Science.gov

Sample records for filter bag investigation

  1. Bag filters for TPP

    SciTech Connect

    L.V. Chekalov; Yu.I. Gromov; V.V. Chekalov

    2007-05-15

    Cleaning of TPP flue gases with bag filters capable of pulsed regeneration is examined. A new filtering element with a three-dimensional filtering material formed from a needle-broached cloth in which the filtration area, as compared with a conventional smooth bag, is increased by more than two times, is proposed. The design of a new FRMI type of modular filter is also proposed. A standard series of FRMI filters with a filtration area ranging from 800 to 16,000 m{sup 2} is designed for an output more than 1 million m{sub 3}/h of with respect to cleaned gas. The new bag filter permits dry collection of sulfur oxides from waste gases at TPP operating on high-sulfur coals. The design of the filter makes it possible to replace filter elements without taking the entire unit out of service.

  2. Transport characteristics across drum filter vents and polymer bags

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    The rate at which hydrogen (H {sub 2}) or a volatile organic compound (VOC) exits a layer of confinement in a vented waste drum is proportional to the concentration difference across the layer. The proportionality constant is the gas transport characteristic. A series of transport experiments were conducted to determine H{sub 2} and VOC transport characteristics across different drum filter vents and polymer bags. This report reviews the methods and results of past investigators in defining transport characteristics across filter vents and polymer bags, describes the apparatus and procedures used in these experiments, compares the reported and estimated transport characteristics with earlier results, and discusses the impact of changing the transport characteristic values used in model calculations.

  3. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). PMID:26125024

  4. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  5. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman

    2012-01-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use. PMID:24415802

  6. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-07-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use.

  7. Novel method to evaluate the net wear volume of bag-filter by fly ash.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Sato, Hisashi; Hirai, Yu; Kim, Ick-Soo; Hinata, Shigeru; Kim, Jooyong

    2009-01-30

    In order to study the wear of bag-filter by ash dust, sintered magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) compact was used for counter material for sliding wear test. The precise amount of magnetite particles embedded into bag-filter was determined by a vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) measurement. It is found that net amount of wear of the bag-filter could be precisely determined by the magnetic measurement. It is also found that the net amount of sliding wear of the bag-filter increases with increasing the wear distance, sliding speed and applied load. To discuss the validity of proposed method, shot peening test with deoxidized iron particles was also carried out for bag-filter sample. The data obtained by the shot peening test is consistent with that obtained by the sliding wear test. The proposed method is, thus, very useful to evaluate the net amount of wear of bag-filter by the fly ash.

  8. Effect of filtration velocity and dust concentration on cake formation and filter operation in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot

    2007-06-18

    Bag filters are used for the removal of fine solid particles from process gases. Thus, understanding the filter cake build up and its properties is a subject of interest. The filter cakes properties may depend on many factors like, for example, filtration velocity and dust concentration. The effect of dust concentration and filtration velocity on filtration time, specific cake resistance and mean cake density is investigated in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter. An in situ optical system is used to measure cake thickness distributions on the filter surface. Additionally, the operation is simulated using a one-dimensional model and results are compared with experiments. The experimental results indicate that cake density and specific resistance increase with increasing velocity at constant dust concentration. The effect of dust concentration on filter cake density and specific resistance is small.

  9. Exploration of PM2.5 filtration property of filter bag for environment protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ruitian; Zheng, Jinwei; Ni, Bingxuan; Zhang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, filter bag of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) needle punched nonwoven for environment protection was investigated. The results showed that air permeability of sample was linear rise with the increase of the pressure drop. During the testing process, the residual pressure drop rose with the increase of cycles because of test dust attaching on the surface of the filter. The PM2.5 filtration efficiency was obtained of 99.854%, which was smaller than the dust filtration efficiency of 99.971% because of the fine particles taking larger proportion of the dust through the sample. Results show that this method of evaluating the PM2.5 filtration property is feasible.

  10. Comparison of filter bag, cyclonic, and wet dust collection methods in vacuum cleaners.

    PubMed

    Trakumas, S; Willeke, K; Reponen, T; Grinshpun, S A; Friedman, W

    2001-01-01

    In this study, methods were developed for comparative evaluation of three primary dust collection methods employed in vacuum cleaners: filter bag, cyclonic, and wet primary dust collection. The dry collectors were evaluated with KCl test aerosols that are commonly used in filter testing. However, these aerosols cannot be used for evaluating wet collectors due to their hygroscopicity. Therefore, the wet collectors were evaluated with nonhygroscopic test particles. Both types of test aerosol indicated similar collection efficiencies in tests with dry collectors. The data show that high initial collection efficiency can be achieved by any one of the three dust collection methods: up to 50% for 0.35 microm particles, and close to 100% for 1.0 microm and larger particles. The degree of dependence of the initial collection efficiency on airflow rate was strongly related to the type and manufacturing of the primary dust collector. Collection efficiency decreased most with decreasing flow rate for the tested wet collectors. The tested cyclonic and wet collectors showed high reentrainment of already collected dust particles. After the filter bag collectors had been loaded with test dust, they also reemitted particles. The degree of reentrainment from filter bags depends on the particulate load and the type of filter material used. Thus, the overall particle emissions performance of a vacuum cleaner depends not only on the dust collection efficiency of the primary collector and other filtration elements employed, but also on the degree of reentrainment of already collected particles.

  11. Removal characteristics of PCDD/Fs by the dual bag filter system of a fly ash treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Yinn; Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, Ya-Fen; Li, Hsing-Wang; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-05-30

    In this study, a dual bag filter system was established to decrease the concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the stack flue gases of a fly ash treatment plant, which retained zinc from the fly ash of electric arc furnaces. Compared to the original single bag filter system with activated carbon injection (ACI) of 40 kg h(-1), the PCDD/F concentrations in the stack flue gas after the plant was equipped with the dual bag filter system dropped enormously from 3.38-7.73 ng I-TEQNm(-3) to 0.03 ng I-TEQNm(-3), and the total PCDD/F I-TEQ removal efficiency increased from 97.6% to 99.3% with ACI of 16 kg h(-1), that is, about 40% of the original AC usage. The AC utilization efficiency (0.560 mg I-TEQ absorbed kg ACI(-1)) of the dual bag filter system (AC: 16 kg h(-1)) was estimated about three times higher than that (0.192 mg I-TEQ absorbed kg ACI(-1)) of single bag filter system with ACI (40 kg h(-1)). The reason is that the particulate phase PCDD/Fs and some gas phase PCDD/Fs (captured by the recycled AC/ash mixture) were removed first by the first bag filter, and the rest of the gas phase PCDD/Fs were able to be adsorbed more completely by the AC/ash mixture due to a lower fly ash load, and then were removed by the second bag filter.

  12. Investigating comfort temperatures and heat transfer in sleeping bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Trevor; Hill, Lara

    2017-07-01

    After many years of confusion, thermal performance of sleeping bags has now been quantified and unified using expensive test techniques. Based on Newton’s law of cooling, we present a simple inexpensive test and model to check manufacturers’ claims on the temperature performance of a range of modern sleeping bags.

  13. Investigating Comfort Temperatures and Heat Transfer in Sleeping Bags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Trevor; Hill, Lara

    2017-01-01

    After many years of confusion, thermal performance of sleeping bags has now been quantified and unified using expensive test techniques. Based on Newton's law of cooling, we present a simple inexpensive test and model to check manufacturers' claims on the temperature performance of a range of modern sleeping bags.

  14. Evaluation of Microwave Steam Bags for the Decontamination of Filtering Facepiece Respirators

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Edward M.; Williams, Jessica L.; Shaffer, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) has been suggested as a strategy to conserve available supplies for home and healthcare environments during an influenza pandemic. For reuse to be possible, used FFRs must be decontaminated before redonning to reduce the risk of virus transmission; however, there are no approved methods for FFR decontamination. An effective method must reduce the microbial threat, maintain the function of the FFR, and present no residual chemical hazard. The method should be readily available, inexpensive and easily implemented by healthcare workers and the general public. Many of the general decontamination protocols used in healthcare and home settings are unable to address all of the desired qualities of an efficient FFR decontamination protocol. The goal of this study is to evaluate the use of two commercially available steam bags, marketed to the public for disinfecting infant feeding equipment, for FFR decontamination. The FFRs were decontaminated with microwave generated steam following the manufacturers' instructions then evaluated for water absorption and filtration efficiency for up to three steam exposures. Water absorption of the FFR was found to be model specific as FFRs constructed with hydrophilic materials absorbed more water. The steam had little effect on FFR performance as filtration efficiency of the treated FFRs remained above 95%. The decontamination efficacy of the steam bag was assessed using bacteriophage MS2 as a surrogate for a pathogenic virus. The tested steam bags were found to be 99.9% effective for inactivating MS2 on FFRs; however, more research is required to determine the effectiveness against respiratory pathogens. PMID:21525995

  15. Evaluation of microwave steam bags for the decontamination of filtering facepiece respirators.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Edward M; Williams, Jessica L; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2011-04-15

    Reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) has been suggested as a strategy to conserve available supplies for home and healthcare environments during an influenza pandemic. For reuse to be possible, used FFRs must be decontaminated before redonning to reduce the risk of virus transmission; however, there are no approved methods for FFR decontamination. An effective method must reduce the microbial threat, maintain the function of the FFR, and present no residual chemical hazard. The method should be readily available, inexpensive and easily implemented by healthcare workers and the general public. Many of the general decontamination protocols used in healthcare and home settings are unable to address all of the desired qualities of an efficient FFR decontamination protocol. The goal of this study is to evaluate the use of two commercially available steam bags, marketed to the public for disinfecting infant feeding equipment, for FFR decontamination. The FFRs were decontaminated with microwave generated steam following the manufacturers' instructions then evaluated for water absorption and filtration efficiency for up to three steam exposures. Water absorption of the FFR was found to be model specific as FFRs constructed with hydrophilic materials absorbed more water. The steam had little effect on FFR performance as filtration efficiency of the treated FFRs remained above 95%. The decontamination efficacy of the steam bag was assessed using bacteriophage MS2 as a surrogate for a pathogenic virus. The tested steam bags were found to be 99.9% effective for inactivating MS2 on FFRs; however, more research is required to determine the effectiveness against respiratory pathogens.

  16. Tantalum dust deflagration in a bag filter dust-collecting device.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, T; Yamaguma, M

    2000-10-02

    An accidental tantalum powder deflagration with casualties occurred during the operation of a bag filter dust-collecting device. To understand the mechanism of the incident and its material hazards, experiments for determining the combustibility and ignition characteristics of the tantalum powder were performed. The magnitude of the tantalum dust explosion is classified as severe (K(st)=273), contrary to the classification found in the preceding literature. The minimum ignition energies for both a dust cloud and a dust layer of the tantalum powder were also found to be far lower than previous values. Judging from the observation of the surface with an SEM, the coral-like structure of each particle of the tantalum powder can enhance its fire and explosion hazards and affect its sensitivity to electrostatic sparks by increasing in particle surface area. A thin, non-conductive oxide layer of the tantalum powder surface has a high resistivity and generates electrostatic charge when rubbed with conductive materials like the wall of the collecting device. The authors conclude that the possible cause of the ignition was electrostatic discharge resulting from charging electrostatically.

  17. Reducing respirable dust levels during bag conveying and stacking using bag and belt cleaner device. Report of investigations/1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cecala, A.B.; Timko, R.J.; Prokop, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine a cost-effective way to lower respirable dust levels in and around the bag-stacking function at mineral processing operations. The intent of the current research is to clean both the bags and the belt before they reach the bag-stacking location. Product removed or cleaned from the bags and belt is collected in a hopper at the bottom of the device and recycled back into the process periodically via a screw conveyor. By removing the product and dust from the exterior of the bags and the conveyor belt, dust liberation is greatly reduced while the bags are transported to the bag-stacking location.

  18. Short communication: measurements of methane emissions from feed samples in filter bags or dispersed in the medium in an in vitro gas production system.

    PubMed

    Ramin, M; Krizsan, S J; Jančík, F; Huhtanen, P

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare methane (CH4) emissions from different feeds when incubated within filter bags for in vitro analysis or directly dispersed in the medium in an automated gas in vitro system. Four different concentrates and 4 forages were used in this study. Two lactating Swedish Red cows were used for the collection of rumen fluid. Feed samples were milled to pass a 1.0-mm screen. Aliquots (0.5 g) of samples were weighed directly in the bottles or within the F 0285 filter bags that were placed in the bottles. Gas samples were taken during 24 and 48 h of incubation, and CH4 concentration was determined. The data were analyzed using a general linear model. Feeds differed significantly in CH4 emission both at 24 and at 48 h of incubation. The interaction between feed and method on methane emission in vitro was significant, indicating that the ranking of feeds was not consistent between the methods. Generally, greater amounts of CH4 were emitted from samples directly dispersed in the medium compared with those incubated within the filter bags, which could be a result of lower microbial activity within the filter bags. The ratio of CH4 to total gas was greater when the feeds were incubated within bags compared with samples directly dispersed in the medium. Incubating samples in filter bags during 48 h of incubation cannot be recommended for determination of CH4 emission of feeds in vitro.

  19. Effect of drug precursors and chemicals relevant to clandestine laboratory investigation on plastic bags used for collection and storage.

    PubMed

    Michelot, Harmonie; Fu, Shanlin; Stuart, Barbara; Shimmon, Ronald; Raymond, Tony; Crandell, Tony; Roux, Claude

    2017-04-01

    In the area of clandestine laboratory investigations, plastic bags are used to collect and store evidence, such as solvents, precursors, and other compounds usually employed for the manufacturing of drugs (although liquids may be stored in glass containers within the bags first). In this study, three different types of plastic bags were provided by the NSW Police Force and investigated for their suitability for evidence collection: two different types of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and one type of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Three different experiments were carried out: (1) storing relevant chemicals in the bags for up to three months; (2) exposing the bags including their content to accelerated conditions using a weatherometer, and (3) simulating an expected real case scenario. This study indicates that drugs and related chemicals stored in plastic bags may lead to a change in the composition of the chemical and an alteration or degradation of the plastic bag. All experiments led to the same conclusion: the polyvinyl chloride bags appeared to be the most affected. LDPE bags seem to be more appropriate for routine use, although it has been established they are not suitable for the collection of liquids (unless pre-packaged in, for instance, a glass container).

  20. Tea bag filter paper as a novel protective membrane for micro-solid phase extraction of butachlor in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Pelden, Tshering; Thammaknet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2014-01-01

    An innovative, cost-effective, simple, and environmental friendly tea bag filter paper protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) technique was developed for the first time with the aim to miniaturize and minimize the use of organic solvents for the extraction and determination of butachlor in aqueous samples. The μ-SPE device was produced by packing 3.0 mg of an easily synthesized new sorbent, hydroxyl-functionalized polypyrrole (OH-PPY), inside a small tea bag filter paper sachet (1.0 cm × 0.5 cm) that served as a protective envelope. Both the extraction and desorption procedures were facilitated by sonication. Due to the high porosity and the fast water absorption of the tea bag filter paper, the analyte could easily diffuse through and enhance the interaction with the sorbent. Under the optimized conditions for the GC-ECD and the μ-SPE, the limit of detection (S/N ≥ 3) was 2.0 μg L(-1) while the limit of quantitation (S/N ≥ 10) was 10.0 μg L(-1). The recoveries of the butachlor spiked at 0.050, 0.10, and 0.50 μg mL(-1) ranged from 77.9 ± 3.0 to 112.5 ± 2.9%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of butachlor in water samples from paddy cultivation sites. The levels found were from non-detectable to 24.71 ± 0.37 μg L(-1).

  1. Strategy for selecting disposable bags for cell culture media applications based on a root-cause investigation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joseph; Mahajan, Ekta; Shiratori, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The use of disposable bags for cell culture media storage has grown significantly in the past decade. Some of the key advantages of using disposable bags relative to non-disposable containers include increased product throughput, decreased cleaning validation costs, reduced risk of cross contamination and lower facility costs. As the scope of use of disposable bags for cell culture applications increases, problematic bags and scenarios should be identified and addressed to continue improving disposables technologies and meet the biotech industry's needs. In this article, we examine a cell culture application wherein media stored in disposable bags is warmed at 37°C before use for cell culture operations. A problematic bag film was identified through a prospective and retrospective cell culture investigation. The investigation provided information on the scope and variation of the issue with respect to different Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, cell culture media, and application-specific parameters. It also led to the development of application-specific test methods and enabled a strategy for disposable bag film testing. The strategy was implemented for qualifying an alternative bag film for use in our processes. In this test strategy, multiple lots of 13 bag film types, encompassing eight vendors were evaluated using a three round, cell culture-based test strategy. The test strategy resulted in the determination of four viable bag film options based on the technical data. The results of this evaluation were used to conclude that a volatile or air-quenched compound, likely generated by gamma irradiation of the problematic bag film, negatively impacted cell culture performance. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. Theoretical investigation of heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle bag and finger skirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Joon

    This thesis describes a theoretical investigation of the nonlinear and linear heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) equipped with a bag and finger skirt system with the purpose of understanding the skirt's effect on the vehicle heave dynamics. Throughout the course of this work, the pure heave motion of a two dimensional section of the skirt is investigated using several mathematical models. Both the nonlinear and linearized analyses include a detailed model of the skirt geometry, which is modelled as a combination of inelastic membranes and links. Air flow processes from the bag to the cushion and from the cushion to the atmosphere are assumed to be quasisteady, and the bag and cushion volumes are modelled as lumped pneumatic capacitances. The modulation of the escaping cushion air by skirt-ground contact is also included. The nonlinear simulations reveal that characteristically nonlinear dynamical phenomena such as period doubling and chaos can be expected to occur during the normal operation of ACVs. Furthermore, a configuration representative of a 37 tonne vehicle shows a resonance at frequencies in the range for which humans are most sensitive. Although these results thus show that some aspects of the bag and finger skirt heave dynamics can be highly nonlinear, they indicate that under certain circumstances, standard linear techniques can yield useful insights. Results from the linear analysis suggest that changes in skirt geometry cannot be used to radically modify the undesirable heave response of the bag and finger skirt, but reducing the skirt mass is quite effective. The pneumatic capacitance of the bag and cushion volume proves to be an important factor in the heave response. In particular, it contributes to heave instability. The air compressibility also affects heave response at high frequencies, with the effect becoming more prominent as the flow rate is reduced. The importance of unsteady fan effects on ACV dynamics is investigated by the

  3. Long-term performance of GORE-TEX{reg_sign} membrane filter bags at a municipal solid waste combustion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsky, K.J.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the performance of particulate emissions control technology used at a 800 ton per day municipal solid waste combustion facility. The technology consists of a pulse jet fabric filter collector equipped with GORE-TEX{reg_sign} membrane/TEFLON B fiberglass fabric filter bags and a lime slurry spray dryer absorber. During compliance emissions testing in 1995, the air pollution control system processed 110,000--121,000 acfm of flue gas delivered through two water wall boiler lines. Total particulate matter emissions averaged 0.003 gr/dscf at 7% O{sub 2} content. Emission levels of low and semi-volatile metals were also measured during the compliance tests. In all cases, these levels were either well below permit levels or below detection limits. Dioxin and furan emissions were measured during the compliance tests and were also found to be below permit levels and applicable federal emission guidelines for municipal waste combustors. This paper presents these emissions data as well as specific information on the performance of the GORE-TEX membrane filter media including pressure differential, permeability, and strength over a service life of five years.

  4. Flowrate testing of the bag filter LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC (LANCS Industries) at 1 psig

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.; Currie, Karissa Lyn; Berg, Charlotte Katherine

    2016-09-13

    The air flowrate through a flexible HEPA grade filter (Part LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC www.lancsindustries.com) was measured at 48 ALPM for a differential pressure drop of 1.0 psig (28 inWC, 7.0 kPa). These filters are rated by the manufacturer to have a flowrate of 3 ALPM at a differential pressure drop of 1 inWC (0.25 kPa). The Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerosol Engineering Facility used one of their test rigs (originally developed to measure the pressure drop in capsule HEPA filters) to measure the airflow through the LANCS bag filter.

  5. (Performance evaluation of fabric bag filters on a bench-scale coal gasifier)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-15

    The objective of this proposed work is to demonstrate the operational and economic feasibility of using high-temperature ceramic filters for particulate control in a variety of coal gasification power generating systems.

  6. (Performance evaluation of fabric bag filters on a bench-scale coal gasifier)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-15

    The objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate the operational and economic feasibility of using high-temperature ceramic filters for particulate control in a variety of coal gasification power generating systems.

  7. (Performance evaluation of fabric bag filters on a bench-scale coal gasifier)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.; Sawyer, J.; Lips, H.

    1985-07-15

    The objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate the operational and economic feasibility of using high-temperature ceramic filters for particulate control in a variety of coal gasification power generating systems.

  8. Investigation of Electronically Tunable Optical Filters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    aperture characteristics, and the investigation of possibilities of its use to construct an electronically tunable laser. A separate paper is included, titled: CaMoO4 Electronically Tunable Optical Filter.

  9. Purple urine bags.

    PubMed

    Dealler, S F; Belfield, P W; Bedford, M; Whitley, A J; Mulley, G P

    1989-09-01

    Purple urine drainage bags were found in 7 of 71 chronically catheterized elderly women. The purple staining of the bags is due to a violet discoloration (indirubin) of the plastic of the catheter bag and fine blue crystals of indigo in the urine. The colors are formed from the substrate indoxyl sulfate (indican) and all 7 patients had bacteria in the urine that would produce blue colonies on agar enriched with the urine (filter sterilized) of the patients involved. Organisms identified were Providencia or Klebsiella species. Indican excretion was higher in patients with purple urinary catheter bags than in controls.

  10. An investigation of suitable bag materials for the collection and storage of breath samples containing hydrogen cyanide.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Francis J; Razavi, Cyrus; Webb, A Kevin; Jones, Andrew M; Spaněl, Patrik; Smith, David; Lenney, Warren

    2012-09-01

    The SPACE study will assess exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentrations as a marker of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection in 240 children with cystic fibrosis (CF). It will use off-line selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) analysis and so we needed to investigate which breath sampling bag material to use, the maximum storage time before analysis and the benefit of warming the bag samples. We studied 15 children with CF, 8 had chronic PA infection and 7 did not. Each exhaled directly into the instrument (on-line) and also into two 25 µm thick Nalophan (25N), two 70 µm Nalophan (70N) and two Tedlar® bags. Bags were stored at 20 or 37 °C. HCN concentrations were analysed at 1, 6, 24 and 48 h (off-line). Acetone and water vapour concentrations were also measured in parallel. Correlation between on-line and off-line concentrations measured by SIFT-MS was better for all compounds and bag types at 37 °C. The median (IQR) on-line HCN concentration was 8.9(4.4-13.7) parts per billion by volume, ppbv. Both on-line and off-line HCN concentrations were significantly higher in patients with PA infection than those without. At 37 °C the correlation between on-line and off-line HCN concentrations was good up to 6 h in the 25N bag (R(2) = 0.79) and up to 24 h for the 70N and Tedlar bags (R(2) = 0.82 and 0.86). The correlation between on- and off-line acetone concentrations at 37 °C was good up to 24 h in 25N, 70N and Tedlar bags (R(2) = 0.89, 0.93 and 0.97). In all three types of bag the water vapour concentration fell quickly and by 24 h was equivalent to that of lab air. Samples stored in Tedlar or 70N bags, warmed to 37 °C and analysed within 24 h, give HCN and acetone concentrations which correlate well with on-line measurements.

  11. Investigating the Bag-of-Words Method for 3D Shape Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolan; Godil, Afzal

    2010-12-01

    This paper investigates the capabilities of the Bag-of-Words (BWs) method in the 3D shape retrieval field. The contributions of this paper are (1) the 3D shape retrieval task is categorized from different points of view: specific versus generic, partial-to-global retrieval (PGR) versus global-to-global retrieval (GGR), and articulated versus nonarticulated (2) the spatial information, represented as concentric spheres, is integrated into the framework to improve the discriminative ability (3) the analysis of the experimental results on Purdue Engineering Benchmark (PEB) reveals that some properties of the BW approach make it perform better on the PGR task than the GGR task (4) the BW approach is evaluated on nonarticulated database PEB and articulated database McGill Shape Benchmark (MSB) and compared to other methods.

  12. Investigation of Passive Filter for LED Lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwono, Edi; Facta, Mochammad; Handoko, Susatyo

    2017-04-01

    Light Emitting Diode lamp or LED lamp is one of the energy saving lamps nowadays widely used by consumers. However, LED lamp has contained harmonics caused by the rectifier circuit inside the lamp. Harmonics cause a quality problem in power system. As the harmonics present in current or voltage, the waveforms are distorted. Harmonics can lead to overheating in magnetic core of electrical equipments. In this paper, several tests are carried out to investigate the harmonic content of voltage and currents, and also the level of light intensity of the two brands of LED lamps. Measurements in this study are conducted by using HIOKI Power Quality Analyzer 3197. The test results show that the total harmonic distortion or THD of voltage on various brands of LED lamps did not exceed 5% as in compliance to the limit of IEEE standard 519-1992. The largest harmonic voltage is 2.9%, while maximum harmonic current for tested brands of LED lamp is 170.6%. The use of low pass filter in the form of LC filter was proposed. Based on experimental results, the application of LC filter at input side of LED lamp has successfully reduced THD current in the range of 85%-88%.

  13. Baby sleeping bag and conventional bedding conditions--comparative investigations by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Sauseng, W; Kerbl, R; Thaller, S; Hanzer, M; Zotter, H

    2011-09-01

    Thermal stress is a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Recently, baby sleeping bags have been recommended as a preventive measure against SIDS. The aim of this study was to describe in which way the use of baby sleeping bags might influence thermoregulation of sleeping infants and maybe the incidence of SIDS. Body surface temperature was recorded by use of infrared thermography in 15 infants (median age 49 days). Recordings were done twice: after sleeping for 60 min under a blanket and after sleeping for 60 min in a baby sleeping bag. Temperature was recorded and compared for defined sites of body surface. Infants' mean body surface temperature as well as core temperature after sleeping in a baby sleeping bag did not show significant differences when compared to infants sleeping under a conventional blanket. Under controlled conditions, core temperature and mean body surface temperature are comparable, equally if using a baby sleeping bag or conventional bedding. However, under the more uncontrolled conditions of baby care at home, sleeping bags might provide a more constant temperature profile, while other bedding conditions may lead to significant variations of temperature pattern. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. It's in the Bag!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen ideas for using paper bags for class art activities are given. Directions for making bag barracudas, bionic bags, bigfoot bags, bag sculptures, bag beads, and body bag superstars are included. (PP)

  15. It's in the Bag!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen ideas for using paper bags for class art activities are given. Directions for making bag barracudas, bionic bags, bigfoot bags, bag sculptures, bag beads, and body bag superstars are included. (PP)

  16. Chemical characterization of dust particles recovered from bag filters of electric arc furnaces for steelmaking: some factors influencing the formation of hexachlorobenzene.

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Naoto; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohtaka, Noriaki; Ohtsuka, Yasuo

    2010-11-15

    To make clear some factors controlling the formation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the process of electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, six dust samples recovered from different bag filters in commercial EAF steelmaking plants have been characterized with XRD, SEM-EPMA, XPS and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) techniques. These dust samples contain 1.9-8.0 mass% of chlorine element, and the XPS and TPD measurements exhibit that the Cl is enriched at the dust surface and composed of the inorganic and organic functionalities, part of the Cl being evolved as HCl in the temperature region of flue gas treatment. All of the samples also include 2.1-6.4 mass% of carbon element, and some of the C can release CO(2) in the TPD up to 300°C to form active carbon sites. The number is related closely to HCB concentration of each dust. Further, it is suggested that the Zn present in the samples consists of ZnFe(2)O(4), ZnO and surface ZnCO(3), and the dust with a larger content of the ZnCO(3) has a higher concentration of HCB. It is possible that HCB formation occurs via gas-solid-solid interactions among gaseous Cl-containing compounds in flue gas, active carbon sites and surface Zn-species produced in exhaust ducts and bag filters.

  17. Investigation on the kurtosis filter and the derivation of convolutional sparse filter for impulsive signature enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaodong; Zhao, Ming; Di, Yuan; Jin, Chao; Lee, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Minimum Entropy Deconvolution (MED) filter, which is a non-parametric approach for impulsive signature detection, has been widely studied recently. Although the merits of the MED filter are manifold, this method tends to over highlight the dominant peaks and its performance becomes less stable when strong noise exists. In order to better understand the behavior of the MED filter, this study first investigated the mathematical fundamentals of the MED filter and then explained the reason why the MED filter tends to over highlight the dominant peaks. In order to pursue finer solutions for weak impulsive signature enhancement, the Convolutional Sparse Filter (CSF) is originally proposed in this work and the derivation of the CSF is presented in details. The superiority of the proposed CSF over the MED filter is validated by both simulated data and experimental data. The results demonstrate that CSF is an effective method for impulsive signature enhancement that could be applied in rotating machines for incipient fault detection.

  18. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  19. Solution Structure of the SGTA Dimerisation Domain and Investigation of Its Interactions with the Ubiquitin-Like Domains of BAG6 and UBL4A

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Peter J.; Simon, Aline C.; Leznicki, Pawel; Sriskandarajah, Newran; Bishop, David S.; Hale, Lisa R.; Alfano, Caterina; Conte, Maria R.; Martínez-Lumbreras, Santiago; Thapaliya, Arjun; High, Stephen; Isaacson, Rivka L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The BAG6 complex resides in the cytosol and acts as a sorting point to target diverse hydrophobic protein substrates along their appropriate paths, including proteasomal degradation and ER membrane insertion. Composed of a trimeric complex of BAG6, TRC35 and UBL4A, the BAG6 complex is closely associated with SGTA, a co-chaperone from which it can obtain hydrophobic substrates. Methodology and Principal Findings SGTA consists of an N-terminal dimerisation domain (SGTA_NT), a central tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, and a glutamine rich region towards the C-terminus. Here we solve a solution structure of the SGTA dimerisation domain and use biophysical techniques to investigate its interaction with two different UBL domains from the BAG6 complex. The SGTA_NT structure is a dimer with a tight hydrophobic interface connecting two sets of four alpha helices. Using a combination of NMR chemical shift perturbation, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and microscale thermophoresis (MST) experiments we have biochemically characterised the interactions of SGTA with components of the BAG6 complex, the ubiquitin-like domain (UBL) containing proteins UBL4A and BAG6. We demonstrate that the UBL domains from UBL4A and BAG6 directly compete for binding to SGTA at the same site. Using a combination of structural and interaction data we have implemented the HADDOCK protein-protein interaction docking tool to generate models of the SGTA-UBL complexes. Significance This atomic level information contributes to our understanding of the way in which hydrophobic proteins have their fate decided by the collaboration between SGTA and the BAG6 complex. PMID:25415308

  20. Investigation of Adaptive Robust Kalman Filtering Algorithms for GPS/DR Navigation System Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzoghby, MOSTAFA; Arif, USMAN; Li, FU; Zhi Yu, XI

    2017-03-01

    The conventional Kalman filter (KF) algorithm is suitable if the characteristic noise covariance for states as well as measurements is readily known but in most cases these are unknown. Similarly robustness is required instead of smoothing if states are changing abruptly. Such an adaptive as well as robust Kalman filter is vital for many real time applications, like target tracking and navigating aerial vehicles. A number of adaptive as well as robust Kalman filtering methods are available in the literature. In order to investigate the performance of some of these methods, we have selected three different Kalman filters, namely Sage Husa KF, Modified Adaptive Robust KF and Adaptively Robust KF, which are easily simulate able as well as implementable for real time applications. These methods are simulated for land based vehicle and the results are compared with conventional Kalman filter. Results show that the Modified Adaptive Robust KF is best amongst the selected methods and can be used for Navigation applications.

  1. Investigation of organic vapor losses to condensed water vapor in Tedlar bags used for exhaled-breath sampling.

    PubMed

    Groves, W A; Zellers, E T

    1996-03-01

    This study evaluated the potential loss of organic vapors to condensed water in bags used for breath sampling. "Wet" test atmospheres were prepared by transferring nitrogen into 1-L Tedlar bags and spiking with water and each of several organic solvents (methanol, acetone, 2-butanone,m-xylene, 1,1,1 trichloroethane, and perchloroethylene) to yield atmospheres representative of a 500-mL breath sample collected at 37 degrees C and cooled to 25 degrees C. Vapor concentrations were compared with those in bags prepared without water. Differences between mean concentrations in wet and dry bags were significant only for methanol, which yielded a mean wet-bag concentration approximately 10% lower than for dry bags. In a second series of experiments the same initial concentration of solvent vapor was generated in 1 dry bag and 5 bags containing 1 to 20 times the amount of water expected to condense in a 500-mL breath sample. Significant differences between wet and dry bag concentrations were seen for methanol, acetone, and 2-butanone; however, the quantity of water required to produce this difference in the acetone and 2-butanone bags exceeded three times that expected to condense in a breath sample. Results were in good agreement with predictions based on Henry's law. In both experiments permeation of water vapor out of the bags led to a decrease in the quantity of condensed water, thereby reducing the extent of organic vapor partitioning. These results indicate that solvent vapor loss to condensed water is not likely to be significant under typical conditions.

  2. An investigation of filter choice for filtered back-projection reconstruction in PET

    SciTech Connect

    Farquhar, T.H.; Chatziioannou, A.; Chinn, G.; Dahlbom, M.; Hoffman, E.J.

    1998-06-01

    A key parameter in the practical application of filtered back-projection (FBP), the standard clinical image reconstruction algorithm for positron emission tomography (PET), is the choice of a low-pass filter window function and its cut-off frequency. However, the filter windows and cut-off frequencies for clinical reconstruction are usually chosen empirically, based on a small sample of images and filters. By considering the features of the signal and noise spectra in a sinogram, the desired image resolution, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the filtered sinogram, a methodology for informed selection of a filter function and cut-off frequency for FBP was investigated. Simulations of sinogram data similar to whole body or cardiac studies provided information on the signal and noise frequency-domain spectra of noisy projection data. The improvements in SNR with different filter windows and cut-off frequencies were evaluated and compared. The projection spectrum SNR measure did not prove to be an accurate indicator of subjective image quality or lesion detectability with variations in Poisson noise and image resolution.

  3. Chiral bag with vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, A.; Toki, H.; Weise, W.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate nucleon structure in a (non-linear) chiral bag model with vector mesons. The model incorporates two different degrees of freedom: mesons outside the bag at long and intermediate ranges, and quarks inside the bag at short distances. The ρ, a 1 and ω mesons outside the bag are included in a chiral effective lagrangian based on the non-linear sigma model. The classical solution is obtained using the hedgehog ansatz, and the cranking method is applied to construct the physical nucleon states. Static properties of the nucleon such as its mass, axial vector coupling constant, magnetic moments and charge radii are studied in detail as functions of the bag radius. Quark and meson contributions to these quantities are calculated separately. In particular, we discuss the extent to which the vector-meson dominance picture holds in the chiral bag.

  4. Characterization and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals found in fly ashes from waste filter bags obtained from a Chinese steel plant.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Ning, Xun-an; Liao, Xikai; Lin, Meiqing; Liu, Jingyong; Wang, Jianghui

    2013-09-01

    The environmental risk of exposure to six heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd) found in fly ashes from waste filter bags obtained from a steel plant was estimated based on the mineralogical compositions, total concentrations and speciation of the metals in the fly ashes. The results indicated that the fly ashes mainly consisted of hematite, magnetite, cyanite, spinel, coesite and amorphous materials. The concentrations of Zn and Pb were much higher than that of other materials. After Zn and Pb, Ni was present in the highest concentration, followed by Cu, Cr and Cd. Each heavy metal was distributed differently in fly ashes. The levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in the active fraction were very high, and ranged from 64.83 to 81.96%, 34.48 to 82.4% and 6.92 to 79.65% respectively, while Cu, Cr and Ni were mainly present in the residual fraction. The risk assessment code (RAC) values of fly ashes showed that the Zn and Cd present in the H3 sample presented a very high risk, with RAC values greater than 50%. The Cu present in the H3 sample, Cd in the H2 sample and Zn in the H4 and H5 samples presented a high risk. The Pb present in the H2 sample, Cd in the H4 sample, Ni in the H1 and H5 samples, and Zn in the H1 sample presented a medium risk. A low risk was presented by the Cu present in the H1, H2, H4 and H5 samples, the Pb in the H1, H3 and H5 samples, the Cd in the H1 and H5 samples, and the Ni in the H2 sample. No risk was presented by Cr in any sample.

  5. Solvent-detergent filtered (S/D-F) fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate minipools prepared in a newly designed integral disposable processing bag system.

    PubMed

    El-Ekiaby, M; Sayed, M A; Caron, C; Burnouf, S; El-Sharkawy, N; Goubran, H; Radosevich, M; Goudemand, J; Blum, D; de Melo, L; Soulié, V; Adam, J; Burnouf, T

    2010-02-01

    Solvent-detergent (S/D) viral inactivation was recently adapted to the treatment of single plasma donations and cryoprecipitate minipools. We present here a new process and a new bag system where the S/D reagents are removed by filtration and the final products subjected to bacterial (0.2 microm) filtration. Recovered and apheresis plasma for transfusion (FFP) and cryoprecipitate minipools (400 +/- 20 mL) were subjected to double-stage S/D viral inactivation, followed by one oil extraction and a filtration on a S/D and phthalate [di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)] adsorption device and a 0.2 microm filter. The initial and the final products were compared for visual appearance, blood cell count and cell markers, proteins functional activity, von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers and protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Tri (n-butyl) phosphate (TnBP) was quantified by gas chromatography and Triton X-45 and DEHP by high-performance-liquid chromatography (HPLC). General safety tests were by 6.5 mL/kg intravenous injection in rats. The treated plasmas and cryoprecipitates were very clear and the protein content and functionality, VWF multimers and SDS-PAGE profiles were well preserved. TnBP and Triton X-45 were < 1 and <25 ppm, respectively, and DEHP (about 5 ppm) was less than it was in the starting materials. Blood cell counts and CD45, CD61 and glycophorin A markers were negative. There was no enhanced toxicity in rats. Thus, plasma and cryoprecipitate can be S/D-treated in this new CE-marked disposable integral processing system under conditions preserving protein function and integrity, removing blood cells, S/D agents and DEHP, and ensuring bacterial sterility. This process may offer one additional option to blood establishments for the production of virally inactivated plasma components.

  6. Visiting bags: a labile thermal environment.

    PubMed Central

    Rudland, S. V.; Jacobs, A. G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To define usual colour and site of storage of visiting bags in general practitioners' cars and to investigate effect of these variables on temperature inside bag. DESIGN--Questionnaire to general practitioners; serial temperature measurements from paired black visiting bags at different storage sites and from bags of different colour. SETTING--South Devon coastal town during May and June. SUBJECTS--200 general practitioners, of whom 145 returned legible questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Bag colour, duration and site of storage, temperature inside black bags at defined storage sites, and effects of bag colour on internal temperature. RESULTS--111 (77%) of the general practitioners carried a black visiting bag, and 76 kept their bag in their car all day. The bag was coolest in the car boot, but irrespective of storage site, maximum internal temperature of the bag was always over 25 degrees C and reached up to 80 degrees C. Spraying a black bag silver significantly reduced the bag's internal temperature (mean difference 8.37 degrees C (95% confidence interval 6.68 to 9.86 degrees C) df = 59, t = 10.29, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS--General practitioners should use a silver coloured visiting bag; when visiting, they should store it in their car boot; at other times they should remove it to a cooler site. PMID:8173404

  7. Experimental study of cake formation on heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in a pilot scale pulse jet bag filter using optical in-situ cake height measurement.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman; Krammer, Gernot

    2011-12-25

    Pulse-jet bag filters are frequently employed for particle removal from off gases. Separated solids form a layer on the permeable filter media called filter cake. The cake is responsible for increasing pressure drop. Therefore, the cake has to be detached at a predefined upper pressure drop limit or at predefined time intervals. Thus the process is intrinsically semi-continuous. The cake formation and cake detachment are interdependent and may influence the performance of the filter. Therefore, understanding formation and detachment of filter cake is important. In this regard, the filter media is the key component in the system. Needle felts are the most commonly used media in bag filters. Cake formation studies with heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in pilot scale pulse jet bag filter were carried out. The data is processed according to the procedures that were published already [Powder Technology, Volume 173, Issue 2, 19 April 2007, Pages 93-106]. Pressure drop evolution, cake height distribution evolution, cake patches area distribution and their characterization using fractal analysis on different needle felts are presented here. It is observed that concavity of pressure drop curve for membrane coated needle felt is principally caused by presence of inhomogeneous cake area load whereas it is inherent for heat treated media. Presence of residual cake enhances the concavity of pressure drop at the start of filtration cycle. Patchy cleaning is observed only when jet pulse pressure is too low and unable to provide the necessary force to detach the cake. The border line is very sharp. Based on experiments with limestone dust and three types of needle felts, for the jet pulse pressure above 4 bar and filtration velocity below 50 mm/s, cake is detached completely except a thin residual layer (100-200 μm). Uniformity and smoothness of residual cake depends on the surface characteristics of the filter media. Cake height distribution of residual cake and

  8. Book Bag Buddies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Angie; Townsend, J. Scott; Green, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children love to learn about new topics and share what they have discovered with their teachers, families, and friends. The authors designed the "Book Bag Buddies" project to give their third-grade students a chance to channel their enthusiasm and research from science investigations into writing. In this creative project, students integrated…

  9. Book Bag Buddies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Angie; Townsend, J. Scott; Green, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children love to learn about new topics and share what they have discovered with their teachers, families, and friends. The authors designed the "Book Bag Buddies" project to give their third-grade students a chance to channel their enthusiasm and research from science investigations into writing. In this creative project, students integrated…

  10. Investigation of the safety effects of knee bolster air bag deployment in similar real-world crash comparisons.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    The lower extremity is the most frequently injured body region and knee-thigh-hip (KTH) injuries account for half of these injuries. Knee bolster air bags (KBABs) have been incorporated in some vehicles to serve as an additional restraint for the occupant's knees and reduce KTH injuries. To investigate the safety benefits of KBABs, similar frontal crashes with opposing KBAB deployment were selected from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database. An 8-point similarity scoring algorithm was used to quantify crash and occupant similarity and select case comparisons. A total of 183 cases without a KBAB were scored for similarity to 9 KBAB cases. These similarity scores were used to select 31 final case comparisons. The effect of KBAB deployment on occupant injury patterns was investigated with a particular focus on KTH injuries. Over half of the occupants exposed to a KBAB sustained no KTH injuries and a reduction in femur fractures was observed in KBAB occupants (P = .036). However, increases in proximal tibia/fibula and foot/ankle fractures were observed in KBAB occupants (P = .022 and .002, respectively). Mildly significant decreases in pelvic fractures and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ head injuries were observed in the KBAB occupants, supporting the notion that KBABs reduce forward occupant excursion (P = .094 and .055, respectively). Investigation of each case comparison yielded further insight into the reasons for injury pattern differences between cases with opposing KBAB deployment. In addition to KBAB deployment status, differences in occupant factors (age, height, and weight) and crash factors (delta V and belt use) between the cases for a particular comparison could explain variation in injury patterns. The current study presents a preliminary in-depth qualitative and quantitative assessment of KBAB safety benefits. However, further investigation is recommended to provide conclusive evidence of KBAB effectiveness.

  11. Odour assessment: determining the optimum temperature and time for Tedlar sampling bag pre-conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bokowa, A H

    2012-01-01

    Odours present in new Tedlar bags can impact the assessment of emissions from sewer collection systems and wastewater treatment plants. Conditioning protocols are needed to minimise the impact of background materials emissions on the sampling and assessment of odourous emissions. Olfactometry analysis has shown that background odour concentrations for new Tedlar bags can be as high as 130 OU(E)/m(3). Experimental studies were undertaken to investigate the impact of different conditioning temperatures in order to determine the optimum temperature for cleaning new Tedlar bags to a level when no detectable odours were present in the sampling bags via dilution olfactometry. For the purpose of this study, new Tedlar bags were cleaned in a temperature-controlled oven that had a constant filtered air flow-rate. From the analysis of odour and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations found in new Tedlar bags during the cleaning process, it was observed that odour and VOCs concentrations decreased with time. It was also found that the temperature setting plays a significant role in the cleaning of the Tedlar bags as large concentrations of phenols and acetamide, N,N-dimethyl were found in new Tedlar bags and their concentrations decreased following the temperature pre-conditioning.

  12. Contamination during criminal investigation: Detecting police contamination and secondary DNA transfer from evidence bags.

    PubMed

    Fonneløp, Ane Elida; Johannessen, Helen; Egeland, Thore; Gill, Peter

    2016-07-01

    As the profiling systems used in forensic analyses have become more sensitive in recent years, the risk of detecting a contamination in a DNA sample has increased proportionally. This requires more stringent work protocols and awareness to minimize the chance of contamination. Although there is high consciousness on contamination and best practice procedures in forensic labs, the same requirements are not always applied by the police. In this study we have investigated the risk of contamination from police staff. Environmental DNA was monitored by performing wipe tests (sampling of hot spots) at two large police units (scenes of crime departments). Additionally, the DNA profiles of the scenes of crime officers were compared to casework samples that their own unit had investigated in the period of 2009-2015. Furthermore, a pilot study to assess whether DNA from the outside package of an exhibit could be transferred to a DNA sample was carried out. Environmental DNA was detected in various samples from hot spots. Furthermore, 16 incidences of previously undetected police-staff contamination were found in casework that had been submitted between 2009 and 2015. In 6 cases the police officers with a matching DNA profile reported that they had not been involved with the case. We have demonstrated that DNA from the outside package can be transferred to an exhibit during examination. This experience demonstrates that when implementing the new multiplex systems, it is important to ensure that 'best practice' procedures are upgraded, and appropriate training is provided in order to ensure that police are aware of the increased contamination risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF BIOFILM FORMATION IN COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI ISOLATED FROM PLATELET CONCENTRATE BAGS.

    PubMed

    Martini, Rosiéli; Hörner, Rosmari; Rampelotto, Roberta Filipini; Garzon, Litiérri Razia Litiérri; Nunes, Melise Silveira; Teixeira, Mayza Dalcin; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo Sganzerla

    2016-01-01

    Platelet Concentrates (PCs) are the blood components with the highest rate of bacterial contamination, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most frequently isolated contaminants. This study investigated the biofilm formation of 16 contaminated units out of 691 PCs tested by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Adhesion in Borosilicate Tube (ABT) and Congo Red Agar (CRA) tests were used to assess the presence of biofilm. The presence of icaADC genes was assessed by means of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. With Vitek(r)2, Staphylococcus haemolyticus was considered the most prevalent CoNS (31.25%). The CRA characterized 43.8% as probable biofilm producers, and for the ABT test, 37.5%. The icaADC genes were identified in seven samples by the PCR. The ABT technique showed 85.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity when compared to the reference method (PCR), and presented strong agreement (k = 0.8). This study shows that species identified as PCs contaminants are considered inhabitants of the normal skin flora and they might become important pathogens. The results also lead to the recommendation of ABT use in laboratory routine for detecting biofilm in CoNS contaminants of PCs.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF BIOFILM FORMATION IN COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI ISOLATED FROM PLATELET CONCENTRATE BAGS

    PubMed Central

    MARTINI, Rosiéli; HÖRNER, Rosmari; RAMPELOTTO, Roberta Filipini; GARZON, Litiérri Razia Litiérri; NUNES, Melise Silveira; TEIXEIRA, Mayza Dalcin; GRAICHEN, Daniel Ângelo Sganzerla

    2016-01-01

    Platelet Concentrates (PCs) are the blood components with the highest rate of bacterial contamination, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most frequently isolated contaminants. This study investigated the biofilm formation of 16 contaminated units out of 691 PCs tested by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Adhesion in Borosilicate Tube (ABT) and Congo Red Agar (CRA) tests were used to assess the presence of biofilm. The presence of icaADC genes was assessed by means of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. With Vitek(r)2, Staphylococcus haemolyticus was considered the most prevalent CoNS (31.25%). The CRA characterized 43.8% as probable biofilm producers, and for the ABT test, 37.5%. The icaADC genes were identified in seven samples by the PCR. The ABT technique showed 85.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity when compared to the reference method (PCR), and presented strong agreement (k = 0.8). This study shows that species identified as PCs contaminants are considered inhabitants of the normal skin flora and they might become important pathogens. The results also lead to the recommendation of ABT use in laboratory routine for detecting biofilm in CoNS contaminants of PCs. PMID:26910444

  15. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000142.htm Urine drainage bags To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach ...

  16. An investigation of optical composite filters for pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Te

    With the technological advancements in high speed CCD cameras and high resolution spatial light modulators (SLMs), joint transform correlators (JTCs) have obtained more attention in optical pattern recognition, for two main reasons: they are robust to environmental perturbation and they do not require a prefabricated Fourier domain filter, as does the VanderLugt correlator (VLC). JTCs suffer from poor detection efficiency, however, particularly in multi-target and high background noise environments. This study presents several efforts to improve the JTC's performance for pattern recognition. An optimum training process using the simulated annealing algorithm for construction of multilevel composite function (MCF) filters in the input domain was studied. MCFs are suitable for current SLMs because of their limited dynamic range. We investigated the performance of MCFs to observe the impact of number of levels on distortion invariance and discriminability. A JTC system with position encoding technique, which allows a real- valued or complex-valued function to be displayed on an amplitude-modulated SLM, is also provided for the optical implementation of MCF filters. Due to the existence of the zero-order spectra, JTCs suffer from poor detection efficiency. To alleviate this problem, a simple method of removing the zero-order spectra in a joint transform power spectrum (JTPS) was investigated. We have shown that the nonzero-order JTC (NOJTC) performs better, compared to the conventional JTC (CJTC), in terms of detection and defraction efficiency, pixel utilization and avoidance of false alarms due to inter-object modulation. Simulated and experimental demonstrations has been provided. A practical method for identifying the Synthetic-Aperture Radar (SAR) image with a 360-degree rotation-invariant based on a set of MCF filters was also investigated. The MCFs are synthesized by the simulated annealing algorithm, which are suitable for current SLMs because of the limited

  17. Applying Kalman filtering to investigate tropospheric effects in VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Benedikt; Nilsson, Tobias; Karbon, Maria; Heinkelmann, Robert; Liu, Li; Lu, Cuixian; Andres Mora-Diaz, Julian; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Xu, Minghui; Schuh, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) currently provides results, e.g., estimates of the tropospheric delays, with a delay of more than two weeks. In the future, with the coming VLBI2010 Global Observing System (VGOS) and increased usage of electronic data transfer, it is planned that the time between observations and results is decreased. This may, for instance, allow the integration of VLBI-derived tropospheric delays into numerical weather prediction models. Therefore, future VLBI analysis software packages need to be able to process the observational data autonomously in near real-time. For this purpose, we have extended the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) by a Kalman filter module. This presentation describes the filter and discusses its application for tropospheric studies. Instead of estimating zenith wet delays as piece-wise linear functions in a least-squares adjustment, the Kalman filter allows for more sophisticated stochastic modeling. We start with a random walk process to model the time-dependent behavior of the zenith wet delays. Other possible approaches include the stochastic model described by turbulence theory, e.g. the model by Treuhaft and Lanyi (1987). Different variance-covariance matrices of the prediction error, depending on the time of the year and the geographic latitude, have been tested. In winter and closer to the poles, lower variances and covariances are appropriate. The horizontal variations in tropospheric delays have been investigated by comparing three different strategies: assumption of a horizontally stratified troposphere, using north and south gradients modeled, e.g., as Gauss-Markov processes, and applying a turbulence model assuming correlations between observations in different azimuths. By conducting Monte-Carlo simulations of current standard VLBI networks and of future VGOS networks, the different tropospheric modeling strategies are investigated. For this purpose, we use the simulator module of VieVS which takes into

  18. Market Investigation and Material Evaluation of Cartridge Filters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-30

    onrVrw-- iifentifytbyb1&Ei -hb6ner) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP 4WP J, Reverse Osmosis , Cartridge Filter, Pre-Treatment, Water Purification 19. ABST CT (Continue...GPH Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Units (ROWPUs). The fielded ROWPUs use string-wound, depth filters. It is possible that different designs may...it was found that pleated, porous filters are best suited to perform the pretreatment filtering function for the Reverse Osmosis Water Purification

  19. Effect of filtration velocity and filtration pressure drop on the bag-cleaning performance of a pulse-jet baghouse

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.J.; Tsai, M.L.; Lu, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    In this study the filtration velocity and filtration pressure drop at the beginning of bag cleaning were used as experimental parameters to evaluate the bag-cleaning performance of a pulse-jet baghouse. The effective residual pressure loss was used to indicate the cleaning performance after bag cleaning. Two different test dusts, fly ash and limestone, were used. The critical cleaning indices under different operation conditions for bag cleaning were also investigated. A critical average pulse overpressure was found to exist beyond which bag-cleaning performance did not improve much. It was found the filter's final filtration resistance is an important parameter to decide whether a Venturi is necessary for a good bag-cleaning performance or not. Use of a Venturi was found to increase the average pulse overpressure for a system with a filter's final resistance coefficient greater than about 500 Pa{center{underscore}dot}s/cm. However, no Venturi is recommended when the filter's final resistance coefficient is smaller than 500 Pa{center{underscore}dot}s/cm.

  20. Effects of Aeration of Sawdust Cultivation Bags on Hyphal Growth of Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Ham, Eun-Ju; Yoo, Young-Jin; Kim, Eui-Sung; Shim, Kyu-Kwang; Kim, Myung-Kon; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2012-09-01

    The effects of aeration through lid filters on the hyphal growth of Lentinula edodes (oak mushroom) in sawdust cultivation bags were investigated. The aeration treatment levels were traditional 27 mm hole cotton plugs, cotton balls and combinations of seven hole sizes × two hole positions (up and under) in the lids covering plastic bags containing 1.4 kg sawdust medium at 63% moisture that had been autoclaved for one hour and inoculated with sawdust spawn of L. edodes strain 921. Aeration treatment effects were measured based on the CO(2) concentration at the 15th wk, as well as the hyphal growth rate and degree of weight loss of bags every 14 days for 15 wk. In bags with traditional cotton plugs, the CO(2) concentration was 3.8 ± 1.3%, daily mean hyphal growth was 2.3 ± 0.6 mm and daily mean weight loss was 0.84 ± 0.26 g. In the bags with 15 mm diameter holes, the CO(2) concentration was 6.0 ± 1.6%, daily hyphal growth was 2.8 ± 0.2 mm and daily weight loss was 0.86 ± 0.4 g. The bags with 15 mm holes had a higher CO(2) concentration and lower water loss than bags with other hole sizes, but the hyphal growth was not significantly different from that of other bags. The weight loss of bags increased proportionally relative to the lid hole sizes. Taken together, these results indicate that traditional cotton plugs are economically efficient, but 15 mm hole lids are the most efficient at maintaining hyphal growth and controlling water loss while allowing CO(2) emissions.

  1. Investigation of the epoch state filter. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A navigation filtering technique has been formulated using as state variables the initial or epoch position and velocity of the spacecraft. The estimate of this initial state is then improved by filtering new measurements. The current state may be obtained by a conic extrapolation of the epoch state. Results of a digital computer simulation of the epoch state filter show that this formulation of the navigational problem results in less computer run time and less computer storage space than conventional techniques. The errors produced by this technique have been demonstrated to be comparable to those obtained by conventional maximum-likelihood filtering.

  2. [Performance evaluation of fabric bag filters on a bench-scale coal gasifier]. Quarterly technical progress report, September 30, 1985--December 29, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-15

    The objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate the operational and economic feasibility of using high-temperature ceramic filters for particulate control in a variety of coal gasification power generating systems.

  3. [Performance evaluation of fabric bag filters on a bench-scale coal gasifier]. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1985--December 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-15

    The objective of this proposed work is to demonstrate the operational and economic feasibility of using high-temperature ceramic filters for particulate control in a variety of coal gasification power generating systems.

  4. [Performance evaluation of fabric bag filters on a bench-scale coal gasifier]. Quarterly technical progress report, October 19, 1984--December 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-15

    The objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate the operational and economic feasibility of using high-temperature ceramic filters for particulate control in a variety of coal gasification power generating systems.

  5. [Performance evaluation of fabric bag filters on a bench-scale coal gasifier]. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1985--June 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.; Sawyer, J.; Lips, H.

    1985-07-15

    The objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate the operational and economic feasibility of using high-temperature ceramic filters for particulate control in a variety of coal gasification power generating systems.

  6. Lunar regolith bagging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Reuben; Henninger, Scott; Levandoski, Mark; Perkins, Jim; Pitchon, Jack; Swats, Robin; Wessels, Roger

    1990-01-01

    A design of a lunar regolith bag and bagging system is described. The bags of regolith are to be used for construction applications on the lunar surface. The machine is designed to be used in conjunction with the lunar SKITTER currently under development. The bags for this system are 1 cu ft volume and are made from a fiberglass composite weave. The machinery is constructed mostly from a boron/aluminum composite. The machine can fill 120 bags per hour and work for 8 hours a day. The man hours to machine hours ratio to operate the machine is .5/8.

  7. Clinically relevant investigation of flattening filter-free skin dose.

    PubMed

    Guy, Christopher L; Karki, Kishor; Sharma, Manju; Kim, Siyong

    2016-11-08

    As flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beams become readily available for treat-ment delivery in techniques such as SBRT, thorough investigation of skin dose from FFF photon beams is necessary under clinically relevant conditions. Using a parallel-plate PTW Markus chamber placed in a custom water-equivalent phantom, surface-dose measurements were taken at 2 × 2, 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 6 × 6, 8 × 8, 10 × 10, 20 × 20, and 30 × 30 cm2 field sizes, at 80, 90, and 100 cm source-to-surface distances (SSDs), and with fields defined by jaws and multileaf collimator (MLC) using multiple beam energies (6X, 6XFFF, 10X, and 10XFFF). The same set of measurements was repeated with the chamber at a reference depth of 10cm. Each surface measurement was normalized by its corresponding reference depth measurement for analysis. The FFF surface doses at 100 cm SSD were higher than flattened surface doses by 45% at 2 × 2 cm2 to 13% at 20 × 20 cm2 for 6MV energy. These surface dose differences varied to a greater degree as energy increased, ranging from +63% at 2 × 2 cm2 to -2% at 20 × 20 cm2 for 10 MV. At small field sizes, higher energy increased FFF surface dose relative to flattened surface dose; while at larger field sizes, relative FFF surface dose was higher for lower energies. At both energies investigated, decreasing SSD caused a decrease in the ratios of FFF-to-flattened surface dose. Variability with SSD of FFF-to-flattened surface dose differences increased with field size and ranged from 0% to 6%. The field size at which FFF and flattened beams gave the same skin dose increased with decreasing beam energy. Surface dose was higher with MLC fields compared to jaw fields under most conditions, with the difference reaching its maximum at a field size between 4 × 4 cm2 and 6 × 6 cm2 for a given energy and SSD. This study conveyed the magnitude of surface dose in a clinically meaning-ful manner by reporting results normalized to 10 cm depth dose instead of depth of dose

  8. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. RESULTS: Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. CONCLUSION: Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 2C FIGURE 2D FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:10703118

  9. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    PubMed

    Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm.

  10. Chiral bag model for the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Toki, Hiroshi

    1996-12-01

    We review the chiral bag model for the nucleon at low energy. The model is a hybrid model of quark and meson degrees of freedom, interpolating the two limits of the Skyrme model at R → 0 and the MIT bag model at R → ∞, where R is the bag radius. Baryon number one ( B = 1) solutions are obtained in the semiclassical method, where the nucleon is regarded as a slowly rotating hedgehog. We investigate static properties of the nucleon such as masses and magnetic moments as functions of R, first in the original chiral bag model and second in the models with vector mesons. We find a reasonably good description for the nucleon in both cases at an intermediate bag radius R ~ 0.6 fm. Results of the model calculations are then re-derived using a group theoretical method in the large- Nc limit.

  11. Investigation of design considerations for a complex demodulation filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoughton, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The digital design of an adaptive digital filter to be employed in the processing of microwave remote sensor data was developed. In particular, a complex demodulation approach was developed to provide narrow band power estimation for a proposed Doppler scatterometer system. This scatterometer was considered for application in the proposed National Oceanographic survey satellite, on an improvement of SEASAT features. A generalized analysis of complex diagrams for the digital architecture component of the proposed system.

  12. Blast-Absorbing Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed expandable bag contains debris from explosion. Permanently surrounds vessel or devices prone to explosive disintegration or slipped around small bomb. Finned cells shaped like outward-opening cups. Cells built up from overlapped sheets of fabric and stitched together to form expandable polyhedral bag. Cells pentagonal, triangular or square.

  13. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-01-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671

  14. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-06-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method.

  15. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  16. Performance testing of the new AMPAC fire debris bag against three other commercial fire debris bags.

    PubMed

    Grutters, Michiel M P; Dogger, Judith; Hendrikse, Jeanet N

    2012-09-01

    Fire debris evidence is collected and stored in a wide range of containers, including various polymer bags. Four different polymer bags have been investigated, including the NYLON, DUO, ALU, and AMPAC bags. The latter is the successor of the Kapak Fire DebrisPAK™. Microscopy and infrared spectroscopy were used to elucidate the composition of the bags. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate performance parameters such as background volatiles, leak rate, cross-contamination, recovery, and sorption. The NYLON bag was susceptible for leakage and cross-contamination and showed decreased recoveries. The DUO and ALU bags showed some background volatiles, sorption, and poor recoveries. The AMPAC bag performed excellent: low background, no leakage or cross-contamination, good recoveries, and only traces of sorption. Heat sealing proved to be the best method of closure. Preliminary studies on AMPAC bags showed that polyethylene clamps are easy to use on-site and preserve ignitable liquids adequately for a limited period of time.

  17. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  18. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  19. Bag of Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menger, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A teacher describes the procedures used by students to mount skeletons of small animals. Equipped with ziplock bags and papain, students can make the cumbersome task of mounting more time efficient and easy. (ZWH)

  20. Bag of Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menger, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A teacher describes the procedures used by students to mount skeletons of small animals. Equipped with ziplock bags and papain, students can make the cumbersome task of mounting more time efficient and easy. (ZWH)

  1. Investigation of IAQ-Relevant Surface Chemistry and Emissions on HVAC Filter Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Destaillats, Hugo; Fisk, William J.

    2010-02-01

    Chemical reactions involving ozone of outdoor origin and indoor materials are known to be significant sources of formaldehyde and other irritant gas-phase oxidation products in the indoor environment. HVAC filters are exposed to particularly high ozone concentrations--close to outdoor levels. In this study, we investigated chemical processes taking place on the surface of filters that included fiberglass, polyester, cotton/polyester blend and synthetic (e.g., polyolefin) filter media. Ozone reactions were studied on unused filter media, and on filters that were deployed for 3 months in two different locations: at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at the Port of Oakland. Specimens from each filter were exposed to ozone under controlled conditions in a laboratory flow tube at a constant flow of dry or humidified air (50percent relative humidity). Ozone was generated with a UV source upstream of the flow tube, and monitored using a photometric detector. Ozone breakthrough curves were recorded for each sample exposed to ~;;150 ppbv O3 for periods of ~;;1000 min, from which we estimated their uptake rate. Most experiments were performed at 1.3 L/min (corresponding to a face velocity of 0.013 m/s), except for a few tests performed at a higher airflow rate, to obtain a face velocity of 0.093 m/s, slightly closer to HVAC operation conditions. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two oxidation byproducts, were collected downstream of the filter and quantified. Emissions of these volatile aldehydes were consistently higher under humidified air than under dry conditions, at which levels were near the limit of detection. Our results confirm that there are significant reactions of ozone as air containing ozone flows through HVAC filters, particularly when the filters are loaded with particles and the air is humidified. The amount of ozone reacted was not clearly related to the types of filter media, e.g., fiberglass versus synthetic. Specific fiberglass filters that were

  2. Gravitating lepton bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-08-15

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system.

  3. Online Bagging and Boosting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunji C.

    2005-01-01

    Bagging and boosting are two of the most well-known ensemble learning methods due to their theoretical performance guarantees and strong experimental results. However, these algorithms have been used mainly in batch mode, i.e., they require the entire training set to be available at once and, in some cases, require random access to the data. In this paper, we present online versions of bagging and boosting that require only one pass through the training data. We build on previously presented work by presenting some theoretical results. We also compare the online and batch algorithms experimentally in terms of accuracy and running time.

  4. It's in the Bag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betterton, Maribelle H.; Ensworth, Lynne C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the "thematic literacy bags" project they created to help them integrate language arts across the curriculum, promoting differentiated instruction while taking into account various learning styles and multiple intelligences. This idea became a reality when they were awarded a local grant to develop innovative educational…

  5. Lunar Regolith Bagging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Sebrina; Lundberg, Kimberly; Mcgarity, Ginger; Silverman, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A regolith container to be used as a fundamental building block in radiation protection of a habitable lunar base was designed. Parameters for the container are its: size, shape, material, and structural design. Also, a machine was designed to fill the regolith container which is capable of grasping and opening an empty container, filling it, closing it when full, and depositing it on the surface of the Moon. The simple design will bag lunar soil in a relatively short amount of time, with a low equipment weight, and with moving parts distanced from the dirt. The bags are made out of Kevlar 149 with a fabric weight of 6 oz. per square yard. All machine parts are composed of aluminum 6061-T6. Assuming that the vehicle runs at 7 km/hr for 8 hours a day, the machine will bag the necessary 450 cu m of soil in about 12 days. The total mass of the bags and the machine to be shipped to the Moon will be 687 kg. The cost of shipping this weight will be $6.23 million.

  6. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman. PMID:24479059

  7. Purple urine bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman.

  8. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  9. Investigation of the relationship between carrying school bags (handbags and backpacks) and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pains among 12-15 year old students in Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Arghavani, Farshad; Zamanian, Zahra; Ghanbary, Ali; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2014-04-01

    Inappropriate school bags put students at risk of musculoskeletal problems and early fatigue. Heavy bags can change the body posture and the musculoskeletal system must react appropriately in order to compensate for this stress. It is recommended that the weight of a school bag must not be more than 10% of the student's body weight and the weight must be placed on both shoulders. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders by comparing the prevalence of musculoskeletal pains among the students. The present descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in different educational districts of Shiraz. The study samples were selected using cluster sampling method. In this study, 800 students marked their painful areas on body maps and the SPSS statistical software (v. 11.5) was used to analyze the data. The results showed that among the students who used backpacks, 48.9% carried the weight on both shoulders, 40.4% carried the weight on their right shoulders, and 10.6% used their left shoulders. Besides, 68.02% of the students carrying handbags often used their right shoulders, while 31.98% used their left shoulders. The study results showed that similar to other countries, Iranian students also mostly made use of backpacks. Moreover, the musculoskeletal pains were most prevalent in the shoulders, which is in line with many other studies conducted on the issue.

  10. Experimental investigation of air pressure affecting filtration performance of fibrous filter sheet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yu, Xiao; Wu, Ya; Lin, Zhongping

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the effect of air pressure on their filtration performance is important for assessing the effectiveness of fibrous filters under different practical circumstances. The effectiveness of three classes of air filter sheets were investigated in laboratory-based measurements at a wide range of air pressures (60-130 KPa). The filtration efficiency was found most sensitive to the air pressure change at smaller particle sizes. As the air pressure increased from 60 to 130 KPa, significant decrease in filtration efficiency (up to 15%) and increase in pressure drop (up to 90 Pa) were observed. The filtration efficiency of the filter sheet with largest fiber diameter and smallest solid volume fraction was affected most, while the pressure drop of the filter sheet with smallest fiber diameter and largest solid volume fraction was affected most. The effect of air pressure on the filtration efficiency was slightly larger at greater filter face air velocity. However, the effect of air pressure on the pressure drop was negligible. The filtration efficiency and pressure drop were explicitly expressed as functions of the air pressure. Two coefficients were empirically derived and successfully accounted for the effects of air pressure on filtration efficiency and pressure drop.

  11. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  12. ASTP - EQUIPMENT (GIFT BAG)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-01

    S75-27952 (July 1975) --- A close-up view of the special ?gift bag? in which several exchange/gift items will be carried aboard the Apollo Command Module during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. Some of these items are seen here alongside the bag. They are the sectionized ASTP Commemorative Plaque, ten 8x12 inch American flags, ten 8.07x16.14 inch (205mm x 410mm) Soviet Union flags, a special box of white spruce tree seeds, and the ASTP Certification to authorize the ASTP docking. The gifts will be presented and the exchange made while the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft are docked in Earth orbit.

  13. Investigations on atomic-vapor-filter high-spectral-resolution lidar for temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, E.; Weitkamp, C.

    1992-01-01

    The temperature measurement by the analysis of Rayleigh scattered laser radiation with atomic vapor filters is investigated in both theory and laboratory experiments. Synthetic air is irradiated with a cw dye laser at 283 nano-meters, and the backscattered spectrum is analyzed with two lead vapor cells in one oven. Temperature measurements are carried out, and the effect of different parameters on the accuracy is investigated. Important aspects for the realization of a lidar are given.

  14. Material bagging device

    DOEpatents

    Wach, Charles G.; Nelson, Robert E.; Brak, Stephen B.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from one chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes a cylindrical housing communicating with the opening and defining a passage between the chambers. A cylindrical cartridge is slidably received within the housing. The cartridge has a substantially rigid cylindrical sleeve to which is affixed a pliable tube. The pliable tube is positioned concentrically about the sleeve and has a pleated portion capable of unfolding from the sleeve and a closed end extending over a terminal end of the sleeve. Sealing means are interposed in sealed relationship between the cartridge and the housing. Material from one chamber is inserted into the cartridge secured in the housing and received in the closed end of the tube which unfolds into the other chamber enclosing the material therein. The tube may then be sealed behind the material and then severed to form a bag-like enclosure defined by the tube's closed terminal end and the new seal. The new seal then forms a terminal end for the unsevered portion of the pliable tube into which additional material may be placed and the bagging process repeated.

  15. [Purple urine bag syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fain-Ghironi, Nathalie; Le Gonidec, Patricia; Schaeffer, Mathilde

    2003-06-14

    The report of purple discoloration in a urinary drainage system, known as Purple Urine Bag Syndrome (P.U.B.S.) is rarely described in the literature. In an 85 year-old woman, with permanent indwelling urinary catheter, the appearance of purple coloration in the urine collecting bag, without change in the colour of the urine, was observed four times in one year. During these different episodes, a Gram negative lower urinary infection diagnoses. The germs identified were Providencia stuartii and Citrobacter koseri. Symptoms resolved completely after treatment with ceftriaxone. The clinical and biological symptoms usually described in cases of P.U.B.S. are observed in the medical history of this elderly woman: indwelling catheter with delay before onset of coloration greater than 15 days following catheterization, alkaline urinary pH, Gram negative lower urinary tract infection. However, during one of the episodes of PUBS in our patient, Citrobacter koseri was identified, germ not mentioned, as far as we know, in the literature. Moreover, in the published cases, Proteus species was identified as potentially associated with P.U.B.S., but a Proteus mirabilis urinary infection with was diagnosed in our patient, without any purple coloration of the urine in the collection bag.

  16. Investigation of the Aerodynamic Drag of an Eight-Channel Centrifugal Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebryanskii, D. A.; Semenyuk, N. S.; Plashikhin, S. V.

    2015-03-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics and the structure of vortices of the central region of the channel system of an eight-channel centrifugal filter have been investigated. An overview of the foreign and home literature on the filtration of solid particles in the gas flow in centrifugal apparatuses is given [1, 2]. We present the design and the principle of operation of the eight-channel centrifugal filter based on a system of curvilinear channels with equal turn angles and equal cross-sectional areas connected in series. We have performed numerical calculations of the dependence of the aerodynamic drag of the centrifugal filter on the rate of fl ow obtained by three different methods: analytical calculation, experiments on the laboratory facility, and with the help of modern means of computer modeling. Computational modeling of the flow was carried out by solving Reynolds (RANS, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) equations by the SFD method with the use of a k-ɛ model of turbulence for three modes of operation of the apparatus. The results of computer modeling permitted visualizing the vortex structure of the central region of the separation chamber in the form of 3D graphs. The obtained results have been confirmed experimentally on a laboratory model of the centrifugal filter of capacity up to 200 m3/h of purified air.

  17. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  18. Noise trauma from air bags.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    Air bags have contributed substantially to the safety of car occupants in road accidents, but concern exists that they may inflate unnecessarily in low speed crashes. Previous articles have reported eye, face, upper limb, and chest injuries caused by air bag inflation. In this report, researchers describe two cases of hearing loss and persistent tinnitus that may have resulted from air bag inflation in low speed collisions. Neither subject sustained other injuries.

  19. Bag separation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

    2008-04-01

    Automated Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) utilizing Computed Tomography (CT) performs a series of X-ray scans of the luggage being checked, then various 2D projection images of the luggage are generated from the collected data set and sometimes 3D volumetric images of the luggage are generated in addition. Automatic explosives determination as to the presence of an explosive in the luggage is determined through extensive data manipulation of the 2D and 3D image sets, the results are then forwarded to a human interface for final review. The final determination as to whether the luggage contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed by trained TSA (Transportation Security Administration) screeners following an approved TSA protocol. The TSA protocol has the screeners visually inspect the projection images and the renderings of the automated explosive results from detection to determine if the luggage needs to be suspected and consequently searched. Unlike conventional X-ray systems, the user interface for EDS systems are usually designed to display one bag at a time. However, in airport environments, there is usually more than one bag being processed. Therefore, segmentation is a crucial part of higher quality screening. If the screeners have to manually manipulate (zoom, pan, separate) the image, this increases overall screening time and decreases screener efficiency. This paper presents a novel image segmentation technique that is geared towards, though not exclusive to, automated explosive detection systems. The goal of this algorithm is to correctly separate each bag image to provide a higher quality screening process while reducing the overall screening time and luggage search rates.

  20. Air bags and the skin.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Monica; Trincone, Silvana; Zampino, Maria Rosaria; Virgili, Annarosa

    2004-01-01

    Air bags, fitted in the majority of new automobiles, are safety devices activated when a sudden deceleration causes the ignition of a propellant cartridge containing sodium azide. The bag is inflated by nitrogen liberated during the combustion. Deployment releases various high-temperature gases, including nitrogen and carbon dioxide, and produces sodium hydroxide, a highly irritant alkaline substance. In about 7%-8% of cases, air bags cause dermatologic injuries such as traumatic lesions, irritant dermatitis, and chemical and thermal burns. Nondermatologic lesions, such as ocular damage (alkali keratitis, corneal abrasions), ear lesions, bone fractures, and contusive damage can also be caused by air bag deployment.

  1. Investigation of compaction and permeability during the out-of-autoclave and vacuum-bag-only manufacturing of a laminate composite with aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Erin

    Both industry and commercial entities are in the process of using more lightweight composites. Fillers, such as fibers, nanofibers and other nanoconstituents in polymer matrix composites have been proven to enhance the properties of composites and are still being studied in order to optimize the benefits. Further optimization can be studied during the manufacturing process. The air permeability during the out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) cure method is an important property to understand during the optimization of manufacturing processes. Changes in the manufacturing process can improve or decrease composite quality depending on the ability of the composite to evacuate gases such as air and moisture during curing. Therefore, in this study, the axial permeability of a prepreg stack was experimentally studied. Three types of samples were studied: control (no carbon nanofiber (CNF) modification), unaligned CNF modified and aligned CNF modified samples.

  2. Tight reservoir bag: the bag itself may be the culprit.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Jasvinder, Kaur

    2010-06-01

    Numerous possibilities exist which may cause obstruction to ventilation under anesthesia resulting in a tight reservoir bag with low compliance. We report an interesting case where a reservoir bag twisted around its own neck and resulted in a tight bag situation. The neck portion of the reservoir bag would be hidden from the view of anesthesiologists in head and neck surgery and hence it is easier to miss early recognition of the twist. We caution all anesthesiologists using the disposable modified Jackson-Rees breathing system to be aware of such an eventuality. We also urge the manufacturer to consider strengthening the neck of the reservoir bag by improving the quality of the material used for its construction.

  3. Investigation of domain size in polymer membranes using double quantum filtered spin diffusion MAS NMR.

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Alam, Todd Michael; Cherry, Brian Ray; Cornelius, Christopher James

    2005-02-01

    Solid-state {sup 1}H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR was used to investigate sulfonated Diels-Alder poly(phenlylene) polymer membranes. Under high spinning speed {sup 1}H MAS conditions, the proton environments of the sulfonic acid and phenylene polymer backbone are resolved. A double-quantum (DQ) filter using the rotor-synchronized back-to-back (BABA) NMR multiple-pulse sequence allowed the selective suppression of the sulfonic proton environment in the {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectra. This DQ filter in conjunction with a spin diffusion NMR experiment was then used to measure the domain size of the sulfonic acid component within the membrane. In addition, the temperature dependence of the sulfonic acid spin-spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}) was determined, providing an estimate of the activation energy for the proton dynamics of the dehydrated membrane.

  4. Bag model and quark star

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hua; Luo Xinlian; Zong Hongshi

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, incorporating the property of the vacuum negative pressure, namely, the bag constant, we present a new model of the equation of state (EOS) of quark matter at finite chemical potential and zero temperature. By comparing our EOS with Fraga et al.'s EOS and SQM1 model, one finds that our EOS is softer than Fraga et al.'s EOS and SQM1 model. The reason for this difference is analyzed. With these results we investigate the structure of a quark star. A comparison between our model of the quark star and other models is made. The obtained mass of the quark star is 1.3{approx}1.66M{sub {center_dot}}and the radius is 9.5{approx}14 Km. One can see that our star's compactness is smaller than that of the other two models.

  5. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  6. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  7. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  8. An in-flight investigation of pilot-induced oscillation suppression filters during the fighter approach and landing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. E.; Smith, R. E.; Shafer, M. F.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of pilot-induced oscillation suppression (PIOS) filters was performed using the USAF/Flight Dynamics Laboratory variable stability NT-33 aircraft, modified and operated by Calspan. This program examined the effects of PIOS filtering on the longitudinal flying qualities of fighter aircraft during the visual approach and landing task. Forty evaluations were flown to test the effects of different PIOS filters. Although detailed analyses were not undertaken, the results indicate that PIOS filtering can improve the flying qualities of an otherwise unacceptable aircraft configuration (Level 3 flying qualities). However, the ability of the filters to suppress pilot-induced oscillations appears to be dependent upon the aircraft configuration characteristics. Further, the data show that the filters can adversely affect landing flying qualities if improperly designed. The data provide an excellent foundation from which detail analyses can be performed.

  9. Leukoreduction of platelet concentrates using a 'polishing' filter.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, P F; Pietersz, R N; Reesink, H W

    2000-01-01

    Filters for removal of leukocytes from platelet concentrates (PCs) usually have a large volume to guarantee sufficient leukoreduction. In this study, a small filter, with a volume of only 8 ml and therefore minimal platelet loss, for leukoreduction of PCs was investigated. This filter has a 'limited' leukoreducing capacity, hence the filter is called a 'polishing' filter. PCs were made from 5 pooled buffy coats in either plasma or additive solution (PAS-II). After centrifugation, the platelet-rich supernatant was expressed on an automated separator (Compomat G4) to an empty transfer bag. The content of this transfer bag was filtered into the platelet storage bag, either by expression by lowering the top press of the Compomat G4, or by gravity by hanging it on a filtration rack. Leukocyte counts before and after filtration revealed a mean leukoreducing capacity for the filter of 2.67 log(10) and a platelet loss of only 2% for PCs in PAS-II (n = 50), and for PCs in plasma a 3.43 log(10) leukoreduction with 3% platelet loss (n = 30). Expression of the PCs both in plasma and PAS-II through the filter using the Compomat G4 resulted in 10/10 units containing <5x10(6) leukocytes, but 1/10 PCs contained >1x10(6) leukocytes for both solutions. Filtration by gravity resultet in 40/40 units with <1x10(6) leukocytes for PCs in plasma, and 60/60 units with <1x10(6) for PCs in PAS-II. The 'polishing' filter allows reliable, standardized and automated production of PCs, both in plasma and additive solution with minimal platelet loss, and containing uniformly <1x10(6) leukocytes, provided the filtration procedure is performed by gravity.

  10. Advanced Air Bag Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Dowdy, M. W.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Kim. E.-H.; Moore, N. R.; VanZandt, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the concern for the growing number of air-bag-induced injuries and fatalities, the administrators of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to a cooperative effort that "leverages NHTSA's expertise in motor vehicle safety restraint systems and biomechanics with NASAs position as one of the leaders in advanced technology development... to enable the state of air bag safety technology to advance at a faster pace..." They signed a NASA/NHTSA memorandum of understanding for NASA to "evaluate air bag to assess advanced air bag performance, establish the technological potential for improved technology (smart) air bag systems, and identify key expertise and technology within the agency (i.e., NASA) that can potentially contribute significantly to the improved effectiveness of air bags." NASA is committed to contributing to NHTSAs effort to: (1) understand and define critical parameters affecting air bag performance; (2) systematically assess air bag technology state of the art and its future potential; and (3) identify new concepts for air bag systems. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was selected by NASA to respond to the memorandum of understanding by conducting an advanced air bag technology assessment. JPL analyzed the nature of the need for occupant restraint, how air bags operate alone and with safety belts to provide restraint, and the potential hazards introduced by the technology. This analysis yielded a set of critical parameters for restraint systems. The researchers examined data on the performance of current air bag technology, and searched for and assessed how new technologies could reduce the hazards introduced by air bags while providing the restraint protection that is their primary purpose. The critical parameters which were derived are: (1) the crash severity; (2) the use of seat belts; (3) the physical characteristics of the occupants; (4) the

  11. Theoretical investigation of pressure drop in combined cyclone and fabric filter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirgo, John A.; Cooper, Douglas W.

    Computer simulations were conducted to investigate potential pressure drop reductions obtainable by combining cyclones, as pre-collectors, with fabric filters. The Leith-Licht model was used to characterize cyclone emissions and the specific resistance ( K2) of the fabric filter dust cake was calculated from an empirical correlation. Several important dimensionless groups were identified and evaluated. One group, the product of the ratio of the dust cake specific resistances expected with and without the cyclone and the mass penetration of the cyclone, ( K2/ K2) Pn, indicates whether a pressure drop reduction is possible. A correlation was developed for this group as a function of the size properties of the inlet dust (particle mass median diameter and geometric standard deviation) and the cyclone particle cut diameter. Expressions were derived for the break-even time, the duration of filtration with the cyclone needed to show a pressure drop reduction in comparison with filtration without the cyclone. It is shown that in previously reported experiments and simulations indicating an advantage for the combined cyclone-fabric filter system, filtration cycles were typically longer than the break-even time; those showing no improvement typically had filtration times shorter than the break-even time.

  12. Investigation of E. coli and Virus Reductions Using Replicate, Bench-Scale Biosand Filter Columns and Two Filter Media.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Mark; Stauber, Christine E; DiGiano, Francis A; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Sobsey, Mark D

    2015-08-25

    The biosand filter (BSF) is an intermittently operated, household-scale slow sand filter for which little data are available on the effect of sand composition on treatment performance. Therefore, bench-scale columns were prepared according to the then-current (2006-2007) guidance on BSF design and run in parallel to conduct two microbial challenge experiments of eight-week duration. Triplicate columns were loaded with Accusand silica or crushed granite to compare virus and E. coli reduction performance. Bench-scale experiments provided confirmation that increased schmutzdecke growth, as indicated by decline in filtration rate, is the primary factor causing increased E. coli reductions of up to 5-log10. However, reductions of challenge viruses improved only modestly with increased schmutzdecke growth. Filter media type (Accusand silica vs. crushed granite) did not influence reduction of E. coli bacteria. The granite media without backwashing yielded superior virus reductions when compared to Accusand. However, for columns in which the granite media was first backwashed (to yield a more consistent distribution of grains and remove the finest size fraction), virus reductions were not significantly greater than in columns with Accusand media. It was postulated that a decline in surface area with backwashing decreased the sites and surface area available for virus sorption and/or biofilm growth and thus decreased the extent of virus reduction. Additionally, backwashing caused preferential flow paths and deviation from plug flow; backwashing is not part of standard BSF field preparation and is not recommended for BSF column studies. Overall, virus reductions were modest and did not meet the 5- or 3-log10 World Health Organization performance targets.

  13. Investigation of E. coli and Virus Reductions Using Replicate, Bench-Scale Biosand Filter Columns and Two Filter Media

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Mark; Stauber, Christine E.; DiGiano, Francis A.; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    The biosand filter (BSF) is an intermittently operated, household-scale slow sand filter for which little data are available on the effect of sand composition on treatment performance. Therefore, bench-scale columns were prepared according to the then-current (2006–2007) guidance on BSF design and run in parallel to conduct two microbial challenge experiments of eight-week duration. Triplicate columns were loaded with Accusand silica or crushed granite to compare virus and E. coli reduction performance. Bench-scale experiments provided confirmation that increased schmutzdecke growth, as indicated by decline in filtration rate, is the primary factor causing increased E. coli reductions of up to 5-log10. However, reductions of challenge viruses improved only modestly with increased schmutzdecke growth. Filter media type (Accusand silica vs. crushed granite) did not influence reduction of E. coli bacteria. The granite media without backwashing yielded superior virus reductions when compared to Accusand. However, for columns in which the granite media was first backwashed (to yield a more consistent distribution of grains and remove the finest size fraction), virus reductions were not significantly greater than in columns with Accusand media. It was postulated that a decline in surface area with backwashing decreased the sites and surface area available for virus sorption and/or biofilm growth and thus decreased the extent of virus reduction. Additionally, backwashing caused preferential flow paths and deviation from plug flow; backwashing is not part of standard BSF field preparation and is not recommended for BSF column studies. Overall, virus reductions were modest and did not meet the 5- or 3-log10 World Health Organization performance targets. PMID:26308036

  14. Investigation of liquid crystal Fabry-Perot tunable filters: design, fabrication, and polarization independence.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Sivan; Placido, Frank; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2014-10-10

    Liquid crystal Fabry-Perot tunable filters are investigated in detail, with special attention to their manufacturability, design, tolerances, and polarization independence. The calculations were performed both numerically and analytically using the 4×4 propagation matrix method. A simplified analytic expression for the propagation matrix is derived for the case of nematic LC in the homogeneous geometry. At normal incidence, it is shown that one can use the 2×2 Abeles matrix method; however, at oblique incidence, the 4×4 matrix method is needed. The effects of dephasing originating from wedge or noncollimated light beams are investigated. Due to the absorption of the indium tin oxide layer and as an electrode, its location within the mirror multilayered stack is very important. The optimum location is found to be within the stack and not on its top or bottom. Finally, we give more detailed experimental results of our polarization-independent configuration that uses polarization diversity with a Wollaston prism.

  15. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  16. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan™ bags.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is to verify the diffusion rate of ammonia through the Nalophan™ film that constitutes the sampling bag, considering storage times ranging from 1 to 26 h. The ammonia decay over time was evaluated using gas-chromatography for the quantification of ammonia concentration inside the bag. The research assesses the roles of both of ammonia and water concentration gradients at the polymeric film interface on the diffusion process. The results show that both the ammonia concentration gradient and, in a less pronounced way, the water concentration gradient are the main 'engines' of ammonia diffusion. Double bags seem to represent a simple solution for preventing ammonia losses during storage. Another interesting result concerns the role of the bag surface on the ammonia diffusion rate: the higher the surface/volume (S/V) ratio, the higher the ammonia diffusion rate through the polymeric film.

  17. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... plastic or metal containers or dedicated handling devices are authorized for shipment of air bag inflators... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners....

  18. Multifractal filtering methods to investigate tectono-magmatic framework in the Eastern Tianshan mineral district, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Cheng, Qiuming; Wang, Wenlei

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Tianshan district is a critical Cu-polymetallic mineralization zone in China. Influenced by the northward plate subduction, geological framework generally extends along the EW direction, dominated by which spatial distributions of volcanic activities, volcanic sediments and granitic intrusions are EW oriented as well. Gravity data sensitive to mass variations of earth crust are often employed to detect and recognize buried geological bodies (e.g., ore bodies, buried intrusions, faults, etc.). Fault traces as products of complex and cascade geological processes possess self-similarity, anisotropy and other fractal/multifractal characters. Multifractal theories and methods are, therefore, appropriate to analyze faults and investigate their causative geological processes. In addition, mineral exploration in this area is frequently impeded by Gobi-desert coverage, since geo-information of interests will become weak, missing and/or inadequate. Many of former studies had demonstrated that fractal/multifractal approaches are efficient tools to explore complicated geological events. Especially in shallow covered areas, weak geo-information can be enhanced significantly. This study applies a multifractal filtering method to gravity and geochemical data, which is objective to identify Fe-Cu-Au mineralization related faulted structures. The multifractal filter, spectrum-area (S-A) model is currently employed to characterize anisotropic properties of geological framework in the study area. According to the filtered anomaly and background patterns, mineralized districts can mostly be targeted along the faulted zones and around the intermediate-felsic intrusive rocks in the Aqishan-Yamansu volcanic basin. Nevertheless, the jointly used upward continuation and vertical derivation cannot achieve patterns as the S-A filter due to the scale variance of the model. The S-A model defined based on the self-similarity and scale invariance of their corresponding sections on

  19. Analysis on Experimental Investigation and Mathematical Modeling of Incompressible Flow Through Ceramic Foam Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarnejad, Shahin; Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar; Kennedy, Mark William; Aune, Ragnhild Elizabeth; Jönsson, Pӓr Göran

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents experimental results of pressure drop measurements on 30, 50, and 80 pores per inch (PPI) commercial alumina ceramic foam filters (CFF) and compares the obtained pressure drop profiles to numerically modeled values. In addition, it is aimed at investigating the adequacy of the mathematical correlations used in the analytical and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. It is shown that the widely used correlations for predicting pressure drop in porous media continuously under-predict the experimentally obtained pressure drop profiles. For analytical predictions, the negative deviations from the experimentally obtained pressure drop using the unmodified Ergun and Dietrich equations could be as high as 95 and 74 pct, respectively. For the CFD predictions, the deviation to experimental results is in the range of 84.3 to 88.5 pct depending on filter PPI. Better results can be achieved by applying the Forchheimer second-order drag term instead of the Brinkman-Forchheimer drag term. Thus, the final deviation of the CFD model estimates lie in the range of 0.3 to 5.5 pct compared to the measured values.

  20. 7 CFR 201.41 - Bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.41 Bags. (a) For lots of six bags or less, each bag shall be sampled. A total of at least five trierfuls shall be taken. (b) For lots of more than six bags... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bags. 201.41 Section 201.41 Agriculture Regulations of...

  1. Laboratory and field investigation of the adsorption of gaseous organic compounds onto quartz filters

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Corrigan, Craig E.; Novakov, T.

    2000-07-01

    A common method for measuring the mass of organic carbon in airborne particulate matter involves collection on a quartz filter and subsequent thermal analysis. If unaccounted for, the adsorption of organic gases onto quartz filters will lead to the overestimation of aerosol organic carbon concentrations (positive artifact). A recommended method of correction for the positive artifact involves sampling with a backup filter. Placed behind either the primary quartz filter, or behind a Teflon filter and collected in parallel with the primary quartz filter, the carbon content of the quartz backup filter is a measure of the adsorbed organic material on the primary quartz filter. In this paper, we illustrate the application of this technique to samples collected in Berkeley, California. While the tandem quartz filter method can be successfully applied to correct for the positive artifact, we discuss two cases when this method will fail. We have found that the capacity for adsorption of organic gases is not uniform for all filters. Instead, filters manufactured by the same company, but having different lot numbers, exhibit variable adsorption capacity. Thus, a filter pair composed of filters from different lots may lead to significant under- or overestimation of particulate organic carbon concentration. Additionally, we have observed that the tandem filter method under-corrects for the positive artifact if the sampling time is short (few hours). Laboratory experiments with vapors of single organic compounds corroborate results based on ambient samples. The evolution of adsorbed organic gases, particularly polar compounds, during thermal analysis indicates that a single compound may experience two distinct adsorbent-adsorbate binding energies. Adsorbed gases may co-evolve with particles at temperatures in excess of 250-degree C.

  2. Laboratory and field investigation of the adsorption of gaseous organic compounds onto quartz filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Corrigan, Craig E.; Novakov, T.

    A common method for measuring the mass of organic carbon in airborne particulate matter involves collection on a quartz filter and subsequent thermal analysis. If unaccounted for, the adsorption of organic gases onto quartz filters will lead to the overestimation of aerosol organic carbon concentrations (positive artifact). A recommended method of correction for the positive artifact involves sampling with a backup filter. Placed behind either the primary quartz filter, or behind a Teflon filter and collected in parallel with the primary quartz filter, the carbon content of the quartz backup filter is a measure of the adsorbed organic material on the primary quartz filter. In this paper, we illustrate the application of this technique to samples collected in Berkeley, California. While the tandem quartz filter method can be successfully applied to correct for the positive artifact, we discuss two cases when this method will fail. We have found that the capacity for adsorption of organic gases is not uniform for all filters. Instead, filters manufactured by the same company, but having different lot numbers, exhibit variable adsorption capacity. Thus, a filter pair composed of filters from different lots may lead to significant under- or overestimation of particulate organic carbon concentration. Additionally, we have observed that the tandem filter method under-corrects for the positive artifact if the sampling time is short (few hours). Laboratory experiments with vapors of single organic compounds corroborate results based on ambient samples. The evolution of adsorbed organic gases, particularly polar compounds, during thermal analysis indicates that a single compound may experience two distinct adsorbent-adsorbate binding energies. Adsorbed gases may co-evolve with particles at temperatures in excess of 250°C.

  3. Investigating the fate of saxitoxins in biologically active water treatment plant filters

    SciTech Connect

    Kayal, N.; Newcombe, G.; Ho, L.

    2008-12-15

    The saxitoxins are potent neurotoxins, which can be produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. This study assessed the fate of five saxitoxins variants through biologically active laboratory filters containing media sourced from the filters beds of two water treatment plants (WTPs). Decreases in the concentration of the less toxic variants coincided with increases in the concentrations of the more toxic variants through the filters containing anthracite sourced from two different WTPs. No changes in toxin concentrations were evident through parallel filters containing sand. The results strongly suggest that organisms within the biofilm of the anthracite filters possessed the ability to biotransform the saxitoxins variants, which has important implications for drinking water treatment, particularly since this has the potential to increase the toxicity of the filtered water.

  4. Investigating the fate of saxitoxins in biologically active water treatment plant filters.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Nawal; Newcombe, Gayle; Ho, Lionel

    2008-12-01

    The saxitoxins are potent neurotoxins, which can be produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. This study assessed the fate of five saxitoxins variants through biologically active laboratory filters containing media sourced from the filters beds of two water treatment plants (WTPs). Decreases in the concentration of the less toxic variants coincided with increases in the concentrations of the more toxic variants through the filters containing anthracite sourced from two different WTPs. No changes in toxin concentrations were evident through parallel filters containing sand. The results strongly suggest that organisms within the biofilm of the anthracite filters possessed the ability to biotransform the saxitoxins variants, which has important implications for drinking water treatment, particularly since this has the potential to increase the toxicity of the filtered water. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effectiveness of air bags.

    PubMed

    Barry, S; Ginpil, S; O'Neill, T J

    1999-11-01

    Previous research has shown that the installation of air bags in vehicles significantly reduces crash related deaths, but these analyses have used statistical techniques which have not been capable of controlling for other major determinants of crash survival. This study analysed data from the US FARS database of fatal crashes using conditional logistic regression which is simultaneously able to estimate occupant protection effects for a range of variables. Results of the analysis provided a comparative quantification of both the effect of the air bag as well as other well known determinants of occupant crash survival (age, seat belt use, and gender). When potentially confounding variables were controlled, both the driver and passenger side air bag devices were shown to significantly reduce the probability of death in direct frontal collisions, but the effect size calculated was small compared to the effect of the seat belt. The effect size may also be very small in absolute terms depending on the severity of the crash involved. Given the limited benefit of the air bag, efforts to promote air bags seem particularly difficult to justify in countries such as the United States where the vastly superior occupant protection of the seat belt is under-utilised.

  6. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    PubMed

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  7. Air bag injury and the dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Foley, E; Helm, T N

    2000-10-01

    Most new car models have driver-side air bags and many also have passenger-side and side-impact air bags. Air bags are known to be dangerous to small children and may cause death, fractures, and cerebral spinal injury. However, the cutaneous manifestations of air bag injury are less well known. Additional potential air bag injuries include retinal damage and high-frequency hearing loss. The following case report illustrates significant burns from a low-impact air bag injury and reviews the pertinent literature.

  8. Morphological classification of low viscosity drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Li, Wei-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effect of Rayleigh-Taylor wave number in the region of maximum cross stream dimension (NRT) on drop breakup morphology, the breakup properties of accelerating low viscosity liquid drops (water and ethanol drops, diameter=1.2-6.6 mm, Weber number=10-80) were investigated using high-speed digital photography. The results of morphological analysis show a good correlation of the observed breakup type with NRT; bag breakup occurred when NRT was 1/√3 -1, bag-stamen breakup at 1-2, and dual-bag breakup at 2-3. The number of nodes in bag breakup, bag-stamen breakup, and dual-bag breakup all increased with Weber number. The experimental results are consistent with the model estimates and in good agreement with those reported in the literature.

  9. Quark gluon bags as reggeons

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaev, K. A.; Petrov, V. K.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2009-05-15

    The influence of the medium-dependent finite width of quark gluon plasma (QGP) bags on their equation of state is analyzed within an exactly solvable model. It is argued that the large width of the QGP bags not only explains the observed deficit in the number of hadronic resonances but also clarifies the reason why the heavy QGP bags cannot be directly observed as metastable states in a hadronic phase. The model allows us to estimate the minimal value of the width of QGP bags being heavier than 2 GeV from a variety of the lattice QCD data and get that the minimal resonance width at zero temperature is about 600 MeV, whereas the minimal resonance width at the Hagedorn temperature is about 2000 MeV. As shown, these estimates are almost insensitive to the number of the elementary degrees of freedom. The recent lattice QCD data are analyzed and it is found that in addition to the {sigma}T{sup 4} term the lattice QCD pressure contains T-linear and T{sup 4}lnT terms in the range of temperatures between 240 and 420 MeV. The presence of the last term in the pressure bears almost no effect on the width estimates. Our analysis shows that at high temperatures the average mass and width of the QGP bags behave in accordance with the upper bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the linear asymptotics), whereas at low temperatures they obey the lower bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the square root one). Since the model explicitly contains the Hagedorn mass spectrum, it allows us to remove an existing contradiction between the finite number of hadronic Regge families and the Hagedorn idea of the exponentially growing mass spectrum of hadronic bags.

  10. Investigation of smoothness-increasing accuracy-conserving filters for improving streamline integration through discontinuous fields.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Michael; Curtis, Sean; Kirby, Robert M; Ryan, Jennifer K

    2008-01-01

    Streamline integration of fields produced by computational fluid mechanics simulations is a commonly used tool for the investigation and analysis of fluid flow phenomena. Integration is often accomplished through the application of ordinary differential equation (ODE) integrators--integrators whose error characteristics are predicated on the smoothness of the field through which the streamline is being integrated--smoothness which is not available at the inter-element level of finite volume and finite element data. Adaptive error control techniques are often used to ameliorate the challenge posed by inter-element discontinuities. As the root of the difficulties is the discontinuous nature of the data, we present a complementary approach of applying smoothness-enhancing accuracy-conserving filters to the data prior to streamline integration. We investigate whether such an approach applied to uniform quadrilateral discontinuous Galerkin (high-order finite volume) data can be used to augment current adaptive error control approaches. We discuss and demonstrate through numerical example the computational trade-offs exhibited when one applies such a strategy.

  11. Investigation of Dual-Mode Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on SIR Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mezaal, Yaqeen S.; Ali, Jawad K.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new bandpass filter design has been presented using simple topology of stepped impedance square loop resonator. The proposed bandpass filter has been simulated and fabricated using a substrate with an insulation constant of 10.8, thickness of 1.27mm and loss tangent of 0.0023 at center frequency of 5.8 GHz. The simulation results have been evaluated using Sonnet simulator that is extensively adopted in microwave analysis and implementation. The output frequency results demonstrated that the proposed filter has high-quality frequency responses in addition to isolated second harmonic frequency. Besides, this filter has very small surface area and perceptible narrow band response features that represent the conditions of recent wireless communication systems. Various filter specifications have been compared with different magnitudes of perturbation element dimension. Furthermore, phase scattering response and current intensity distribution of the proposed filter have been discussed. The simulated and experimental results are well-matched. Lastly, the features of the proposed filter have been compared with other designed microstrip filters in the literature. PMID:27798675

  12. Investigation of Dual-Mode Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on SIR Technique.

    PubMed

    Mezaal, Yaqeen S; Ali, Jawad K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new bandpass filter design has been presented using simple topology of stepped impedance square loop resonator. The proposed bandpass filter has been simulated and fabricated using a substrate with an insulation constant of 10.8, thickness of 1.27mm and loss tangent of 0.0023 at center frequency of 5.8 GHz. The simulation results have been evaluated using Sonnet simulator that is extensively adopted in microwave analysis and implementation. The output frequency results demonstrated that the proposed filter has high-quality frequency responses in addition to isolated second harmonic frequency. Besides, this filter has very small surface area and perceptible narrow band response features that represent the conditions of recent wireless communication systems. Various filter specifications have been compared with different magnitudes of perturbation element dimension. Furthermore, phase scattering response and current intensity distribution of the proposed filter have been discussed. The simulated and experimental results are well-matched. Lastly, the features of the proposed filter have been compared with other designed microstrip filters in the literature.

  13. Investigation of New Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Patch Resonator with Geometrical Fractal Slot.

    PubMed

    Mezaal, Yaqeen S; Eyyuboglu, Halil T

    2016-01-01

    A compact dual-mode microstrip bandpass filter using geometrical slot is presented in this paper. The adopted geometrical slot is based on first iteration of Cantor square fractal curve. This filter has the benefits of possessing narrower and sharper frequency responses as compared to microstrip filters that use single mode resonators and traditional dual-mode square patch resonators. The filter has been modeled and demonstrated by Microwave Office EM simulator designed at a resonant frequency of 2 GHz using a substrate of εr = 10.8 and thickness of h = 1.27 mm. The output simulated results of the proposed filter exhibit 22 dB return loss, 0.1678 dB insertion loss and 12 MHz bandwidth in the passband region. In addition to the narrow band gained, miniaturization properties as well as weakened spurious frequency responses and blocked second harmonic frequency in out of band regions have been acquired. Filter parameters including insertion loss, return loss, bandwidth, coupling coefficient and external quality factor have been compared with different values of perturbation dimension (d). Also, a full comparative study of this filter as compared with traditional square patch filter has been considered.

  14. Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior.

    PubMed

    Tatari, K; Smets, B F; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2016-09-15

    The biokinetic behavior of NH4(+) removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4(+) loadings in a continuous-flow lab-scale assay. NH4(+) removal capacity, estimated from short term loading up-shifts, was at least 10 times higher in the top than in the middle and bottom filter layers, consistent with the stratification of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB). AOB density increased consistently with the NH4(+) removal rate, indicating their primarily role in nitrification under the imposed experimental conditions. The maximum AOB cell specific NH4(+) removal rate observed at the bottom was at least 3 times lower compared to the top and middle layers. Additionally, a significant up-shift capacity (4.6 and 3.5 times) was displayed from the top and middle layers, but not from the bottom layer at increased loading conditions. Hence, AOB with different physiological responses were active at the different depths. The biokinetic analysis predicted that despite the low NH4(+) removal capacity at the bottom layer, the entire filter is able to cope with a 4-fold instantaneous loading increase without compromising the effluent NH4(+). Ultimately, this filter up-shift capacity was limited by the density of AOB and their biokinetic behavior, both of which were strongly stratified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. SU-E-T-185: Clinically-Relevant Investigation of Flattening Filter Free Skin Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, C; Karki, K; Sharma, M; Kim, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams are increasingly used for small-field treatments due to inherent advantages like higher MU efficiency and reduced treatment time and scatter dose. Removal of the flattening-filter increases the electron contamination and low-energy x-rays. As such, surface-dose characteristics are different from traditional flattened (FF) beams. The goal of this work is to investigate surface dose of 6/10 MV FFF and FF beams under conditions representative of emerging complex techniques like small-field stereotactic treatments which use small fields formed with multi-leaf-collimators (MLCs) at closer SSDs. Methods: A parallel-plate PTW Markus-chamber (N23343) placed in custom air- and water-equivalent phantoms was used to measure surface-dose at 2/3/4/6/8/10/20/30 cm{sup 2} field sizes, at 80/90/100 cm source-to-surface distances, and at fields defined by jaws and MLCs. The effect of dose rate (600 and 1400/2400 MU/min) was also investigated at 100 cm SSD. Measurements were performed on TrueBeam linac (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) for 6X/6XFFF/10X/10XFFF beam energies. Results: No dose-rate dependence was seen for FFF skin-dose. Air-phantom measurements were, on average, 5±3% larger than for water-phantom measurements. With SSD increase from 80 to 100 cm, skin-dose decreased by an average of 3.9±2.5%. FFF beams were found to be more sensitive to SSD changes in comparison to FF beams. The difference in skin dose between MLC- and jaw-fields was less variable with field size for FFF compared to FF beams. 10 MV beams showed greater difference in FFF-to-FF ratio, 50% (jaws) and 22% (MLC), between the largest and smallest field sizes compared to 6 MV beams, 30% (jaws) and 9% (MLC). Conclusion: Under clinically-relevant conditions, surface dose for FFF beams was higher at small field size (<10 cm), lower at largest field size (30 cm), more sensitive to SSD changes, and had less variation with field size compared to dose for FF beams.

  16. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey

    2016-04-05

    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial.

  17. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A. Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial. PMID:26958811

  18. Filtered or Unfiltered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Ann; Haycock, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Discusses results of a survey questionnaire of public and school libraries that investigated the use of Internet filtering software. Considers filter alternatives; reasons for filtering or not filtering; brand names; satisfaction with site blocking; satisfaction with the decision to install filter software; and guidelines for considering filters.…

  19. Design and Experimental Investigation of a Compact Circularly Polarized Integrated Filtering Antenna for Wearable Biotelemetric Devices.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Gregory, Micah D; Werner, Douglas H

    2016-04-01

    A compact circularly polarized (CP) integrated filtering antenna is reported for wearable biotelemetric devices in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. The design is based on a mutual synthesis of a CP patch antenna connected to a bandpass filter composed of coupled stripline open-loop resonators, which provides an integrated low-profile radiating and filtering module with a compact form factor of 0.44λ(0)×0.44λ(0)×0.04λ(0). The optimized filtering antenna is fabricated and measured, achieving an S11 < -14 dB, an axial ratio of less than 3 dB and gain higher than 3.5 dBi in the targeted ISM band. With the integrated filtering functionality, the antenna exhibits good out-of-band rejection over an ultra-wide frequency range of 1-6 GHz. Further full-wave simulations and experiments were carried out, verifying that the proposed filtering antenna maintains these desirable properties even when mounted in close proximity to the human body at different positions. The stable impedance performance and the simultaneous wide axial ratio and radiated power beam widths make it an ideal candidate as a wearable antenna for off-body communications. The additional integrated filtering functionality further improves utility by greatly reducing interference and crosstalk with other existing wireless systems.

  20. Bag-Tanks for Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen E.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests using plastic bags as aquaria and terraria. Describes techniques for converting plastic sheets into aquaria, how to set them up for classroom use, and other uses for plastic bag aquaria. (DS)

  1. Knife-edge seal for vacuum bagging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cam actuated clamps pinch bagging material between long knife edge (mounted to clamps) and high temperature rubber cushion bonded to baseplate. No adhesive, tape, or sealing groove is needed to seal edge of bagging sheet against base plate.

  2. Submicron Aerosol Particle Losses in Metalized Bags.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecinski, Alice

    1980-07-01

    Two new types of conducting bags were tested for aerosol particle storage and sampling, a 3M Company Velostat bag and a bag constructed from 3M Type 2100 Static Shielding Film. The half-lives of unipolar, unit-charged 0.025 m, 0.050 m and 0.090 m sized aerosol particles stored in the Velostat bag and the film bag were 130, 190 and 270 min and 40, 70 and 180 min, respectively. These results depend upon the history of bag filling. The values given here apply to bags which had not previously been filled on the day of experimentation. The lifetimes exhibited by the aerosol particles stored in the Velostat bag are the longest found to data.

  3. An XPS round robin investigation on analysis of wood pulp fibres and filter paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Campbell, J. M.; Fardim, Pedro; Hultén, Anette Heijnesson; Boisvert, Jean-Philippe; Ernstsson, Marie

    2005-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been applied to pulp and paper research for decades. However, there has been no attempt to standardise or even systematically compare experimental and analysis procedures, even though it is known that fibrous, nature-derived and insulating fibre materials pose remarkable challenges to reliable surface analysis. The experimental problems are mainly linked with neutralisation, energy resolution, contamination and X-ray induced degradation. We have tested applicability, reliability and reproducibility of XPS analysis on real pulp samples with varying lignin and extractives contents in a small round robin investigation. We also tested the instrumental set-ups with an acetone-extracted filter paper, used as a reference sample. The data, collected at four different laboratories with state-of-the-art instruments indicate that reproducible results can be obtained, despite minor differences in experimental and analysis procedures. However, we found that a specified sample handling procedure and limited X-ray exposure are crucial for reproducible, reliable data. Based on the round robin data we recommend dose restricted monochromatic measurements, a cellulosic in situ reference and a consistent sample handling procedure. The data confirms that a paper-based reference material and the correlation of high-resolution C 1s data with O/C atomic ratios can be used in testing instruments and experimental set-ups for pulp and paper materials.

  4. Investigation of terpinolene + ozone or terpinolene + nitrate radical reaction products using denuder/filter apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Joel C.; Wells, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Terpinolene’s (1-methyl-4-(propan-2-ylidene)cyclohexene) reaction with ozone or the nitrate radical was investigated using a denuder/filter apparatus in order to characterize gas-phase and particulate reaction products. Identification of the reaction products (i.e., aldehydes, ketones, dicarbonyls and carboxylic acids) was made using two derivatization methods; O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) to derivatize the carbonyl products or 3-Ethyl-1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethylamine hydrochloride (TFEA) to derivatize the carboxylic acid products. Proposed carbonyl products for ozonolysis of terpinolene are: 4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one, 2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, 3-oxobutanal, and 6-oxo-3-(propan-2-ylidene)heptanal. Proposed carbonyl products for nitrate radical reaction of terpinolene are: 2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, and 4-oxopentanal. No carboxylic acid products were detected with either oxidizing reactant. PMID:26527171

  5. Investigation of terpinolene + ozone or terpinolene + nitrate radical reaction products using denuder/filter apparatus.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Joel C; Wells, J R

    2013-12-01

    Terpinolene's (1-methyl-4-(propan-2-ylidene)cyclohexene) reaction with ozone or the nitrate radical was investigated using a denuder/filter apparatus in order to characterize gas-phase and particulate reaction products. Identification of the reaction products (i.e., aldehydes, ketones, dicarbonyls and carboxylic acids) was made using two derivatization methods; O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) to derivatize the carbonyl products or 3-Ethyl-1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethylamine hydrochloride (TFEA) to derivatize the carboxylic acid products. Proposed carbonyl products for ozonolysis of terpinolene are: 4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one, 2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, 3-oxobutanal, and 6-oxo-3-(propan-2-ylidene)heptanal. Proposed carbonyl products for nitrate radical reaction of terpinolene are: 2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, and 4-oxopentanal. No carboxylic acid products were detected with either oxidizing reactant.

  6. Investigation of terpinolene + ozone or terpinolene + nitrate radical reaction products using denuder/filter apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Joel C.; Wells, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Terpinolene's (1-methyl-4-(propan-2-ylidene)cyclohexene) reaction with ozone or the nitrate radical was investigated using a denuder/filter apparatus in order to characterize gas-phase and particulate reaction products. Identification of the reaction products (i.e., aldehydes, ketones, dicarbonyls and carboxylic acids) was made using two derivatization methods; O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) to derivatize the carbonyl products or 3-Ethyl-1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethylamine hydrochloride (TFEA) to derivatize the carboxylic acid products. Proposed carbonyl products for ozonolysis of terpinolene are: 4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one, 2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, 3-oxobutanal, and 6-oxo-3-(propan-2-ylidene)heptanal. Proposed carbonyl products for nitrate radical reaction of terpinolene are: 2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, and 4-oxopentanal. No carboxylic acid products were detected with either oxidizing reactant.

  7. Investigating different filter and rescaling methods on simulated GRACE-like TWS variations for hydrological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liangjing; Dobslaw, Henryk; Dahle, Christoph; Thomas, Maik; Neumayer, Karl-Hans; Flechtner, Frank

    2017-04-01

    By operating for more than one decade now, the GRACE satellite provides valuable information on the total water storage (TWS) for hydrological and hydro-meteorological applications. The increasing interest in use of the GRACE-based TWS requires an in-depth assessment of the reliability of the outputs and also its uncertainties. Through years of development, different post-processing methods have been suggested for TWS estimation. However, since GRACE offers an unique way to provide high spatial and temporal scale TWS, there is no global ground truth data available to fully validate the results. In this contribution, we re-assess a number of commonly used post-processing methods using a simulated GRACE-type gravity field time-series based on realistic orbits and instrument error assumptions as well as background error assumptions out of the updated ESA Earth System Model. Three non-isotropic filter methods from Kusche (2007) and a combined filter from DDK1 and DDK3 based on the ground tracks are tested. Rescaling factors estimated from five different hydrological models and the ensemble median are applied to the post-processed simulated GRACE-type TWS estimates to correct the bias and leakage. Time variant rescaling factors as monthly scaling factors and scaling factors for seasonal and long-term variations separately are investigated as well. Since TWS anomalies out of the post-processed simulation results can be readily compared to the time-variable Earth System Model initially used as "truth" during the forward simulation step, we are able to thoroughly check the plausibility of our error estimation assessment (Zhang et al., 2016) and will subsequently recommend a processing strategy that shall also be applied for planned GRACE and GRACE-FO Level-3 products for terrestrial applications provided by GFZ. Kusche, J., 2007:Approximate decorrelation and non-isotropic smoothing of time-variable GRACE-type gravity field models. J. Geodesy, 81 (11), 733-749, doi:10

  8. Monte Carlo investigation into feasibility and dosimetry of flat flattening filter free beams.

    PubMed

    Zavgorodni, Sergei

    2013-11-07

    Flattening filter free (FFF) beams due to their non-uniformity, are sub-optimal for larger field sizes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incident electron beam distributions that would produce flat FFF (F4) beams without the use of a flattening filter (FF). Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes have been performed to evaluate feasibility of this approach. The dose distributions in water for open 6 MV beams were simulated using the Varian 21EX linac head model, which will be called the FF model. The FF was then removed from the FF model, and MC simulations were performed using (1) 6 MeV electrons incident on the target and (2) a 6 MeV electron beam with electron angular distributions optimized to provide as flat dose profiles as possible. Configuration (1) represents FFF beam while configuration (2) allowed producing a F4 beam. Optimizations have also been performed to produce flattest profiles for a set of dose rates (DRs) in the range from 1.25 to 2.4 of the DR of FF beam. Profiles and percentage depth doses (PDDs) from 6 MV F4 beams have been calculated and compared to those from the FF beam. Calculated profiles demonstrated improved flatness of the FFF beams. In fact, up to field sizes within the circle of 35 cm diameter the flatness of F4 beam at dmax was better or comparable to that of FF beam. At 20 cm off-axis the dose increased from 52% for FFF to 92% for F4 beam. Also, profiles of F4 beams did not change considerably with depth. PDDs from F4 beams were similar to those of the FFF beam. The DR for the largest modeled (44 cm diameter) F4 beam was higher than the DR from FF beam by a factor of 1.25. It was shown that the DR can be increased while maintaining beam flatness, but at the cost of reduced field size.

  9. Investigations on phosphorus recovery and reuse as soil amendment from electric arc furnace slag filters.

    PubMed

    Bird, Simon C; Drizo, Aleksandra

    2009-11-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag has been identified as an effective filter material for the removal of phosphorus (P) from both point and non-point sources. To determine the feasibility of land-applying P saturated EAF steel slag this study was undertaken to investigate (i) saturated EAF steel slag material's potential as a P fertilizer or soil amendment and (ii) P desorption and metals leachate from saturated EAF steel slag material to surface runoff. Medicago sativa (alfalfa) was planted in a nutrient depleted washed sand media. Phosphorus was added either as saturated EAF steel slag or as a standard commercial phosphate fertilizer in order to assess the plant availability of the P from saturated EAF steel slag. Four different P application levels were tested: a low (20 lbs acre furrow slice(-1) (5.5 g P m(-3))) two medium (40 and 60 lbs. acre f.s.(-1) (11 and 16.5 g P m(-3))) and a high (120 lbs. acre f.s.(-1) (33 g P m(-3))). The above-ground biomass of half of the plants was harvested after 5 weeks and the second half at 10 weeks. All treatments regardless of the P source used showed high rates of germination. At the first harvest period (5 weeks) significantly higher above-ground biomass (p < 0.01) was seen at the 3 highest P amendment rates in treatments with triple super phosphate fertilizer (TSP) than with EAF steel slag. However, by the second harvest (10 weeks) only the highest amendment rate of TSP showed a significantly higher amount of biomass (p < 0.01), suggesting that EAF steel slag might be an effective slow release P source. In a second experiment, a rain simulator was used to assess desorption of DRP, TP and metals from a saturated and semi-saturated EAF steel slag. The results revealed that the total amounts of DRP and TP released to surface runoff from EAF steel slag were negligible when compared to the total quantities of P retained by this material. Overall the results from this study demonstrated that once the EAF steel slag filter

  10. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  11. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties.

  12. Polansky with EMU stowage bag

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-07

    STS098-361-016 (7-20 February 2001) --- Astronaut Mark L. Polansky, STS-98 pilot, moves one of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suits in its storage bag onboard the International Space Station (ISS). William M. (Bill) Shepherd, Expedition One mission commander, can be seen as he works in the background.

  13. Drew in his sleeping bag

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-04

    ISS026-E-031615 (3 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Alvin Drew, STS-133 mission specialist, is pictured in his sleeping bag, which is attached in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.

  14. Drew in his sleeping bag

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-04

    ISS026-E-031616 (3 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Alvin Drew, STS-133 mission specialist, is pictured in his sleeping bag, which is attached in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.

  15. Brown Bag Ideas: The Parfleche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tejada, Irene

    1985-01-01

    Art objects are often unique reflections of a culture. Procedures are described for having intermediate or secondary level students make a parfleche, a form of carrying case used by the Plains Indians. Materials for making the parfleche include two large grocery bags, pencil, white glue, wax crayons, string, and water. (RM)

  16. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a supplemental restraint system in a motor vehicle. An air bag module is the air bag inflator plus... used in the operation of a seat-belt restraining system in a motor vehicle. (b) Classification. An air... manufacturer has submitted each design type air bag inflator, air bag module, or seat-belt pretensioner to...

  17. 50 CFR 622.494 - Bag limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.494 Bag limit. (a) Applicability. Section 622.11(a... fishing license issued by Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands. (b) Bag limit. The bag limit for queen...

  18. 50 CFR 622.456 - Bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.456 Bag limits. (a) Applicability. Section 622.11(a... fishing license issued by Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands. (b) Bag limit. The bag limit for spiny...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir...

  4. Investigation of flow and transport processes at the MADE site using ensemble Kalman filter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Gaisheng; Chen, Y.; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2008-01-01

    In this work the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is applied to investigate the flow and transport processes at the macro-dispersion experiment (MADE) site in Columbus, MS. The EnKF is a sequential data assimilation approach that adjusts the unknown model parameter values based on the observed data with time. The classic advection-dispersion (AD) and the dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) models are employed to analyze the tritium plume during the second MADE tracer experiment. The hydraulic conductivity (K), longitudinal dispersivity in the AD model, and mass transfer rate coefficient and mobile porosity ratio in the DDMT model, are estimated in this investigation. Because of its sequential feature, the EnKF allows for the temporal scaling of transport parameters during the tritium concentration analysis. Inverse simulation results indicate that for the AD model to reproduce the extensive spatial spreading of the tritium observed in the field, the K in the downgradient area needs to be increased significantly. The estimated K in the AD model becomes an order of magnitude higher than the in situ flowmeter measurements over a large portion of media. On the other hand, the DDMT model gives an estimation of K that is much more comparable with the flowmeter values. In addition, the simulated concentrations by the DDMT model show a better agreement with the observed values. The root mean square (RMS) between the observed and simulated tritium plumes is 0.77 for the AD model and 0.45 for the DDMT model at 328 days. Unlike the AD model, which gives inconsistent K estimates at different times, the DDMT model is able to invert the K values that consistently reproduce the observed tritium concentrations through all times. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of water bound to photosystem I with multiquantum filtered 17 O nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Krzystyniak, M; Shen, Gaozhong; Golbeck, John H; Antonkine, Mikhail L

    2008-01-07

    A new analytical approach was developed to characterize the properties of water molecules bound to macromolecules in solution using 17 O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation. A combination of conventional (single-quantum) and triple-quantum filtered Hahn echo and inversion recovery measurements was employed. From measured relaxation rate constants, the fraction and the correlation time of bound H2 17 O molecules and the relaxation rate constant of bulk water in solution were calculated. This was done by solving analytically a set of nonlinear equations describing the overall relaxation rate constants in the presence of chemical exchange between bulk and bound water. The analytical approach shows the uniqueness of the solution for a given set of three relaxation rate constants. This important result sheds light on the data reduction problem from 17 O NMR experiments on biological systems. Water bound in photosystem I isolated from the wild type and rubA variant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis species PCC 7002 was investigated for the first time. The analysis revealed that photosystem I isolated from the wild type binds 1720+/-110 water molecules, whereas photosystem I isolated from the rubA variant binds only 1310+/-170. The accuracy of the method proposed can be increased by further 17 O enrichment. The methodology, established for the first time in this work, allows the study of a diverse range of biological samples regardless of their size and molecular weight. Applied initially to photosystem I, this novel method has important consequences for the future investigation of the assembly of biological molecules.

  6. Investigation of filter sets for supervised pixel classification of cephalometric landmarks by spatial spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, D J; Coggins, J M; Moon, H

    1997-12-01

    The diagnostic process of orthodontics requires the analysis of a cephalometric radiograph. Image landmarks on this two-dimensional lateral projection image of the patient's head are manually identified and spatial relationships are evaluated. This method is very time consuming. A reliable method for automatic computer landmark identification does not exist. Spatial Spectroscopy is a proposed method of automatic landmark identification on cephalometric radiographs, that decomposes an image by convolving it with a set of filters followed by a statistical decision process. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and test appropriate filter sets for the application of Spatial Spectroscopy for automatic identification of cephalometric radiographic landmarks. This study evaluated two different filter sets with 15 landmarks on fourteen images. Spatial Spectroscopy was able to consistently locate landmarks on all 14 cephalometric radiographs tested. The mean landmark identification error of 0.841 +/- 1.253 pixels for a Multiscale Derivative filter set and 0.912 +/- 1.364 pixels for an Offset Gaussian filter set was not significantly different. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between identification of individual landmarks for the Multiscale Derivative and the Offset Gaussian filter set (P > 0.05). These results suggest that Spatial Spectroscopy may be useful in landmark identification tasks.

  7. Field investigation of arsenic in ceramic pot filter-treated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Archer, A R; Elmore, A C; Bell, E; Rozycki, C

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic pot filters (CPFs) is one of several household water treatment technologies that is used to treat drinking water in developing areas. The filters have the advantage of being able to be manufactured using primarily locally available materials and local labor. However, naturally-occurring arsenic present in the clay used to make the filters has the potential to contaminate the water in excess of the World Health Organization drinking water standard of 0.01 mg/L. A manufacturing facility in Guatemala routinely rinses filters to reduce arsenic concentrations prior to distribution to consumers. A systemic study was performed to evaluate the change in arsenic concentrations with increasing volumes of rinse water. Arsenic field kit results were compared to standard method laboratory results, and dissolved versus suspended arsenic concentrations in CPF-treated water were evaluated. The results of the study suggest that rinsing is an effective means of mitigating arsenic leached from the filters, and that even in the absence of a formal rinsing program, routine consumer use may result in the rapid decline of arsenic concentrations. More importantly, the results indicate that filter manufacturers should give strong consideration to implementing an arsenic testing program.

  8. Investigation of the Spatial Propagation Properties of Type-I Parametric Fluorescence by Use of Tuning Curve Filtering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yoshio; Fujiwara, Hideki; Takeuchi, Shigeki; Sasaki, Keiji

    2007-09-01

    The spatial propagation properties of photon-pairs generated via type-I spontaneous parametric down conversion is investigated with numerical calculations and experiments. The number of photon-pairs detected after the apparatuses and frequency filters is calculated using the “tuning curve filtering method” [Fujiwara et al.: Phys. Rev. A 75 (2007) 023802] taking fully into account the experimental configurations required to study type-I collinear conditions. The experimentally obtained iris size dependences of single count rates and coincidence count rates are well reproduced by the calculations.

  9. UV filters interaction in the chlorinated swimming pool, a new challenge for urbanization, a need for community scale investigations.

    PubMed

    Sharifan, Hamidreza; Klein, David; Morse, Audra N

    2016-07-01

    Sunscreen products and some personal care products contain the Ultraviolet (UV) chemical filters, which are entering the surface water. Public concerns about secondary effects of these compounds are growing because of the contamination of the aquatic environment that may reach to potentially toxic concentration levels. This article highlights the reaction of certain UV filters with hypochlorite disinfectant in the presence of sunlight. Due to urbanization and industrialization, use of outdoor plastic swimming pools is increasing. The relatively smaller volume of these pools compared to larger pools may increase the concentration of the UV filters in the pool and their potential interactions with materials of human origin (urine, sweat, cosmetics, skin cells, and hair) to the levels of toxicity concerns for children through the creation of disinfection by products (DBP). Based on our analysis, the minimum concentration levels of 2.85, 1.9, 1.78 and 0.95g/L, respectively, for EHMC, OC, 4-MBC and BP3 UV filters in children pools are predicted. Therefore, this article calls for an urgent investigation of potential toxic effects of the UV filters, the creation of DBPs and their subsequent impacts on human health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Simple systems for treating pumped, turbid water with flocculants and a geotextile dewatering bag.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    Pumping sediment-laden water from excavations is often necessary on construction sites. This water is often treated by pumping it through geotextile dewatering bags. The bags are not designed to filter the fine sediments that create high turbidity, but dosing with a flocculant prior to the bag could result in greater turbidity control. This study compared two systems for introducing flocculant: passive dosing of commercial solid biopolymer (chitosan) and injection of dissolved polyacrylamide (PAM) in a length of corrugated pipe connected to the bag. The biopolymer system consisted of sequential porous socks containing a "charging agent" followed by chitosan in the corrugated pipe with two levels of dosing. The dissolved PAM was injected into turbid water at a flow-weighted concentration at 1 mg L(-1). For each treatment, sediment-laden turbid water in the range of 2000 to 3500 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) was pumped into the upstream of corrugated pipe and samples were taken from pipe entrance, pipe exit, and dewatering bag exit. Without flocculant treatment, the dewatering bag reduced turbidity by 70% but the addition of flocculant increased the turbidity reduction up to 97% relative to influent. At the pipe exit, the low-dose biopolymer was less effective in reducing turbidity (37%) but it was equally effective as the high-dose biopolymer or PAM injection after the bag. Our results suggest that a relatively simple treatment with flocculants, either passively or actively, can be very effective in reducing turbidity for pumped water on construction sites.

  11. Evaluation of a disposable diesel exhaust filter for permissible mining machines. Report of investigations/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ambs, J.L.; Cantrell, B.K.; Watts, W.F.; Olson, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) Diesel Research Program emphasizes the development and evaluation of emission control devices to reduce exposure of miners to diesel exhaust pollutants. Studies by the USBM have shown that diesel exhaust aerosol (DEA) contributes a substantial portion of the respirable aerosol in underground coal mining using diesel equipment not equipped with emission controls. The USBM and the Donaldson Co., Inc., Minneapolis, MN, have developed a low-temperature, disposable diesel exhaust filter (DDEF) for use on permissible diesel haulage vehicles equipped with waterban exhaust conditioners. These were evaluated in three underground mines to determine their effectiveness in reducing DEA concentrations. The DDEF reduced DEA concentrations from 70 to 90 pct at these mines. The usable life of the filter ranged from 10 to 32 h, depending on factors that affect DEA output, such as mine altitude, engine type, and duty-cycle. Cost per filter is approximately $40.

  12. Enhanced algorithm performance for land cover classification from remotely sensed data using bagging and boosting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chan, J.C.-W.; Huang, C.; DeFries, R.

    2001-01-01

    Two ensemble methods, bagging and boosting, were investigated for improving algorithm performance. Our results confirmed the theoretical explanation [1] that bagging improves unstable, but not stable, learning algorithms. While boosting enhanced accuracy of a weak learner, its behavior is subject to the characteristics of each learning algorithm.

  13. Fuzzy Bags and Wilson Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarski, R. D.

    I start with an elementary observation about the pressurein the deconfined phase of a SU(3) gauge theory without quarks. This suggests a ``fuzzy'' bag model for the analogous pressure in QCD, with dynamical quarks. I then sketch how the deconfined phase might be described using an effective theory of Wilson lines. To leading order in weak coupling, the effective electric field appears in a form familiar from the lattice theory of Banks and Ukawa.

  14. Improved material-bagging device

    DOEpatents

    Wach, C.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Brak, S.B.

    1982-01-19

    A bagging device for transferring material; specifically contaminated material, from one chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes a cylindrical housing communicating with the opening and defining a passage between the chambers. A cylindrical cartridge is slidably received within the housing. The cartridge has a substantially rigid cylindrical sleeve to which is affixed a pliable tube. The pliable tube is positioned concentrically about the sleeve and has a pleated portion capable of unfolding from the sleeve and a closed end extending over a terminal end of the sleeve. Sealing means are interposed in sealed relationship between the cartridge and the housing. Material from one chamber is inserted into the cartridge secured in the housing and received in the closed end of the tube which unfolds into the other chamber enclosing the material therein. The tube may then be sealed behind the material and then severed to form a bag-like enclosure defined by the tube's closed terminal end and the new seal. The new seal then forms a terminal end for the unsevered portion of the pliable tube into which additional material may be placed and the bagging process repeated.

  15. Surface dose investigation of the flattening filter-free photon beams.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuenan; Khan, Mohammad K; Ting, Joseph Y; Easterling, Stephen B

    2012-06-01

    Flattening filter-free (FFF) x-rays can provide more efficient use of photons and a significant increase of dose rate compared with conventional flattened x-rays, features that are especially beneficial for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The available data on the entrance doses of the FFF photon beams remain limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the entrance dose of FFF photons in the buildup region and to compare it with that of conventional flattened photons. A Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator has been in full clinical operation with 6-MV and 10-MV FFF and flattened x-ray photons. Entrance dose at the surface was measured using a parallel plate ionization chamber in a solid water phantom with buildup depth = 0~15 mm for 6X and 0~25 mm for 10X. Different field size (FS) patterns were created in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System by multileaf collimator (MLC) rather than jaws (FS = 2 × 2, 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 6 × 6, and 10 × 10 cm(2) by MLC and jaw size = 2.2 × 2.2, 3.2 × 3.2, 4.2 × 4.2, 6 × 6, and 10 × 10 cm(2)). The smallest FS was about four times larger than the ion chamber dimension. All buildup dose measurements were normalized to FS = 10 × 10 cm(2) at the depth of dose maximum (dmax). Good repeatability was demonstrated and surface dose increased linearly with FS for both flattened and FFF photons. The entrance dose of the FFF photons was modestly larger than that of the corresponding flattened photons for both 6X and 10X for different FS ranging from 2 × 2 cm(2) to 10 × 10 cm(2). The FFF photons have a higher entrance dose than that of the corresponding flattened photons for FS smaller than 10 × 10 cm(2). However, the difference is not substantial and may be clinically insignificant. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Surface Dose Investigation of the Flattening Filter-Free Photon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuenan; Khan, Mohammad K.; Ting, Joseph Y.; Easterling, Stephen B.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Flattening filter-free (FFF) x-rays can provide more efficient use of photons and a significant increase of dose rate compared with conventional flattened x-rays, features that are especially beneficial for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The available data on the entrance doses of the FFF photon beams remain limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the entrance dose of FFF photons in the buildup region and to compare it with that of conventional flattened photons. Methods and Materials: A Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator has been in full clinical operation with 6-MV and 10-MV FFF and flattened x-ray photons. Entrance dose at the surface was measured using a parallel plate ionization chamber in a solid water phantom with buildup depth = 0{approx}15 mm for 6X and 0{approx}25 mm for 10X. Different field size (FS) patterns were created in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System by multileaf collimator (MLC) rather than jaws (FS = 2 Multiplication-Sign 2, 3 Multiplication-Sign 3, 4 Multiplication-Sign 4, 6 Multiplication-Sign 6, and 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} by MLC and jaw size = 2.2 Multiplication-Sign 2.2, 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 3.2, 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 4.2, 6 Multiplication-Sign 6, and 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2}). The smallest FS was about four times larger than the ion chamber dimension. All buildup dose measurements were normalized to FS = 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} at the depth of dose maximum (dmax). Results: Good repeatability was demonstrated and surface dose increased linearly with FS for both flattened and FFF photons. The entrance dose of the FFF photons was modestly larger than that of the corresponding flattened photons for both 6X and 10X for different FS ranging from 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cm{sup 2} to 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2}. Conclusions: The FFF photons have a higher entrance dose than that of the corresponding flattened photons for FS

  17. Investigation of mud density and weighting materials effect on drilling fluid filter cake properties and formation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattah, K. A.; Lashin, A.

    2016-05-01

    Drilling fluid density/type is an important factor in drilling and production operations. Most of encountered problems during rotary drilling are related to drilling mud types and weights. This paper aims to investigate the effect of mud weight on filter cake properties and formation damage through two experimental approaches. In the first approach, seven water-based drilling fluid samples with same composition are prepared with different densities (9.0-12.0 lb/gal) and examined to select the optimum mud weight that has less damage. The second approach deals with investigating the possible effect of the different weighting materials (BaSO4 and CaCO3) on filter cake properties. High pressure/high temperature loss tests and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses were carried out on the filter cake (two selected samples). Data analysis has revealed that mud weigh of 9.5 lb/gal has the less reduction in permeability of ceramic disk, among the seven used mud densities. Above 10.5 ppg the effect of the mud weight density on formation damage is stabilized at constant value. Fluids of CaCO3-based weighting material, has less reduction in the porosity (9.14%) and permeability (25%) of the filter disk properties than the BaSO4-based fluid. The produced filter cake porosity increases (from 0.735 to 0.859) with decreasing of fluid density in case of drilling samples of different densities. The filtration loss tests indicated that CaCO3 filter cake porosity (0.52) is less than that of the BaSO4 weighted material (0.814). The thickness of the filter cake of the BaSO4-based fluid is large and can cause some problems. The SEM analysis shows that some major elements do occur on the tested samples (Ca, Al, Si, and Ba), with dominance of Ca on the expense of Ba for the CaCO3 fluid sample and vice versa. The less effect of 9.5 lb/gal mud sample is reflected in the well-produced inter-particle pore structure and relatively crystal size. A general recommendation is given to

  18. Recombinant erythropoietin found in seized blood bags from sportsmen.

    PubMed

    Mallorquí, Joaquim; Segura, Jordi; de Bolòs, Carme; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo; Pascual, Jose A

    2008-02-01

    During an anti-doping investigation, the Spanish Guardia Civil confiscated blood bags from elite sportsmen. A novel immuno-purification method demonstrated that plasma samples with elevated erythropoietin (EPO) contained recombinant material (rEPO). This shows that rEPO is used before autologous blood transfusions and that rEPO analysis in plasma can be reliably addressed.

  19. Investigation of a spatial-temporal filter in the case of the processing of broadband signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilevskii, L. N.; Domanov, Iu. A.; Korobko, O. V.

    1985-02-01

    A method for the synthesis of spatial-temporal filters is proposed which assures suppression of broadband signals from prescribed directions. The proposed method makes possible a considerable reduction in the number of necessary mathematical operations in the computation of weight coefficients as compared with previous methods. This is achieved by means of a simplified procedure of zero control for the linear antenna array for the selected frequency components, as well as by means of an independent computation of the weight coefficients on each element. The structure of the filter can be analyzed on the basis of the dependence of the suppression depth of noise sources on the value of the delay element and the number of taps on an array element.

  20. Investigation of utilizing a VCSEL diode to work as a tunable optical bandpass filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching-Hung; Huang, Yi-Syuan; Li, Chung-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Tunable optical band-pass filter (TOBPF) composed of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is proposed for multi-wavelength optical fiber transport systems. Experimental results prove that through properly adjusting VCSEL driving current, one of multiple injected lightwaves can properly flow through the proposed optical filter and others will be attenuated roughly 12 dB. Furthermore, by changing the VCSEL driving current, the pass-band window of the VCSEL-based TOBPF can be shifted to align with different designated injected lightwave and to block the others. By employing the TOBPF in multi-wavelength optical fiber transport systems, proper eye diagrams are experimentally observed for each dedicated optical signal. The proposed scheme is shown to be a practical and flexible component for multi-wavelength optical fiber transport systems.

  1. Investigation of reagent distributions on glass fiber membrane filters used in air sampling.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Samuel P

    2007-10-01

    This project has arisen from the need to produce GFFs (glass fiber filters) bearing a thin and evenly distributed coating of a selected reagent in the equatorial plane for breakthrough studies. However, it has been discovered that today's two general techniques for coating GFFs (total immersion and application of reagent solution to GFFs) have usually produced unevenly distributed coatings of reagent in the equatorial plane. In addition, quantities of reagent on GFFs from commercial sources may vary widely in the same lot of coated GFFs. Consequences are variability in capacity of coated filters at the point of breakthrough and, perhaps, wasted reagent. Although today's reagent-coated filters may be satisfactory for routine air sampling, such filters may be unacceptable for precise breakthrough studies. Research has been conducted successfully to produce nearly evenly distributed coatings of reagents in the equatorial plane of GFFs by application of reagent solutions to the centers of GFFs which are resting on crisscrossing, fine, stainless-steel wire. Distributions of coatings have been determined by punching out twenty-one 5-mm circles from each GFF and analyzing each circle by flow-injection with a UV detector. Lowest achievable relative standard deviations of measurement (RSDs) for reagents in 5-mm circles have been 5 to 7%. Reagents studied have included 1-(2-pyridyl)piperazine (1-2PP), 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), and 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine (MAP). Factors affecting the distribution of such coatings include choice of reagent and choice of solvent for the reagent solution.

  2. Air Bag Interaction with and Injury Potential from Common Steering Control Devices

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Greg; Dalrymple, Gayle; Ragland, Carl

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the injury potential associated with the use of steering control devices in frontal impacts. Steering control devices, an example of which is the spinner knob, are used by people who have difficulty gripping a steering wheel. These devices typically are clamped to the lower quadrant of the wheel rim and have projections that may extend out toward the occupant up to 14 cm and inward towards the air bag module up to 9 cm. A series of investigations were conducted to determine if the devices would: (1) be propelled off the rim by air bag deployment; (2) compromise air bag performance; and/or (3) cause injury to the driver. The investigations included frontal 48 km/h sled tests, quasi-static load tests, static air bag deployments, out-of-position static air bag deployments, and pendulum tests. Test subjects included the Hybrid III 50th percentile male and Hybrid III 5th percentile female anthropomorphic dummies and a male cadaver. The results indicated that there is little chance of the devices being thrown off the rim by air bag deployment and that the presence of the device had little effect on deployment or air bag performance. In addition, the presence of an air bag reduced the frequency and severity of impacts with the devices. The test results provided ample evidence of the potential of one of the devices, the “tri-pin”, to cause severe injury to the chest upon impact.

  3. The effect of frontal air bags on eye injury patterns in automobile crashes.

    PubMed

    Duma, Stefan M; Jernigan, M Virginia; Stitzel, Joel D; Herring, Ian P; Crowley, John S; Brozoski, Fred T; Bass, Cameron R

    2002-11-01

    To investigate eye injuries resulting from frontal automobile crashes and to determine the effects of frontal air bags. The National Automotive Sampling System database files from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1999, were examined in a 3-part study that included an investigation of 22 236 individual crashes that occurred in the United States. A new 4-level eye injury severity scale that quantifies injuries based on recovery time, need for surgery, and possible loss of sight was developed. Of all occupants who were exposed to an air bag deployment, 3% sustained an eye injury. In contrast, 2% of occupants not exposed to an air bag deployment sustained an eye injury. A closer examination of the type of eye injuries showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the risk of corneal abrasions for occupants who were exposed to an air bag compared with those who were not (P =.03). Of occupants exposed to an air bag deployment, 0.5% sustained a corneal abrasion compared with 0.04% of occupants who were not exposed to an air bag. Using the new injury levels, it was shown that although occupants exposed to an air bag deployment had a higher risk of sustaining minor eye injuries, the air bag appears to have provided a beneficial exchange by reducing the number of severe eye injuries.

  4. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  5. Regulation of osteoblast development by Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1)

    PubMed Central

    Greenhough, Joanna; Papadakis, Emmanouil S.; Cutress, Ramsey I.; Townsend, Paul A.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Tare, Rahul S.

    2016-01-01

    BCL-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1) is expressed by osteoblast-lineage cells; early embryonic lethality in Bag-1 null mice, however, has limited the investigation of BAG-1 function in osteoblast development. In the present study, bone morphogenetic protein-2/BMP-2-directed osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of Bag-1+/− (heterozygous) female mice was decreased significantly. Genes crucial for osteogenic differentiation, bone matrix formation and mineralisation were expressed at significantly lower levels in cultures of Bag-1+/− BMSCs supplemented with BMP-2, while genes with roles in inhibition of BMP-2-directed osteoblastogenesis were significantly upregulated. 17-β-estradiol (E2) enhanced responsiveness of BMSCs of wild-type and Bag-1+/− mice to BMP-2, and promoted robust BMP-2-stimulated osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. BAG-1 can modulate cellular responses to E2 by regulating the establishment of functional estrogen receptors (ERs), crucially, via its interaction with heat shock proteins (HSC70/HSP70). Inhibition of BAG-1 binding to HSC70 by the small-molecule chemical inhibitor, Thioflavin-S, and a short peptide derived from the C-terminal BAG domain, which mediates binding with the ATPase domain of HSC70, resulted in significant downregulation of E2/ER-facilitated BMP-2-directed osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. These studies demonstrate for the first time the significance of BAG-1-mediated protein-protein interactions, specifically, BAG-1-regulated activation of ER by HSC70, in modulation of E2-facilitated BMP-2-directed osteoblast development. PMID:27633857

  6. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  7. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  8. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  9. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  10. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  11. Color Based Bags-of-Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solli, Martin; Lenz, Reiner

    In this paper we describe how to include high level semantic information, such as aesthetics and emotions, into Content Based Image Retrieval. We present a color-based emotion-related image descriptor that can be used for describing the emotional content of images. The color emotion metric used is derived from psychophysical experiments and based on three variables: activity, weight and heat. It was originally designed for single-colors, but recent research has shown that the same emotion estimates can be applied in the retrieval of multi-colored images. Here we describe a new approach, based on the assumption that perceived color emotions in images are mainly affected by homogenous regions, defined by the emotion metric, and transitions between regions. RGB coordinates are converted to emotion coordinates, and for each emotion channel, statistical measurements of gradient magnitudes within a stack of low-pass filtered images are used for finding interest points corresponding to homogeneous regions and transitions between regions. Emotion characteristics are derived for patches surrounding each interest point, and saved in a bag-of-emotions, that, for instance, can be used for retrieving images based on emotional content.

  12. [Ear dysfunction due to air bag detonation?].

    PubMed

    Brehmer, D; Geidel, O; Hesse, G; Laubert, A

    2000-10-01

    Air bags are among the latest developments in extensive automobile safety systems. They successfully have saved the lives of car occupants in road accidents. Many additional injuries caused by air bags from minor to severe have been reported. With the help of two acceleration sensors, the electronic tuner amplifier records the vehicle's deceleration. This is the adequate trigger for air bag deployment, which creates an intense noise of up to 170 dB sound pressure level. This noise level can cause cochlear damage. We present two patients with otologic symptoms after spontaneous air bag deployment.

  13. Investigating different filter and rescaling methods on simulated GRACE-like TWS variations for hydrological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liangjing; Dahle, Christoph; Neumayer, Karl-Hans; Dobslaw, Henryk; Flechtner, Frank; Thomas, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations obtained from GRACE play an increasingly important role in various hydrological and hydro-meteorological applications. Since monthly-mean gravity fields are contaminated by errors caused by a number of sources with distinct spatial correlation structures, filtering is needed to remove in particular high frequency noise. Subsequently, bias and leakage caused by the filtering need to be corrected before the final results are interpreted as GRACE-based observations of TWS. Knowledge about the reliability and performance of different post-processing methods is highly important for the GRACE users. In this contribution, we re-assess a number of commonly used post-processing methods using a simulated GRACE-like gravity field time-series based on realistic orbits and instrument error assumptions as well as background error assumptions out of the updated ESA Earth System Model. Two non-isotropic filter methods from Kusche (2007) and Swenson and Wahr (2006) are tested. Rescaling factors estimated from five different hydrological models and the ensemble median are applied to the post-processed simulated GRACE-like TWS estimates to correct the bias and leakage. Since TWS anomalies out of the post-processed simulation results can be readily compared to the time-variable Earth System Model initially used as "truth" during the forward simulation step, we are able to thoroughly check the plausibility of our error estimation assessment and will subsequently recommend a processing strategy that shall also be applied to planned GRACE and GRACE-FO Level-3 products for hydrological applications provided by GFZ. Kusche, J. (2007): Approximate decorrelation and non-isotropic smoothing of time-variable GRACE-type gravity field models. J. Geodesy, 81 (11), 733-749, doi:10.1007/s00190-007-0143-3. Swenson, S. and Wahr, J. (2006): Post-processing removal of correlated errors in GRACE data. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(8):L08402.

  14. Preparation and investigation of diamond-like carbon stripper foils by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qiwen; Du, Yinghui; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Guoji

    2013-04-01

    Thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) stripper foils ˜5 μg/cm2 in thickness were produced and evaluated as heavy-ion strippers for the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator. The DLC layers ˜4 μg/cm2 in thickness were produced by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology onto glass slides coated with betaine-saccharose as releasing agent, which were previously covered with evaporated carbon layers ˜1 μg/cm2 in thickness by the controlled ac arc-discharge method. Irradiation lifetimes of the DLC stripper foils were tested using the heavy-ion beams at the terminal of the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator, and compared with those of the standard carbon stripper foils made by the combined dc and ac arc-discharge method. The measurements indicate that the DLC stripper foils outlast the standard combined dc and ac arc-discharge carbon stripper foils by a factor of at least 13 and 4for the 197Au- (˜9 MeV, ˜1 μA) and 63Cu- (˜9 MeV, ˜1 μA) ion beams, respectively. The structure and properties of the DLC foils deposited onto silicon substrates by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology were also evaluated and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy images show that the DLC foils contain hardly droplets through the double 90° filters. The X-ray photoelectron spectrum indicates that sp3 bonds of the DLC foils exceed 70%. The integral intensity ratio of the D peak to the G peak (ID/IG) measured by the Raman spectroscopy is0.78.

  15. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis. PMID:26175854

  16. BAG3 regulates ECM accumulation in renal proximal tubular cells induced by TGF-β1.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Li, De-Tian; Du, Zhen-Xian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Wang, Yan-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is increased in renal fibrosis using a rat unilateral ureteral obstruction model. The current study investigated the role of BAG3 in renal fibrosis using transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-treated human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells. An upregulation of BAG3 in vitro models was observed, which correlated with the increased synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1. Blockade of BAG3 induction by shorting hairpin RNA suppressed the expression of ECM proteins but had no effect on PAI-1 expression induced by TGF-β1. Forced overexpression of BAG3 selectively increased collagens. TGF-β1-induced BAG3 expression in HK-2 cells was attenuated by ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK inhibitors. In addition, forced BAG3 overexpression blocked attenuation of collagens expression by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. These data suggest that ERK1/2 and JNK signaling events are involved in modulating the expression of BAG3, which would ultimately contribute to renal fibrosis by enhancing the synthesis and deposition of ECM proteins.

  17. Urinary di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites for detecting transfusion of autologous blood stored in plasticizer-free bags.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Barras, Laura; Nicoli, Raul; Robinson, Neil; Baume, Norbert; Lion, Niels; Barelli, Stefano; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial

    2016-03-01

    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) efficiently increases sport performance and is the most challenging doping method to detect. Current methods for detecting this practice center on the plasticizer di(2-ethlyhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which enters the stored blood from blood bags. Quantification of this plasticizer and its metabolites in urine can detect the transfusion of autologous blood stored in these bags. However, DEHP-free blood bags are available on the market, including n-butyryl-tri-(n-hexyl)-citrate (BTHC) blood bags. Athletes may shift to using such bags to avoid the detection of urinary DEHP metabolites. A clinical randomized double-blinded two-phase study was conducted of healthy male volunteers who underwent ABT using DEHP-containing or BTHC blood bags. All subjects received a saline injection for the control phase and a blood donation followed by ABT 36 days later. Kinetic excretion of five urinary DEHP metabolites was quantified with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, considerable levels of urinary DEHP metabolites were observed up to 1 day after blood transfusion with BTHC blood bags. The long-term metabolites mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate and mono-(2-carboxymethylhexyl) phthalate were the most sensitive biomarkers to detect ABT with BTHC blood bags. Levels of DEHP were high in BTHC bags (6.6%), the tubing in the transfusion kit (25.2%), and the white blood cell filter (22.3%). The BTHC bag contained DEHP, despite being labeled DEHP-free. Urinary DEHP metabolite measurement is a cost-effective way to detect ABT in the antidoping field even when BTHC bags are used for blood storage. © 2015 AABB.

  18. Neutron tomography of particulate filters: A non-destructive investigation tool for applied and industrial research

    SciTech Connect

    Toops, Todd J.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Voisin, Sophie; Gregor, Jens; Walker, Lakeisha M. H.; Strzelec, Andrea; Finney, Charles E. A.; Pihl, Josh A.

    2013-08-19

    This research describes the development and implementation of high-fidelity neutron imaging and the associated analysis of the images. This advanced capability allows the non-destructive, non-invasive imaging of particulate filters (PFs) and how the deposition of particulate and catalytic washcoat occurs within the filter. The majority of the efforts described here were performed at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) CG-1D neutron imaging beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; the current spatial resolution is approximately 50 μm. The sample holder is equipped with a high-precision rotation stage that allows 3D imaging (i.e., computed tomography) of the sample when combined with computerized reconstruction tools. What enables the neutron-based image is the ability of some elements to absorb or scatter neutrons where other elements allow the neutron to pass through them with negligible interaction. Of particular interest in this study is the scattering of neutrons by hydrogen-containing molecules, such as hydrocarbons (HCs) and/or water, which are adsorbed to the surface of soot, ash and catalytic washcoat. Even so, the interactions with this adsorbed water/HC is low and computational techniques were required to enhance the contrast, primarily a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). Lastly, this effort describes the following systems: particulate randomly distributed in a PF, ash deposition in PFs, a catalyzed washcoat layer in a PF, and three particulate loadings in a SiC PF.

  19. Neutron tomography of particulate filters: a non-destructive investigation tool for applied and industrial research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toops, Todd J.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Voisin, Sophie; Gregor, Jens; Walker, Lakeisha; Strzelec, Andrea; Finney, Charles E. A.; Pihl, Josh A.

    2013-11-01

    This research describes the development and implementation of high-fidelity neutron imaging and the associated analysis of the images. This advanced capability allows the non-destructive, non-invasive imaging of particulate filters (PFs) and how the deposition of particulate and catalytic washcoat occurs within the filter. The majority of the efforts described here were performed at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) CG-1D neutron imaging beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; the current spatial resolution is approximately 50 μm. The sample holder is equipped with a high-precision rotation stage that allows 3D imaging (i.e., computed tomography) of the sample when combined with computerized reconstruction tools. What enables the neutron-based image is the ability of some elements to absorb or scatter neutrons where other elements allow the neutron to pass through them with negligible interaction. Of particular interest in this study is the scattering of neutrons by hydrogen-containing molecules, such as hydrocarbons (HCs) and/or water, which are adsorbed to the surface of soot, ash and catalytic washcoat. Even so, the interactions with this adsorbed water/HC is low and computational techniques were required to enhance the contrast, primarily a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). This effort describes the following systems: particulate randomly distributed in a PF, ash deposition in PFs, a catalyzed washcoat layer in a PF, and three particulate loadings in a SiC PF.

  20. Theoretical investigation of spin-filtering in CrAs/GaAs heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Stickler, B. A.; Ertler, C.; Pötz, W.; Chioncel, L.

    2013-12-14

    The electronic structure of bulk zinc-blende GaAs, zinc-blende and tetragonal CrAs, and CrAs/GaAs supercells, computed within linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) local spin-density functional theory, is used to extract the band alignment for the [1,0,0] GaAs/CrAs interface in dependence of the spin orientation. With the lateral lattice constant fixed to the experimental bulk GaAs value, a local energy minimum is found for a tetragonal CrAs unit cell with a longitudinal ([1,0,0]) lattice constant reduced by ≈2%. Due to the identified spin-dependent band alignment, half-metallicity of CrAs no longer is a key requirement for spin-filtering. Based on these findings, we study the spin-dependent tunneling current in [1,0,0] GaAs/CrAs/GaAs heterostructures within the non-equilibrium Green's function approach for an effective tight-binding Hamiltonian derived from the LMTO electronic structure. Results indicate that these heterostructures are promising candidates for efficient room-temperature all-semiconductor spin-filtering devices.

  1. Investigation of ultrafast all-optical AND gate based on cascaded SOAs and optical filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Xinliang; Dong, Jianji; Liu, Deming; Huang, Dexiu

    2007-11-01

    We propose an ultrafast all-optical logic AND gate based on two cascaded SOA-OF configurations. Each SOA-OF consists a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) followed by an optical filter (OF) which reshapes the spectrum of the modulated probe light. A delayed interferometer (DI) and a tunable band pass filter (TNBPF) are chosen as OFs in the first and second SOA-OF. 40Gbit/s AND operation with 33% duty cycle return-to-zero (RZ) signals has been successfully demonstrated with SOAs whose 10%~90% recovery time are measured much larger than the time duration of one bit period. The quality factor (QF) and the extinction ratio (ER) of the eye diagram of the derived AND results were 6.3 and 8.8dB respectively. Numerical analysis and experimental demonstration with 40Gbit/s nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) signals is also presented and shows that in order to achieve good AND result at the second stage, the differential time delay of the DI must be shorter than the single bit period of the input signals. The proposed AND gate takes the advantage of high speed WC realized by SOA-OF which displays flexibility to various data rates, pulse width as well as data formats.

  2. Gauge invariance in the cloudy bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Koepf, W.; Henley, E.M.

    1993-10-01

    We investigate the question, whether the conventional analysis of the electromagnetic form factors, calculated in the frame-work of the cloudy bag model (CBM), is gauge invariant. In order to address that point, we first formulate the model in a way that resembles the technique of loop integrals. Evaluating the self energy and the electromagnetic form factors in that manner and comparing with the standard analysis where non-relativistic perturbation theory is used, allows us to show, that our approach is appropriate, and to point out, what approximations are made in the usual derivation of the CBM. From the form of the loop integrals, we then show whether a seagull correction is needed to preserve gauge invariance, and we discuss corresponding corrections for various models.

  3. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and

  4. The earliest mention of a black bag

    PubMed Central

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Kousoulis, Antonis A.; Tsoucalas, Ioannis; Androutsos, George

    2011-01-01

    A black bag, needed especially for home visits, has been used since the time of Hippocrates who, in his treatise “On good manners”, gave the first detailed description of a medical bag with guidelines for the required equipment and structure. Ancient Egyptian and Palestinian references also date back at least two millenniums. PMID:22126217

  5. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  10. 50 CFR 622.437 - Bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.437 Bag limits. (a) Applicability. Section 622.11(a... fishing license issued by Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands. (b) Bag limits. (1) Groupers, snappers...

  11. A chiral soliton bag model of nucleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Ryoichi; Ohta, Shigemi

    1984-11-01

    As a possible phenomenological model of nucleons, a model Lagrangian is numerically solved in the semiclassical approximation using the hedgehog ansatz. Soliton solutions with winding numbers Z=0 and 1 are examined as functions of the pion decay constant. The Z=0 solution is similar to the cloudy bag model, but the Z=1 solution is quite different from the little (chiral) bag model.

  12. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  13. Investigation of microwave photonic filter based on multiple longitudinal modes fiber laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng; Feng, Xinhuan; Lu, Chao; Guan, Bai-ou; Wai, P. K. A.

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically study the transfer function of a finite impulse response microwave photonic filter (FIR-MPF) system using a multi-wavelength fiber laser source by considering multiple longitudinal modes in each wavelength. The full response function with the response from longitudinal mode taps is obtained. We also discussed the influence of the longitudinal mode envelope and mode spacing on the performance of FIR-MPF. The response function of the longitudinal mode taps is fully discussed and the contribution is compared with the response of the carrier suppression factor for double sideband (DSB) modulation. The multiple longitudinal modes structure in the wavelength taps can be utilized to engineer the response of the FIR-MPF such that desirable features such as high side lode suppression ratio can be realized. The analysis provides a guideline for designing incoherent FIR-MPF systems.

  14. A numerical investigation of the diesel particle filter regeneration process under temperature pulse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Chao; Yan, Yan

    2016-10-01

    A one-dimensional transient diesel particle filter (DPF) model is applied to study DPF regeneration performance. Numerical simulations are performed to predict the effects of various factors influencing regeneration performance under temperature pulse conditions, and the regeneration performances of three typical DPFs are compared and analyzed. Numerical results indicate that the thermal conductivity characteristics of DPF configurations can greatly affect soot oxidation, which in turn influences the regeneration process. The transition points of the regeneration flow rate indicate a balance between its promotion of the regeneration process and retardation owing to cooling effects. The sensitive ranges of soot loading, oxygen concentration, and inlet temperature are observed to provide a reference for controlling DPF regeneration. The multi-step exhaust condition is employed to control DPF regeneration. It was found that a transient increase in the flow rate is more effective at reducing the peak temperature and peak temperature gradient than a transient decrease of oxygen concentration.

  15. The prosurvival protein BAG3: a new participant in vascular homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Carrizzo, Albino; Damato, Antonio; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Falco, Antonia; Rosati, Alessandra; Capunzo, Mario; Madonna, Michele; Turco, Maria C; Januzzi, James L; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Vecchione, Carmine

    2016-10-20

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), is constitutively expressed in a few normal cell types, including myocytes, peripheral nerves and in the brain, and is also expressed in certain tumors. To date, the main studies about the role of BAG3 are focused on its pro-survival effect in tumors through various mechanisms that vary according to cellular type. Recently, elevated concentrations of a soluble form of BAG3 were described in patients affected by advanced stage of heart failure (HF), identifying BAG3 as a potentially useful biomarker in monitoring HF progression. Despite the finding of high levels of BAG3 in the sera of HF patients, there are no data on its possible role on the modulation of vascular tone and blood pressure levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible hemodynamic effects of BAG3 performing both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Through vascular reactivity studies, we demonstrate that BAG3 is capable of evoking dose-dependent vasorelaxation. Of note, BAG3 exerts its vasorelaxant effect on resistance vessels, typically involved in the blood pressure regulation. Our data further show that the molecular mechanism through which BAG3 exerts this effect is the activation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway leading to nitric oxide release by endothelial cells. Finally, we show that in vivo BAG3 administration is capable of regulating blood pressure and that this is dependent on eNOS regulation since this ability is lost in eNOS KO animals.

  16. The prosurvival protein BAG3: a new participant in vascular homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Carrizzo, Albino; Damato, Antonio; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Falco, Antonia; Rosati, Alessandra; Capunzo, Mario; Madonna, Michele; Turco, Maria C; Januzzi, James L; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Vecchione, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), is constitutively expressed in a few normal cell types, including myocytes, peripheral nerves and in the brain, and is also expressed in certain tumors. To date, the main studies about the role of BAG3 are focused on its pro-survival effect in tumors through various mechanisms that vary according to cellular type. Recently, elevated concentrations of a soluble form of BAG3 were described in patients affected by advanced stage of heart failure (HF), identifying BAG3 as a potentially useful biomarker in monitoring HF progression. Despite the finding of high levels of BAG3 in the sera of HF patients, there are no data on its possible role on the modulation of vascular tone and blood pressure levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible hemodynamic effects of BAG3 performing both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Through vascular reactivity studies, we demonstrate that BAG3 is capable of evoking dose-dependent vasorelaxation. Of note, BAG3 exerts its vasorelaxant effect on resistance vessels, typically involved in the blood pressure regulation. Our data further show that the molecular mechanism through which BAG3 exerts this effect is the activation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway leading to nitric oxide release by endothelial cells. Finally, we show that in vivo BAG3 administration is capable of regulating blood pressure and that this is dependent on eNOS regulation since this ability is lost in eNOS KO animals. PMID:27763645

  17. Addressing challenges in bar-code scanning of large-volume infusion bags.

    PubMed

    Raman, Kirthana; Heelon, Mark; Kerr, Gary; Higgins, Thomas L

    2011-08-01

    A hospital pharmacy's efforts to identify and address challenges with bedside scanning of bar codes on large-volume parenteral (LVP) infusion bags are described. Bar-code-assisted medication administration (BCMA) has been shown to reduce medication errors and improve patient safety. After the pilot implementation of a BCMA system and point-of-care scanning procedures at a medical center's intensive care unit, it was noted that nurses' attempted bedside scans of certain LVP bags for product identification purposes often were not successful. An investigation and root-cause analysis, including observation of nurses' scanning technique by a multidisciplinary team, determined that the scanning failures stemmed from the placement of two bar-code imprints-one with the product identification code and another, larger imprint with the expiration date and lot number-adjacently on the LVP bags. The nursing staff was educated on a modified scanning technique, which resulted in significantly improved success rates in the scanning of the most commonly used LVP bags. Representatives of the LVP bag manufacturer met with hospital staff to discuss the problem and corrective measures. As part of a subsequent infusion bag redesign, the manufacturer discontinued the use of the bar-code imprint implicated in the scanning failures. Failures in scanning LVP bags were traced to problematic placement of bar-code imprints on the bags. Interdisciplinary collaboration, consultation with the bag manufacturer, and education of the nursing and pharmacy staff resulted in a reduction in scanning failures and the manufacturer's removal of one of the bar codes from its LVP bags.

  18. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008146 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  19. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008155 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  20. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008143 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  1. Water bag modeling of a multispecies plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, P.; Gravier, E.; Besse, N.; Klein, R.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.

    2011-03-15

    We report in the present paper a new modeling method to study multiple species dynamics in magnetized plasmas. Such a method is based on the gyrowater bag modeling, which consists in using a multistep-like distribution function along the velocity direction parallel to the magnetic field. The choice of a water bag representation allows an elegant link between kinetic and fluid descriptions of a plasma. The gyrowater bag model has been recently adapted to the context of strongly magnetized plasmas. We present its extension to the case of multi ion species magnetized plasmas: each ion species being modeled via a multiwater bag distribution function. The water bag modelization will be discussed in details, under the simplification of a cylindrical geometry that is convenient for linear plasma devices. As an illustration, results obtained in the linear framework for ion temperature gradient instabilities are presented, that are shown to agree qualitatively with older works.

  2. [Effect of bagging on greenhouse cucumber].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Zhang, Shulian; Liang, Yinli; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Fuli; Quan, Qingzhuan

    2004-07-01

    The study showed that culturing cucumber with film bag increased cucumber yield by 12.3% - 15.1%, reduced abnormal cucumber by 65.3% - 72.8%, and the shape of cucumber was straight and smooth. The keeping-fresh period of the cucumber prolonged to 20 - 25 days, its vitamin C increased 21.9%, and total sugar increased to 5.1%. Paper bagging increased cucumber yield by 7.2% - 10.1%, and reduced abnormal cucumber by 52.2% - 57.7%. Bag body could efficiently prevent the cucumber from the direct pollution of chemicals spray. The survival pesticides in film and paper bags was 0.760 mg x kg(-1) and 1.2208 mg x kg(-1), reduced by 83.3% and 73.2%, respectively, compared to non-bagging.

  3. Can "contamination" occur in body bags?-The example of background fibres in body bags used in Australia.

    PubMed

    Schwendener, Giuliana; Moret, Sébastien; Cavanagh-Steer, Karen; Roux, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Impurities that are transferred to a crime scene or a body can have a significant negative impact on the investigation if the existence of the contamination is not known, and the source of the contamination is not identified. Forensic consumables, such as DNA swabs, have been known to have caused contaminations, wrongfully linking crimes throughout Europe. In that context, this study focused on body bags, widely used to transfer a corpse from the crime scene to the morgue. Our preliminary survey showed that several countries and Australian Jurisdictions are conducting the sampling of trace evidence at the morgue after the transportation of the body. Potential impurities present in body bags could thus interfere with pertinent traces. The aim of this work was to qualify and quantify the background contamination of trace evidence in body bags used within Australia. Fifteen body bags from four Australian Jurisdictions or laboratories were searched for micro traces. Impurities such as fibres and unidentified particles were detected in each examined body bag, with an estimated average of 3603 coloured fibres and 1429 unidentified particles. This number of fibres is similar to the amount found on a vinyl cinema seat in other studies. Various other contaminants such as pieces of fabric, hairs, parts of insects or feathers were also observed. It is hypothesised that these impurities are introduced during the manufacturing process. This high number of impurities can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading investigative leads. This paper presents an overview of the problems these impurities can cause and proposes several strategies to prevent future issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation on the internal acceleration process of the outer radiation belt using the particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyama, H.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ueno, G.; Koshiishi, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Shiokawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that high energy electrons in the radiation belts often cause satellite anomalies and malfunctions. Thus, a forecast of the time variation of the energetic electrons is necessary to protect satellites in the radiation belts. Time variations of the radiation belt electrons have been modeled with the Fokker-Plank equation. Performance of the forecast using the Fokker-Planck equation depends on the parameters used in the model, so that improvement of the parameters is important for the space weather forecast. We performed data assimilation using the particle filter by a code which was developed by Miyoshi et al.[2006]. We prepare 1000 particles used for the calculation. In this study, phase space density, the diffusion coefficient, and wave amplitude, and the source amplitude of the internal acceleration compose the state vector. The observation vector consists of the differential flux measured by the Tsubasa satellite. We also apply the particle smoother to estimate the smoothed distribution. While there were several discrepancies between the simulation without the data assimilation and the observations, the data assimilation improves the simulation result, and captures the typical flux variations of the outer belt during magnetic storms. We also discuss the internal acceleration process on the basis of the source amplitude estimated through the data assimilation.

  5. [Recycle of jute bags; asbestos in agriculture, exposure and pathology ].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G; Somigliana, A; Lombardi, S; Girelli, R; Rocco, A; Pezzotti, C; Silvestri, S

    2008-01-01

    During the last four years, a deeper examination of malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases occurred within non asbestos textile industry highlighted asbestos past exposure in several textile industrial divisions. In spite of that, poor information about recycled textile bags previously containing asbestos fibres is available to the National Mesothelioma Registry, although holding a remarkable data bank on more than 3500 work histories and sources of asbestos exposures. Besides the analysis of the exposure circumstances and the registered health effects of the past exposure within the recycling activity, the aim of this research was to relate the possible involvement of the agricultural sector, where the use of recycled jute bags was very diffused. The MM cases were collected from the Mesothelioma Registry of Brescia, asbestosis, pleural plaques and lung cancer cases were collected from the Occupational Diseases Archive of the Local Public Occupational Health Service of the Province of Brescia. During the 1977-2006 period, 8 cases of MM, 4 cases of pulmonary asbestosis, 4 of isolated bilateral pleural plaques and I of lung cancer in pulmonary asbestosis, were observed among workers employed in bags recycling activity in 4 small companies, one of them still operating, employing about 50 workers. Even more, among the 65 MM cases classified by the Registry with "unknown asbestos exposure" (UAE), the most relevant frequency of working histories concerned the agriculture sector. Confirming a past signalling, the investigations underlined the cross linkage between this working activity and the diffusion of recycled bags in the agriculture sector. In the Province of Brescia, the activities of these small jute bags recycling plants were linked, even geographically, to the asbestos cement manufacture plant using a huge number of bags, roughly until mid seventies. Therefore, a large number of these recycled bags, previously containing asbestos, were generally used for harvesting

  6. Three-zone pupil filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Campos, Juan; Escalera, Juan C.; Ledesma, Silvia

    2008-07-01

    The performance of pupil filters consisting of three zones each of constant complex amplitude transmittance is investigated. For filters where the transmittance is real, different classes of potentially useful filter are identified. These include leaky filters with an inner zone of low amplitude transmittance, pure phase filters with phase change of π, and equal area filters.

  7. Investigations into the fouling mechanism of parvovirus filters during filtration of freeze-thawed mAb drug substance solutions.

    PubMed

    Barnard, James G; Kahn, David; Cetlin, David; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F

    2014-03-01

    Filtration to remove viruses is one of the single most expensive steps in the production of mAb drug products. Therefore, virus filtration steps should be fully optimized, and any decline in flow rates warrants investigation into the causes of such membrane fouling. In the current study, it was found that freezing and thawing of a mAb bulk drug solution caused a substantial decrease in viral filter membrane flow rate. Freezing and thawing also caused formation of aggregates and particles across a broad size range, including particles that could be detected by microflow imaging (≥1 μm in size). However, removal of these particles offered little protection against flow rate decline during viral filtration. Further investigation revealed that trace amounts of aggregates (ca. 10⁻⁶ of the total mass of protein in solution) approximately 20-40 nm in size were primarily responsible for the observed membrane fouling.

  8. Burn injury secondary to air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Ingrid; Mancini, Luca Livio; Guizzardi, Marco; Monti, Marcello

    2002-02-01

    The efficacy of air bags has been proven in diminishing the rate of fatalities and severity of injury in motor vehicle crashes. Unfortunately, as with any developing technology, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the air bag itself. Most air bag-related injuries are minor and, surprisingly, more than 7% are burns typically involving the upper extremity or head or neck. Fortunately, these are superficial burns that usually require only expectant therapy, but a high degree of suspicion in these circumstances is needed to make the proper diagnosis.

  9. Difference in trunk stability during semicircular turns with and without a bag in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu; An, Duk-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Seop; Kim, Ki-Song; Kim, Tae-Ho; Choi, Jong-Sang

    2017-09-22

    Direction changes while walking are more likely to cause a hip fracture than is falling while walking in a straight line. Trunk stability is an important contributor to safe and effective walking, and arm movements influence trunk movement while walking. However, the difference in the trunk stability during semicircular turns performed by elderly women with a light bag has not been examined. To investigate the effects of carrying a bag on trunk stability during semicircular turns in elderly women. We enrolled 15 community-dwelling elderly women capable of independent walking. Participants walked with and without a bag at a self-selected speed along a marked path, which included semicircular turns, while fitted with an accelerometer attached over the L3 spinous process. Gait velocity was faster during semicircular turning with a bag versus without a bag. The normalized medial-lateral center of mass acceleration was lower during semicircular turning with a bag versus without a bag. We suggest that a light additional arm load and increased arm swing contributes to trunk stability and efficient walking during semicircular turning by elderly women.

  10. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-080-1856, Duro Bag Manufacturing Company, Richwood, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Laubli, T.; Mathias, C.G.T.; Almaguer, D.

    1988-01-01

    In response to a request from the Duro Bag manufacturing Company, Richwood, Kentucky, an investigation was made of the occurrence of skin rashes and hair loss at the facility. Products included shopping bags, grocery bags, millinery and notion bags, and wrapping paper in the Paper Division. A questionnaire was completed by 215 of 245 hourly production workers. Sixty one of those responding indicated a skin rash in the period since January 1, 1986. Hair loss had been noticed by 12 employees. Significantly elevated relative risks were noted among bag catchers of the plastic division for skin rashes on arms and hands. Increases in skin rashes of the head and neck area occurred among bag catchers, collator tenders, and adjuster supervisors in grocery-bag production areas. Dust levels were below current standards. The authors conclude that the cause of the skin rashes probably is exposure to chemicals used to clean machine parts. The authors recommend specific changes to reduce the occurrence of contact dermatitis, including use of personal protective equipment, good personal hygiene, ventilation systems, dust control, proper humidity for work areas, regular use of skin moisturizers, and proper use of respirators.

  11. The anti-apoptotic BAG3 protein is expressed in lung carcinomas and regulates small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Antonio; Falco, Antonia; Rosati, Alessandra; Festa, Michelina; Pasquinelli, Rosa; Califano, Daniela; Palma, Giuseppe; Costanzo, Raffaele; Barcaroli, Daniela; Capunzo, Mario; Franco, Renato; Rocco, Gaetano; Pascale, Maria; Turco, Maria Caterina; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Arra, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    BAG3, member the HSP70 co-chaperones family, has been shown to play a relevant role in the survival, growth and invasiveness of different tumor types. In this study, we investigate the expression of BAG3 in 66 specimens from different lung tumors and the role of this protein in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) tumor growth. Normal lung tissue did not express BAG3 while we detected the expression of BAG3 by immunohistochemistry in all the 13 squamous cell carcinomas, 13 adenocarcinomas and 4 large cell carcinomas. Furthermore, we detected BAG3 expression in 22 of the 36 SCLCs analyzed. The role on SCLC cell survival was determined by down-regulating BAG3 levels in two human SCLC cell lines, i.e. H69 and H446, in vitro and measuring cisplatin induced apoptosis. Indeed down-regulation of BAG3 determines increased cell death and sensitizes cells to cisplatin treatment. The effect of BAG3 down-regulation on tumor growth was also investigated in an in vivo xenograft model by treating mice with an adenovirus expressing a specific bag3 siRNA. Treatment with bag3 siRNA-Ad significantly reduced tumor growth and improved animal survival. In conclusion we show that a subset of SCLCs over express BAG3 that exerts an anti-apoptotic effect resulting in resistance to chemotherapy. PMID:25149536

  12. When is spatial filtering enough? Investigation of brightness and lightness perception in stimuli containing a visible illumination component

    PubMed Central

    Blakeslee, Barbara; McCourt, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Brightness (perceived intensity) and lightness (perceived reflectance) matching were investigated in seven well-known visual stimuli that contain a visible shadow or transparent overlay. These stimuli are frequently upheld as evidence that low-level spatial filtering is inadequate to explain brightness/lightness illusions and that additional mid- or high-level mechanisms are required. The argument in favor of rejecting low-level spatial filtering explanations has been founded on the erroneous assumption that equating test patch and near surround luminance is sufficient to control for and rule out this type of mechanism. We tested this idea by comparing the matching behavior of four observers to the predictions of the ODOG multiscale filtering model (Blakeslee & McCourt, 1999). Lightness and brightness matching differed significantly only when test patches appeared in shadow or beneath a transparency. Lightness and brightness matches were both significantly larger under these conditions; however, the lightness matches greatly exceeded the brightness matches. Lightness matches were greater for test patches in shadow or beneath a transparency because lightness matches under these conditions were based on inferential (not sensory-level) judgments where observers attempted to discount the difference in illumination. The ODOG model accounted for approximately 80% of the total variance in the brightness matches (as well as in the lightness matches for targets not in shadow or beneath a transparency), and successfully predicted the relative magnitude of these matches in five of the seven stimulus sets. These results indicate that multiscale spatial filtering provides a unified and parsimonious explanation for brightness perception in these stimuli and imply that higher-level mechanisms are not required to explain them. The model was not as successful for the Argyle and Wall of Blocks illusions in that it incorrectly rank-ordered the relative magnitude of the effects across

  13. Can laptops be left inside passenger bags if motion imaging is used in X-ray security screening?

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Marcia; Schwaninger, Adrian; Michel, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study where a new X-ray machine for security screening featuring motion imaging (i.e., 5 views of a bag are shown as an image sequence) was evaluated and compared to single view imaging available on conventional X-ray screening systems. More specifically, it was investigated whether with this new technology X-ray screening of passenger bags could be enhanced to such an extent that laptops could be left inside passenger bags, without causing a significant impairment in threat detection performance. An X-ray image interpretation test was created in four different versions, manipulating the factors packing condition (laptop and bag separate vs. laptop in bag) and display condition (single vs. motion imaging). There was a highly significant and large main effect of packing condition. When laptops and bags were screened separately, threat item detection was substantially higher. For display condition, a medium effect was observed. Detection could be slightly enhanced through the application of motion imaging. There was no interaction between display and packing condition, implying that the high negative effect of leaving laptops in passenger bags could not be fully compensated by motion imaging. Additional analyses were carried out to examine effects depending on different threat categories (guns, improvised explosive devices, knives, others), the placement of the threat items (in bag vs. in laptop) and viewpoint (easy vs. difficult view). In summary, although motion imaging provides an enhancement, it is not strong enough to allow leaving laptops in bags for security screening. PMID:24151457

  14. Adaptive angular-velocity Vold-Kalman filter order tracking - Theoretical basis, numerical implementation and parameter investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, M.-Ch.; Chu, W.-Ch.; Le, Duc-Do

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents an alternative Vold-Kalman filter order tracking (VKF_OT) method, i.e. adaptive angular-velocity VKF_OT technique, to extract and characterize order components in an adaptive manner for the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. The order/spectral waveforms to be tracked can be recursively solved by using Kalman filter based on the one-step state prediction. The paper comprises theoretical derivation of computation scheme, numerical implementation, and parameter investigation. Comparisons of the adaptive VKF_OT scheme with two other ones are performed through processing synthetic signals of designated order components. Processing parameters such as the weighting factor and the correlation matrix of process noise, and data conditions like the sampling frequency, which influence tracking behavior, are explored. The merits such as adaptive processing nature and computation efficiency brought by the proposed scheme are addressed although the computation was performed in off-line conditions. The proposed scheme can simultaneously extract multiple spectral components, and effectively decouple close and crossing orders associated with multi-axial reference rotating speeds.

  15. Effect of Salted Ice Bags on Surface and Intramuscular Tissue Cooling and Rewarming Rates.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Eric J; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Donahue, Matthew; Crowley, Caitlyn; Herzog, Valerie

    2016-02-01

    Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different cryotherapy agents at decreasing intramuscular tissue temperatures. However, no one has looked at the effectiveness of adding salt to an ice bag. To compare the cooling effectiveness of different ice bags (wetted, salted cubed, and salted crushed) on cutaneous and intramuscular temperatures. Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. University research laboratory. 24 healthy participants (13 men, 11 women; age 22.46 ± 2.33 y, height 173.25 ± 9.78 cm, mass 74.51 ± 17.32 kg, subcutaneous thickness 0.63 ± 0.27 cm) with no lower-leg injuries, vascular diseases, sensitivity to cold, compromised circulation, or chronic use of NSAIDs. Ice bags made of wetted ice (2000 mL ice and 300 mL water), salted cubed ice (intervention A; 2000 mL of cubed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt), and salted crushed ice (intervention B; 2000 mL of crushed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt) were applied to the posterior gastrocnemius for 30 min. Each participant received all conditions with at least 4 d between treatments. Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus adipose thickness) temperatures of nondominant gastrocnemius were measured during a 10-min baseline period, a 30-min treatment period, and a 45-min rewarming period. Differences from baseline were observed for all treatments. The wetted-ice and salted-cubed-ice bags produced significantly lower intramuscular temperatures than the salted-crushed-ice bag. Wetted-ice bags produced the greatest temperature change for cutaneous tissues. Wetted- and salted-cubed-ice bags were equally effective at decreasing intramuscular temperature at 2 cm subadipose. Clinical practicality may favor salted-ice bags over wetted-ice bags.

  16. Update: fatal air bag-related injuries to children--United States, 1993-1996.

    PubMed

    1996-12-13

    Dual air bags will be required standard equipment in all new passenger cars sold in the United States beginning in 1997 and all light trucks sold in the United States in 1998 but are available now in many earlier-model vehicles. Air bags are designed to supplement the protection provided by safety belts in frontal crashes; when combined with lap and shoulder safety belts, air bags assist in preventing fatal and nonfatal injuries in motor-vehicle crashes. However, passenger-side air bags have been associated with injuries to children who, in almost all cases, were unrestrained or incorrectly restrained in the front seat. In 1993, approximately 1.4 million (0.8% of all vehicles registered) were equipped with passenger-side air bags, compared with an estimated 21.6 million vehicles (11.4% of all vehicles registered) in 1996 (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], unpublished data, 1996). NHTSA, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and CDC collaborated with the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, The Air Bag Safety Campaign, the National Safety Council, the Brain Injury Association, the National Association of Governors Highway Safety Representatives, the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, and the Health Resources and Services Administration to examine crashes from the Special Crash Investigation Data File maintained by NHTSA, in which fatal injuries in children (aged < 12 years) were associated with passenger-side air bags. This report presents the findings of this review, which indicate that during January 1993-November 1996, annual increases occurred for both the number of fatal injuries to children resulting from air-bag deployments and the proportion of dual air bag-equipped vehicles (Table 1).

  17. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Request for and Use of Low/Non-Fat Foods in Bag Lunches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, LaShanda R.; Sallis, James F.; Conway, Terry L.; Marshall, Simon J.; Pelletier, Robin L.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated ethnic and gender differences in frequency of use and healthfulness of bag lunches at school. Surveys of middle school students and their parents indicated that one-half of students brought bag lunches, with boys doing so more often than girls. There were ethnic differences in the use of seven foods and whether foods were regular or…

  18. Garan in sleeping bag in Columbus module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-09

    S124-E-007980 (9 June 2008) --- Astronaut Ron Garan, STS-124 mission specialist, sleeps in his sleeping bag in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Discovery is docked with the station.

  19. Fossum in sleeping bag on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-09

    S124-E-007975 (9 June 2008) --- Astronaut Mike Fossum, STS-124 mission specialist, sleeps in his sleeping bag, which is attached to the lockers on the middeck of the Space Shuttle Discovery, while docked with the International Space Station.

  20. Burbank opens a CWC-I Bag

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-06

    ISS030-E-122089 (6 March 2012) --- NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, opens a Contingency Water Container-Iodinated (CWC-I) bag in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  1. An update on purple urine bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hadano, Yoshiro; Shimizu, Taro; Takada, Shimon; Inoue, Toshiya; Sorano, Sumire

    2012-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.

  2. [Gas embolism and flexible Ecoflac type bag].

    PubMed

    Freys, G; Burgun, G; L'Haridon, V; Otteni, J C; Pottecher, T

    2002-01-01

    Gas embolism at the end of infusion is a well known hazard, that should have disappeared with the use of flexible bags. However, some cases have been reported after pressure infusion. This experimental study evaluates the risk for gas embolism with Ecoflac type flexible bags. These bags are safe under normal pressure infusion conditions with a pneumatic sleeve, because of their texture and pliability; indeed, only minimal air volumes could be expelled, without any risk even in children. However, to be on the safe side, the manufacturer recommends to expel any residual air before pressure administration. This recommendation applies to any bag containing residual air, and since many people are not aware of this, it is rarely put into practice.

  3. Enhancing Mathematical Communication: "Bag of Tricks" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Ramful, Ajay; Greenlees, Jane

    2015-01-01

    An engaging activity which prompts students to listen, talk, reason and write about geometrical properties. The "Bag of Tricks" encourages students to clarify their thoughts and communicate precisely using accurate mathematical language.

  4. Enhancing Mathematical Communication: "Bag of Tricks" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Ramful, Ajay; Greenlees, Jane

    2015-01-01

    An engaging activity which prompts students to listen, talk, reason and write about geometrical properties. The "Bag of Tricks" encourages students to clarify their thoughts and communicate precisely using accurate mathematical language.

  5. Storage of Maize in Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) Bags.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott B; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using hermetic technologies as a pest management solution for stored grain has risen in recent years. One hermetic approach, Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, has proven successful in controlling the postharvest pests of cowpea. This success encouraged farmers to use of PICS bags for storing other crops including maize. To assess whether maize can be safely stored in PICS bags without loss of quality, we carried out laboratory studies of maize grain infested with Sitophilus zeamais (Motshulsky) and stored in PICS triple bags or in woven polypropylene bags. Over an eight month observation period, temperatures in the bags correlated with ambient temperature for all treatments. Relative humidity inside PICS bags remained constant over this period despite the large changes that occurred in the surrounding environment. Relative humidity in the woven bags followed ambient humidity closely. PICS bags containing S. zeamais-infested grain saw a significant decline in oxygen compared to the other treatments. Grain moisture content declined in woven bags, but remained high in PICS bags. Seed germination was not significantly affected over the first six months in all treatments, but declined after eight months of storage when infested grain was held in woven bags. Relative damage was low across treatments and not significantly different between treatments. Overall, maize showed no signs of deterioration in PICS bags versus the woven bags and PICS bags were superior to woven bags in terms of specific metrics of grain quality.

  6. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  7. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  8. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  9. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  10. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  11. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  12. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  13. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  14. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  15. Storage of Maize in Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) Bags

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using hermetic technologies as a pest management solution for stored grain has risen in recent years. One hermetic approach, Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, has proven successful in controlling the postharvest pests of cowpea. This success encouraged farmers to use of PICS bags for storing other crops including maize. To assess whether maize can be safely stored in PICS bags without loss of quality, we carried out laboratory studies of maize grain infested with Sitophilus zeamais (Motshulsky) and stored in PICS triple bags or in woven polypropylene bags. Over an eight month observation period, temperatures in the bags correlated with ambient temperature for all treatments. Relative humidity inside PICS bags remained constant over this period despite the large changes that occurred in the surrounding environment. Relative humidity in the woven bags followed ambient humidity closely. PICS bags containing S. zeamais-infested grain saw a significant decline in oxygen compared to the other treatments. Grain moisture content declined in woven bags, but remained high in PICS bags. Seed germination was not significantly affected over the first six months in all treatments, but declined after eight months of storage when infested grain was held in woven bags. Relative damage was low across treatments and not significantly different between treatments. Overall, maize showed no signs of deterioration in PICS bags versus the woven bags and PICS bags were superior to woven bags in terms of specific metrics of grain quality. PMID:28072835

  16. Investigation and Physical Interpretation of H-Shaped Metamaterials in X-Band Waveguide for Microwave Filter Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, Furkan

    2016-01-01

    This study numerically and experimentally introduces and investigates H-shaped metamaterials (MTMs) with negative refractive index on the coupling effect of a split ring resonator at the microwave X-band frequencies. The proposed models, consisting of one and two H-shaped MTMs structures, are designed in X-band for modern radar applications. The MTM structures show strong resonance at a range between 8 and 12 GHz. In addition, the effective constitutive parameters are revealed by using a retrieval procedure to verify the negative refraction phenomena of the proposed models. Furthermore, in order to verify the MTM characteristics of the structures, surface current distributions are realized. It can be seen that the structures can be efficiently used for filters, radar applications and so on in a certain frequency regime.

  17. W-Z-top-quark bags

    SciTech Connect

    Crichigno, Marcos P.; Shuryak, Edward; Flambaum, Victor V.; Kuchiev, Michael Yu.

    2010-10-01

    We discuss a new family of multiquanta-bound states in the standard model which exist due to the mutual Higgs-based attraction of the heaviest members of the standard model, namely, gauge quanta W, Z, and (anti)top quarks, t, t. We use a self-consistent mean-field approximation, up to a rather large particle number N. In this paper we do not focus on weakly bound, nonrelativistic bound states, but rather on 'bags' in which the Higgs vacuum expectation value is significantly modified or depleted. The minimal number N above which such states appear strongly depends on the ratio of the Higgs mass to the masses of W, Z, t, t: For a light Higgs mass, m{sub H{approx}}50 GeV, bound states start from N{approx}O(10), but for a ''realistic'' Higgs mass, m{sub H{approx}}100 GeV, one finds metastable/bound W, Z bags only for N{approx}O(1000). We also found that in the latter case pure top bags disappear for all N, although top quarks can still be well bound to the W bags. Anticipating the cosmological applications (discussed in the following Article [Phys. Rev. D 82, 073019]) of these bags as 'doorway states' for baryosynthesis, we also consider here the existence of such metastable bags at finite temperatures, when standard-model parameters such as Higgs, gauge, and top masses are significantly modified.

  18. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.; Milek, Henry F.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an pening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  19. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.

    1985-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  20. Stability of Fentanyl Citrate in Polyolefin Bags.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is used to manage pain because it is a potent lipophilic opiate agonist. The stability of fentanyl in polyolefin bags when diluted to either 10 µg/mL or 50 µg/mL with sodium chloride 0.9% has not been studied. The chemical stability of fentanyl 50 µg/mL packaged in polyvinyl chloride bags has been studied, however, the stability in polyolefin bags is lacking. Polyolefin bags were aseptically filled with either 10-µg/mL or 50-µg/mL fentanyl solution. Containers were then stored at either 5°C and protected from light or 22°C and exposed to light for 93 days. Fentanyl peaks were monitored using a stability-indicatin high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Changes to color, clarity, and pH were also monitored. There were no signs of chemical degradation of fentanyl packaged in polyolefin bags at either 5°C or 22°C after storage for 93 days. Over the course of the study, all solutions remained colorless and clear. The pH showed a slight decrease during the 93 days of storage. The stability of both undiluted (50-µg/mL) and diluted (10-µg/mL) fentanyl solutions when packaged in polyolefin bags was 93 days when stored at either 5°C or 22°C. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  1. Odor concentration decay and stability in gas sampling bags.

    PubMed

    van Harreveld, A Ph

    2003-01-01

    recommendations are suggested for the practice of collecting odor samples and apply specifically to tobacco processing emissions: Analyze samples as soon as possible, preferably within 12 hr; When samples age for more than 12 hr, decay is likely to cause a reduction in odor concentration to half the original concentration at age 30 hr; Use sampling bags made of Nalophan NA or benchmark performance of other materials against Nalophan NA before using alternative materials; Use pre-dilution when sampling only for the purpose of avoiding condensation during sample storage. Use an appropriate minimum dilution factor to avoid condensation; Both nitrogen and high-purity (synthetic) air are suitable to use as neutral gas for pre-dilution; and When sampling tobacco odors, use an odorless filter to remove particles. This practice removes a source of variation and avoids contamination of equipment. The effect on results, despite being consistently lower in odor concentration, is not meaningful in terms of perceived intensity or annoyance potential.

  2. The Sydney Contained In Bag Morcellation technique.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Joanne B; Kanade, Trupti; Choi, Sarah; Tsai, Brian P; Rosen, David M; Cario, Gregory M; Chou, Danny

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate a modification of the Shibley single-port technique suitable for morcellation of large myomatous uteri after total laparoscopic hysterectomy in a contained environment within the abdominal cavity [1]. Step-by-step explanation of the technique using descriptive text and an educational video. In light of recent concern about the use of power morcellators and increasing the risk of disseminating occult leiomyosarcomatous myoma fragments throughout the abdominal cavity, we propose this new technique for management of morcellation of large myomatous uteri after total laparoscopic hysterectomy, to contain the morcellation process and minimize the risk. This technique, which we have coined "Sydney Contained in Bag Morcellation" involves introduction of a sterile plastic bag (Dual Drawstring Bag, 460 × 460 mm; Southern Cross Hospital Supplies, Northmead, NSW, Australia) before introducing an optical port and the power morcellator. Before insertion this bag is modified in several ways to facilitate bag opening and specimen retrieval. The dual drawstring is removed and replaced with a 150-cm length of PDS I (polydioxanone) suture material as the new drawstring, with its exit at the mouth of the bag in the 6 o'clock position. Five stay sutures are placed around the bag mouth, corresponding to the 12, 1, 5, 7, and 11 o'clock positions. This assists with opening the mouth of the bag intraabdominally and enables orientation to be maintained. The bag is then inserted in a McCartney tube (Gates Healthcare, Cheshire, UK). Corresponding slits are made in the tip of the tube to enable the end of the stay sutures to be securely held in place during tube insertion. These ends are then retrieved using atraumatic graspers and exteriorized and clipped alongside their corresponding port sites. After hysterectomy the uterus is placed in the bag, and the stay sutures maintain the mouth opening. The bag is closed and its mouth exteriorized onto the abdominal wall at the site

  3. Smart Bag vs. Standard bag in the temporary substitution of the mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Lovat, Robin; Watremez, Christine; Van Dyck, Michel; Van Caenegem, Olivier; Verschuren, Franck; Hantson, Philippe; Jacquet, Luc-Marie

    2008-02-01

    To compare in intubated patients manually ventilated in order to mirror the ventilator, the respiratory and hemodynamic effects induced by a bag device equipped with an inspiratory gas flow-limiting valve (Smart Bag, 0-Two Medical Technologies Inc., Mississauga, ON, Canada) and a Standard bag. Non-randomized crossover study comparing 13 respiratory and eight hemodynamically paired parameters. Eight intubated patients were manually ventilated, each by three different intensive care workers yielding 24 sets of data for comparison. Data were collected during two sessions of manual ventilation, first with the Standard bag and then with the Smart Bag. Between each session, the patient was reconnected to the ventilator until return to the baseline. Patients, included after coronary surgery, were sedated and paralyzed. Intensive Care Unit, university hospital. Compared with Standard bag, the Smart Bag provided a decrease of inspiratory flow (23 +/- 4.7 vs. 47.3 +/- 16.5 l/min) with a decrease of peak pressure (13.3 +/- 2.9 vs. 21.9 +/- 7.3 cmH2O) and tidal volume (9.4 +/- 2.8 vs. 12.4 +/- 2.7 ml/kg). While the expiratory time was similar, the inspiratory time increased (1.83 +/- 0.58 vs. 1.28 +/- 0.46 s) with the Smart Bag, limiting the respiratory rate (14 +/- 5 vs. 17 +/- 6 cycles/min) and the minute volume (8.8 +/- 2.9 vs. 14.4 +/- 4.9 l/min). Finally, it limited the fall of the ETCO2 (27.9 +/- 5.1 vs. 24.3 +/- 5.7 mmHg) and probably the risks of severe respiratory alkalosis. The bags similarly affected hemodynamic states. In intubated patients manually ventilated, the Smart Bag limits the risks of excessive airway pressure and the fall of the ETCO2, with hemodynamic effects similar to those of the Standard bag.

  4. Investigation on the mechanism of H(2)S removal by biological activated carbon in a horizontal biotrickling filter.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huiqi; Yan, Rong; Koe, Lawrence Choon Chiaw

    2005-12-01

    The use of supporting media for the immobilization of microorganisms is widely known to provide a surface for microbial growth and a shelter that protects the microorganisms from inhibitory compounds. In our previous studies, activated carbon (AC) alone used as a support medium for H(2)S biological removal was proved prompt and efficient in a bench-scale biofilter and biotrickling filter. In this study, the mechanisms of H(2)S elimination using microbial immobilized activated carbon, i.e., biological activated carbon (BAC), are investigated. A series of BAC as supporting medium were taken from the inlet to outlet of a bench-scale horizontal biotrickling filter to examine the different effects of physical/chemical adsorption and microbial degradation on the overall removal of H(2)S. The surface properties of BAC together with virgin and exhausted carbon (after H(2)S breakthrough test, non-microbial immobilization) were characterized using the sorption of nitrogen (Braunner-Emmett-Teller test), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface pH, thermal, carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen-sulfur (CHNS) elemental and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. Tests of porosity and surface area provide detailed information about the pore structure of BAC along the bed facilitating the understanding of potential pore blockages due to biofilm coating. A correlation between the available surface area and pore volume with the extent of microbial immobilization and H(2)S uptake is evidenced. SEM photographs show the direct carbon structure and biofilm coated on carbon surface. FTIR spectra, differential thermogravimetric curves and CHNS results indicate less diversity of H(2)S oxidation products on BAC than those previously observed on exhausted carbon from H(2)S adsorption only. The predominant oxidation product on BAC is sulfuric acid, and biofilm is believed to enhance the oxidation of H(2)S on carbon surface. The combination of biodegradation and physical adsorption of using BAC in

  5. Investigation of contamination of thin-film aluminum filters by MMH-NTO plumes exposed to UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vaibhav; Wieman, Seth; Didkovsky, Leonid; Haiges, Ralf; Yao, Yuhan; Wu, Wei; Gruntman, Mike; Erwin, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Thin-film aluminum filters degrade in space with significant reduction of their Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) transmission. This degradation was observed on the EUV Spectrophotometer (ESP) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory's EUV Variability Experiment and the Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. One of the possible causes for deterioration of such filters over time is contamination of their surfaces from plumes coming from periodic firing of their satellite's Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) - Nitrogen Tetroxide (NTO) thrusters. When adsorbed by the filters, the contaminant molecules are exposed to solar irradiance and could lead to two possible compositions. First, they could get polymerized leading to a permanent hydrocarbon layer buildup on the filter's surface. Second, they could accelerate and increase the depth of oxidation into filter's bulk aluminum material. To study the phenomena we experimentally replicate contamination of such filters in a simulated environment by MMH-NTO plumes. We apply, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterize the physical and the chemical changes on these contaminated sample filter surfaces. In addition, we present our first analysis of the effects of additional protective layer coatings based on self-assembled carbon monolayers for aluminum filters. This coverage is expected to significantly decrease their susceptibility to contamination and reduce the overall degradation of filter-based EUV instruments over their mission life.

  6. Investigation of quaternary ammonium silane-coated sand filter for the removal of bacteria and viruses from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Torkelson, A A; da Silva, A K; Love, D C; Kim, J Y; Alper, J P; Coox, B; Dahm, J; Kozodoy, P; Maboudian, R; Nelson, K L

    2012-11-01

    To develop an anti-microbial filter media using an attached quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and evaluate its performance under conditions relevant to household drinking water treatment in developing countries. Silica sand was coated with dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] ammonium chloride via covalent silane chemistry. Filter columns packed with coated media were challenged with micro-organisms under different water quality conditions. The anti-bacterial properties were investigated by visualizing Escherichia coli (E. coli) attachment to coated media under fluorescence microscopy combined with a live/dead stain. A 9-cm columns with a filtration velocity of 18 m h(-1) achieved log(10) removals of 1·7 for E. coli, 1·8 for MS2 coliphage, 1·9 for Poliovirus type 3 and 0·36 for Adenovirus type 2, compared to 0·1-0·3 log(10) removals of E. coli and MS2 by uncoated sand. Removal scaled linearly with column length and decreased with increasing ionic strength, flow velocity, filtration time and humic acid presence. Escherichia coli attached to QAC-coated sand were observed to be membrane-permeable, providing evidence of inactivation. Filtration with QAC-coated sand provided higher removal of bacteria and viruses than filtration with uncoated sand. However, major limitations included rapid fouling by micro-organisms and natural organic matter and low removal of viruses PRD1 and Adenovirus 2. QAC-coated media may be promising for household water treatment. However, more research is needed on long-term performance, options to reduce fouling and inactivation mechanisms. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...). For domestic transport, air bag inflators, air bag modules or seat-belt pretensioners that meet the... for transportation, the shipping paper must contain the EX number or product code for each approved... this subchapter. Product codes must be traceable to the specific EX number assigned to the inflator...

  8. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...). For domestic transport, air bag inflators, air bag modules or seat-belt pretensioners that meet the... for transportation, the shipping paper must contain the EX number or product code for each approved... this subchapter. Product codes must be traceable to the specific EX number assigned to the inflator...

  9. Purple urine bag syndrome in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Kuan; Ho, Dong-Ru; Chang, Hung-Yu; Lin, Chun-Liang; Chuang, Feng-Rong

    2005-08-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon disorder, in which the plastic disposable urinary catheter bag turns purple or blue following hours or days of urinary catheterization. The purple discoloration results from indirubin dissolved in the plastic mixing with indigo in the urine. Bacteria possessing indoxyl sulfatase degrade indoxyl sulfate into indirubin and indigo. Indoxyl sulfate is derived from the metabolism of tryptophan. PUBS usually occurs in chronic catheterized elderly women who are constipated and poorly ambulant. The clinical course is benign and rarely causes sepsis. This investigation reports a 61-year-old female diabetic patient with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis, who had two episodes of blue or purple urine bag discoloration. The urine culture of the first episode yielded Klebsiella pneumoniae, whereas that of the second episode yielded Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus vulgaris. Both episodes resolved following oral antibiotics treatment and placement of new foley catheters. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded case of PUBS in a dialysis patient.

  10. Vacuum energy in the bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelas, P.

    1986-04-01

    The vacuum energy of the Yang-Mills field is examined for the conditions of the bag model. The dominance of high-frequency effects results in a vacuum energy that decomposes naturally into a volume energy, a surface energy, and higher shape energies. These quantities are identified with the parameters of the bag model. The imposition of confining boundary conditions for all frequencies is shown to be inconsistent since this would result in the bag constant and certain of the shape tensions being infinite. The manner in which the boundary conditions should be relaxed at high frequency is discussed. The most naive procedure for relaxing the boundary conditions, which is to apply confining conditions only on modes of frequency less than some cutoff frequency, results in a negative bag constant and surface tension and would render the vacuum unstable against the spontaneous breaking of Poincaré invariance. Consideration of the manner by which the interacting electromagnetic field avoids a similar instability suggests that a more realistic way to relax the boundary conditions on the bag surface is to endow the vacuum exterior to the bag with a frequency-dependent dielectric constant and magnetic permeability. In this picture the stability of the vacuum is restored, the surface tension is finite and positive, and the bag constant is zero at least to lowest order in the coupling. It is pointed out that the fermion contributions to the bag constant and the surface tension may relate to the spontaneous breaking of chiral invariance. The aim throughout is to examine the bag model, as it relates to vacuum energy, strictly in its own terms with an emphasis on questions of principle. All too often is heard the alibi that since the theory itself is only approximate, the mathematics need be no better. In truth the opposite follows. Granted that the model represents but a part of nature, we are to find what such an ideal picture implies, a result strictly derived serves to test

  11. Contained Morcellation for Laparoscopic Myomectomy Within a Specially Designed Bag.

    PubMed

    Paul, P G; Thomas, Manju; Das, Tanuka; Patil, Saurabh; Garg, Reena

    2016-02-01

    A technique of contained morcellation of uterine myomas within a bag specially designed for 2-port morcellation during laparoscopic myomectomy is described. Ten patients underwent in-bag morcellation of myomas with a tissue isolation bag (MorSafe) between November 2014 and January 2015. The MorSafe tissue isolation bag is a retort-shaped bag made of medical-grade flexible plastic material with the wider opening of 134 mm in diameter and the tail end measuring 4 mm in diameter, allowing easy accomodation of specimens up to 12 cm in diameter. This technique involves placing the myomas into the isolation bag within the abdomen, exteriorizing the tail end of the bag, insufflating the bag within the peritoneal cavity, and morcellating the myomas under vision. Demographic and perioperative characteristics were studied. The mean operative time was 117 minutes (range, 75-195 minutes), the mean time for specimen introduction into the bag was 12.5 minutes (range, 7-22 minutes), and the mean time for morcellation and bag removal was 24.8 minutes (range, 10-50 minutes). There were no complications related to the in-bag morcellation technique, and there was no visual evidence of damage to the isolation bag. In-bag morcellation using this new bag is a feasible technique for morcellating uterine myomas in a contained manner and may provide an option to minimize the risks of open power morcellation while preserving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery.

  12. Object shape extraction from cluttered bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirakov, Nikolay Metodiev

    2017-05-01

    The passengers flow at the US airports increased in the recent years. The larger number of passengers demands for lower number of false alarms and higher accuracy of threat detection at the time of baggage screening. This paper presents an algorithm to detect and extract possible explosive containers in X-Ray- CT bags images. The algorithm is composed by three main stages. The 1st one makes the threat container excels among the other objects in the bag image. The 2nd approach: Extracts the SURF features from the query and the bag images; Matches the SURF feature vectors from the two images. The bag image points (pixels), at which the best match is found, define regions of interest (RoI). Different RoI in a bag are identified by separate clusters of points. At the 3rd stage of the algorithm an enlarging active contour (AC) extracts the boundary of every RoI. The starting point of every AC is the mass center of the corresponding cluster of SURF points. The theory is validated on a number of X-ray/CT images. A qualitative comparison with contemporary methods outlines the advantages and the contribution of the present algorithm.

  13. Alternative Hospital Gift Bags and Breastfeeding Exclusivity

    PubMed Central

    Wunderlich, Shahla M.; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01). PMID:24959548

  14. Burn injuries caused by air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Noah, E M; Fuchs, P; Pallua, N

    2001-03-01

    Automobile air bags have gained acceptance as an effective measure to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with motor vehicle accidents. As more cars have become equipped with them, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the bag itself. An increasing variety of associated injuries has been reported, including minor burns. We present two automobile drivers who were involved in front-impact crashes with air bag inflation. They sustained superficial and partial-thickness burns related to the deployment. The evaluation of these cases shows mechanisms involved in burn injuries caused by the air bag system. Most of the burns are chemical and usually attributed to sodium hydroxide in the aerosol created during deployment. Also direct thermal burns from high-temperature gases or indirect injuries due to the melting of clothing, as well as friction burns from physical contact are possible. However, the inherent risks of air bag-related burns are still outweighed by the benefits of preventing potentially life-threatening injuries.

  15. Alternative hospital gift bags and breastfeeding exclusivity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01).

  16. Surface investigation and aluminum oxide estimation on test filters for the ATHENA X-IFU and WFI detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciortino, Luisa; Lo Cicero, Ugo; Magnano, Elena; Píš, Igor; Barbera, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The ATHENA mission provides the demanded capabilities to address the ESA science theme "Hot and Energetic Universe". Two complementary instruments are foreseen: the X-IFU (X-ray Integral Field Unit) and WFI (Wide Field Imager). Both the instruments require filters to avoid that the IR radiation heats the X-IFU cryogenic detector and to protect the WFI detector from UV photons. Previous experience on XMM filters recommends to employ bilayer membrane consisting of aluminum deposited on polyimide. In this work, we use the X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to quantify the native aluminum oxide thickness that affects the spectral properties of the filter. The estimation of the oxide thickness of the prototype filter for ATHENA is a considerable information for the conceptual design of the filters.

  17. Stability of odorants from pig production in sampling bags for olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Michael J; Adamsen, Anders P S; Feilberg, Anders; Jonassen, Kristoffer E N

    2011-01-01

    Odor from pig production facilities is typically measured with olfactometry, whereby odor samples are collected in sampling bags and assessed by human panelists within 30 h. In the present study, the storage stability of odorants in two types of sampling bags that are often used for olfactometry was investigated. The bags were made of Tedlar or Nalophan. In a field experiment, humid and dried air samples were collected from a pig production facility with growing-finishing pigs and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with an amperometric sulfur detector at 4, 8, 12, 28, 52, and 76 h after sampling. In a laboratory experiment, the bags were filled with a humid gas mixture containing carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, and sulfur compounds and analyzed with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry after 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of carboxylic acids, phenols, and indoles decreased by 50 to >99% during the 24 h of storage in Tedlar and Nalophan bags. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide decreased by approximately 30% during the 24 h of storage in Nalophan bags, whereas in Tedlar bags the concentration of sulfur compounds decreased by <5%. In conclusion, the concentrations of odorants in air samples from pig production facilities significantly decrease during storage in Tedlar and Nalophan bags, and the composition changes toward a higher relative presence of sulfur compounds. This can result in underestimation of odor emissions from pig production facilities and of the effect of odor reduction technologies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Blood Bag Plasticizers Influence Red Blood Cell Vesiculation Rate without Altering the Lipid Composition of the Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Bicalho, Beatriz; Serrano, Katherine; dos Santos Pereira, Alberto; Devine, Dana V.; Acker, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plasticized with di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is commonly used for blood collection and storage. DEHP has protective effects on RBC membranes, but is also a toxin. Methods A paired study was conducted to investigate the influence of DEHP and two alternative plasticizers, 1,2-cyclohexane-dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) and n-butyryl-tri-n-hexyl citrate (BTHC), on the preservation of RBCs stored for 42 days in PVC pediatric bags. The RBC membrane was evaluated for supernatant hemoglobin (Hb), release of extracellular microvesicles (EVs), osmotic fragility, deformability, and lipid composition. Results In BTHC-plasticized bags, the supernatant Hb increase during storage was 2 times greater than in DINCH- and DEHP-plasticized bags. By day 21, EV concentrations had doubled from day-5 levels in DINCH- and DEHP-, and trebled in BTHC-plasticized bags. RBC mean cell volumes were greater in BTHC- than in DINCH- or DEHP-plasticized bags (p < 0.001). Osmotic fragility differed significantly among plasticizers (p < 0.01). After day 21, RBC deformability decreased in all, but to a greater extent in the bags with BTHC. Phospholipid composition of RBCs and EVs was not different among plasticizers. Conclusion Membrane stabilization capacity differed among the plasticizers. RBC in BTHC bags stored more poorly, while DEHP and DINCH bags offered better protection against vesiculation, osmotic stress, and Hb loss. PMID:27022319

  19. Deterioration of bioplastic carrier bags in the environment and assessment of a new recycling alternative.

    PubMed

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Vicari, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Increasing environmental concerns and the introduction of technologies based on renewable resources have stimulated the replacement of persistent petroleum-derived plastics with biodegradable plastics from biopolymers. As a consequence, a variety of products are currently manufactured from bioplastic, including carrier bags. This series of studies investigated the deterioration of carrier bags made with Mater-Bi (MB), a starch-based bioplastic, in soil, compost and two aquatic ecosystems, a littoral marsh and seawater. Results from the laboratory study indicated that bioplastic carrier bags were rapidly deteriorated in soil and compost. After three months of incubation, weight loss of specimens was of 37% and 43% in soil and compost, respectively. Conversely, little deterioration was observed in specimens buried in soil under field conditions or exposed to water of a littoral marsh and of the Adriatic Sea. These findings were consistent with the greater number of bacteria and especially fungi capable of degrading MB that were recovered from soil and compost with respect to the two aquatic ecosystems. Considering that a variety of microbial isolates are capable of using MB as a source of carbon, a new alternative to recycle these MB-based carrier bags was explored. More specifically, starchy residues from bags were fermented by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae to produce up to 35 mg of lactic acid per g of bag residues.

  20. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, M S; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  1. Power Morcellation Using a Contained Bag System

    PubMed Central

    Cholkeri-Singh, Aarathi; Sasaki, Kirsten; Miller, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The well-known advantages of minimally invasive surgery make the approach well suited for hysterectomy and other gynecological procedures. The removal of specimens excised during surgery has been a challenge that has been answered by the use of power morcellation. With this study we sought to assess the feasibility of power morcellation within a specimen bag. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study including patients from a private practice in suburban Chicago, Illinois, who underwent contained electromechanical power morcellation during a laparoscopic or robot-assisted hysterectomy or myomectomy from May 2014 through December 2015. Contained power morcellation was performed with the Espiner EcoSac 230 (Espiner Medical Ltd., North Somerset, United Kingdom) specimen bag. Descriptive statistics were performed for both categorical and continuous data. Results: Of the 187 procedures performed, 73.8% were myomectomies, and 26.2% were hysterectomies. The patients' mean age was 40 (range, 25–54) years and mean body mass index was 28.7 (range, 17.3–57.6). The average specimen weight was 300 g, with the largest weighing 2134 g. Estimated blood loss averaged 98.4 mL. The postoperative admission rate was 12.3%, most of which were due to nausea and urinary retention. Seventeen patients (9.1%) had postoperative complications, most of which were minor, and 4 (2.1%) were readmitted. There were no bag failures or complications that were due to the use of the specimen bag or to power morcellation. Conclusions: Performing electromechanical power morcellation within the Espiner EcoSac 230 specimen bag was successfully performed in 187 patients with no bag-related complications. This method of contained power morcellation is feasible, reliable, and reproducible, even for a large specimen. PMID:28352146

  2. Waste product profile: Plastic film and bags

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1996-10-01

    Plastic film is recycled by being pelletized following a granulation or densifying process. Manufacturing and converting plants are the major sources of plastic film for recycling because they can supply sufficient amounts of clean raw material of a known resin type. Post-consumer collection programs are more recent. They tend to focus on businesses such as grocery stores that are large generators of plastic bags. In this case, the recycling process is more complex, requiring sorting, washing, and removal of contaminants as a first step. Curbside collection of plastic bags is rare.

  3. Production of sorption functional media (SFM) from clinoptilolite tailings and its performance investigation in a biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Qi, Jingyao; Chi, Liying; Wang, Dong; Wang, Zhaoyang; Li, Ke; Li, Xin

    2013-02-15

    The few reuse and large stockpile of zeolite tailings led to a series of social and environmental problems. This study investigated the possibility of using the zeolite tailings as one of principal raw materials to prepare sorption functional media (SFM) by a high temperature sintering process. The SFM was used to serve as a biomedium in a biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor for domestic wastewater treatment, and its purification performance was examined. The physical, chemical and sorption properties of SFM were also determined. The microstructure of the SFM was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results revealed that: (1) zeolite tailings could be used to produce the SFM under the optimal sintering parameters; (2) the sorption and desorption isotherm of ammonia nitrogen on SFM could be well described by the Langmuir formula; (3) in terms of removing organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, turbidity and colourity, the performance of the biofilter with SFM was superior to that with haydite; and (4) SFM BAF has a stronger adaptability to low temperature (6-11°C) for NH(3)-N removal compared to haydite BAF. Therefore, the SFM produced from the zeolite tailings was suitable to serve as the biomedium in the domestic wastewater treatment.

  4. Investigation of catalytic reduction and filter techniques for simultaneous measurements of NO, NO2, and HNO3 in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendt, J.; Fabian, Peter; Flentje, G.; Kourtidis, K.

    1994-01-01

    A concept for measuring stratospheric NOy-species is presented which utilizes the catalytic reduction of NO2 and HNO3 over heated metal catalysts and the chemisorption of HNO3 on Nylon. Using the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy (MPAE) chemiluminescent balloon-borne sonde, stratospheric NO and NO2 profiles have been measured since 1983. NO is detected by chemiluminescence produced in reaction with O3 while NO2 needs first to be converted to NO over a heated stainless steel catalyst. To improve this technique for simultaneously measuring HNO3, the catalytic reduction of NO2 and HNO3 over several metal catalysts and the chemisorption of NO2 and HNO3 on Nylon have been investigated in laboratory tests. The results of these tests under simulated stratospheric conditions are presented in detail in this paper. They demonstrate that the simultaneous measurement of NO, NO2 and HNO3 is indeed possible with the combination of stainless steel or Au as a catalyst and a nylon filter.

  5. Impurity Transport and Sawteeth Investigation by X-Ray Filter Method in the Madison Symmetric Torus Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatu, Ioan-Niculae; Pantea, Alexandra; Hokin, Samuel A.

    1996-11-01

    A simple multi-foil Ross-like filter X-ray spectrometer footnote S.A.Hokin, et al., 9th Topical Conf.on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics, Santa Fe, New Mexico (1992)., able to discriminate between the charge states of the impurity ions, was used for the measurement of the He-like and H-like carbon and oxygen lines evolution. The chord integrated signals, normalized respectively to their maximum values, are compared as to their shape, peak time, and decay with the results of the MIST impurity transport code footnote R.A.Hulse, Nucl. Technology/Fusion 3 (1983) 259.. The plasma current and the line averaged electron density are used as input data for the code together with a plasma parameter profile model. The comparison made simultaneously for different ions provides a better confidence in the determined value of particle diffusion coefficient and for the sawteeth electron temperature dynamics investigation in the MST RFP plasma (I.N.Bogatu, et al., in Proc. Int. School of Plasma Physics "Plasma Physics and Technology", La Jolla, August 8-18, 1995.).

  6. Production of lightweight ceramisite from iron ore tailings and its performance investigation in a biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangsheng; Du, Fang; Yuan, Li; Zeng, Hui; Kong, Sifang

    2010-06-15

    The few reuse and large stockpile of iron ore tailings (IOT) led to a series of social and environmental problems. This study investigated the possibility of using the IOT as one of starting materials to prepare lightweight ceramisite (LWC) by a high temperature sintering process. Coal fly ash (CFA) and municipal sewage sludge (SS) were introduced as additives. The LWC was used to serve as a biomedium in a biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor for municipal wastewater treatment, and its purification performance was examined. The effects of sintering parameters on physical properties of the LWC, and leaching concentrations of heavy metals from the LWC were also determined. The microstructure and the phase composition of the LWC were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results revealed that: (1) IOT could be used to produce the LWC under the optimal sintering parameters; (2) the leaching concentrations of heavy metals from the LWC were well below their respective regulatory levels in the China Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (CEQS); and (3) the BAF reactor with the LWC serving as the biomedium achieved high removal efficiencies for COD(Cr) (>92%), NH(4)(+)-N (>62%) and total phosphate (T-P) (>63%). Therefore, the LWC produced from the IOT was suitable to serve as the biomedium in the municipal wastewater treatment.

  7. Improving Web image search by bag-based reranking.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lixin; Li, Wen; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Xu, Dong

    2011-11-01

    Given a textual query in traditional text-based image retrieval (TBIR), relevant images are to be reranked using visual features after the initial text-based search. In this paper, we propose a new bag-based reranking framework for large-scale TBIR. Specifically, we first cluster relevant images using both textual and visual features. By treating each cluster as a "bag" and the images in the bag as "instances," we formulate this problem as a multi-instance (MI) learning problem. MI learning methods such as mi-SVM can be readily incorporated into our bag-based reranking framework. Observing that at least a certain portion of a positive bag is of positive instances while a negative bag might also contain positive instances, we further use a more suitable generalized MI (GMI) setting for this application. To address the ambiguities on the instance labels in the positive and negative bags under this GMI setting, we develop a new method referred to as GMI-SVM to enhance retrieval performance by propagating the labels from the bag level to the instance level. To acquire bag annotations for (G)MI learning, we propose a bag ranking method to rank all the bags according to the defined bag ranking score. The top ranked bags are used as pseudopositive training bags, while pseudonegative training bags can be obtained by randomly sampling a few irrelevant images that are not associated with the textual query. Comprehensive experiments on the challenging real-world data set NUS-WIDE demonstrate our framework with automatic bag annotation can achieve the best performances compared with existing image reranking methods. Our experiments also demonstrate that GMI-SVM can achieve better performances when using the manually labeled training bags obtained from relevance feedback.

  8. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  9. 13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), VIEW NORTH AT SOUTH END OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  10. 27. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), SOUTHWEST CORNER, DETAIL OF SEWING MACHINE MOTORS AND SWITCHES MOUNTED UNDER EAVES. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  11. 41. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING CONVEYOR SYSTEM WHICH BROUGHT PROPELLANTS FROM STORAGE MAGAZINE - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  12. 42. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING VARIOUS LOADING STATIONS ON PRODUCTION LINE. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  13. Safety and durability of low-density polyethylene bags in solar water disinfection applications.

    PubMed

    Danwittayakul, Supamas; Songngam, Supachai; Fhulua, Tipawan; Muangkasem, Panida; Sukkasi, Sittha

    2017-08-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple point-of-use process that uses sunlight to disinfect water for drinking. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are typically used as water containers for SODIS, but a new SODIS container design has recently been developed with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and can overcome the drawbacks of PET bottles. Two nesting layers of LDPE bags are used in the new design: the inner layer containing the water to be disinfected and the outer one creating air insulation to minimize heat loss from the water to the surroundings. This work investigated the degradation of LDPE bags used in the new design in actual SODIS conditions over a period of 12 weeks. The degradation of the LDPE bags was investigated weekly using a scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, and tensile strength tester. It was found that the LDPE bags gradually degraded under the sunlight due to photo-oxidation reactions, especially in the outer bags, which were directly exposed to the sun and surroundings, leading to the reduction of light transmittance (by 11% at 300 nm) and tensile strength (by 33%). In addition, possible leaching of organic compounds into the water contained in the inner bags was examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol was found in some SODIS water samples as well as the as-received water samples, in the concentration range of 1-4 μg/L, which passes the Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Guidance on Disinfection By-Products.

  14. Hoshide in sleeping bag in JEM module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-09

    S124-E-007983 (9 June 2008) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Akihiko Hoshide, STS-124 mission specialist, is pictured in his sleeping bag in Kibo Japanese Pressurized Module of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Discovery is docked with the station.

  15. Fossum in sleeping bag on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-09

    S124-E-007977 (9 June 2008) --- Astronaut Mike Fossum, STS-124 mission specialist, is pictured in his sleeping bag, which is attached to the lockers on the middeck of the Space Shuttle Discovery, while docked with the International Space Station.

  16. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  17. Bag Test Measures Leakage From Insulated Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Kent D.; Easter, Barry P.

    1994-01-01

    Test quantifies leakage of gas from pipe even though pipe covered with insulation. Involves use of helium analyzer to measure concentration of helium in impermeable bag around pipe. Test administered after standard soap-solution bubble test indicates presence and general class of leakage.

  18. Lindsey on middeck with bag of refuse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-10-29

    STS095-E-5026 (10-29-98) --- Astronaut Steven W. Lindsey, pilot, with a bag of refuse on Discovery's mid deck as the STS-95 crew members begin to settle in for a nine-day stay in Earth orbit. The photo was taken with an electronic still camera (ESC) at 11:23:04 GMT, Oct. 29.

  19. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  20. Case report: purple urine bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joaquim Palmeiro; Marcelino, Paulo; Marum, Susan; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Grilo, Ana

    2004-06-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) was first reported in 1978. PUBS is rare, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with some bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. A chain reaction begins in the gastrointestinal tract with tryptophan as described in the article.

  1. Bag Test Measures Leakage From Insulated Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Kent D.; Easter, Barry P.

    1994-01-01

    Test quantifies leakage of gas from pipe even though pipe covered with insulation. Involves use of helium analyzer to measure concentration of helium in impermeable bag around pipe. Test administered after standard soap-solution bubble test indicates presence and general class of leakage.

  2. Blue collection bag after ileal diversion.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, T A; Cass, A S

    1978-02-01

    Five children with ileal diversions have shown asymptomatic blue staining of the urine collection bags. A tryptophan derivative (indican) in the urine that oxidizes to indigo blue on exposure to air is thought to be the cause of this benign transient phenomenon.

  3. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant...

  4. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant...

  5. 29. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, ROOM 12. SEWING ROOM WHERE BAGS LOADED WITH POWDER WERE SEWN CLOSED. MOTOR FOR SEWING MACHINE LOCATED OUTSIDE OF BUILDING. CLOSED AND UNCLOSED BAGS WERE PASSED THROUGH BINS IN WALL ON EITHER SIDE. ROOM IS SHEATHED WITH GALVANIZED STEEL PAINTED GRAY. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  6. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant...

  7. Seat belt use in cars with air bags.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K

    1990-12-01

    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection.

  8. Seat belt use in cars with air bags.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K

    1990-01-01

    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection. PMID:2240346

  9. Optimizing bag-valve-mask ventilation with a new mouth-to-bag resuscitator.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Berger, Horst G; Wenzel, Volker; Stallinger, Angelika; Voelckel, Wolfgang G; Rheinberger, Klaus; Augenstein, Sven; Herff, Holger; Idris, Ahamed H; Dörges, Volker; Lindner, Karl H; Hörmann, Christoph

    2003-02-01

    When ventilating an unintubated patient with a self-inflating bag, high peak inspiratory flow rates may result in high peak airway pressure with subsequent stomach inflation; this may occur frequently when rescuers without daily experience in bag-valve-mask ventilation need to perform advanced airway management. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a newly developed self-inflating bag (mouth-to-bag resuscitator; Ambu, Glostrup, Denmark) that limits peak inspiratory flow. A bench model simulating a patient with an unintubated airway was used, consisting of a face mask, manikin head, training lung (lung compliance, 100 ml/0.098 kPa (100 ml/cm H(2)O)); airway resistance, 0.39 kPa/l per second (4 cm H(2)O/l/s), oesophagus (LESP, 1.96 kPa (20 cm H(2)O)) and simulated stomach. Twenty nurses were randomised to ventilate the manikin for 1 min (respiratory rate: 12 per minute) with either a standard self-inflating bag or the mouth-to-bag resuscitator, which requires the rescuer to blow up a single-use balloon inside the self-inflating bag, which in turns displaces air towards the patient. When supplemental oxygen is added, ventilation with up to 100% oxygen may be obtained, since expired air is only used as the driving gas. The mouth-to-bag resuscitator therefore allows two instead of one hand sealing the mask on the patient's face. The volunteers were blinded to the experimental design of the model until completion of the experimental protocol. The mouth-to-bag resuscitator versus standard self-inflating bag resulted in significantly (P<0.05) higher mean+/-S.D. mask tidal volumes (1048+/-161 vs. 785+/-174 ml) and lung tidal volumes (911+/-148 vs. 678+/-157 ml), longer inspiratory times (1.7+/-0.4 vs. 1.4+/-0.4 s), but significantly lower peak inspiratory flow rates (50+/-9 vs. 62+/-13 l/min) and mask leakage (10+/-4 vs. 15+/-9%); peak inspiratory pressure (17+/-2 vs. 17+/-2 cm H(2)O) and stomach tidal volumes (16+/-30 vs. 18+/-35 ml) were comparable. In

  10. Front air bag nondeployments in frontal crashes fatal to drivers or right-front passengers.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; McCartt, Anne T; Sherwood, Christopher P; Zuby, David S; Blanar, Laura; Scerbo, Marge

    2010-04-01

    Public concern has arisen about the reliability of front air bags because Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data indicate many nondeployed air bags in fatal frontal crashes. However, the accuracy of air bag deployment, the variable in question, is uncertain. This study aimed to provide more certain estimates of nondeployment incidence in fatal frontal crashes. Fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers and right-front passengers in frontal crashes were identified in two U.S. databases for calendar years 1998-2006 and model years 1994-2006: FARS, a census of police-reported fatal crashes on public roads, and National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS), a probability sample of tow-away crashes. NASS/CDS contains subsets of fatal crashes in FARS and collects detailed data using crash investigators. Front air bag deployment coding for front-seat occupant fatalities was compared in FARS and NASS/CDS, and case reviews were conducted. Among FARS frontal deaths with available deployment status (N = 43,169), front air bags were coded as not deployed for 18 percent of front occupants. In comparison, NASS/CDS (N = 628) reported 9 percent (weighted estimate) nondeployment among front occupants killed. Among crashes common to both databases, NASS/CDS reported deployments for 45 percent of front occupant deaths for which FARS had coded nondeployments. Detailed case reviews of NASS/CDS crashes indicated highly accurate coding for deployment status. Based on this case review, 8 percent (weighted estimate) of front occupant deaths in frontal crashes appeared to involve air bag nondeployments; 1-2 percent of front occupant deaths represented potential system failures where deployments would have been expected. Air bag deployments appeared unwarranted in most nondeployments based on crash characteristics. FARS data overstate the magnitude of the problem of air bag deployment failures; steps should be taken to improve coding. There are inherent

  11. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  12. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  13. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  14. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  15. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  16. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  17. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  18. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  19. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  20. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  1. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of paper or plastic... bag, or one or more inner liners made of plastic material or metalized film or foil. (4) Maximum net... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section...

  2. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  3. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  4. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  5. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  6. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic...

  7. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  8. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  9. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or...

  10. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  11. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  12. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  13. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  14. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  15. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  16. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel,...

  17. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel,...

  18. A novel bench-scale column assay to investigate site-specific nitrification biokinetics in biological rapid sand filters.

    PubMed

    Tatari, K; Smets, B F; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2013-10-15

    A bench-scale assay was developed to obtain site-specific nitrification biokinetic information from biological rapid sand filters employed in groundwater treatment. The experimental set-up uses granular material subsampled from a full-scale filter, packed in a column, and operated with controlled and continuous hydraulic and ammonium loading. Flowrates and flow recirculation around the column are chosen to mimic full-scale hydrodynamic conditions, and minimize axial gradients. A reference ammonium loading rate is calculated based on the average loading experienced in the active zone of the full-scale filter. Effluent concentrations of ammonium are analyzed when the bench-scale column is subject to reference loading, from which removal rates are calculated. Subsequently, removal rates above the reference loading are measured by imposing short-term loading variations. A critical loading rate corresponding to the maximum removal rate can be inferred. The assay was successfully applied to characterize biokinetic behavior from a test rapid sand filter; removal rates at reference loading matched those observed from full-scale observations, while a maximum removal capacity of 6.9 g NH4(+)-N/m(3) packed sand/h could easily be determined at 7.5 g NH4(+)-N/m(3) packed sand/h. This assay, with conditions reflecting full-scale observations, and where the biological activity is subject to minimal physical disturbance, provides a simple and fast, yet powerful tool to gain insight in nitrification kinetics in rapid sand filters.

  19. Effectiveness of the ZeroFly® storage bag fabric against stored-product insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ZeroFly® Storage Bag is a polypropylene bag (PP) which has deltamethrin incorporated in its fibers, and represents a novel approach to reducing stored-product insect pest-related postharvest losses. Fabric samples from ZeroFly bags, polypropylene (PP) bags, jute bags, malathion-treated PP bags, ...

  20. Development of a novel bag-mediated filtration system for environmental recovery of poliovirus.

    PubMed

    Fagnant, Christine Susan; Beck, Nicola Koren; Yang, Ming-Fong; Barnes, Kilala Sayisha; Boyle, David S; Meschke, John Scott

    2014-12-01

    Poliovirus (PV) is on the verge of global eradication. Due to asymptomatic shedding, eradication certification requires environmental and clinical surveillance. Current environmental surveillance methods involve collection and processing of 400-mL to 1-L grab samples by a two-phase separation method, where sample volume limits detection sensitivity. Filtration of larger sample volumes facilitates increased detection sensitivity. This study describes development of a pumpless in-field filtration system for poliovirus recovery from environmental waters. Recovery of PV types 1, 2, and 3 were compared for glass wool, ViroCap, and NanoCeram (PV1 only) filters. Seeded experiments were performed using 10(5) plaque forming units of PV inoculated into 10-L volumes of secondary effluent, surface water, or a 50:50 mixture of each at pH 7.0. Filter eluates were plated onto buffalo green monkey kidney cells for virus enumeration by plaque assay. Across all water types, recovery from glass wool filters for PV1, PV2, and PV3 averaged 17%, 28%, and 6%, respectively. Recovery from ViroCaps for PV1, PV2, and PV3 averaged 44%, 70%, and 81%, respectively. 10-L samples of moderate turbidity water were processed through ViroCap filters in less than 30 minutes using a pumpless, bag-mediated filtration system. Bag-mediated filtration offers a simple, compact, and efficient method for enhanced environmental PV surveillance.

  1. Investigating the Performance of Some Tracking Filter Schema for the Advanced Shipboard Command and Control Technology (ASCACT) Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    tracking performance of the 3CVP AR track filter is compared with: 1) an adaptive single motion model Kalman filter (ASMMKF); 2) an IMM algorithm using...probleme complexe qui continue d’attirer !’attention de nombreux chercheurs depuis plusieurs annees. On a etabli que le filtrage de Kalman de type modeles...8217’ utilise trois filtres ayant des modeles differents de v1tesses constantes (appeles ŗCVPAR") et un detecteur de manoeuvre. L’estime est choisi par le

  2. Investigation, development, and application of optimal output feedback theory. Volume 3: The relationship between dynamic compensators and observers and Kalman filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between observers, Kalman Filters and dynamic compensators using feedforward control theory are investigated. In particular, the relationship, if any, between the dynamic compensator state and linear functions of a discrete plane state are investigated. It is shown that, in steady state, a dynamic compensator driven by the plant output can be expressed as the sum of two terms. The first term is a linear combination of the plant state. The second term depends on plant and measurement noise, and the plant control. Thus, the state of the dynamic compensator can be expressed as an estimator of the first term with additive error given by the second term. Conditions under which a dynamic compensator is a Kalman filter are presented, and reduced-order optimal estimaters are investigated.

  3. Investigation of the practical aspects of an additional 0.1 mm copper x-ray spectral filter for cine acquisition mode imaging in a clinical care setting.

    PubMed

    Fetterly, Kenneth A

    2010-11-01

    Minimizing the x-ray radiation dose is an important aspect of patient safety during interventional fluoroscopy procedures. This work investigates the practical aspects of an additional 0.1 mm Cu x-ray beam spectral filter applied to cine acquisition mode imaging on patient dose and image quality. Measurements were acquired using clinical interventional imaging systems. Acquisition images of Solid Water phantoms (15-40 cm) were acquired using x-ray beams with the x-ray tube inherent filtration and using an additional 0.1 mm Cu x-ray beam spectral filter. The skin entrance air kerma (dose) rate was measured and the signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) of an iodine target embedded into the phantom was calculated to assess image quality. X-ray beam parameters were recorded and analyzed and a primary x-ray beam simulation was performed to assess additional x-ray tube burden attributable to the Cu filter. For all phantom thicknesses, the 0.1 mm Cu filter resulted in a 40% reduction in the entrance air kerma rate to the phantoms and a 9% reduction in the SDNR of the iodine phantom. The expected additional tube load required by the 0.1 mm Cu filter ranged from 11% for a 120 kVp x-ray beam to 43% for a 60 kVp beam. For these clinical systems, use of the 0.1 mm Cu filter resulted in a favorable compromise between reduced skin dose rate and image quality and increased x-ray tube burden.

  4. Electrical coupling between Aplysia bag cell neurons: characterization and role in synchronous firing.

    PubMed

    Dargaei, Zahra; Colmers, Phillip L W; Hodgson, Heather M; Magoski, Neil S

    2014-12-01

    In neuroendocrine cells, hormone release often requires a collective burst of action potentials synchronized by gap junctions. This is the case for the electrically coupled bag cell neurons in the reproductive system of the marine snail, Aplysia californica. These neuroendocrine cells are found in two clusters, and fire a synchronous burst, called the afterdischarge, resulting in neuropeptide secretion and the triggering of ovulation. However, the physiology and pharmacology of the bag cell neuron electrical synapse are not completely understood. As such, we made dual whole cell recordings from pairs of electrically coupled cultured bag cell neurons. The junctional current was nonrectifying and not influenced by postsynaptic voltage. Furthermore, junctional conductance was voltage independent and, not surprisingly, strongly correlated with coupling coefficient magnitude. The electrical synapse also acted as a low-pass filter, although under certain conditions, electrotonic potentials evoked by presynaptic action potentials could drive postsynaptic spikes. If coupled neurons were stimulated to spike simultaneously, they presented a high degree of action potential synchrony compared with not-coupled neurons. The electrical synapse failed to pass various intracellular dyes, but was permeable to Cs(+), and could be inhibited by niflumic acid, meclofenamic acid, or 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid. Finally, extracellular and sharp-electrode recording from the intact bag cell neuron cluster showed that these pharmacological uncouplers disrupted both electrical coupling and afterdischarge generation in situ. Thus electrical synapses promote bag cell neuron firing synchrony and may allow for electrotonic spread of the burst through the network, ultimately contributing to propagation of the species.

  5. An Ergonomic Assessment of Hospital Linen Bag Handling.

    PubMed

    Teeple, Erin; Dennerlein, Jack T; Hashimoto, Dean; Soto, Luis A; Losina, Elena; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2017-08-01

    The Joint Commission provides accreditation standards for staging hospital waste, but there are no federal lifting safety standards for linen bags. We evaluated hospital laundry bag lifting using the Revised National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Lifting Equation. We hypothesized that the permitted 32-gallon linen container capacity might allow filling to weights above our calculated Recommended Weight Limit (RWL) for some lifting positions and contents. We found that 30- and 40-gallon bags filled with loose dry linen had predicted weights within estimated RWLs only for lifts close to the body. Thirty- and 40-gallon bags filled more than halfway with dry compact linen had predicted weights above estimated RWLs for all lifting positions. Thirty- and 40-gallon bags filled with wet compact linen exceeded estimated RWLs for all positions when less than one-quarter full. Bag volume and filling controls may be considered to ensure linen bags are not excessively heavy.

  6. miR-BAG: bagging based identification of microRNA precursors.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashwani; Chauhan, Rohit; Mehra, Mrigaya; Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Shankar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Non-coding elements such as miRNAs play key regulatory roles in living systems. These ultra-short, ∼21 bp long, RNA molecules are derived from their hairpin precursors and usually participate in negative gene regulation by binding the target mRNAs. Discovering miRNA candidate regions across the genome has been a challenging problem. Most of the existing tools work reliably only for limited datasets. Here, we have presented a novel reliable approach, miR-BAG, developed to identify miRNA candidate regions in genomes by scanning sequences as well as by using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. miR-BAG utilizes a bootstrap aggregation based machine learning approach, successfully creating an ensemble of complementary learners to attain high accuracy while balancing sensitivity and specificity. miR-BAG was developed for wide range of species and tested extensively for performance over a wide range of experimentally validated data. Consideration of position-specific variation of triplet structural profiles and mature miRNA anchored structural profiles had a positive impact on performance. miR-BAG's performance was found consistent and the accuracy level was observed to be >90% for most of the species considered in the present study. In a detailed comparative analysis, miR-BAG performed better than six existing tools. Using miR-BAG NGS module, we identified a total of 22 novel miRNA candidate regions in cow genome in addition to a total of 42 cow specific miRNA regions. In practice, discovery of miRNA regions in a genome demands high-throughput data analysis, requiring large amount of processing. Considering this, miR-BAG has been developed in multi-threaded parallel architecture as a web server as well as a user friendly GUI standalone version.

  7. Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.

    2011-07-01

    In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

  8. Does the 'old bag' make a good 'wind bag'?: Comparison of four fabrics commonly used as exclusion bags in studies of pollination and reproductive biology.

    PubMed

    Neal, Paul R; Anderson, Gregory J

    2004-05-01

    Fabrics used in pollination bags may exclude pollen carried by biotic vectors, but have varying degrees of permeability to wind-borne pollen. The permeability of bags to wind-borne pollen may have important consequences in studies of pollination and reproductive biology. The permeability of four fabrics commonly used in the construction of pollination bags was examined. Deposition of wind-borne pollen on horizontally and vertically oriented microscope slides was assessed on slides enclosed in pollination bags, as well as on control slides. It was found that the permeability of fabrics to wind-borne pollen, as measured by deposition on both horizontally and vertically oriented slides, decreased with pore size. However, deposition on horizontal slides was always greater than on vertical slides for a given fabric; this could manifest itself as differential success of pollination of flowers in bags-dependent on flower orientation. Obviously, bags with mesh size smaller than most pollen grains are impermeable to pollen. However, material for such bags is very expensive. In addition, it was also observed that bags with even moderately small pore size, such as pores (approx. 200 microm) in twisted fibre cotton muslin, offered highly significant barriers to passage of wind-borne pollen. Such bags are sufficiently effective in most large-sample-size reproductive biology studies.

  9. The storage stability of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in polyester aluminum bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Deep, Akash; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the sorptive loss properties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in polyester aluminum bags were investigated as a function of storage duration. To this end, the relative recovery of gas phase standards of BVOCs, obtained via vaporization of liquid phase standards, was computed by calibrating their standards (response factors: RF) represnting each phase. Accordingly, the results indicated either slight loss (-5.59% (isoprene), -2.39% (camphene), -1.69% ((R)-(+)-limonene), -0.88% (p-cymene)) or gain (1.47% (γ-terpinene), 2.27% (α-terpinene), 2.63% (α-phellandrene), 2.73% ((+)-3-carene), 3.93% ((+)-β-pinene), and 5.98% ((+)-α-pinene)). Through comparison of the calibration results across storage time, the temporal stability of BVOCs was assessed. Longer BVOC storage time in polyester aluminum (PEA) bags lowered the relative recovery of BVOCs. The relative loss of BVOCs, if calculated in terms of mean bag standard RF ratios (relative to liquid standard) across elapsed time, decreased systematically: 0.99 ± 0.05 (0 h), 0.88 ± 0.06 (24 h), 0.66 ± 0.11 (72 h), and 0.62 ± 0.14 (120 h). It is thus recommended to complete the analysis of BVOC in PEA bags within 24 h of sample acquisition. As such, it is important to apply appropriate sampling approaches with a proper storage plan when measuring ambient BVOCs collected by bag sampling methods.

  10. Use of polyethylene bags in extremely low birth weight infant resuscitation for the prevention of hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Patrick D; Nankervis, Craig A; Giannone, Peter J; Cordero, Leandro

    2010-01-01

    To compare the clinical responses of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants resuscitated in polyethylene bags with ELBW infants who were resuscitated using traditional temperature control measures. Retrospective cohort investigation of 70 ELBW infants who were resuscitated using polyethylene bags (study) and 70 ELBW infants (control) resuscitated without polyethylene bags matched by birth weight, gestational age and gender. Infants in the study and control groups were comparable demographically and in obstetric risk factors. Study and control infants were similar in birth weight, gestational age and low 5-minute Apgar score. Axillary temperature on admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and at 1 hour was greater in the study group as compared with controls. The incidence of grade III-IV intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) combined was decreased in the study group as compared with controls. Other neonatal comorbidities were not different. Resuscitation of ELBW infants in polyethylene bags led to higher skin temperature on admission to the NICU and at 1 hour of life. These infants were less likely to develop grade 3-4 PVL than infants resuscitated using traditional temperature control measures. No deleterious clinical effects were observed in infants resuscitated using polyethylene bags.

  11. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  12. Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, C; Ulrichs, C; Schaarschmidt, S; Badii, B K; Addai, I K; Obeng-Ofori, D; Schöller, M

    2014-08-01

    The control of stored-product moths in bagged commodities is difficult because the developmental stages of the moths are protected by the bagging material from control measures such as the application of contact insecticides. Studies were carried out to assess the ability of Hymenopteran parasitoids to locate their hosts inside jute bags in the laboratory. The ability of different parasitoids to penetrate jute bags containing rice was investigated in a controlled climate chamber. Few Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) passed through the jute material while a high percentage of Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster), Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were able to enter the Petri-dishes. Significantly more L. distinguendus and T. elegans entered compared to H. hebetor. There was significant difference in the mean percentage parasitoids invading depending on species. Head capsules and/or thorax widths were measured in order to determine whether the opening in the jute material would be large enough for entry of the parasitoids. These morphometric data differed depending on parasitoid species and sex. The parasitoid Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) did not enter the bags, but located host larvae inside the jute bags and parasitized rice moths Corcyra cephalonica larvae by stinging through the jute material. Venturia canescens significantly reduced the number of C. cephalonica adults emerging from the bagged rice; therefore, it could be released in storage rooms containing bagged rice for biological control of C. cephalonica. The use of parasitoids to suppress stored-product insect pests in bagged commodities could become a valuable supplement to the use of synthetic pesticides.

  13. Case report: Purple urine bag syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Joaquim Palmeiro; Marcelino, Paulo; Marum, Susan; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Grilo, Ana

    2004-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) was first reported in 1978. PUBS is rare, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with some bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. A chain reaction begins in the gastrointestinal tract with tryptophan as described in the article. PMID:15153241

  14. MST Filterability Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Burket, P. R.; Duignan, M. R.

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  15. Investigation of the influence of image reconstruction filter and scan parameters on operation of automatic tube current modulation systems for different CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Sookpeng, Supawitoo; Martin, Colin J; Gentle, David J

    2015-03-01

    Variation in the user selected CT scanning parameters under automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) between hospitals has a substantial influence on the radiation doses and image quality for patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changing image reconstruction filter and scan parameter settings on tube current, dose and image quality for various CT scanners operating under ATCM. The scan parameters varied were pitch factor, rotation time, collimator configuration, kVp, image thickness and image filter convolution (FC) used for reconstruction. The Toshiba scanner varies the tube current to achieve a set target noise. Changes in the FC setting and image thickness for the first reconstruction were the major factors affecting patient dose. A two-step change in FC from smoother to sharper filters doubles the dose, but is counterbalanced by an improvement in spatial resolution. In contrast, Philips and Siemens scanners maintained tube current values similar to those for a reference image and patient, and the tube current only varied slightly for changes in individual CT scan parameters. The selection of a sharp filter increased the image noise, while use of iDose iterative reconstruction reduced the noise. Since the principles used by CT manufacturers for ATCM vary, it is important that parameters which affect patient dose and image quality for each scanner are made clear to operator to aid in optimisation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Airborne fiber concentrations during splitting open and boxing bags of asbestos.

    PubMed

    Esmen, N A; Corn, M

    1998-01-01

    Measured airborne concentrations of asbestos are often unavailable to assess different epidemiologic estimates of past personal exposure levels or concentrations near specific operations involving handling asbestos. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential use of a laboratory study in estimating exposure to asbestos in operations that ceased for many years. The asbestos transfer operations were simulated by splitting and boxing 4.5-kg paper bags of chrysotile asbestos in an enclosed chamber ventilated at 28.2 air changes per hour (ACH). Two recirculation fans achieved chamber air mixing. The airborne concentration of asbestos fibers was determined by sampling air through membrane filters at a rate of 10 l/min and by analysing fibers by phase contrast optical microscopy to determine 15-min average airborne concentrations. Samplers were located at four equidistant locations from the operation. Opening a maximum of seven bags in 15 min was associated with an asbestos-in-air concentration of less than 2 x 10(-6) fibers/m3 (f/m3) in splitting open and boxing and less than 0.85 x 10(-6) f/m3 in boxing of pre-split bags. The measured airborne asbestos concentration exhibited a linear trend with the number of bags opened per 15 min. The empirical results were utilised to model fiber concentrations for various ventilation rates. It was concluded that the distribution of the operation within the workday and the ventilation rate are the two most important variables in the determination of the estimated time-weighted average concentration. Splitting open and boxing 32 bags of asbestos over an 8-h period at a rate of 4 bags/h over an 8-h period results in a calculated time-weighted average exposure of about 1 x 10(-6) f/m3 in a work space with 20 ACH and approximately 7 x 10(-6) f/m3 in a work space with 2 ACH. Splitting open and boxing at a rate of 12 bags/h for 2 h and 45 min yielded calculated concentrations less than one-half of the above mentioned values

  17. Theoretical aspects of hybrid chiral bag models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, P. J.

    1984-09-01

    In hybrid chiral bag models (HCBM's) the quarks are the source for the pion field outside the bag. If we want to solve this model with a classical external soliton solution and quantized fermions, it is necessary to evaluate the vacuum expectation values (VEV's) of those operators that contain fermion fields and appear in the boundary conditions. When the external solution is the so-called hedgehog solution, π-->(r-->,t)=fπθ(r)r^, the relevant VEV is i16π<0 | d2s[ψ―,(τ-->.r^)γ5exp(iτ-->.r^γ5θ)ψ] | 0>=2θ16πη+C0(θ)R, where η is a cutoff parameter (η-->0). To obtain this result we have used a multiple-reflection expansion of the Green's function, while C0(θ) is evaluated numerically. We discuss the infinite contribution in the above VEV, and show that 4πC0(θ)R is precisely the derivative of the Casimir energy with respect to θ. We also discuss some solutions of the HCBM for bag radii varying from 0 to ∞.

  18. Real-time evaluation of ventilation filter-bank systems.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Ernest S; Commodore, Michael A; Hayes, Jeffrey L; Fotta, Steven A; Berardinelli, Stephen P

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated two government facility ventilation systems. One was a metropolitan government office complex with a recirculation system where outside air was the makeup air; the other was a NIOSH facility that used 100% outside air with no recirculation. The methodology employed was a modified American Society of Agricultural Engineers standard (S525) for testing total enclosure filtration efficiency, in agricultural tractor cabs, with optical particle counters (OPC). The low-efficiency bag filters were tested when new and after being in the ventilation system for 3 months. The replacement medium-efficiency filters were evaluated for 6 months (the manufacturer's suggested change-out schedule). These eight-chamber, medium-efficiency filters had an increased filter surface area that resulted in increased airflow through the system. Unfortunately, these filters contained electrostatic filter media and lost filtration efficiency rapidly, which was subsequently confirmed in a 30-day study conducted to determine an appropriate change-out schedule for the eight-chamber bag filters. The study determined that less than 6 months' use was justified due to the reduced efficiency of the electrostatic filter media. The NIOSH facility's air handler #8 (100% outside air unit) was upgraded from electrostatic bag filters, which had a suggested 9-month change-out schedule, to V Bank mechanical, wet-laid, glass fiber filters. The results of a 3-year evaluation showed that the V Bank filters had better filter efficiency after 3 years of service than the electrostatic filters had at 9 months. Both studies employed matched OPC instruments to reduce instrument-to-instrument bias. The methodology is adaptable to monitoring the total efficiency of most air filtration systems, and results can help make decisions about upgrading filter performance.

  19. Investigation on improved infrared image detail enhancement algorithm based on adaptive histogram statistical stretching and gradient filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Bangze; Zhu, Youpan; Li, Zemin; Hu, Dechao; Luo, Lin; Zhao, Deli; Huang, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Duo to infrared image with low contrast, big noise and unclear visual effect, target is very difficult to observed and identified. This paper presents an improved infrared image detail enhancement algorithm based on adaptive histogram statistical stretching and gradient filtering (AHSS-GF). Based on the fact that the human eyes are very sensitive to the edges and lines, the author proposed to extract the details and textures by using the gradient filtering. New histogram could be acquired by calculating the sum of original histogram based on fixed window. With the minimum value for cut-off point, author carried on histogram statistical stretching. After the proper weights given to the details and background, the detail-enhanced results could be acquired finally. The results indicate image contrast could be improved and the details and textures could be enhanced effectively as well.

  20. Investigation of Total and Hexavalent Chromium in Filtered and Unfiltered Groundwater Samples at the Tucson International Airport Superfund Site.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Fred D; McCleskey, R Blaine; Hermosillo, Edyth

    2016-10-01

    Potential health effects from hexavalent chromium in groundwater have recently become a concern to regulators at the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund site. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 46 wells in the area to characterize the nature and extent of chromium in groundwater, to understand what proportion of total chromium is in the hexavalent state, and to determine if substantial differences are present between filtered and unfiltered chromium concentrations. Results indicate detectable chromium concentrations in all wells, over 75 % of total chromium is in the hexavalent state in a majority of wells, and filtered and unfiltered results differ substantially in only a few high-turbidity total chromium samples.

  1. Investigation of total and hexavalent chromium in filtered and unfiltered groundwater samples at the Tucson International Airport Superfund Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hermosillo, Edyth

    2016-01-01

    Potential health effects from hexavalent chromium in groundwater have recently become a concern to regulators at the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund site. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 46 wells in the area to characterize the nature and extent of chromium in groundwater, to understand what proportion of total chromium is in the hexavalent state, and to determine if substantial differences are present between filtered and unfiltered chromium concentrations. Results indicate detectable chromium concentrations in all wells, over 75 % of total chromium is in the hexavalent state in a majority of wells, and filtered and unfiltered results differ substantially in only a few high-turbidity total chromium samples.

  2. Investigation of filter types, extraction solvents and storage conditions used for PAH measurement in diesel exhaust. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.P.; Murdock, D.J.; Shulman, S.

    1983-01-01

    A device capable of collecting simultaneously eight equivalent particulate diesel exhaust samples was constructed to test the effect of filter type, extraction solvent and storage condition on the measured concentration of five PAH compounds in diesel exhaust: fluoranthene (Ft), pyrene (Py), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo (k)fluoranthene (BkFT), and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). An experimental design was used to most efficiently test the variables. A linear model was used to analyze the data. Three main conclusions resulted from the study: 1) Filter type was found to be a significant variable in the determination of BaA, BkFt, and BaP, but not for any of the other compounds. 2) Extraction solvent was the most significant variable for all of the compounds, with dichloromethane providing higher extraction efficiencies than acetonitrile and cyclohexane. 3) Storage condition (storage in glass tubes or storage in the filter cassette) was found to be significant for BaA, BkFT, and BaP; however, the effect was not consistent for all of the compounds. An overall estimate of the precision of the sampling and analytical technique was also estimated from the data. Significance of the data for sampling and analyzing PAH compounds in diesel exhaust is given. 14 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Filter arrays

    DOEpatents

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  4. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators. PMID:26893969

  5. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as "portable armour" against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators' mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  6. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  7. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  8. Two-zone pupil filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Campos, Juan; Escalera, Juan C.; Ledesma, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    The performance of pupil filters consisting of two zones each of constant complex amplitude transmittance is investigated. For filters where the transmittance is real, different classes of potentially useful filter are identified and optimized. These include leaky filters with an inner zone of low amplitude transmittance, pure phase filters with phase change of π, and equal area filters. The first of these minimizes the relative power in the outer rings for a given axial resolution, the second maximizes the Strehl ratio for a given transverse resolution, and the third minimizes the relative power in the outer rings for a given transverse resolution. Complex filters can give an axially shifted maximum in intensity: the performance parameters calculated relative to the true focus are investigated for some different classes of filter, but filters with phase change not equal to π are found to give inferior performance to the real value filters.

  9. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  10. miR-BAG: Bagging Based Identification of MicroRNA Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Shankar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Non-coding elements such as miRNAs play key regulatory roles in living systems. These ultra-short, ∼21 bp long, RNA molecules are derived from their hairpin precursors and usually participate in negative gene regulation by binding the target mRNAs. Discovering miRNA candidate regions across the genome has been a challenging problem. Most of the existing tools work reliably only for limited datasets. Here, we have presented a novel reliable approach, miR-BAG, developed to identify miRNA candidate regions in genomes by scanning sequences as well as by using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. miR-BAG utilizes a bootstrap aggregation based machine learning approach, successfully creating an ensemble of complementary learners to attain high accuracy while balancing sensitivity and specificity. miR-BAG was developed for wide range of species and tested extensively for performance over a wide range of experimentally validated data. Consideration of position-specific variation of triplet structural profiles and mature miRNA anchored structural profiles had a positive impact on performance. miR-BAG’s performance was found consistent and the accuracy level was observed to be >90% for most of the species considered in the present study. In a detailed comparative analysis, miR-BAG performed better than six existing tools. Using miR-BAG NGS module, we identified a total of 22 novel miRNA candidate regions in cow genome in addition to a total of 42 cow specific miRNA regions. In practice, discovery of miRNA regions in a genome demands high-throughput data analysis, requiring large amount of processing. Considering this, miR-BAG has been developed in multi-threaded parallel architecture as a web server as well as a user friendly GUI standalone version. PMID:23049860

  11. Hamiltonian fluid closures of the Vlasov-Ampère equations: From water-bags to N moment models

    SciTech Connect

    Perin, M.; Chandre, C.; Tassi, E.; Morrison, P. J.

    2015-09-15

    Moment closures of the Vlasov-Ampère system, whereby higher moments are represented as functions of lower moments with the constraint that the resulting fluid system remains Hamiltonian, are investigated by using water-bag theory. The link between the water-bag formalism and fluid models that involve density, fluid velocity, pressure and higher moments is established by introducing suitable thermodynamic variables. The cases of one, two, and three water-bags are treated and their Hamiltonian structures are provided. In each case, we give the associated fluid closures and we discuss their Casimir invariants. We show how the method can be extended to an arbitrary number of fields, i.e., an arbitrary number of water-bags and associated moments. The thermodynamic interpretation of the resulting models is discussed. Finally, a general procedure to derive Hamiltonian N-field fluid models is proposed.

  12. ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY RELATED TO PARTICLES AND NUCLEI: Properties of hybrid stars in an extended MIT bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Tmurbagan; Liu, Guang-Zhou; Zhu, Ming-Feng

    2009-05-01

    The properties of hybrid stars are investigated in the framework of the relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) and an MIT bag model with density-dependent bag constant to describe the hadron phase (HP) and quark phase (QP), respectively. We find that the density-dependent B(ρ) decreases with baryon density ρ this decrement makes the strange quark matter become more energetically favorable than ever, which makes the threshold densities of the hadron-quark phase transition lower than those of the original bag constant case. In this case, the hyperon degrees of freedom can not be considered. As a result, the equations of state of a star in the mixed phase (MP) become softer whereas those in the QP become stiffer, and the radii of the star obviously decrease. This indicates that the extended MIT bag model is more suitable to describe hybrid stars with small radii.

  13. Improvement of the Bag-Mediated Filtration System for Sampling Wastewater and Wastewater-Impacted Waters.

    PubMed

    Fagnant, Christine Susan; Sánchez-Gonzalez, Liliana Margarita; Zhou, Nicolette A; Falman, Jill Christin; Eisenstein, Michael; Guelig, Dylan; Ockerman, Byron; Guan, Yifei; Kossik, Alexandra Lynn; Linden, Yarrow S; Beck, Nicola Koren; Wilmouth, Robyn; Komen, Evans; Mwangi, Benlick; Nyangao, James; Shirai, Jeffry H; Novosselov, Igor; Borus, Peter; Boyle, David S; Meschke, John Scott

    2017-07-03

    Environmental surveillance of poliovirus (PV) plays an important role in the global program for eradication of wild PV. The bag-mediated filtration system (BMFS) was first developed in 2014 and enhances PV surveillance when compared to the two-phase grab method currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this study, the BMFS design was improved and tested for its usability in wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface waters in Nairobi, Kenya. Modifications made to the BMFS included the size, color, and shape of the collection bags, the filter housing used, and the device used to elute the samples from the filters. The modified BMFS concentrated 3-10 L down to 10 mL, which resulted in an effective volume assayed (900-3000 mL) that was 6-20 times greater than the effective volume assayed for samples processed by the WHO algorithm (150 mL). The system developed allows for sampling and in-field virus concentration, followed by transportation of the filter for further analysis with simpler logistics than the current methods. This may ultimately reduce the likelihood of false-negative samples by increasing the effective volume assayed compared to samples processed by the WHO algorithm, making the BMFS a valuable sampling system for wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface waters.

  14. On the MIT Bag Model in the Non-relativistic Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrizabalaga, N.; Le Treust, L.; Raymond, N.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is devoted to the spectral investigation of the MIT bag model, that is, the Dirac operator on a smooth and bounded domain of R^3 with certain boundary conditions. When the mass m goes to {±∞}, we provide spectral asymptotic results.

  15. Effect of fabrication tolerances on the performance of two-dimensional polymer photonic crystal channel drop filters: a theoretical investigation based on the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Olio, Francesco; Ciminelli, Caterina; Conteduca, Donato; Armenise, Mario Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Guidelines for the design and fabrication of polymer photonic crystal channel drop filters for coarse wavelength division multiplexing are provided. A Fabry-Perot cavity consisting of a membrane-type slab photonic crystal, where a hole row perpendicular to the propagation direction is removed, is considered. We selected nanoimprinting as the manufacturing technique. The influence on the cavity performance of several key parameters, i.e., polymer core material, lattice geometry, defect length, and holes' radius, has been investigated in a device compliant with the requirement of the ITU-T G.694.2 standard. A detailed analysis of the fabrication tolerances has been carried out at 1551 nm. The maximum acceptable drift of the geometrical parameters has been accurately evaluated by using the finite element method to prove that the fabrication tolerances do not significantly affect the performance of polymer filters for coarse wavelength division multiplexing, when manufactured by thermal nanoimprinting lithography.

  16. Assessment of Sterility in Fluid Bags Maintained for Chronic Use

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Kristin A; Taylor, Douglas K

    2011-01-01

    Fluid therapy is an integral component of standard supportive care in veterinary medicine and is often given subcutaneously for ease of administration. Multiple animals may be treated by using the same bag. These bags often are used repeatedly until they are empty or until a time specified by an IACUC or similar advisory group. This practice introduces the risk of contamination. Here we assessed the sterility of multiple-use fluid bags in the laboratory setting for a maximum of 60 d. Bags were manipulated to mimic infrequent and frequent use. Bacterial cultures of fluid and bag wall and assays for endotoxin and ATP activity were negative at all time points through 30 d. Two fluid samples yielded bacterial growth at 60 d, although all other tests were negative. These results suggest that fluid bags used chronically can be maintained in a sterile condition for a maximum of 30 d. PMID:22330719

  17. 40 CFR 63.1184 - What do I need to know about the design specifications, installation, and operation of a bag leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Additional Monitoring... less. (b) The sensor on the bag leak detection system must provide output of relative PM emissions. (c... where appropriate plant personnel will be able to hear it. (e) For a positive-pressure fabric filter...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1184 - What do I need to know about the design specifications, installation, and operation of a bag leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Additional Monitoring... less. (b) The sensor on the bag leak detection system must provide output of relative PM emissions. (c... where appropriate plant personnel will be able to hear it. (e) For a positive-pressure fabric filter...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1184 - What do I need to know about the design specifications, installation, and operation of a bag leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Additional Monitoring... less. (b) The sensor on the bag leak detection system must provide output of relative PM emissions. (c... where appropriate plant personnel will be able to hear it. (e) For a positive-pressure fabric filter...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1184 - What do I need to know about the design specifications, installation, and operation of a bag leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Additional Monitoring... less. (b) The sensor on the bag leak detection system must provide output of relative PM emissions. (c... where appropriate plant personnel will be able to hear it. (e) For a positive-pressure fabric filter...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1184 - What do I need to know about the design specifications, installation, and operation of a bag leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Additional Monitoring... less. (b) The sensor on the bag leak detection system must provide output of relative PM emissions. (c... where appropriate plant personnel will be able to hear it. (e) For a positive-pressure fabric filter...

  2. Improving neonatal unit admission temperatures in preterm babies: exothermic mattresses, polythene bags or a traditional approach?

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Duckett, J; Newton, T; Watkinson, M

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether exothermic sodium acetate mattresses were associated with an improvement in the thermal care of babies <30 weeks gestation between birth and admission to a neonatal unit. Analysis of a three case series of babies: the first with traditional thermal care of drying and wrapping in a towel, the second with wrapping in food standard polythene bags and the third with wrapping in polythene bags and nursing on an activated exothermic mattress. The main outcome measure was the temperature on admission to the neonatal unit. There were no significant differences between the groups for gestation and birth weight. Hypothermia was less frequent in the 'bag and mattress' group compared with the 'bag only' and traditional care groups (26 vs 69 vs 84%, respectively) even though the median time to admission was longest in the 'bag and mattress' group (23 min). The proportions of babies admitted with temperatures in the target range of 36.5 to 37.5 degrees C were 46, 27 and 16%, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that use of the mattress raised admission temperatures by 1.04 degrees C. The median temperature of babies in the 'bag and mattress' group was higher compared with the other groups (36.9 vs 36.0 vs 35.8 degrees C), but significantly more were hyperthermic (28 vs 4 and 0.4%, respectively). Use of exothermic mattresses for babies <30 weeks gestation was associated with a significantly greater proportion of babies being admitted to the neonatal unit with a temperature in the euthermic range, but there was also an increased risk of hyperthermia.

  3. Reducing single-use plastic shopping bags in the USA.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Travis P

    2017-09-18

    In the USA, local governments have the primary responsibility to manage MSW. However, local governments lack the authority to explicitly shift costs or responsibility back onto the producer for specific problem wastes. A particularly problematic waste for local governments is the single-use plastic bag. In 2014, in the USA, 103.465 billion single-use plastic shopping bags were consumed. Because of their extremely low recyclability rate, plastic bags remain a significant source of land-based litter and marine debris and impair stormwater management systems. They also reduce the effectiveness of automated recycling systems. In response, local governments increasingly have adopted a variety of measures specifically intended to reduce the store-level consumption of single-use shopping bags in 5 major categories: bans, imposition of fees and taxes, establishing minimum product design of bags, requiring consumer education, and mandating retailer take-back programs. As of September 2017, there were 271 local governments in the USA with plastic bag ordinances covering 9.7% of the nation's population. The majority (95%) of the ordinances is a ban on single-use plastic bags; 56.9% of these bans also include a mandatory fee on paper and/or reusable bags. For the fee-based ordinances, the mode is $0.10 per bag; every tax/fee ordinance allows retailers to retain some or all the collected fee. As local governments continue to increase their actions on plastic bags, 11 states have enacted laws to prohibit local governments from regulating single-use plastic bags. Because of the success with single-use bags, local governments are also enacting similar ordinances on single-use expanded polystyrene consumer products and other single-use plastic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of pleat geometry on filter cleaning in PTFE/glass composite filter.

    PubMed

    Park, Byung Hyun; Lee, Myong-Hwa; Jo, Young Min; Kim, Sang Bum

    2012-11-01

    A pleated filter bag is often used to treat exhaust gas in many industrial applications, due to its fairly high dust collection efficiency and relatively low pressure drop. This work deals with the optimum pleating geometries of a pleated filter made with a newly developed PTFE/glass composite filter. It was found that pleating geometries, including pleat height and pleat pitch, directly affect the cleaning efficiency The design index, alpha, which stands for the ratio of pleat height to pleat pitch, is 1.48 for optimum operation. When the alpha value was higher than 1.48, the pressure drop across the pleated filter medium increased, resulting in a decreased cleaning interval due to the difficulty of filter cleaning. Therefore, it is necessary that the optimum pleating geometry should be determined by employing the dimensionless parameter, alpha, in the design of cartridge filters.

  5. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  6. Drugs for the doctor's bag: 2-children.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    In May 2015, DTB published Drugs for the doctor's bag: 1-adults,(1) recognising the fact that there is still a need for some GPs to carry a range of medicines for use in acute situations when on home visits. What to include in the GP's bag is determined by the medical conditions likely to be met; medicines the GP is confident and competent to use; storage requirements and shelf-lives of drugs; ambulance paramedic cover and the proximity of the nearest hospital. Here we suggest medicines that a GP might want to have available for use in an emergency or for the acute treatment of children and adolescents, updating our previous advice(2) and where appropriate we have included the underlying guideline recommendations for their use. The intention is not to imply that every doctor should carry every drug mentioned. Instead, we aim to highlight some of the key treatments and suggest choices in some of the more common clinical scenarios that GPs may have to deal with in everyday practice, which may be prior to referral to secondary care. Each section ends with a list of drug recommendations for the doctor's bag; drugs may be referred to in several sections but are only listed in one section to avoid repetition. The article does not provide recommendations for drugs to be stocked for use in routine clinical practice in the surgery (e.g. for minor surgery) or for drugs to be held by out-of-hours primary care services.(3) Unless otherwise stated, the doses given are from the British National Formulary for children (BNFc).(4). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. First-principles investigation on solar radiation shielding performance of rutile VO2 filters for smart windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lihua; Su, Yuchang; Qiu, Wei; Ran, Jingyu; Liu, Yike; Wu, Jianming; Lu, Fanghai; Shao, Fang; Peng, Ping

    2016-11-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) undergoing reversible metal-insulator phase transition could allow for the formation of an efficient thermochromic material for smart windows. However, solar radiation shielding performance is determined by transparent rutile VO2 filters, and the puzzling metal-insulator transition mechanism makes it challenging to explain the origin of the coexistence of strong near infrared absorption with high optical transparency. The band structure, the density of states, and the optical properties of rutile VO2 were calculated using the first-principles calculations. The calculated results of the structural and optical properties are in good agreement with the previously reported experimental findings. The calculated dielectric functions, electron energy-loss function and solar radiation shielding performance of the rutile VO2 filters indicate that rutile VO2 is a promising near-infrared absorption/reflectance material with the near-infrared radiation insulating abilities and a visible light transmittance. These properties arise from plasma oscillation and a collective oscillation (volume plasmons) of carrier electrons.

  8. Preparation for Bagging OA-7 CYGNUS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-21

    In the Space Station Processing Facility high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, technicians are preparing Orbital ATK's CYGNUS pressurized cargo module for bagging. The Orbital ATK CRS-7 commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station is scheduled to launch atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on March 19, 2017. CYGNUS will deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials to the space station.

  9. Experiences of leg bag users and emerging design priorities.

    PubMed

    Moody, Louise; McCarthy, Avril

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore participants' experiences of urinary incontinence and leg bag use in order to identify priorities for product redesign. Twenty-nine leg bag users and 5 carers and healthcare professionals participated in the study. They were recruited through a UK hospital Trust and a UK-wide charity for people with bladder and bowel control problems. The study employed a descriptive design with qualitative and quantitative elements to determine current experiences with urinary drainage leg bags and identify potential ways to improve their design. Data collection occurred during semistructured face-to-face and telephone semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis revealed that leg bag design and performance influenced users' relationships, confidence, and ability to socialize. The most significant issues related to leg bag use were reliable functioning without leakage, secure positioning, and discretion when worn under clothing. All participants reported having experienced significant urine leakage due to usability issues with the leg bags. Respondents identified a number of design issues with current leg bags that need to be addressed to improve the ease of use and overall experience when using leg bags for containing urinary output. The findings have been used to define design requirements for further development of leg bags and their component parts.

  10. Application of bag sampling technique for particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, M; Johnson, G R; Morawska, L

    2009-11-01

    Bag sampling techniques can be used to temporarily store the aerosol and therefore provide sufficient time to utilize sensitive but slow instrumental techniques for recording detailed particle size distributions. Laboratory based assessment of the method was conducted to examine size dependant deposition loss coefficients for aerosols held in Velostat bags conforming to a horizontal cylindrical geometry. Deposition losses of NaCl particles in the range of 10 nm to 160 nm were analysed in relation to the bag size, storage time, and sampling flow rate. Results of this study suggest that the bag sampling method is most useful for moderately short sampling periods of about 5 minutes.

  11. Mobile bag starch prececal disappearance and postprandial glycemic response of four forms of barley in horses.

    PubMed

    Philippeau, C; Varloud, M; Julliand, V

    2014-05-01

    To determine prececal starch digestibili-ty and estimate glucose uptake from the digestion of 4 forms of barley in the small intestine, 4 mature cecally fistulated geldings (449 ± 41 kg BW) fed a 62:38 (wt/wt) meadow hay:concentrate diet at 1.7 kg DM/100 kg BW were included in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. During each period, horses received 80% DM of their concentrate as 1 of the 4 forms of a same batch of barley, whole grain, 2.5 mm ground, steam flaked, and pelleted. Hay was offered in 2 equal meals and concentrate in 2 unequal meals. The starch supply in the morning meal amounted 2.7 g starch/kg BW. At each period, mobile bag DM and starch disappearance was determined. Except for ground barley, each form of barley was 4 mm ground before being introduced in the bag. Nylon bags containing each substrate were intubated in the horse receiving the pelleted barley. Bags were collected in the cecum for 10 h postintubation. At each period, postprandial glycemia was measured on blood samples collected on the 4 horses via an indwelling jugular catheter just before the concentrate morning meal and for 8 h. No hay in the morning meal was given the day of the measurements. Whole blood glucose was analyzed with a portable blood glucose meter. Mobile bag prececal DM disappearance and starch disappearance depended (P < 0.01) on barley form. Prececal starch disappearance of whole barley was the lowest but no difference (P > 0.05) was detected among the 3 processed grains. No significant effect of barley form was found whatever the glycemic parameters. No significant correlation was reported between glycemic parameters and the amount of prececal mobile bag disappeared starch calculated as the starch intake in the morning meal by the mobile bag starch disappearance. To conclude, the whole form of barley exhibited the lowest prececal mobile bag starch disappearance whereas, in relationship with large individual variations, no significant variation has been shown in

  12. Culture bag systems for clinical applications of adult human neural crest-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Facing the challenging treatment of neurodegenerative diseases as well as complex craniofacial injuries such as those common after cancer therapy, the field of regenerative medicine increasingly relies on stem cell transplantation strategies. Here, neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) offer many promising applications, although scale up of clinical-grade processes prior to potential transplantations is currently limiting. In this study, we aimed to establish a clinical-grade, cost-reducing cultivation system for NCSCs isolated from the adult human nose using cGMP-grade Afc-FEP bags. Methods We cultivated human neural crest-derived stem cells from inferior turbinate (ITSCs) in a cell culture bag system using Afc-FEP bags in human blood plasma-supplemented medium. Investigations of viability, proliferation and expression profile of bag-cultured ITSCs were followed by DNA-content and telomerase activity determination. Cultivated ITSCs were introduced to directed in vitro differentiation assays to assess their potential for mesodermal and ectodermal differentiation. Mesodermal differentiation was determined using an enzyme activity assay (alkaline phosphatase, ALP), respective stainings (Alizarin Red S, Von Kossa and Oil Red O), and RT-PCR, while immunocytochemistry and synaptic vesicle recycling were applied to assay neuroectodermal differentiation of ITSCs. Results When cultivated within Afc-FEP bags, ITSCs grew three-dimensionally in a human blood plasma-derived matrix, thereby showing unchanged morphology, proliferation capability, viability and expression profile in comparison to three dimensionally-cultured ITSCs growing in standard cell culture plastics. Genetic stability of bag-cultured ITSCs was further accompanied by unchanged telomerase activity. Importantly, ITSCs retained their potential to differentiate into mesodermal cell types, particularly including ALP-active, Alizarin Red S-, and Von Kossa-positive osteogenic cell types, as well as

  13. Seismotectonic Investigation of Biga Peninsula in SW Marmara Region Using Steerable Filter Technique, Potential Field Data and Recent Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görgün, Ethem; Albora, A. Muhittin

    2017-07-01

    We examine seismotectonic setting of Biga Peninsula in western Anatolia (Çanakkale region) using the steerable filter technique and recent seismicity. One of the most important issues in geophysics is to observe borders or margins of tectonic/geologic discontinues. For this purpose, we apply this filter technique to gravity anomaly map of Biga Peninsula. We observe undetected/buried faults in Biga Peninsula using the steerable technique where they have never been seen in the geological maps before. These buried faults comply with recent seismicity for this region. Focal mechanisms of past earthquakes (M ≥ 3.5) are in good agreement with fault orientations. This observation shows that we have to take into account these fault locations and consider for preparing future seismic hazard maps. The geometry of fault segments reveals mostly strike-slip faulting regime with NE-SW trending direction of T-axis in the entire study region. According to high-resolution hypocenter relocation of the Biga earthquake sequences in the observation period between 5 January 2005 and 14 November 2015 extends from N to S direction. The stress tensor inversion results indicate a predominant normal stress regime with a NW-SE oriented maximum horizontal compressive stress (S H). According to strong discrepancy of density in the Biga Peninsula is characterized by numerous small segmented secondary faults. These buried or undetected fault locations indicate that these segments are large enough to increase earthquake stress failure towards NW-SE and N-S directions, respectively. Seismotectonic setting of Biga Peninsula is divided into sub-regions by NE-SW trending secondary faults with normal and major strike-slip components. This output is verified by steerable filter and local/regional seismotectonic analysis. We propose a new seismotectonic model for Biga Peninsula and update the orientation of active fault segments. According to our model, North Anatolian Fault Zone cross-cuts the

  14. Organic UV filters inhibit multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) activity in Tetrahymena thermophila: investigations by the Rhodamine 123 accumulation assay and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Yuan, Tao; Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Chuanqi; Ao, Junjie; Wang, Wenhua; Zhang, Haimou

    2016-09-01

    Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) transporters, which belong to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family proteins, are present in living organisms as a first line of defense system against xenobiotics and environmental contaminants. The effects of six organic UV filters (4-methyl -benzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; benzophenone-3, BP-3; butyl methoxydibenzoyl-methane, BM-DBM; ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate, EHMC; octocrylene, OC and homosalate, HMS) on multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) in Tetrahymena thermophila were investigated in this study. It was found that 4-MBC, BP-3 and BM-DBM could significantly inhibit activity of the MXR system, causing concentration dependent accumulation of rhodamine 123; while EHMC, OC and HMS had weak MXR inhibition. The IC50 (50 % inhibition concentration) values of 4-MBC, BP-3 and BM-DBM were 23.54, 40.59 and 26.37 μM, respectively, with inhibitory potentials of 23.1, 13.4 and 20.6 % relative to verapamil (VER, a model inhibitor of P-glycoprotein). Our results firstly provide the evidence for UV filters inhibition effect on MXR in aquatic organisms. In addition, it was revealed by molecular docking analysis that the selected six UV filters can occupy the same binding site on T. thermophila P-gp as VER does; and form H-bonds with residues Ser 328 and/or Asn 281. This study raises the awareness of aquatic ecological risk from the organic UV filters exposure, as they would be involved in potentiating toxic effects by chemosensitizing.

  15. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Filter validation.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Russell E

    2006-01-01

    Validation of a sterilizing filtration process is critical since it is impossible with currently available technology to measure the sterility of each filled container; therefore, sterility assurance of the filtered product must be achieved through validation of the filtration process. Validating a pharmaceutical sterile filtration process involves three things: determining the effect of the liquid on the filter, determining the effect of the filter on the liquid, and demonstrating that the filter removes all microorganisms from the liquid under actual processing conditions.

  18. Metallic Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Filtration technology originated in a mid 1960's NASA study. The results were distributed to the filter industry, an HR Textron responded, using the study as a departure for the development of 421 Filter Media. The HR system is composed of ultrafine steel fibers metallurgically bonded and compressed so that the pore structure is locked in place. The filters are used to filter polyesters, plastics, to remove hydrocarbon streams, etc. Several major companies use the product in chemical applications, pollution control, etc.

  19. Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with Canted Multiple Air Bag Load Alleviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Investigation of the Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle Having a Canted Multiple Air Bag Load Alleviation System. An investigation was made to determine the landing-impact characteristics of a reentry vehicle having a multiple-air-bag load-alleviation system. A 1/16-scale dynamic model having four canted air bags was tested at flight-path angles of 90 degrees (vertical), 45 degrees, and 27 degrees for a parachute or paraglider vertical letdown velocity of 30 feet per second (full scale). Landings were made on concrete at attitudes ranging from -l5 degrees to 20 degrees. The friction coefficient between the model heat shield and the concrete was approximately 0.4. An aluminum diaphragm, designed to rupture at 10.8 pounds per square inch gage, was used to maintain initial pressure in the air bags for a short time period. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030986. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  20. Cultivation of shear stress sensitive microorganisms in disposable bag reactor systems.

    PubMed

    Jonczyk, Patrick; Takenberg, Meike; Hartwig, Steffen; Beutel, Sascha; Berger, Ralf G; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-09-20

    Technical scale (≥5l) cultivations of shear stress sensitive microorganisms are often difficult to perform, as common bioreactors are usually designed to maximize the oxygen input into the culture medium. This is achieved by mechanical stirrers, causing high shear stress. Examples for shear stress sensitive microorganisms, for which no specific cultivation systems exist, are many anaerobic bacteria and fungi, such as basidiomycetes. In this work a disposable bag bioreactor developed for cultivation of mammalian cells was investigated to evaluate its potential to cultivate shear stress sensitive anaerobic Eubacterium ramulus and shear stress sensitive basidiomycetes Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus sapidus. All cultivations were compared with conventional stainless steel stirred tank reactors (STR) cultivations. Good growth of all investigated microorganisms cultivated in the bag reactor was found. E. ramulus showed growth rates of μ=0.56 h⁻¹ (bag) and μ=0.53 h⁻¹ (STR). Differences concerning morphology, enzymatic activities and growth in fungal cultivations were observed. In the bag reactor growth in form of small, independent pellets was observed while STR cultivations showed intense aggregation. F. velutipes reached higher biomass concentrations (21.2 g l⁻¹ DCW vs. 16.8 g l⁻¹ DCW) and up to 2-fold higher peptidolytic activities in comparison to cell cultivation in stirred tank reactors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Number size distribution, mass concentration, and particle composition of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 in bag filling areas of carbon black production.

    PubMed

    Kuhlbusch, T A J; Neumann, S; Fissan, H

    2004-10-01

    Number size characteristics and PM10 mass concentrations of particles emitted during the packaging of various kinds of carbon blacks were measured continuously in the bag filling areas of three carbon black plants and concurrently at ambient comparison sites. PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 dust fractions were also determined in the bag filling areas. The filter samples were then analyzed for elemental and organic carbon. Comparisons of the measured number size distributions and mass concentrations during bag filling activities with those measured parallel at the ambient site and with those determined during nonworking periods in the work area enabled the characterization of emitted particles. PM10 mass concentrations were consistently elevated (up to a factor of 20 compared to ambient concentrations) during working periods in the bag filling area. Detailed analysis revealed that the carbon black particles released by bag filling activities had a size distribution starting at approximately 400 nm aerodynamic diameter (dae) with modes around 1 microm dae and > 8 microm dae. Ultrafine particles (< 100 nm dae), detected in the bag filling areas, were most likely attributed to noncarbon black sources such as forklift and gas heater emissions.

  2. Automobile air bags: friend or foe? A case of air bag-associated ocular trauma and a related literature review.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Kristin S; Fanciullo, Lisa M

    2005-07-01

    Although air bags are placed in automobiles to act as safety devices, they have been shown to carry a risk of injury themselves. Ocular injury, in particular, can often be a direct consequence of air bag deployment. A case of ocular air bag injury is presented. A discussion and review of the current literature on this issue follows. A 63-year-old man was transferred to our clinic after sustaining injuries related to a motor vehicle accident, during which the automobile's air bag was deployed. Initial examination revealed many signs of blunt ocular trauma of the O.D., including iridodialysis, dislocated lens with traumatic cataract, and traumatic/inflammatory glaucoma. Initial B-scan showed an attached retina O.D. One month later, the patient underwent an attempted pars plana vitrectomy with lensectomy, iris repair, and insertion of an anterior chamber intraocular lens. Complications arose during the procedure, and a total retinal detachment developed. Resultant acuity is no light perception O.D. Although ocular morbidity can be a direct consequence of air bag deployment, most eye injuries are minimal, and seem to be outweighed by the benefits of air bags. Drivers, as well as passengers, can minimize associated injuries by adhering to specific safety guidelines. This, as well as continual modification and improvement in air bag design, will maximize the safety of air bags and decrease the incidence of vision-threatening ocular injury caused by air bag deployment.

  3. Euclidean Distances as measures of speaker similarity including identical twin pairs: A forensic investigation using source and filter voice characteristics.

    PubMed

    San Segundo, Eugenia; Tsanas, Athanasios; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that hybrid approaches are necessary for successful speaker characterization in Forensic Speaker Comparison (FSC); hence this study explores the forensic potential of voice features combining source and filter characteristics. The former relate to the action of the vocal folds while the latter reflect the geometry of the speaker's vocal tract. This set of features have been extracted from pause fillers, which are long enough for robust feature estimation while spontaneous enough to be extracted from voice samples in real forensic casework. Speaker similarity was measured using standardized Euclidean Distances (ED) between pairs of speakers: 54 different-speaker (DS) comparisons, 54 same-speaker (SS) comparisons and 12 comparisons between monozygotic twins (MZ). Results revealed that the differences between DS and SS comparisons were significant in both high quality and telephone-filtered recordings, with no false rejections and limited false acceptances; this finding suggests that this set of voice features is highly speaker-dependent and therefore forensically useful. Mean ED for MZ pairs lies between the average ED for SS comparisons and DS comparisons, as expected according to the literature on twin voices. Specific cases of MZ speakers with very high ED (i.e. strong dissimilarity) are discussed in the context of sociophonetic and twin studies. A preliminary simplification of the Vocal Profile Analysis (VPA) Scheme is proposed, which enables the quantification of voice quality features in the perceptual assessment of speaker similarity, and allows for the calculation of perceptual-acoustic correlations. The adequacy of z-score normalization for this study is also discussed, as well as the relevance of heat maps for detecting the so-called phantoms in recent approaches to the biometric menagerie.

  4. FILTER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, J.B.; Torrey, J.V.P.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for reconditioning fused alumina filters which have become clogged by the accretion of bismuth phosphate in the filter pores, The method consists in contacting such filters with faming sulfuric acid, and maintaining such contact for a substantial period of time.

  5. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  6. Analysis of physical demands during bulk bag closing and sealing.

    PubMed

    Nasarwanji, Mahiyar F; Reardon, Leanna M; Heberger, John R; Dempsey, Patrick G

    2016-05-01

    Several tools are sold and recommended for closing and sealing flexible intermediate bulk containers (bulk bags) which are used to transport product that has been mined and processed. However, there is limited information on the risks, physical demands, or the benefits of using one tool over another. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands involved with two closing methods and several sealing tools in order to provide recommendations for selecting tools to reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, twelve participants completed bag closing and sealing tasks using two different closing methods and eight sealing tools on two types of bulk bags. Physical demands and performance were evaluated using muscle activity, perceived exertion, subjective ratings of use, and time. Results indicate that using the "flowering" method to close bags required on average 32% less muscle activity, 30% less perceived exertion, 42% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to using the "snaking" method. For sealing, there was no single method significantly better across all measures; however, using a pneumatic cable tie gun consistently had the lowest muscle activity and perceived exertion ratings. The pneumatic cable tie gun did require approximately 33% more time to seal the bag compared to methods without a tool, but the amount of time to seal the bag was comparable to using other tools. Further, sealing a spout bulk bag required on average 13% less muscle activity, 18% less perceived exertion, 35% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to sealing a duffle bulk bag. The current results suggest that closing the spout bag using the flowering method and sealing the bag using the pneumatic cable tie gun that is installed with a tool balancer is ergonomically advantageous. Our findings can help organizations select methods and tools that pose the lowest physical demands when closing and

  7. Analysis of physical demands during bulk bag closing and sealing

    PubMed Central

    Nasarwanji, Mahiyar F.; Reardon, Leanna M.; Heberger, John R.; Dempsey, Patrick G.

    2016-01-01

    Several tools are sold and recommended for closing and sealing flexible intermediate bulk containers (bulk bags) which are used to transport product that has been mined and processed. However, there is limited information on the risks, physical demands, or the benefits of using one tool over another. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands involved with two closing methods and several sealing tools in order to provide recommendations for selecting tools to reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, twelve participants completed bag closing and sealing tasks using two different closing methods and eight sealing tools on two types of bulk bags. Physical demands and performance were evaluated using muscle activity, perceived exertion, subjective ratings of use, and time. Results indicate that using the “flowering” method to close bags required on average 32% less muscle activity, 30% less perceived exertion, 42% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to using the “snaking” method. For sealing, there was no single method significantly better across all measures; however, using a pneumatic cable tie gun consistently had the lowest muscle activity and perceived exertion ratings. The pneumatic cable tie gun did require approximately 33% more time to seal the bag compared to methods without a tool, but the amount of time to seal the bag was comparable to using other tools. Further, sealing a spout bulk bag required on average 13% less muscle activity, 18% less perceived exertion, 35% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to sealing a duffle bulk bag. The current results suggest that closing the spout bag using the flowering method and sealing the bag using the pneumatic cable tie gun that is installed with a tool balancer is ergonomically advantageous. Our findings can help organizations select methods and tools that pose the lowest physical demands when closing

  8. Monte Carlo-based investigations on the impact of removing the flattening filter on beam quality specifiers for photon beam dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, Damian; Poppe, Björn; Zink, Klemens

    2017-06-01

    The impact of removing the flattening filter in clinical electron accelerators on the relationship between dosimetric quantities such as beam quality specifiers and the mean photon and electron energies of the photon radiation field was investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. The purpose of this work was to determine the uncertainties when using the well-known beam quality specifiers or energy-based beam specifiers as predictors of dosimetric photon field properties when removing the flattening filter. Monte Carlo simulations applying eight different linear accelerator head models with and without flattening filter were performed in order to generate realistic radiation sources and calculate field properties such as restricted mass collision stopping power ratios (L¯/ρ)airwater, mean photon and secondary electron energies. To study the impact of removing the flattening filter on the beam quality correction factors kQ , this factor for detailed ionization chamber models was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. Stopping power ratios (L¯/ρ)airwater and kQ values for different ionization chambers as a function of TPR1020 and %dd(10)x were calculated. Moreover, mean photon energies in air and at the point of measurement in water as well as mean secondary electron energies at the point of measurement were calculated. The results revealed that removing the flattening filter led to a change within 0.3% in the relationship between %dd(10)x and (L¯/ρ)airwater, whereby the relationship between TPR1020 and (L¯/ρ)airwater changed up to 0.8% for high energy photon beams. However, TPR1020 was a good predictor of (L¯/ρ)airwater for both types of linear accelerator with energies < 10 MeV with a maximal deviation between both types of accelerators of 0.23%. According to the results, the mean photon energy below the linear accelerators head as well as at the point of measurement may not be suitable as a predictor of (L¯/ρ)airwater and kQ to merge the dosimetry of both

  9. Experimental and theoretical investigations concerning a frequency filter behavior of the human retina regarding electric pulse currents. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier-Koll, A.

    1979-01-01

    Investigation involving patients with injuries in the visual nervous system are discussed. This led to the identification of the epithelial ganglion of the retina as a frequency filter. Threshold curves of the injured visual organs were compared with threshold curves obtained with a control group as a basis for identification. A model which considers the epithelial ganglion as a homogeneous cell layer in which adjacent neurons interact is discussed. It is shown the behavior of the cells against alternating exciting currents can be explained.

  10. Field evaluation of the long-lasting treated storage bag, deltamethrin-incorporated (ZeroFly® Storage Bag) as a barrier to insect pest infestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The deltamethrin-incorporated polypropylene (PP) bag, ZeroFly® Storage Bag, is a new technology to reduce postharvest losses caused by stored-product insect pests. ZeroFly bags filled with untreated maize were compared to PP bags filled with maize treated with Betallic Super (80 g pirimiphos-methyl ...

  11. Hospital discharge bags and breastfeeding at 6 months: data from the infant feeding practices study II.

    PubMed

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Matlak, Stephanie; Merewood, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Distribution of industry-sponsored formula sample packs to new mothers undermines breastfeeding. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II), we aimed to determine whether receipt of 4 different types of bags was associated with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. We extracted data from IFPS II questionnaires. Type of discharge bag received was categorized as "formula bag," "coupon bag," "breastfeeding supplies bag," or "no bag". We examined exclusive breastfeeding status at 10 weeks (post hoc) and at 6 months using univariate descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. Overall, 1868 (81.4%) of women received formula bags, 96 (4.2%) received coupon bags, 46 (2.0%) received breastfeeding supplies bags, and 284 (12.4%) received no bag. By 10 weeks, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bags or no bag were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding than formula bag recipients. In the adjusted model, compared to formula bag/coupon bag recipients, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bag/no bag were significantly more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36). The vast majority of new mothers received formula sample packs at discharge, and this was associated with reduced exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months. Bags containing breastfeeding supplies or no bag at all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months.

  12. Depth Filters Containing Diatomite Achieve More Efficient Particle Retention than Filters Solely Containing Cellulose Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Buyel, Johannes F.; Gruchow, Hannah M.; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g., when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m−2 when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU) when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre–coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m−2 with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins. PMID:26734037

  13. Depth Filters Containing Diatomite Achieve More Efficient Particle Retention than Filters Solely Containing Cellulose Fibers.

    PubMed

    Buyel, Johannes F; Gruchow, Hannah M; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g., when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m(-2) when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU) when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre-coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m(-2) with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.

  14. Variational filtering.

    PubMed

    Friston, K J

    2008-07-01

    This note presents a simple Bayesian filtering scheme, using variational calculus, for inference on the hidden states of dynamic systems. Variational filtering is a stochastic scheme that propagates particles over a changing variational energy landscape, such that their sample density approximates the conditional density of hidden and states and inputs. The key innovation, on which variational filtering rests, is a formulation in generalised coordinates of motion. This renders the scheme much simpler and more versatile than existing approaches, such as those based on particle filtering. We demonstrate variational filtering using simulated and real data from hemodynamic systems studied in neuroimaging and provide comparative evaluations using particle filtering and the fixed-form homologue of variational filtering, namely dynamic expectation maximisation.

  15. 75 FR 38978 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Thailand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... merchandise subject to the antidumping duty orders is PRCBs which may be referred to as t-shirt sacks, merchandise bags, grocery bags, or checkout bags. The subject merchandise is defined as nonsealable sacks and...

  16. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water... more must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two...

  17. Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Plastic bags are the scourge of roadsides, parking lots and landfills. But chemistry comes to the rescue! At Argonne National Laboratory, Vilas Pol has found a way to not only recycle plastic bags--but make them into valuable batteries for cell phones and laptops.

  18. Sodium azide-associated laryngospasm after air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Francis, David; Warren, Samuel A; Warner, Keir J; Harris, William; Copass, Michael K; Bulger, Eileen M

    2010-09-01

    The advent and incorporation of the air bag into motor vehicles has resulted in the mitigation of many head and truncal injuries in motor vehicle collisions. However, air bag deployment is not risk free. We present a case of sodium azide-induced laryngospasm after air bag deployment. An unrestrained male driver was in a moderate-speed motor vehicle collision with air bag deployment. Medics found him awake, gasping for air with stridorous respirations and guarding his neck. The patient had no external signs of trauma and was presumed to have tracheal injury. The patient was greeted by the Anesthesiology service, which intubated him using glidescope-assisted laryngoscopy. The patient was admitted for overnight observation and treatment of alkaline ocular injury and laryngospasm. Although air bags represent an important advance in automobile safety, their use is not without risk. Bruising and tracheal rupture secondary to air bag deployment have been reported in out-of-position occupants. Additionally, alkaline by-products from the combustion of sodium azide in air bags have been implicated in ocular injury and facial burns. Laryngospasm after sodium azide exposure presents another diagnostic challenge for providers. Therefore, it is incumbent to maintain vigilance in the physical examination and diagnosis of occult injuries after air bag deployment.

  19. Temperature dependence of bag pressure from quasiparticle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, N.; Singh, C. P.

    2001-03-01

    A quasiparticle model with effective thermal gluon and quark masses is used to derive a temperature /T- and baryon chemical potential /μ-dependent bag constant /B(μ,T). Consequences of such a bag constant are obtained on the equation of state (EOS) for a deconfined quark-gluon plasma (QGP).

  20. 26. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), LOOKING AT SOUTH END OF BUILDING. BUILDING NO. 452-A, INERT STORAGE, VISIBLE ON RIGHT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  1. 25. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), LOOKING AT EAST ELEVATION WITH BUILDING NO. 452-A, INERT STORAGE, VISIBLE ON LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  2. Commander Brand stows trash in jettison bag on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand disposes of empty food containers and dry trash in jettison bag and stows bag in middeck volume under MA73C control panel. Side hatch is visible behind Brand. Brand is wearing constant wear garment with communications kit assembly headset interface unit (HIU) and note pad strapped to his thighs.

  3. Commander Brand stows trash in jettison bag on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand disposes of empty food containers and dry trash in jettison bag and stows bag in middeck volume under MA73C control panel. Side hatch is visible behind Brand. Brand is wearing constant wear garment with communications kit assembly headset interface unit (HIU) and note pad strapped to his thighs.

  4. Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Plastic bags are the scourge of roadsides, parking lots and landfills. But chemistry comes to the rescue! At Argonne National Laboratory, Vilas Pol has found a way to not only recycle plastic bags--but make them into valuable batteries for cell phones and laptops.

  5. 50 CFR 665.212 - Non-commercial bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-commercial bag limits. 665.212 Section... Non-commercial bag limits. No more than a total of five fish (all species combined) identified as... any individual participating in a non-commercial vessel-based fishing trip in the MHI...

  6. 50 CFR 665.212 - Non-commercial bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-commercial bag limits. 665.212... Fisheries § 665.212 Non-commercial bag limits. No more than a total of five fish (all species combined... landed by any individual participating in a non-commercial vessel-based fishing trip in the...

  7. 10. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), LOOKING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 332, CHANGE HOUSE, IN RIGHT BACKGROUND; BUILDING NO. 445-F, MAGAZINE, IN LEFT BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  8. 15. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), INTERIOR, FOURTH LEVEL. POWDER HOPPER AT TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. POWDER DISTRIBUTED FROM HERE TO LOADING ROOMS BY TUBES. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  9. 16. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), INTERIOR, SECOND LEVEL. LOOKING UP AT POWDER AND DISTRIBUTION TUBES. ELEVATOR SHAFT ON LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  10. 14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), LOOKING EAST AT SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING. HVAC EQUIPMENT LOCATED OUTDOORS IN FOREGROUND. DUCTS CONDUCT HOT OR COLD AIR INDOORS. ROUND PIPES ARE INSULATED STEAM LINES. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY, IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  11. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  12. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  13. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  14. The Application of Advanced Technology to Improve Air Bag Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R.; Dowdy, M.; Ebbeler, D.; Kim, E.; Moore, N.; Van Zandt, T.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) signed a memorandum of understanding for NASA to assess the capability of advanced technology to reduce air bag inflation-induced injuries and increase air bag effectiveness.

  15. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must be sift-proof. (2) Paper bags 5M2: To prevent the entry of moisture, a bag of four plies or more... ply. When there is danger of the lading reacting with moisture, or when it is packed damp,...

  16. 43. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), DETAIL OF EXPLOSION-PROOF ELECTRICAL SWITCH BOX (SWITCH GEAR INSIDE BOX SUBMERGED IN OIL TO QUENCH SPARKS), SWITCH EQUIPMENT MADE BY GENERAL ELECTRIC. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  17. 23. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH DOWN CENTRAL CORRIDOR. NOTE BINS IN WALLS ON EITHER SIDE OF CORRIDOR, USED FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES AND LOADED ITEMS TO SIEVING ROOMS BEYOND WALLS. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  18. 20. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG LOADING), LOOKING WEST AT SOUTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 448-C, GENERAL STOREHOUSE (HIGH EXPLOSIVES MAGAZINE-WEIGHING & MIXING), IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  19. 21. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG LOADING), WEST SIDE. VISIBLE ARE STEAM LINES, ELEVATOR TOWER, POWDER CHUTES, AND SAFETY CHUTES. BUILDING NO. 448-A, AMMUNITION COMPONENTS MAGAZINE, ON LEFT AND BUILDING NO. 506, ELECTRIC POWER PLANT, IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  20. Tree-breeding technique: some effects of continuous bagging

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Wright

    1951-01-01

    In tree-breeding operations, it is standard practice to protect the tree flowers with vegetable parchment or sausage-casing bags during the pollination period so no unwanted pollen can get to them. Since the bags often damage the tree, they are usually removed as soon as the pollination period ends - within 2 or 3 weeks.

  1. Surface modification of platelet concentrate bags to reduce biofilm formation and transfusion sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Nieuwenhuis, Joels S T; Dempsey-Hibbert, Nina; Liauw, Christopher M; Whitehead, Kathryn A

    2017-09-07

    Bacterial contamination of blood products poses a major risk in transfusion medicine, including transfusions involving platelet products. Although testing systems are in place for routine screening of platelet units, the formation of bacterial biofilms in such units may decrease the likelihood that bacteria will be detected. This work determined the surface properties of p-PVC platelet concentrate bags and investigated how these characteristics influenced biofilm formation. Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus epidermidis, two species commonly implicated in platelet contamination, were used to study biofilm growth. The platelet concentrate bags were physically flattened to determine if reducing the surface roughness altered biofilm formation. The results demonstrated that the flattening process of the platelet bags affected the chemistry of the surface and reduced the surface hydrophobicity. Flattening of the surfaces resulted in a reduction in biofilm formation for both species after 5 days, with S. marcescens demonstrating a greater reduction. However, there was no significant difference between the smooth and flat surfaces following 7 days' incubation for S. marcescens and no significant differences between any of the surfaces following 7 days' incubation for S. epidermidis. The results suggest that flattening the p-PVC surfaces may limit potential biofilm formation for the current duration of platelet storage time of 5 days. It is hoped that this work will enhance the understanding of how surface properties influence the development of microbial biofilms in platelet concentrate bags in order to devise a solution to discourage biofilm formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Advanced glycation end products promote the proliferation and migration of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells via the upregulation of BAG3.

    PubMed

    Li, Cunshu; Chang, Ye; Li, Yuan; Chen, Shuang; Chen, Yintao; Ye, Ning; Dai, Dongxue; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-03-28

    The present study was aimed to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on advanced glycation end product (AGE)-induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and whether Bcl-2‑associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is involved in the process. Primary rat VSMCs were extracted and cultured in vitro. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay and cell proliferation was detected by EdU incorporation assay. Cell migration was detected by wound healing and Transwell assays. BAG3 was detected using qPCR and western blot analysis. Transcriptional and translational inhibitors (actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively) were used to study the effect of AGEs on the expression of BAG3 in VSMCs. Lentiviral plasmids containing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against rat BAG3 or control shRNA were transduced into VSMCs. Cellular ROS were detected by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRE) staining. AGEs significantly increased the expression of BAG3 in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, AGEs mainly increased the expression of BAG3 mRNA by increasing the RNA synthesis rather than inhibiting the RNA translation. BAG3 knockdown reduced the proliferation and migration of VSMCs induced by AGEs. BAG3 knockdown reduced the generation of ROS and sustained the mitochondrial membrane potential of VSMCs. Reduction of ROS production by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, also reduced the proliferation and migration of VSMCs. On the whole, the present study demonstrated for the first time that AGEs could increase ROS production and promote the proliferation and migration of VSMCs by upregulating BAG3 expression. This study indicated that BAG3 should be considered as a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of vascular complications of diabetes.

  3. Air bag-mediated fatal craniocervical trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Büyük, Yalçin; Uzün, Ibrahim; Erkol, Zerrin; Ağritmiş, Hasan; Ustündağ, Kasim T

    2010-07-01

    This case report describes a four-year-old girl (102 cm, 17 kg) who sustained fatal craniocerebral injuries as a result of an inflating automobile air bag. The car struck the lid of the sewer system, which was 15 cm above the ground level, at a low speed, and both the driver and passenger air bags inflated. Despite the fact that air bag usage has lessened both the possibility and severity of occupant injuries in frontal collisions, case reports of serious injuries and even deaths especially in children due to air bag deployment, particularly during low speed impacts, highlight the need for changes in both system design and possibly the threshold speed of air bag deployment.

  4. Absorption of ignitable liquids into polyethylene/polyvinylidine dichloride bags.

    PubMed

    Kocisko, M J

    2001-03-01

    Clear plastic bags are often used for the collection, sampling and storage of ignitable liquid evidence. They are popular because they are easy to store. transport and are inexpensive. Cryovac and Globus brand polyethylene/polyvinylidine dichloride bags were tested for suitability in storing ignitable liquid evidence. Standards of diesel, kerosene and gasoline were placed in the bags and sampled by passive headspace adsorption. The bags were then heated to determine if absorbed components of the standards could be released upon heating. Recovered extracts were analyzed by GC and GCMS. These bags were found to absorb components of diesel, kerosene, and gasoline. and were also found to produce interfering by-products that obstruct the chromatographic results. Evidence containers need to be tested to ensure that low levels of ignitable liquids are not missed.

  5. Expression Profile of Bag 1 in the Postmortem Brain

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, Christine; Asheld, John J.; Chabla, Janet M.; Ayubcha, Diana; Hallas, Brian H.; Horowitz, Judith M.; Torres, German

    2006-01-01

    Bag 1 is a protein intimately involved in signaling pathways that regulate cell survival. Here we examined the expression profile of Bag 1 in the brain to consider issues associated with the sampling of anti-apoptotic proteins in a rat model of the human postmortem process. Following a 4 hr postmortem interval, we analyzed the hippocampus of rats maintained at 24 °C or 4 °C storage temperatures using immunocytochemical and Western blotting techniques. Remarkably, postmortem tissue (up to 4 hr) showed a significant and prominent up-regulation of Bag 1 in CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampal formation. Over-expression of Bag 1, however, could only be traced down to a storage temperature of 24 °C. These data suggest that storage temperatures, but not postmortem intervals, significantly affect the expression profile and cellular stability of Bag 1 proteins. PMID:17046197

  6. Investigation of 2D photonic crystal structure based channel drop filter using quad shaped photonic crystal ring resonator for CWDM system

    SciTech Connect

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar Dusad, Lalit Kumar

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, the design & performance of two dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal structure based channel drop filter is investigated using quad shaped photonic crystal ring resonator. In this paper, Photonic Crystal (PhC) based on square lattice periodic arrays of Gallium Indium Phosphide (GaInP) rods in air structure have been investigated using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and photonic band gap is being calculated using Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The PhC designs have been optimized for telecommunication wavelength λ= 1571 nm by varying the rods lattice constant. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20, with lattice constant 0.540 nm it illustrates that the arrangement of Gallium Indium Phosphide (GaInP) rods in the structure which gives the overall size of the device around 11.4 µm × 10.8 µm. The designed filter gives good dropping efficiency using 3.298, refractive index. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.

  7. Engineering with uncertainty: monitoring air bag performance.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2008-06-01

    Modern engineering is complicated by an enormous number of uncertainties. Engineers know a great deal about the material world and how it works. But due to the inherent limits of testing and the complexities of the world outside the lab, engineers will never be able to fully predict how their creations will behave. One way the uncertainties of engineering can be dealt with is by actively monitoring technologies once they have left the development and production stage. This article uses an episode in the history of automobile air bags as an example of engineers who had the foresight and initiative to carefully track the technology on the road to discover problems as early as possible. Not only can monitoring help engineers identify problems that surface in the field, it can also assist them in their efforts to mobilize resources to resolve problem.

  8. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M., Jr.; Beale, David; Killinc-Balci, Fatma

    2006-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: VectranTM, NextelTM, Gore PTFE FabricTM, ZylonTM TwaronTM and NomexTM. Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of KevlarTM and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelty mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  9. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M.; Beale, David; Killing-Balci, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelity mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  10. Investigation of the flow-field in the upper respiratory system when wearing N95 filtering facepiece respirator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotie; Li, Hui; Shen, Shengnan; Cai, Mang

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a reverse modeling of the headform when wearing a filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation based on the modeling. The whole model containing the upper respiratory airway, headform, and FFR was directly recorded by computed tomography (CT) scanning, and a medical contrast medium was used to make the FFR "visible." The FFR was normally worn by the subject during CT scanning so that the actual deformation of both the FFR and the face muscles during contact can be objectively conserved. The reverse modeling approach was introduced to rebuild the geometric model and convert it into a CFD solvable model. In this model, we conducted a transient numerical simulation of air flow containing carbon dioxide, thermal dynamics, and pressure and wall shear stress distribution in the respiratory system taking into consideration an individual wearing a FFR. The breathing cycle was described as a time-dependent profile of the air velocity through the respiratory airway. The result shows that wearing the N95 FFR results in CO2 accumulation, an increase in temperature and pressure elevation inside the FFR cavity. The volume fraction of CO2 reaches 1.2% after 7 breathing cycles and then is maintained at 3.04% on average. The wearers re-inhale excessive CO2 in every breathing cycle from the FFR cavity. The air temperature in the FFR cavity increases rapidly at first and then stays close to the exhaled temperature. Compared to not wearing an FFR, wearers have to increase approximately 90 Pa more pressure to keep the same breathing flow rate of 30.54 L/min after wearing an FFR. The nasal vestibule bears more wall shear stress than any other area in the airway.

  11. Investigating the relation between the geometric properties of river basins and the filtering parameters for regional land hydrology applications using GRACE models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piretzidis, Dimitrios; Sideris, Michael G.

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the possibilities of local hydrology signal extraction using GRACE data and conventional filtering techniques. The impact of the basin shape has also been studied in order to derive empirical rules for tuning the GRACE filter parameters. GRACE CSR Release 05 monthly solutions were used from April 2002 to August 2015 (161 monthly solutions in total). SLR data were also used to replace the GRACE C2,0 coefficient, and a de-correlation filter with optimal parameters for CSR Release 05 data was applied to attenuate the correlation errors of monthly mass differences. For basins located at higher latitudes, the effect of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) was taken into account using the ICE-6G model. The study focuses on three geometric properties, i.e., the area, the convexity and the width in the longitudinal direction, of 100 basins with global distribution. Two experiments have been performed. The first one deals with the determination of the Gaussian smoothing radius that minimizes the gaussianity of GRACE equivalent water height (EWH) over the selected basins. The EWH kurtosis was selected as a metric of gaussianity. The second experiment focuses on the derivation of the Gaussian smoothing radius that minimizes the RMS difference between GRACE data and a hydrology model. The GLDAS 1.0 Noah hydrology model was chosen, which shows good agreement with GRACE data according to previous studies. Early results show that there is an apparent relation between the geometric attributes of the basins examined and the Gaussian radius derived from the two experiments. The kurtosis analysis experiment tends to underestimate the optimal Gaussian radius, which is close to 200-300 km in many cases. Empirical rules for the selection of the Gaussian radius have been also developed for sub-regional scale basins.

  12. Stability of selected volatile breath constituents in Tedlar, Kynar and Flexfilm sampling bags.

    PubMed

    Mochalski, Paweł; King, Julian; Unterkofler, Karl; Amann, Anton

    2013-03-07

    The stability of 41 selected breath constituents in three types of polymer sampling bags, Tedlar, Kynar, and Flexfilm, was investigated using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The tested molecular species belong to different chemical classes (hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics, sulphurs, esters, terpenes, etc.) and exhibit close-to-breath low ppb levels (3-12 ppb) with the exception of isoprene, acetone and acetonitrile (106 ppb, 760 ppb, 42 ppb respectively). Stability tests comprised the background emission of contaminants, recovery from dry samples, recovery from humid samples (RH 80% at 37 °C), influence of the bag's filling degree, and reusability. Findings yield evidence of the superiority of Tedlar bags over remaining polymers in terms of background emission, species stability (up to 7 days for dry samples), and reusability. Recoveries of species under study suffered from the presence of high amounts of water (losses up to 10%). However, only heavier volatiles, with molecular masses higher than 90, exhibited more pronounced losses (20-40%). The sample size (the degree of bag filling) was found to be one of the most important factors affecting the sample integrity. To sum up, it is recommended to store breath samples in pre-conditioned Tedlar bags up to 6 hours at the maximum possible filling volume. Among the remaining films, Kynar can be considered as an alternative to Tedlar; however, higher losses of compounds should be expected even within the first hours of storage. Due to the high background emission Flexfilm is not suitable for sampling and storage of samples for analyses aiming at volatiles at a low ppb level.

  13. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

    1992-09-01

    A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

  14. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Dilmore, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

  15. Bias of Tedlar bags in the measurement of agricultural odorants.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven L; Anhalt, Jennifer C; Zahn, James A

    2006-01-01

    Odor regulations typically specify the use of dynamic dilution olfactometery (DDO) as a method to quantify odor emissions, and Tedlar bags are the preferred holding container for grab samples. This study was conducted to determine if Tedlar bags affect the integrity of sampled air from animal operations. Air samples were collected simultaneously in both Tedlar bags and Tenax thermal desorption tubes. Sample sources originated from either a hydrocarbon-free air tank, dynamic headspace chamber (DHC), or swine-production facility, and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Several background contaminants were identified from Tedlar bags, which included the odorous compounds N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAC), acetic acid, and phenol. Samples from the DHC demonstrated that recovery of malodor compounds was dependent on residence time in the Tedlar bag with longer residence time leading to lower recovery. After 24 h of storage, recovery of C3-C6 volatile fatty acids (VFA) averaged 64%, 4-methylphenol and 4-ethylphenol averaged 10%, and indole and 3-methylindole were below the detection limits of GC-MS-O. The odor activity value (OAV) of grab samples collected in Tedlar bags were 33 to 65% lower following 24 h of storage. These results indicate that significant odorant bias occurs when using Tedlar bags for the sampling of odors from animal production facilities.

  16. NIK is required for NF-κB-mediated induction of BAG3 upon inhibition of constitutive protein degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Rapino, F; Abhari, B A; Jung, M; Fulda, S

    2015-03-12

    Recently, we reported that induction of the co-chaperone Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is critical for recovery of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells after proteotoxic stress upon inhibition of the two constitutive protein degradation pathways, that is, the ubiquitin-proteasome system by Bortezomib and the aggresome-autophagy system by histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitor ST80. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms mediating BAG3 induction under these conditions. Here, we identify nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-inducing kinase (NIK) as a key mediator of ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated NF-κB activation and transcriptional upregulation of BAG3. ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment upregulates mRNA and protein expression of NIK, which is accompanied by an initial increase in histone H3 acetylation. Importantly, NIK silencing by siRNA abolishes NF-κB activation and BAG3 induction by ST80/Bortezomib. Furthermore, ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment stimulates NF-κB transcriptional activity and upregulates NF-κB target genes. Genetic inhibition of NF-κB by overexpression of dominant-negative IκBα superrepressor (IκBα-SR) or by knockdown of p65 blocks the ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated upregulation of BAG3 mRNA and protein expression. Interestingly, inhibition of lysosomal activity by Bafilomycin A1 inhibits ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated IκBα degradation, NF-κB activation and BAG3 upregulation, indicating that IκBα is degraded via the lysosome in the presence of Bortezomib. Thus, by demonstrating a critical role of NIK in mediating NF-κB activation and BAG3 induction upon ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment, our study provides novel insights into mechanisms of resistance to proteotoxic stress in RMS.

  17. On some fuzzy filters in pseudo-BCI algebras.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    Some new properties of fuzzy associative filters (also known as fuzzy associative pseudo-filters), fuzzy p-filter (also known as fuzzy pseudo-p-filters), and fuzzy a-filter (also known as fuzzy pseudo-a-filters) in pseudo-BCI algebras are investigated. By these properties, the following important results are proved: (1) a fuzzy filter (also known as fuzzy pseudo-filters) of a pseudo-BCI algebra is a fuzzy associative filter if and only if it is a fuzzy a-filter; (2) a filter (also known as pseudo-filter) of a pseudo-BCI algebra is associative if and only if it is an a-filter (also call it pseudo-a filter); (3) a fuzzy filter of a pseudo-BCI algebra is fuzzy a-filter if and only if it is both a fuzzy p-filter and a fuzzy q-filter.

  18. Arapahoe low-sulfur-coal fabric filter pilot plant: Volume 3, Characterization of sonic-assisted reverse-gas cleaning, May 1982--May 1984: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, K.M.; Bustard, C.J.; Pontius, D.H.; Pyle, B.E.; Smith, W.B.

    1989-02-01

    During 1981 intense interest developed in the utility industry regarding the use of horns as a supplement to reverse-gas bag cleaning. To characterize and assess sonic-enhanced, reverse-gas cleaning, horns were installed at EPRI's 10-MW Fabric Filter Pilot Plant (FFPP) at its Arapahoe Test Facility located at Public Service Company of Colorado's Arapahoe Steam Plant in Denver, Colorado. In addition to the FFPP tests, laboratory studies of sonic cleaning were conducted to supplement the pilot plant data. To verify the applicability of the pilot plant and laboratory work to full-scale baghouses, field data from utility baghouses in which horns had been installed were collected. The purpose of the testing was to determine the range of horn frequencies and total output power most effective in removing residual dustcakes from bags in reverse-gas-cleaned baghouses and, hence, most effective in reducing baghouse pressure drop. No attempt was made to identify a specific horn or horns most appropriate for baghouse application. The report presents the results of this testing from May 1982 through May 1984. Results showed that horns can dislodge a significant fraction of residual dustcake, thereby reducing pressure drop by as much as 60% without any noticeable reduction in bag life. Although outlet particulate emissions are higher with sonic assistance, they are generally <0.01 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu---below the 1979 New Source Performance Standards of 0.03 lb/MBtu. The overall results of this sonic horn investigation indicate that reverse-gas cleaning with sonic assistance definitely promotes more effective bag filter cleaning and lower pressure drop, and it should be considered as a supplement for most reverse-gas cleaned baghouse applications. 10 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Performance tests of three types of air-sampling bags on organic solvent vapor retention.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yoshinari; Kanemaru, Ai; Nagasawa, Yasuhiro; Kawakami, Takuya; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Performance of two new air sampling bags [the transparent bag (TP bag) and the semi-transparent bag (ST bag)] was examined as possible surrogates for the traditional PVF bag (the Ref bag). Solvent vapor mixture of butyl acetate, chloroform, ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene at administrative control levels were introduced to each bag (n=5 for each of the three types), and the decay in the concentrations (by%) was followed by use of a gas auto-sampler - FID-GC system. A trend of time-dependent decay was noted for all types including the Ref bag. When the performance was compared, the TP bag was equal to or even better than the Ref bag. In contrast, the performance of the ST bag was comparable to that of the other two types of bags with regard to toluene and chloroform when the storage time was short, but poorer than others for the other three solvents throughout the test period. The TP bag may be a bag of choice when the storage time is extended (e.g., up to 48 h) although this bag is physically less robust and requires careful handling. The ST bag may be used when analysis will be completed within 24 h.

  20. Collection of Aerosols in HEPA Filters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    investigation of the performance of HEPA filters of both minipl ’!. md conventional deep pleat designs has continued at Harwell, Samples of filters from several... minipleaL and deep pleat filters. The dust loading results cannot be directly compared quantitatively with the results of the Harwell work, as the ,ni;leat...8217 ndeppptfle 400 500/ f00 200 ,/- I 00001. t00oo - Deep pleat filter -- Panel Illeor 12 panel minipleal filter - I panel minipieat filter 1000 1500 201

  1. C-Bag Consolidation: An Inventory and Safety Stock Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    i.e. pilots, firefighters) was excluded from this research. Any items found in both the A-bag and C-bag (helmet, web belt, canteen , etc.) were also...M8 detector paper booklet, M9 detector paper roll, M258A1 or M291 decontamination kit, M295 decontamination kit, a web belt, canteen , M1 canteen ... canteen and M1 canteen cap are found in the A-1 ditty bag as they have a use in both standard combat as well as a chemical, biological, nuclear

  2. Ocular alkali burn associated with automobile air-bag activation.

    PubMed Central

    White, J E; McClafferty, K; Orton, R B; Tokarewicz, A C; Nowak, E S

    1995-01-01

    Alkali burns of the eye can result in permanent visual impairment and are therefore potentially devastating. Immedicate diagnosis and treatment are essential to a good prognosis. The authors report the case of a 52-year-old woman who suffered alkali keratitis as the result of the activation of an automobile air bag. This type of injury will be seen more frequently as more cars are equipped with air bags and should be suspected in drivers and passengers involved in accidents in which air bags have been activated. PMID:7553495

  3. Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.

    2005-12-15

    In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy.

  4. Ultraviolet filters.

    PubMed

    Shaath, Nadim A

    2010-04-01

    The chemistry, photostability and mechanism of action of ultraviolet filters are reviewed. The worldwide regulatory status of the 55 approved ultraviolet filters and their optical properties are documented. The photostabilty of butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (avobenzone) is considered and methods to stabilize it in cosmetic formulations are presented.

  5. Gyrokinetic-water-bag modeling of low-frequency instabilities in a laboratory magnetized plasma column

    SciTech Connect

    Gravier, E.; Klein, R.; Morel, P.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.

    2008-12-15

    A new model is presented, named collisional-gyro-water-bag (CGWB), which describes the collisional drift waves and ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instabilities in a plasma column. This model is based on the kinetic gyro-water-bag approach recently developed [P. Morel et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)] to investigate ion-temperature-gradient modes. In CGWB electron-neutral collisions have been introduced and are now taken into account. The model has been validated by comparing CGWB linear analysis with other models previously proposed and experimental results as well. Kinetic effects on collisional drift waves are investigated, resulting in a less effective growth rate, and the transition from collisional drift waves to ITG instability depending on the ion temperature gradient is studied.

  6. FragBag, an accurate representation of protein structure, retrieves structural neighbors from the entire PDB quickly and accurately.

    PubMed

    Budowski-Tal, Inbal; Nov, Yuval; Kolodny, Rachel

    2010-02-23

    Fast identification of protein structures that are similar to a specified query structure in the entire Protein Data Bank (PDB) is fundamental in structure and function prediction. We present FragBag: An ultrafast and accurate method for comparing protein structures. We describe a protein structure by the collection of its overlapping short contiguous backbone segments, and discretize this set using a library of fragments. Then, we succinctly represent the protein as a "bags-of-fragments"-a vector that counts the number of occurrences of each fragment-and measure the similarity between two structures by the similarity between their vectors. Our representation has two additional benefits: (i) it can be used to construct an inverted index, for implementing a fast structural search engine of the entire PDB, and (ii) one can specify a structure as a collection of substructures, without combining them into a single structure; this is valuable for structure prediction, when there are reliable predictions only of parts of the protein. We use receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to quantify the success of FragBag in identifying neighbor candidate sets in a dataset of over 2,900 structures. The gold standard is the set of neighbors found by six state of the art structural aligners. Our best FragBag library finds more accurate candidate sets than the three other filter methods: The SGM, PRIDE, and a method by Zotenko et al. More interestingly, FragBag performs on a par with the computationally expensive, yet highly trusted structural aligners STRUCTAL and CE.

  7. Vacuum-bag-only processing of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Shad

    Ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode in conjunction with the amplitude of the reflected signal was used to measure flow rates of an epoxy resin film penetrating through the thickness of single layers of woven carbon fabric. Assemblies, comprised of a single layer of fabric and film, were vacuum-bagged and ultrasonically scanned in a water tank during impregnation at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. Measured flow rates were plotted versus inverse viscosity to determine the permeability in the thin film, non-saturated system. The results demonstrated that ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode is an effective method of measuring z-direction resin flow through a single layer of fabric. The permeability values determined in this work were consistent with permeability values reported in the literature. Capillary flow was not observed at the temperatures and times required for pressurized flow to occur. The flow rate at 65°C was predicted from the linear plot of flow rate versus inverse viscosity. The effects of fabric architecture on through-thickness flow rates during impregnation of an epoxy resin film were measured by ultrasonic imaging. Multilayered laminates comprised of woven carbon fabrics and epoxy films (prepregs) were fabricated by vacuum-bagging. Ultrasonic imaging was performed in a heated water tank (65°C) during impregnation. Impregnation rates showed a strong dependence on fabric architecture, despite similar areal densities. Impregnation rates are directly affected by inter-tow spacing and tow nesting, which depend on fabric architecture, and are indirectly affected by areal densities. A new method of predicting resin infusion rates in prepreg and resin film infusion processes was proposed. The Stokes equation was used to derive an equation to predict the impregnation rate of laminates as a function of fabric architecture. Flow rate data previously measured by ultrasound was analyzed with the new equation and the Kozeny-Carman equation. A fiber

  8. Drugs for the doctor's bag: 1-adults.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    In the past, GPs carried a range of medicines for acute or emergency visits, which is now less necessary where paramedics are trained and equipped, and where emergency transfers to hospital are rapid. Indeed, acute services and ambulance trusts in some areas may discourage GPs from attending emergencies as it could delay patient transfers. However, there is still a need for some GPs to carry a range of medicines for use in acute situations when on home visits. What to include in the GP's bag is determined by the medical conditions likely to be met; medicines the GP is confident and competent to use; storage requirements and shelf-lives of drugs; ambulance paramedic cover and the proximity of the nearest hospital. Here we suggest medicines suitable for GPs for emergency or acute treatment of adult patients, updating our previous advice and including the underlying guideline recommendations for their use. A later article will cover treatment for children. The intention is not to imply that every doctor should carry every drug mentioned. Instead, we aim to highlight some of the key treatments and suggest choices in some of the more common clinical scenarios that GPs may have to deal with in everyday practice, which may be prior to referral to secondary care. Each section ends with a list of drug recommendations for the doctor's bag; drugs may be referred to in several sections but are only listed in one section to avoid repetition. The article does not provide recommendations for drugs to be stocked for use in routine clinical practice in the surgery (e.g. for minor surgery) or for drugs to be held by out-of-hours primary care services. Separate guidance and advice is available on drugs suitable for use by those providing out-of-hours primary care services. For example, in England a national out-of-hours core formulary contains the minimum list of drugs that patients should be able to access. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  9. Determination of thermal contact conductance in vacuum-bagged thermoplastic prepreg stacks using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumard, Théo; De Almeida, Olivier; Menary, Gary; Le Maoult, Yannick; Schmidt, Fabrice; Bikard, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    The infrared heating of a vacuum-bagged, thermoplastic prepreg stack of glass/PA66 was studied to investigate the influence of vacuum level on thermal contact resistance between plies. A higher vacuum level was shown experimentally to decrease the transverse heat transfer efficiency, indicating that considering only the effect of heat conduction at the plies interfaces is not sufficient to predict the temperature distribution. An inverse analysis was used to retrieve the contact resistance coefficients as a function of vacuum pressure.

  10. Gore-tex bags versus traditional hand bandaging: a comparison of range of motion, sensation and function in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Snell, J; Glassey, N; Westwater-Wood, S; Mockett, S; Raynor, K

    2010-08-01

    Little evidence exists evaluating the possible effect of dressings on the recovery of function, sensation and joint motion following a hand burn. Hand burns are traditionally covered by a layer of non-adherent dressing followed by gauze and bandages. However, there is no evidence for the efficacy of this type of coverage relative to a functional recovery. The Gore-tex bag has a small body of research supporting its ability to provide a superior healing atmosphere, however there is no literature directly comparing it with the traditional dressing. A randomised cross-over design was implemented to compare Gore-tex bags and traditional dressings in 30 healthy volunteers. Seven outcome measures of function, sensation, joint range of movement and subject perceptions were recorded before dressing, during both Gore-tex and traditional dressing interventions and between dressings. Statistically significant differences were found between the traditional dressings and Gore-tex bags. The Gore-tex bag dressings proved better for digit range of motion, 1st CMC joint motion and sensation. The traditional dressings were significantly better when perceived comfort was tested and there was no significant difference between the traditional dressing and Gore-tex bag regarding function and perceived function. The results of this study suggest that traditional dressings may detrimentally affect movement and reduce sensation but not necessarily affect function or comfort. Further investigation in a patient cohort with burnt hands is recommended.

  11. Meat quality, microbiological status and consumer preference of beef gluteus medius aged in a dry ageing bag or vacuum.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Babol, Jakub; Wallby, Anna; Lundström, Kerstin

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated meat quality and consumer preference after ageing beef gluteus medius in a water vapour-permeable dry-ageing bag or in vacuum for 14 days. Higher ageing and trim losses but lower thawing loss, cooking loss and water content were found in samples aged in dry ageing bags compared to those aged in vacuum. Samples aged in dry ageing bags had higher total bacteria and yeast counts but lower lactic acid bacteria counts than those aged in vacuum, both before and after trimming. Meat aged in dry ageing bag was more tender and juicier and overall preferred by consumers compared with samples aged in vacuum. Female participants outperformed the males in detecting differences in palatability. No differences were found in pH, smell, shear force, colour, Enterobacteriaceae, and mould counts. Thus, by using a dry ageing bag, it is possible to produce dry-aged meat in a more controlled condition without negative effects on sensory or other quality attributes.

  12. BAG: A code for predicting the performance of a gas bag impact attenuation system for the PATHFINDER lander

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.K.; Waye, D.E.

    1993-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is planning to launch a network of scientific probes to Mars beginning in late 1996. The precursor to this network will be PATHFINDER. Decelerating PATHFINDER from the high speed of its approach to Mars will require the use of several deceleration techniques working in series. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has proposed that gas bags be used to cushion the payload`s ground impact on Mars. This report presents the computer code, BAG, which has been developed to calculate the pneumatic performance of gas bag impact attenuators and the one-dimensional rigid-body dynamic performance of a payload during ground impact.

  13. Effect of adhesive properties of buffy coat on the quality of blood components produced with Top & Top and Top & Bottom bags

    PubMed Central

    Cerelli, Eugenio; Nocera, Martina; Di Bartolomeo, Erminia; Panzani, Paola; Baricchi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background The Transfusion Medicine Unit of Reggio Emilia currently collects whole blood using conventional quadruple Fresenius Top & Top bags. In this study, new Fresenius Top & Bottom bags were assessed and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational requirements. Material and methods Twenty-one whole blood units were collected with both the new and the traditional bags, and then separated. Quality control data were evaluated and compared in order to estimate yield and quality of final blood components obtained with the two systems. We collected other bags, not included in the ordinary quality control programme, for comparison of platelet concentrates produced by pools of buffy coat. Results Compared to the traditional system, the whole blood units processed with Top & Bottom bags yielded larger plasma volumes (+5.7%) and a similar amount of concentrated red blood cells, but with a much lower contamination of lymphocytes (−61.5%) and platelets (−86.6%). Consequently, the pooled platelets contained less plasma (−26.3%) and were significantly richer in platelets (+17.9%). Discussion This study investigated the effect of centrifugation on the adhesiveness of the buffy coat to the bag used for whole blood collection. We analysed the mechanism by which this undesirable phenomenon affects the quality of packed red blood cells in two types of bags. We also documented the incomparability of measurements on platelet concentrates performed with different principles of cell counting: this vexing problem has important implications for biomedical research and for the establishment of universal product standards. Our results support the conclusion that the Top & Bottom bags produce components of higher quality than our usual system, while having equal operational efficiency. Use of the new bags could result in an important quality improvement in blood components manufacturing. PMID:25545866

  14. Effect of adhesive properties of buffy coat on the quality of blood components produced with Top & Top and Top & Bottom bags.

    PubMed

    Cerelli, Eugenio; Nocera, Martina; Di Bartolomeo, Erminia; Panzani, Paola; Baricchi, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The Transfusion Medicine Unit of Reggio Emilia currently collects whole blood using conventional quadruple Fresenius Top & Top bags. In this study, new Fresenius Top & Bottom bags were assessed and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational requirements. Twenty-one whole blood units were collected with both the new and the traditional bags, and then separated. Quality control data were evaluated and compared in order to estimate yield and quality of final blood components obtained with the two systems. We collected other bags, not included in the ordinary quality control programme, for comparison of platelet concentrates produced by pools of buffy coat. Compared to the traditional system, the whole blood units processed with Top & Bottom bags yielded larger plasma volumes (+5.7%) and a similar amount of concentrated red blood cells, but with a much lower contamination of lymphocytes (-61.5%) and platelets (-86.6%). Consequently, the pooled platelets contained less plasma (-26.3%) and were significantly richer in platelets (+17.9%). This study investigated the effect of centrifugation on the adhesiveness of the buffy coat to the bag used for whole blood collection. We analysed the mechanism by which this undesirable phenomenon affects the quality of packed red blood cells in two types of bags. We also documented the incomparability of measurements on platelet concentrates performed with different principles of cell counting: this vexing problem has important implications for biomedical research and for the establishment of universal product standards. Our results support the conclusion that the Top & Bottom bags produce components of higher quality than our usual system, while having equal operational efficiency. Use of the new bags could result in an important quality improvement in blood components manufacturing.

  15. Particle Pusher for the Investigation of Wave-Particle Interactions in the Magnetic Centrifugal Mass Filter (MCMF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp-McDowall, Taylor; Ochs, Ian; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2016-10-01

    A particle pusher was constructed in MATLAB using a fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithm to investigate the wave-particle interactions within theoretical models of the MCMF. The model simplified to a radial electric field and a magnetic field focused in the z direction. Studies on an average velocity calculation were conducted in order to test the program's behavior in the large radius limit. The results verified that the particle pusher was behaving correctly. Waves were then simulated on the rotating particles with a periodic divergenceless perturbation in the Bz component of the magnetic field. Preliminary runs indicate an agreement of the particle's motion with analytical predictions-ie. cyclic contractions of the doubly rotating particle's gyroradius.The next stage of the project involves the implementation of particle collisions and turbulence within the particle pusher in order to increase its accuracy and applicability. This will allow for a further investigation of the alpha channeling electrode replacement thesis first proposed by Abraham Fetterman in 2011. Made possible by Grants from the Princeton Environmental Institute (PEI) and the Program for Plasma Science and Technology (PPST).

  16. View of South half of concrete sand bag form concentration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South half of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House Southeast corner, ooking east - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  17. View of North half of concrete sand bag form concentration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of North half of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House southeast corner, looking east - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  18. View of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House Southeast corner, looking north - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  19. Sellers in sleeping bag on the MDDK during STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-17

    S132-E-007710 (17 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Piers Sellers, STS-132 mission specialist, rests in his sleeping bag on the middeck of the space shuttle Atlantis while docked with the International Space Station.

  20. 50 CFR 622.38 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.38 Bag and possession limits. (a) Additional applicability provisions...

  1. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, A.; Chaplin, J. R.; Greaves, D. M.; Hann, M.

    2017-02-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a heave resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape.

  2. A Book, a Bed, a Bag: Interactive Homework for "10"!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merenda, Rose C.

    1995-01-01

    Describes how kindergarten children interacted and documented their experiences with the "There Were Ten in the Bed" storybook bags in the home setting and how the children explored and expressed their conceptions of 10. Includes letter to the family. (MKR)

  3. 5. Photocopy of a section of the bag house from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of a section of the bag house from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. . New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  4. Is the Capsular Bag Perimeter Round or Elliptical?

    PubMed Central

    Amigó, Alfredo; Bonaque-González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report findings that could suggest an elliptical shape of the capsular bag. Methods: Five eyes of three patients with axial length greater than 24 mm underwent phacoemulsification cataract surgery with plate-haptic multifocal toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation oriented in the vertical meridian. Results: In all cases, correct orientation of the IOLs was verified 30 minutes after surgery. After 24 hours, all eyes demonstrated unwanted rotation of the IOLs ranging from 15 to 45 degrees. The IOLs remained stable in the new position in all cases until adhesion of the capsular bag took place. Conclusion: These observations could suggest that the perimeter of the capsular bag has an elliptical shape. Therefore, the IOL tends to become fixated in a meridian of the capsular bag that best fits the diagonal diameter of the IOL. PMID:27413495

  5. Lab Creates 'Fake Vomit' To Test Space Trash Bag

    NASA Image and Video Library

    After answering the question of how the space potty works, astronaut Mike Massimino now visits a NASA lab where chemists have been working hard to develop a next-generation trash bag for future exp...

  6. Transcriptional upregulation of BAG3 upon proteasome inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Huaqin Liu Haimei; Zhang Haiyan; Guan Yifu; Du Zhenxian

    2008-01-11

    Proteasome inhibitors exhibit antitumoral activity against malignancies of different histology. Emerging evidence indicates that antiapoptotic factors may also accumulate as a consequence of exposure to these drugs, thus it seems plausible that activation of survival signaling cascades might compromise their antitumoral effects. Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family proteins are characterized by their property of interaction with a variety of partners involved in modulating the proliferation/death balance, including heat shock proteins (HSP), Bcl-2, Raf-1. In this report, we demonstrated that BAG3 is a novel antiapoptotic molecule induced by proteasome inhibitors in various cancer cells at the transcriptional level. Moreover, we demonstrated that BAG3 knockdown by siRNA sensitized cancer cells to MG132-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that BAG3 induction might represents as an unwanted molecular consequence of utilizing proteasome inhibitors to combat tumors.

  7. Deformation of the Bag Skirt of ACV in Heave Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senba, Hiromitsu; Matsuo, Hideo; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Shintarou; Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito

    A method to predict the change of the cushion pressure and the bag skirt configuration of ACV in heave is proposed. It is a quasistatic analysis based on the analysis of the skirt configuration in static operation that was proposed by the present authors. The cushion pressure depends on the velocity of motion as well as the hoverheight. It is higher in the downward motion than in the upward motion with the same hoverheight. As the model approaches the ground surface, the bag skirt is pushed outwards and also upwards but the hoverheight still decreases. This produces the increase of the cushion pressure that also flattened the configuration of the bag. The outward displacement of the bag produces the additional increase of the cushion base area and increases the restoring force. The stability is then increased.

  8. 76 FR 12700 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... as t- shirt sacks, merchandise bags, grocery bags, or checkout bags. The subject merchandise is defined as non-sealable sacks and bags with handles (including drawstrings), without zippers or integral...-market sales by TPBI that failed the cost-of-production test. Final Results of Review As a result of our...

  9. 75 FR 53953 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... order is PRCBs, which may be referred to as t-shirt sacks, merchandise bags, grocery bags, or checkout bags. The subject merchandise is defined as non- sealable sacks and bags with handles (including... reported, adjusted as described in the ``Cost of Production'' section above. Results of Cost Test and Cost...

  10. The spin bag mechanism of high temperature superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrieffer, J. R.; Wen, X.-G.; Zhang, S.-C.

    1989-01-01

    In oxide superconductors the local suppression of antiferromagnetic correlations in the vicinity of a hole lowers the energy of the system. This quasi two-dimensional bag of weakened spin order follows the hole in its motion. In addition, holes prefer to share a bag, leading to a strong pairing attraction and a high Tc superconductivity. There are many experimental consequences of this mechanism for both the superconducting and normal phases.

  11. Air bags: reducing the toll of brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Jagger, J; Vernberg, K; Jane, J A

    1987-05-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for approximately one-half of all hospitalized patients with brain injury. Therefore, measures to reduce the frequency and severity of injuries from motor vehicle crashes have the potential for making a substantial impact on the incidence and severity of brain trauma. Occupant restraints, including seat belts and air bags, have been proven highly effective in preventing injuries, yet the specific benefits for the brain, the face, and the cervical spine provided by air bags have not been widely publicized. Air bags prevent the violent whiplash motion of the head in a frontal crash, resulting in a more controlled deceleration of the brain. Wrenching forces exerted on the cervical spine are attenuated, and the face is protected from contact with hard or lacerating surfaces. Furthermore, compliance is not a problem with air bags. When a car is equipped with air bags, they are in effect 100% of the time, which is important for the protection of high risk groups, such a teenage boys, who tend to wear seat belts less often than other groups. It is estimated from national data and from epidemiological studies that air bags could have prevented or reduced brain injury for 25% of the hospitalized, brain-injured population. If provided as standard equipment on both the driver and the passenger side, air bags could do more to reduce the toll of brain trauma than any other available intervention. Air bags were ready for introduction into the marketplace 15 years ago. Since then, approximately 150,000 preventable deaths and more than 1,500,000 preventable brain injuries have occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Sydney contained in bag morcellation for laparoscopic myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Kanade, Trupti Tanaji; McKenna, Joanne B; Choi, Sarah; Tsai, Brian P; Rosen, David M; Cario, Gregory M; Chou, Danny

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate a new technique of contained in bag morcellation of a myoma after laparoscopic myomectomy. Step-by-step explanation of the technique in a narrated video. Contained In Bag Morcellation of myoma after laparoscopic myomectomy. Recent controversy regarding the risk of disseminating occult leiomyosarcomatous tissue during morcellation means we need to revise our current approach to tissue extraction at laparoscopic myomectomy and morcellation in general. Herein we present a novel technique, conceived by Dr. Danny Chou, called the Sydney Contained In Bag Morcellation technique for laparoscopic myomectomy. In this technique an EndoCatch bag (EndoCatch II Auto Suture Specimen Retrieval Pouch; Covidien, Mansfield, MA) is introduced in the typical fashion, the myoma is retrieved, and the mouth of the bag is exteriorized onto the abdominal wall. A 12-mm trocar is then introduced within the bag, and pneumoperitoneum is created before introducing an optical balloon tip port (KII Balloon Blunt Tip System; Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA) and the power morcellator device. Morcellation is then performed within the bag, under direct vision. This technique may offer a safer approach to morcellation because the bowel is not within the morcellation field and there is lower risk of disseminating occult leiomyosarcomatous tissue during morcellation. Subsequent to the morcellation process, suctioning of the bag removes any aerosolized particles of myoma, further minimizing the risk of possible dissemination. This technique may enable a minimally invasive approach to myomectomy to continue as a viable option in the era since the warning by the US Food and Drug Administration. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST AT NORTH END OF CENTRAL CORRIDOR (ROOM 3). STAIRWAY WORKBENCH WITH COMPRESSED-AIR POWERED CARTRIDGE LOADER. ARMORED PASS-THROUGH OF TRANSFER BOX FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES MATERIALS THROUGH TO NEXT ROOM TO THE NORTH. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  14. [Effects of bagging on the fruit quality in Litchi chinensis fruit and pesticide residues in it].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianwu; Chen, Houbing; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Xinming

    2003-05-01

    Different color bags were used to cover Litchi chinensis fruit to study the effects of bagging on its quality and pesticide residues. The results showed that bagging significantly improved the fruit color. Using bagging techniques, the I and II class fruit was accounted for 57.87% to 81.57%, 30% higher than that of control, and the weight per fruit increased significantly. Among the color bags used, white bag was the best. When the end of the bag was opened, it was benefit for decease control, but not good for pest control. When the end of the bag was closed, it was good for pest control, but bad for decease control. Bagging had no effects on the taste of Litchi chinensis fruit, but might increase the residues of fenpropathrin and trichlorphon. More study should to be carried out to select the suitable pesticides accompanied with bagging techniques.

  15. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites.

  16. Driver air bag effectiveness by severity of the crash.

    PubMed Central

    Segui-Gomez, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This analysis provided effectiveness estimates of the driver-side air bag while controlling for severity of the crash and other potential confounders. METHODS: Data were from the National Automotive Sampling System (1993-1996). Injury severity was described on the basis of the Abbreviated Injury Scale, Injury Severity Score, Functional Capacity Index, and survival. Ordinal, linear, and logistic multivariate regression methods were used. RESULTS: Air bag deployment in frontal or near-frontal crashes decreases the probability of having severe and fatal injuries (e.g., Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 4-6), including those causing a long-lasting high degree of functional limitation. However, air bag deployment in low-severity crashes increases the probability that a driver (particularly a woman) will sustain injuries of Abbreviated Injury Scale level 1 to 3. Air bag deployment exerts a net injurious effect in low-severity crashes and a net protective effect in high-severity crashes. The level of crash severity at which air bags are protective is higher for female than for male drivers. CONCLUSIONS: Air bag improvement should minimize the injuries induced by their deployment. One possibility is to raise their deployment level so that they deploy only in more severe crashes. PMID:11029991

  17. Vector Interaction Enhanced Bag Model for Astrophysical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klähn, Thomas; Fischer, Tobias

    2015-09-01

    For quark matter studies in astrophysics the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG) has been widely used. Despite its success it fails to account for various phenomena expected from QCD. We suggest a straightforward extension of tdBAG in order to take the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry and the influence of vector interactions explicitly into account. As for tdBAG the model mimics confinement in a phenomenological approach. It is based on an analysis of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at finite density. Furthermore, we demonstrate how NJL and bag models in this regime follow from the more general and QCD-based framework of the Dyson-Schwinger equations in a medium by assuming simple gluon contact interaction. Based on our simple and novel model, we construct quark hadron hybrid equations of state and systematically study chiral and deconfinement phase transitions, the appearance of s-quarks, and the role of vector interaction. We further study these aspects for matter in β-equilibrium at zero temperature, with particular focus on the current ˜2 {M}⊙ maximum mass constraint for neutron stars. Our approach indicates that the currently only theoretical evidence for the hypothesis of stable strange matter is an artifact of tdBAG and results from neglecting the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry.

  18. Peepoo bag: self-sanitising single use biodegradable toilet.

    PubMed

    Vinnerås, Björn; Hedenkvist, Mikael; Nordin, Annika; Wilhelmson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene together with deficient nutritional status are major contributors to the global burden of disease. Safe collection, disposal and reuse of human excreta would enable the risk of transmission of diseases to be decreased and household food security to be increased in many regions. However, the majority of the 2.5 billion people lacking improved sanitation comprise poor people in societies with weak infrastructure. This study developed a low cost sanitation option requiring little investment and maintenance--a single use, self-sanitising, biodegradable toilet (Peepoo bag) and tested it for smell, degradability and hygiene aspects. It was found that no smell was detectable from a 25 microm thick bag filled with faeces during 24 h in a 10 m2 room at 30 degrees C. Bags that had been in contact with urea-treated faeces or urine for 2 months in air, compost or water at 24 or 37 degrees C showed little signs of degradation. Furthermore, pathogen inactivation modelling of the 4 g of urea present in the bag indicated that appropriate sanitation of faecal material collected is achieved in the bag within 2-4 weeks, after which the bag can be degraded and reused as fertiliser.

  19. Flow visualization around an apple with and without bagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kubota, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Mochizuki, O.

    2017-04-01

    The typhoon often causes the vast damage to drop the apple before harvest. Many apples fall from trees by the strong wind. These apples are usually bagged to protect them from insects and control sun light for the apples colouring while they are ripening on the tree. We directly measured the drag force acting on an apple with and without bagging experimentally to bare the influence of the bagging on the dropping mechanism. There are two interesting results through the experiment: the drag coefficient of a naked apple is smaller than a sphere, and the bagging is a cause of increasing drag coefficient. To know the reason of these results, we visualized flow around the apple with and without bagging by using the hydrogen bubbles method in an open water channel in this study. We found two facts as follows: the hollow on the top of an apple plays reduction of width of the wake of an apple and reason of increasing the wake width is the flow separation from peripheral edge of the bagging.

  20. Cancellous bone homograft storage with aluminium-polyethylene bags.

    PubMed

    Meana, A; Martinez, R; Cañal, P; Arriaga, M J; Román, F San; Llames, S; Orós, C; Moreno, A; Fernandez, C

    2006-01-01

    In order to transport and cryopreserve human tissues, it is essential to have an easy-to-use recipient where tissues can be kept in sterile conditions. Here we show the results obtained by using Macopharma's tissue freezing bags, an aluminium-polyethylene multilayer bag, in our tissue bank of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos de Asturias. Five hundred and twenty-seven cancellous bone homografts were obtained from hospitals located 120 km around our Bank. The homografts were submitted to bacteriological controls and sent to our bank in these bags. They were stored at -70 degrees C and sent in dry ice to about 50 hospitals, where the tissue was bacteriologically controlled and grafted. Furthermore, the behaviour of these bags at -140 degrees C (vapour nitrogen) or -196 degrees C (liquid nitrogen) was tested. Our results indicate that Macopharma aluminium-polyethylene bags are suitable for the transporting and cryopreserving of cancellous bone homografts. These bags could also be used for keeping tissues in nitrogen containers.