004). The spherical-shape series showed the smoothest surface finish compared to the irregular-shape ones with higher significant difference (p>0.05). The vertical surface roughness parameter (Ra) values increased as the filler size increased yielding a linear relation (r2=0.82). On the contrary, the horizontal parameter (Sm) was not significantly affected by the filler size (r2=0.24) as well as the filler shape. Conclusions Filler particle’s size and shape have a great effect on the surface roughness parameters of these composite series. PMID:20379683

  17. The use of polyimide-modified aluminum nitride fillers in AlN@PI/Epoxy composites with enhanced thermal conductivity for electronic encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yongcun; Yao, Yagang; Chen, Chia-Yun; Moon, Kyoungsik; Wang, Hong; Wong, Ching-ping

    2014-01-01

    Polymer modified fillers in composites has attracted the attention of numerous researchers. These fillers are composed of core-shell structures that exhibit enhanced physical and chemical properties that are associated with shell surface control and encapsulated core materials. In this study, we have described an apt method to prepare polyimide (PI)-modified aluminum nitride (AlN) fillers, AlN@PI. These fillers are used for electronic encapsulation in high performance polymer composites. Compared with that of untreated AlN composite, these AlN@PI/epoxy composites exhibit better thermal and dielectric properties. At 40 wt% of filler loading, the highest thermal conductivity of AlN@PI/epoxy composite reached 2.03 W/mK. In this way, the thermal conductivity is approximately enhanced by 10.6 times than that of the used epoxy matrix. The experimental results exhibiting the thermal conductivity of AlN@PI/epoxy composites were in good agreement with the values calculated from the parallel conduction model. This research work describes an effective pathway that modifies the surface of fillers with polymer coating. Furthermore, this novel technique improves the thermal and dielectric properties of fillers and these can be used extensively for electronic packaging applications. PMID:24759082

  18. Global Aesthetics Consensus: Avoidance and Management of Complications from Hyaluronic Acid Fillers-Evidence- and Opinion-Based Review and Consensus Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Massimo; Liew, Steven; Sundaram, Hema; De Boulle, Koenraad L; Goodman, Greg J; Monheit, Gary; Wu, Yan; Trindade de Almeida, Ada R; Swift, Arthur; Vieira Braz, André

    2016-06-01

    Although the safety profile of hyaluronic acid fillers is favorable, adverse reactions can occur. Clinicians and patients can benefit from ongoing guidance on adverse reactions to hyaluronic acid fillers and their management. A multinational, multidisciplinary group of experts in cosmetic medicine convened the Global Aesthetics Consensus Group to review the properties and clinical uses of Hylacross and Vycross hyaluronic acid products and develop updated consensus recommendations for early and late complications associated with hyaluronic acid fillers. The consensus panel provided specific recommendations focusing on early and late complications of hyaluronic acid fillers and their management. The impact of patient-, product-, and technique-related factors on such reactions was described. Most of these were noted to be mild and transient. Serious adverse events are rare. Early adverse reactions to hyaluronic acid fillers include vascular infarction and compromise; inflammatory reactions; injection-related events; and inappropriate placement of filler material. Among late reactions are nodules, granulomas, and skin discoloration. Most adverse events can be avoided with proper planning and technique. Detailed understanding of facial anatomy, proper patient and product selection, and appropriate technique can further reduce the risks. Should adverse reactions occur, the clinician must be prepared and have tools available for effective treatment. Adverse reactions with hyaluronic acid fillers are uncommon. Clinicians should take steps to further reduce the risk and be prepared to treat any complications that arise.

  19. 7 CFR 29.6129 - Farm Filler (Y Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Filler (Y Group). 29.6129 Section 29.6129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6129 Farm Filler (Y Group). This group consists...

  20. 7 CFR 29.6129 - Farm Filler (Y Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Filler (Y Group). 29.6129 Section 29.6129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6129 Farm Filler (Y Group). This group consists...

  1. 7 CFR 29.6129 - Farm Filler (Y Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Filler (Y Group). 29.6129 Section 29.6129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6129 Farm Filler (Y Group). This group consists...

  2. 7 CFR 29.6129 - Farm Filler (Y Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Filler (Y Group). 29.6129 Section 29.6129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6129 Farm Filler (Y Group). This group consists...

  3. 7 CFR 29.6129 - Farm Filler (Y Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Filler (Y Group). 29.6129 Section 29.6129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6129 Farm Filler (Y Group). This group consists...

  4. Filler Wire Development for 2195 Aluminum-Lithium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, Gerry; Cho, Alex; Russell, Carolyn; Zimmerman, Frank

    1998-01-01

    The presentation outline summarizes activities supporting the development of filler wire for 215 aluminum-lithium. The specific objective of the research was to identify an Al-Cu based filler wire chemistry which reduces weld susceptibility in 2195 Aluminum-Lithium welds and repairs welds along with providing adequate mechanical properties. This report is in viewgraph form.

  5. Use of nut shells as fillers in polymer composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The three nutshell fillers including walnut, almond and pistachio nutshell were added to PLA. All the physical properties of samples deteriorated relative to PLA. When subjected to heat pre-treatment, although the physical properties of PLA-filler samples still deteriorated, the extent of deteriorat...

  6. Filler-wire positioner for electron beam welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaupre, W. M.; Fueg, L. B.; Phillips, J. A.

    1970-01-01

    Miniaturized positioner is installed in any electron beam vacuum chamber for use with wire feed applications requiring filler wire. Horizontal and vertical control of the positioner is maintained from a console while chamber is under vacuum. Device permits more positive positioning of welding filler wire.

  7. 7 CFR 58.229 - Filler and packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filler and packaging equipment. 58.229 Section 58.229....229 Filler and packaging equipment. All filling and packaging equipment shall be of sanitary... equipment should comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for equipment for Packaging Dry Milk and Dry...

  8. Selecting fillers on emotional appearance improves lineup identification accuracy.

    PubMed

    Flowe, Heather D; Klatt, Thimna; Colloff, Melissa F

    2014-12-01

    Mock witnesses sometimes report using criminal stereotypes to identify a face from a lineup, a tendency known as criminal face bias. Faces are perceived as criminal-looking if they appear angry. We tested whether matching the emotional appearance of the fillers to an angry suspect can reduce criminal face bias. In Study 1, mock witnesses (n = 226) viewed lineups in which the suspect had an angry, happy, or neutral expression, and we varied whether the fillers matched the expression. An additional group of participants (n = 59) rated the faces on criminal and emotional appearance. As predicted, mock witnesses tended to identify suspects who appeared angrier and more criminal-looking than the fillers. This tendency was reduced when the lineup fillers matched the emotional appearance of the suspect. Study 2 extended the results, testing whether the emotional appearance of the suspect and fillers affects recognition memory. Participants (n = 1,983) studied faces and took a lineup test in which the emotional appearance of the target and fillers was varied between subjects. Discrimination accuracy was enhanced when the fillers matched an angry target's emotional appearance. We conclude that lineup member emotional appearance plays a critical role in the psychology of lineup identification. The fillers should match an angry suspect's emotional appearance to improve lineup identification accuracy.

  9. Aluminum oxide filler prevents obstructions in tubing during welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okelly, K. P.

    1966-01-01

    Granular aluminum oxide is used as filler in serpentine tubing while welding the tubing to a flat surface. The filler eliminates obstructions in the tubes formed by molten weld nuggets and is porous enough to allow gases to escape from the welding area.

  10. Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants…

  11. Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants…

  12. Temporary blindness after an anterior chamber cosmetic filler injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deok-Yeol; Eom, Jin-Sup; Kim, Jae Yong

    2015-06-01

    Blindness is a rare but devastating complication of cosmetic filler injection. A primary cause of blindness following hyaluronic acid filler injection is retrograde intravascular embolization into the small ocular arteries. We here report a case of temporary blindness associated with the injection of hyaluronic acid filler into the anterior chamber of eye. This is the first report of temporary blindness after cosmetic filler injection into the anterior chamber, and the first described case that recovered completely after the filler was removed. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. Microvascular complications associated with injection of cosmetic facelift dermal fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Siavash; Prendes, Mark; Chang, Shu-Hong; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-02-01

    Minimally-invasive cosmetic surgeries such as injection of subdermal fillers have become very popular in the past decade. Although rare, some complications may follow injections such as tissue necrosis and even blindness. There exist two hypothesis regarding source of these complications both of which include microvasculature. The first hypothesis is that fillers in between the tissue structures and compress microvasculature that causes blockage of tissue neutrition and oxygen exchange in the tissue. In another theory, it is hypothesized that fillers move inside major arteries and block the arteries/veins. In this paper, we study these hypotheses using optical coherence tomography and optical microangiography technologies with different hyaluronic-acid fillers in a mouse ear model. Based on our observations, the fillers eventually block arteries/veins if injected directly into them that eventually causes tissue necrosis.

  14. Filler syllables: what is their status in emerging grammar?

    PubMed

    Peters, A M

    2001-02-01

    Although it has long been observed that some children incorporate unglossable syllables into their early utterances, it has been difficult to integrate these 'fillers' into theories of language acquisition. Because they straddle boundaries between phonology and morphosyntax, and between pragmatics and lexicon, they do not fit neatly into linguists' notions about 'modules' of language. Fillers have been reported in quite an array of languages, and yet they seem to be more common among learners of some languages than others. Even when language is held constant, children seem to vary immensely as to whether they produce fillers at all. With more researchers reporting fillers in more languages, it seems time to (1) review what we now know about fillers; (2) propose a reasonably unified set of criteria for identifying them; and (3) suggest an approach that will promote their further study.

  15. Simulation of Polymer Physical Gel With Platelet Fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Di; Gerssape, Dilip

    Platelet filler such as clays have superior effects on the properties of polymer gels. We used molecular dynamic simulations to study platelet filled composite gels system, in which small hexagonal disks simulate the platelets and gelation is due to short-range attraction between end-monomers and platelets. The properties of platelet filled composites are studied as a function of filler concentration. The mechanism of gelation was found similar to those of pure polymer gels; the polymers and platelets formed organic-inorganic networks, which percolate at high enough filler concentration. It was observed platelets aggregated into local intercalation structure, which significantly differs from typical spherical fillers. This unique intercalation structure is examined by radial distribution function and ordering parameters. We discussed how intercalation would affect the properties of the platelet composites by comparing them with spherical fillers.

  16. Managing Complications of Fillers: Rare and Not-So-Rare

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Fillers belong to the most frequently used beautifying products. They are generally well tolerated, but any one of them may occasionally produce adverse side effects. Adverse effects usually last as long as the filler is in the skin, which means that short-lived fillers have short-term side effects and permanent fillers may induce life-long adverse effects. The main goal is to prevent them, however, this is not always possible. Utmost care has to be given to the prevention of infections and the injection technique has to be perfect. Treatment of adverse effects is often with hyaluronidase or steroid injections and in some cases together with 5-fluorouracil plus allopurinol orally. Histological examination of biopsy specimens often helps to identify the responsible filler allowing a specific treatment to be adapted. PMID:26865784

  17. Remineralizing amorphous calcium phosphate based composite resins: the influence of inert fillers on monomer conversion, polymerization shrinkage, and microhardness

    PubMed Central

    Marović, Danijela; Šariri, Kristina; Demoli, Nazif; Ristić, Mira; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Škrtić, Drago; Rosentritt, Martin; Schmalz, Gottfried; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine if the addition of inert fillers to a bioactive dental restorative composite material affects its degree of conversion (DC), polymerization shrinkage (PS), and microhardness (HV). Methods Three amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based composite resins: without added fillers (0-ACP), with 10% of barium-glass fillers (Ba-ACP), and with 10% of silica fillers (Si-ACP), as well as commercial control (Ceram•X, Dentsply DeTrey) were tested in laboratory conditions. The amount of ACP (40%) and the composition of the resin mixture (based on ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate) was the same for all ACP materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the DC (n = 40), 20 min and 72 h after polymerization. Linear PS and Vickers microhardness (n = 40) were also evaluated. The results were analyzed by paired samples t test, ANOVA, and one-way repeated measures ANOVA with Student-Newman-Keuls or Tukey’s post-hoc test (P = 0.05). Results The addition of barium fillers significantly increased the DC (20 min) (75.84 ± 0.62%) in comparison to 0-ACP (73.92 ± 3.08%), but the addition of silica fillers lowered the DC (71.00 ± 0.57%). Ceram•X had the lowest DC (54.93 ± 1.00%) and linear PS (1.01 ± 0.24%) but the highest HV (20.73 ± 2.09). PS was significantly reduced (P < 0.010) in both Ba-ACP (1.13 ± 0.25%) and Si-ACP (1.17 ± 0.19%) compared to 0-ACP (1.43 ± 0.21%). HV was significantly higher in Si-ACP (12.82 ± 1.30) than in 0-ACP (10.54 ± 0.86) and Ba-ACP (10.75 ± 0.62) (P < 0.010). Conclusion Incorporation of inert fillers to bioactive remineralizing composites enhanced their physical-mechanical performance in laboratory conditions. Both added fillers reduced the PS while maintaining high levels of the DC. Silica fillers additionally moderately improved the HV of ACP composites. PMID:27815937

  18. Antibacterial activity of resin composites containing surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler.

    PubMed

    Miki, Saeki; Kitagawa, Haruaki; Kitagawa, Ranna; Kiba, Wakako; Hayashi, Mikako; Imazato, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    A surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler is a technology of interest for providing bio-functions to restorative materials. Resin composites containing S-PRG filler have been reported to show less plaque accumulation and reduced bacterial attachment. In this study, experimental resin composites containing S-PRG filler at various concentrations were fabricated, and the inhibitory effects on bacterial growth on their surface and the association of ions released from S-PRG filler with antibacterial activity were evaluated. Five kinds of experimental resin composites containing S-PRG filler at 0, 13.9, 27.3, 41.8, or 55.9 (vol.%) were fabricated. Streptococcus mutans was cultured on the cured discs for 18h to examine the growth of bacteria in contact with the surface of the experimental resins. The concentrations of Al(3+), BO3(3-), F(-), Na(+), SiO3(2-), or Sr(2+) released from each experimental resin into water were measured. The standardized solutions of each ion were prepared at the concentrations determined to be released from the experimental resin, and their inhibitory effects of single ion species on S. mutans growth were evaluated by using each standardized solution. Resin composites containing S-PRG filler at 13.9 (vol.%) or greater inhibited S. mutans growth on their surface. When S. mutans was incubated in the presence of six kinds of ions at the concentrations released from the resin composite containing S-PRG filler at 55.9 (vol.%), a significant reduction in bacterial number was observed for BO3(3-), F(-), Al(3+), and SiO3(2-). Among these four ions, BO3(3-) and F(-) demonstrated the strongest inhibitory effect on S. mutans growth. Our findings suggest that resin composites containing S-PRG filler inhibit the growth of S. mutans on their surface. BO3(3-), F(-), Al(3+) and SiO3(2-) released from S-PRG filler have the ability to inhibit S. mutans growth, and the inhibitory effects are mainly attributed to release of BO3(3-) and F(-). Copyright

  19. Composite Materials for Maxillofacial Prostheses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    necessary and Identify byv block number) MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHESES; PROSTHETIC MATERIALS: MICROCAPSULES : SOFT FILLERS; ELASTOMER COMPOSITES 2,. ABSTRACT...used as fillers in the fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. The projected systems are elastomeric-shelled, liquid-filled microcapsules . Improvements...elastomeric-shelled, liquid-filled microcapsules . Experiments continued on the interfacial polymerization process, with spherical, sealed, capsules

  20. Characterization of Morphology and Composition of Inorganic Fillers in Dental Alginates

    PubMed Central

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Consani, Simonides; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Varella; Lopes, Murilo Baena; Meneghel, Luciana Lira; da Silva, Fabiane Borges; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Archimedes' Principle were used to determine the characteristics of inorganic filler particles in five dental alginates, including Cavex ColorChange (C), Hydrogum 5 (H5), Hydrogum (H), Orthoprint (O), and Jeltrate Plus (JP). The different alginate powders (0.5 mg) were fixed on plastic stubs (n = 5) and sputter coated with carbon for EDX analysis, then coated with gold, and observed using SEM. Volume fractions were determined by weighing a sample of each material in water before and after calcining at 450°C for 3 h. The alginate materials were mainly composed of silicon (Si) by weight (C—81.59%, H—79.89%, O—78.87%, H5—77.95%, JP—66.88%, wt). The filler fractions in volume (vt) were as follows: H5—84.85%, JP—74.76%, H—70.03%, O—68.31%, and C—56.10%. The tested materials demonstrated important differences in the inorganic elemental composition, filler fraction, and particle morphology. PMID:25165690

  1. Characterization of morphology and composition of inorganic fillers in dental alginates.

    PubMed

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Consani, Simonides; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Varella; Lopes, Murilo Baena; Meneghel, Luciana Lira; da Silva, Fabiane Borges; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Archimedes' Principle were used to determine the characteristics of inorganic filler particles in five dental alginates, including Cavex ColorChange (C), Hydrogum 5 (H5), Hydrogum (H), Orthoprint (O), and Jeltrate Plus (JP). The different alginate powders (0.5 mg) were fixed on plastic stubs (n = 5) and sputter coated with carbon for EDX analysis, then coated with gold, and observed using SEM. Volume fractions were determined by weighing a sample of each material in water before and after calcining at 450(°)C for 3 h. The alginate materials were mainly composed of silicon (Si) by weight (C-81.59%, H-79.89%, O-78.87%, H5-77.95%, JP-66.88%, wt). The filler fractions in volume (vt) were as follows: H5-84.85%, JP-74.76%, H-70.03%, O-68.31%, and C-56.10%. The tested materials demonstrated important differences in the inorganic elemental composition, filler fraction, and particle morphology.

  2. Ultrasound detection and identification of cosmetic fillers in the skin.

    PubMed

    Wortsman, X; Wortsman, J; Orlandi, C; Cardenas, G; Sazunic, I; Jemec, G B E

    2012-03-01

    While the incidence of cosmetic filler injections is rising world-wide, neither exact details of the procedure nor the agent used are always reported or remembered by the patients. Thus, although complications are reportedly rare, availability of a precise diagnostic tool to detect cutaneous filler deposits could help clarify the association between the procedure and the underlying pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate cutaneous sonography in the detection and identification of cosmetic fillers deposits and, describe dermatological abnormalities found associated with the presence of those agents. We used ultrasound in a porcine skin model to determine the sonographic characteristics of commonly available filler agents, and subsequently applied the analysis to detect and identify cosmetic fillers among patients referred for skin disorders. Fillers are recognizable on ultrasound and generate different patterns of echogenicity and posterior acoustic artefacts. Cosmetic fillers were identified in 118 dermatological patients; most commonly hyaluronic acid among degradable agents and silicone oil among non-degradable. Fillers deposits were loosely scattered throughout the subcutaneous tissue, with occasional infiltration of local muscles and loco-regional lymph nodes. Accompanying dermatopathies were represented by highly localized inflammatory processes unresponsive to conventional treatment, morphea-like reactions, necrosis of fatty tissue and epidermal cysts; in the case of non-degradable agents, the associated dermatopathies were transient, resolving upon disappearance of the filler. Cosmetic filler agents may be detected and identified during routine ultrasound of dermatological lesions; the latter appear to be pathologically related to the cosmetic procedure. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. The effect of filler parameters on the healing of thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of a thermal interface material based on a self-healable organic-inorganic polymer matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Nan; Garcia, Santiago J.; van der Zwaag, Sybrand

    2016-08-01

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are widely used in all kinds of electronic devices to handle the heat dissipation and the mechanical anchoring of the heat producing component. The aging of TIMs may lead to delamination and internal crack formation causing a loss of heat transfer and mechanical integrity both leading to premature device failure. In the present work, a novel TIM system based on a self-healing organic-inorganic polymer matrix filled with spherical glass beads is presented which is capable of healing both the thermal conductivity and the mechanical properties upon thermal activation. The effect of particle volume concentration (PVC) and particle size on tensile strength and thermal conductivity healing behavior is investigated. The results show that a higher PVC increases the mechanical property but decreases mechanical healing. For the same PVC, bigger particles lead to lower mechanical properties but higher thermal conductivities and higher mechanical healing efficiencies.

  4. Inorganic/organic nanocomposites: Reaching a high filler content without increasing viscosity using core-shell structured nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Benhadjala, W.; Gravoueille, M.; Weiss, M.; Bord-Majek, I.; Béchou, L.; Ousten, Y.; Suhir, E.; Buet, M.; Louarn, M.; Rougé, F.; Gaud, V.

    2015-11-23

    Extensive research is being conducted on the development of inorganic/organic nanocomposites for a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, biotechnologies, photonics, adhesives, or optical coatings. High filler contents are usually required to fully optimize the nanocomposites properties. However, numerous studies demonstrated that traditional composite viscosity increases with increasing the filler concentration reducing therefore significantly the material processability. In this work, we synthesized inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposites with different shell thicknesses. By reducing the shell thickness while maintaining a constant core size, the nanoparticle molecular mass decreases but the nanocomposite filler fraction is correlatively increased. We performed viscosity measurements, which clearly highlighted that intrinsic viscosity of hybrid nanoparticles decreases as the molecular mass decreases, and thus, as the filler fraction increases, as opposed to Einstein predictions about the viscosity of traditional inorganic/polymer two-phase mixtures. This exceptional behavior, modeled by Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation, proves to be a significant breakthrough for the development of industrializable nanocomposites with high filler contents.

  5. Microstructure-based modelling of arbitrary deformation histories of filler-reinforced elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, H.; Klüppel, M.

    2012-11-01

    A physically motivated theory of rubber reinforcement based on filler cluster mechanics is presented considering the mechanical behaviour of quasi-statically loaded elastomeric materials subjected to arbitrary deformation histories. This represents an extension of a previously introduced model describing filler induced stress softening and hysteresis of highly strained elastomers. These effects are referred to the hydrodynamic reinforcement of rubber elasticity due to strain amplification by stiff filler clusters and cyclic breakdown and re-aggregation (healing) of softer, already damaged filler clusters. The theory is first developed for the special case of outer stress-strain cycles with successively increasing maximum strain. In this more simple case, all soft clusters are broken at the turning points of the cycle and the mechanical energy stored in the strained clusters is completely dissipated, i.e. only irreversible stress contributions result. Nevertheless, the description of outer cycles involves already all material parameters of the theory and hence they can be used for a fitting procedure. In the general case of an arbitrary deformation history, the cluster mechanics of the material is complicated due to the fact that not all soft clusters are broken at the turning points of a cycle. For that reason additional reversible stress contributions considering the relaxation of clusters upon retraction have to be taken into account for the description of inner cycles. A special recursive algorithm is developed constituting a frame of the mechanical response of encapsulated inner cycles. Simulation and measurement are found to be in fair agreement for CB and silica filled SBR/BR and EPDM samples, loaded in compression and tension along various deformation histories.

  6. Filler/ Polycarbosilane Systems as CMC Matrix Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrolytic conversion of polymeric precursors to ceramics is accompanied by loss of volatiles and large volume changes. Infiltration of a low viscosity polymer into a fiber preform will fill small spaces within fiber tows by capillary forces, but create large matrix cracks within large, intertow areas. One approach to minimizing shrinkage and reducing the number of required infiltration cycles is to use particulate fillers. In this study, Starfire allylhydridopolycarbosilane (AHPCS) was blended with a silicon carbide powder, with and without dispersant, using shear mixing. The polymer and polymer/particle interactions were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and rheometry. Polymer/particulate slurries and suspensions were used to infiltrate a figidized preform of an eight ply five harness satin CG Nicalon fiber having a dual layer BN/SiC interface coating, and the resulting composites characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Microstructural and rheological analysis of fillers and asphalt mastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.; Buzimov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pavements are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and organic binder. The aggregates are sorted in different sizes and different amount which are mixed together with bitumen. The finest mineral fraction (d<0.063 mm) is called filler. This component has an important role in asphalt mixture - it fills the gaps between the aggregates and if mixed with bitumen (which is called asphalt mastics) it sticks the larger particles together. Particle size, microstructure and surface properties of fillers highly affect the cohesion with bitumen, therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the microstructure of mineral fillers (limestone, dolomite) which are used in Hungarian road constructions with the use of different techniques (particle size distribution, scanning electronmicroscopy tests, mercury intrusion porosimetry, BET specific surface tests, determination of hydrophobicity). After the tests of fillers, asphalt mastics were prepared and rheological examinations were obtained. These examinations served to observe the interaction and the effect of fillers. The stiffening effect of fillers and the causes of rutting were also investigated. Based on our results, it can be stated that particle size, hydrophobic properties and the amount of fillers highly affect the rheological properties of mastics.

  8. Orbiter Gap Filler Bending Model for Re-entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    Pressure loads on a protruding gap filler during an Orbiter reentry are investigated to evaluate the likelihood of extraction due to pressure loads, and to ascertain how much bending will be induced by re-entry pressure loads. Oblique shock wave theory is utilized to develop a representation of the pressure loads induced on a gap filler for the ISSHVFW trajectory, representative of a heavy weight ISS return. A free body diagram is utilized to react the forces induced by the pressure forces. Preliminary results developed using these methods demonstrate that pressure loads, alone, are not likely causes of gap filler extraction during reentry. Assessment of the amount a gap filler will bend over is presented. Implications of gap filler bending during re-entry include possible mitigation of early boundary layer transition concerns, uncertainty in ground based measurement of protruding gap fillers from historical Orbiter flight history, and uncertainty in the use of Orbiter gap fillers for boundary layer prediction calibration. Authors will be added to the author list as appropriate.

  9. Cryogenic materials selection, availability, and cost considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, H. F.

    1983-01-01

    The selection of structural alloys, composite materials, solder alloys, and filler materials for use in cryogenic models is discussed. In particular, materials testing programs conducted at Langley are described.

  10. Arcjet Tests of Different Gap-Filler Options for the Orion PICA Heatshield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skokova, Kristina; Ellerby, Donald; Blosser, Max; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Bouslog, Stan; Reuther, James

    2009-01-01

    PICA (Phenolic Infiltrated Carbon Ablator) is one of the candidate thermal protection materials for the Orion vehicle. Because PICA is fabricated in blocks, gaps exist between the blocks, similar to the individual ceramic tiles of the Shuttle thermal protection system. The results of this work focus on arcjet test results of different gap-filler options for PICA, performed as part of the Orion TPS Advanced Development Project. The arcjet tests were performed at NASA Ames Research Center on stagnation models 4 inches in diameter at conditions representative of Orion flight conditions for both Lunar and Low Earth Orbit return. Performance of gap-filler options was evaluated based on the extent of backface temperature change, as compared to PICA without gaps, and on the extent of flow penetration into the gap, evident from the gap opening and widening.

  11. Filler effect of fine particle sand on the compressive strength of mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Tangpagasit, Jatuphon; Songmue, Sawang; Kiattikomol, Kraiwood

    2011-04-01

    The river sand, which is a non-pozzolanic material, was ground into 3 different particle sizes. Portland cement type I was replaced by the ground river sands at 10wt%-40wt% of binder to cast mortar. Compressive strengths of mortar were investigated and the filler effect of different fine particles of sand on the compressive strength of mortar was evaluated. The results show that the compressive strength of mortar contributed from the filler effect of smaller particles is higher than that of the coarser ones. The difference in compressive strength of mortar tends to be greater as the difference in ground river sand fineness increases. The results also suggest that ASTM C618 specification is not practically suitable for specifying pozzolan in concrete since the strength activity index of mortar containing ground river sand (high crystalline phase) with 33.8wt% of particles retained on a 45-μm sieve can pass the strength requirement.

  12. Long-chain polynucleotide filler for skin rejuvenation: efficacy and complications in five patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Kui Young; Seok, Joon; Rho, Nark Kyoung; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2016-01-01

    Aging well has become the new target of preventative medicine, and aesthetic dermatology can contribute to this request. The polynucleotide (PN) containing products not only fill the space, but improve tissue regeneration, resulting in more natural tissue regeneration. Five Korean women received four times injections of long-chain PN filler in two-week intervals for skin rejuvenation. About 0.05 mL of material was injected in 40 points of one-side cheek. The pore and skin thickness were markedly improved in the patients in their 30s, whereas skin tone, melanin, wrinkles, and sagging were noticeably improved for patients in their 40s. There are no serious side effects. In conclusion, intradermal long-chain PN filler injection seems to be an effective and safe treatment for skin rejuvenation.

  13. Yolk shell nanocomposite particles as bioactive bone fillers and growth factor carriers.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pujiang; Abbah, Sunny A; Chuah, Yon Jin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yong; He, Pengfei; Wong, Hee Kit; Goh, James C H

    2017-09-20

    The efficient delivery of bioactive molecules via rationally designed nanoparticles is an important focus in regenerative medicine. The yolk shell nanocomposite particles described herein are composed of silk fibroin movable cores formed within voided calcium carbonate shells to load and control the release of labile cytokines. These particles are excellent carrier vehicles of potent molecules as they sustained the release of bioactive Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2) for more than 28 days in vitro. Implantation into bone defects in rabbits corroborates the in vitro results and also reveals that upon contact with phosphate containing body fluids, implanted yolk shell particles agglomerate and transform into a filler that adapts to defect contour to further act as an absorbable hemostatic agent. Taken together, the fabrication of these yolk shell particle-based "bone fillers" could expand the horizon for the development of newer generations of advanced bioactive materials in tissue regeneration applications.

  14. Understanding How to Prevent and Treat Adverse Events of Fillers and Neuromodulators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Experience teaches cosmetic surgeons to become good, but avoiding and treating adverse events make them great. In no area is this more true than in cosmetic procedures involving fillers and neuromodulators. By utilizing knowledge of materials and anatomy involved, specialists seek to avoid complications. A well-trained physician is able to reduce the sequelae from an adverse event by acting promptly using algorithms and a methodical approach to treatments. In this article I discuss the difference between perceived and true complications from fillers and neuromodulators, how to avoid, what to look for and how to treat to provide patients with the best possible outcomes, and make the physicians life less stressful. PMID:28018772

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of radioactive waste embedded into EPDM and effect of lead filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Tonguç

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the nuclear industry and should be processed and disposed of according to the regulations set by the appropriate regulatory authority. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) is a widely used polymer and might be considered as a potential candidate radioactive waste encapsulation material. In this study, the dose rate distribution in the radioactive waste drum (containing radioactive waste and the polymer matrix) was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. The change in the dose rate within the waste drum with different amounts of lead filler was also simulated. It was seen that lead filler would decrease the dose delivered to the polymer by means of energy dissipation. Moreover, the change of mechanical properties of EPDM was estimated and their variation within the waste drum was determined for the duration of 15, 30 and 300 years after embedding.

  16. Recent developments in annual growth lignocellulosics as reinforcing fillers in thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, R.E.; Caulfield, D.F.; Rowell, R.M.

    1995-11-01

    Recent interest in reducing the environmental impact of materials is leading to the development of newer agricultural based materials that can reduce the stress to the environment. Several billion pounds of fillers and reinforcements are used annually in the plastics industry and their use is likely to increase, to reduce the amount of plastics used in a product, with improved compounding technology and new coupling agents. The use of lignocellulosic fibers (eg. kenaf, jute, etc.) as reinforcing fillers in plastics has generated significant interest in recent years. The use of lignocellosic fibers permit the use of high volume fillings due to their lower densities and non-abrasive properties, and therefore reduces the use of plastics in a product. The specific tensile and flexural moduli of a 50% weight of glass fiber-PP injection molded composite and are superior to typical calcium carbonate or talc based PP composites. Results indicate that annual growth lignocellulosic wastes and fibers are viable reinforcing fillers as long as the right processing conditions and aids are used, and for applications where the higher water absorption of the agro-base fiber composite is not critical.

  17. Electroconductive Composites from Polystyrene Block Copolymers and Cu–Alumina Filler

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, QuratulAin; Fatima, Tasneem; Prinsen, Pepijn; ur Rehman, Aziz; Gill, Rohama; Mahmood, Rashid; Luque, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Technological advancements and development of new materials may lead to the manufacture of sustainable energy-conducting devices used in the energy sector. This research attempts to fabricate novel electroconductive and mechanically stable nanocomposites via an electroless deposition (ELD) technique using electrically insulating materials. Metallic Cu is coated onto Al2O3 by ELD, and the prepared filler is then integrated (2–14 wt %) into a matrix of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene-graft-maleic anhydride (PS-b-(PE-r-B)-b-PS-g-MA). Considerable variations in composite phases with filler inclusion exist. The Cu crystallite growth onto Al2O3 was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) depicts a uniform Cu coating on Al2O3, while homogeneous filler dispersion is exhibited in the case of composites. The electrical behavior of composites is enhanced drastically (7.7 × 10−5 S/cm) upon incorporation of Cu–Al2O3 into an insulating polymer matrix (4.4 × 10−16 S/cm). Moreover, mechanical (Young’s modulus, tensile strength and % elongation at break) and thermal (thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)) properties of the nanocomposites also improve substantially. These composites are likely to meet the demands of modern high-strength electroconductive devices. PMID:28774110

  18. Correction of hyperopia by intrastromal cutting and biocompatible filler injection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidank, Sebastian; Vogel, Alfred; Anderson, Richard R.; Birngruber, Reginald; Linz, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    For ametropic eyes, LASIK is a common surgical procedure to correct the refractive error. However, the correction of hyperopia is more difficult than that of myopia because the increase of the central corneal curvature by excimer ablation is only possible by intrastromal tissue removal within a ring-like zone in the corneal periphery. For high hyperopia, the ring-shaped indentation leads to problems with the stability and reproducibility of the correction due to epithelial regrowth. Recently, it was shown that the correction of hyperopia can be achieved by implanting intracorneal inlays into a laser-dissected intrastromal pocket. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of a new approach in which a transparent, and biocompatible liquid filler material is injected into a laser-dissected corneal pocket, and the refractive change is monitored via OCT. This technique allows for a precise and adjustable change of the corneal curvature. Precise cutting of the intrastromal pocket was achieved by focusing UV laser picosecond pulses from a microchip laser system into the cornea. After laser dissection, the transparent filler material was injected into the pocket. The increase of the refractive power by filler injection was evaluated by taking OCT images from the cornea. With this novel technique, it is possible to precisely correct hyperopia of up to 10 diopters. An astigmatism correction is also possible by using ellipsoidal intrastromal pockets.

  19. Characterization of a sustainable sulfur polymer concrete using activated fillers

    DOE PAGES

    Moon, Juhyuk; Kalb, Paul D.; Milian, Laurence; ...

    2016-01-02

    Sulfur polymer concrete (SPC) is a thermoplastic composite concrete consisting of chemically modified sulfur polymer and aggregates. This study focused on the characterization of a new SPC that has been developed as a sustainable construction material. It is made from industrial by-product sulfur that is modified with activated fillers of fly ash, petroleum refinery residual oil, and sand. Unlike conventional sulfur polymer cements made using dicyclopentadiene as a chemical modifier, the use of inexpensive industrial by-products enables the new SPC to cost-effectively produce sustainable, low-carbon, thermoplastic binder that can compete with conventional hydraulic cement concretes. A series of characterization analysesmore » was conducted including thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and spatially-resolved Xray absorption spectroscopy to confirm the polymerization of sulfur induced from the presence of the oil. In addition, mechanical testing, internal pore structure analysis, and scanning electron microscope studies evaluate the performance of this new SPC as a sustainable construction material with a reduced environmental impact.« less

  20. Characterization of a sustainable sulfur polymer concrete using activated fillers

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Juhyuk; Kalb, Paul D.; Milian, Laurence; Northrup, Paul A.

    2016-01-02

    Sulfur polymer concrete (SPC) is a thermoplastic composite concrete consisting of chemically modified sulfur polymer and aggregates. This study focused on the characterization of a new SPC that has been developed as a sustainable construction material. It is made from industrial by-product sulfur that is modified with activated fillers of fly ash, petroleum refinery residual oil, and sand. Unlike conventional sulfur polymer cements made using dicyclopentadiene as a chemical modifier, the use of inexpensive industrial by-products enables the new SPC to cost-effectively produce sustainable, low-carbon, thermoplastic binder that can compete with conventional hydraulic cement concretes. A series of characterization analyses was conducted including thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and spatially-resolved Xray absorption spectroscopy to confirm the polymerization of sulfur induced from the presence of the oil. In addition, mechanical testing, internal pore structure analysis, and scanning electron microscope studies evaluate the performance of this new SPC as a sustainable construction material with a reduced environmental impact.

  1. Hollow filler-binders as excipients for direct compaction.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Gerad K; Eissens, Anko C; Adrichem, Thijl P; Wesselingh, Johannes A; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2003-03-01

    As an effect of their plastic deformation behavior, ductile materials create a large surface for bonding during compaction. However, a serious drawback is their high lubricant sensitivity, preventing the formation of strong bonds. The purpose of this study was both an increase in compactibility and a reduction of the lubricant sensitivity of ductile filler-binders by using hollow particles. This was illustrated for inulin. Both solid and hollow inulin particles were prepared by spray-drying. Unlubricated tablets and tablets containing 0.5% magnesium stearate were compressed in a compaction simulator, operating at 300 mm/s. The tablet crushing strength was determined with a Schleuniger apparatus. The compaction of unlubricated, solid inulin particles showed that the product had good compatibility. This was caused by plastic deformation of the ductile, amorphous material under load, creating a large surface for bonding. After lubrication, however, the bonding properties decreased significantly, which was caused by the presence of a lubricant film. Hollow inulin particles have an increased compactibility as compared with solid particles and a strongly reduced lubricant sensitivity. Scanning electron micrographs show that hollow particles fragment before they start plastic deformation. This fragmentation behavior is supported by tablet surface area measurements and calculation of the buckling strength. This effect was responsible for both a higher crushing strength and a lower lubricant sensitivity as compared with solid inulin particles. Compactibility of inulin particles can be increased, and lubricant sensitivity can be decreased by using hollow instead of solid particles.

  2. Basic principles of creating a new generation of high- temperature brazing filler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, B. A.; Suchkov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    The development of new materials is based on the formation of a structural-phase state providing the desired properties by selecting the base and the complex of alloying elements. The development of amorphous filler alloys for a high-temperature brazing has its own features that are due to the limited life cycle and the production method of brazing filler alloys. The work presents a cycle of analytical and experimental materials science investigations including justification of the composition of a new amorphous filler alloy for brazing the products from zirconium alloys at the temperature of no more than 800 °C and at the unbrazing temperature of permanent joints of more than 1200 °C. The experimental alloys have been used for manufacture of amorphous ribbons by rapid quenching, of which the certification has been made by X-ray investigations and a differential-thermal analysis. These ribbons were used to obtain permanent joints from the spacer grid cells (made from the alloy Zr-1% Nb) of fuel assemblies of the thermal nuclear reactor VVER-440. The brazed samples in the form of a pair of cells have been exposed to corrosion tests in autoclaves in superheated water at a temperature of 350 °C, a pressure of 160 MPa and duration of up to 6,000 h. They have been also exposed to destructive tests using a tensile machine. The experimental results obtained have made it possible to propose and patent a brazing filler alloy of the following composition: Zr-5.5Fe-(2.5-3.5)Be-1Nb-(5-8)Cu-2Sn-0.4Cr-(0.5-1.0)Ge. Its melting point is 780 °C and the recommended brazing temperature is 800°C.

  3. Cytotoxicity of resin composites containing bioactive glass fillers.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Satin; Gwinner, Fernanda; Mitchell, John C; Pfeifer, Carmem; Ferracane, Jack L

    2015-02-01

    To determine the in vitro cytotoxicity of dental composites containing bioactive glass fillers. Dental composites (50:50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin: 72.5wt% filler, 67.5%Sr-glass and 5% OX50) containing different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15wt%) of two sol-gel bioactive glasses, BAG65 (65mole% SiO2, 31mole% CaO, 4mole% P2O5) and BAG61 (3mole% F added) were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Alamar Blue assay. First, composite extracts were obtained from 7 day incubations of composites in cell culture medium at 37°C. Undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21) were exposed to dilutions of the original extracts for 3, 5, and 7 days. Then freshly cured composite disks were incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 2 days. Subsequently, fresh composite disks were incubated in culture medium at 37°C for 7 days, and then the extracted disks were incubated with OD-21 cells for 2 days. Finally, fresh composites disks were light cured for 3, 5, and 20s and incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. To verify that the three different curing modes produced different levels of degree of conversion (DC), the DC of each composite was determined by FTIR. Groups (n=5) were compared with ANOVA/Tukey's (α≤0.05). Extracts from all composites significantly reduced cell viability until a dilution of 1:8 or lower, where the extract became equal to the control. All freshly-cured composites showed significantly reduced cell viability at two days. However, no reduction in cell viability was observed for any composite that had been previously soaked in media before exposure to the cells. Composites with reduced DC (3s vs. 20s cure), as verified by FTIR, showed significantly reduced cell viability. The results show that the composites, independent of composition, had equivalent potency in terms of reducing the viability of the cells in culture. Soaking the composites for 7 days before exposing them to the cells suggested that the "toxic" components had been extracted and the materials were

  4. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance for...

  5. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance for...

  6. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance for...

  7. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance for...

  8. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance for...

  9. AB65. Experience in the use of synthetic fillers in phalloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Yul

    2014-01-01

    Penis size has been a source of anxiety for men throughout history, and men often feel the need to enlarge their penises in order either to improve their self-esteem or to satisfy and impress their partners. Many different types of penile enhancement surgery are performed all over the world, although there are medico-legal issues and paucity of scientific data. An ideal procedure for phalloplasty should rely on two principles: minimal incision with limited scarring and no interference with the erectile function. Several techniques have been described to increase penile length, including cutting the suspensory ligament with or without V-Y plasty of the lower abdominal skin, possibly with fat, dermis, autologous rib cartilage, or synthetic material graft to prevent reattachment of the suspensory ligament. Liposuction or lipectomy has been used for patients with a large infrapubic pad of fat. Surgery to enhance the penile girth includes lipoinjection, dermal free or pedicle grafts, and venous grafting for the corpora cavernosa, injection of synthetic dermal filler. Currently, as the need for safer, effective and less-invasive procedures is increasing, enhancement procedures using injectable products are in high demand. Injectable soft-tissue substitutes provide an affordable, nonsurgical alternative for correcting contour defects and soft tissue augmentation with autologous fat, silicone, collagen, and hyaluronic acid, dextran filler, polylactic acid. We have developed two synthetic fillers; Cross-linked dextran and polymethylmethacrylate mixture (Lipen-10), Polylactic acid (PLA) filler. Penile lnjection of; Cross-linked dextran and polymethylmethacrylate mixture (Lipen-10) and Polylactic acid filler led to significant increase in penile size, showed a good durability and was well-tolerated, without serious adverse events. Glans penis augmentation has been performed in real practice, although it is not an established procedure. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of

  10. Biological Evaluation of Flexible Polyurethane/Poly l-Lactic Acid Composite Scaffold as a Potential Filler for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lui, Yuk Fai; Ip, Wing Yuk

    2017-09-13

    Degradable bone graft substitute for large-volume bone defects is a continuously developing field in orthopedics. With the advance in biomaterial in past decades, a wide range of new materials has been investigated for their potential in this application. When compared to common biopolymers within the field such as PLA or PCL, elastomers such as polyurethane offer some unique advantages in terms of flexibility. In cases of bone defect treatments, a flexible soft filler can help to establish an intimate contact with surrounding bones to provide a stable bone-material interface for cell proliferation and ingrowth of tissue. In this study, a porous filler based on segmented polyurethane incorporated with poly l-lactic acid was synthesized by a phase inverse salt leaching method. The filler was put through in vitro and in vivo tests to evaluate its potential in acting as a bone graft substitute for critical-sized bone defects. In vitro results indicated there was a major improvement in biological response, including cell attachment, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression for osteoblast-like cells when seeded on the composite material compared to unmodified polyurethane. In vivo evaluation on a critical-sized defect model of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit indicated there was bone ingrowth along the defect area with the introduction of the new filler. A tight interface formed between bone and filler, with osteogenic cells proliferating on the surface. The result suggested polyurethane/poly l-lactic acid composite is a material with the potential to act as a bone graft substitute for orthopedics application.

  11. Influence of matrix and filler fraction on biofilm formation on the surface of experimental resin-based composites.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Andrei; Brambilla, Eugenio; Wastl, Daniel S; Giessibl, Franz J; Cazzaniga, Gloria; Schneider-Feyrer, Sibylle; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of resin matrix chemistry and filler fraction on biofilm formation on the surface of experimental resin-based composites (RBCs). Specimens were prepared from eight experimental RBC formulations differing in resin matrix blend (BisGMA/TEGDMA in a 7:3 wt% ratio or UDMA/aliphatic dimethacrylate in a 1:1 wt% ratio) and filler fraction (no fillers; 65 wt% dental glass with an average diameter of 7 or 0.7 µm or 65 wt% SiO2 with an average diameter of 20 nm). Surface roughness, surface free energy, and chemical surface composition were determined; surface topography was visualized using atomic force microscopy. Biofilm formation was simulated under continuous flow conditions for a 48 h period using a monospecies Streptococcus mutans and a multispecies biofilm model. In the monospecies biofilm model, the impact of the filler fraction overruled the influence of the resin matrix, indicating lowest biofilm formation on RBCs with nano-scaled filler particles and those manufactured from the neat resin blends. The multispecies model suggested a more pronounced effect of the resin matrix blend, as significantly higher biofilm formation was identified on RBCs with a UDMA/dimethacrylate matrix blend than on those including a BisGMA/TEGDMA matrix blend but analogous filler fractions. Although significant differences in surface properties between the various materials were identified, correlations between the surface properties and biofilm formation were poor, which highlights the relevance of surface topography and chemistry. These results may help to tailor novel RBC formulations which feature reduced biofilm formation on their surface.

  12. Dielectric properties of inorganic fillers filled epoxy thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Norshamira, A. Mariatti, M.

    2015-07-22

    The demand on the small size and high performance electronics has driven changes in the electronic packaging requirements from discrete capacitor to embedded capacitor. Embedded capacitor can improve electrical performance compared with discrete capacitor. This study aimed to achieve high dielectric of epoxy thin film composite that were targeted for application as embedded capacitor. In this study, inorganic fillers such as Calcium Copper Titanate (CCTO), Iron(III) Oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Titanium Dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) were loaded in epoxy system at 5 and 20vol%. Morphology and dielectric properties were investigated to identify the effect of fillers loading and types of fillers on the properties of epoxy thin film composite. Based on the study, CCTO with 20vol% loading was found to have good dielectric properties compared to other type of fillers.

  13. Dielectric properties of inorganic fillers filled epoxy thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norshamira, A.; Mariatti, M.

    2015-07-01

    The demand on the small size and high performance electronics has driven changes in the electronic packaging requirements from discrete capacitor to embedded capacitor. Embedded capacitor can improve electrical performance compared with discrete capacitor. This study aimed to achieve high dielectric of epoxy thin film composite that were targeted for application as embedded capacitor. In this study, inorganic fillers such as Calcium Copper Titanate (CCTO), Iron(III) Oxide (Fe2O3) and Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) were loaded in epoxy system at 5 and 20vol%. Morphology and dielectric properties were investigated to identify the effect of fillers loading and types of fillers on the properties of epoxy thin film composite. Based on the study, CCTO with 20vol% loading was found to have good dielectric properties compared to other type of fillers.

  14. Filler-polymer bonding and its role in elastomer reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ping, Mark, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    Iron oxide particles were blended into samples of cis-1,4-polybutadiene and polyisobutylene, and both the unfilled polymers and the resulting polymer-filler mixture were cured with benzoyl peroxide. The filled networks were cloudy, but strips extracted using a toluene-hydrochloric acid mixture became as clear as the unfilled networks, suggesting removal of the filler particles. Equilibrium swelling and stress-strain measurements in elongation were carried out the unfilled elastomer and on the filled ones, both before and after extraction. There were no significant differences between the stress-strain isotherms and degrees of equilibrium swelling of the unfilled networks and the corresponding properties of the previously-filled networks after the filler particles were removed. This suggests that for these systems, the bonding between the filler particles and the polymer chains is physical rather than chemical.

  15. Influence of silanization and filler fraction on aged dental composites.

    PubMed

    Lin, C T; Lee, S Y; Keh, E S; Dong, D R; Huang, H M; Shih, Y H

    2000-11-01

    The effect of silanization and filler fraction on the mechanical properties of aged dental composites was investigated. Experimental composites (75/25 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin reinforced with 0, 12.6, 30.0, and 56.5 vol% 8 microm silanized/unsilanized BaSiO6) were fabricated into 4.7 mm diameter x 2.2 mm thick discs and 3.5 mm diameter x 7.3 mm thick discs for diametral tensile and compressive tests, respectively. The effect of immersion in 75% ethanol at 37 degrees C for 0-30 days on the diametral tensile strength (DTS) and compressive strength (CS) of the samples was evaluated and analysed by ANOVA and Tukey LSD test. The fracture interface between filler and resin matrix was then examined by scanning electron microscope. Results and subsequent statistical evidence from DTS (18.6+/-7.6 MPa, silanized versus 11.7+/-2.6 MPa, unsilanized) and CS (85.1+/-29.7 MPa, silanized versus 56.0+/-11.3 MPa, unsilanized) strongly implies that silanization may greatly enhance the mechanical properties of the resin composites. Furthermore, it also shows that both DTS and CS increased proportionally as the filler fraction of the composites increased. However, in the unsilanized groups, DTS decreased (up to 40%) as the filler fraction increased, and CS showed no relevance to the filler fraction at all. As for the influence of aging, it was found that both DTS and CS showed a significant decrease after immersion in 75% ethanol, and silanization heavily correlated with the filler fraction of aged-resin composites. Microscopic examination of the fractured samples showed that failure primarily occurred within the resin matrix per se for silanized composites and adjacent to the filler particles for unsilanized composites. All the evidence points to the conclusion that mechanical properties of aged-resin composites can be greatly influenced by silanization and the filler fraction.

  16. Global Updates on the Future Directions of Neurotoxins and Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Heningburg, Jade

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Neurotoxins and fillers continue to remain in high demand, comprising a large part of the growing business of cosmetic minimally invasive procedures. Multiple Food and Drug Administration–approved safe yet different products exist within each category, and the role of each product continues to expand. The authors review the literature to provide an overview of the use of neurotoxins and fillers and their future directions. PMID:28018777

  17. Solvent-free fabrication of thermally conductive insulating epoxy composites with boron nitride nanoplatelets as fillers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A solvent-free method for the fabrication of thermally conductive epoxy-boron nitride (BN) nanoplatelet composite material is developed in this study. By this method, polymer composites with nearly any filler fractions can be easily fabricated. The maximum thermal conductivity reaches 5.24 W/mK, which is 1,600% improvement in comparison with that of pristine epoxy material. In addition, the as-fabricated samples exhibit excellent overall performances with great mechanical property and thermal stability well preserved. PMID:25489292

  18. Esthetic Reconstruction of Diastema with Adhesive Tooth-Colored Restorations and Hyaluronic Acid Fillers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective. This report presents a comprehensive esthetic treatment with adhesive tooth-colored restorations in a combination with hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers of diastema in an orthodontic patient with relapse. Case Report. A 36-year-old female patient consulted about 1.5–2 mm midline diastema after an orthodontic relapse of replacing missing central incisors with lateral incisors and dark-colored gingival tissue as a result of a metal post and core with porcelain fused to a metal (PFM) crown at the left lateral incisor. Restorative treatments included replacing the PFM with all-ceramic material and placing a ceramic veneer on the right lateral incisor. To close the space, crown forms of both lateral incisors were altered. A direct resin composite was then used to reform right and left canines to a more ideal lateral incisor shape. An HA fillers injection was used to fill the remaining open gingival embrasure. Eighteen months after treatment, the interdental papilla remained stable and the patient was satisfied with the result. Conclusion. Esthetic reconstruction of diastema and open gingival embrasure in this case can be accomplished without orthodontic retreatment. Tooth-colored restorations and HA filler injection appear as a promising modality to address this patient's esthetic concern. PMID:28386488

  19. The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of carbon-nanofibers reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vivo, B.; Lamberti, P.; Spinelli, G.; Tucci, V.; Guadagno, L.; Raimondo, M.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of epoxy-amine resin reinforced with carbon nanofibers is here investigated. A heat treatment at 2500 °C of carbon nanofibers seems to increase their aspect ratio with respect to as-received ones most likely due to a lowering of structural defects and the improvement of the graphene layers within the dixie cup conformation. These morphological differences revealed by Raman's spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses may be responsible for the different electrical properties of the resulting composites. The DC characterization of the nanofilled material highlights an higher electrical conductivity and a lower electrical percolation threshold for the heat-treated carbon nanofibers based composites. In fact, the electrical conductivity is about 0.107 S/m and 1.36 × 10-3 S/m for the nanocomposites reinforced with heat-treated and as received fibers, respectively, at 1 wt. % of nanofiller loading, while the electrical percolation threshold falls in the range [0.05-0.32]wt. % for the first nanocomposites and above 0.64 wt. % for the latter. Moreover, also a different frequency response is observed since the critical frequency, which is indicative of the transition from a resistive to a capacitive-type behaviour, shifts forward of about one decade at the same filler loading. The experimental results are supported by theoretical and simulation studies focused on the role of the filler aspect ratio on the electrical properties of the nanocomposites.

  20. Influence of Ultraviolet/Ozonolysis Treatment of Nanocarbon Filler on the Electrical Resistivity of Epoxy Composites.

    PubMed

    Perets, Yulia; Matzui, Lyudmila; Vovchenko, Lyudmila; Ovsiienko, Irina; Yakovenko, Olena; Lazarenko, Oleksandra; Zhuravkov, Alexander; Brusylovets, Oleksii

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, we have investigated concentration and temperature dependences of electrical conductivity of graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy resin composites. The content of nanocarbon filler is varied from 0.01 to 0.05 volume fraction. Before incorporation into the epoxy resin, the graphite nanoplatelets were subjected to ultraviolet ozone treatment at 20-min ultraviolet exposure. The electric resistance of the samples was measured by two- or four-probe method and teraohmmeter E6-13. Several characterization techniques were employed to identify the mechanisms behind the improvements in the electrical properties, including SEM and FTIR spectrum analysis.It is established that the changes of the relative intensities of the bands in FTIR spectra indicate the destruction of the carboxyl group -COOH and group -OH. Electrical conductivity of composites has percolation character and graphite nanoplatelets (ultraviolet ozone treatment for 20 min) addition which leads to a decrease of percolation threshold 0.005 volume fraction and increase values of electrical conductivity (by 2-3 orders of magnitude) above the percolation threshold in comparison with composite materials-graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy resin. The changes of the value and behavior of temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity of epoxy composites with ultraviolet/ozone-treated graphite nanoparticles have been analyzed within the model of effective electrical conductivity. The model takes into account the own electrical conductivity of the filler and the value of contact electric resistance between the filler particles of the formation of continuous conductive pathways.

  1. Impending Facial Skin Necrosis and Ocular Involvement After Dermal Filler Injection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Salval, André; Ciancio, Francesco; Margara, Andrea; Bonomi, Stefano

    2017-05-31

    Demand for non-surgical rejuvenating procedure is constantly increasing due to the aging population, increasing expense of aesthetics and beauty procedures, introduction of new applications and rising demand for noninvasive aesthetic procedures over surgical procedures. Skin necrosis is a rare but severe potential complication. It is caused by impediment of the blood supply to the skin area by compression and/or obstruction of the vessel with filler material, and/or direct injury to the vessel. We report the case of a young patient who presented an acute and severe complication after a dermal filler injection by an unlicensed therapist. High-dose corticosteroids i.v. therapy among others helped in the process of healing. Skin necrosis left the patient with a full thickness scar on the forehead region. Dermal fillers are to be considered safe only when handled by trained doctors. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  2. Polyamide/silver antimicrobials: effect of filler types on the silver ion release.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Radhesh; Howdle, Steve; Münstedt, Helmut

    2005-11-01

    The efficiency of various silver-based antimicrobial fillers (elementary silver and silver substituted materials) in polyamide (PA) toward their silver ion (Ag+) release characteristics in an aqueous medium was investigated and discussed. Anode stripping voltammetry (ASV) was used for the quantitative estimation of Ag+ release from these composites. The biocidal (Ag+) release from the composites was found to be dependent on the time of soaking in water and the nature of the filler. The long-term Ag+ release capability of the elementary silver-based PA/Ag composite is promising compared with the commercial counterparts. The silver ion release potential of polyamide composites where the silver filling was performed by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is also discussed. The composites release Ag+ at a concentration level capable of rendering antimicrobial efficacy and proved to be active against the microbes. A good agreement exists between the Ag+ release experiments and antimicrobial test results. The observed results on the influence of the nature of the filler and crystallinity on the biocidal release and the varying long-term release properties could be helpful in the design of industrially relevant biomaterials. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Investigation of Pd-Modified Ag-CuO Air Braze Filler Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Kim, Jin Yong; Hardy, John S.; Darsell, Jens T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of palladium on the liquidus/solidus temperatures and wetting behavior of a series of Ag-CuOx air braze filler metals. Currently, the maximum operating temperature of the Ag-CuOx system is limited by its eutectic temperature of ~935°C. One strategy to increase the maximum operational temperature of this family of filler metals is to add a higher melting noble alloying element. In the current study, we examined the effects of palladium additions on the melting characteristics of the Ag-CuO materials and the wetting properties of the resulting air braze filler metals with respect to alumina. It was found that while the addition of Pd causes the anticipated increase in the melting temperature, it does so at a sacrifice in wetting properties. The extent of both effects and therefore the opportunity to trade-off the two properties in order to develop an optimized higher temperature air braze depends on concentrations of both the palladium and copper oxide.

  4. Properties and osteoblast cytocompatibility of self-curing acrylic cements modified by glass fillers.

    PubMed

    Lopes, P; Garcia, M P; Fernandes, M H; Fernandes, M H V

    2013-11-01

    Materials filled with a silicate glass (MSi) and a borate glass (MB) were developed and compared in terms of their in vitro behavior. The effect of filler composition and concentration (0, 30, 40 and 50 wt%) on the curing parameters, residual monomer, water uptake, weight loss, bioactivity, mechanical properties (bending and compression) and osteoblast cytocompatibility was evaluated. The addition of bioactive glass filler significantly improved the cements curing parameters and the mechanical properties. The most relevant results were obtained for the lower filler concentration (30 t%) a maximum flexural strength of 40.4 Pa for MB3 and a maximum compressive strength of 95.7 MPa for MSi3. In vitro bioactivity in acellular media was enhanced by the higher glass contents in the cements. Regarding the biological assessment, the incorporation of the silicate glass significantly improved osteoblast cytocompatibility, whereas the presence of the borate glass resulted in a poor cell response. Nevertheless it was shown that the surviving cells on the MB surface were in a more differentiated stage compared to those growing over non-filled poly(methyl methacrylate). Results suggest that the developed formulations offer a high range of properties that might be interesting for their use as self-curing cements.

  5. The Effects of Biopolymers Composite Based Waste Cooking Oil and Titanium Dioxide Fillers as Superhydrophobic Coatings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsi, N.; Rus, A. Z. M.

    2017-08-01

    This project presents the effect of biopolymer composite surface coating on TiO2 fillers by analysing the static water contact angle, SEM micrographs, porosity, density and refractive index of biopolymer doped with different loading of TiO2. The different ratio loading of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 (wt/wt%) TiO2 can be used to improve the material properties in practical use for outdoor application especially to enhance the stability of surface coating. It is found that the smooth surfaces with a low ratio loading of TiO2 fillers on biopolymer composite surface coating increases the static water contact angle up to 162.29°. It is interpreted with respect to nano- features existing on the surface of the water repellent creates a thin superhydrphobic layer. The relationship between porosity and density is indirectly proportional where the higher the loading of TiO2 filler produce the lower porosity up to 0.86% of the surface coating. The movement from shorter to longer of wavelength was observed before and after exposure indicates that there are optimization of absorption of UV-B radiation as the amount of delocalisation.

  6. Effects of Compression and Filler Particle Coating on the Electrical Conductivity of Thermoplastic Elastomer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Willem M.; Karttunen, Mikko; Wikström, Lisa; Vilkman, Taisto

    2013-10-01

    Elastomeric polymers can be filled with metallic micro- or nanoparticles to obtain electrical conductivity, in which the conductivity is largely determined by the intrinsic conductivity of and contact resistance between the particles. Electrons will flow through the material effectively when the percolation threshold for near-neighbor contacts is exceeded and sufficiently close contacts between the filler particles are realized for electron tunneling to occur. Silver-coated glass microparticles of two types (fibers and spheres) were used as fillers in a thermoplastic elastomer composite based on styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene copolymer, and the direct-current (DC) resistance and radiofrequency impedance were significantly reduced by coating the filler particles with octadecylmercaptan. Not only was the resistance reduced but also the atypical positive piezoresistivity effect observed in these elastomers was strongly reduced, such that resistivity values below 0.01 Ω cm were obtained for compression ratios up to 20%. In the DC measurements, an additional decrease of resistivity was obtained by inclusion of π-extended aromatic compounds, such as diphenylhexatriene. Some qualitative theories are presented to illuminate the possible mechanisms of action of these surface coatings on the piezoresistivity.

  7. Influence of using nanoobjects as filler on functionality-based energy use of nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roes, A. L.; Tabak, L. B.; Shen, L.; Nieuwlaar, E.; Patel, M. K.

    2010-08-01

    The goal of our study was to investigate the potential benefits of reinforcing polymer matrices with nanoobjects for structural applications by looking at both the mechanical properties and environmental impacts. For determining the mechanical properties, we applied the material indices defined by Ashby for stiffness and strength. For the calculation of environmental impacts, we applied the life cycle assessment methodology, focusing on non-renewable energy use (NREU). NREU has shown to be a good indicator also for other environmental impacts. We then divided the NREU by the appropriate Ashby index to obtain the `functionality-based NREU'. We studied 23 different nanocomposites, based on thermoplastic and thermosetting polymer matrices and organophilic montmorillonite, silica, carbon nanotubes (single-walled and multiwalled) and calcium carbonate as filler. For 17 of these, we saw a decrease of the functionality-based NREU with increasing filler content. We draw the conclusion that the use of nanoobjects as filler can have benefits from both an environmental point of view and with respect to mechanical properties.

  8. Fillers for improved graphite fiber retention by polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a program designed to determine the extent to which elemental boron and boron containing fillers added to the matrix resin of graphite/epoxy composites prevent the release of graphite fibers when the composites are exposed to fire and impact conditions are described. The fillers evaluated were boron, boron carbide and aluminum boride. The conditions evaluated were laboratory simulations of those that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation. The baseline (i.e., unfilled) laminates evaluated were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy. The baseline and filled laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, also were compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the baseline graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that the addition of boron and boron containing fillers to the resin matrix eliminated this fiber release. Mechanical properties of laminates containing the boron and boron containing fillers were lower than those of the baseline laminates. These property degradations for two systems: boron (5 micron) at 2.5 percent filler loading, and boron (5 micron) at 5.0 percent filler loading do not appear severe enough to preclude their use in structural composite applications.

  9. Influence of the mechanical stress and the filler content on the hydrostatic compression behaviour of natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Jan; Stommel, Markus

    2013-12-01

    The behaviour of natural rubber (NR) compounds under mechanical stress is often reported in literature. An important and widely discussed effect that occurs is the Mullins effect. During the first loading cycles in a tensile test for example, a stress-softening effect is observed. This and other effects on the mechanical behaviour are investigated for different rubber materials with and without different types of fillers and filler contents. Besides, the hydrostatic compression behaviour is affected by the type and content of filler as well, which is shown for an NR with and without waxes and different contents of carbon black (CB) in this contribution. In contrast to the Mullins effect, there is no dependence of the number of loading cycles on the volumetric behaviour determined in hydrostatic compression tests. Furthermore, the influence of the previous stress-softening due to mechanical stress on the compression behaviour is elaborated. Cyclic uniaxial tensile tests are performed to realize the stress-softening in the rubber materials. The subsequent compression tests are compared to compression tests without any pre-stretching to determine the influence of previous mechanical loading on the compression behaviour of natural rubber with different filler contents.

  10. Cytotoxicity of Resin Composites Containing Bioactive Glass Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Satin; Gwinner, Fernanda; Mitchell, John C; Pfeifer, Carmem; Ferracane, Jack L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the in vitro cytotoxicity of dental composites containing bioactive glass fillers. Methods Dental composites (50:50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin: 72.5wt% filler, 67.5%Sr-glass and 5% OX50) containing different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt %) of two sol-gel bioactive glasses, BAG65 (65 mole% SiO2, 31 mole% CaO, 4 mole% P2O5) and BAG62 (3 mole% F added) were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Alamar Blue assay. First, composite extracts were obtained from 7 day incubations of composite in cell culture medium at 37° C. Undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21) were exposed to dilutions of the original extracts for 3, 5, and 7 days. Then freshly cured composite disks were incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 2 days. Subsequently, fresh composite disks were incubated in culture medium at 37°C for 7 days, and then the extracted disks were incubated with OD-21 cells for 2 days. Finally, fresh composites disks were light cured for 3, 5, and 20 seconds and incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. To verify that the three different curing modes produced different levels of degree of conversion (DC), the DC of each composite was determined by FTIR. Groups (n=5) were compared with ANOVA/Tukey’s (α≤0.05). Results Extracts from all composites significantly reduced cell viability until a dilution of 1:8 or lower, where the extract became equal to the control. All freshly-cured composites showed significantly reduced cell viability at two days. However, no reduction in cell viability was observed for any composite that had been previously soaked in media before exposure to the cells. Composites with reduced DC (3 s vs. 20 s cure), as verified by FTIR, showed significantly reduced cell viability. Significance The results show that the composites, independent of composition, had equivalent potency in terms of reducing the viability of the cells in culture. Soaking the composites for 7 days before exposing them to the cells suggested that the

  11. Dermal filler complications: a clinicopathologic study with a spectrum of histologic reaction patterns.

    PubMed

    El-Khalawany, Mohamed; Fawzy, Sameh; Saied, Asmaa; Al Said, Mohammed; Amer, Ahmed; Eassa, Bayoumi

    2015-02-01

    Although dermal fillers are generally accepted as safe and well-tolerable cosmetic tools, adverse reaction still forms a prognostic problem. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinicopathologic patterns of dermal filler complications in our center. A 5-year single-center study that included patients complained from filler complications and referred to the dermatopathology unit in Al-Azhar University for histologic assessment. The study included 38 female patients with an average age of 47 years. The mean onset of complications was 14.6 ± 5.27 months after injection. The injected material included hyaluronic acid (18.4%), silicone (52.6%), bovine collagen (15.8%) and polyacrylamide hydrogel (13.2%). Most lesions were located on the face (55.3%), less commonly on the hands (18.4%), buttocks (21%), and rarely on the vulva (5.3%). The clinical spectrum included indurated plaque (23.7%), nodular lesion (31.6%), inflammatory mass (15.8%), atrophic lesion (10.5%), skin discoloration (13.1%) and ulceration (5.3%). Histologically, granulomatous reaction was the major finding, either a foreign body granuloma (34.2%) or infectious granuloma (13.2%). Other histologic reactions included dermal pseudocysts with chronic inflammation (26.3%), dermal fibrosis (15.8%), and eosinophilic panniculitis (10.5%). Our results confirmed that dermal fillers could be manifested with variable clinical presentations and show different histologic reactions. Because of long-standing duration until complications occur, history taking is crucial and should be emphasized in every suspected patient. It is hoped that this article will increase awareness for recognition of these variable complications and help select the appropriate therapy.

  12. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Kyu; Jung, Cheolkyu; Woo, Se Joon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2015-12-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed cerebral angiography of 7 patients (4 hyaluronic acid [HA] and 3 autologous fat-injected cases) showing ophthalmic artery and its branches occlusion after cosmetic facial filler injections, and underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis. On selective ophthalmic artery angiograms, all fat-injected patients showed a large filling defect on the proximal ophthalmic artery, whereas the HA-injected patients showed occlusion of the distal branches of the ophthalmic artery. Three HA-injected patients revealed diminished distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries, which clinically corresponded with skin necrosis. However, all fat-injected patients and one HA-injected patient who were immediately treated with subcutaneous hyaluronidase injection showed preserved distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries and mild skin problems. The size difference between injected materials seems to be associated with different angiographic findings. Autologous fat is more prone to obstruct proximal part of ophthalmic artery, whereas HA obstructs distal branches. In addition, hydrophilic and volume-expansion property of HA might exacerbate blood flow on injected area, which is also related to skin necrosis. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has a limited role in reconstituting blood flow or regaining vision in cosmetic facial filler-associated ophthalmic artery occlusions.

  13. Inhibition of enamel demineralization by buffering effect of S-PRG filler-containing dental sealant.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Masayuki; Kakuda, Shinichi; Ida, Yusuke; Toshima, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Masanori; Endo, Kazuhiko; Sano, Hidehiko

    2014-02-01

    The buffering capacity and inhibitory effects on enamel demineralization of two commercially available dental sealants were evaluated in this study. The effects of filler particles were also examined. Disks of enamel and cured sealant materials of BeautiSealant (silica or S-PRG filler) or Teethmate F-1 were incubated in lactic acid solutions (pH 4.0) for 1-6 d. The pH changes and amounts of ions released in the solutions were assessed, and enamel surfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscope. The pH of the solution with BeautiSealant (S-PRG filler) was neutralized from pH 4.0 to pH 6.1 (after incubation for 1 d) and from pH 4.0 to pH 6.7 (after incubation for 6 d). In addition, no release of calcium ions was detected and the enamel surface was morphologically intact in scanning electron microscopy images. However, the pH of the solution with Teethmate F-1 remained below pH 4.0 during incubation from days 1 to 6. Calcium release was increased in solutions up to and after 6 d of incubation. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the structures of hydroxyapatite rods were exposed at the specimen surfaces as a result of demineralization. Ions released from S-PRG filler-containing dental sealant rapidly buffered the lactic acid solution and inhibited enamel demineralization.

  14. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed cerebral angiography of 7 patients (4 hyaluronic acid [HA] and 3 autologous fat-injected cases) showing ophthalmic artery and its branches occlusion after cosmetic facial filler injections, and underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis. On selective ophthalmic artery angiograms, all fat-injected patients showed a large filling defect on the proximal ophthalmic artery, whereas the HA-injected patients showed occlusion of the distal branches of the ophthalmic artery. Three HA-injected patients revealed diminished distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries, which clinically corresponded with skin necrosis. However, all fat-injected patients and one HA-injected patient who were immediately treated with subcutaneous hyaluronidase injection showed preserved distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries and mild skin problems. The size difference between injected materials seems to be associated with different angiographic findings. Autologous fat is more prone to obstruct proximal part of ophthalmic artery, whereas HA obstructs distal branches. In addition, hydrophilic and volume-expansion property of HA might exacerbate blood flow on injected area, which is also related to skin necrosis. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has a limited role in reconstituting blood flow or regaining vision in cosmetic facial filler-associated ophthalmic artery occlusions. PMID:26713062

  15. Low temperature method for the production of calcium phosphate fillers

    PubMed Central

    Calafiori, Anna Rita; Marotta, Marcello; Nastro, Alfonso; Martino, Guglielmo

    2004-01-01

    Background Calcium phosphate manufactured samples, prepared with hydroxyapatite, are used as either spacers or fillers in orthopedic surgery, but these implants have never been used under conditions of mechanical stress. Similar conditions also apply with cements. Many authors have postulated that cements are a useful substitute material when implanted in vivo. The aim of this research is to develop a low cristalline material similar to bone in porosity and cristallinity. Methods Commercial hydroxyapatite (HAp) and monetite (M) powders are mixed with water and compacted to produce cylindrical samples. The material is processed at a temperature of 37–120 degrees C in saturated steam to obtain samples that are osteoconductive. The samples are studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Vickers hardness test (HV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and porosity evaluation. Results The X-ray diffractions of powders from the samples show patterns typical of HAp and M powders. After thermal treatment, no new crystal phase is formed and no increase of the relative intensity of the peaks is obtained. Vicker hardness data do not show any relationship with treatment temperature. The total porosity decreases by 50–60% according to the specific thermal treatment. Scanning electron microscopy of the surfaces of the samples with either HAp 80%-M 20% (c) or Hap 50%-M 50% (f), show cohesion of the powder grains. Conclusions The dissolution-reprecipitation process is more intesive in manufactured samples (c) and (f), according to Vickers hardness data. The process occurs in a steam saturated environment between 37 degrees and 120 degrees C. (c) (f) manufactured samples show pore dimension distributions useful to cellular repopulation in living tissues. PMID:15035671

  16. The Effect of Fracture Filler Composition on the Parameters of Shear Deformation Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, D.; Ostapchuk, A.; Batuhtin, I.

    2015-12-01

    Geomechanical models of different slip mode nucleation and transformation can be developed basing on laboratory experiments, in which regularities of shear deformation of gouge-filled faults are studied. It's known that the spectrum of possible slip modes is defined by both macroscopic deformation characteristics of the fault and mesoscale structure of fault filler. Small variations of structural parameters of the filler may lead to a radical change of slip mode [1, 2]. This study presents results of laboratory experiments investigating regularities of shear deformation of discontinuities filled with multicomponent granular material. Qualitative correspondence between experimental results and natural phenomena is detected. The experiments were carried out in the classical "slider model" statement. A granite block slides under shear load on a granite substrate. The contact gap between rough surfaces was filled with a discrete material, which simulated the principal slip zone of a fault. The filler components were quartz sand, salt, glass beads, granite crumb, corundum, clay and pyrophyllite. An entire spectrum of possible slip modes was obtained - from stable slip to slow-slip events and to regular stick-slip with various coseismic displacements realized per one act of instability. Mixing several components in different proportions, it became possible to trace the gradual transition from stable slip to regular stick-slip, from slow-slip events to fast-slip events. Depending on specific filler component content, increasing the portion of one of the components may lead to both a linear and a non-linear change of slip event moment (a laboratory equivalent of the seismic moment). For different filler compositions durations of equal-moment events may differ by more than two orders of magnitude. The findings can be very useful for developing geomechnical models of nucleation and transformation of different slip modes observed at natural faults. The work was supported by

  17. Do you know where your fillers go? An ultrastructural investigation of the lips

    PubMed Central

    Vent, Julia; Lefarth, Florian; Massing, Thomas; Angerstein, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the exact location and position of hyaluronic acid fillers in the perioral region by ultrasound and optical coherence tomography. Introduction To date, there are few in vivo investigations in humans on the exact positioning of injectable hyaluronic acid fillers, and severe complications such as hematoma and thromboembolism are rarely addressed. Materials and methods There were nine female patients investigated in this pilot study. All of them were periorally injected with hyaluronic acid. The exact product, amount, and locations, as well as the injection techniques, were recorded and compared. Before, immediately after, and 18 days after injection, photo documentation as well as high-resolution ultrasonography and optical coherence tomography of the lip surface were performed. Results Minor bruising occurred, which resolved within 7 to 9 days. On day 18, no more hemorrhage could be detected. Injected material distributed well in the tissue, and no embolism or thrombosis occurred. However, the injected material came close (up to 1 mm) to important structures such as blood vessels. Lip wrinkles improved, and the lip surface was smoother and more even. Conclusion Hyaluronic acid injections can improve aesthetics and reduce fine wrinkles of the lips. In the patients investigated in this study, compression of structures such as vessels and nerve fibers did not occur, nor did any severe complications result from injection. However, one must be aware of serious complications (eg, hematoma, thromboembolism) and the important anatomic structures (eg, orbicularis oris muscle, vessels, and nerves), and injecting physicians should always have hyaluronidase as a rescue medication at hand. Summary Hyaluronic acid is a suitable tool for lip augmentation and reduction of fine lines; however, one must be aware of anatomic structures when injecting filler material into the lips and perioral area, and be familiar with the injection techniques. PMID:25018646

  18. [Technology transfer of building materials by ECOMAT

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses the plan for technology transfer of building materials developed by ECOMAT to the commercial private sector. Some of the materials are briefly discussed like foams, fiber reinforcement, fly ash development, and polymer fillers.

  19. Thermoplastic rubberlike material produced at low cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendel, F. J.

    1966-01-01

    Thermoplastic rubberlike material is prepared by blending a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate with asphalt and a petroleum distillate. This low cost material is easily molded or extruded and is compatible with a variety of fillers.

  20. Comparative evaluation of dental resin composites based on micron- and submicron-sized monomodal glass filler particles.

    PubMed

    Valente, Lisia L; Peralta, Sonia L; Ogliari, Fabrício A; Cavalcante, Larissa M; Moraes, Rafael R

    2013-11-01

    A model resin composite containing a novel monomodal inorganic filler system based on submicron-sized Ba-Si-Al glass particles (NanoFine NF180; Schott) was formulated and compared with an experimental composite containing micron-sized particles (UltraFine UF1.0; Schott). The filler particles were characterized using X-ray microanalysis and granulometry, while the composites were characterized in terms of filler-resin morphology, radiopacity, degree of CC conversion, hardness, flexural strength/modulus, work-of-fracture, surface roughness and gloss (before and after simulated toothbrushing abrasion), and bulk compressive creep. The composites were formulated from the same photoactivated dimethacrylate co-monomer, incorporating mass fractions of 75% micron- and 78% submicron-sized particles. Quantitative data were analyzed at a significance level of p<0.05. Both filler systems exhibited a narrow grain size range (175±30 and 1000±200 nm), with differences restricted to the size and specific area of the particles. The composites were similar in radiopacity, flexural strength, work-of-fracture, and creep. The submicron composite was harder but had lower flexural modulus and CC conversion. No significant differences in roughness were observed before brushing, although the submicron composite had higher gloss. Brushing increased roughness and decreased gloss on both materials, but the submicron composite retained higher gloss after brushing. The monomodal submicron glass filler system demonstrated potential for use in restorative dental composites, particularly due to improved esthetic properties. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hybrid nanostructured Ag/ZnO decorated powder cellulose fillers for medical plastics with enhanced surface antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Bazant, Pavel; Kuritka, Ivo; Munster, Lukas; Machovsky, Michal; Kozakova, Zuzana; Saha, Petr

    2014-11-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic fillers based on nanostructured silver/zinc oxide decorations on micro-cellulose carrier particles were prepared by stepwise microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis using soluble salts as precursors of silver and zinc oxide. Hexamethylenetetramine was used as precipitating agent for zinc oxide and reducing agent for silver. The inorganics covered all available surfaces of the cellulose particles with a morphology resembling a coral reef. Prepared particulate fillers were compounded to medical grade poly(vinyl chloride) matrix. Scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry were used to investigate the morphology and crystalline phase structure of fillers. The scanning electron microscopy was used for morphological study of composites. With respect to prospective application, the composites were tested on electrical and antibacterial properties. A small effect of water absorption in polymer composites on their dielectric properties was observed but no adverse effect of water exposure on prepared materials was manifested. Electrical conductivity of fillers and composites was measured and no influence of water soaking of composites was found at all. The surface antibacterial activity of prepared composites was evaluated according to the standard ISO 22196. Excellent performance against Escherichia coli and very high against Staphylococcus aureus was achieved.

  2. Influence of magnetic field-aided filler orientation on structure and transport properties of ferrite filled composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goc, K.; Gaska, K.; Klimczyk, K.; Wujek, A.; Prendota, W.; Jarosinski, L.; Rybak, A.; Kmita, G.; Kapusta, Cz.

    2016-12-01

    Epoxy resins are materials commonly used for insulations and encapsulations due to their easy processing process and mechanical strength. For their applications in power industry and electronics the effective heat dissipation is essential, thus their thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties. Introduction of appropriate dielectric powders, preferably in an ordered way, can increase the thermal conductivity of the polymer while keeping its good electrical insulation properties. In this work we used strontium ferrite as a filler to study the evolution of the filler particles distribution in the fluid before curing. Magnetic ferrite particles were dispersed in liquid epoxy resin and formation of chain-like or more complex structures under applied external magnetic field was observed and investigated. Computer simulations made show that with increasing magnetic field these structures are characterized by longer chains, higher speed of particles displacement and stronger structural anisotropy. However, for highly-filled systems, stronger inter-particle interactions make the alignment process less effective. The effective thermal conductivity simulated with FEM methods increases with increasing filler content and the percolation threshold in aligned systems is achieved at lower filler concentrations than for reference isotropic samples. The results are compared with the experimental data and a good qualitative agreement is obtained.

  3. In Situ Synthesis of Ceramic Reinforcements for Carbon/CuCrZr Joints Brazed with Composite Fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yangwu; Yu, Si; Deng, Quanrong; Zhao, Pei

    2016-12-01

    Brazing of two kinds of carbon materials including graphite and carbon fiber-reinforced carbon composites to copper alloys has been realized with CuTiH2 + BN composite fillers. The microstructure characterization reveals that the ceramic reinforcements containing TiN particles and TiB whiskers have been synthesized by in situ reaction of BN additives with Ti discomposed from TiH2 in the composite filler. The filler layer of the joints is mainly composed of Cu-based solid solutions [Cu (ss)] and Ti-Cu intermetallics along with ceramic reinforcements. Furthermore, a continuous thin reaction layer mainly containing TiC is developed at the interface close to the carbon substrates. The growth of TiC layer is mainly controlled by the diffusion of carbon from the substrates into the liquid filler through the TiC layer formed. The interface evolution of the graphite/CuCrZr joints has been discussed. The electrical resistivity of the joining area is relatively low, which highly meets the requirement for the carbon commutator applications.

  4. Influence of radiopaque fillers on physicochemical properties of a model epoxy resin-based root canal sealer

    PubMed Central

    COLLARES, Fabrício Mezzomo; KLEIN, Mariana; SANTOS, Paula Dapper; PORTELLA, Fernando Freitas; OGLIARI, Fabrício; LEITUNE, Vicente Castelo Branco; SAMUEL, Susana Maria Werner

    2013-01-01

    Objective To verify the influence of radiopaque fillers on an epoxy resin-based sealer. Material and Methods Experimental sealers were formulated by adding 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% and 120% of calcium tungstate, ytterbium trifluoride or barium sulphate by weight to an epoxy-resin-base. Setting time, flow, film thickness, radiopacity, sorption, solubility, pH and push-out bond strength were evaluated. Results The setting time ranged from 373 to 612.66 min, the flow varied from 13.81±0.49 to 22.49±0.37 mm, and the film thickness ranged from 16.67±5.77 to 33.33±11.54 µm. The lowest pH was 5.47±0.53, and the highest was 6.99±0.03. Radiopacity varied from 0.38±0.04 to 2.57±0.21 mmAl and increased with the amount of filler. Calcium tungstate sealers had a higher sorption and solubility than other sealers. There was no significant difference in the push-out bond strength among the fillers at the 120% concentration. Conclusion The inorganic fillers evaluated and their concentrations affect the physicochemical properties of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer. PMID:24473719

  5. Carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites tailored for multifunctionality by filler incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seungjin

    . Exfoliated graphite (EG) as a sole filler is more effective than carbon nanotube (SWCNT/MWCNT), halloysite nanotube (HNT) or nanoclay as sole fillers in enhancing the loss tangent, if the curing pressure is 2.0 (not 0.5) MPa. The MWCNT, SiC whisker and halloysite nanotube as sole fillers are effective for increasing the storage modulus. The combined use of a storage-modulus-enhancing filler (CNT, SiC whisker or HNT) and a loss-tangent-enhancing filler (EG or nanoclay) gives the best performance. With EG, HNT and 2.0-MPa curing, the loss modulus is increased by 110%, while the flexural strength is decreased by 14% and the flexural modulus is not affected. With nanoclay, HNT and 0.5-MPa curing, the loss modulus is increased by 96%, while the flexural strength and modulus are essentially not affected. The low through-thickness thermal conductivity limits heat dissipation from continuous carbon fiber polymer-matrix composites. This conductivity is increased by up to 60% by raising the curing pressure from 0.1 to 2.0 MPa and up to 33% by incorporation of a filler (61.5 vol.%) at the interlaminar interface. The thermal resistivity is dominated by the lamina resistivity (which is contributed substantially by the intralaminar fiber--fiber interfacial resistivity), with the interlaminar interface thermal resistivity being unexpectedly negligible. The lamina resistivity and intralaminar fiber-fiber interfacial resistivity are decreased by up to 56% by raising the curing pressure and up to 36% by filler incorporation. Thermoelectric structural materials are potentially attractive for large-scale energy harvesting. Through filler incorporation and unprecedented decoupling of the bulk (laminae) and interfacial (interlaminar interfaces) contributions to the Seebeck voltage (through-thickness Seebeck voltage of a crossply continuous carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate), this work provides thermoelectric power magnitudes at ˜70°C up to 110, 1670 and 11000 microV/K for the laminate, a

  6. More than just a filler - the role of hyaluronan for skin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, Ulf; Simon, Jan C; Averbeck, Marco

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, hyaluronan (HA) has become an increasingly attractive substance as a non-immunogenic filler and scaffolding material in cosmetic dermatology. Despite its wide use for skin augmentation and rejuvenation, relatively little is known about the molecular structures and interacting proteins of HA in normal and diseased skin. However, a comprehensive understanding of cutaneous HA homeostasis is required for future the development of HA-based applications for skin regeneration. This review provides an update on HA-based structures, expression, metabolism and its regulation, function and pharmacological targeting of HA in skin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Thermal Control Method for High-Current Wire Bundles by Injecting a Thermally Conductive Filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, Juan; Rowles, Russell; Greer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    A procedure was developed to inject thermal filler material (a paste-like substance) inside the power wire bundle coming from solar arrays. This substance fills in voids between wires, which enhances the heat path and reduces wire temperature. This leads to a reduced amount of heat generated. This technique is especially helpful for current and future generation high-power spacecraft (1 kW or more), because the heat generated by the power wires is significant enough to cause unacceptable overheating to critical components that are in close contact with the bundle.

  8. Efficacy and safety of porcine collagen filler for nasolabial fold correction in Asians: a prospective multicenter, 12 months follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ho; Choi, Yong Sung; Kim, Sue Min; Kim, Young Jin; Rhie, Jong Won; Jun, Young Joon

    2014-11-01

    Recently, injectable dermal fillers have become important alternatives to surgical procedures for the correction of facial wrinkles. Bovine collagen is the first approved material for filler injection, and several studies have shown its efficacy. However, the risk of developing an allergic reaction and xenogenic transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy remain among its disadvantages. In this randomized, double-blinded, split-face study, we compared the efficacy and safety of a porcine collagen filler (TheraFill®) with that of a bovine collagen filler (KOKEN®) for nasolabial fold correction. A total of sixty one patients with mild to severe nasolabial fold were randomized to receive TheraFill® and KOKEN® on contralateral sides of the face. During the 12-month follow-up period, improvement in the Wrinkle-Severity Rating Scale score was slightly higher in TheraFill® group than KOKEN® group, although the difference was not statistically significant. No serious adverse reactions were observed and both materials were tolerable in most cases. In conclusion, the long-term effect of TheraFill® on nasolabial fold correction was comparable to that of KOKEN®, and it may be a good alternative to bovine collagen filler.

  9. Facial volume augmentation in 2014: overview of different filler options.

    PubMed

    Luebberding, Stefanie; Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene

    2013-12-01

    Volume loss is considered to be one of the major contributors to facial aging. Therefore, the restoration of facial volume and contour changes has become an important treatment approach in aesthetic dermatology in recent years. In October 2013 the FDA approved for the first time ever an injectable dermal filler for the augmentation of age-related volume loss. This low-molecular-weight (LMW) 20 mg/ml hyaluronic acid (HA) filler competes on the market with poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) and calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA), that have been used off-label for many years to restore age-related volume loss. The safety profile and efficacy of all three injectables has been intensively evaluated in innumerous clinical studies. However, each volume filler has its benefits and disadvantages, including usage, method of action and duration of effect that are reviewed in this article.

  10. Properties of polymer blends filled with mixtures of conductive fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongruang, Wiriya

    2001-11-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE), ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and blends thereof are used to produce ternary and quaternary conductive polymer composites (CPCs) containing carbon black (CB), carbon graphite (G), carbon fiber (CF) and selected mixtures thereof to discern if polymer blends and mixed fillers yield appreciable advantages over CPCs composed of single polymers and/or single fillers. The effects of polymer blend composition and filler type, concentration and composition on electrical conductivity, composite morphology, mechanical properties and thermal behavior have been examined and correlated to establish meaningful structure-property relationships that can facilitate the rational design of efficient CPCs. Enhanced conductivity due to double-percolation is observed in ternary CPCs containing CB or G, whereas the concept of bridged double percolation is proposed to explain substantial conductivity increases in quaternary composites.

  11. Upper Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jonathan M; Cotofana, Sebastian; Trevidic, Patrick; Solish, Nowell; Carruthers, Jean; Carruthers, Alastair; Moradi, Amir; Swift, Arthur; Massry, Guy G; Lambros, Val; Remington, B Kent

    2015-11-01

    The use of facial fillers has been rapidly increased as the range of injectable products and indications continues to expand. Complications may arise from improper placement or technique. This article highlights the importance of anatomic knowledge when using injectable fillers in the face. A detailed review of the clinical anatomy of the upper face is performed. Regional approaches are described using the applied anatomy to efficiently and safely augment the different subunits of the upper face. Key aspects of safe and successful injection of fillers in the upper face include a thorough knowledge of the location of fat compartments and neurovascular structures. Awareness of these structures enables the practitioner to maximize injections, while avoiding damage to important nerves and vessels. A detailed knowledge of the anatomy and properties of the product is paramount to maximize the efficacy while minimizing the risk of complications.

  12. Numbers or apologies? Customer reactions to telephone waiting time fillers.

    PubMed

    Munichor, Nira; Rafaeli, Anat

    2007-03-01

    The authors examined the effect of time perception and sense of progress in telephone queues on caller reactions to 3 telephone waiting time fillers: music, apologies, and information about location in the queue. In Study 1, conducted on 123 real calls, call abandonment was lowest, and call evaluations were most positive with information about location in the queue as the time filler. In Study 2, conducted with 83 participants who experienced a simulated telephone wait experience, sense of progress in the queue rather than perceived waiting time mediated the relationship between telephone waiting time filler and caller reactions. The findings provide insight for the management and design of telephone queues, as well as theoretical insight into critical cognitive processes that underlie telephone waiting, opening up an important new research agenda.

  13. Fibre reinforced CMC with polymer/filler derived matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Suttor, D.; Erny, T.; Greil, P.

    1995-09-01

    A ceramic matrix for carbon fibre reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC) has been developed from polysiloxane/boron mixtures. Complex geometries can be realized by using processing technologies of fibre reinforced polymer composites. Upon pyrolysis the polymer/filler mixture is converted into a ceramic matrix consisting of SiC, B{sub 4}C, BN and a Si-O-C-(N) glass, without reacting with the carbon fibre. Due to the large volume increase of the reactive boron filler upon nitridation (+142 vol%) no multiple reinfiltration of the structure is necessary in order to achieve a dense matrix. Thermodynamic modelling of the pyrolysis is a useful tool to estimate the qualitative and quantitative phase composition as a function of polymer, filler and gas atmospheres.

  14. Effects of filler composition on flexibility of microfilled resin composite.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Ori, T; Saimi, Y

    2005-07-01

    The effects of the filler composition on physical and mechanical properties of microfilled composites was investigated by measuring water absorption, solubility, compressive, flexural, and impact strength. A series of experimental composites, consisting of UDMA/TEGDMA comonomer matrix and prepolymerized fillers, was fabricated. The prepolymerized fillers were composed of hydrophobic colloidal silica and two monomers in varying ratios, trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate (TMPT), and polyesterdiacrylate (PEDA). TMPT/PEDA ratios were 100:0, 64:36, 46:54, 18:82, and 0:100%. There were no significant differences in water sorption and solubility, regardless of the amount of PEDA monomer. Young's modulus and modulus of resilience increased with decreasing PEDA ratio. Fracture energy exhibited drastic changes (30.1 x 10(-5) J to 93.4 x 10(-5) J). The highest value of flexural strength (96.0 +/- 3.5 MPa) was obtained when the TMPT-PEDA filler was 46:54. The impact strengths of composites fabricated with TMPT-PEDA filler of 46:54 (11.2 +/- 1.4 kJ/m(2)), 18:82 (10.6 +/- 3.2 kJ/m(2)), and 0:100 (13.1 +/- 3.8 kJ/m(2)) were significantly higher than those with 100:0 (6.0 +/- 1.8 kJ/m(2)) or 64:36 (7.1 +/- 2.4 kJ/m(2)). Based upon the results, it was concluded that the mechanical properties of microfilled composites were improved by the modification of prepolymerized filler composition.

  15. Does the amount of filler content in sealants used to prevent decalcification on smooth enamel surfaces really matter?

    PubMed

    Van Bebber, Lauren; Campbell, Phillip M; Honeyman, Allen L; Spears, Robert; Buschang, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    To determine how filler content and an acidic environment affect the retention of sealants placed on smooth enamel surfaces. A sample of 120 teeth was randomly divided into six subsamples. Three experimental sealants with identical formulas, with the exception of the amount of filler content (18%, 30%, 50%), were applied according to manufacturers' recommendations. Half of the subsamples were exposed to an acid environment (pH of 2.5) for 96 hours. With the use of a tooth-brushing simulator, each tooth was exposed to 15,000 brushing strokes, while a slurry of 1 : 3 toothpaste/neutral sodium bicarbonate cycled through the machine. Initial and final photographs were analyzed subjectively and objectively. Scanning electron microscope photomicrographs were used to evaluate the tooth surface. Subjective analyses showed significant (P < .05) filler effects, with the 18% filled sealant showing the least change, followed by the 30% sealant, then the 50% filled sealant, which showed the greatest loss. Objective analyses showed the same pattern of loss, but the differences between sealants were not statistically significant. Exposure to an acidic environment had no significant effect on sealant retention. SEMS showed a layer of sealant remaining on all of the sealed teeth evaluated. Filler content of resin sealant material affects the retention of sealants on smooth enamel surfaces; exposure to an acid environment has no effect on sealant retention. Within the limits of this study, highly filled resin sealants once saturated have the ability to endure the oral environment and remain on a smooth enamel surface, regardless of the amount of filler content.

  16. Characterization of Inorganic Filler Content, Mechanical Properties, and Light Transmission of Bulk-fill Resin Composites.

    PubMed

    Fronza, B M; Ayres, Apa; Pacheco, R R; Rueggeberg, F A; Dias, Cts; Giannini, M

    The aims of this study were to characterize inorganic content (IC), light transmission (LT), biaxial flexural strength (BFS), and flexural modulus (FM) of one conventional (layered) and four bulk-fill composites at different depths. Bulk-fill composites tested were Surefil SDR flow (SDR), Filtek Bulk Fill (FBF), Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEC), and EverX Posterior (EXP). Herculite Classic (HER) was used as a control. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize filler particle composition and morphology. The LT through different composite thicknesses (1, 2, 3, and 4 mm) was measured using a laboratory-grade spectral radiometer system (n=5). For the BFS and FM tests, sets of eight stacked composite discs (0.5-mm thick) were prepared simulating bulk filling of a 4-mm-thick increment (n=8). SDR demonstrated larger, irregular particles than those observed in TEC or HER. Filler particles in FBF were spherical, while those in EXP were composed of fiberglass strands. The LT decreased with increased composite thickness for all materials. Bulk-fill composites allowed higher LT than the HER. Furthermore, HER proved to be the unique material, having lower BFS values at deeper regions. SDR, FBF, and TEC bulk-fill composites presented reduced FM with increasing composite depth. The bulk-fill composites investigated exhibited higher LT, independent of different filler content and characteristics. Although an increase in composite thickness reduced LT, the BFS of bulk-fill composites at deeper layers was not compromised.

  17. iPP Crystallization: Micro and Nano Fillers Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioffredi, Emilia; Cassulo, Gabriele; Frache, Alberto; Luca Maffettone, Pier

    2010-06-01

    Since the properties of semicrystalline polymers depend on the morphology, studies on effect of fillers on the composites crystallization are of great interest. In this work, a micrometric talc and a nanoclay are dispersed in a polypropylene matrix and the influence of two different fillers and temperature on the polymer crystallization behavior in quiescent conditions is assessed by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rheological characterization through linear viscoelasticity (SAOS) [1]. The DSC tests lead to the half crystallization time, depending on overall crystallization rate (i.e. nucleation and growth) whereas by rheological measurement one can deduce also the induction time, depending only on nucleation [2].

  18. Volume correction in the aging hand: role of dermal fillers

    PubMed Central

    Rivkin, Alexander Z

    2016-01-01

    The hands, just like the face, are highly visible parts of the body. They age at a similar rate and demonstrate comparable changes with time, sun damage, and smoking. Loss of volume in the hands exposes underlying tendons, veins, and bony prominences. Rejuvenation of the hands with dermal fillers is a procedure with high patient satisfaction and relatively low risk for complications. This study will review relevant anatomy, injection technique, clinical safety, and efficacy of dermal filler volumization of the aging hand. PMID:27621659

  19. Effect of precipitated calcium carbonate--Cellulose nanofibrils composite filler on paper properties.

    PubMed

    He, Ming; Cho, Byoung-Uk; Won, Jong Myoung

    2016-01-20

    A new concept of composite filler was developed by using cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) and cationic starch (C-starch). In this study, cellulose nanofibrils were utilized in two different ways: a PCC-CNF composite filler and a papermaking additive in sheet forming. The aim was to elucidate their effects on flocculation, filler retention and the strength and optical properties of handsheets. The highest filler retention was obtained by using the PCC-CNF composite filler in paper sheets. The paper filled with the composite fillers had much higher bursting and tensile strengths than conventional PCC loading. It was also found that the paper prepared with PCC-CNF composite fillers became denser with increasing the filler content of paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influences of filler content and size on the color adjustment potential of nonlayered resin composites.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yong-Rok; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Ju, Sung-Won; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2017-01-31

    The blending effect (BE) plays an important role in esthetics of the composite resin. The objective of this study was to determine the extents to which filler size and content affect the BE. Three types of fillers (0.7, 1.0, and 1.5 µm) were mixed at weight contents of 60, 70, 75, and 80%. This study simulated clinical class 3 or 4 cavities and quantitatively measured the color diffusion of the objects next to the cavities based on the CIELab color space. For each filler size, there was a trend of increasing BE as the filler content was increased. The translucency parameter (TP) exhibited the opposite trend of decreasing (p<0.05) with increases in filler content. The filler size did not affect the BE, and the different filler sizes produced statistically non-significant results in this study. Increases in filler content elevated the opacity of the composite resin and significantly influenced the BE.

  1. Filler modification for papermaking with starch/oleic acid complexes with the aid of calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiujie; Shen, Jing; Qian, Xueren

    2013-10-15

    To mitigate the negative effect of filler addition on paper strength and improve filler retention, filler modification with hydrogen bonding polymers (e.g., starch) or their composites is an interesting research topic. Differing from previous reports, the concept related to the deposition of starch/oleic acid complexes on precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) with the aid of calcium ions was demonstrated. The introduction of calcium ions resulted in effective starch deposition. As a result of filler modification, filler retention and the tensile strength of the filled paper were simultaneously improved essentially due to the aggregation of PCC particles in filler modification process as well as improved filler bondability. The concept demonstrated in this brief study may provide an alternative approach to filler bondability enhancement for improved papermaking performances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved fiber retention by the use of fillers in graphite fiber/resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Bowles, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of matrix fillers were tested for their ability to prevent loss of fiber from graphite fiber/PMR polyimide and graphite fiber/epoxy composites in a fire. The fillers tested included powders of boron, boron carbide lime glass, lead glass, and aluminum. Boron was the most effective and prevented any loss of graphite fiber during burning. Mechanical properties of composites containing boron filler were measured and compared to those of composites containing no filler.

  3. Biological properties of a new volumizing hyaluronic acid filler: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) dermal fillers are effective and safe for correction of facial rhytides. A new volumizing HA filler, 20 mg/ml HA dermal filler (Juvéderm® Voluma®, Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA), is the only HA filler with a FDA indication for facial volumization due to age-related facial volume loss. Evaluate the biological properties, including biochemical, biophysical and rheological, of this new 20 mg/ml HA dermal filler and discuss the importance of these properties in clinical applications. A systematic search of the computerized bibliographic databases Medline, Embase, Embal, Biosis, SciSearch, Pascal, HCAPlus, IPA, and Dissertation Abstracts with key term "Voluma." Four articles on the biological properties of this new 20 mg/ ml HA dermal filler were suitable for inclusion in this review. Biological analysis of elasticity and viscosity values of this new 20 mg/ml HA dermal filler demonstrated intermediate properties in three studies and high in one study compared to other HA dermal fillers. This 20 mg/ml HA dermal filler retained the highest elasticity and viscosity values at temperature of 37°C. Histology demonstrated that this 20 mg/ml HA dermal filler has an intermediate pattern of distribution within the superficial and deep reticular dermis. This 20 mg/ml HA dermal filler demonstrated volumizing ability, and maintaining viscosity and free-flowing characteristics for easy injection, tissue lifting, and molding. We hope future research incorporates biological properties analysis of this HA dermal filler in clinical trials.

  4. Influence of Filler Alloy Composition and Process Parameters on the Intermetallic Layer Thickness in Single-Sided Cold Metal Transfer Welding of Aluminum-Steel Blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvayeh, Zahra; Vallant, Rudolf; Sommitsch, Christof; Götzinger, Bruno; Karner, Werner; Hartmann, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Hybrid components made of aluminum alloys and high-strength steels are typically used in automotive lightweight applications. Dissimilar joining of these materials is quite challenging; however, it is mandatory in order to produce multimaterial car body structures. Since especially welding of tailored blanks is of utmost interest, single-sided Cold Metal Transfer butt welding of thin sheets of aluminum alloy EN AW 6014 T4 and galvanized dual-phase steel HCT 450 X + ZE 75/75 was experimentally investigated in this study. The influence of different filler alloy compositions and welding process parameters on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, which forms between the weld seam and the steel sheet, was studied. The microstructures of the weld seam and of the intermetallic layer were characterized using conventional optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that increasing the heat input and decreasing the cooling intensity tend to increase the layer thickness. The silicon content of the filler alloy has the strongest influence on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, whereas the magnesium and scandium contents of the filler alloy influence the cracking tendency. The layer thickness is not uniform and shows spatial variations along the bonding interface. The thinnest intermetallic layer (mean thickness < 4 µm) is obtained using the silicon-rich filler Al-3Si-1Mn, but the layer is more than twice as thick when different low-silicon fillers are used.

  5. Solid Midfacial Implants: When Fillers Are Not Enough.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Karan; Binder, William

    2016-10-01

    The aging process results in volumetric changes on multiple levels of the face including the skin, soft tissue, and underlying facial skeleton. Malar and mandibular augmentation with facial fillers and alloplastic implants are two treatment options used to achieve the goal of volume enhancement. Noninvasive modalities have become increasingly popular due to the availability of office-based options that require a limited understanding of facial aesthetics, a basic grasp of the mechanisms behind the aging process, and no level of surgical expertise or training. It is important, however, to understand the limitations and appropriate use of each technique, surgical and nonsurgical, either as a sole modality or in conjunction with each other to attain optimal aesthetic results. Although minimally invasive soft-tissue augmentation procedures such as fillers offer midface treatment options, alloplastic implants provide a stable support platform or scaffolding for skeletal and soft-tissue augmentation that fillers alone cannot often provide. A multilevel understanding of facial aesthetics must include the facial skeletal architecture and foundation that it provides for proper soft-tissue draping and contour. Alloplastic implants remain the standard for skeletal augmentation and remain the mainstay when fillers are not sufficient for midface augmentation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Review of 3-dimensional Facial Anatomy: Injecting Fillers and Neuromodulators

    PubMed Central

    Sieber, David A.; Scheuer, Jack F.; Villanueva, Nathaniel L.; Pezeshk, Ronnie A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: To achieve consistent results utilizing facial injectables, practitioners must understand the pertinent anatomy of the forehead, temple, cheek, nose, and perioral areas. A detailed understanding of facial blood vessels, nerves, and musculature is essential for safe and effective placement of fillers and neuromodulators. PMID:28018775

  7. Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra High Ash/Performance Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. VIjay K. Mathur

    2009-04-30

    The paper industry is one of the largest users of energy and emitters of CO2 in the US manufacturing industry. In addition to that, it is facing tremendous financial pressure due to lower cost imports. The fine paper industry has shrunk from 15 million tons per year production to 10 million tons per year in the last 5 years. This has resulted in mill closures and job loses. The AF&PA and the DOE formed a program called Agenda 2020 to help in funding to develop breakthrough technologies to provide help in meeting these challenges. The objectives of this project were to optimize and scale-up Fibrous Fillers technology, ready for commercial deployment and to develop ultra high ash/high performance paper using Fibrous Fillers. The goal was to reduce energy consumption, carbon footprint, and cost of manufacturing paper and related industries. GRI International (GRI) has been able to demonstrate the techno - economic feasibility and economic advantages of using its various products in both handsheets as well as in commercial paper mills. GRI has also been able to develop sophisticated models that demonstrate the effect of combinations of GRI's fillers at multiple filler levels. GRI has also been able to develop, optimize, and successfully scale-up new products for use in commercial paper mills.

  8. Internal Filler-Wire Feed For Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Dyer, Gerald E.

    1990-01-01

    Tungsten electrode for gas/tungsten arc welding contains lengthwise channel for feeding filler wire to weld joint. Channel makes it unnecessary to feed wire through guides outside electrode, conserving valuable space near weld and protects wire from deformation by contact with other parts in vicinity of weld. Helpful in robotic or automatic welding.

  9. More About Brazing Or Welding NiAl Without Filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Kalinowski, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    Two reports present additional information about two processes for joining, brazing, or welding workpieces made of nickel aluminide alloys, without use of filler metal. Joining processes involve uniform heating in vacuum-controlled furnace. Eliminates internal thermal gradients in workpieces joined and greatly reduces tendency toward cracking.

  10. Sensor Monitors Force On Filler Wire During Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Tim; Milly, Pete, Sr.; White, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Sensor measures lateral contact force between filler wire and weldment. Output of sensor fed as input to motorized wire-position controller, which strives to maintain desired contact force. Sensor built into wire-feed assembly. Pivoting arm transmits lateral force on tip of wire to load cell. Setscrews prevent underload and overload on load cell.

  11. Internal Filler-Wire Feed For Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Dyer, Gerald E.

    1990-01-01

    Tungsten electrode for gas/tungsten arc welding contains lengthwise channel for feeding filler wire to weld joint. Channel makes it unnecessary to feed wire through guides outside electrode, conserving valuable space near weld and protects wire from deformation by contact with other parts in vicinity of weld. Helpful in robotic or automatic welding.

  12. [Benefits of volumetric to facial rejuvenation. Part 2: Dermal fillers].

    PubMed

    Bui, P; Pons Guiraud, A; Lepage, C

    2017-09-11

    Injectable substances known as fillers are used to palliate age-related atrophy and ptosis, and for their so-called "pseudo-lifting" action. They do not replace face and neck lift, but allow it to be postponed or, when injected after surgical lifting, make the result durable. Hyaluronic acid has a predominant and unchallenged place among fillers, well ahead of poly-L-lactic acid or calcium hydroxyapatite. Approaches and injection methods are the same for all fillers, corresponding to those for autologous fat injection, the reference substance, with a few particularities. The substance used, the level of hyaluronic acid reticulation, and the depth of the injection depend on the injection site and intended effect. Effects range from smoothing superficial wrinkles to remodeling whole parts of the face. Complications related to such fillers are well known, especially in the case of hyaluronic acid, where overcorrection is the most frequent. To limit the risk of complications and also to offer each patient the most individually adapted corrections, before any procedure, the plastic surgeon needs to question the patient and perform precise medical examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Gap Filler Induced Transition on the Mars Science Laboratory Heatshield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Barnhardt, Michael D.; Tang, Chun Y.; Sozer, Emre; Candler, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Detached Eddy Simulations have been performed to investigate the effects of high-fidelity turbulence modeling on roughness-induced transition to turbulence during Mars entry. Chemically reacting flow solutions will be obtained for a gap filler of Mars Science Laboratory at the peak heating condition.

  14. More About Brazing Or Welding NiAl Without Filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Kalinowski, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    Two reports present additional information about two processes for joining, brazing, or welding workpieces made of nickel aluminide alloys, without use of filler metal. Joining processes involve uniform heating in vacuum-controlled furnace. Eliminates internal thermal gradients in workpieces joined and greatly reduces tendency toward cracking.

  15. Photosensitive filler minimizes internal stresses in epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, J. N.

    1967-01-01

    Photosensitive filler is added to curable epoxy resins to minimize stress from internal shrinkage during curing or polymerization. Cinnamic acid resins and cinnamal ketones may be added in the amount of 1 to 3 percent by weight of the resin mixture.

  16. 7 CFR 58.229 - Filler and packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General... construction and all parts, including valves and filler heads accessible for cleaning. New or...

  17. Factors Affecting the Rheological Measurement of Hyaluronic Acid Gel Fillers.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Z Paul; Öhrlund, Åke; Edsman, Katarina

    2017-09-01

    With the number of available dermal fillers increasing, so is the demand for scientifically based comparisons, often with rheological properties in focus. Since analytical results are always influenced by instrument settings, consensus on settings is essential to make comparison of results from different investigators more useful. Preferred measurement settings for rheological analysis of hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers are suggested, and the reasoning behind the choices is presented by demonstrating the effect of different measurement settings on select commercial HA fillers. Rheological properties of 8 HA fillers were measured in a frequency sweep from 10 to 0.01 Hz at 0.1% strain, using an Anton Paar MCR 301, a PP-25 measuring system with a gap of 1 mm at 25°C. A 30-min period was used for relaxation of the sample between loading and measuring. The data presented here, together with previously published data, demonstrate differences in G' from 1.6 to 7.4 times for the same product. A large part of the differences were concluded to be due to differences in rheometry measurement settings. The confusion from the many parameters involved in rheometry can be avoided by simply using the elastic modulus (G') to differentiate products.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):876-882.

    .

  18. Magnesium-based bone cement and bone void filler: preliminary experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Schendel, Stephen A; Peauroi, John

    2009-03-01

    Bone cement has great potential in craniofacial surgery in the repair of osseous defects secondary to surgery or trauma. This includes the use of bone cement as a bone void filler for full-thickness cranial defects and as augmentation of deficient bones. Ideally, this material should be easily available, biocompatible, resorbable, bone inductive, and have adhesive qualities to bone. Calcium-based bone cements have some of these qualities but have a higher than desirable failure rate. OsteoCrete, a new magnesium-based bone cement and bone void filler, was compared to Norian in critical-sized skull defects and cementing bone flaps in rabbits. Both materials were successful; however, OsteoCrete had a faster resorption and replacement by bone rate than Norian. Bone flap position and apparent stability were also superior with OsteoCrete. There were no adverse reactions to either cement. A magnesium-based bone cement presents with advantages when compared with a comparator calcium-based cement in craniofacial surgery.

  19. Effect of the filler on the electrophysical properties of the composite system (Pb-PbS)-copolymer of styrene with. cap alpha. -methylstyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Khlystunova, E.V.; Ovchinnikov, A.A.; Saushkina, E.A.; Mardashev, Yu.S.

    1988-08-10

    The results of studies of the effect of a two-phase contact filler (Pb-PbS) on the electrophysical properties of a system based on a copolymer of styrene with ..cap alpha..-methylstyrene (SAM) are reported in this article. The x-ray phase analysis (XPA) was conducted on a DRON-2 diffractometer. The surface of the filler particles was studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electric resistance of the samples was measured in a thermostated cell. The complex character of the concentration and temperature dependence of the electric conductivity of the (Pb-PbS)-SAM composite system related to the composition of the filler was thus elucidated and it was shown that materials with different electrophysical properties can be prepared from the same composite system by using different amounts of the starting components.

  20. The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of carbon-nanofibers reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    De Vivo, B.; Lamberti, P.; Spinelli, G. Tucci, V.; Guadagno, L.; Raimondo, M.

    2015-08-14

    The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of epoxy-amine resin reinforced with carbon nanofibers is here investigated. A heat treatment at 2500 °C of carbon nanofibers seems to increase their aspect ratio with respect to as-received ones most likely due to a lowering of structural defects and the improvement of the graphene layers within the dixie cup conformation. These morphological differences revealed by Raman's spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses may be responsible for the different electrical properties of the resulting composites. The DC characterization of the nanofilled material highlights an higher electrical conductivity and a lower electrical percolation threshold for the heat-treated carbon nanofibers based composites. In fact, the electrical conductivity is about 0.107 S/m and 1.36 × 10{sup −3} S/m for the nanocomposites reinforced with heat-treated and as received fibers, respectively, at 1 wt. % of nanofiller loading, while the electrical percolation threshold falls in the range [0.05–0.32]wt. % for the first nanocomposites and above 0.64 wt. % for the latter. Moreover, also a different frequency response is observed since the critical frequency, which is indicative of the transition from a resistive to a capacitive-type behaviour, shifts forward of about one decade at the same filler loading. The experimental results are supported by theoretical and simulation studies focused on the role of the filler aspect ratio on the electrical properties of the nanocomposites.

  1. Controlling dynamic mechanical properties and degradation of composites for bone regeneration by means of filler content.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Davide; de Bruijn, Joost D; Luo, Xiaoman; Farè, Silvia; Grijpma, Dirk W; Yuan, Huipin

    2013-04-01

    Bone tissue is a dynamic composite system that adapts itself, in response to the surrounding daily (cyclic) mechanical stimuli, through an equilibrium between growth and resorption processes. When there is need of synthetic bone grafts, the biggest issue is to support bone regeneration without causing mechanically-induced bone resorption. Apart from biological properties, such degradable materials should initially support and later leave room to bone formation. Further, dynamic mechanical properties comparable to those of bone are required. In this study we prepared composites comprising calcium phosphate and L-lactide/D-lactide copolymer in various content ratios using the extrusion method. We evaluated the effect of the inorganic filler amount on the polymer phase (i.e. on the post-extrusion intrinsic viscosity). We then studied their in vitro degradation and dynamic mechanical properties (in dry and humid conditions). By increasing the filler content, we observed significant decrease of the intrinsic viscosity of the polymer phase during the extrusion process. Composites containing higher amounts of apatite had faster degradation, and were also mechanically stiffer. But, due to the lower intrinsic viscosity of their polymer phase, they had larger damping properties. Besides this, higher amounts of apatite also rendered the composites more hydrophilic letting them absorb more water and causing them the largest decrease in stiffness. These results show the importance of filler content in controlling the properties of such composites. Further, in this study we observed that the viscoelastic properties of the composite containing 50wt% apatite were comparable to those of dry human cortical bone.

  2. Laser welding aluminum without filler metal using continuous wave and pulsed Nd:YAG lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bransch, H.N.

    1994-12-31

    A problem with automotive aluminum tubing applications, particularly for air conditioning heat exchanger assemblies, is terminating the tube reliably and inexpensively. An alternative to upsetting and mchining threads to the tube end is welding a nut (made from a stronger, easily machinable alloy such as Al 5456 or Al 6061) to lengths of tubing (made from a softer alloy such as Al 3003). Laser welding was investigated in order to reduce heat input and increase process speeds copared to brazing or gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Nd:YAG lasers were selected as beam source because of better absorptivity of the wavelength compared to CO{sub 2} lasers and simplified tooling with fiber optic beam delivery. It wa determined that a pulsed Nd:YAG laser produced 1.0 mm penetration at 0.3 m/min with 400 W average power, and 1.0 mm penetration at 0.75 m/min with 1000 W average power, however, an Al 4047 filler metal was required to eliminate solidification cracking. A 1900 W CW laser could weld the Al 3003 tube to the Al 5456 nut without filler metal, however, there was insufficient penetration (0.25 mm) to meet the mechanical and hermeticity requirements. To enhance penetration, but still reduce the tendency for hot cracking, the 1900 W average power beam was sine wave modulated from 400 W to 3600 W at 250 Hz and usd to weld the Al 3003 directly to the Al 5456. These parameters produced 1.2 mm penetration at 1.2 m/min without significant cracking and without using a filler metal. In addition, the welds passed all hermeticity and tensile strength tests. This combination of materials, joint design, and laser parameters produced tube assemblies that passed a leak check (300 psi nitrogen in 60{degrees}C water for 1 min) and tensile (tube breakage 100 mm from the joint, 5.2 kN tensile strength).

  3. The effects of penile girth enhancement using injectable hyaluronic acid gel, a filler.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Tae Il; Oh, MiMi; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2011-12-01

    Despites the debates on penile girth enhancement (PGE), demands for enhancement are increasing. Recently, various fillers have been widely used for soft tissue augmentation with proven efficacy and safety. To identify the feasibility and efficacy of PGE by injection of filler. Fifty patients with subjective small penis who visited Korea University Guro outpatient clinic were enrolled and prospectively followed. Restylane Sub-Q (Q-med, Upssala, Sweden) was injected into the fascial layer of penile body via 21G cannula with "Back & Forth Technique" and homogenized with a roller. From April 2006 to February 2008, 50 patients were enrolled and 41 patients were followed until 18 months after PGE. Changes in penile girth at midshaft were measured by tapeline at 1 and 18 months. Patient's visual estimation of residual volume (Gr 0-4), patient's satisfaction (Gr 0-4), and any adverse reactions were also evaluated. Mean injected volume was 20.56 cc (18-22). Compared with basal girth of 7.48 ± 0.35 cm, maximal circumference was significantly increased to 11.41 ± 0.34 cm at 1 month (P < 0.0001) and maintained as 11.26 ± 0.33 cm until 18 months. In patient's visual estimation, two patients complained the decrease as Gr 3 with focal depression at 1 month. At 18 months, all patients answered as Gr 4 without asymmetry. Patient's and partner's satisfaction score was 3.71 ± 0.46 and 3.65 ± 0.48 at 1 month and 3.34 ± 0.53 and 3.38 ± 0.49 at 18 months. There were no inflammatory signs or serious adverse reactions in all cases. Considering the property of material, methods, and follow-up results of 18 months, PGE using filler is a very effective and safe technique for penile augmentation. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Influence of filler existence on microleakage of a self-etch adhesive system

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadi, H; Khosravi, K; Kashani, K; Kleverlaan, CJ; Feilzer, AJ

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the effect of filler existence in self-etch adhesive resin on the marginal leakage of a class V restoration. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared and restored with a resin composite on the buccal surfaces of 48 premolars lined with unfilled or filled adhesives (n = 24). After thermo cycling, teeth in each group were divided to two subgroups (n = 12), specimens of the first subgroup were incubated for 24 h in distilled water at 37°C, and for the second group three months in the same condition. Specimens were placed in 50% silver nitrate for 24 h at 37°C, and then were cut buccolingually 1 mm thick. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicroscope and scaled from 0 to 5 in a blind method. SEM images were made to evaluate the dentin-adhesive interfaces. Collected data were analyzed using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests at a significant level of P<0.05. Results: There was no significant difference between microleakage of filled and unfilled adhesive at 24 h and 3 months (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in cervical microleakage between 24 h and 3 months, which was independ on filler load of the adhesive (P<0.001). In contrast, there was no significant difference in occlusal microleakage between 24 h and 3 months and the cervical microleakage was significantly higher than occlusal microleakage after 3 months. SEM images reveald that unfilled adhesive infiltrate slightly better than filled adhesive. Conclusion: The application of filler particles in a self etch adhesive system had no influence on marginal leakage at both the enamel and dentin margins. While the unfilled adhesive infiltrate better than the filled adhesive, its long term performance is not promising. PMID:24778517

  5. Labia Majora Augmentation with Hyaluronic Acid Filler: Technique and Results.

    PubMed

    Fasola, Elena; Gazzola, Riccardo

    2016-11-01

    External female genitalia lose elasticity and volume with age. In the literature several techniques address the redundancy of the labia minora, but only few reports describe the augmentation of labia majora with fat grafting. At present, no studies describe the augmentation of the labia majora with hyaluronic acid. This study aims to present our technique of infiltration of hyaluronic acid filler, analyzing effectiveness, patient satisfaction, and complications. We retrospectively analyzed 54 patients affected by hypotrophy of the labia majora; they were treated with hyaluronic acid filler between November 2010 and December 2014. The Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS) filled out by the doctor and the patients was used to evaluate the results 12 months after the infiltration. Complications were recorded. A total of 31 patients affected by mild to moderate labia majora hypotrophy were treated with 19 mg/mL HA filler; 23 patients affected by severe labia majora hypotrophy were treated with 21 mg/mL HA filler. Among the first group of patients, one underwent a second infiltration 6 months later with 19 mg/mL HA filler (maximum 1 mL). A significant improvement (P < .0001) in GAIS score was observed, both in the scores provided by the patients and by the doctor. A greater relative improvement was observed in patients affected by severe hypotrophy. No complications were recorded. Hyaluronic acid infiltration of the labia majora is able to provide a significant rejuvenation with a simple outpatient procedure. We achieved significant improvements with one infiltration in all cases. The treatment is repeatable, has virtually no complications and it is reversible. 4 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A study of the role of fillers in silicone rubber compounds for outdoor insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Luiz Henrique

    Polymeric materials are being used as a housing material on high voltage outdoor insulation as an alternative to porcelain or glass in line insulators, surge arresters, station posts, and bushings. Among the polymeric materials in use, silicone rubber has proven to have good aging performance under polluted conditions by keeping low levels of leakage current by virtue of its hydrophobicity. However, the exposure of polymeric materials to contaminated and humid environments can lead to certain surface conditions that reduces hydrophobicity increasing leakage current levels, giving rise to dry band arcing. Dry band arcing produces heat, which can result in tracking or erosion of the housing material. Although this dry band arcing does not harm porcelain or glass housings, it will erode pure silicone rubber to such an extent that its application in outdoor environments is not, practical. Fillers are added to silicone rubber to improve tracking and erosion resistance. Among the filler choices, alumina trihydrate (ATH) and silica have been extensively adopted in the compounding of polymeric housings. ATH is a flame retardant that has a molecular water in its formulation. Whenever the surface temperature of an ATH filled polymer reaches approximately 220°C, the water of hydration is released from the ATH molecule, what is recognized as an efficient way to cool down the surface, for example, in the case of dry band arcing. Alternatively, silica has very good bonding with the polymer backbone, imparting mechanical strength to the composite matrix. In addition, fillers such as ATH or silica increase the thermal conductivity of silicone rubber composites, which facilitates moving the heat away from its source, that is, from the origin of dry band arcing. Although heat is considered to be the main degradation factor when dry band arcing occurs, very little information is available on the thermal performance of filled silicone rubber. The standard methods available to test

  7. Mechanical properties of HDPE/UHMWPE blends: effect of filler loading and filler treatment.

    PubMed

    Lai, K L K; Roziyanna, A; Ogunniyi, D S; Zainal, Arifin M I; Azlan, Ariffin A

    2004-05-01

    Various blend ratios of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were prepared with the objective of determining their suitability as biomaterials. In the unfilled state, a blend of 50/50 (HDPE/UHMWPE) ratio by weight was found to yield optimum properties in terms of processability and mechanical properties. Hydroxyapatite (HA) was compounded with the optimum blend ratio. The effects of HA loading, varied from 0 to 50wt% for both filled and unfilled blends were tested for mechanical properties. It was found that the inclusion of HA in the blend led to a remarkable improvement of mechanical properties compared to the unfilled blend. In order to improve the bonding between the polymer blend and the filler, the HA used was chemically treated with a coupling agent known as 3-(trimethoxysiyl) propyl methacrylate and the treated HA was mixed into the blend. The effect of mixing the blend with silane-treated HA also led to an overall improvement of mechanical properties.

  8. A new classification of resin-based aesthetic adhesive materials.

    PubMed

    Ardu, Stefano; Braut, Vedrana; Uhac, Ivone; Benbachir, Nacer; Feilzer, Albert J; Krejci, Ivo

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate a new classification of resin based aesthetic materials laying on the characterization of their matrix and their filler morphology. Four samples per material have been prepared for SEM evaluation. Each sample has been treated with chloroform to dissolve its matrix in order to evidence the filler morphology. A general schema of four different matrix systems which characterize the material's level of hydrophobicity can be put in evidence. The subsequent filler analysis individuates a more complex schema based on filler size and construction. A new classification based on matrix nature and filler morphology has been proposed. Based on this concept mechanical and aesthetic characteristics of the materials can be presumed.

  9. Composite polymer electrolytes for fuel cell applications: filler-induced effect on water sorption and transport properties.

    PubMed

    Mecheri, Barbara; Felice, Valeria; D'Epifanio, Alessandra; Tavares, Ana C; Licoccia, Silvia

    2013-11-11

    Nafion- and sulfonated polysulfone (SPS)- based composite membranes were prepared by incorporation of SnO2 nanoparticles in a wide range of loading (0${ \\div }$35 wt. %). The composites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic vapor sorption and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the filler effect on water sorption, water mobility, and proton conductivity. A detrimental effect of the filler was observed on water mobility and proton conductivity of Nafion-based membranes. An increase in water mobility and proton conductivity was instead observed in SPS-based samples, particularly at low hydration degree. Analysis of the water sorption isotherms and states of water revealed that the presence of SnO2 in SPS enhances interconnectivity of hydrophilic domains, while not affecting the Nafion microstructure. These results enable the design of suitable electrolyte materials that operate in proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions.

  10. Epoxy composites filled with high surface area-carbon fillers: Optimization of electromagnetic shielding, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhir, P.; Paddubskaya, A.; Plyushch, A.; Volynets, N.; Maksimenko, S.; Macutkevic, J.; Kranauskaite, I.; Banys, J.; Ivanov, E.; Kotsilkova, R.; Celzard, A.; Fierro, V.; Zicans, J.; Ivanova, T.; Merijs Meri, R.; Bochkov, I.; Cataldo, A.; Micciulla, F.; Bellucci, S.; Lambin, Ph.

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of electrical, electromagnetic (EM), mechanical, and thermal properties of epoxy resin composites filled with 0.25-2.0 wt. % of carbon additives characterized by high surface area, both nano-sized, like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon black (CBH), and micro-sized exfoliated graphite (EG), was performed. We found that the physical properties of both CNTs- and CBH-based epoxy resin composites increased all together with filler content and even more clearly for CBH than for CNTs. In the case of EG-based composites, good correlation between properties and filler amount was observed for concentrations below 1.5 wt. %. We conclude that CBH and, to a lower extent, EG could replace expensive CNTs for producing effective EM materials in microwave and low-frequency ranges, which are, in addition, mechanically and thermally stable.

  11. Barrier properties of PE, PP and EVA (nano)composites - The influence of filler type and concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Merinska, D.; Kalendova, A.; Tesarikova, A.

    2014-05-15

    Nanocomposite materials with layered clay used as nanofiller and polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and copolymer ethylene and vinyl acetate matrix (EVA, the content of VA component 19 wt. %) were prepared by compounding the individual components in Brabender kneader. The MMT Na+ and four types of commercial products such as Nanofil N 5 and N3000, Cloisite 93A and 30B were used as nanofillers. Next to the clays microprecipitated CaHCO{sub 3}, nanosilica and Halloysite tubes were used. The quantity of all the above-mentioned (nano)fillers was 1, 3 and 5 wt. % in relation to the content of montmorillonite. The aim was to evaluate the influence of (nano)filler type and concentration on nanocomposite barrier properties. The morphology of nanocomposite samples was examined by means of XRD analysis illustrated by transmission electronic microscopy TEM. Furthermore, permeability for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were observed.

  12. Barrier properties of PE, PP and EVA (nano)composites - The influence of filler type and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merinska, D.; Kalendova, A.; Tesarikova, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nanocomposite materials with layered clay used as nanofiller and polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and copolymer ethylene and vinyl acetate matrix (EVA, the content of VA component 19 wt. %) were prepared by compounding the individual components in Brabender kneader. The MMT Na+ and four types of commercial products such as Nanofil N 5 and N3000, Cloisite 93A and 30B were used as nanofillers. Next to the clays microprecipitated CaHCO3, nanosilica and Halloysite tubes were used. The quantity of all the above-mentioned (nano)fillers was 1, 3 and 5 wt. % in relation to the content of montmorillonite. The aim was to evaluate the influence of (nano)filler type and concentration on nanocomposite barrier properties. The morphology of nanocomposite samples was examined by means of XRD analysis illustrated by transmission electronic microscopy TEM. Furthermore, permeability for O2 and CO2 were observed.

  13. Application of Hybrid Fillers for Improving the Through-Plane Heat Transport in Graphite Nanoplatelet-Based Thermal Interface Layers

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaojuan; Itkis, Mikhail E.; Haddon, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The in-plane alignment of graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) in thin thermal interface material (TIM) layers suppresses the though-plane heat transport thus limiting the performance of GNPs in the geometry normally required for thermal management applications. Here we report a disruption of the GNP in-plane alignment by addition of spherical microparticles. The degree of GNP alignment was monitored by measurement of the anisotropy of electrical conductivity which is extremely sensitive to the orientation of high aspect ratio filler particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy images of TIM layer cross-sections confirmed the suppression of the in-plane alignment. The hybrid filler formulations reported herein resulted in a synergistic enhancement of the through-plane thermal conductivity of GNP/Al2O3 and GNP/Al filled TIM layers confirming that the control of GNP alignment is an important parameter in the development of highly efficient GNP and graphene-based TIMs. PMID:26279183

  14. Effects of Different Filler Metals on the Mechanical Behaviors of GTA Welded AA7A52(T6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Fengyuan; Lv, Yaohui; Liu, Yuxin; Lin, Jianjun; Sun, Zhe; Xu, Binshi; He, Peng

    2014-06-01

    ER4043, ER5356, and AA7A52 on behalf of the Al-Si, Al-Mg, and Al-Zn-Mg-based welding material, respectively, were chosen as the filler metal to weld AA7A52(T6) plates by GTAW. The variance in mechanical performances of the joints caused by the various filler materials was investigated with reference to the SEM and EDS test results for the weld seam and the fracture surface. Failure was found in the seam for all the welded joints. With regard to the joint obtained with ER4043 welding wire, the total elongation was limited by the brittle intergranular compound Mg2Si of which Mg was introduced by convection mass transfer. As for the other two welds, the content ratio of Zn and Mg was found to play the dominant role in deciding the mechanical properties of the intergranular Mg-Zn compounds which were responsible for the tensile behavior of the joints. The content ratio (wt.%) of beyond 2:1 gave birth to the strengthening phase MgZn2 leading to a ductile fracture. Cr in the seam obtained with AA7A52 filler metal was found to enhance the strength of the joint through isolated particles.

  15. In vitro investigation of coupling-agent-free dental restorative composite based on nano-porous alumina fillers.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Sanjay B; Diaspro, Alberto; Salerno, Marco

    2014-03-01

    The study aims at demonstrating the feasibility of a novel type of coupling-agent-free resin composite based on nano-porous fillers. The fillers were obtained by ball-milling anodic alumina membranes. Composites were prepared with standard resin at maximum loading of 50% by weight. The resin matrix penetration into the pores was verified visually by scanning electron microscopy and mechanically by atomic force microscopy in force modulation mode. The dynamic flexural modulus at 1Hz was measured by dynamic mechanical analysis. Silver nanoparticles were also synthesized in the pores and their release was investigated with inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A storage modulus of 5GPa was measured, similar to the ∼6GPa ones of two coupling-agent-based dental restorative composites used for comparison, which is a promising starting point, additionally showing better one-year equivalent ageing as compared to both commercial materials. Loading the pores with silver nanoparticles was demonstrated as well as their subsequent release in a model system. The alumina micro-particles with interconnected nano-pores allow mechanical interlocking between fillers and matrix without the need for chemical bonding. This material is also promising for being made bio-active, after pore filling with different agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical coherence tomography for image-guided dermal filler injection and biomechanical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manmohan; Wang, Shang; Yee, Richard W.; Han, Zhaolong; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-02-01

    Dermal fillers are a very popular anti-ag ing treatment with estimated sales in the billions of dollars and millions of procedures performed. As the aging population continues to grow, these figures are only e xpected to increase. Dermal fillers have various compositions depending on their intended applicati on. Reactions to dermal fillers can be severe, such as ischemic events and filler migration to the eyes. Howe ver, these adverse reactions are rare. Nevertheless, the capability to perform imag e-guided filler injections would minimize th e risk of such reacti ons. In addition, the biomechanical properties of various fillers have been evalua ted, but there has been no investigation on the effects of filler on the biomechanical properties of skin. In this work, we utilize optical cohe rence tomography (OCT) for visualizing dermal filler injections with micrometer-scale sp atial resolution. In addition, we utilize noncontact optical coherence elastography (OCE) to quantify the changes in the biomechan ical properties of pig skin after the dermal filler injections. OCT was successfully able to visualize the dermal filler injecti on process, and OCE showed that the viscoelasticity of the pig skin was increased locally at the filler injection sites. OCT may be able to provide real-time image guidance in 3D, and when combined with functional OCT techniques such as optical microangiography, could be used to avoid blood vessels during the injection.

  17. Vacuum Brazing Diamond Grits with Cu-based or Ni-based Filler Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wenchun; Lu, Jinbin; Li, Yang; Xu, Shuai; Zhong, Sujuan; Wang, Bangfu; Qiu, Xinkai

    2017-08-01

    Diamond grits were brazed using Cu-Sn-Cr and Ni-Cr-B-Si filler metals, and the brazed grits were examined for microstructure (SEM, EDS, XRD), microhardness, and compression strength. Results showed that the microstructure of the Cu-based filler metal was uniform and consisted of α-Cu + (α-Cu + δ). Its wettability to the diamond was better than Ni-based filler due to the formation of a thin carbide reaction layer that improved the bond strength between the diamond and steel. The Cu-based filler led to reduced thermal damage to the diamond. The Cr in the filler metal diffused to the steel substrate to form a reaction layer at the filler/steel substrate interface. The microhardness of the Ni filler metal (810-830 HV0.3) was significantly higher than that of Cu filler metal (170-230 HV0.3). The compressive load values of the diamond grits brazed with Cu-based or Ni-based filler metal were 93.7 and 49.2% of the original diamond, and the TI values were 83.7 and 59.8% of the original diamond. Grinding experiments for failure mode in monolayer tools revealed that the tools brazed with Cu-based filler metal had a lower macro-fracture ratio than those brazed using the Ni-based filler.

  18. Vacuum Brazing Diamond Grits with Cu-based or Ni-based Filler Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wenchun; Lu, Jinbin; Li, Yang; Xu, Shuai; Zhong, Sujuan; Wang, Bangfu; Qiu, Xinkai

    2017-06-01

    Diamond grits were brazed using Cu-Sn-Cr and Ni-Cr-B-Si filler metals, and the brazed grits were examined for microstructure (SEM, EDS, XRD), microhardness, and compression strength. Results showed that the microstructure of the Cu-based filler metal was uniform and consisted of α-Cu + (α-Cu + δ). Its wettability to the diamond was better than Ni-based filler due to the formation of a thin carbide reaction layer that improved the bond strength between the diamond and steel. The Cu-based filler led to reduced thermal damage to the diamond. The Cr in the filler metal diffused to the steel substrate to form a reaction layer at the filler/steel substrate interface. The microhardness of the Ni filler metal (810-830 HV0.3) was significantly higher than that of Cu filler metal (170-230 HV0.3). The compressive load values of the diamond grits brazed with Cu-based or Ni-based filler metal were 93.7 and 49.2% of the original diamond, and the TI values were 83.7 and 59.8% of the original diamond. Grinding experiments for failure mode in monolayer tools revealed that the tools brazed with Cu-based filler metal had a lower macro-fracture ratio than those brazed using the Ni-based filler.

  19. Study on a novel Sn-electroplated silver brazing filler metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingxing; Peng, Jin; Cui, Datian

    2017-08-01

    Novel Sn-electroplated Ag brazing filler metal with a high tin content was prepared by combining the plating and thermal diffusion method. The BAg45CuZn alloy was used as a base filler metal, and a Sn layer was electroplated on it. Then the H62 brass was brazed with the Sn-plated brazing filler metal containing 6.2 wt% of Sn. The results showed that the microstructure of the brazed joints with the Sn-plated filler mainly consisted of the Ag phase, Cu phase, CuZn phase and Cu5Zn8 phase. The tensile strength of the joints brazed with the Sn-plated filler metal was 326 MPa, which was higher than that of the joints with the base filler metal. Fracture analysis showed that the fractures of the joints brazed by the Sn-plated filler metal was mainly ductile fracture mixed with a small quantity of brittle fracture.

  20. Thermal analysis of resin composites with ellipsoidal filler considering thermal boundary resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakuma, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2016-10-01

    The effective thermal conductivity of composites with ellipsoidal fillers is analyzed by using a homogenization method that is able to represent the microstructure precisely. In this study, various parameters such as the volume fraction, shape, and distribution of the filler are quantitatively estimated to understand the mechanisms of heat transfer in the composite. First, thermal boundary resistance between resin and filler is important for obtaining composites with higher thermal conductivity. Second, the anisotropy of the effective thermal conductivity arises from contact between filler in the case of ellipsoidal filler and produces lower thermal resistance. Finally, the filler network and thermal resistance are essential for the heat transfer in composites because the path of thermal conduction is improved by contact between neighboring filler particles.

  1. Autonomous Slat-Cove-Filler Device for Reduction of Aeroacoustic Noise Associated with Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor); Lockard, David P (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Streett, Craig L. (Inventor); Weber, Douglas Leo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A slat cove filler is utilized to reduce airframe noise resulting from deployment of a leading edge slat of an aircraft wing. The slat cove filler is preferably made of a super elastic shape memory alloy, and the slat cove filler shifts between stowed and deployed shapes as the slat is deployed. The slat cove filler may be configured such that a separate powered actuator is not required to change the shape of the slat cove filler from its deployed shape to its stowed shape and vice-versa. The outer contour of the slat cove filler preferably follows a profile designed to maintain accelerating flow in the gap between the slat cove filler and wing leading edge to provide for noise reduction.

  2. A composite dermal filler comprising cross-linked hyaluronic acid and human collagen for tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Z-Hun; Lee, Yongjun; Kim, Sun-Mi; Kim, Hojin; Yun, Chang-Koo; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we developed a composite filler comprising cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA) and human collagen (COL) derived from the human umbilical cord with the aim of improving its biocompatibility and longevity compared with commercially available fillers. After HA/ COL composite fillers were made in two different ratios (10:1 and 5:1), the physical properties of the fillers were evaluated. The interior morphologies and in vivo weight change of these hydrogels were also characterized at 1-16 weeks after injection into mice. To evaluate their biocompatibility and durability in vivo, we injected the composite fillers into nude mice subcutaneously. The variations of injected gel weight were measured and compared with the commercial dermal fillers (Restylane and TheraFill). The composites showed improved or similar physical properties (complex viscosity of 19-22 × 10(5) cP, and injection force of 10- 12 N) over the commercial dermal fillers. Sixteen weeks following the injection, the ratio of remaining composite filler weight to initial weight (75.5 ± 16.9%; 10:1) was shown to be greater than that of the commercial fillers (43.2 ± 8.1%, Restylane; 12.3 ± 5.3%, TheraFill). In addition, immunohistochemical analysis with angiogenesis-related markers such as isolectin and vWF revealed newly formed blood vessels and cellular influx into the composite filler, which were not observed in the other fillers. These results clearly suggest that the HA/COL composite filler is a superior candidate for soft tissue reconstruction. The filler we developed may be a suitable candidate as an injectable dermal filler for tissue augmentation in humans.

  3. Application of amorphous filler metals in production of fusion reactor high heat flux components

    SciTech Connect

    Kalin, B.A.; Fedotov, V.T.; Grigoriev, A.E.

    1994-12-31

    The technology of Al-Si, Zr-Ti-Be and Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni amorphous filler metals for Be and graphite brazing with Cu, Mo and V was developed. The fusion reactor high heat flux components from Cu-Be, Cu-graphite, Mo-Be, Mo-graphite, V-Re and V-graphite materials were produced by brazing. Every component represents metallic base, to which Be or graphite plates are brazed. The distance between plates was equal 0.2 times the plate height. These components were irradiated by hydrogen plasma with 5 x 10{sup 6} W/m{sup 2} power. The microstructure and the element distribution in the brazed zone were investigated before and after heat plasma irradiation. Topography graphite plate surfaces and topography of metal surfaces between plates were also investigated after heat plasma irradiation. The results of microstructure investigation and material erosion are discussed.

  4. Effect of Conductive Inorganic Fillers on Space Charge Accumulation Characteristics in Cross-linked Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Nobuya; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Maeno, Takashi; Mizuno, Takehiko; Takahashi, Tohru

    We have observed space charge profiles in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) under dc high electric field using the PEA (pulsed electro-acoustic) system to study the relationship between space charge behavior and dielectric breakdown. In our previous research work, we have found that a large amount of, so called, packet-like charge generates in low density polyethylene (LDPE) under high dc electric field of more than 100 kV/mm. The packet-like charge enhances the electric field locally in bulk of the sample, and then finally it leads a breakdown. On the other hand, a new type of XLPE which was made through adding conductive inorganic fillers, shows a good dc dielectric breakdown characteristic and high volume resistivity under dc stress. In this report, we tried to observe the space charge behavior under high dc electric field in this material. From the results, it is found that the charge injection is effectively suppressed by adding only a small amount of conductive inorganic fillers to XLPE.

  5. Interfacial characteristics for brazing of aluminum matrix composites with Al-12Si filler metals

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.P.; Chuang, T.H.

    1997-12-01

    Discussions concerning the interfacial reactions and characterizations in brazing aluminum matrix composites are documented in this study. Joints of alumina particulate reinforced 6061 aluminum matrix composites were made using an Al-12 (wt pct) Si filler metal by vacuum brazing. The resulted maximum bonding strengths were 75.4, 81.5, and 71.8 MPa for 10, 15, and 20 vol pct alumina reinforcement, respectively. The microstructural examinations revealed that the bonding strength was strictly related to the reinforced alumina particles and the reaction products presented at the joint interfaces. During brazing, Mg segregated at the joining interface and alumina/6061 Al interface. Further, reactions between alumina and 6061 Al matrix resulted in the formation of Mg-rich phases, such as MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgO, near the joining interface and the alumina reinforcement. The Si in the filler material penetrated into the metal matrix composites (MMCs) matrix and segregated at the alumina/6061 Al interfaces. This phenomenon can be confirmed by a joint between two alumina bulk specimens.

  6. Dielectric properties of polymer-particle nanocomposites influenced by electronic nature of filler surfaces.

    PubMed

    Siddabattuni, Sasidhar; Schuman, Thomas P; Dogan, Fatih

    2013-03-01

    The interface between the polymer and the particle has a critical role in altering the properties of a composite dielectric. Polymer-ceramic nanocomposites are promising dielectric materials for many electronic and power devices, combining the high dielectric constant of ceramic particles with the high dielectric breakdown strength of a polymer. Self-assembled monolayers of electron rich or electron poor organophosphate coupling groups were applied to affect the filler-polymer interface and investigate the role of this interface on composite behavior. The interface has potential to influence dielectric properties, in particular the leakage and breakdown resistance. The composite films synthesized from the modified filler particles dispersed into an epoxy polymer matrix were analyzed by dielectric spectroscopy, breakdown strength, and leakage current measurements. The data indicate that significant reduction in leakage currents and dielectric losses and improvement in dielectric breakdown strengths resulted when electropositive phenyl, electron-withdrawing functional groups were located at the polymer-particle interface. At a 30 vol % particle concentration, dielectric composite films yielded a maximum energy density of ~8 J·cm(-3) for TiO2-epoxy nanocomposites and ~9.5 J·cm(-3) for BaTiO3-epoxy nanocomposites.

  7. Effect of Montmorillonite Nanogel Composite Fillers on the Protection Performance of Epoxy Coatings on Steel Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Saeed, Ashraf M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Wahby, Mohamed

    2017-06-02

    Montmorillonite (MMT) clay mineral is widely used as filler for several organic coatings. Its activity is increased by exfoliation via chemical modification to produce nanomaterials. In the present work, the modification of MMT to form nanogel composites is proposed to increase the dispersion of MMT into epoxy matrices used to fill cracks and holes produced by the curing exotherms of epoxy resins. The dispersion of MMT in epoxy improved both the mechanical and anti-corrosion performance of epoxy coatings in aggressive marine environments. In this respect, the MMT surfaces were chemically modified with different types of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) nanogels using a surfactant-free dispersion polymerization technique. The effect of the chemical structure, nanogel content and the interaction with MMT surfaces on the surface morphology, surface charges and dispersion in the epoxy matrix were investigated for use as nano-filler for epoxy coatings. The modified MMT nanogel epoxy composites showed excellent resistance to mechanical damage and salt spray resistance up to 1000 h. The interaction of MMT nanogel composites with the epoxy matrix and good response of AMPS nanogel to sea water improve their ability to act as self-healing materials for epoxy coatings for steel.

  8. High-aspect ratio fillers: fiber-reinforced composites and their anisotropic properties.

    PubMed

    Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-01-01

    To present an overview of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) that are a group of non-metallic dental biomaterials used in several fields of dentistry. A range of relevant publications from the past half century are surveyed, with emphasis upon recent publications. FRCs vary according to the type of fiber fillers and orientation of fibers, the latter being responsible for several properties which can vary from isotropic to anisotropic. The length of the fibers, i.e. the aspect ratio of the filler, is another factor or variable that contributes to the properties and the development of new types of composite resins for restorative and prosthetic dentistry, as well as to reconstructive medicine. Understanding the anisotropic nature of FRCs from the perspective of dental applications has increased in recent years. This review describes some fiber orientation related anisotropic properties of FRCs which contribute to the increased use of FRCs in clinical dentistry. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reuse of EAF Slag as Reinforcing Filler for Polypropylene Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornacchia, G.; Agnelli, S.; Gelfi, M.; Ramorino, G.; Roberti, R.

    2015-06-01

    Electric-arc furnace (EAF) slag, the by-product of steel fabricated at the EAF, is in most cases still sent to dumps, with serious environmental consequences. This work shows an innovative, economically convenient application for EAF slag: its use as reinforcing filler for polypropylene. Composites based on polypropylene containing 10-40 wt.% of EAF slag particles were prepared by melt compounding followed by injection molding. A physical-chemical analysis of the EAF slag was performed to determine microstructural features and main component phases. Leaching tests demonstrated that, although EAF slag can release small amounts of toxic elements, such as heavy metals, incorporating such material into the polymeric matrix immobilizes the heavy metals inside that matrix. The mechanical characterization of the polymer-based composites was performed. Incorporating EAF slag particles raises the Young's modulus and the tensile strength at yield, whereas elongation at break and the impact strength of the polymer-based composite are significantly reduced only when large amounts of filler are added, i.e., 30% or more.

  10. Provision of micro-nano bacterial cellulose as bio plastic filler by sonication method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryam; Rahmad, D.; Yunizurwan; Kasim, A.; Novelina; Emriadi

    2017-07-01

    Research and development of bioplastic has increased recently as a solution for substitution of conventional plastic which have many negative impacts to environment. However, physical properties and mechanical properties of its still lower than conventional plastic. An alternative solution for that problem is by using fillers that can increase the strength. Bacterial cellulose is considered as potential source for filler, but still need to be explored more. The privileges of bacterial cellulose are easy to get and does not have lignin, pectin, and hemicelluloses which are impurities in other celluloses. This research focused on gaining bacterial cellulose in micro-nano particle form and its impact on increasing the strength of bio plastic. Ultrasonication has been used as method to form micro-nano particle from bacterial cellulose. The result showed this method may form the particle size of bacterial cellulose approximately ± 3μm. Next step, after getting ± 3μm particle of bacterial cellulose, is making bio plastic with casting method by adding 1% of bacterial cellulose, from the total material in making bio plastic. Physical characteristic of the bio plastic which are tensile strength 11.85 MPa, modulus young 3.13 MPa, elongation 4.11% and density 0.42 g/cm3. The numbers of physical properties showwthat, by adding 1% of bacterial cellulose, the strength of bio plastic was significantly increase, even value of tensile strength has complied the international standard for bio plastic.

  11. Composite membranes for alkaline electrolysis based on polysulfone and mineral fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnat, Dariusz; Schlupp, Meike; Wichser, Adrian; Lothenbach, Barbara; Gorbar, Michal; Züttel, Andreas; Vogt, Ulrich F.

    2015-09-01

    Mineral-based membranes for high temperature alkaline electrolysis were developed by a phase inversion process with polysulfone as binder. The long-term stability of new mineral fillers: wollastonite, forsterite and barite was assessed by 8000 h-long leaching experiments (5.5 M KOH, 85 °C) combined with thermodynamic modelling. Barite has released only 6.22 10-4 M of Ba ions into the electrolyte and was selected as promising filler material, due to its excellent stability. Barite-based membranes, prepared by the phase inversion process, were further studied. The resistivity of these membranes in 5.5 M KOH was investigated as a function of membrane thickness and total porosity, hydrodynamic porosity as well as gas purities determined by conducting electrolysis at ambient conditions. It was found that a dense top layer resulting from the phase inversion process, shows resistivity values up to 451.0 ± 22 Ω cm, which is two orders of magnitude higher than a porous bulk membrane microstructure (3.89 Ω cm). Developed membranes provided hydrogen purity of 99.83 at 200 mA cm-2, which is comparable to previously used chrysotile membranes and higher than commercial state-of-the-art Zirfon 500utp membrane. These cost-effective polysulfone - barite membranes are promising candidates as asbestos replacement for commercial applications.

  12. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment of cellulose based fillers for wood plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekobou, William; Englund, Karl; Pedrow, Patrick; Scudiero, Louis

    2011-10-01

    The main challenge of wood plastic composites (WPC) resides in the low interfacial adhesion due to incompatibility between the cellulose based filler that has a polar surface and most common matrixes, polyolefins which are non-polar. Plasma treatment is a promising technique for surface modification and its implementation into the processing of WPC would provide this industry with a versatile and nearly environmentally benign manufacturing tool. Our investigation aims at designing a cold atmospheric pressure plasma reactor for coating fillers with a hydrophobic material prior to compounding with the matrix. Deposition was achieved with our reactor that includes an array of high voltage needles, a grounded metal mesh, Ar as carrier gas and C2H2 as the precursor molecule. Parameters studied have included gas feed rates and applied voltage; FTIR, ESCA, AFM and SEM imaging were used for film diagnostics. We will also report on deposition rate and its dependence on radial and axial position as well as the effects of plasma-polymerized acetylene on the surface free energy of cellulose based substrates.

  13. Influence of Filler on the Mechanical Properties and Kinetic Crystallization Behavior of Polylactic Acid (PLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuta, Ryo; Inoue, Ryohei; Hara, Ryosuke; Sato, Sadao

    The kinetic crystallization behavior of PLA (polylactic acid) and PLA/MMT nanocomposites containing 3 wt% montmorillonite (MMT) was examined in order to develop a new technique for obtaining the relative crystallization degree of a material from the spherulite occupation area based on images obtained using a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. In addition, the relative crystallization degree is discussed in terms of the Ozawa theory. The effect of MMT filler on the mechanical properties of PLA/MMT nanocomposites, the number of spherulites generated in the nanocomposites, and the linear growth rate of these spherulites were also examined experimentally. The relative crystallization curves obtained by CCD and by DSC measurement were found to be approximately the same. Moreover, it was found that the Ozawa theory could be applied not only to PLA but also to PLA/MMT nanocomposites. In these nanocomposites, the number of spherulites decreased and the linear growth rate slightly increased ; moreover, the rate of crystallization also increased. The tensile and flexural modulus of the PLA/MMT nanocomposites containing 3 wt% MMT were 5.2-14.3% greater than those of PLA, and annealing resulted in a further increase of about 4.0-20.7%. However, the Izod impact value decreased due to the increase in rigidity caused by annealing and the addition of filler.

  14. Properties of hybrid resin composite systems containing prepolymerized filler particles.

    PubMed

    Blackham, Jason T; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Lien, Wen

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the properties of newer hybrid resin composites with prepolymerized-filler particles to traditional hybrids and a microfill composite. The following properties were examined per composite: diametral tensile strength, flexural strength/modulus, Knoop microhardness and polymerization shrinkage. Physical properties were determined for each Jason T Blackham, DMD, USAF, General Dentistry, Tyndall composite group (n = 8), showing significant differences between groups per property (p < 0.001). In general, the traditional hybrid composites (Z250, Esthet-X) had higher strength, composites containing pre-polymerized fillers (Gradia Direct Posterior, Premise) performed more moderately and the microfill composite (Durafill VS) had lower strength. Premise and Durafill VS had the lowest polymerization shrinkage.

  15. Epoxy Resin Composite Based on Functional Hybrid Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Oleksy, Mariusz; Szwarc-Rzepka, Karolina; Heneczkowski, Maciej; Oliwa, Rafał; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out involving the filling of epoxy resin (EP) with bentonites and silica modified with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The method of homogenization and the type of filler affect the functional and canceling properties of the composites was determined. The filler content ranged from 1.5% to 4.5% by mass. The basic mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were found to improve, and, in particular, there was an increase in tensile strength by 44%, and in Charpy impact strength by 93%. The developed hybrid composites had characteristics typical of polymer nanocomposites modified by clays, with a fine plate morphology of brittle fractures observed by SEM, absence of a plate separation peak in Wide Angles X-ray Scattering (WAXS) curves, and an exfoliated structure observed by TEM. PMID:28788177

  16. Polymer Filler Aging and Failure Studied by Lateral Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratto, T; Saab, A P

    2009-05-27

    In the present work, we study, via force microscopy, the basic physical interactions of a single bead of silica filler with a PDMS matrix both before and after exposure to gamma radiation. Our goal was to confirm our results from last year, and to explore force microscopy as a means of obtaining particle-scale polymer/filler interactions suitable for use as empirical inputs to a computational model consisting of an ensemble of silica beads embedded in a PDMS matrix. Through careful calibration of a conventional atomic force microscope, we obtained both normal and lateral force data that was fitted to yield adhesion, surface shear modulus, and friction of a 1 {micro}m silica bead in contact with PDMS layers of various thickness. Comparison of these terms before and after gamma exposure indicated that initially, radiation exposure lead to softening of the PDMS, but eventually resulted in stiffening. Simultaneously, adhesion between the polymer and silica decreased. This could indicate a serious failure path for filled PDMS exposed to radiation, whereby stiffening of the bulk polymer leads to loss of compressive elastic behavior, while a decrease in polymer filler adhesion results in an increased likelihood of stress failure under load. In addition to further testing of radiation damaged polymers, we also performed FEA modeling of silica beads in a silicone matrix using the shear modulus and adhesion values isolated from the force microscopy experiments as model inputs. The resulting simulation indicated that as a polymer stiffens due to impinging radiation, it also undergoes weakening of adhesion to the filler. The implication is that radiation induces a compound failure mode in filled polymer systems.

  17. Using hyperbranched oligomer functionalized glass fillers to reduce shrinkage stress

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Sheng; Azarnoush, Setareh; Smith, Ian R.; Cramer, Neil B.; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.; Bowman, Christopher N

    2012-01-01

    Objective Fillers are widely utilized to enhance the mechanical properties of polymer resins. However, polymerization stress has the potential to increase due to the higher elastic modulus achieved upon filler addition. Here, we demonstrate a hyperbranched oligomer functionalized glass filler UV curable resin composite which is able to reduce the shrinkage stress without sacrificing mechanical properties. Methods A 16-functional alkene-terminated hyperbranched oligomer is synthesized by thiol-acrylate and thiol-yne reactions and the product structure is analyzed by 1H-NMR, mass spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography. Surface functionalization of the glass filler is measured by thermogravimetric analysis. Reaction kinetics, mechanical properties and shrinkage stress are studied via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis and a tensometer, respectively. Results Silica nanoparticles are functionalized with a flexible 16-functional alkene-terminated hyperbranched oligomer which is synthesized by multistage thiol-ene/yne reactions. 93% of the particle surface was covered by this oligomer and an interfacial layer ranging from 0.7 – 4.5 nm thickness is generated. A composite system with these functionalized silica nanoparticles incorporated into the thiol-yne-methacrylate resin demonstrates 30% reduction of shrinkage stress (from 0.9 MPa to 0.6 MPa) without sacrificing the modulus (3100 ± 300 MPa) or glass transition temperature (62 ± 3 °C). Moreover, the shrinkage stress of the composite system builds up at much later stages of the polymerization as compared to the control system. Significance Due to the capability of reducing shrinkage stress without sacrificing mechanical properties, this composite system will be a great candidate for dental composite applications. PMID:22717296

  18. Resorbable fillers reduce stress risers from empty screw holes.

    PubMed

    Alford, J Winslow; Bradley, Michael P; Fadale, Paul D; Crisco, Joseph J; Moore, Douglas C; Ehrlich, Michael G

    2007-09-01

    Empty screw holes after hardware removal are stress risers that weaken bone and can lead to refracture in an active individual. We sought to reduce these stress risers. We hypothesize that resorbable screws used as hole fillers would (1) provide immediate strength and (2) maintain this strength during resorption. Randomized, prospective controlled animal laboratory study with 75 live New Zealand white rabbits' paired femurs. Single mid-diaphyseal holes were filled with a metal or resorbable screw; contralateral femurs were paired empty hole controls. Main outcome measurements included histologic analysis, torsion to failure, peak torque, energy to failure, and stiffness at baseline, 1 week, and 13 weeks postimplantation. At time baseline, resorbable fillers produced an immediate 30% increase in the peak torque (p = 0.01) and 73% increase in peak energy (p = 0.006). Metal screws produced a 17% increase in peak torque (p = 0.038), and a 58% increase in the amount of energy to failure (p = 0.009). At 1 week, although the resorbable (p = 0.01) but not the metal (p = 0.82) screws increased the peak torque, both metal (p = 0.003) and resorbable (p = 0.050) screws increased the peak energy compared with contralateral empty controls. At 13 weeks, metal and resorbable screw-filled bones were as strong as the healed contralateral femurs. Partial screw resorption and new bone formation without lysis was demonstrated histologically. Resorbable screw hole fillers immediately increase the strength of bones without weakening during early resorption. Placing resorbable fillers in bone defects after hardware removal could reduce the likelihood of refracture.

  19. Verification of Embolic Channel Causing Blindness Following Filler Injection.

    PubMed

    Tansatit, Tanvaa; Moon, Hyoung Jin; Apinuntrum, Prawit; Phetudom, Thavorn

    2015-02-01

    Ocular complications following cosmetic filler injections are serious situations. This study provided scientific evidence that filler in the facial and the superficial temporal arteries could enter into the orbits and the globes on both sides. We demonstrated the existence of an embolic channel connecting the arterial system of the face to the ophthalmic artery. After the removal of the ocular contents from both eyes, liquid dye was injected into the cannulated channel of the superficial temporal artery in six soft embalmed cadavers and different color dye was injected into the facial artery on both sides successively. The interior sclera was monitored for dye oozing from retrograde ophthalmic perfusion. Among all 12 globes, dye injections from the 12 superficial temporal arteries entered ipsilateral globes in three and the contralateral globe in two arteries. Dye from the facial artery was infused into five ipsilateral globes and in three contralateral globes. Dye injections of two facial arteries in the same cadaver resulted in bilateral globe staining but those of the superficial temporal arteries did not. Direct communications between the same and different arteries of the four cannulated arteries were evidenced by dye dripping from the cannulating needle hubs in 14 of 24 injected arteries. Compression of the orbital rim at the superior nasal corner retarded ocular infusion in 11 of 14 arterial injections. Under some specific conditions favoring embolism, persistent interarterial anastomoses between the face and the eye allowed filler emboli to flow into the globe causing ocular complications.

  20. Nanostructures and dynamics of macromolecules bound to attractive filler surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Tad; Barkley, Deborah; Jiang, Naisheng; Endoh, Maya; Masui, Tomomi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Michihiro; Satija, Sushil; Taniguchi, Takashi

    We report in-situ nanostructures and dynamics of polybutadiene (PB) chains bound to carbon black (CB) fillers (the so-called ``bound polymer layer (BPL)'') in a good solvent. The BPL on the CB fillers were extracted by solvent leaching of a CB-filled PB compound and subsequently dispersed in deuterated toluene to label the BPL for small-angle neutron scattering and neutron spin echo techniques. Intriguingly, the results demonstrate that the BPL is composed of two regions regardless of molecular weights of PB: the inner unswollen region of ~ 0.5 nm thick and outer swollen region where the polymer chains display a parabolic profile with a diffuse tail. This two-layer formation on the filler surface is similar to that reported for polymer chains adsorbed on planar substrates from melts. In addition, the results show that the dynamics of the swollen bound chains can be explained by the so-called ``breathing mode'' and is generalized with the thickness of the swollen BPL. Furthermore, we will discuss how the breathing collective dynamics is affected by the presence of polymer chains in a matrix solution. We acknowledge the financial support from NSF Grant No. CMMI-1332499.

  1. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy to Avoid Blindness From Filler Injection.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun

    2016-11-01

    The most serious complication of filler or fat injection is blindness. According to a recent systematic review of 98 patients of blindness provoked by filler or fat injection, only 2 patients had the outcome of a complete recovery of vision.In the literature, only 2 papers were found in which hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) was used in ophthalmic artery obstruction. However, no improvement of vision was obtained in either patient. Recently, the authors treated a patient who had central retinal vein occlusion and cilioretinal artery occlusion with HBOT (daily 2-hour sessions at 253 kPa for 14 days), and his visual acuity returned to normal.In central retinal artery obstruction, if the cilioretinal artery is present, it will maintain the thickness of the retina to a variable extent. Though the size of the cilioretinal artery and the area it supplies varies, 36.2% (32.1-40.2%) of people have a cilioretinal artery.Thereafter, HBOT might be applied to patients with central retinal artery occlusion following filler injection.

  2. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy to Avoid Blindness From Filler Injection.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun

    2016-09-09

    The most serious complication of filler or fat injection is blindness. According to a recent systematic review of 98 patients of blindness provoked by filler or fat injection, only 2 patients had the outcome of a complete recovery of vision.In the literature, only 2 papers were found in which hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) was used in ophthalmic artery obstruction. However, no improvement of vision was obtained in either patient. Recently, the authors treated a patient who had central retinal vein occlusion and cilioretinal artery occlusion with HBOT (daily 2-hour sessions at 253 kPa for 14 days), and his visual acuity returned to normal.In central retinal artery obstruction, if the cilioretinal artery is present, it will maintain the thickness of the retina to a variable extent. Though the size of the cilioretinal artery and the area it supplies varies, 36.2% (32.1-40.2%) of people have a cilioretinal artery.Thereafter, HBOT might be applied to patients with central retinal artery occlusion following filler injection.

  3. Electrically insulating thermal nano-oils using 2D fillers.

    PubMed

    Taha-Tijerina, Jaime; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Gao, Guanhui; Rohde, Matthew; Tsentalovich, Dmitri A; Pasquali, Matteo; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-02-28

    Different nanoscale fillers have been used to create composite fluids for applications such as thermal management. The ever increasing thermal loads in applications now require advanced operational fluids, for example, high thermal conductivity dielectric oils in transformers. These oils require excellent filler dispersion, high thermal conduction, but also electrical insulation. Such thermal oils that conform to this thermal/electrical requirement, and yet remain in highly suspended stable state, have not yet been synthesized. We report here the synthesis and characterization of stable high thermal conductivity Newtonian nanofluids using exfoliated layers of hexagonal boron nitride in oil without compromising its electrically insulating property. Two-dimensional nanosheets of hexagonal boron nitride are liquid exfoliated in isopropyl alcohol and redispersed in mineral oil, used as standard transformer oil, forming stable nanosuspensions with high shelf life. A high electrical resistivity, even higher than that of the base oil, is maintained for the nano-oil containing small weight fraction of the filler (0.01 wt %), whereas the thermal conductivity was enhanced. The low dissipation factor and high pour point for this nano-oil suggests several applications in thermal management.

  4. Fatigue strengths of particulate filler composites reinforced with fibers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji-Myung; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Hattori, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Koji; Yoshinari, Masao; Kawada, Eiji; Oda, Yutaka

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamic fatigue strengths at 10(5) cycles and the strains of particulate filler composite resins with and without reinforcing fibers. An UHMWPE (Ribbond), a polyaromatic polyamide fiber (Fibreflex), and three glass fibers (GlasSpan, FibreKor, Vectris Frame) were used to reinforce the particulate filler composite resins. The fatigue properties were measured in three-point bending mode using a servohydraulic universal testing machine at a frequency of 5 Hz, until failure occurred or 10(5) cycles had been completed. The fatigue strengths at 10(5) cycles were determined by the staircase method. The fractured aspects of specimens were evaluated by an optical and scanning electron microscope. The fatigue strengths of particulate filler composite resins were 49-57 MPa, and those of fiber-reinforced were 90-209 MPa. Unidirectional glass fibers showed higher reinforcing effects on the fatigue strengths of composite resins. The strain of UHMWPE-reinforced composite was largest.

  5. Thermal Degradation of Filler/PP Composite and Its Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, Hiroshi; Funami, Fumiyasu; Yasuda, Naoki; Nomura, Manabu; Yui, Hiroshi; Ikuta, Nobuo

    To examine thermal degradation accelerated by filling inorganic particles in polypropylene (PP), the composites were made with three types of inorganic powders : talc, magnesium hydroxide, and mica. They were easily degraded with the fillers in this order in the thermal aging test. A commercial heat resistance agent, ‘Plenlizer MK-400’, was added while making the composites. The degradation resistance of the agent remarkably appeared in the reverse order. That is, thermal degradation was most depressed in talc-filled composite with the agent. In another experience, soxhlet extraction was carried out to the filler with an organic solvent, o-xylene, that was able to dissolve PP. A lot of inorganic ions were detected in the extractant. In particular, the detected amount of aluminum ion increased in the order of talc, magnesium hydroxide, and mica. This order was the same as the fillers indicated by the degree of degradation. Infrared analysis of the agent with inorganic ions in chloroform showed that the peaks due to the agent were much stronger with aluminum ion than those with iron ion. These results suggested that a cause of degradation was aluminum ion dispersed from particles to PP matrix during the molding.

  6. Complications of injectable fillers, part 2: vascular complications.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Accidental intra-arterial filler injection may cause significant tissue injury and necrosis. Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers, currently the most popular, are the focus of this article, which highlights complications and their symptoms, risk factors, and possible treatment strategies. Although ischemic events do happen and are therefore important to discuss, they seem to be exceptionally rare and represent a small percentage of complications in individual clinical practices. However, the true incidence of this complication is unknown because of underreporting by clinicians. Typical clinical findings include skin blanching, livedo reticularis, slow capillary refill, and dusky blue-red discoloration, followed a few days later by blister formation and finally tissue slough. Mainstays of treatment (apart from avoidance by meticulous technique) are prompt recognition, immediate treatment with hyaluronidase, topical nitropaste under occlusion, oral acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), warm compresses, and vigorous massage. Secondary lines of treatment may involve intra-arterial hyaluronidase, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and ancillary vasodilating agents such as prostaglandin E1. Emergency preparedness (a "filler crash cart") is emphasized, since early intervention is likely to significantly reduce morbidity. A clinical summary chart is provided, organized by complication presentation.

  7. NANOSCALE BOEHMITE FILLER FOR CORROSION AND WEAR RESISTANT POLYPHENYLENESULFIDE COATINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.

    2003-06-26

    The authors evaluated the usefulness of nanoscale boehmite crystals as a filler for anti-wear and anti-corrosion polyphenylenesulfide (PPS) coatings exposed to a very harsh, 300 C corrosive geothermal environment. The boehmite fillers dispersed uniformly into the PPS coating, conferring two advanced properties: First, they reduced markedly the rate of blasting wear; second, they increased the PPS's glass transition temperature and thermal decomposition temperature. The wear rate of PPS surfaces was reduced three times when 5wt% boehmite was incorporated into the PPS. During exposure for 15 days at 300 C, the PPS underwent hydrothermal oxidation, leading to the substitution of sulfide linkages by the sulfite linkages. However, such molecular alteration did not significantly diminish the ability of the coating to protect carbon steel against corrosion. In fact, PPS coating filled with boehmite of {le} 5wt% adequately mitigated its corrosion in brine at 300 C. One concern in using this filler was that it absorbs brine. Thus, adding an excess amount of boehmite was detrimental to achieving the maximum protection afforded by the coatings.

  8. Waste oyster shell as a kind of active filler to treat the combined wastewater at an estuary.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongbing; Huang, Gu; Fu, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiaoling; Zheng, Daocai; Peng, Jian; Zhang, Ke; Huang, Bo; Fan, Liangqian; Chen, Fenghui; Sun, Xiubo

    2013-10-01

    Estuaries have been described as one of the most difficult environments on Earth. It is difficult to know how to treat the combined wastewater in tidal rivers at the estuary, where the situation is very different from ordinary fresh water rivers. Waste oyster shell was used as the active filler in this study in a bio-contact oxidation tank to treat the combined wastewater at the Fengtang Tidal River. With a middle-experimental scale of 360 m3/day, the average removal efficiency of COD, BOD, NH3-N, TP and TSS was 80.05%, 85.02%, 86.59%, 50.58% and 85.32%, respectively, in this bio-contact oxidation process. The living microbes in the biofilms on the waste oyster shell in this bio-contact oxidation tank, which were mainly composed of zoogloea, protozoa and micro-metazoa species, revealed that waste oyster shell as the filler was suitable material for combined wastewater degradation. This treatment method using waste oyster shell as active filler was then applied in a mangrove demonstration area for water quality improvement near the experiment area, with a treatment volume of 5 x 10(3) m3/day. Another project was also successfully applied in a constructed wetland, with a wastewater treatment volume of 1 x 10(3) m3/day. This technology is therefore feasible and can easily be applied on a larger scale.

  9. Preparation of ceramic-corrosion-cell fillers and application for cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment in electrobath reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Gao, Yue; Xu, Yunyun; Gao, Fan; Yu, Huan; Lu, Yue; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Jinze

    2011-11-30

    As new media, ceramic-corrosion-cell fillers (Cathode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers - CCF, and Anode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers - ACF) employed in electrobath were investigated for cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment. 60.0 wt% of dried sewage sludge and 40.0 wt% of clay, 40.0 wt% of scrap iron and 60.0 wt% of clay were utilized as raw materials for the preparation of raw CCF and ACF, respectively. The raw CCF and ACF were respectively sintered at 400°C for 20 min in anoxic conditions. The physical properties (bulk density, grain density and water absorption), structural and morphological characters and toxic metal leaching contents were tested. The influences of pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the media height on removal of COD(Cr) and cyclohexanone were studied. The results showed that the bulk density and grain density of CCF and ACF were 869.0 kg m(-3) and 936.3 kg m(-3), 1245.0 kg m(-3) and 1420.0 kg m(-3), respectively. The contents of toxic metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ba, Ni and As) were all below the detection limit. When pH of 3-4, HRT of 6h and the media height of 60 cm were applied, about 90% of COD(cr) and cyclohexanone were removed.

  10. Development of novel multifunctional biobased polymer composites with tailored conductive network of micro-and-nano-fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Siu N.; Ghaffari, Shahriar; Naguib, Hani E.

    2013-04-01

    Biobased/green polymers and nanotechnology warrant a multidisciplinary approach to promote the development of the next generation of materials, products, and processes that are environmentally sustainable. The scientific challenge is to find the suitable applications, and thereby to create the demand for large scale production of biobased/green polymers that would foster sustainable development of these eco-friendly materials in contrast to their petroleum/fossil fuel derived counterparts. In this context, this research aims to investigate the synergistic effect of green materials and nanotechnology to develop a new family of multifunctional biobased polymer composites with promoted thermal conductivity. For instance, such composite can be used as a heat management material in the electronics industry. A series of parametric studies were conducted to elucidate the science behind materials behavior and their structure-toproperty relationships. Using biobased polymers (e.g., polylactic acid (PLA)) as the matrix, heat transfer networks were developed and structured by embedding hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) in the PLA matrix. The use of hybrid filler system, with optimized material formulation, was found to promote the composite's effective thermal conductivity by 10-folded over neat PLA. This was achieved by promoting the development of an interconnected thermally conductive network through structuring hybrid fillers. The thermally conductive composite is expected to afford unique opportunities to injection mold three-dimensional, net-shape, lightweight, and eco-friendly microelectronic enclosures with superior heat dissipation performance.

  11. Zero valent zinc nanoparticles promote neuroglial cell proliferation: A biodegradable and conductive filler candidate for nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Aydemir Sezer, Umran; Ozturk, Kevser; Aru, Basak; Yanıkkaya Demirel, Gulderen; Sezer, Serdar; Bozkurt, Mehmet Recep

    2017-01-01

    Regeneration of nerve, which has limited ability to undergo self-healing, is one of the most challenging areas in the field of tissue engineering. Regarding materials used in neuroregeneration, there is a recent trend toward electrically conductive materials. It has been emphasized that the capacity of conductive materials to regenerate such tissue having limited self-healing ability improves their clinical utility. However, there have been concerns about the safety of materials or fillers used for conductance due to their lack of degradability. Here, we attempt to use poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix consisting of varying proportions of zero valent zinc nanoparticles (Zn NPs) via electrospinning. These conductive, biodegradable, and bioactive materials efficiently promoted neuroglial cell proliferation depending on the amount of Zn NPs present in the PCL matrix. Chemical characterizations indicated that the incorporated Zn NPs do not interact with the PCL matrix chemically and that the Zn NPs improved the tensile properties of the PCL matrix. All composites exhibited linear conductivity under in vitro conditions. In vitro cell culture studies were performed to determine the cytotoxicity and proliferative efficiency of materials containing different proportions of Zn NPs. The results were obtained to explore new conductive fillers that can promote tissue regeneration.

  12. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  13. Hyaluronic acid fillers with cohesive polydensified matrix for soft-tissue augmentation and rejuvenation: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Prasetyo, Adri D; Prager, Welf; Rubin, Mark G; Moretti, Ernesto A; Nikolis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Cohesive monophasic polydensified fillers show unique viscoelastic properties and variable density of hyaluronic acid, allowing for a homogeneous tissue integration and distribution of the material. Objective The aim of this paper was to review the clinical data regarding the performance, tolerability, and safety of the Belotero® fillers for soft-tissue augmentation and rejuvenation. Methods A literature search was performed up until May 31, 2015 to identify all relevant articles on Belotero® fillers (Basic/Balance, Hydro, Soft, Intense, Volume) and equivalent products (Esthélis®, Mesolis®, Fortélis®, Modélis®). Results This comprehensive review included 26 papers. Findings from three randomized controlled trials showed a greater reduction in nasolabial fold severity with Belotero® Basic/Balance than with collagen (at 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks, n=118) and Restylane® (at 4 weeks, n=40), and higher patient satisfaction with Belotero® Intense than with Perlane® (at 2 weeks, n=20). With Belotero® Basic/Balance, an improvement of at least 1 point on the severity scale can be expected in ~80% of patients 1–6 months after injection, with an effect still visible at 8–12 months. Positive findings were also reported with Belotero® Volume (no reduction in hyaluronic acid volume at 12 months, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging), Soft (improvement in the esthetic outcomes when used in a sequential approach), and Hydro (improvement in skin appearance in all patients). The most common adverse effects were mild-to-moderate erythema, edema, and hematoma, most of which were temporary. There were no reports of Tyndall effect, nodules, granulomas, or tissue necrosis. Conclusion Clinical evidence indicates sustainable esthetic effects, good safety profile, and long-term tolerability of the Belotero® fillers, particularly Belotero® Basic/Balance and Intense. PMID:27660479

  14. Tobacco use, Body Mass Index, and Potentially Malignant Disorders Among petrol fillers in Pimpri-Pune (India): A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Mamatha G. S.; Kakodkar, Pradnya V.; Singh, Akanksha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since petrol is combustible and smoking is banned at the petrol pumps, it may be predicted that use of smokeless tobacco is more prevalent among the petrol fillers. Also, smokeless tobacco is a major risk factor for developing oral potentially malignant disorders. The present study was conducted to determine the tobacco use, body mass index (BMI), and potentially malignant disorders among a cohort of petrol fillers and also to evaluate the interaction of tobacco use and BMI with the presence of potentially malignant disorders. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at 45 petrol stations located at Pimpri-Pune, India. A descriptive study design was used. Materials and Method: Four hundred and ten petrol fillers aged 17-64 years participated in the study. General information and tobacco history was obtained by interview. Height and weight were recorded to obtain BMI. Oral examination was conducted to identify the potentially malignant disorders. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test, Z test, and logistic regression were used. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results and Conclusions: It was found that 242 (59.02%) used tobacco in different forms. 77.68% were tobacco chewers, and 8.26% were smokers. Leukoplakia was prevalent among 68.47%, oral submucous fibrosis among 27.45%, and 5.08% had erythroplakia. Age (χ2 = 11.46, P < 0.05), duration (χ2 = 17.46, P < 0.05), and frequency of tobacco chewing (χ2 = 14.16, P < 0.05) were significantly associated with potentially malignant disorders. Tobacco chewing was more prevalent as compared to smoking. It can be concluded that the petrol fillers are at a high risk for developing oral potentially malignant disorders. PMID:25422802

  15. Hyaluronic acid fillers with cohesive polydensified matrix for soft-tissue augmentation and rejuvenation: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, Adri D; Prager, Welf; Rubin, Mark G; Moretti, Ernesto A; Nikolis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Cohesive monophasic polydensified fillers show unique viscoelastic properties and variable density of hyaluronic acid, allowing for a homogeneous tissue integration and distribution of the material. The aim of this paper was to review the clinical data regarding the performance, tolerability, and safety of the Belotero(®) fillers for soft-tissue augmentation and rejuvenation. A literature search was performed up until May 31, 2015 to identify all relevant articles on Belotero(®) fillers (Basic/Balance, Hydro, Soft, Intense, Volume) and equivalent products (Esthélis(®), Mesolis(®), Fortélis(®), Modélis(®)). This comprehensive review included 26 papers. Findings from three randomized controlled trials showed a greater reduction in nasolabial fold severity with Belotero(®) Basic/Balance than with collagen (at 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks, n=118) and Restylane(®) (at 4 weeks, n=40), and higher patient satisfaction with Belotero(®) Intense than with Perlane(®) (at 2 weeks, n=20). With Belotero(®) Basic/Balance, an improvement of at least 1 point on the severity scale can be expected in ~80% of patients 1-6 months after injection, with an effect still visible at 8-12 months. Positive findings were also reported with Belotero(®) Volume (no reduction in hyaluronic acid volume at 12 months, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging), Soft (improvement in the esthetic outcomes when used in a sequential approach), and Hydro (improvement in skin appearance in all patients). The most common adverse effects were mild-to-moderate erythema, edema, and hematoma, most of which were temporary. There were no reports of Tyndall effect, nodules, granulomas, or tissue necrosis. Clinical evidence indicates sustainable esthetic effects, good safety profile, and long-term tolerability of the Belotero(®) fillers, particularly Belotero(®) Basic/Balance and Intense.

  16. Transverse-Weld Tensile Properties of a New Al-4Cu-2Si Alloy as Filler Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, K.

    2009-12-01

    AA2195, an Al-Cu-Li alloy in the T8P4 age-hardened condition, is a candidate aluminum armor for future combat vehicles, as this material offers higher static strength and ballistic protection than current aluminum armor alloys. However, certification of AA2195 alloy for armor applications requires initial qualification based on the ballistic performance of welded panels in the as-welded condition. Currently, combat vehicle manufacturers primarily use gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process to meet their fabrication needs. Unfortunately, a matching GMAW consumable electrode is currently not commercially available to allow effective joining of AA2195 alloy. This initial effort focused on an innovative, low-cost, low-risk approach to identify an alloy composition suitable for effective joining of AA2195 alloy, and evaluated transverse-weld tensile properties of groove butt joints produced using the identified alloy. Selected commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) aluminum alloy filler wires were twisted to form candidate twisted filler rods. Representative test weldments were produced using AA2195 alloy, candidate twisted filler rods and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Selected GTA weldments produced using Al-4wt.%Cu-2wt.%Si alloy as filler metal consistently provided transverse-weld tensile properties in excess of 275 MPa (40 ksi) UTS and 8% El (over 25 mm gage length), thereby showing potential for acceptable ballistic performance of as-welded panels. Further developmental work is required to evaluate in detail GMAW consumable wire electrodes based on the Al-Cu-Si system containing 4.2-5.0 wt.% Cu and 1.6-2.0 wt.% Si.

  17. Injectable facial fillers: imaging features, complications, and diagnostic pitfalls at MRI and PET CT.

    PubMed

    Mundada, Pravin; Kohler, Romain; Boudabbous, Sana; Toutous Trellu, Laurence; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Minerva

    2017-10-04

    Injectable fillers are widely used for facial rejuvenation, correction of disabling volumetric fat loss in HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy, Romberg disease, and post-traumatic facial disfiguring. The purpose of this article is to acquaint the reader with the anatomy of facial fat compartments, as well as with the properties and key imaging features of commonly used facial fillers, filler-related complications, interpretation pitfalls, and dermatologic conditions mimicking filler-related complications. The distribution of facial fillers is characteristic and depends on the anatomy of the superficial fat compartments. Silicone has signature MRI features, calcium hydroxyapatite has characteristic calcifications, whereas other injectable fillers have overlapping imaging features. Most fillers (hyaluronic acid, collagen, and polyalkylimide-polyacrylamide hydrogels) have signal intensity patterns compatible with high water content. On PET-CT, most fillers show physiologic high FDG uptake, which should not be confounded with pathology. Abscess, cellulitis, non-inflammatory nodules, and foreign body granulomas are the most common filler-related complications, and imaging can help in the differential diagnosis. Diffusion weighted imaging helps in detecting a malignant lesion masked by injected facial fillers. Awareness of imaging features of facial fillers and their complications helps to avoid misinterpretation of MRI, and PET-CT scans and facilitates therapeutic decisions in unclear clinical cases. • Facial fillers are common incidental findings on MRI and PET-CT scans. • They have a characteristic appearance and typical anatomic distribution • Although considered as safe, facial filler injections are associated with several complications • As they may mask malignancy, knowledge of typical imaging features is mandatory. • MRI is a problem-solving tool for unclear cases.

  18. Battery plate containing filler with conductive coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The plate (10) comprises a matrix or binder resin phase (12) in which is dispersed particulate, conductive tin oxide such as tin oxide coated glass fibers (14). A monopolar plate (11) is prepared by coating a layer (18) of electrolytically active material onto a surface of the plate (10). Tin oxide is prevented from reduction by coating a surface of the plate (10) with a conductive, impervious layer resistant to reduction such as a thin film (22) of lead adhered to the plate with a layer (21) of conductive adhesive. The plate (10) can be formed by casting a molten dispersion from mixer (36) onto a sheet (30) of lead foil or by passing an assembly of a sheet (41) of resin, a sheet (43) of fiberglass and a sheet (45) of lead between the nip of heated rollers (48, 50).

  19. Battery plate containing filler with conductive coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The plate (10) comprises a matrix or binder resin phase (12) in which is dispersed particulate, conductive tin oxide such as tin oxide coated glass fibers (14). A monopolar plate (11) is prepared by coating a layer (18) of electrolytically active material onto a surface of the plate (10). Tin oxide is prevented from reduction by coating a surface of the plate (10) with a conductive, impervious layer resistant to reduction such as a thin film (22) of lead adhered to the plate with a layer (21) of conductive adhesive. The plate (10) can be formed by casting a molten dispersion from mixer (36) onto a sheet (30) of lead foil or by passing an assembly of a sheet (41) of resin, a sheet (43) of fiberglass and a sheet (45) of lead between the nip of heated rollers (48, 50).

  20. SHS of refractory materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismailov, M. B.; Gabayev, Zh. A.

    1993-09-01

    In the SHS production of refractory materials (concretes, coating mixtures) the basic problem is overcoming the scale factor. This is done by imparting a granular structure to the mass being synthesized. Requirements for the granular and chemical composition of the filler are obtained.