ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Malcolm
2009-01-01
Inversions are fascinating phenomena. They are reversals of the normal or expected order. They occur across a wide variety of contexts. What do inversions have to do with learning spaces? The author suggests that they are a useful metaphor for the process that is unfolding in higher education with respect to education. On the basis of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Malcolm
2009-01-01
Inversions are fascinating phenomena. They are reversals of the normal or expected order. They occur across a wide variety of contexts. What do inversions have to do with learning spaces? The author suggests that they are a useful metaphor for the process that is unfolding in higher education with respect to education. On the basis of…
Neves, J; Cardoso, E; Araújo, C; Santo, S; Gonçalves, P; Melo, A; Rodrigues, R; Coelho, A Pereira
2006-01-01
The uterine inversion is a rare but serious pathology of the delivery. We describe two cases of uterine inversion of secondary and quaternary degree; the first had a delay diagnosis and the second having a return after the manual replacement, finishing both on surgical resolution. The authors describe the causal factors, the diagnosis and the therapeutic of uterine inversion.
Dirken, J J; Vlaanderen, W
1994-01-01
Inversion of the uterus is a rare complication of childbirth. A primigravida aged 21 and a multigravida aged 32, hospitalized as emergency cases because of inversion of the uterus with major blood loss, were treated with infusion of liquids (to combat shock), repositioning of the uterus under anaesthesia and prevention of reinversion by uterine tonics. Inversion of the uterus should be part of the differential diagnosis in every case of fluxus post partum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergienko, Olga
2013-04-01
Since Doug MacAyeal's pioneering studies of the ice-stream basal traction optimizations by control methods, inversions for unknown parameters (e.g., basal traction, accumulation patterns, etc) have become a hallmark of the present-day ice-sheet modeling. The common feature of such inversion exercises is a direct relationship between optimized parameters and observations used in the optimization procedure. For instance, in the standard optimization for basal traction by the control method, ice-stream surface velocities constitute the control data. The optimized basal traction parameters explicitly appear in the momentum equations for the ice-stream velocities (compared to the control data). The inversion for basal traction is carried out by minimization of the cost (or objective, misfit) function that includes the momentum equations facilitated by the Lagrange multipliers. Here, we build upon this idea, and demonstrate how to optimize for parameters indirectly related to observed data using a suite of nested constraints (like Russian dolls) with additional sets of Lagrange multipliers in the cost function. This method opens the opportunity to use data from a variety of sources and types (e.g., velocities, radar layers, surface elevation changes, etc.) in the same optimization process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Anish; Chatterjee, Souvick; Ganguly, Ranjan; Sen, Swarnendu; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Boreyko, Jonathan
2014-11-01
We have observed that capillarity forces may cause floatation in a few non-intuitive configurations. These may be divided into 2 categories: i) floatation of heavier liquid droplets on lighter immiscible ones and ii) fully submerged floatation of lighter liquid droplets in a heavier immiscible medium. We call these counter-intuitive because of the inverse floatation configuration. For case (i) we have identified and studied in detail the several factors affecting the shape and maximum volume of the floating drop. We used water and vegetable oil combinations as test fluids and established the relation between Bond Number and maximum volume contained in a floating drop (in the order of μL). For case (ii), we injected vegetable oil drop-wise into a pool of water. The fully submerged configuration of the drop is not stable and a slight perturbation to the system causes the droplet to burst and float in partially submerged condition. Temporal variation of a characteristic length of the droplet is analyzed using MATLAB image processing. The constraint of small Bond Number establishes the assumption of lubrication regime in the thin gap. A brief theoretical formulation also shows the temporal variation of the gap thickness. Jadavpur University, Jagadis Bose Centre of Excellence, Virginia Tech.
Locative Inversion in Cantonese.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mok, Sui-Sang
This study investigates the phenomenon of "Locative Inversion" in Cantonese. The term "Locative Inversion" indicates that the locative phrase (LP) syntactic process in Cantonese and the appears at the sentence-initial position and its logical subject occurs postverbally. It is demonstrated that this Locative Inversion is a…
Bédard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal
2004-07-01
Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an "auditory face" rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a "voice inversion effect," by analogy to the classical "face inversion effect," which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted of a gender identification task on two syllables pronounced by 90 speakers (boys, girls, men, and women). Experiment 2 consisted of a speaker discrimination task on pairs of syllables (8 men and 8 women). Experiment 3 consisted of an instrument discrimination task on pairs of melodies (8 string and 8 wind instruments). In all three experiments, stimuli were presented in 4 conditions: (1) no inversion; (2) temporal inversion (e.g., backwards speech); (3) frequency inversion centered around 4000 Hz; and (4) around 2500 Hz. Results indicated a significant decrease in performance caused by sound inversion, with a much stronger effect for frequency than for temporal inversion. Interestingly, although frequency inversion markedly affected timbre for both voices and instruments, subjects' performance was still above chance. However, performance at instrument discrimination was much higher than for voices, preventing comparison of inversion effects for voices vs. non-vocal stimuli. Additional experiments will be necessary to conclude on the existence of a possible "voice inversion effect."
MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; STRAKA, PETER
2013-01-01
The inverse stable subordinator provides a probability model for time-fractional differential equations, and leads to explicit solution formulae. This paper reviews properties of the inverse stable subordinator, and applications to a variety of problems in mathematics and physics. Several different governing equations for the inverse stable subordinator have been proposed in the literature. This paper also shows how these equations can be reconciled. PMID:25045216
Teaching about Inverse Functions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Esty, Warren
2005-01-01
In their sections on inverses most precalculus texts emphasize an algorithm for finding f [superscript -1] given f. However, inspection of precalculus and calculus texts shows that students will never again use the algorithm, which suggests the textbook emphasis may be misplaced. Inverses appear primarily when equations need to be solved, which…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal
2004-01-01
Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal
2004-01-01
Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackiewicz, Jason
2009-09-01
With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.
Jackiewicz, Jason
2009-09-16
With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.
Dewpoint temperature inversions analyzed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashby, W. C.; Bogner, M. A.; Moses, H.
1969-01-01
Dewpoint temperature inversion, with regard to other simultaneous meteorological conditions, was examined to establish the influence of meteorological variables on the variation of dewpoint temperature with height. This report covers instrumentation and available data, all the climatological features of dewpoint inversions, and specific special cases.
The inverse electroencephalography pipeline
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinstein, David Michael
The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.
'Inverse' temporomandibular joint dislocation.
Alemán Navas, R M; Martínez Mendoza, M G
2011-08-01
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation can be classified into four groups (anterior, posterior, lateral, and superior) depending on the direction of displacement and the location of the condylar head. All the groups are rare except for anterior dislocation. 'Inverse' TMJ dislocation is a bilateral anterior and superior dislocation with impaction of the mandible over the maxilla; to the authors' knowledge only two cases have previously been reported in the literature. Inverse TMJ dislocation has unique clinical and radiographic findings, which are described for this case. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1990-09-01
4 PHASE III: CHARACTERIZATION .......... .,. ........... * . 4 Task 1 . Inverse GLC of Selected Lots of R-45M ...................... 4 Task 2 ...129 Phase 1 %, Task 2 . Chain Branching ................. 136 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ... ,.........oa. * s *..... .* 136 REFERENCES...o*, *..... .*.......* . . *. . .,,. *... .. 45 33 Enthalpies of Solution -AI9s/kJ mol 1 for Listed Probe Solutes with lndicated Lots of Poly bd R
Inverse heat conduction problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlande, Helcio Rangel Barreto
We present the solution of the following inverse problems: (1) Inverse Problem of Estimating Interface Conductance Between Periodically Contacting Surfaces; (2) Inverse Problem of Estimating Interface Conductance During Solidification via Conjugate Gradient Method; (3) Determination of the Reaction Function in a Reaction-Diffusion Parabolic Problem; and (4) Simultaneous Estimation of Thermal Diffusivity and Relaxation Time with Hyperbolic Heat Conduction Model. Also, we present the solution of a direct problem entitled: Transient Thermal Constriction Resistance in a Finite Heat Flux Tube. The Conjugate Gradient Method with Adjoint Equation was used in chapters 1-3. The more general function estimation approach was treated in these chapters. In chapter 1, we solve the inverse problem of estimating the timewise variation of the interface conductance between periodically contacting solids, under quasi-steady-state conditions. The present method is found to be more accurate than the B-Spline approach for situations involving small periods, which are the most difficult on which to perform the inverse analysis. In chapter 2, we estimate the timewise variation of the interface conductance between casting and mold during the solidification of aluminum. The experimental apparatus used in this study is described. In chapter 3, we present the estimation of the reaction function in a one dimensional parabolic problem. A comparison of the present function estimation approach with the parameter estimation technique, wing B-Splines to approximate the reaction function, revealed that the use of function estimation reduces the computer time requirements. In chapter 4 we present a finite difference solution for the transient constriction resistance in a cylinder of finite length with a circular contact surface. A numerical grid generation scheme was used to concentrate grid points in the regions of high temperature gradients in order to reduce discretization errors. In chapter 6, we
Multichannel sparse spike inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereg, Deborah; Cohen, Israel; Vassiliou, Anthony A.
2017-10-01
In this paper, we address the problem of sparse multichannel seismic deconvolution. We introduce multichannel sparse spike inversion as an iterative procedure, which deconvolves the seismic data and recovers the Earth two-dimensional reflectivity image, while taking into consideration the relations between spatially neighboring traces. We demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed algorithm and its robustness to noise, compared to competitive single-channel algorithm through simulations and real seismic data examples.
Intersections, ideals, and inversion
Vasco, D.W.
1998-10-01
Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly onedimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons.
[Total inversion of the uterus].
Novachkov, V; Baltadzhieva, B; Ilieva, A; Rachev, E
2008-01-01
Non puerperal inversion of the uterus is very uncommon. Patients may present with pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding or hemodynamic shock. We report a fifty five old woman with uterus inversion second stage.
Inverse Functions and their Derivatives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snapper, Ernst
1990-01-01
Presented is a method of interchanging the x-axis and y-axis for viewing the graph of the inverse function. Discussed are the inverse function and the usual proofs that are used for the function. (KR)
Optimization based inversion method for the inverse heat conduction problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Huaiping; Li, Jingtao; Wang, Xueyao; Liu, Shi
2017-05-01
Precise estimation of the thermal physical properties of materials, boundary conditions, heat flux distributions, heat sources and initial conditions is highly desired for real-world applications. The inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) analysis method provides an alternative approach for acquiring such parameters. The effectiveness of the inversion algorithm plays an important role in practical applications of the IHCP method. Different from traditional inversion models, in this paper a new inversion model that simultaneously highlights the measurement errors and the inaccurate properties of the forward problem is proposed to improve the inversion accuracy and robustness. A generalized cost function is constructed to convert the original IHCP into an optimization problem. An iterative scheme that splits a complicated optimization problem into several simpler sub-problems and integrates the superiorities of the alternative optimization method and the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) algorithm is developed for solving the proposed cost function. Numerical experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed inversion method.
Hicks, H.R.; Dory, R.A.; Holmes, J.A.
1983-01-01
We illustrate in some detail a 2D inverse-equilibrium solver that was constructed to analyze tokamak configurations and stellarators (the latter in the context of the average method). To ensure that the method is suitable not only to determine equilibria, but also to provide appropriately represented data for existing stability codes, it is important to be able to control the Jacobian, tilde J is identical to delta(R,Z)/delta(rho, theta). The form chosen is tilde J = J/sub 0/(rho)R/sup l/rho where rho is a flux surface label, and l is an integer. The initial implementation is for a fixed conducting-wall boundary, but the technique can be extended to a free-boundary model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ostro, Steven J.; Connelly, Robert
1987-01-01
One of the most fundamental physical properties of any asteroid is its shape. Lightcurves provide the only source of shape information for most asteroids. Unfortunately, the functional form of a lightcurve is determined by the viewing/illumination geometry and the asteroid's light scattering characteristics as well as its shape, and in general it is impossible to determine an asteroid's shape from lightcurves. A technique called convex-profile inversion (CPI) that obtains a convex profile, P, from any lightcurve is introduced. If certain ideal conditions are satisfied, then P is an estimator for the asteroid's mean cross section, C, a convex set defined as the average of all cross sections C(z) cut by planes a distance z above the asteroids's equatorial plane. C is therefore a 2-D average of the asteroid's 3-D shape.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suortti, Pekka
2016-04-01
A novel concept for a high resolution Compton spectrometer is introduced. 88 keV radiation from an Inverse Compton Compact Source is focused using crossed cylindrically bent Laue-type Si perfect crystals, and dispersed on the sample with a constant energy gradient. Dispersion is compensated exactly at a Ge crystal analyzer, so that the same wavelength shift is observed for all wavelengths of the incident beam. The ThomX source is used as a concrete example. Detailed dimensions and flux estimates at successive locations of the spectrometer are given, and the performance is compared with the dispersion compensating spectrometer at ID15 of the ESRF. The momentum resolution is better than 0.1 atomic units in both cases. The intensity of scattering with the compact source is an order of magnitude smaller, but still adequate for high resolution Compton profile measurements.
Inverse magnetorheological fluids.
Rodríguez-Arco, L; López-López, M T; Zubarev, A Y; Gdula, K; Durán, J D G
2014-09-07
We report a new kind of field-responsive fluid consisting of suspensions of diamagnetic (DM) and ferromagnetic (FM) microparticles in ferrofluids. We designate them as inverse magnetorheological (IMR) fluids for analogy with inverse ferrofluids (IFFs). Observations on the particle self-assembly in IMR fluids upon magnetic field application showed that DM and FM microparticles were assembled into alternating chains oriented along the field direction. We explain such assembly on the basis of the dipolar interaction energy between particles. We also present results on the rheological properties of IMR fluids and, for comparison, those of IFFs and bidispersed magnetorheological (MR) fluids. Interestingly, we found that upon magnetic field application, the rheological properties of IMR fluids were enhanced with respect to bidispersed MR fluids with the same FM particle concentration, by an amount greater than the sum of the isolated contribution of DM particles. Furthermore, the field-induced yield stress was moderately increased when up to 30% of the total FM particle content was replaced with DM particles. Beyond this point, the dependence of the yield stress on the DM content was non-monotonic, as expected for FM concentrations decreasing to zero. We explain these synergistic results by two separate phenomena: the formation of exclusion areas for FM particles due to the perturbation of the magnetic field by DM particles and the dipole-dipole interaction between DM and FM particles, which enhances the field-induced structures. Based on the second phenomenon, we present a theoretical model for the yield stress that semi-quantitatively predicts the experimental results.
Wavelet Sparse Approximate Inverse Preconditioners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, Tony F.; Tang, W.-P.; Wan, W. L.
1996-01-01
There is an increasing interest in using sparse approximate inverses as preconditioners for Krylov subspace iterative methods. Recent studies of Grote and Huckle and Chow and Saad also show that sparse approximate inverse preconditioner can be effective for a variety of matrices, e.g. Harwell-Boeing collections. Nonetheless a drawback is that it requires rapid decay of the inverse entries so that sparse approximate inverse is possible. However, for the class of matrices that, come from elliptic PDE problems, this assumption may not necessarily hold. Our main idea is to look for a basis, other than the standard one, such that a sparse representation of the inverse is feasible. A crucial observation is that the kind of matrices we are interested in typically have a piecewise smooth inverse. We exploit this fact, by applying wavelet techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse in the wavelet basis. We shall justify theoretically and numerically that our approach is effective for matrices with smooth inverse. We emphasize that in this paper we have only presented the idea of wavelet approximate inverses and demonstrated its potential but have not yet developed a highly refined and efficient algorithm.
Inverse problem in hydrogeology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.
2005-03-01
The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le
Modular theory of inverse systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
The relationship between multivariable zeros and inverse systems was explored. A definition of zero module is given in such a way that it is basis independent. The existence of essential right and left inverses were established. The way in which the abstract zero module captured previous definitions of multivariable zeros is explained and examples are presented.
Inversion exercises inspired by mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groetsch, C. W.
2016-02-01
An elementary calculus transform, inspired by the centroid and gyration radius, is introduced as a prelude to the study of more advanced transforms. Analysis of the transform, including its inversion, makes use of several key concepts from basic calculus and exercises in the application and inversion of the transform provide practice in the use of technology in calculus.
Reed, Catherine L; Stone, Valerie E; Bozova, Senia; Tanaka, James
2003-07-01
Researchers argue that faces are recognized via the configuration of their parts. An important behavioral finding supporting this claim is the face-inversion effect, in which inversion impairs recognition of faces more than nonface objects. Until recently, faces were the only class of objects producing the inversion effect for untrained individuals. This study investigated whether the inversion effect extends to human body positions, a class of objects whose exemplars are structurally similar to each other. Three experiments compared the recognition of upright and inverted faces, houses, and body positions using a forced-choice, same/different paradigm. For both reaction time and error data, the recognition of possible human body postures was more affected by inversion than the recognition of houses. Further, the recognition of possible human body postures and recognition of faces showed similar effects of inversion. The inversion effect was diminished for impossible body positions that violated the biomechanical constraints of human bodies. These data suggest that human body positions, like faces, may be processed configurally by untrained viewers.
A Generalization of the Spherical Inversion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramírez, José L.; Rubiano, Gustavo N.
2017-01-01
In the present article, we introduce a generalization of the spherical inversion. In particular, we define an inversion with respect to an ellipsoid, and prove several properties of this new transformation. The inversion in an ellipsoid is the generalization of the elliptic inversion to the three-dimensional space. We also study the inverse images…
A Generalization of the Spherical Inversion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramírez, José L.; Rubiano, Gustavo N.
2017-01-01
In the present article, we introduce a generalization of the spherical inversion. In particular, we define an inversion with respect to an ellipsoid, and prove several properties of this new transformation. The inversion in an ellipsoid is the generalization of the elliptic inversion to the three-dimensional space. We also study the inverse images…
Inverse problems in mathematical physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glasko, V. B.
Procedures for the correct formulation and solution of inverse problems, which usually belong to the class of ill-posed problems, are discussed. Attention is given to the concept of the conditionally correct statement of a problem, the concept of quasi-solution, and the fundamentals of regularization theory. The discussion also covers the uniqueness of solutions to inverse problems in mathematical physics, with consideration given to problems involving layered media, impedance problems, gravimetric problems, and inverse problems of heat conduction. The problem of stability and regularizing operators are also discussed.
Inversion layer MOS solar cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ho, Fat Duen
1986-01-01
Inversion layer (IL) Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) solar cells were fabricated. The fabrication technique and problems are discussed. A plan for modeling IL cells is presented. Future work in this area is addressed.
Testing Earthquake Source Inversion Methodologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Page, Morgan; Mai, P. Martin; Schorlemmer, Danijel
2011-03-01
Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquake-related computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.
Temperature Inversions Have Cold Bottoms.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bohren, Craig F.; Brown, Gail M.
1982-01-01
Uses discussion and illustrations of several demonstrations on air temperature differences and atmospheric stability to explain the phenomena of temperature inversions. Relates this to the smog in Los Angeles and discusses the implications. (DC)
Mahan, G. D.
2014-09-21
We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahan, G. D.
2014-09-01
We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.
Temperature Inversions Have Cold Bottoms.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bohren, Craig F.; Brown, Gail M.
1982-01-01
Uses discussion and illustrations of several demonstrations on air temperature differences and atmospheric stability to explain the phenomena of temperature inversions. Relates this to the smog in Los Angeles and discusses the implications. (DC)
Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies
Page, M.; Mai, P.M.; Schorlemmer, D.
2011-01-01
Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.
Inversion-symmetric topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, Taylor L.; Prodan, Emil; Bernevig, B. Andrei
2011-06-01
We analyze translationally invariant insulators with inversion symmetry that fall outside the current established classification of topological insulators. These insulators exhibit no edge or surface modes in the energy spectrum and hence they are not edge metals when the Fermi level is in the bulk gap. However, they do exhibit protected modes in the entanglement spectrum localized on the cut between two entangled regions. Their entanglement entropy cannot be made to vanish adiabatically, and hence the insulators can be called topological. There is a direct connection between the inversion eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian band structure and the midgap states in the entanglement spectrum. The classification of protected entanglement levels is given by an integer N, which is the difference between the negative inversion eigenvalues at inversion symmetric points in the Brillouin zone, taken in sets of 2. When the Hamiltonian describes a Chern insulator or a nontrivial time-reversal invariant topological insulator, the entirety of the entanglement spectrum exhibits spectral flow. If the Chern number is zero for the former, or time reversal is broken in the latter, the entanglement spectrum does not have spectral flow, but, depending on the inversion eigenvalues, can still exhibit protected midgap bands similar to impurity bands in normal semiconductors. Although spectral flow is broken (implying the absence of real edge or surface modes in the original Hamiltonian), the midgap entanglement bands cannot be adiabatically removed, and the insulator is “topological.” We analyze the linear response of these insulators and provide proofs and examples of when the inversion eigenvalues determine a nontrivial charge polarization, a quantum Hall effect, an anisotropic three-dimensional (3D) quantum Hall effect, or a magnetoelectric polarization. In one dimension, we establish a link between the product of the inversion eigenvalues of all occupied bands at all inversion
Inversion Algorithms for Geophysical Problems
1987-12-16
ktdud* Sccumy Oass/Kjoon) Inversion Algorithms for Geophysical Problems (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lanzano, Paolo 13 «. TYPE OF REPORT Final 13b...spectral density. 20. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 13 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED D SAME AS RPT n OTIC USERS 22a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...Research Laboratory ’^^ SSZ ’.Washington. DC 20375-5000 NRLrMemorandum Report-6138 Inversion Algorithms for Geophysical Problems p. LANZANO Space
Computation of inverse magnetic cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, D.
1981-01-01
Inverse cascades of magnetic quantities for turbulent incompressible magnetohydrodynamics are reviewed, for two and three dimensions. The theory is extended to the Strauss equations, a description intermediate between two and three dimensions appropriate to Tokamak magnetofluids. Consideration of the absolute equilibrium Gibbs ensemble for the system leads to a prediction of an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which may manifest itself as a major disruption. An agenda for computational investigation of this conjecture is proposed.
EDITORIAL: Inverse Problems in Engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, Robert M.; Lesnic, Daniel
2007-01-01
Presented here are 11 noteworthy papers selected from the Fifth International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice held in Cambridge, UK during 11-15 July 2005. The papers have been peer-reviewed to the usual high standards of this journal and the contributions of reviewers are much appreciated. The conference featured a good balance of the fundamental mathematical concepts of inverse problems with a diverse range of important and interesting applications, which are represented here by the selected papers. Aspects of finite-element modelling and the performance of inverse algorithms are investigated by Autrique et al and Leduc et al. Statistical aspects are considered by Emery et al and Watzenig et al with regard to Bayesian parameter estimation and inversion using particle filters. Electrostatic applications are demonstrated by van Berkel and Lionheart and also Nakatani et al. Contributions to the applications of electrical techniques and specifically electrical tomographies are provided by Wakatsuki and Kagawa, Kim et al and Kortschak et al. Aspects of inversion in optical tomography are investigated by Wright et al and Douiri et al. The authors are representative of the worldwide interest in inverse problems relating to engineering applications and their efforts in producing these excellent papers will be appreciated by many readers of this journal.
Multidimensional NMR inversion without Kronecker products: Multilinear inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medellín, David; Ravi, Vivek R.; Torres-Verdín, Carlos
2016-08-01
Multidimensional NMR inversion using Kronecker products poses several challenges. First, kernel compression is only possible when the kernel matrices are separable, and in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in NMR sequences with non-separable kernels. Second, in three or more dimensions, the singular value decomposition is not unique; therefore kernel compression is not well-defined for higher dimensions. Without kernel compression, the Kronecker product yields matrices that require large amounts of memory, making the inversion intractable for personal computers. Finally, incorporating arbitrary regularization terms is not possible using the Lawson-Hanson (LH) or the Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithms. We develop a minimization-based inversion method that circumvents the above problems by using multilinear forms to perform multidimensional NMR inversion without using kernel compression or Kronecker products. The new method is memory efficient, requiring less than 0.1% of the memory required by the LH or BRD methods. It can also be extended to arbitrary dimensions and adapted to include non-separable kernels, linear constraints, and arbitrary regularization terms. Additionally, it is easy to implement because only a cost function and its first derivative are required to perform the inversion.
Inversion strategies for visco-acoustic waveform inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamei, R.; Pratt, R. G.
2013-08-01
Visco-acoustic waveform inversion can potentially yield quantitative images of the distribution of both velocity and the attenuation parameters from seismic data. Intrinsic P-wave attenuation has been of particular interest, but has also proven challenging. Frequency-domain inversion allows attenuation and velocity relations to be easily incorporated, and allows a natural multiscale approach. The Laplace-Fourier approach extends this to allow the natural damping of waveforms to enhance early arrivals. Nevertheless, simultaneous inversion of velocity and attenuation leads to significant `cross-talk' between the resulting images, reflecting a lack of parameter resolution and indicating the need for pre-conditioning and regularization of the inverse problem. We analyse the cross-talk issue by partitioning the inversion parameters into two classes; the velocity parameter class, and the attenuation parameter class. Both parameters are defined at a reference frequency, and a dispersion relation is assumed that describes these parameters at any other frequency. We formulate the model gradients at a forward modelling frequency, and convert them to the reference frequency by employing the Jacobian of the coordinate change represented by the dispersion relation. We show that at a given modelling frequency, the Fréchet derivatives corresponding to these two parameter classes differ only by a 90° phase shift, meaning that the magnitudes of resulting model updates will be unscaled, and will not reflect the expected magnitudes in realistic (Q-1 ≪ 1) media. Due to the lack of scaling, cross-talk will be enhanced by poor subsurface illumination, by errors in kinematics, and by data noise. To solve these issues, we introduce an attenuation scaling term (the inverse of a penalty term) that is used to pre-condition the gradient by controlling the magnitudes of the updates to the attenuation parameters. Initial results from a suite of synthetic cross-hole tests using a three
Some Phenomena on Negative Inversion Constructions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sung, Tae-Soo
2013-01-01
We examine the characteristics of NDI (negative degree inversion) and its relation with other inversion phenomena such as SVI (subject-verb inversion) and SAI (subject-auxiliary inversion). The negative element in the NDI construction may be" not," a negative adverbial, or a negative verb. In this respect, NDI has similar licensing…
The representation and computation of generalized inverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, Xingping; Chen, Guoliang; Gong, Yi
2008-03-01
This paper presents a novel representation for the generalized inverse . Based on this, we give an algorithm to compute this generalized inverse. As an application, we use Gauss-Jordan elimination to compute the weighted Moore-Penrose inverse and the Drazin inverse Ad.
Optimization and geophysical inverse problems
Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.
2000-10-01
A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness
Geochron Inversion of Magnetotelluric data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craven, J. A.; Roots, E.; Rainbird, R.
2016-12-01
A new constrained inversion scheme is proposed whereby model smoothness is evaluated in a time stratigraphic approach. In a standard inversion scheme, the model space is parameterized such that the three dimensions represent spatial dimensions. In time stratigraphy, or more specifically within its mathematical formulation termed the Geo-Chronological (aka GeoChron) space, the model consists of two horizontal dimension coupled with a vertical time dimension. In Geochron space, the model is constrained such that units are smooth in the horizontal directions at the time of their deposition if subsequent tectonic movement is removed. We have modified Occam 2d to work in Geochron space and present tests using 1) synthetic magnetotelluric data from a range of simple test scenarios and and 2) real data collected in sedimentary basin in northern Canada. The results are promising and provide a new framework to guide the incorporation of stratigraphic data into an inversion.
Seismic constraints in magnetotelluric inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandolesi, E.; Jones, A. G.
2010-12-01
Non-uniqueness is one of the least governable features in inversion of geophysical data, and magnetotelluric models obtained from inversion are dramatically affected by problems of non-uniqueness. In order to reduce the dimension of acceptable model space in which the inversion model is selected, several solutions have been proposed with different degree of success, usually by introducing some regularization terms in the defined objective function. In our present scheme, information from a seismic inversion is integrated in the inversion process in order to reduce non-uniqueness of solutions and to improve the robustness of the inversion results. The inversion scheme is implemented by including in the objective function a term that maximizes the mutual information between the reference (in this case seismic) model and the electromagnetic model, so that it is possible to plot an empirical histogram that maps phase velocity in electrical conductivity in the considered profile. In probability and information theory the mutual information of two random variables is a quantity that measures their mutual dependence. Given a reference image, in this work a seismic profile, and a second image which needs to be put in the same coordinate system as the reference image, this image is deformed until the mutual information between it and the reference image is maximized. In this way the inversion scheme is driven to fit magnetotelluric data and to take the most possible advantage from seismic information available from the profile. Using this approach it is possible to use a linearized inversion scheme to invert data from a highly non-linear problem like magnetotellurics, keeping it in its whole complexity and obtaining results that allows appreciation of the empirical coupling between the reference image and the obtained (MT) model. Any reference model can be used in our approach during the inversion process, making this scheme suitable to use a reference model produced by a
An inverse shock response spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brake, M. R.
2011-10-01
The shock response spectrum (SRS) is a tool commonly used by application engineers that characterizes the severity of a transient acceleration. Due to the definition of the SRS, neither an analytical nor a unique inverse exists for an arbitrary function. An SRS presented without any temporal information makes creating a corresponding acceleration time history for an experimental or numerical study prohibitively difficult without a rigorous method to determine an inverse of the SRS (a corresponding time history). The present work develops a method to calculate an inverse of an arbitrary SRS using three sets of well characterized basis functions: an impulse function, a sine function/damped sine function, and a modified Morlet wavelet. These three basis functions are specifically chosen for the properties of their transformations: the impulse introduces a constant increase to the SRS above a given frequency, the sine wave introduces a narrow peak at a given frequency, and the Morlet wavelet introduces a plateau with an adjustable width and relative height. Using the definition of the SRS, the transformations of the basis functions are calculated and these expressions are used to derive a methodology for calculating an inverse SRS. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by several examples. The quality of an inverse SRS is evaluated by comparing the SRS of the inverse to the target SRS. This method is developed in order to provide a quick estimate of a corresponding time history; in applications where a higher fidelity representation of the SRS is needed than can be provided by the method developed, a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the coefficients of the basis functions. Given a sufficient number of basis functions for the optimization, the resulting SRS can almost exactly match a randomly generated target SRS that is nonzero over the frequency range considered. For applications in which the permissable basis functions are limited (such as for an
Population inversion by chirped pulses
Lu Tianshi
2011-09-15
In this paper, we analyze the condition for complete population inversion by a chirped pulse over a finite duration. The nonadiabatic transition probability is mapped in the two-dimensional parameter space of coupling strength and detuning amplitude. Asymptotic forms of the probability are derived by the interference of nonadiabatic transitions for sinusoidal and triangular pulses. The qualitative difference between the maps for the two types of pulses is accounted for. The map is used for the design of stable inversion pulses under specific accuracy thresholds.
Multiphase inverse modeling: An Overview
Finsterle, S.
1998-03-01
Inverse modeling is a technique to derive model-related parameters from a variety of observations made on hydrogeologic systems, from small-scale laboratory experiments to field tests to long-term geothermal reservoir responses. If properly chosen, these observations contain information about the system behavior that is relevant to the performance of a geothermal field. Estimating model-related parameters and reducing their uncertainty is an important step in model development, because errors in the parameters constitute a major source of prediction errors. This paper contains an overview of inverse modeling applications using the ITOUGH2 code, demonstrating the possibilities and limitations of a formalized approach to the parameter estimation problem.
Low Frequency Geoacoustic Inversion Method
2010-01-01
Inversion Method A. Tolstoy 1538 Hampton Hill Circle, McLean VA 22101 phone: (703) 760-0881 email: atolstoy@ieee.org Award Number: N00014-10-C...inversion method ( Tolstoy , ’10) with extension to slightly higher frequencies (up to 100Hz) and longer ranges (up 5km); � to apply the new LF...correlation value (see Tolstoy , ’93). A new feature for this effort includes software to check if the sampling has been fine enough to catch the “true
Damage identification using inverse methods.
Friswell, Michael I
2007-02-15
This paper gives an overview of the use of inverse methods in damage detection and location, using measured vibration data. Inverse problems require the use of a model and the identification of uncertain parameters of this model. Damage is often local in nature and although the effect of the loss of stiffness may require only a small number of parameters, the lack of knowledge of the location means that a large number of candidate parameters must be included. This paper discusses a number of problems that exist with this approach to health monitoring, including modelling error, environmental effects, damage localization and regularization.
Chemical Shift Anisotropy Selective Inversion*
Caporini, Marc. A.; Turner, Christopher. J.; Bielecki, Anthony; Griffin, Robert G.
2009-01-01
Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) is used in solid-state NMR to remove the broadening effects of the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA). In this work we investigate a technique that can reintroduce the CSA in order to selectively invert transverse magnetization. The technique involves an amplitude sweep of the radio frequency field through a multiple of the spinning frequency. The selectivity of this inversion mechanism is determined by the size of the CSA. We develop a theoretical framework to describe this process and demonstrate the CSA selective inversion with numerical simulations and experimental data. We combine this approach with cross polarization (CP) for potential applications in multi-dimensional MAS NMR. PMID:19648036
Probabilistic inversion: a preliminary discussion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battista Rossi, Giovanni; Crenna, Francesco
2015-02-01
We continue the discussion on the possibility of interpreting probability as a logic, that we have started in the previous IMEKO TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium. We show here how a probabilistic logic can be extended up to including direct and inverse functions. We also discuss the relationship between this framework and the Bayes-Laplace rule, showing how the latter can be formally interpreted as a probabilistic inversion device. We suggest that these findings open a new perspective in the evaluation of measurement uncertainty.
Statistical inference for inverse problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bissantz, Nicolai; Holzmann, Hajo
2008-06-01
In this paper we study statistical inference for certain inverse problems. We go beyond mere estimation purposes and review and develop the construction of confidence intervals and confidence bands in some inverse problems, including deconvolution and the backward heat equation. Further, we discuss the construction of certain hypothesis tests, in particular concerning the number of local maxima of the unknown function. The methods are illustrated in a case study, where we analyze the distribution of heliocentric escape velocities of galaxies in the Centaurus galaxy cluster, and provide statistical evidence for its bimodality.
Thermoelectric properties of inverse opals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahan, G. D.; Poilvert, N.; Crespi, V. H.
2016-02-01
Rayleigh's method [Philos. Mag. Ser. 5 34, 481 (1892)] is used to solve for the classical thermoelectric equations in inverse opals. His theory predicts that in an inverse opal, with periodic holes, the Seebeck coefficient and the figure of merit are identical to that of the bulk material. We also provide a major revision to Rayleigh's method, in using the electrochemical potential as an important variable, instead of the electrostatic potential. We also show that in some cases, the thermal boundary resistance is important in the effective thermal conductivity.
Geoacoustic Inversion in Shallow Water
2013-09-30
sound speed profiles in the bottom sediment materials ( Tolstoy et al., 1998; Chapman et al., 2003). However, there has not been a benchmark comparison...EL115, (2008). Tolstoy , A., N.R. Chapman and G. Brooke, Workshop ’97: Benchmarking for Geoacoustic Inversion in Shallow Water, J. Comp. Acoustics, 6, 1
Geoacoustic Inversion in Shallow Water
2012-09-30
The inversion performance has been assessed previously in ONR Benchmarking workshops ( Tolstoy et al., 1998; Chapman et al., 2003) that used simulated...Transmission loss measurements and geoacoustic sensitivity modeling at 1.2 kHz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 124, EL110-EL115, (2008). Tolstoy , A., N.R
Wave-equation dispersion inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jing; Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard
2017-03-01
We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.
Inversions. Popular Lectures in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bakel'man, I. Ya
Inversions are transformations of geometric figures, under which straight lines may be mapped to circles, and conversely. The use of such mapping allows development of a unified method of solution for many of the problems of elementary geometry, especially those concerning constructions and "pencils" of curves. This book discusses the inversion…
Cascade sample matrix inversion arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanson, Timothy; Essman, Joseph
It is shown that if a narrowband adaptive array is partitioned and processed as a cascade of adaptive arrays, computational complexity is reduced and performance is only slightly degraded. The sample matrix inversion (SMI) and covariance matrix estimation are discussed. Cascade SMI complexity is examined. Simulation results are presented.
Action Understanding as Inverse Planning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, Chris L.; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.
2009-01-01
Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the…
Action Understanding as Inverse Planning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, Chris L.; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.
2009-01-01
Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the…
Workflows for Full Waveform Inversions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boehm, Christian; Krischer, Lion; Afanasiev, Michael; van Driel, Martin; May, Dave A.; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas
2017-04-01
Despite many theoretical advances and the increasing availability of high-performance computing clusters, full seismic waveform inversions still face considerable challenges regarding data and workflow management. While the community has access to solvers which can harness modern heterogeneous computing architectures, the computational bottleneck has fallen to these often manpower-bounded issues that need to be overcome to facilitate further progress. Modern inversions involve huge amounts of data and require a tight integration between numerical PDE solvers, data acquisition and processing systems, nonlinear optimization libraries, and job orchestration frameworks. To this end we created a set of libraries and applications revolving around Salvus (http://salvus.io), a novel software package designed to solve large-scale full waveform inverse problems. This presentation focuses on solving passive source seismic full waveform inversions from local to global scales with Salvus. We discuss (i) design choices for the aforementioned components required for full waveform modeling and inversion, (ii) their implementation in the Salvus framework, and (iii) how it is all tied together by a usable workflow system. We combine state-of-the-art algorithms ranging from high-order finite-element solutions of the wave equation to quasi-Newton optimization algorithms using trust-region methods that can handle inexact derivatives. All is steered by an automated interactive graph-based workflow framework capable of orchestrating all necessary pieces. This naturally facilitates the creation of new Earth models and hopefully sparks new scientific insights. Additionally, and even more importantly, it enhances reproducibility and reliability of the final results.
Momentum resolution in inverse photoemission
Zumbülte, A.; Schmidt, A. B.; Donath, M.
2015-01-15
We present a method to determine the electron beam divergence, and thus the momentum resolution, of an inverse-photoemission setup directly from a series of spectra measured on Cu(111). Simulating these spectra with different beam divergences shows a distinct influence of the divergence on the appearance of the Shockley surface state. Upon crossing the Fermi level, its rise in intensity can be directly linked with the beam divergence. A comparison of measurement and simulation enables us to quantify the momentum resolution independent of surface quality, energy resolution, and experimental geometry. With spin resolution, a single spectrum taken around the Fermi momentum of a spin-split surface state, e.g., on Au(111), is sufficient to derive the momentum resolution of an inverse-photoemission setup.
Simplified, inverse, ejector design tool
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dechant, Lawrence J.
1993-01-01
A simple lumped parameter based inverse design tool has been developed which provides flow path geometry and entrainment estimates subject to operational, acoustic, and design constraints. These constraints are manifested through specification of primary mass flow rate or ejector thrust, fully-mixed exit velocity, and static pressure matching. Fundamentally, integral forms of the conservation equations coupled with the specified design constraints are combined to yield an easily invertible linear system in terms of the flow path cross-sectional areas. Entrainment is computed by back substitution. Initial comparison with experimental and analogous one-dimensional methods show good agreement. Thus, this simple inverse design code provides an analytically based, preliminary design tool with direct application to High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) design studies.
Broadband synthetic aperture geoacoustic inversion.
Tan, Bien Aik; Gerstoft, Peter; Yardim, Caglar; Hodgkiss, William S
2013-07-01
A typical geoacoustic inversion procedure involves powerful source transmissions received on a large-aperture receiver array. A more practical approach is to use a single moving source and/or receiver in a low signal to noise ratio (SNR) setting. This paper uses single-receiver, broadband, frequency coherent matched-field inversion and exploits coherently repeated transmissions to improve estimation of the geoacoustic parameters. The long observation time creates a synthetic aperture due to relative source-receiver motion. This approach is illustrated by studying the transmission of multiple linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulses which results in a multi-tonal comb spectrum that is Doppler sensitive. To correlate well with the measured field across a receiver trajectory and to incorporate transmission from a source trajectory, waveguide Doppler and normal mode theory is applied. The method is demonstrated with low SNR, 100-900 Hz LFM pulse data from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hedland, D. A.; Degonia, P. K.
1974-01-01
The RAE-1 spacecraft inversion performed October 31, 1972 is described based upon the in-orbit dynamical data in conjunction with results obtained from previously developed computer simulation models. The computer simulations used are predictive of the satellite dynamics, including boom flexing, and are applicable during boom deployment and retraction, inter-phase coast periods, and post-deployment operations. Attitude data, as well as boom tip data, were analyzed in order to obtain a detailed description of the dynamical behavior of the spacecraft during and after the inversion. Runs were made using the computer model and the results were analyzed and compared with the real time data. Close agreement between the actual recorded spacecraft attitude and the computer simulation results was obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hongbo; Zhang, Guanquan; Ortigosa, Francisco
2010-05-01
Waveform inversion that determines the subsurface velocity structures can be implemented in either data domain, which compares the differences between the real data and the simulated data (Tarantola, 2005), or in image domain, which checks the coherency of the events in the CIGs (Common Image Gathers) (Symes and Kern, 1994; Chavent and Jacewitz, 1995). In the past, classic waveform inversion, as a data-domain approach, has little success in the field data experiments. We believe that one of the problems is the unknown simulation equations. The real waves will likely propagate with different kinds of wave equations at different subsurface areas. This implies that no single simulation equation can adequately describe the wave propagations underneath the earth. Because of the uncertainty of amplitudes of the waves, the objective function for classic waveform inversion that tries to compare the differences between the observed data and the simulated data will definitely hurt than help inversions. Fortunately, although waves propagate in various forms, only the amplitudes of the waves vary. The traveltime for these various forms of wave equations that are determined by the eikonal equations are more or less the same. In other words, traveltime can provide more reliable information than amplitudes. This suggests that an effective waveform inversion should emphasize on the events' traveltime or phase information and downplay the role of amplitude information. Following Chavent and Jacewitz (1995), we propose an image-domain approach that is based on the criteria that seismic data must be geometrically coherent after prestack depth migration. When the velocity is correct, the events at CIGs should be flat and therefore have maximum stack power for redundant shots. This image-domain approach relies on event coherency (traveltime) and has the effect of emphasizing more on the reliable traveltime information instead of unreliable amplitudes. Here we choose RTM (Reverse
Ultrahigh-intensity inverse bremsstrahlung
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Rax, J.-M.
1999-01-01
We study inverse bremsstrahlung in the ultrahigh intensity relativistic regime. The fully relativistic ultrahigh intensity absorption (emission) coefficient is derived for an arbitrary scattering potential and small-angle scattering. We find that in the Coulomb field case this absorption (emission) coefficient can be calculated as a function of the quiver energy, drift momentum, and impact parameter in two complementary regimes: (i) for remote collisions when the impact parameter is larger than the amplitude of the quiver motion, and (ii) for instantaneous collisions when the scattering time is shorter than the period of the wave. Both circular and linear polarizations are considered, and this study reveals that in this relativistic regime inverse bremsstrahlung absorption can be viewed as a harmonic Compton resonance heating of the laser-driven electron by the virtual photon of the ion Coulomb field. The relativistic modification of Marcuse's effect [Bell Syst. Tech. J. 41, 1557 (1962)] are also discussed, and relations with previous nonrelativistic results are elucidated.
Inverse statistics and information content
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebadi, H.; Bolgorian, Meysam; Jafari, G. R.
2010-12-01
Inverse statistics analysis studies the distribution of investment horizons to achieve a predefined level of return. This distribution provides a maximum investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. There exists a significant difference between inverse statistics of financial market data and a fractional Brownian motion (fBm) as an uncorrelated time-series, which is a suitable criteria to measure information content in financial data. In this paper we perform this analysis for the DJIA and S&P500 as two developed markets and Tehran price index (TEPIX) as an emerging market. We also compare these probability distributions with fBm probability, to detect when the behavior of the stocks are the same as fBm.
Nonlinear Waves and Inverse Scattering
1990-09-18
problems. Research is really two pronged. It is necessary for us to understand and effectively solve both classical and new direct and inverse scattering... descoveries employed IST in one spatial dimension, we have developed effective procedures to carry forth the method for multidimensional problems. In one...Employing IST we have been able to find new solutions to physically interesting multidimensional nonlinear wave equations. The method requires a
Low Frequency Geoacoustic Inversion Method
2011-09-01
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Distribution approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Low Frequency Geoacoustic Inversion Method A. Tolstoy ... Tolstoy , ’10), particularly the investigation of a new broadband method (the minimization method; see Tolstoy , ’12); � to apply the LF G.I. method...ADDRESS(ES) A. Tolstoy ,1538 Hampton Hill Circle,McLean,VA,22101 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND
Low Frequency Geoacoustic Inversion Method
2012-09-30
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Distribution approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Low Frequency Geoacoustic Inversion Method A. Tolstoy ...recently featuring the minimization processor ( Tolstoy , ’10 and ’12); demonstration that horizontal arrays can be successfully used for G.I. with the...over twenty years, particularly for the suppression of sidelobes ( Tolstoy , ’93). For each the MFP values at sidelobes (non-true parameter values
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gershanov, V. Yu.; Garmashov, S. I.
2015-01-01
We prove the existence of an effect inverse to the Gibbs-Thomson effect for mass transfer in systems consisting of a solid phase and the solution of the solid phase material in a certain solvent. The effect involves a change in the shape of the interface due to a variation of the equilibrium concentrations under it, which is induced by external conditions, and exists in the presence of a negative feedback for mass transfer associated with capillary effects.
Viscoacoustic anisotropic full waveform inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Yingming; Li, Zhenchun; Huang, Jianping; Li, Jinli
2017-01-01
A viscoacoustic vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) quasi-differential wave equation, which takes account for both the viscosity and anisotropy of media, is proposed for wavefield simulation in this study. The finite difference method is used to solve the equations, for which the attenuation terms are solved in the wavenumber domain, and all remaining terms in the time-space domain. To stabilize the adjoint wavefield, robust regularization operators are applied to the wave equation to eliminate the high-frequency component of the numerical noise produced during the backward propagation of the viscoacoustic wavefield. Based on these strategies, we derive the corresponding gradient formula and implement a viscoacoustic VTI full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical tests verify that our proposed viscoacoustic VTI FWI can produce accurate and stable inversion results for viscoacoustic VTI data sets. In addition, we test our method's sensitivity to velocity, Q, and anisotropic parameters. Our results show that the sensitivity to velocity is much higher than that to Q and anisotropic parameters. As such, our proposed method can produce acceptable inversion results as long as the Q and anisotropic parameters are within predefined thresholds.
Inversion Therapy: Can It Relieve Back Pain?
... pain Does inversion therapy relieve back pain? Is it safe? Answers from Edward R. Laskowski, M.D. ... t provide lasting relief from back pain, and it's not safe for everyone. Inversion therapy involves hanging ...
Rearrangement of the bacterial chromosome: forbidden inversions.
Segall, A; Mahan, M J; Roth, J R
1988-09-09
The order of genes in the chromosome of enteric bacteria has been evolutionarily conserved despite the existence of mechanisms for rearrangement. Homologous chromosomal sequences in the same orientation recombine to form deletions or duplications. When homologous sequences in inverse orientation recombine, one expects to form an inversion of the intervening chromosomal segment. This expectation was tested by placing pairs of homologous sequences in inverse order at various points in the chromosome. Sequences at many pairs of sites (permissive) do recombine to generate the expected inversion, while the same sequences placed at other pairs of sites (nonpermissive) do not form an inversion. For the one nonpermissive interval tested, the missing inversion type can be constructed by an alternative transductional method; strains with this inversion are viable. Thus mechanistic limitations must prevent sequences at particular sites from undergoing the recombination event required to form an inversion.
Sequential Geoacoustic Filtering and Geoacoustic Inversion
2015-09-30
nesses, sound speed profiles, density and attenuation values. Here we introduce a passive geoacoustic inversion algorithm for use with drifting ...Am, 131, 3633-3641, [Published, refereed] Yardim, Gerstoft, Hodgkiss (2012), Sequential geoacoustic inversion at the continental shelfbreak, J
On the Magic Square and Inverse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elzaidi, S. M.
2005-01-01
In this note, we give a method for finding the inverse of a three by three magic square matrix without using the usual methods for finding the inverse of a matrix. Also we give a method for finding the inverse of a three by three magic square matrix whose entries are also matrices. By using these ideas, we can construct large matrices whose…
On the Magic Square and Inverse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elzaidi, S. M.
2005-01-01
In this note, we give a method for finding the inverse of a three by three magic square matrix without using the usual methods for finding the inverse of a matrix. Also we give a method for finding the inverse of a three by three magic square matrix whose entries are also matrices. By using these ideas, we can construct large matrices whose…
Inversion: A Most Useful Kind of Transformation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dubrovsky, Vladimir
1992-01-01
The transformation assigning to every point its inverse with respect to a circle with given radius and center is called an inversion. Discusses inversion with respect to points, circles, angles, distances, space, and the parallel postulate. Exercises related to these topics are included. (MDH)
Fast Computation of the Inverse CMH Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A fast computational method based on differential equation approach for inverse DOK model has been extended for the inverse CMH model. Also, a cobweb technique for calculating the inverse CMH model is also presented. The two techniques are differed from the point of view of flexibility and computation time.
Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.
Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A
1999-01-01
Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination. PMID:10471710
Dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratajczak, Joanna; Tchoń, Krzysztof
2016-06-01
By analogy to the definition of the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for robotic manipulators, we have designed a dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators built of a non-holonomic mobile platform and a holonomic on-board manipulator. The endogenous configuration space approach has been exploited as a source of conceptual guidelines. The new inverse guarantees a decoupling of the motion in the operational space from the forces exerted in the endogenous configuration space and annihilated by the dual Jacobian inverse. A performance study of the new Jacobian inverse as a tool for motion planning is presented.
An algorithm for constructing minimal order inverses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, R. V.
1976-01-01
In this paper an algorithm is presented for constructing minimal order inverses of linear, time invariant, controllable and observable, multivariable systems. By means of simple matrix operations, a 'state-overdescribed' system is first constructed which is an inverse of the given multivariable system. A simple Gauss-Jordan type reduction procedure is then used to remove the redundancy in the state vector of the inverse system to obtain a minimal order inverse. When the given multivariable system is not invertible, the algorithm enables a minimal order inverse of an invertible subsystem to be constructed. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the use of the algorithm.
Sparsity constrained contrast source inversion.
Ramirez, Ana B; van Dongen, Koen W A
2016-09-01
Ultrasound imaging is used for detecting and characterizing breast lesions. A state of the art imaging method is the contrast source inversion (CSI), which solves the full wave nonlinear inverse problem. However, when the measurements are acquired in noisy environments, CSI can diverge from the correct solution after several iterations. Problems associated with noisy data were originally solved by including total variation (TV) regularization. Unfortunately, for very noisy data, TV regularization alone is not sufficient. In this work, compressed sensing ideas are used to regularize the inversion process by restricting the solution of the CSI method to be sparse in a transformation domain. The proposed method estimates the contrast source and contrast function by minimizing the mean squared error between the measured and modeled data. An extra penalty term is added to measure sparsity in the transformation domain. A second method that combines sparsity of the contrast source and minimal TV in the contrast function is also presented. The proposed methods are tested on noise-free and noisy synthetic data sets representing a scan of a cancerous breast. Numerical experiments show that, for measurements contaminated with 1% noise, the sparsity constrained CSI improves the normalized mean squared error of the reconstructed speed-of-sound profiles up to 36% in comparison with traditional CSI. Also, for measurements contaminated with 5% noise, the proposed methods improve the quality of the reconstruction up to 70% in comparison with the traditional CSI method. Experimental results also show that the methods remain convergent to the correct speed-of-sound profile as the number of iterations increases.
The Inverse of Banded Matrices
2013-01-01
of Br,n. For these sequences to be well-defined, we assume that none of the denominators kis are zero (which is equivalent to the below-defined U...numbers of summed or subtracted terms in computing the inverse of a term of an upper (lower) triangular matrix are the generalized order-k Fibonacci ... Fibonacci numbers are the usual Fibonacci numbers, that is, f 2m = Fm (mth Fibonacci number). When also k = 3, c1 = c2 = c3 = 1, then the generalized order-3
Tiling spaces are inverse limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadun, Lorenzo
2003-11-01
Let M be an arbitrary Riemannian homogeneous space, and let Ω be a space of tilings of M, with finite local complexity (relative to some symmetry group Γ) and closed in the natural topology. Then Ω is the inverse limit of a sequence of compact finite-dimensional branched manifolds. The branched manifolds are (finite) unions of cells, constructed from the tiles themselves and the group Γ. This result extends previous results of Anderson and Putnam, of Ormes, Radin, and Sadun, of Bellissard, Benedetti, and Gambaudo, and of Gähler. In particular, the construction in this paper is a natural generalization of Gähler's.
Rotation and inversion in nitrosamines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirste, Karl; Rademacher, Paul
1981-04-01
Geometry optimizations of the ground states as well as of the transition states for internal rotation and inversion have been performed by the semiempirical MNDO method for dimethyl nitrosamine (1), perfluordimethyl nitrosamine (2), N-nitroso aziridine (3), and N-nitroso azetidine (4). It was found that the potential barrier to internal rotation about the N-N bond is always of lower energy than that to inversion on the nitroso nitrogen. While the ground states tend to adopt structures which enable mesomerism, the lowest transition state is characterized by a pyramidal sp3-hybridized amino nitrogen. In accordance with experimental results the low barriers to rotation of 2 (7.96 kcal mol -1), 3 (3.38 kcal mol -1) and 4 (9.97 kcal mol -1) in comparison with 1 (12.54 kcal mol -1) indicate that in donor-acceptor molecules the transfer of charge can be limited by electronic and stereochemical effects. In particular, the equivalence of the α-methylene hydrogens which was observed in the NMR-spectrum of 3 is due to unhindered rotation and ring inveirsion.
Uncertainty Quantification and Transdimensional Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sambridge, M.; Hawkins, R.
2014-12-01
Over recent years transdimensional inference methods have grown in popularity and found applications in fields ranging from Solid Earth Geophysics, to Geochemistry. In all applications of inversion assumptions are made about the nature of the model parametrisation, complexity and data noise characteristics, and results can be significantly dependent on those assumptions. Often these are in the form of fixed choices imposed a priori, e.g. in the grid size of the model or noise level in the data. A transdimensional approach allows these assumptions to be relaxed by incorporating relevant parameters as unknowns in the inference problem, e.g. the number of model parameters becomes a variable as does the form of basis functions and the variance of the data noise. In this way uncertainty due to parameterisation effects or data noise choices may be incorporated into the inference process. Probabilistic sampling techniques such as Birth-Death Markov chain Monte Carlo and the Reversible jump algorithm, allow sampling over complex posterior probability density functions providing information on constraint, trade-offs and uncertainty in the unknowns. This talk will present a review of trans-dimensional inference and its application in geophysical inversion, and highlight some emerging trends such as Multi-scale McMC, Parallel Tempering and Sequential McMC which hold the promise of further extending the range of problems where these methods are practical.
MOSES Inversions using Multiresolution SMART
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rust, Thomas; Fox, Lewis; Kankelborg, Charles; Courrier, Hans; Plovanic, Jacob
2014-06-01
We present improvements to the SMART inversion algorithm for the MOSES imaging spectrograph. MOSES, the Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph, is a slitless extreme ultraviolet spectrograph designed to measure cotemporal narrowband spectra over a wide field of view via tomographic inversion of images taken at three orders of a concave diffraction grating. SMART, the Smooth Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique, relies on a global chi squared goodness of fit criterion, which enables overfit and underfit regions to "balance out" when judging fit quality. "Good" reconstructions show poor fits at some positions and length scales. Here we take a multiresolution approach to SMART, applying corrections to the reconstruction at positions and scales where correction is warranted based on the noise. The result is improved fit residuals that more closely resemble the expected noise in the images. Within the multiresolution framework it is also easy to include a regularized deconvolution of the instrument point spread functions, which we do. Different point spread functions among MOSES spectral orders results in spurious doppler shifts in the reconstructions, most notable near bright compact emission. We estimate the point spread funtions from the data. Deconvolution is done using the Richardson-Lucy method, which is algorithmically similar to SMART. Regularization results from only correcting the reconstruction at positions and scales where correction is warranted based on the noise. We expect the point spread function deconvolution to increase signal to noise and reduce systematic error in MOSES reconstructions.
Neural network explanation using inversion.
Saad, Emad W; Wunsch, Donald C
2007-01-01
An important drawback of many artificial neural networks (ANN) is their lack of explanation capability [Andrews, R., Diederich, J., & Tickle, A. B. (1996). A survey and critique of techniques for extracting rules from trained artificial neural networks. Knowledge-Based Systems, 8, 373-389]. This paper starts with a survey of algorithms which attempt to explain the ANN output. We then present HYPINV, a new explanation algorithm which relies on network inversion; i.e. calculating the ANN input which produces a desired output. HYPINV is a pedagogical algorithm, that extracts rules, in the form of hyperplanes. It is able to generate rules with arbitrarily desired fidelity, maintaining a fidelity-complexity tradeoff. To our knowledge, HYPINV is the only pedagogical rule extraction method, which extracts hyperplane rules from continuous or binary attribute neural networks. Different network inversion techniques, involving gradient descent as well as an evolutionary algorithm, are presented. An information theoretic treatment of rule extraction is presented. HYPINV is applied to example synthetic problems, to a real aerospace problem, and compared with similar algorithms using benchmark problems.
Constrained and joint inversion on unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doetsch, J.; Jordi, C.; Rieckh, V.; Guenther, T.; Schmelzbach, C.
2015-12-01
Unstructured meshes allow for inclusion of arbitrary surface topography, complex acquisition geometry and undulating geological interfaces in the inversion of geophysical data. This flexibility opens new opportunities for coupling different geophysical and hydrological data sets in constrained and joint inversions. For example, incorporating geological interfaces that have been derived from high-resolution geophysical data (e.g., ground penetrating radar) can add geological constraints to inversions of electrical resistivity data. These constraints can be critical for a hydrogeological interpretation of the inversion results. For time-lapse inversions of geophysical data, constraints can be derived from hydrological point measurements in boreholes, but it is difficult to include these hard constraints in the inversion of electrical resistivity monitoring data. Especially mesh density and the regularization footprint around the hydrological point measurements are important for an improved inversion compared to the unconstrained case. With the help of synthetic and field examples, we analyze how regularization and coupling operators should be chosen for time-lapse inversions constrained by point measurements and for joint inversions of geophysical data in order to take full advantage of the flexibility of unstructured meshes. For the case of constraining to point measurements, it is important to choose a regularization operator that extends beyond the neighboring cells and the uncertainty in the point measurements needs to be accounted for. For joint inversion, the choice of the regularization depends on the expected subsurface heterogeneity and the cell size of the parameter mesh.
Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lai, David; Delisi, Donald
2008-01-01
NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input
Applications of matrix inversion tomosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warp, Richard J.; Godfrey, Devon J.; Dobbins, James T., III
2000-04-01
The improved image quality and characteristics of new flat- panel x-ray detectors have renewed interest in advanced algorithms such as tomosynthesis. Digital tomosynthesis is a method of acquiring and reconstructing a three-dimensional data set with limited-angle tube movement. Historically, conventional tomosynthesis reconstruction has suffered contamination of the planes of interest by blurred out-of- plane structures. This paper focuses on a Matrix Inversion Tomosynthesis (MITS) algorithm to remove unwanted blur from adjacent planes. The algorithm uses a set of coupled equations to solve for the blurring function in each reconstructed plane. This paper demonstrates the use of the MITS algorithm in three imaging applications: small animal microscopy, chest radiography, and orthopedics. The results of the MITS reconstruction process demonstrate an improved reduction of blur from out-of-plane structures when compared to conventional tomosynthesis. We conclude that the MITS algorithm holds potential in a variety of applications to improve three-dimensional image reconstruction.
Inverse planning incorporating organ motion.
Li, J G; Xing, L
2000-07-01
Accurate targeting is important in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The positional uncertainties of structures with respect to the external beams arise in part from random organ motion and patient setup errors. While it is important to improve immobilization and reduce the influence of organ motion, the residual effects should be included in the IMRT plan design. Current inverse planning algorithms follow the conventional approach and include uncertainties by assuming population-based margins to the target and sensitive structures. Margin around a structure represents a "hard boundary" and the fact that a structure has a spatial probability distribution has been completely ignored. With increasing understanding of spatial uncertainties of structures and the technical capability of fine-tuning the dose distribution on an individual beamlet level in IMRT, it seems timely and important to fully utilize the information in the planning process. This will reduce the "effective" margins of the structures and facilitate dose escalation. Instead of specifying a "hard margin," we describe an inverse planning algorithm which takes into consideration positional uncertainty in terms of spatial probability distribution. The algorithm was demonstrated by assuming that the random organ motion can be represented by a three-dimensional Gaussian distribution function. Other probability distributions can be dealt with similarly. In particular, the commonly used "hard margin" is a special case of the current approach with a uniform probability distribution within a specified range. The algorithm was applied to plan treatment for a prostate case and a pancreatic case. The results were compared with those obtained by adding a margin to the clinical target volume. Better sparing of the sensitive structures were obtained in both cases using the proposed method for approximately the same target coverage.
A Bayesian approach to nonlinear inversion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, D. D.; Matsuura, M.
1985-01-01
Powerful methods are now available for solving linear parametric inverse problems. However, many inverse problems which arise in geohysics are nonlinear. Fortunately, it is possible to treat most of these with the air of linear perturbation theory and liner inversion. But a convenient method is needed for assessing the importance of nonlinearity in these quasi-linear problems. The present paper provides such a method. Matsu'ura and Jackson (1984) have presented a simple algorithm for evaluating the asymptotic covariance matrix fo estimation errors. In the present investigation, aspects of linear inversion are discussed, taking into account linear parametric inverse problems, nonuniqueness, prior information, confidence limits, conditional and marginal statistics, the relative importance of the prior and observational data, and standardized variables. Attention is also given to nonlinear inversion, and the application of the considered approaches to a number of examples.
Inversion methods for interpretation of asteroid lightcurves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaasalainen, Mikko; Lamberg, L.; Lumme, K.
1992-01-01
We have developed methods of inversion that can be used in the determination of the three-dimensional shape or the albedo distribution of the surface of a body from disk-integrated photometry, assuming the shape to be strictly convex. In addition to the theory of inversion methods, we have studied the practical aspects of the inversion problem and applied our methods to lightcurve data of 39 Laetitia and 16 Psyche.
Forward model nonlinearity versus inverse model nonlinearity
Mehl, S.
2007-01-01
The issue of concern is the impact of forward model nonlinearity on the nonlinearity of the inverse model. The question posed is, "Does increased nonlinearity in the head solution (forward model) always result in increased nonlinearity in the inverse solution (estimation of hydraulic conductivity)?" It is shown that the two nonlinearities are separate, and it is not universally true that increased forward model nonlinearity increases inverse model nonlinearity. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.
NICOLE: NLTE Stokes Synthesis/Inversion Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Socas-Navarro, H.
2015-08-01
NICOLE, written in Fortran 90, seeks the model atmosphere that provides the best fit to the Stokes profiles (in a least-squares sense) of an arbitrary number of simultaneously-observes spectral lines from solar/stellar atmospheres. The inversion core used for the development of NICOLE is the LORIEN engine (the Lovely Reusable Inversion ENgine), which combines the SVD technique with the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization method to solve the inverse problem.
Matched Field Tomographic Inversion for Geoacoustic Properties
2016-06-07
Matched Field Tomographic Inversion for Geoacoustic Properties N.Ross Chapman School of Earth and Ocean Sciences University of Victoria PO Box 3055...sound propagation in shallow water. The long term goal of this work is to develop a new tomographic inversion method based on matched field processing of...broadband data for estimating geoacoustic properties over an extended region of the ocean bottom. OBJECTIVES Matched field tomographic inversion is a
Time-reversal and Bayesian inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debski, Wojciech
2017-04-01
Probabilistic inversion technique is superior to the classical optimization-based approach in all but one aspects. It requires quite exhaustive computations which prohibit its use in huge size inverse problems like global seismic tomography or waveform inversion to name a few. The advantages of the approach are, however, so appealing that there is an ongoing continuous afford to make the large inverse task as mentioned above manageable with the probabilistic inverse approach. One of the perspective possibility to achieve this goal relays on exploring the internal symmetry of the seismological modeling problems in hand - a time reversal and reciprocity invariance. This two basic properties of the elastic wave equation when incorporating into the probabilistic inversion schemata open a new horizons for Bayesian inversion. In this presentation we discuss the time reversal symmetry property, its mathematical aspects and propose how to combine it with the probabilistic inverse theory into a compact, fast inversion algorithm. We illustrate the proposed idea with the newly developed location algorithm TRMLOC and discuss its efficiency when applied to mining induced seismic data.
Adaptation through chromosomal inversions in Anopheles
Ayala, Diego; Ullastres, Anna; González, Josefa
2014-01-01
Chromosomal inversions have been repeatedly involved in local adaptation in a large number of animals and plants. The ecological and behavioral plasticity of Anopheles species—human malaria vectors—is mirrored by high amounts of polymorphic inversions. The adaptive significance of chromosomal inversions has been consistently attested by strong and significant correlations between their frequencies and a number of phenotypic traits. Here, we provide an extensive literature review of the different adaptive traits associated with chromosomal inversions in the genus Anopheles. Traits having important consequences for the success of present and future vector control measures, such as insecticide resistance and behavioral changes, are discussed. PMID:24904633
Human inversions and their functional consequences
Puig, Marta; Casillas, Sònia; Villatoro, Sergi
2015-01-01
Polymorphic inversions are a type of structural variants that are difficult to analyze owing to their balanced nature and the location of breakpoints within complex repeated regions. So far, only a handful of inversions have been studied in detail in humans and current knowledge about their possible functional effects is still limited. However, inversions have been related to phenotypic changes and adaptation in multiple species. In this review, we summarize the evidences of the functional impact of inversions in the human genome. First, given that inversions have been shown to inhibit recombination in heterokaryotes, chromosomes displaying different orientation are expected to evolve independently and this may lead to distinct gene-expression patterns. Second, inversions have a role as disease-causing mutations both by directly affecting gene structure or regulation in different ways, and by predisposing to other secondary arrangements in the offspring of inversion carriers. Finally, several inversions show signals of being selected during human evolution. These findings illustrate the potential of inversions to have phenotypic consequences also in humans and emphasize the importance of their inclusion in genome-wide association studies. PMID:25998059
Inverse Problem;Litho_Inversion; Geology and Geophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonio, Guillen; Gabriel, Courrioux; Bernard, Bourgine
2015-04-01
Subsurface modeling is a key tool to describe, understand and quantify geological processes. As the subsurface is inaccessible and its observation is limited by acquisition methods, 3D models of the subsurface are usually built from the interpretation of sparse data with limited resolution. Therefore, uncertainties occur during the model building process, due to possible cognitive human biais, natural variability of geological objects and intrinsic uncertainties of data. In such context, the predictibility of models is limited by uncertainties, which must be assessed in order to reduce economical and human risks linked to the use of models. This work focuses more specifically on uncertainties about geological structures. In this context, a stochastic method is developed for generating structural models with various fault and horizon geometries as well as fault connections. Realistic geological objects are obtained using implicit modeling that represents a surface by an equipotential of a volumetric scalar field. Faults have also been described by a reduced set of uncertain parameters, which opens the way to the inversion of structural objects using geophysical data by baysian methods.
Laterally constrained inversion for CSAMT data interpretation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ruo; Yin, Changchun; Wang, Miaoyue; Di, Qingyun
2015-10-01
Laterally constrained inversion (LCI) has been successfully applied to the inversion of dc resistivity, TEM and airborne EM data. However, it hasn't been yet applied to the interpretation of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data. In this paper, we apply the LCI method for CSAMT data inversion by preconditioning the Jacobian matrix. We apply a weighting matrix to Jacobian to balance the sensitivity of model parameters, so that the resolution with respect to different model parameters becomes more uniform. Numerical experiments confirm that this can improve the convergence of the inversion. We first invert a synthetic dataset with and without noise to investigate the effect of LCI applications to CSAMT data, for the noise free data, the results show that the LCI method can recover the true model better compared to the traditional single-station inversion; and for the noisy data, the true model is recovered even with a noise level of 8%, indicating that LCI inversions are to some extent noise insensitive. Then, we re-invert two CSAMT datasets collected respectively in a watershed and a coal mine area in Northern China and compare our results with those from previous inversions. The comparison with the previous inversion in a coal mine shows that LCI method delivers smoother layer interfaces that well correlate to seismic data, while comparison with a global searching algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) in a watershed shows that though both methods deliver very similar good results, however, LCI algorithm presented in this paper runs much faster. The inversion results for the coal mine CSAMT survey show that a conductive water-bearing zone that was not revealed by the previous inversions has been identified by the LCI. This further demonstrates that the method presented in this paper works for CSAMT data inversion.
Inverse problem in radionuclide transport
Yu, C.
1988-01-01
The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab.
Inverse magnetic/shear catalysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McInnes, Brett
2016-05-01
It is well known that very large magnetic fields are generated when the Quark-Gluon Plasma is formed during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Lattice, holographic, and other studies strongly suggest that these fields may, for observationally relevant field values, induce ;inverse magnetic catalysis;, signalled by a lowering of the critical temperature for the chiral/deconfinement transition. The theoretical basis of this effect has recently attracted much attention; yet so far these investigations have not included another, equally dramatic consequence of the peripheral collision geometry: the QGP acquires a large angular momentum vector, parallel to the magnetic field. Here we use holographic techniques to argue that the angular momentum can also, independently, have an effect on transition temperatures, and we obtain a rough estimate of the relative effects of the presence of both a magnetic field and an angular momentum density. We find that the shearing angular momentum reinforces the effect of the magnetic field at low values of the baryonic chemical potential, but that it can actually decrease that effect at high chemical potentials.
Inversion based on computational simulations
Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.; Saquib, S.S.
1998-09-01
A standard approach to solving inversion problems that involve many parameters uses gradient-based optimization to find the parameters that best match the data. The authors discuss enabling techniques that facilitate application of this approach to large-scale computational simulations, which are the only way to investigate many complex physical phenomena. Such simulations may not seem to lend themselves to calculation of the gradient with respect to numerous parameters. However, adjoint differentiation allows one to efficiently compute the gradient of an objective function with respect to all the variables of a simulation. When combined with advanced gradient-based optimization algorithms, adjoint differentiation permits one to solve very large problems of optimization or parameter estimation. These techniques will be illustrated through the simulation of the time-dependent diffusion of infrared light through tissue, which has been used to perform optical tomography. The techniques discussed have a wide range of applicability to modeling including the optimization of models to achieve a desired design goal.
MODEL SELECTION FOR SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC INVERSIONS
Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.; Martinez Gonzalez, M. J.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Viticchie, B.
2012-04-01
Inferring magnetic and thermodynamic information from spectropolarimetric observations relies on the assumption of a parameterized model atmosphere whose parameters are tuned by comparison with observations. Often, the choice of the underlying atmospheric model is based on subjective reasons. In other cases, complex models are chosen based on objective reasons (for instance, the necessity to explain asymmetries in the Stokes profiles) but it is not clear what degree of complexity is needed. The lack of an objective way of comparing models has, sometimes, led to opposing views of the solar magnetism because the inferred physical scenarios are essentially different. We present the first quantitative model comparison based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence ratios for spectropolarimetric observations. Our results show that there is not a single model appropriate for all profiles simultaneously. Data with moderate signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) favor models without gradients along the line of sight. If the observations show clear circular and linear polarization signals above the noise level, models with gradients along the line are preferred. As a general rule, observations with large S/Ns favor more complex models. We demonstrate that the evidence ratios correlate well with simple proxies. Therefore, we propose to calculate these proxies when carrying out standard least-squares inversions to allow for model comparison in the future.
Inversion and approximation of Laplace transforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lear, W. M.
1980-01-01
A method of inverting Laplace transforms by using a set of orthonormal functions is reported. As a byproduct of the inversion, approximation of complicated Laplace transforms by a transform with a series of simple poles along the left half plane real axis is shown. The inversion and approximation process is simple enough to be put on a programmable hand calculator.
Recursive inversion of externally defined linear systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Baram, Yoram
1988-01-01
The approximate inversion of an internally unknown linear system, given by its impulse response sequence, by an inverse system having a finite impulse response, is considered. The recursive least squares procedure is shown to have an exact initialization, based on the triangular Toeplitz structure of the matrix involved. The proposed approach also suggests solutions to the problems of system identification and compensation.
An exact inverse method for subsonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daripa, Prabir
1988-01-01
A new inverse method for the aerodynamic design of airfoils is presented for subcritical flows. The pressure distribution in this method can be prescribed as a function of the arclength of the still unknown body. It is shown that this inverse problem is mathematically equivalent to solving only one nonlinear boundary value problem subject to known Dirichlet data on the boundary.
Essential right inverses and system zeros
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wyman, B. F.; Sain, M. K.
1979-01-01
A module-theoretic definition of right inverse systems for epic functions is presented to developing a theory for inverse systems. Examples are given which illustrate the basic conceptual issues of the approach. The theory provides a way to better understanding of multivariable zeros.
Inversion in Mathematical Thinking and Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greer, Brian
2012-01-01
Inversion is a fundamental relational building block both within mathematics as the study of structures and within people's physical and social experience, linked to many other key elements such as equilibrium, invariance, reversal, compensation, symmetry, and balance. Within purely formal arithmetic, the inverse relationships between addition and…
Inversion in Mathematical Thinking and Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greer, Brian
2012-01-01
Inversion is a fundamental relational building block both within mathematics as the study of structures and within people's physical and social experience, linked to many other key elements such as equilibrium, invariance, reversal, compensation, symmetry, and balance. Within purely formal arithmetic, the inverse relationships between addition and…
Prestack seismic inversion and reservoir property prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chi, Xingang
In this dissertation, I have applied the method of prestack seismic inversion with uncertainty analysis. Also, I have developed the methods of the rock physics template analysis, the fluid modulus inversion and the reservoir property inversion from AVO attributes with and without constraint to improve the technique of reservoir characterization. I use the prestack seismic inversion to invert the elastic properties and use the statistical method to derive the posterior probability of the inverted elastic properties for the uncertainty analysis. I use the rock physics template drawn in the cross-plot of the inverted elastic properties to analyze the lithology and fluid property in the target reservoir. I develop the fluid modulus inversion method based on the simplified Gassmann's equation and the empirical rock physics relationship. Using the inverted fluid modulus, I estimate the gas saturation of the target reservoir before drilling. The reservoir property inversion is to predict the porosity, shale volume and water saturation of the reservoir from AVO attributes to enhance the reservoir interpretation and characterization. I apply this method with the statistical analysis together to execute the uncertainty analysis for the inversion results. Two methods of reservoir property inversion from AVO attributes are attempted in this dissertation: one is performed without constraint and the other is performed with the constrained relationship of the porosity and shale volume.
Fast wavelet based sparse approximate inverse preconditioner
Wan, W.L.
1996-12-31
Incomplete LU factorization is a robust preconditioner for both general and PDE problems but unfortunately not easy to parallelize. Recent study of Huckle and Grote and Chow and Saad showed that sparse approximate inverse could be a potential alternative while readily parallelizable. However, for special class of matrix A that comes from elliptic PDE problems, their preconditioners are not optimal in the sense that independent of mesh size. A reason may be that no good sparse approximate inverse exists for the dense inverse matrix. Our observation is that for this kind of matrices, its inverse entries typically have piecewise smooth changes. We can take advantage of this fact and use wavelet compression techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse preconditioner. We shall show numerically that our approach is effective for this kind of matrices.
Rapid approximate inversion of airborne TEM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fullagar, Peter K.; Pears, Glenn A.; Reid, James E.; Schaa, Ralf
2015-11-01
Rapid interpretation of large airborne transient electromagnetic (ATEM) datasets is highly desirable for timely decision-making in exploration. Full solution 3D inversion of entire airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys is often still not feasible on current day PCs. Therefore, two algorithms to perform rapid approximate 3D interpretation of AEM have been developed. The loss of rigour may be of little consequence if the objective of the AEM survey is regional reconnaissance. Data coverage is often quasi-2D rather than truly 3D in such cases, belying the need for `exact' 3D inversion. Incorporation of geological constraints reduces the non-uniqueness of 3D AEM inversion. Integrated interpretation can be achieved most readily when inversion is applied to a geological model, attributed with lithology as well as conductivity. Geological models also offer several practical advantages over pure property models during inversion. In particular, they permit adjustment of geological boundaries. In addition, optimal conductivities can be determined for homogeneous units. Both algorithms described here can operate on geological models; however, they can also perform `unconstrained' inversion if the geological context is unknown. VPem1D performs 1D inversion at each ATEM data location above a 3D model. Interpretation of cover thickness is a natural application; this is illustrated via application to Spectrem data from central Australia. VPem3D performs 3D inversion on time-integrated (resistive limit) data. Conversion to resistive limits delivers a massive increase in speed since the TEM inverse problem reduces to a quasi-magnetic problem. The time evolution of the decay is lost during the conversion, but the information can be largely recovered by constructing a starting model from conductivity depth images (CDIs) or 1D inversions combined with geological constraints if available. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated on Spectrem data from Brazil. Both separately and in
Inverse Cerenkov experiment. Final report
Kimura, W.D.
1993-09-30
The final report describes work performed to investigate inverse Cherenkov acceleration (ICA) as a promising method for laser particle acceleration. In particular, an improved configuration of ICA is being tested in a experiment presently underway on the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). In the experiment, the high peak power ({approximately} 10 GW) linearly polarized ATF CO{sub 2} laser beam is converted to a radially polarized beam. This is beam is focused with an axicon at the Cherenkov angle onto the ATF 50-MeV e-beam inside a hydrogen gas cell, where the gas acts as the phase matching medium of the interaction. An energy gain of {approximately}12 MeV is predicted assuming a delivered laser peak power of 5 GW. The experiment is divided into two phases. The Phase I experiments, which were completed in the spring of 1992, were conducted before the ATF e-beam was available and involved several successful tests of the optical systems. Phase II experiments are with the e-beam and laser beam, and are still in progress. The ATF demonstrated delivery of the e-beam to the experiment in Dec. 1992. A preliminary ``debugging`` run with the e-beam and laser beam occurred in May 1993. This revealed the need for some experimental modifications, which have been implemented. The second run is tentatively scheduled for October or November 1993. In parallel to the experimental efforts has been ongoing theoretical work to support the experiment and investigate improvement and/or offshoots. One exciting offshoot has been theoretical work showing that free-space laser acceleration of electrons is possible using a radially-polarized, axicon-focused laser beam, but without any phase-matching gas. The Monte Carlo code used to model the ICA process has been upgraded and expanded to handle different types of laser beam input profiles.
Identification of polymorphic inversions from genotypes
2012-01-01
Background Polymorphic inversions are a source of genetic variability with a direct impact on recombination frequencies. Given the difficulty of their experimental study, computational methods have been developed to infer their existence in a large number of individuals using genome-wide data of nucleotide variation. Methods based on haplotype tagging of known inversions attempt to classify individuals as having a normal or inverted allele. Other methods that measure differences between linkage disequilibrium attempt to identify regions with inversions but unable to classify subjects accurately, an essential requirement for association studies. Results We present a novel method to both identify polymorphic inversions from genome-wide genotype data and classify individuals as containing a normal or inverted allele. Our method, a generalization of a published method for haplotype data [1], utilizes linkage between groups of SNPs to partition a set of individuals into normal and inverted subpopulations. We employ a sliding window scan to identify regions likely to have an inversion, and accumulation of evidence from neighboring SNPs is used to accurately determine the inversion status of each subject. Further, our approach detects inversions directly from genotype data, thus increasing its usability to current genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Conclusions We demonstrate the accuracy of our method to detect inversions and classify individuals on principled-simulated genotypes, produced by the evolution of an inversion event within a coalescent model [2]. We applied our method to real genotype data from HapMap Phase III to characterize the inversion status of two known inversions within the regions 17q21 and 8p23 across 1184 individuals. Finally, we scan the full genomes of the European Origin (CEU) and Yoruba (YRI) HapMap samples. We find population-based evidence for 9 out of 15 well-established autosomic inversions, and for 52 regions previously predicted by
Using emulsion inversion in industrial processes.
Salager, Jean-Louis; Forgiarini, Ana; Márquez, Laura; Peña, Alejandro; Pizzino, Aldo; Rodriguez, María P; Rondón-González, Marianna
2004-05-20
Emulsion inversion is a complex phenomenon, often perceived as an instability that is essentially uncontrollable, although many industrial processes make use of it. A research effort that started 2 decades ago has provided the two-dimensional and three-dimensional description, the categorization and the theoretical interpretation of the different kinds of emulsion inversion. A clear-cut phenomenological approach is currently available for understanding its characteristics, the factors that influence it and control it, the importance of fine-tuning the emulsification protocol, and the crucial occurrence of organized structures such as liquid crystals or multiple emulsions. The current know-how is used to analyze some industrial processes involving emulsion inversion, e.g. the attainment of a fine nutrient or cosmetic emulsion by temperature or formulation-induced transitional inversion, the preparation of a silicone oil emulsion by catastrophic phase inversion, the manufacture of a viscous polymer latex by combined inversion and the spontaneous but enigmatic inversion of emulsions used in metal working operations such as lathing or lamination.
Magnetotelluric inversion based on mutual information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandolesi, Eric; Jones, Alan G.
2014-10-01
Joint inversion of different geophysical data sets is becoming a more popular and powerful tool, and it has been performed on data sensitive both to the same physical parameter and to different physical parameters. Joint inversion is undertaken to reduce acceptable model space and to increase sensitivity to model parameters that one method alone is unable to resolve adequately. We examine and implement a novel hybrid joint inversion approach. In our inversion scheme a model-the reference model-is fixed, and the information shared with the subsurface structure obtained from another method will be maximized; in our case conductivity structures from magnetotelluric (MT) inversion. During inversion, the joint probability distribution of the MT and the specified reference model is estimated and its entropy minimized in order to guide the inversion result towards a solution that is statistically compatible with the reference model. The powerful feature of this technique is that no explicit relationships between estimated model parameters and reference model ones are presumed: if a link exists in data then it is highlighted in the estimation of the joint probability distribution, if no link is required, then none is enforced. Tests performed verify the robustness of this method and the advantages of it in a 1-D anisotropic scenario are demonstrated. A case study was performed with data from Central Germany, effectively fitting an MT data set from a single station within as minimal an amount of anisotropy as required.
Inverse problems using reduced basis method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gralla, Phil
Inverse Problems is a field of great interest for many applications, such as parameter identification and image reconstruction. The underlying models of inverse problems in many applications often involve Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). A Reduced Basis (RB) method for solving PDE based inverse problems is introduced in this thesis. The RB has been rigorously established as an efficient approach for solving PDEs in recent years. In this work, we investigate whether the RB method can be used as a regularization for solving ill-posed and nonlinear inverse problems using iterative methods. We rigorously analyze the RB method and prove convergence of the RB approximation to the exact solution. Furthermore, an iterative algorithm is proposed based on gradient method with RB regularization. We also implement the proposed method numerically and apply the algorithm to the inverse problem of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) which is known to be a notoriously ill-posed and nonlinear. For the EIT example, we provide all necessary details and carefully explain each step of the RB method. We also investigate the limitations of the RB method for solving nonlinear inverse problems in general. We conclude that the RB method can be used to solve nonlinear inverse problems with appropriate assumptions however the assumptions are somewhat restrictive and may not be applicable for a wide range of problems.
Prismatic and full-waveform joint inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Ying-Ming; Li, Zhen-Chun; Huang, Jian-Ping; Li, Jin-Li
2016-09-01
Prismatic wave is that it has three reflection paths and two reflection points, one of which is located at the reflection interface and the other is located at the steep dip angle reflection layer, so that contains a lot of the high and steep reflection interface information that primary cannot reach. Prismatic wave field information can be separated by applying Born approximation to traditional reverse time migration profile, and then the prismatic wave is used to update velocity to improve the inversion efficiency for the salt dame flanks and some other high and steep structure. Under the guidance of this idea, a prismatic waveform inversion method is proposed (abbreviated as PWI). PWI has a significant drawback that an iteration time of PWI is more than twice as that of FWI, meanwhile, the full wave field information cannot all be used, for this problem, we propose a joint inversion method to combine prismatic waveform inversion with full waveform inversion. In this method, FWI and PWI are applied alternately to invert the velocity. Model tests suggest that the joint inversion method is less dependence on the high and steep structure information in the initial model and improve high inversion efficiency and accuracy for the model with steep dip angle structure.
Bayesian AVO inversion with consistent angle parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chao; Zhang, Jinmiao; Zhu, Zhenyu
2017-04-01
Amplitude versus offset (AVO) inversion has been extensively used in seismic exploration. Many different elastic parameters can be inverted by incorporating corresponding reflection coefficient approximations. Although efforts have been made to improve the accuracy of AVO inversions for years, there is still one problem that has long been ignored. In most methods, the angle in the approximation and the angle used in seismic angle gather extractions are not the same one. This inconsistency leads to inaccurate inversion results. In this paper, a Bayesian AVO inversion method with consistent angles is proposed to solve the problem and improve inversion accuracy. Firstly, a linearized P-wave reflection coefficient approximation with consistent angles is derived based on angle replacements. The equivalent form of the approximation in terms moduli and density is derived so that moduli can be inverted for reservoir characterization. Then, by convoluting it with seismic wavelets as the forward solver, a probabilistic prestack seismic inversion method with consistent angles is presented in a Bayesian scheme. The synthetic test proves that the accuracy of this method is higher than the traditional one. The real data example shows that the inversion result fits better with well log interpretation data, which verifies the feasibility of the proposed method.
Support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering
Safaeinili, Ali
1994-04-24
This report discusses the following topics on support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering: Minimum support inversion; forward modelling of elastodynamic wave scattering; minimum support linearized acoustic inversion; support minimized nonlinear acoustic inversion without absolute phase; and support minimized nonlinear elastic inversion.
Sparse CSEM inversion driven by seismic coherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zhenwei; Dong, Hefeng; Kristensen, Åge
2016-12-01
Marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data inversion for hydrocarbon exploration is often challenging due to high computational cost, physical memory requirement and low resolution of the obtained resistivity map. This paper aims to enhance both the speed and resolution of CSEM inversion by introducing structural geological information in the inversion algorithm. A coarse mesh is generated for Occam’s inversion, where the parameters are fewer than in the fine regular mesh. This sparse mesh is defined as a coherence-based irregular (IC) sparse mesh, which is based on vertices extracted from available geological information. Inversion results on synthetic data illustrate that the IC sparse mesh has a smaller inversion computational cost compared to the regular dense (RD) mesh. It also has a higher resolution than with a regular sparse (RS) mesh for the same number of estimated parameters. In order to study how the IC sparse mesh reduces the computational time, four different meshes are generated for Occam’s inversion. As a result, an IC sparse mesh can reduce the computational cost while it keeps the resolution as good as a fine regular mesh. The IC sparse mesh reduces the computational cost of the matrix operation for model updates. When the number of estimated parameters reduces to a limited value, the computational cost is independent of the number of parameters. For a testing model with two resistive layers, the inversion result using an IC sparse mesh has higher resolution in both horizontal and vertical directions. Overall, the model representing significant geological information in the IC mesh can improve the resolution of the resistivity models obtained from inversion of CSEM data.
On the inversion-indel distance.
Willing, Eyla; Zaccaria, Simone; Braga, Marília D V; Stoye, Jens
2013-01-01
The inversion distance, that is the distance between two unichromosomal genomes with the same content allowing only inversions of DNA segments, can be computed thanks to a pioneering approach of Hannenhalli and Pevzner in 1995. In 2000, El-Mabrouk extended the inversion model to allow the comparison of unichromosomal genomes with unequal contents, thus insertions and deletions of DNA segments besides inversions. However, an exact algorithm was presented only for the case in which we have insertions alone and no deletion (or vice versa), while a heuristic was provided for the symmetric case, that allows both insertions and deletions and is called the inversion-indel distance. In 2005, Yancopoulos, Attie and Friedberg started a new branch of research by introducing the generic double cut and join (DCJ) operation, that can represent several genome rearrangements (including inversions). Among others, the DCJ model gave rise to two important results. First, it has been shown that the inversion distance can be computed in a simpler way with the help of the DCJ operation. Second, the DCJ operation originated the DCJ-indel distance, that allows the comparison of genomes with unequal contents, considering DCJ, insertions and deletions, and can be computed in linear time. In the present work we put these two results together to solve an open problem, showing that, when the graph that represents the relation between the two compared genomes has no bad components, the inversion-indel distance is equal to the DCJ-indel distance. We also give a lower and an upper bound for the inversion-indel distance in the presence of bad components.
On the inversion-indel distance
2013-01-01
Background The inversion distance, that is the distance between two unichromosomal genomes with the same content allowing only inversions of DNA segments, can be computed thanks to a pioneering approach of Hannenhalli and Pevzner in 1995. In 2000, El-Mabrouk extended the inversion model to allow the comparison of unichromosomal genomes with unequal contents, thus insertions and deletions of DNA segments besides inversions. However, an exact algorithm was presented only for the case in which we have insertions alone and no deletion (or vice versa), while a heuristic was provided for the symmetric case, that allows both insertions and deletions and is called the inversion-indel distance. In 2005, Yancopoulos, Attie and Friedberg started a new branch of research by introducing the generic double cut and join (DCJ) operation, that can represent several genome rearrangements (including inversions). Among others, the DCJ model gave rise to two important results. First, it has been shown that the inversion distance can be computed in a simpler way with the help of the DCJ operation. Second, the DCJ operation originated the DCJ-indel distance, that allows the comparison of genomes with unequal contents, considering DCJ, insertions and deletions, and can be computed in linear time. Results In the present work we put these two results together to solve an open problem, showing that, when the graph that represents the relation between the two compared genomes has no bad components, the inversion-indel distance is equal to the DCJ-indel distance. We also give a lower and an upper bound for the inversion-indel distance in the presence of bad components. PMID:24564182
An inverse problem in thermal imaging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryan, Kurt; Caudill, Lester F., Jr.
1994-01-01
This paper examines uniqueness and stability results for an inverse problem in thermal imaging. The goal is to identify an unknown boundary of an object by applying a heat flux and measuring the induced temperature on the boundary of the sample. The problem is studied both in the case in which one has data at every point on the boundary of the region and the case in which only finitely many measurements are available. An inversion procedure is developed and used to study the stability of the inverse problem for various experimental configurations.
An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment.
Williams, Travis J; Kershaw, Allan D; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping
2011-05-01
A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this article will enable instructors to use inversion recovery as a laboratory activity in applied NMR classes and provide research students with a convenient template with which to acquire inversion recovery data on research samples.
An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment
Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping
2011-01-01
A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this article will enable instructors to use inversion recovery as a laboratory activity in applied NMR classes and provide research students with a convenient template with which to acquire inversion recovery data on research samples. PMID:21552343
Population inversion in a stationary recombining plasma
Otsuka, M.
1980-12-01
Population inversion, which occurs in a recombining plasma when a stationary He plasma is brought into contact with a neutral gas, is examined. With hydrogen as a contact gas, noticeable inversion between low-lying levels of H as been found. The overpopulation density is of the order of 10/sup 8/ cm/sup -3/, which is much higher then that (approx. =10/sup 5/ cm/sup -3/) obtained previously with He as a contact gas. Relations between these experimental results and the conditions for population inversion are discussed with the CR model.
Monte Carlo inversion of seismic data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wiggins, R. A.
1972-01-01
The analytic solution to the linear inverse problem provides estimates of the uncertainty of the solution in terms of standard deviations of corrections to a particular solution, resolution of parameter adjustments, and information distribution among the observations. It is shown that Monte Carlo inversion, when properly executed, can provide all the same kinds of information for nonlinear problems. Proper execution requires a relatively uniform sampling of all possible models. The expense of performing Monte Carlo inversion generally requires strategies to improve the probability of finding passing models. Such strategies can lead to a very strong bias in the distribution of models examined unless great care is taken in their application.
Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques
Hughes, L.J. Jr.
1980-08-01
The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented.
Analysis of Temperature Distributions in Nighttime Inversions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Telyak, Oksana; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei
2015-04-01
Adequate prediction of temperature inversion in the atmospheric boundary layer is one of prerequisites for successful forecasting of meteorological parameters and severe weather events. Examples include surface air temperature and precipitation forecasting as well as prediction of fog, frosts and smog with hazardous levels of atmospheric pollution. At the same time, reliable forecasting of temperature inversions remains an unsolved problem. For prediction of nighttime inversions over some specific territory, it is important to study characteristic features of local circulation cells formation and to properly take local factors into account to develop custom modeling techniques for operational use. The present study aims to investigate and analyze vertical temperature distributions in tropospheric inversions (isotherms) over the territory of Belarus. We study several specific cases of formation, evolution and decay of deep nighttime temperature inversions in Belarus by means of mesoscale numerical simulations with WRF model, considering basic mechanisms of isothermal and inverse temperature layers formation in the troposphere and impact of these layers on local circulation cells. Our primary goal is to assess the feasibility of advance prediction of inversions formation with WRF. Modeling results reveal that all cases under consideration have characteristic features of radiative inversions (e.g., their formation times, development phases, inversion intensities, etc). Regions of "blocking" layers formation are extensive and often spread over the entire territory of Belarus. Inversions decay starts from the lowermost (near surface) layer (altitudes of 5 to 50 m). In all cases, one can observe formation of temperature gradients that substantially differ from the basic inversion gradient, i.e. the layer splits into smaller layers, each having a different temperature stratification (isothermal, adiabatic, etc). As opposed to various empirical techniques as well as
BOOK REVIEW: Inverse Problems. Activities for Undergraduates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Masahiro
2003-06-01
This book is a valuable introduction to inverse problems. In particular, from the educational point of view, the author addresses the questions of what constitutes an inverse problem and how and why we should study them. Such an approach has been eagerly awaited for a long time. Professor Groetsch, of the University of Cincinnati, is a world-renowned specialist in inverse problems, in particular the theory of regularization. Moreover, he has made a remarkable contribution to educational activities in the field of inverse problems, which was the subject of his previous book (Groetsch C W 1993 Inverse Problems in the Mathematical Sciences (Braunschweig: Vieweg)). For this reason, he is one of the most qualified to write an introductory book on inverse problems. Without question, inverse problems are important, necessary and appear in various aspects. So it is crucial to introduce students to exercises in inverse problems. However, there are not many introductory books which are directly accessible by students in the first two undergraduate years. As a consequence, students often encounter diverse concrete inverse problems before becoming aware of their general principles. The main purpose of this book is to present activities to allow first-year undergraduates to learn inverse theory. To my knowledge, this book is a rare attempt to do this and, in my opinion, a great success. The author emphasizes that it is very important to teach inverse theory in the early years. He writes; `If students consider only the direct problem, they are not looking at the problem from all sides .... The habit of always looking at problems from the direct point of view is intellectually limiting ...' (page 21). The book is very carefully organized so that teachers will be able to use it as a textbook. After an introduction in chapter 1, sucessive chapters deal with inverse problems in precalculus, calculus, differential equations and linear algebra. In order to let one gain some insight
Case of paracentric inversion 19p
Bettio, D.; Rizzi, N.; Giardino, D.
1995-09-25
Paracentric inversions have been described less frequently than pericentric ones. It is not known whether this is due to their rarity or rather to difficulty in detecting intra-arm rearrangements. Paracentric inversions have been noted in all chromosomes except chromosome 19; the short arm was involved in 21 cases and the long arm in 87. We describe the first case of paracentric inversion in chromosome 19. The patient, a 29-year-old man, was referred for cytogenetic investigation because his wife had had 3 spontaneous abortions. No history of subfertility was recorded. Chromosome studies on peripheral blood lymphocytes demonstrated an abnormal QFQ banding pattern in the short arm of one chromosome 19. The comparison between QFQ, GTG and RBA banding led us to suspect a paracentric inversion involving the chromosome 19 short arm. CBG banding resulted in an apparently normal position of the centromere. Parental chromosome studies showed the same anomaly in the patient`s mother. 4 refs.
Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.
2016-08-01
The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.
Inverse Born series for the Calderon problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arridge, Simon; Moskow, Shari; Schotland, John C.
2012-03-01
We propose a direct reconstruction method for the Calderon problem based on inversion of the Born series. We characterize the convergence, stability and approximation error of the method and illustrate its use in numerical reconstructions.
Synthesis and inversion of Stokes spectral profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, G. A.
Observations of Stokes spectral profiles enable the magnetic fields on the Sun's surface to be determined. Inversion is the process whereby the profiles are reduced to magnetic field vectors. One of the most robust, accurate, and rapid methods available for inversion uses the least squares fitting of analytical Stokes profiles. As this technique is suitable for the automated reduction of large sets of data, it was adopted for use with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter, presently under development. The limitations of inversion by analytical profile fitting were not firmly established. Confident analysis of magnet field vectors depends upon the precise interpretation of reduced data. A framework is introduced which allows such an assessment to be made. The magnetofluid-static sunspon models presented provide a self-consistent range of physical conditions similar to those in sunspots. Inversion can then be carried out on Stokes profiles synthesized from these known realistic conditions.
Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials.
Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R
2016-08-31
The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with 'flute-like' acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.
Electromagnetic inverse applications for functional brain imaging
Wood, C.C.
1997-10-01
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses an important mathematical and computational problem in functional brain imaging, namely the electromagnetic {open_quotes}inverse problem.{close_quotes} Electromagnetic brain imaging techniques, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), are based on measurements of electrical potentials and magnetic fields at hundreds of locations outside the human head. The inverse problem is the estimation of the locations, magnitudes, and time-sources of electrical currents in the brain from surface measurements. This project extends recent progress on the inverse problem by combining the use of anatomical constraints derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Bayesian and other novel algorithmic approaches. The results suggest that we can achieve significant improvements in the accuracy and robustness of inverse solutions by these two approaches.
AVO migration and inversion: Are they commutable?
Beydoun, W.B.; Jin, S.; Hanitzsch, C.
1994-12-31
With the increasing ambition of characterizing hydrocarbon traps in more subtle or complex reservoirs, Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO) techniques are becoming a valuable seismic tool for quantitative seismic discrimination of lithologies and fluids. One of the biggest remaining challenges is to acquire and process the data in an amplitude preserved fashion and in multi-dimensional geology. This study is a component of this puzzle, and attempts to address the following processing question: what are the benefits of prestack migration before AVO inversion (process 1) versus performing an AVO inversion followed by a poststack migration (process 2)? The comparison is done on a 2-D synthetic model which is valid for process 2. The technique used for process 1 is the prestack depth AVO migration/inversion described in the text which estimates reflectivities and incidence angles in multi-dimensions from the data prior to AVO inversion. Process 2 results are derived using a commercial seismic processing software package.
FNAS/Rapid Spectral Inversion Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poularikas, Alexander
1997-01-01
The purpose of this investigation was to study methods and ways for rapid inversion programs involving the correlated k-method, and to study the infrared observations of Saturn from the Cassini orbiter.
An Inverse Problem Statistical Methodology Summary
2008-01-12
R. Vogel, Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, SIAM, Philadelphia, 2002. [36] D. D. Wackerly, W. Mendenhall III, and R. L. Scheaffer , Mathematical Statistics with Applications, Duxbury Thompson Learning, USA, 2002. 56
Inverse problem of electro-seismic conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jie; Yang, Yang
2013-11-01
When a porous rock is saturated with an electrolyte, electrical fields are coupled with seismic waves via the electro-seismic conversion. Pride (1994 Phys. Rev. B 50 15678-96) derived the governing models, in which Maxwell equations are coupled with Biot's equations through the electro-kinetic mobility parameter. The inverse problem of the linearized electro-seismic conversion consists in two steps, namely the inversion of Biot's equations and the inversion of Maxwell equations. We analyze the reconstruction of conductivity and electro-kinetic mobility parameter in Maxwell equations with internal measurements, while the internal measurements are provided by the results of the inversion of Biot's equations. We show that knowledge of two internal data based on well-chosen boundary conditions uniquely determines these two parameters. Moreover, a Lipschitz-type stability is proved based on the same sets of well-chosen boundary conditions.
Magnetostatics of superconductors without an inversion center
Levitov, L.S.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Eliashberg, G.M.
1985-05-10
The penetration of a magnetic field into a London superconductor without an inversion center is analyzed. The magnetization produced in the Meissner layer corresponds to a magnetic-induction jump at the superconductor surface.
Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance
Khilnani, Gurudas; Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar
2011-01-01
A large number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) show varying degrees of basal or constitutive activity. This constitutive activity is usually minimal in natural receptors but is markedly observed in wild type and mutated (naturally or induced) receptors. According to conventional two-state drug receptor interaction model, binding of a ligand may initiate activity (agonist with varying degrees of positive intrinsic activity) or prevent the effect of an agonist (antagonist with zero intrinsic activity). Inverse agonists bind with the constitutively active receptors, stabilize them, and thus reduce the activity (negative intrinsic activity). Receptors of many classes (α-and β-adrenergic, histaminergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, opiate, and angiotensin receptors) have shown basal activity in suitable in vitro models. Several drugs that have been conventionally classified as antagonists (β-blockers, antihistaminics) have shown inverse agonist effects on corresponding constitutively active receptors. Nearly all H1 and H2 antihistaminics (antagonists) have been shown to be inverse agonists. Among the β-blockers, carvedilol and bucindolol demonstrate low level of inverse agonism as compared to propranolol and nadolol. Several antipsychotic drugs (D2 receptors antagonist), antihypertensive (AT1 receptor antagonists), antiserotoninergic drugs and opioid antagonists have significant inverse agonistic activity that contributes partly or wholly to their therapeutic value. Inverse agonism may also help explain the underlying mechanism of beneficial effects of carvedilol in congestive failure, naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome in opioid dependence, clozapine in psychosis, and candesartan in cardiac hypertrophy. Understanding inverse agonisms has paved a way for newer drug development. It is now possible to develop agents, which have only desired therapeutic value and are devoid of unwanted adverse effect. Pimavanserin (ACP-103), a highly selective 5-HT2A inverse
A fluorophosphate-based inverse Keggin structure.
Fielden, John; Quasdorf, Kyle; Cronin, Leroy; Kögerler, Paul
2012-09-07
An unusual PFO(3)(2-)-templated "inverse Keggin" polyanion, [Mo(12)O(46)(PF)(4)](4-), has been isolated from the degradation reaction of an {Mo(132)}-type Keplerate to [PMo(12)O(40)](3-) by [Cu(MeCN)(4)](PF(6)) in acetonitrile. (31)P-NMR studies suggest a structure-directing role for [Cu(MeCN)(4)](+) in the formation of the highly unusual all-inorganic inverse Keggin structure.
Inverse Kinematics for a Parallel Myoelectric Elbow
2001-10-25
Inverse Kinematics for a Parallel Myoelectric Elbow A. Z. Escudero, Ja. Álvarez, L. Leija. Center of Research and Advanced Studies of the IPN...replacement above elbow are serial mechanisms driven by a DC motor and they include only one active articulation for the elbow [1]. Parallel mechanisms...are rather scarce [2]. The inverse kinematics model of a 3-degree of freedom parallel prosthetic elbow mechanism is reported. The mathematical
Simple realization of the inverse seesaw mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, A. G.; de S. Pires, C. A.; Rodrigues da Silva, P. S.; Sampieri, A.
2012-08-01
Differently from the canonical seesaw mechanism, which is grounded in grand unified theories, the inverse seesaw mechanism lacks a special framework that realizes it naturally. In this work we advocate that the 3-3-1 model with right-handed neutrinos has such an appropriate framework to accommodate the inverse seesaw mechanism. We also discuss the smallness of the lepton number violating mass and estimate the branching ratio for the rare lepton flavor violation process μ→eγ.
Inversion of elastic impedance for unconsolidated sediments
Lee, Myung W.
2006-01-01
Elastic properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are important for quantifying gas hydrate amounts as well as discriminating the gas hydrate effect on velocity from free gas or pore pressure. This paper presents an elastic inversion method for estimating elastic properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments from angle stacks using sequential inversion of P-wave impedance from the zero-offset stack and S-wave impedance from the far-offset stack without assuming velocity ratio.
A fluorophosphate-based inverse Keggin structure
Fielden, John; Quasdorf, Kyle; Cronin, Leroy; Kogerler, Paul
2012-07-17
An unusual PFO(3)(2-)-templated "inverse Keggin" polyanion, [Mo(12)O(46)(PF)(4)](4-), has been isolated from the degradation reaction of an {Mo(132)}-type Keplerate to [PMo(12)O(40)](3-) by [Cu(MeCN)(4)](PF(6)) in acetonitrile. (31)P-NMR studies suggest a structure-directing role for [Cu(MeCN)(4)](+) in the formation of the highly unusual all-inorganic inverse Keggin structure.
Inversion layer solar cell fabrication and evaluation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Call, R. L.
1972-01-01
Silicon solar cells with induced junctions were created by forming an inversion layer near the surface of the silicon by supplying a sheet of positive charge above the surface. This charged layer was supplied through three mechanisms: (1) supplying a positive potential to a transparent electrode separated from the silicon surface by a dielectric, (2) contaminating the oxide layer with positive ions, and (3) forming donor surface states that leave a positive charge on the surface. A movable semi-infinite shadow delineated the extent of sensitivity of the cell due to the inversion region. Measurements of the inversion layer cell response to light of different wavelengths indicated it to be more sensitive to the shorter wavelengths of the sun's spectrum than conventional cells. Theory of the conductance of the inversion layer vs. strength of the inversion layer was compared with experiment and found to match. Theoretical determinations of junction depth and inversion layer strength were made as a function of the surface potential for the transparent electrode cell.
Multichannel algorithms for seismic reflectivity inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ruo; Wang, Yanghua
2017-02-01
Seismic reflectivity inversion is a deconvolution process for quantitatively extracting the reflectivity series and depicting the layered subsurface structure. The conventional method is a single channel inversion and cannot clearly characterise stratified structures, especially from seismic data with low signal-to-noise ratio. Because it is implemented on a trace-by-trace basis, the continuity along reflections in the original seismic data is deteriorated in the inversion results. We propose here multichannel inversion algorithms that apply the information of adjacent traces during seismic reflectivity inversion. Explicitly, we incorporate a spatial prediction filter into the conventional Cauchy-constrained inversion method. We verify the validity and feasibility of the method using field data experiments and find an improved lateral continuity and clearer structures achieved by the multichannel algorithms. Finally, we compare the performance of three multichannel algorithms and merit the effectiveness based on the lateral coherency and structure characterisation of the inverted reflectivity profiles, and the residual energy of the seismic data at the same time.
Inverse Bremsstrahlung in Shocked Astrophysical Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baring, Matthew G.; Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.
2000-01-01
There has recently been interest in the role of inverse bremsstrahlung, the emission of photons by fast suprathermal ions in collisions with ambient electrons possessing relatively low velocities, in tenuous plasmas in various astrophysical contexts. This follows a long hiatus in the application of suprathermal ion bremsstrahlung to astrophysical models since the early 1970s. The potential importance of inverse bremsstrahlung relative to normal bremsstrahlung, i.e. where ions are at rest, hinges upon the underlying velocity distributions of the interacting species. In this paper, we identify the conditions under which the inverse bremsstrahlung emissivity is significant relative to that for normal bremsstrahlung in shocked astrophysical plasmas. We determine that, since both observational and theoretical evidence favors electron temperatures almost comparable to, and certainly not very deficient relative to proton temperatures in shocked plasmas, these environments generally render inverse bremsstrahlung at best a minor contributor to the overall emission. Hence inverse bremsstrahlung can be safely neglected in most models invoking shock acceleration in discrete sources such as supernova remnants. However, on scales approximately > 100 pc distant from these sources, Coulomb collisional losses can deplete the cosmic ray electrons, rendering inverse bremsstrahlung, and perhaps bremsstrahlung from knock-on electrons, possibly detectable.
Sol-gel co-assembly of hollow cylindrical inverse opals and inverse opal columns.
Haibin, Ni; Ming, Wang; Wei, Chen
2011-12-19
A facile approach of fabricating hollow cylindrical inverse opals and inverse opal columns by sol-gel co-assembly method was proposed. Polystyrene (PS) colloidal suspension added with hydrolyzed silicate precursor solution was used to self-assemble composite colloidal crystals which consist of PS colloidal crystal template and infiltrated silica gel in the interstitial of microspheres. Continuous hollow cylindrical composite colloidal crystal films have been produced on capillaries' outside and internal surface. Composite colloidal crystal columns which filling up the interior of a capillary were fabricated by pressure assisted sol-gel co-assembly method. Hollow cylindrical inverse opals and inverse opal columns were obtained after removing PS colloidal crystal from the composite colloidal crystal. Optical properties of the silica hollow cylindrical inverse opals were characterized by transmission spectrum and a stop band was observed. Structure and optical properties of the inverse opal columns were investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Min Yang; Lin, Charles C. H.; Tsai, Ho Fang; Lin, Chi Yen
2017-01-01
The Abel inversion of ionospheric electron density profiles with the assumption of spherical symmetry applied for radio occultation soundings could introduce a greater systematic error or sometimes artifacts if the occultation rays trespass regions with larger horizontal gradients in electron density. The aided Abel inversions have been proposed by considering the asymmetry ratio derived from ionospheric total electron content (TEC) or peak density (NmF2) of reconstructed observation maps since knowledge of the horizontal asymmetry in ambient ionospheric density could mitigate the inversion error. Here we propose a new aided Abel inversion using three-dimensional time-dependent electron density (Ne) based on the climatological maps constructed from previous observations, as it has an advantage of providing altitudinal information on the horizontal asymmetry. Improvement of proposed Ne-aided Abel inversion and comparisons with electron density profiles inverted from the NmF2- and TEC-aided inversions are studied using observation system simulation experiments. Comparison results show that all three aided Abel inversions improve the ionospheric profiling by mitigating the artificial plasma caves and negative electron density in the daytime E region. The equatorial ionization anomaly crests in the F region become more distinct. The statistical results show that the Ne-aided Abel inversion has less mean and RMS error of error percentage above 250 km altitudes, and the performances for all aided Abel inversions are similar below 250 km altitudes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mai, P. Martin
2013-04-01
Finite-fault source inversions estimate kinematic rupture parameters of earthquakes using a variety of available data sets and inversion approaches. Rupture models are obtained by solving an inherently ill-posed inverse problem, subject to numerous a priori assumptions, noisy observations, and imperfect Green's functions. Despite these limitations, near real-time source inversions are becoming increasingly popular, while we still face the dilemma that uncertainties in source inversions are essentially unknown. Yet, the accurate estimation of earthquake rupture properties, including proper uncertainty quantification, is critically important for earthquake seismology and seismic hazard analysis, as they help to adequately characterize earthquake complexity across all scales. The collaborative project "Source Inversion Validation" (SIV) attempts to quantify the intra-event variability in rupture models (evidenced in the SRCMOD database, http://equake-rc.info/srcmod), and to propose robust uncertainty metrics for earthquake source inversions. The SIV efforts include a rigorous testing platform to examine the current state-of-the-art in earthquake source inversion, and to develop and test novel source inversion approaches. In this presentation, we will summarize initial SIV results related to previous benchmark exercises, discuss the latest findings for a test case of a complex rupture embedded in a 3D heterogeneous Earth model, and propose metrics to quantify rupture-model variability, quality of data fitting, and model robustness.
Inversion concept of the origin of life.
Kompanichenko, V N
2012-06-01
The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance "free energy contribution / entropy contribution", from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i.e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300°C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100°C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism).
Inversion Concept of the Origin of Life
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kompanichenko, V. N.
2012-06-01
The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance "free energy contribution / entropy contribution", from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i.e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300°C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100°C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism).
The rotation-inversion spectrum of cyanamide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Read, W. G.; Cohen, E. A.; Pickett, H. M.
1986-02-01
The microwave, millimeter, and submillimeter spectra of cyanamide were studied to better determine the inversion-rotation parameters of the ground and first excited states. A total of 146 transitions including 64 rotation-inversion frequencies between 7 and 500 GHz have been measured at this laboratory. An additional 118 a-type R-branch transitions between 139 and 262 GHz measured by Möller and Winnewisser at Justus Liebig University, Giessen, have also been included in the analysis. The data were fitted to a Hamiltonian which contains a rotation-inversion interaction as an off-diagonal inertial term. The interpretation of the interaction term in terms of the molecular structure and inversion motion is in good agreement with experiment. Higher order rotational effects were handled with a Watson " S" centrifugal distortion Hamiltonian. The inversion splitting, rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, nitrogen nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors including χac for the amino nitrogen, and the a and c components of the electric dipole moment are reported.
Full wave-field reflection coefficient inversion.
Dettmer, Jan; Dosso, Stan E; Holland, Charles W
2007-12-01
This paper develops a Bayesian inversion for recovering multilayer geoacoustic (velocity, density, attenuation) profiles from a full wave-field (spherical-wave) seabed reflection response. The reflection data originate from acoustic time series windowed for a single bottom interaction, which are processed to yield reflection coefficient data as a function of frequency and angle. Replica data for inversion are computed using a wave number-integration model to calculate the full complex acoustic pressure field, which is processed to produce a commensurate seabed response function. To address the high computational cost of calculating short range acoustic fields, the inversion algorithms are parallelized and frequency averaging is replaced by range averaging in the forward model. The posterior probability density is interpreted in terms of optimal parameter estimates, marginal distributions, and credibility intervals. Inversion results for the full wave-field seabed response are compared to those obtained using plane-wave reflection coefficients. A realistic synthetic study indicates that the plane-wave assumption can fail, producing erroneous results with misleading uncertainty bounds, whereas excellent results are obtained with the full-wave reflection inversion.
Constrained inversion of seismo-volcanic events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nocerino, Luciano; D'Auria, Luca; Giudicepietro, Flora; Martini, Marcello
2014-05-01
The inversion of seismo-volcanic events is performed to retrieve the source geometry and to determine volumetric budgets of the source. Such observations have shown to be an important tool for the seismological monitoring of volcanoes. We developed a novel technique for the non-linear constrained inversion of low frequency seismo-volcanic events. Unconstrained linear inversion methods work well when a dense network of broadband seismometers is available. We propose a new constrained inversion technique, which has shown to be efficient also in a reduced network configuration and a low signal-noise ratio. The waveform inversion is performed in the frequency domain, constraining the source mechanism during the event to vary only in its magnitude. The eigenvectors orientation and the eigenvalue ratio are kept constant. This significantly reduces the number of parameters to invert, making the procedure more stable. The method has been tested over a synthetic dataset, reproducing realistic very-long-period (VLP) signals Stromboli volcano. We have applied the method to a VLP dataset recorded on Stromboli volcano and to low-frequency earthquakes recorded on Mt.Vesuvius.
A statistical mechanical model for inverse melting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feeney, Melissa R.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Stillinger, Frank H.
2003-08-01
Inverse melting is the situation in which a liquid freezes when it is heated isobarically. Both helium isotopes exhibit intervals of inverse melting at low temperature, and published data suggests that isotactic poly (4-methylpentene-1) also displays this unusual phase behavior. Here we propose a statistical mechanical model for inverse melting. It is a decorated modification of the Gaussian core model, in which particles possess a spectrum of thermally activated internal states. Excitation leads to a change in a particle's Gaussian interaction parameters, and this can result in a spatially periodic crystal possessing a higher entropy than the fluid with which it coexists. Numerical solution of the model, using integral equations and the hypernetted chain closure for the fluid phase, and the Einstein model for the solid phases, identifies two types of inverse melting. One mimics the behavior of the helium isotopes, for which the higher-entropy crystal is denser than the liquid. The other corresponds to inverse melting in poly(4-methylpentene-1), where the high-entropy crystal is less dense than the liquid with which it coexists.
Inverse kinematic-based robot control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolovich, W. A.; Flueckiger, K. F.
1987-01-01
A fundamental problem which must be resolved in virtually all non-trivial robotic operations is the well-known inverse kinematic question. More specifically, most of the tasks which robots are called upon to perform are specified in Cartesian (x,y,z) space, such as simple tracking along one or more straight line paths or following a specified surfacer with compliant force sensors and/or visual feedback. In all cases, control is actually implemented through coordinated motion of the various links which comprise the manipulator; i.e., in link space. As a consequence, the control computer of every sophisticated anthropomorphic robot must contain provisions for solving the inverse kinematic problem which, in the case of simple, non-redundant position control, involves the determination of the first three link angles, theta sub 1, theta sub 2, and theta sub 3, which produce a desired wrist origin position P sub xw, P sub yw, and P sub zw at the end of link 3 relative to some fixed base frame. Researchers outline a new inverse kinematic solution and demonstrate its potential via some recent computer simulations. They also compare it to current inverse kinematic methods and outline some of the remaining problems which will be addressed in order to render it fully operational. Also discussed are a number of practical consequences of this technique beyond its obvious use in solving the inverse kinematic question.
Alternating minimisation for glottal inverse filtering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigo Bleyer, Ismael; Lybeck, Lasse; Auvinen, Harri; Airaksinen, Manu; Alku, Paavo; Siltanen, Samuli
2017-06-01
A new method is proposed for solving the glottal inverse filtering (GIF) problem. The goal of GIF is to separate an acoustical speech signal into two parts: the glottal airflow excitation and the vocal tract filter. To recover such information one has to deal with a blind deconvolution problem. This ill-posed inverse problem is solved under a deterministic setting, considering unknowns on both sides of the underlying operator equation. A stable reconstruction is obtained using a double regularization strategy, alternating between fixing either the glottal source signal or the vocal tract filter. This enables not only splitting the nonlinear and nonconvex problem into two linear and convex problems, but also allows the use of the best parameters and constraints to recover each variable at a time. This new technique, called alternating minimization glottal inverse filtering (AM-GIF), is compared with two other approaches: Markov chain Monte Carlo glottal inverse filtering (MCMC-GIF), and iterative adaptive inverse filtering (IAIF), using synthetic speech signals. The recent MCMC-GIF has good reconstruction quality but high computational cost. The state-of-the-art IAIF method is computationally fast but its accuracy deteriorates, particularly for speech signals of high fundamental frequency (F0). The results show the competitive performance of the new method: With high F0, the reconstruction quality is better than that of IAIF and close to MCMC-GIF while reducing the computational complexity by two orders of magnitude.
Speaker independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, An
Acoustic-to-articulatory inversion, the determination of articulatory parameters from acoustic signals, is a difficult but important problem for many speech processing applications, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer aided pronunciation training (CAPT). In recent years, several approaches have been successfully implemented for speaker dependent models with parallel acoustic and kinematic training data. However, in many practical applications inversion is needed for new speakers for whom no articulatory data is available. In order to address this problem, this dissertation introduces a novel speaker adaptation approach called Parallel Reference Speaker Weighting (PRSW), based on parallel acoustic and articulatory Hidden Markov Models (HMM). This approach uses a robust normalized articulatory space and palate referenced articulatory features combined with speaker-weighted adaptation to form an inversion mapping for new speakers that can accurately estimate articulatory trajectories. The proposed PRSW method is evaluated on the newly collected Marquette electromagnetic articulography -- Mandarin Accented English (EMA-MAE) corpus using 20 native English speakers. Cross-speaker inversion results show that given a good selection of reference speakers with consistent acoustic and articulatory patterns, the PRSW approach gives good speaker independent inversion performance even without kinematic training data.
Improved SOLA Inversions of MDI Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larsen, R. M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Schou, J.
We present a new version of 2d-SOLA, where the target functions have been modified to match the behavior of the mode kernels near the rotation axis and to minimize near-surface contributions. Inversion of artificial data show that these modifications significantly improve the effective resolution near the pole, which allows us to assess the reliability of the high-latitude features seen by other inversion methods. Most importantly, our new inversions seem to confirm the detection of a submerged polar jet previously seen in the 2d-RLS inversions reported by Schou et al. 1998. A test of the robustness of the improved method is carried out by inverting artificial data from the MDI Hare and Hounds exercise. We analyze the averaging kernels and error propagation of the method, and also describe the error-correlation between different points in the solution, the latter being a potential source of spurious features in the solutions as pointed out by Howe and Thompson, 1996. So far, helioseismic datasets given in the form of a-coefficients have been inverted under the assumption that the errors in different a-coefficients are uncorrelated. The MDI peak-bagging procedure, however, does produce estimates of the error-correlation between a-coefficients within the same multiplet. Here we investigate the effect of including this knowledge in the inversions.
Ramig, Keith; Subramaniam, Gopal; Karimi, Sasan; Szalda, David J; Ko, Allen; Lam, Aaron; Li, Jeffrey; Coaderaj, Ani; Cavdar, Leyla; Bogdan, Lukasz; Kwon, Kitae; Greer, Edyta M
2016-04-15
A series of 2,4-disubstituted 1H-1-benzazepines, 2a-d, 4, and 6, were studied, varying both the substituents at C2 and C4 and at the nitrogen atom. The conformational inversion (ring-flip) and nitrogen-atom inversion (N-inversion) energetics were studied by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy and computations. The steric bulk of the nitrogen-atom substituent was found to affect both the conformation of the azepine ring and the geometry around the nitrogen atom. Also affected were the Gibbs free energy barriers for the ring-flip and the N-inversion. When the nitrogen-atom substituent was alkyl, as in 2a-c, the geometry of the nitrogen atom was nearly planar and the azepine ring was highly puckered; the result was a relatively high-energy barrier to ring-flip and a low barrier to N-inversion. Conversely, when the nitrogen-atom substituent was a hydrogen atom, as in 2d, 4, and 6, the nitrogen atom was significantly pyramidalized and the azepine ring was less puckered; the result here was a relatively high energy barrier to N-inversion and a low barrier to ring-flip. In these N-unsubstituted compounds, it was found computationally that the lowest-energy stereodynamic process was ring-flip coupled with N-inversion, as N-inversion alone had a much higher energy barrier.
Pogorelsky, I.V.; vanSteenbergen, A.; Babzien, M.
1995-12-31
Status update on the ongoing inverse Cherenkov acceleration experiment and prospects to its 100 MeV short-term upgrade. The first report on 1 MeV electron acceleration with the 0.5 GW CO{sub 2} laser used in the inverse FEL scheme. (author). 22 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Yao, Jie; Lesage, Anne-Cécile; Hussain, Fazle; Bodmann, Bernhard G.; Kouri, Donald J.
2014-12-15
The reversion of the Born-Neumann series of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation is one of the standard ways to solve the inverse acoustic scattering problem. One limitation of the current inversion methods based on the reversion of the Born-Neumann series is that the velocity potential should have compact support. However, this assumption cannot be satisfied in certain cases, especially in seismic inversion. Based on the idea of distorted wave scattering, we explore an inverse scattering method for velocity potentials without compact support. The strategy is to decompose the actual medium as a known single interface reference medium, which has the same asymptotic form as the actual medium and a perturbative scattering potential with compact support. After introducing the method to calculate the Green’s function for the known reference potential, the inverse scattering series and Volterra inverse scattering series are derived for the perturbative potential. Analytical and numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. Besides, to ensure stability of the numerical computation, the Lanczos averaging method is employed as a filter to reduce the Gibbs oscillations for the truncated discrete inverse Fourier transform of each order. Our method provides a rigorous mathematical framework for inverse acoustic scattering with a non-compact support velocity potential.
Sparse nonlinear inverse imaging for shot count reduction in inverse lithography.
Wu, Xiaofei; Liu, Shiyuan; Lv, Wen; Lam, Edmund Y
2015-10-19
Inverse lithography technique (ILT) is significant to reduce the feature size of ArF optical lithography due to its strong ability to overcome the optical proximity effect. A critical issue for inverse lithography is the complex curvilinear patterns produced, which are very costly to write due to the large number of shots needed with the current variable shape beam (VSB) writers. In this paper, we devise an inverse lithography method to reduce the shot count by incorporating a model-based fracturing (MBF) in the optimization. The MBF is formulated as a sparse nonlinear inverse imaging problem based on representing the mask as a linear combination of shots followed by a threshold function. The problem is approached with a Gauss-Newton algorithm, which is adapted to promote sparsity of the solution, corresponding to the reduction of the shot count. Simulations of inverse lithography are performed on several test cases, and results demonstrate reduced shot count of the resulting mask.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heriyanto, M.; Srigutomo, W.
2017-07-01
Exploration of natural or energy resources requires geophysical survey to determine the subsurface structure, such as DC resistivity method. In this research, field and synthetic data were used using Schlumberger configuration. One-dimensional (1-D) DC resistivity inversion was carried out using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) techniques to obtain layered resistivity structure. We have developed software to perform both inversion methods accompanied by a user-friendly interface. Both of the methods were compared one another to determine the number of iteration, robust to noise, elapsed time of computation, and inversion results. SVD inversion generated faster process and better results than LM did. The inversion showed both of these methods were appropriate to interpret subsurface resistivity structure.
Children's Understanding of the Arithmetic Concepts of Inversion and Associativity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robinson, Katherine M.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Gray, Melissa L.
2006-01-01
Previous studies have shown that even preschoolers can solve inversion problems of the form a + b - b by using the knowledge that addition and subtraction are inverse operations. In this study, a new type of inversion problem of the form d x e [divided by] e was also examined. Grade 6 and 8 students solved inversion problems of both types as well…
Children's Understanding of the Arithmetic Concepts of Inversion and Associativity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robinson, Katherine M.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Gray, Melissa L.
2006-01-01
Previous studies have shown that even preschoolers can solve inversion problems of the form a + b - b by using the knowledge that addition and subtraction are inverse operations. In this study, a new type of inversion problem of the form d x e [divided by] e was also examined. Grade 6 and 8 students solved inversion problems of both types as well…
Inverse Papular Acrokeratosis of Oswaldo Costa
Marques, Lidiane Pereira; Trope, Beatriz Moritz; Pina, Juliana Carnevale; Cuzzi, Tullia
2010-01-01
Acrokeratoelastoidosis of Oswaldo Costa, or inverse papular acrokeratosis, is a rare genodermatosis first described in 1952 by Oswaldo Costa, a Brazilian dermatologist. It is characterized by flesh-colored papules on the lateral aspects of the palms and soles and dorsum of hands. The histological features are hyperkeratosis, hyalinized and homogenous collagen, and a decrease in and fragmentation of the elastic fibers (elastorrhexis). In the absence of elastic fiber fragmentation, a similar clinical presentation is diagnosed as focal acral hyperkeratosis. Many cases of inverse papular acrokeratosis of Oswaldo Costa may have been considered focal acral hyperkeratosis since it can be difficult to find the elastorrhexis. The authors report a case of a 51-year-old woman with inverse papular acrokeratosis of Oswaldo Costa with poor response to topical treatments. PMID:20725552
Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling
Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.
2010-12-01
Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.
Inverse obstacle scattering for elastic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Peijun; Wang, Yuliang; Wang, Zewen; Zhao, Yue
2016-11-01
Consider the scattering of a time-harmonic plane wave by a rigid obstacle which is embedded in an open space filled with a homogeneous and isotropic elastic medium. An exact transparent boundary condition is introduced to reduce the scattering problem into a boundary value problem in a bounded domain. Given the incident field, the direct problem is to determine the displacement of the wave field from the known obstacle; the inverse problem is to determine the obstacle’s surface from the measurement of the displacement on an artificial boundary enclosing the obstacle. In this paper, we consider both the direct and inverse problems. The direct problem is shown to have a unique weak solution by examining its variational formulation. The domain derivative is derived for the displacement with respect to the variation of the surface. A continuation method with respect to the frequency is developed for the inverse problem. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Oil core microcapsules by inverse gelation technique.
Martins, Evandro; Renard, Denis; Davy, Joëlle; Marquis, Mélanie; Poncelet, Denis
2015-01-01
A promising technique for oil encapsulation in Ca-alginate capsules by inverse gelation was proposed by Abang et al. This method consists of emulsifying calcium chloride solution in oil and then adding it dropwise in an alginate solution to produce Ca-alginate capsules. Spherical capsules with diameters around 3 mm were produced by this technique, however the production of smaller capsules was not demonstrated. The objective of this study is to propose a new method of oil encapsulation in a Ca-alginate membrane by inverse gelation. The optimisation of the method leads to microcapsules with diameters around 500 μm. In a search of microcapsules with improved diffusion characteristics, the size reduction is an essential factor to broaden the applications in food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals areas. This work contributes to a better understanding of the inverse gelation technique and allows the production of microcapsules with a well-defined shell-core structure.
Joint inversion for mapping subsurface hydrologicalparameters
Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha
2001-03-07
Using electromagnetic (EM) and seismic travel time data and a least-square criteria, a two-dimensional joint inversion algorithm is under development to assess the feasibility of directly mapping subsurface hydrological properties in a crosswell setup. A simplified Archie's law combined with the time average equation relates the magnetic fields and seismic travel time to two hydrological parameters; rock porosity and pore fluid electrical conductivity. For simplicity, the hydrological parameter distributions are assumed to be two-dimensional. Preliminary results show that joint inversion does have better resolving power for the interpretation than using the EM method alone. Various inversion scenarios have been tested, and it has been found that alternately perturbing just one of the two parameters at each iteration gives the best data fit.
Inverse engineering control in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Jun; Wu, Lian-Ao; Sarandy, Marcelo S.; Muga, J. Gonzalo
2013-11-01
We propose a scheme for inverse engineering control in open quantum systems. Starting from an undetermined time evolution operator, a time-dependent Hamiltonian is derived in order to guide the system to attain an arbitrary target state at a predefined time. We calculate the fidelity of our inverse engineering control protocol in the presence of the noise with respect to the stochastic fluctuation of the linear parameters of the Hamiltonian during the time evolution. For a special family of Hamiltonians for two-level systems, we show that the control evolution of the system under noise can be categorized into two standard decohering processes: dephasing and depolarization, for both Markovian and non-Markovian conditions. In particular, we illustrate our formalism by analyzing the robustness of the engineered target state against errors. Moreover, we discuss the generalization of the inverse protocol for higher-dimensional systems.
Inverse scattering approach to improving pattern recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapline, George; Fu, Chi-Yung
2005-05-01
The Helmholtz machine provides what may be the best existing model for how the mammalian brain recognizes patterns. Based on the observation that the "wake-sleep" algorithm for training a Helmholtz machine is similar to the problem of finding the potential for a multi-channel Schrodinger equation, we propose that the construction of a Schrodinger potential using inverse scattering methods can serve as a model for how the mammalian brain learns to extract essential information from sensory data. In particular, inverse scattering theory provides a conceptual framework for imagining how one might use EEG and MEG observations of brain-waves together with sensory feedback to improve human learning and pattern recognition. Longer term, implementation of inverse scattering algorithms on a digital or optical computer could be a step towards mimicking the seamless information fusion of the mammalian brain.
Inverse Scattering Approach to Improving Pattern Recognition
Chapline, G; Fu, C
2005-02-15
The Helmholtz machine provides what may be the best existing model for how the mammalian brain recognizes patterns. Based on the observation that the ''wake-sleep'' algorithm for training a Helmholtz machine is similar to the problem of finding the potential for a multi-channel Schrodinger equation, we propose that the construction of a Schrodinger potential using inverse scattering methods can serve as a model for how the mammalian brain learns to extract essential information from sensory data. In particular, inverse scattering theory provides a conceptual framework for imagining how one might use EEG and MEG observations of brain-waves together with sensory feedback to improve human learning and pattern recognition. Longer term, implementation of inverse scattering algorithms on a digital or optical computer could be a step towards mimicking the seamless information fusion of the mammalian brain.
An AVAF inversion method for detecting hydrocarbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Chunmei; Sen, Mrinal K.; Wang, Shangxu; Yuan, Sanyi
2017-10-01
Rock physics studies have shown that velocity dispersion is often associated with hydrocarbon deposit, which results in P-wave reflection coefficients varying with frequency. This effect is often neglected in the conventional amplitude versus angle or offset inversion, and thus error is introduced. Here we propose a method for inverting for dispersive velocity from the frequency-dependent P-wave reflection coefficients; the method is called amplitude variation with angle and frequency AVAF inversion. We employ forward modeling based on propagator matrices that include frequency-dependent elastic coefficients and a variant of the simulated annealing method called the heat-bath algorithm for inversion of layer parameters. In our application, the thickness of the dispersive layer is inverted for simultaneously. Synthetic and field data examples demonstrate the ability and usefulness of this method for detecting hydrocarbon bearing formations.
Tracer diffusion in silica inverse opals.
Cherdhirankorn, Thipphaya; Retsch, Markus; Jonas, Ulrich; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Koynov, Kaloian
2010-06-15
We employed fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to study the diffusion of small fluorescence tracers in liquid filled silica inverse opals. The inverse opals consisted of a nanoporous silica scaffold spanning a hexagonal crystal of spherical voids of 360 nm diameter connected by circular pores of 70 nm diameter. The diffusion of Alexa Fluor 488 in water and of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) in toluene was studied. Three diffusion modes could be distinguished: (1) Free diffusion limited by the geometric constraints given by the inverse opal, where, as compared to the free solution, this diffusion is slowed down by a factor of 3-4, (2) slow diffusion inside the nanoporous matrix of the silica scaffold, and (3) diffusion limited by adsorption. On the length scale of the focus of a confocal microscope of roughly 400 nm diffusion was non-Fickian in all cases.
FAST INVERSION OF SOLAR Ca II SPECTRA
Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.
2015-01-10
We present a fast (<<1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ –3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = –6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively.
Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Backus, George E.
1996-12-01
By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure describing where xE was likely to be in the model space X before the data vector y0 was measured. The results of the inversion are (1) a vector z0 that estimates some numerical properties zE of xE; (2) an estimate of the error δz = z0 - zE. As y0 is finite dimensional, so is z0, and hence in principle inversion cannot describe all of xE. The error δz is studied under successively more specialized assumptions about the inverse problem, culminating in a complete analysis of the linear inverse problem with a prior quadratic bound on xE. Our formalism appears to encompass and provide error estimates for many of the inversion schemes current in geomagnetism, and would be equally applicable in geodesy and seismology if adequate prior information were available there. As an idealized example we study the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, using satellite measurements of field elements at sites assumed to be almost uniformly distributed on a single spherical surface. Magnetospheric currents are neglected and the crustal field is idealized as a random process with rotationally invariant statistics. We find that an appropriate data compression diagonalizes the variance matrix of the crustal signal and permits an analytic trimming of the idealized problem.
Schmidt, Taly Gilat
2011-01-01
Inverse-geometry computed tomography (IGCT) systems are being developed to provide improved volumetric imaging. In conventional multislice CT systems, x-rays are emitted from a small area and irradiate a large-area detector. In an IGCT system, x-ray sources are distributed over a large area, with each beam irradiating a small-area detector. Therefore, in the inverse geometry, a series of narrow x-ray beams are switched on and off while the gantry rotates. In conventional CT geometry, cone-beam and scatter artifacts increase with the imaged volume thickness. An inverse geometry may be less susceptible to scatter effects, because only a fraction of the field of view is irradiated at one time. The distributed source in the inverse geometry potentially improves sampling, leading to reduced cone-beam artifacts. In the inverse geometry, the tube current may be adjusted separately for each source location, which potentially reduces dose. Multiple IGCT prototypes have been constructed and tested on phantoms. A gantry-based IGCT system with one-second gantry rotation was developed, and images of phantoms and small animals were successfully acquired. Clinical feasibility with acceptable noise levels and scan times has not yet been shown. Overall, results from prototype systems suggest that the inverse geometry will enable imaging of a thick volume (∼16 cm) while potentially reducing cone-beam artifacts, scatter effects, and radiation dose. The magnitude of these benefits will depend on the specific IGCT implementation and need to be quantified relative to comparable multislice scanners. Copyright © 2011 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Integral inversion to Fraunhofer diffraction for particle sizing.
Cao, Zhang; Xu, Lijun; Ding, Jie
2009-09-01
A new solution to the inversion of Fraunhofer diffraction for particle sizing was introduced. Compared with the well-known Chin-Shifrin inversion, it is an inversion of the form of integral transform and less sensitive to noise. Simulation results with noise-contaminated data were obtained and showed that the new inversion is better than the Chin-Shifrin inversion. Especially when the particle diameter was small, the new inversion still performed well, whereas the Chin-Shifrin inversion did not converge.
Molecular seismology: an inverse problem in nanobiology.
Hinow, Peter; Boczko, Erik M
2007-05-07
The density profile of an elastic fiber like DNA will change in space and time as ligands associate with it. This observation affords a new direction in single molecule studies provided that density profiles can be measured in space and time. In fact, this is precisely the objective of seismology, where the mathematics of inverse problems have been employed with success. We argue that inverse problems in elastic media can be directly applied to biophysical problems of fiber-ligand association, and demonstrate that robust algorithms exist to perform density reconstruction in the condensed phase.
Relative risk regression models with inverse polynomials.
Ning, Yang; Woodward, Mark
2013-08-30
The proportional hazards model assumes that the log hazard ratio is a linear function of parameters. In the current paper, we model the log relative risk as an inverse polynomial, which is particularly suitable for modeling bounded and asymmetric functions. The parameters estimated by maximizing the partial likelihood are consistent and asymptotically normal. The advantages of the inverse polynomial model over the ordinary polynomial model and the fractional polynomial model for fitting various asymmetric log relative risk functions are shown by simulation. The utility of the method is further supported by analyzing two real data sets, addressing the specific question of the location of the minimum risk threshold.
The Inverse Problem in Jet Acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wooddruff, S. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.
2001-01-01
The inverse problem for jet acoustics, or the determination of noise sources from far-field pressure information, is proposed as a tool for understanding the generation of noise by turbulence and for the improved prediction of jet noise. An idealized version of the problem is investigated first to establish the extent to which information about the noise sources may be determined from far-field pressure data and to determine how a well-posed inverse problem may be set up. Then a version of the industry-standard MGB code is used to predict a jet noise source spectrum from experimental noise data.
3D Electromagnetic inversion using conjugate gradients
Newman, G.A.; Alumbaugh, D.L.
1997-06-01
In large scale 3D EM inverse problems it may not be possible to directly invert a full least-squares system matrix involving model sensitivity elements. Thus iterative methods must be employed. For the inverse problem, we favor either a linear or non-linear (NL) CG scheme, depending on the application. In a NL CG scheme, the gradient of the objective function is required at each relaxation step along with a univariate line search needed to determine the optimum model update. Solution examples based on both approaches will be presented.
Linear inverse problem of the reactor dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, N. P.
2017-01-01
The aim of this work is the study transient processes in nuclear reactors. The mathematical model of the reactor dynamics excluding reverse thermal coupling is investigated. This model is described by a system of integral-differential equations, consisting of a non-stationary anisotropic multispeed kinetic transport equation and a delayed neutron balance equation. An inverse problem was formulated to determine the stationary part of the function source along with the solution of the direct problem. The author obtained sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a generalized solution of this inverse problem.
Dispersion analysis with inverse dielectric function modelling.
Mayerhöfer, Thomas G; Ivanovski, Vladimir; Popp, Jürgen
2016-11-05
We investigate how dispersion analysis can profit from the use of a Lorentz-type description of the inverse dielectric function. In particular at higher angles of incidence, reflectance spectra using p-polarized light are dominated by bands from modes that have their transition moments perpendicular to the surface. Accordingly, the spectra increasingly resemble inverse dielectric functions. A corresponding description can therefore eliminate the complex dependencies of the dispersion parameters, allow their determination and facilitate a more accurate description of the optical properties of single crystals.
Aneesur Rahman Prize: The Inverse Ising Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swendsen, Robert
2014-03-01
Many methods are available for carrying out computer simulations of a model Hamiltonian to obtain thermodynamic information by generating a set of configurations. The inverse problem consists of recreating the parameters of the Hamiltonian, given a set of configurations. The problem arises in a variety of contexts, and there has been much interest recently in the inverse Ising problem, in which the configurations consist of Ising spins. I will discuss an efficient method for solving the problem and what it can tell us about the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.
An Inverse of the Circular Coverage Function
2005-01-01
unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This report describes an algorithm, INCIR , to evaluate an inverse of the...A Fortran 77 subroutine, INVCIR, is available that is based on INCIR , which produces R to eight significant digits for 10–8 ≤ P ≤ 1 – 10–8 and 0 ≤ d...h2 + k2)1/2 ≤ 108. A table of R versus P and d is included. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 48 14. SUBJECT TERMS algorithm, INCIR , inverse, Circular
Bayesian Inference in Satellite Gravity Inversion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kis, K. I.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Wittmann, G.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Torony, B.; Mayer-Guerr, T.
2005-01-01
To solve a geophysical inverse problem means applying measurements to determine the parameters of the selected model. The inverse problem is formulated as the Bayesian inference. The Gaussian probability density functions are applied in the Bayes's equation. The CHAMP satellite gravity data are determined at the altitude of 400 kilometer altitude over the South part of the Pannonian basin. The model of interpretation is the right vertical cylinder. The parameters of the model are obtained from the minimum problem solved by the Simplex method.
Bayesian Inference in Satellite Gravity Inversion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kis, K. I.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Wittmann, G.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Torony, B.; Mayer-Guerr, T.
2005-01-01
To solve a geophysical inverse problem means applying measurements to determine the parameters of the selected model. The inverse problem is formulated as the Bayesian inference. The Gaussian probability density functions are applied in the Bayes's equation. The CHAMP satellite gravity data are determined at the altitude of 400 kilometer altitude over the South part of the Pannonian basin. The model of interpretation is the right vertical cylinder. The parameters of the model are obtained from the minimum problem solved by the Simplex method.
Kelvin transformation and inverse multipoles in electrostatics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaral, R. L. P. G.; Ventura, O. S.; Lemos, N. A.
2017-03-01
The inversion in the sphere or Kelvin transformation, which exchanges the radial coordinate for its inverse, is used as a guide to relate distinct electrostatic problems with dual features. The exact solution of some nontrivial problems are obtained through the mapping from simple highly symmetric systems. In particular, the concept of multipole expansion is revisited from a point of view opposed to the usual one: the sources are distributed in a region far from the origin while the electrostatic potential is described at points close to it.
Reverberation Inversion Enhancements Using BASE 04 Data
2006-10-01
d’exploitation de modèle de RDDC Atlantique (DMOS) est une évolution de l’ensemble de programmes SWAMI (Initiative de modélisation de sonar actif en eau peu...du signal et la probabilité de détection pour un sonar actif . Un module d’inversion de réverbération, BREVER, est utilisé pour ces travaux. Le...d’inversion permet d’effectuer des études sur l’utilité des techniques de sondage au moyen de capteurs en tant qu’aides aux décisions tactiques
Directional wetting in anisotropic inverse opals.
Phillips, Katherine R; Vogel, Nicolas; Burgess, Ian B; Perry, Carole C; Aizenberg, Joanna
2014-07-01
Porous materials display interesting transport phenomena due to restricted motion of fluids within the nano- to microscale voids. Here, we investigate how liquid wetting in highly ordered inverse opals is affected by anisotropy in pore geometry. We compare samples with different degrees of pore asphericity and find different wetting patterns depending on the pore shape. Highly anisotropic structures are infiltrated more easily than their isotropic counterparts. Further, the wetting of anisotropic inverse opals is directional, with liquids filling from the side more easily. This effect is supported by percolation simulations as well as direct observations of wetting using time-resolved optical microscopy.
Aerosol physical properties from satellite horizon inversion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gray, C. R.; Malchow, H. L.; Merritt, D. C.; Var, R. E.; Whitney, C. K.
1973-01-01
The feasibility is investigated of determining the physical properties of aerosols globally in the altitude region of 10 to 100 km from a satellite horizon scanning experiment. The investigation utilizes a horizon inversion technique previously developed and extended. Aerosol physical properties such as number density, size distribution, and the real and imaginary components of the index of refraction are demonstrated to be invertible in the aerosol size ranges (0.01-0.1 microns), (0.1-1.0 microns), (1.0-10 microns). Extensions of previously developed radiative transfer models and recursive inversion algorithms are displayed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamimura, Yutaka; Usami, Hiroyuki
2016-12-01
This paper studies an inverse problem to determine a nonlinearity of an autonomous equation from blow-up time of solutions to the equation. Firstly we prove a global continuation result showing that a nonlinearity realizing blow-up time for large initial data can be continued in the direction of smaller data as long as the blow-up time is Lipschitz continuous. Secondly we develop a method based upon a Wiener-Hopf structure by which the existence and uniqueness of a nonlinearity realizing blow-up time for large initial data is shown. These enable us to establish a global existence and uniqueness result for the inverse problem.
Aacoustic and elastic waveform inversion best practices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modrak, Ryan T.
Reaching the global minimum of a waveform misfit function requires careful choices about the nonlinear optimization, preconditioning and regularization methods underlying an inversion. Because waveform inversion problems are susceptible to erratic convergence, one or two test cases are not enough to reliably inform such decisions. We identify best practices instead using two global, one regional and four near-surface acoustic test problems. To obtain meaningful quantitative comparisons, we carry out hundreds acoustic inversions, varying one aspect of the implementation at a time. Comparing nonlinear optimization algorithms, we find that L-BFGS provides computational savings over nonlinear conjugate gradient methods in a wide variety of test cases. Comparing preconditioners, we show that a new diagonal scaling derived from the adjoint of the forward operator provides better performance than two conventional preconditioning schemes. Comparing regularization strategies, we find that projection, convolution, Tikhonov regularization, and total variation regularization are effective in different contexts. Besides these issues, reliability and efficiency in waveform inversion depend on close numerical attention and care. Implementation details have a strong effect on computational cost, regardless of the chosen material parameterization or nonlinear optimization algorithm. Building on the acoustic inversion results, we carry out elastic experiments with four test problems, three objective functions, and four material parameterizations. The choice of parameterization for isotropic elastic media is found to be more complicated than previous studies suggests, with "wavespeed-like'' parameters performing well with phase-based objective functions and Lame parameters performing well with amplitude-based objective functions. Reliability and efficiency can be even harder to achieve in transversely isotropic elastic inversions because rotation angle parameters describing fast
Antarctic Crustal Thickness from Gravity Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaughan, A. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.
2013-12-01
Using gravity anomaly inversion, we have produced the first comprehensive regional maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning (1-1/β) and ocean-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method, which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction. The continental lithosphere thinning distribution, used to define the initial thermal model temperature perturbation is derived from the gravity inversion and uses no a priori isochron information; as a consequence the gravity inversion method provides a prediction of ocean-continent transition location, which is independent of ocean isochron information. The gravity anomaly contribution from ice thickness is included in the gravity inversion, as is the contribution from sediments which assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. Data used in the gravity inversion are elevation and bathymetry, free-air gravity anomaly, the most recent Bedmap2 ice thickness and bedrock topography compilation south of 60 degrees south (Fretwell et al., 2013) and relatively sparse constraints on sediment thickness. Our gravity inversion study predicts thick crust (> 45 km) under interior East Antarctica penetrated by narrow continental rifts that feature relatively thinner crust. The East Antarctic Rift System (EARS) is a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system that appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. Intermediate crustal thickness with an inferred linear rift fabric is predicted under Coates Land. An extensive region of either thick oceanic crust or highly thinned continental crust is predicted offshore Oates Land and north Victoria Land, and also off West Antarctica
Numerical pole assignment by eigenvalue Jacobian inversion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sevaston, George E.
1986-01-01
A numerical procedure for solving the linear pole placement problem is developed which operates by the inversion of an analytically determined eigenvalue Jacobian matrix. Attention is given to convergence characteristics and pathological situations. It is not concluded that the algorithm developed is suitable for computer-aided control system design with particular reference to the scan platform pointing control system for the Galileo spacecraft.
An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping
2011-01-01
A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this…
Probabilistic Geoacoustic Inversion in Complex Environments
2015-09-30
from cross-fertilization with developments in seismology .2,15 Trans-D inversions treat the number of unknowns in the problem as unknown itself which...advancing Bayesian inference applications. • Dettmer’s work at Australian National University in seismology is closely related to some of the methods
Estimating nuisance parameters in inverse problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aravkin, Aleksandr Y.; van Leeuwen, Tristan
2012-11-01
Many inverse problems include nuisance parameters which, while not of direct interest, are required to recover primary parameters. The structure of these problems allows efficient optimization strategies—a well-known example is variable projection, where nonlinear least-squares problems which are linear in some parameters can be very efficiently optimized. In this paper, we extend the idea of projecting out a subset over the variables to a broad class of maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori likelihood problems with nuisance parameters, such as variance or degrees of freedom (d.o.f.). As a result, we are able to incorporate nuisance parameter estimation into large-scale constrained and unconstrained inverse problem formulations. We apply the approach to a variety of problems, including estimation of unknown variance parameters in the Gaussian model, d.o.f. parameter estimation in the context of robust inverse problems, and automatic calibration. Using numerical examples, we demonstrate improvement in recovery of primary parameters for several large-scale inverse problems. The proposed approach is compatible with a wide variety of algorithms and formulations, and its implementation requires only minor modifications to existing algorithms.
Students' Confusions with Reciprocal and Inverse Functions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kontorovich, Igor'
2017-01-01
These classroom notes are focused on undergraduate students' understanding of the polysemous symbol of superscript (-1), which can be interpreted as a reciprocal or an inverse function. Examination of 240 scripts in a mid-term test identified that some first-year students struggle with choosing the contextually correct interpretation and there are…
Studies of GRACE Gravity Field Inversion Techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, L.; Shum, C.; Duan, J.; Schmidt, M.; Yuan, D.; Watkins, M. M.
2008-12-01
The geophysical inverse problem using satellite observations, such as GRACE, to estimate gravity change and mass variations at the Earth's surface is a well-known ill-posed problem. Different methods using different basis function (representing the gravity field) for different purposes (global or regional inversion) have been employed to obtain a stable solution, such as Bayesian estimation with prior information, the repro-BIQUUE of variance components and iterative least-squares estimation with simultaneous updating of a prior covariance, and to achieve enhanced spatial resolutions. The gravity field representation methods include spherical harmonics, regional gridded data (including mascons), and various wavelet representations (Poisson wavelets, Blackman band-limited regional wavelets with global representation). Finally, the use of data types (KBR range, range-rate, range-rate-rate) and data-generation methods (e.g., nonlinear orbit determination and geophysical inverse approach, energy conservation principle, etc) could also reflect relative inversion accuracy and the content of signal spectra in the resulting solution. In this contribution, we present results of a simulation experiment, which used various solution techniques and data types to attempt to quantify the relative advantage and disadvantage of each of the techniques.
Unstructured discontinuous Galerkin for seismic inversion.
van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Ober, Curtis Curry; Collis, Samuel Scott
2010-04-01
This abstract explores the potential advantages of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the time-domain inversion of media parameters within the earth's interior. In particular, DG methods enable local polynomial refinement to better capture localized geological features within an area of interest while also allowing the use of unstructured meshes that can accurately capture discontinuous material interfaces. This abstract describes our initial findings when using DG methods combined with Runge-Kutta time integration and adjoint-based optimization algorithms for full-waveform inversion. Our initial results suggest that DG methods allow great flexibility in matching the media characteristics (faults, ocean bottom and salt structures) while also providing higher fidelity representations in target regions. Time-domain inversion using discontinuous Galerkin on unstructured meshes and with local polynomial refinement is shown to better capture localized geological features and accurately capture discontinuous-material interfaces. These approaches provide the ability to surgically refine representations in order to improve predicted models for specific geological features. Our future work will entail automated extensions to directly incorporate local refinement and adaptive unstructured meshes within the inversion process.
A Face Inversion Effect without a Face
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit
2012-01-01
Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…
R-matrix and inverse Shapovalov form
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mudrov, Andrey
2016-05-01
We construct the inverse Shapovalov form of a simple complex quantum group from its universal R-matrix based on a generalized Nagel-Moshinsky approach to lowering operators. We establish a connection between this algorithm and the ABRR equation for dynamical twist.
An Inverse Model for TETRAD: Preliminary Results
Shook, George Michael; Renner, Joel Lawrence
2002-09-01
A model-independent parameter estimation model known as PEST has been linked to the reservoir simulator TETRAD. The method of inverse modeling is briefly reviewed, and the link between PEST and TETRAD is discussed. A single example is presented that illustrates the power of parameter estimation from well observations.
An "Inverse" Validation of Holland's Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cowger, Ernest, Jr.; Chauvin, Ida; Miller, Mark J.
2009-01-01
This article used an "inverse" approach to assess the validity of Holland's theory; that is, it examined the degree of congruency between participant's least-characteristic Holland types and their least desirable occupational choice. Implications for career counselors are briefly outlined.
Inverse-Square Orbits: A Geometric Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rainwater, James C.; Weinstock, Robert
1979-01-01
Presents a derivation of Kepler's first law of planetary motion from Newtonian principles. Analogus derivations of the hyperbolic and parabolic orbits of nonreturning comets and the hyperbolic orbit for a particle in a repulsive inverse-square field are also presented. (HM)
Learning the Concept of Inverse Function.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vidakovic, Draga
1996-01-01
Reports on part of a study that was conducted with individual students (n=5) and five groups of students who worked together in the first course of experimental calculus classes. The goal of the study was to discover how the concept of inverse function can be learned. (26 references) (DDR)
Students' Confusions with Reciprocal and Inverse Functions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kontorovich, Igor'
2017-01-01
These classroom notes are focused on undergraduate students' understanding of the polysemous symbol of superscript (-1), which can be interpreted as a reciprocal or an inverse function. Examination of 240 scripts in a mid-term test identified that some first-year students struggle with choosing the contextually correct interpretation and there are…
Using GPU Programming for Inverse Spectroscopy
David Gerts; N. Fredette; H. Wimberly
2010-07-01
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a detector that relies heavily on computationally expensive inverse spectroscopy algorithms to determine probabilistic three dimensional mappings of the source and its intensity. This inverse spectroscopy algorithm applies to material accountability due to the potential to determine where nuclear sources are present as a function of time and space. And yet because the novel algorithm can become prohibitively expensive on a standard desktop PC, the INL has incorporated new hardware from the commercial graphics community. General programming for graphics processing units (GPUs) is not a new concept. However, the application of GPUs to evidence theory-based inverse spectroscopy is both novel and particularly apropos. Improvements while using a (slightly upgraded) standard PC are approximately three orders of magnitude, making a ten hour computation in less than four seconds. This significantly changes the concept of prohibitively expensive calculations and makes application to materials accountability possible in near real time. Indeed, the sensor collection time is now expected to dominate the time required to determine the source and its intensity, instead of the inverse spectroscopy method.
Inverse heat mimicking of given objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alwakil, Ahmed; Zerrad, Myriam; Bellieud, Michel; Amra, Claude
2017-03-01
We address a general inverse mimicking problem in heat conduction. The objects to cloak and mimic are chosen beforehand; these objects identify a specific set of space transformations. The shapes that can be mimicked are derived from the conductivity matrices. Numerical calculation confirms all of the analytical predictions. The technique provides key advantages for applications and can be extended to the field of waves.
Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials
Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.
2016-01-01
The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe. PMID:27578317
Riemann Zeros and the Inverse Phase Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tourigny, David S.
2013-10-01
Finding a universal method of crystal structure solution and proving the Riemann hypothesis are two outstanding challenges in apparently unrelated fields. For centro-symmetric crystals however, a connection arises as the result of a statistical approach to the inverse phase problem. It is shown that parameters of the phase distribution are related to the non-trivial Riemann zeros by a Mellin transform.
RIEMANN ZEROS AND THE INVERSE PHASE PROBLEM.
Tourigny, David S
2013-10-20
Finding a universal method of crystal structure solution and proving the Riemann hypothesis are two outstanding challenges in apparently unrelated fields. For centrosymmetric crystals however, a connection arises as the result of a statistical approach to the inverse phase problem. It is shown that parameters of the phase distribution are related to the non-trivial Riemann zeros by a Mellin transform.
A Face Inversion Effect without a Face
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit
2012-01-01
Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…
Non-LTE Inversion of Line Profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Socas-Navarro, H.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; Trujillo Bueno, J.
1998-11-01
In this paper we address the problem of the non-LTE (NLTE) inversion of line profiles by means of a nonlinear least-squares minimization procedure combined with very efficient multilevel transfer methods. Our approach is based on the concept of response functions, which measure the first-order response of the emergent profiles to changes in the atmospheric conditions. We introduce the fixed departure coefficients (FDC) approximation in order to compute these response functions in a fast and straightforward manner. The accuracy of this approximation is checked comparing FDC response functions with those obtained from full NLTE computations. An NLTE inversion code based on these response functions has been developed and extensively tested. Reference synthetic profiles, similar to those expected from real observations, are given as input to the inversion algorithm and the recovered models are shown to be compatible with the reference models within the error bars. Our NLTE inversion code thus provides a new tool for the investigation of the chromospheres of the Sun and other stars.
Inverse-Square Orbits: A Geometric Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rainwater, James C.; Weinstock, Robert
1979-01-01
Presents a derivation of Kepler's first law of planetary motion from Newtonian principles. Analogus derivations of the hyperbolic and parabolic orbits of nonreturning comets and the hyperbolic orbit for a particle in a repulsive inverse-square field are also presented. (HM)
Novel Scalable 3-D MT Inverse Solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuvshinov, A. V.; Kruglyakov, M.; Geraskin, A.
2016-12-01
We present a new, robust and fast, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetotelluric (MT) inverse solver. As a forward modelling engine a highly-scalable solver extrEMe [1] is used. The (regularized) inversion is based on an iterative gradient-type optimization (quasi-Newton method) and exploits adjoint sources approach for fast calculation of the gradient of the misfit. The inverse solver is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models, allows for working (separately or jointly) with any type of MT (single-site and/or inter-site) responses, and supports massive parallelization. Different parallelization strategies implemented in the code allow for optimal usage of available computational resources for a given problem set up. To parameterize an inverse domain a mask approach is implemented, which means that one can merge any subset of forward modelling cells in order to account for (usually) irregular distribution of observation sites. We report results of 3-D numerical experiments aimed at analysing the robustness, performance and scalability of the code. In particular, our computational experiments carried out at different platforms ranging from modern laptops to high-performance clusters demonstrate practically linear scalability of the code up to thousands of nodes. 1. Kruglyakov, M., A. Geraskin, A. Kuvshinov, 2016. Novel accurate and scalable 3-D MT forward solver based on a contracting integral equation method, Computers and Geosciences, in press.
Towards Lasing Without Inversion in Neutral Mercury
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rein, Benjamin; Sturm, Martin R.; Walser, Reinhold; Walther, Thomas
2015-03-01
Currently, we are implementing a lasing without inversion (LWI) scheme in mercury based on calculations by Fry et al. [1]. A recent detailed analysis predicting exact experimental parameters shows the feasibility of our LWI scheme [2]. In this paper we report on the progress of our experiment and compare its parameters with the prior analysis.
Sparse matrix orderings for factorized inverse preconditioners
Benzi, M.; Tuama, M.
1998-09-01
The effect of reorderings on the performance of factorized sparse approximate inverse preconditioners is considered. It is shown that certain reorderings can be very beneficial both in the preconditioner construction phase and in terms of the rate of convergence of the preconditioned iteration.
NASA Inverse Methods/Data Assimilation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, Andrew
2003-01-01
An overview of NASA's Third International Summer School on Inverse Methods and Data Assimilation which was conducted at Oregon State University from July 22 to August 2, 2002, is presented. Items listed include: a roster of attendees, a description of course content and talks given.
An "Inverse" Validation of Holland's Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cowger, Ernest, Jr.; Chauvin, Ida; Miller, Mark J.
2009-01-01
This article used an "inverse" approach to assess the validity of Holland's theory; that is, it examined the degree of congruency between participant's least-characteristic Holland types and their least desirable occupational choice. Implications for career counselors are briefly outlined.
Deletion 14q and pericentric inversion 14.
Nielsen, J; Homma, A; Rasmussen, K; Ried, E; Sorensen, K; Saldana-Garcia, P
1978-01-01
A woman with deletion 14q as well as inversion 14 is presented, and physical signs are compared with those of patients with deletion long arm 13. No previous case of deletion long arm 14 has been published. Images PMID:671492
RIEMANN ZEROS AND THE INVERSE PHASE PROBLEM
TOURIGNY, DAVID S.
2013-01-01
Finding a universal method of crystal structure solution and proving the Riemann hypothesis are two outstanding challenges in apparently unrelated fields. For centrosymmetric crystals however, a connection arises as the result of a statistical approach to the inverse phase problem. It is shown that parameters of the phase distribution are related to the non-trivial Riemann zeros by a Mellin transform. PMID:24293780
MAP Estimators for Piecewise Continuous Inversion
2016-08-08
problem in reservoir simulation, in which inference is done jointly on both geometric and permeability parameters in the IC fault model. Though the...New York: Springer-Verlag) pp 1–664 [31] Oliver D, Reynolds A and Liu N 2008 Inverse Theory for Petroleum Reservoir Characterization (Cambridge
An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping
2011-01-01
A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this…
An approximation for inverse Laplace transforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lear, W. M.
1981-01-01
Programmable calculator runs simple finite-series approximation for Laplace transform inversions. Utilizing family of orthonormal functions, approximation is used for wide range of transforms, including those encountered in feedback control problems. Method works well as long as F(t) decays to zero as it approaches infinity and so is appliable to most physical systems.
Inverse agonist properties of atypical antipsychotic drugs.
Akam, Elizabeth; Strange, Philip G
2004-06-01
Mechanisms of action of several atypical antipsychotic drugs have been examined at the D(2) dopamine receptor expressed in CHO cells. The drugs tested were found to exhibit inverse agonist activity at the D(2) dopamine receptor based on their effects to potentiate forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation. Each of the antipsychotic drugs tested (clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone) increased cAMP accumulation to the same extent. The increase in cAMP was also similar to that seen with typical antipsychotic drugs. Inverse agonism at the D(2) dopamine receptor seems, therefore, to be a property common to all classes of antipsychotic drugs. The effect of sodium ions on the binding of the drugs to the receptor was also assessed. Each of the atypical antipsychotic drugs tested here bound with higher affinity in the absence of sodium ions. Previous studies have shown that some antipsychotic drugs are insensitive to sodium ions and some bind with higher affinity in the presence of sodium ions. Given that all of these antipsychotic drugs are inverse agonists, it may be concluded that this sodium ion sensitivity is unrelated to mechanisms of inverse agonism.
Effects of Tape and Exercise on Dynamic Ankle Inversion
Ricard, Mark D.; Sherwood, Stephen M.; Schulthies, Shane S.; Knight, Kenneth L.
2000-01-01
Objective: To compare the effects of tape, with and without prewrap, on dynamic ankle inversion before and after exercise. Design and Setting: Doubly multivariate analyses of variance were used to compare the taping and exercise conditions. Subjects were randomly assigned to a fixed treatment order as determined by a balanced latin square. The independent variables were tape application (no tape, tape with prewrap, tape to skin) and exercise (before and after). The dependent variables were average inversion velocity, total inversion, maximum inversion velocity, and time to maximum inversion. Subjects: Thirty college-age male and female students (17 males, 13 females; mean age = 24.9 ± 4.3 years, range, 19 to 39 years) were tested. Subjects were excluded from the study if they exhibited a painful gait or painful range of motion or had a past history of ankle surgery or an ankle sprain within the past 4 weeks. Measurements: We collected data using electronic goniometers while subjects balanced on the right leg on an inversion platform tilted about the medial-lateral axis to produce 15° of plantar flexion. Sudden ankle inversion was induced by pulling the inversion platform support, allowing the platform support base to rotate 37°. Ten satisfactory trials were recorded on the inversion platform before and after a prescribed exercise bout. We calculated total inversion, time to maximum inversion, average inversion velocity, and maximum inversion velocity after sudden inversion. Results: We found no significant differences between taping to the skin and taping over prewrap for any of the variables measured. There were significant differences between both taping conditions and no-tape postexercise for average inversion velocity, maximum inversion, maximum inversion velocity, and time to maximum inversion. The total inversion mean for no-tape postexercise was 38.8° ± 6.3°, whereas the means for tape and skin and for tape and prewrap were 28.3° ± 4.6° and 29.1°
Optical properties of silicon inverse opals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Hong
Silicon inverse opals are artificial structures in which nearly monodisperse, close-packed air bubbles are embedded in a silicon matrix. If properly tailored, this structure can exhibit a photonic band gap (PBG) in the near infrared spectral region. The PBG can block light propagation in any direction, allowing the control of light flow in the material. Silicon inverse opals can be fabricated by infiltrating amorphous silicon into silica colloidal crystals and then etching away the silica. In this thesis, the structural defects of silica colloidal crystals and the optical properties of silicon inverse opals are studied. First, by using laser-scanning confocal microscopy, the concentration and distribution of stacking faults and vacancies were quantified in silica colloidal crystals. It's shown that silica colloidal crystals show strong tendency toward face-center-cubic structure with the vacancy density as small as 5 x 10-4. Second, by combining optical microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the transmission and reflection spectra of silicon inverse opals along the [111] direction were measured. Combined with the calculation of transmission and reflection spectra by Transfer Matrix Methods, it is concluded that the strong light attenuation in silicon inverse opals is due to the enhanced absorption (>600%) in silicon materials. Third, by using optical pump-probe techniques, the photo-induced ultra-fast reflection changes in silicon inverse opals were examined. The pump-generated free carriers cause the reflection in the band gap region to change after ˜0.5 ps. For the first few ps, the main effect is a decrease in reflectivity due to nonlinear absorption. After ˜5 ps, this effect disappears and an unexpected blue spectral shift is seen in the photonic band gap. The refractive index decreases due to optically-induced strain born the thermal expansion mismatch between silicon and its native oxide. Finally, by infiltrating silicon inverse
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, H. E.
1977-01-01
Linear numerical inversion methods applied to atmospheric remote sounding generally can be categorized in two ways: (1) iterative, and (2) inverse matrix methods. However, these two categories are not unrelated; a duality exists between them. In other words, given an iterative scheme, a corresponding inverse matrix method exists, and conversely. This duality concept is developed for the more familiar linear methods. The iterative duals are compared with the classical linear iterative approaches and their differences analyzed. The importance of the initial profile in all methods is stressed. Calculations using simulated data are made to compare accuracies and to examine the dependence of the solution on the initial profile.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, H. E.
1977-01-01
Linear numerical inversion methods applied to atmospheric remote sounding generally can be categorized in two ways: (1) iterative, and (2) inverse matrix methods. However, these two categories are not unrelated; a duality exists between them. In other words, given an iterative scheme, a corresponding inverse matrix method exists, and conversely. This duality concept is developed for the more familiar linear methods. The iterative duals are compared with the classical linear iterative approaches and their differences analyzed. The importance of the initial profile in all methods is stressed. Calculations using simulated data are made to compare accuracies and to examine the dependence of the solution on the initial profile.
A Reassessment of the Groundwater Inverse Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLaughlin, Dennis; Townley, Lloyd R.
1996-05-01
This paper presents a functional formulation of the groundwater flow inverse problem that is sufficiently general to accommodate most commonly used inverse algorithms. Unknown hydrogeological properties are assumed to be spatial functions that can be represented in terms of a (possibly infinite) basis function expansion with random coefficients. The unknown parameter function is related to the measurements used for estimation by a "forward operator" which describes the measurement process. In the particular case considered here, the parameter of interest is the large-scale log hydraulic conductivity, the measurements are point values of log conductivity and piezometric head, and the forward operator is derived from an upscaled groundwater flow equation. The inverse algorithm seeks the "most probable" or maximum a posteriori estimate of the unknown parameter function. When the measurement errors and parameter function are Gaussian and independent, the maximum a posteriori estimate may be obtained by minimizing a least squares performance index which can be partitioned into goodness-of-fit and prior terms. When the parameter is a stationary random function the prior portion of the performance index is equivalent to a regularization term which imposes a smoothness constraint on the estimate. This constraint tends to make the problem well-posed by limiting the range of admissible solutions. The Gaussian maximum a posteriori problem may be solved with variational methods, using functional generalizations of Gauss-Newton or gradient-based search techniques. Several popular groundwater inverse algorithms are either special cases of, or variants on, the functional maximum a posteriori algorithm. These algorithms differ primarily with respect to the way they describe spatial variability and the type of search technique they use (linear versus nonlinear). The accuracy of estimates produced by both linear and nonlinear inverse algorithms may be measured in terms of a Bayesian
Preconditioning Strategies in Elastic Full Waveform Inversion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matharu, G.; Sacchi, M. D.
2016-12-01
Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) is inherently more non-linear than its acoustic counterpart, a property that stems from the increased model space of the problem. Whereas acoustic media can be parametrized by density and P-wave velocity, visco-elastic media are parametrized by density, attenuation and 21 independent coefficients of the elastic tensor. Imposing assumptions of isotropy and perfect elasticity to simplify the physics, reduces the number of independent parameters required to characterize a medium. Isotropic, elastic media can be parametrized in terms of density and the Lamé parameters. The different parameters can exhibit trade-off that manifest as attributes in the data. In the context of FWI, this means that certain parameters cannot be uniquely resolved. An ideal model update in full waveform inversion is equivalent to a Newton step. Explicit computation of the Hessian and its inverse is not computationally feasible in elastic FWI. The inverse Hessian scales the gradients to account for trade-off between parameters as well as compensating for inadequate illumination related to source-receiver coverage. Gradient preconditioners can be applied to mimic the action of the inverse Hessian and partially correct for inaccuracies in the gradient. In this study, we investigate the effects of model reparametrization by recasting a regularized form of the least-squares waveform misfit into a preconditioned formulation. New model parameters are obtained by applying invertible weighting matrices to the model vector. The weighting matrices are related to estimates of the prior model covariance matrix and incorporate information about spatially variant correlations of model parameters as well as correlations between independent parameters. We compare the convergence of conventional FWI to FWI after model reparametrization.
PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: New developments for Inverse Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2006-12-01
2006 has proved to be a very successful year for Inverse Problems. After an increase for the fourth successive year, we achieved our highest impact factor to date, 1.541 (Source: 2005 ISI® Journal Citation Report), and the Editorial Board is keen to build on this success by continuing to improve the service we offer to our readers and authors. The Board has observed that Inverse Problems receives very few Letters to the Editor submissions, and that moreover those that we do receive rarely conform to the requirements for Letters to the Editor set out in the journal's editorial policy. The Board has therefore decided to merge the current Letters to the Editor section into our regular Papers section, which will now accommodate all research articles that meet the journal's high quality standards. Any submissions that would previously have been Letters to the Editor are still very welcome as Papers, and can be submitted by e-mail to ip@iop.org or online using our online submissions form at authors.iop.org/submit. Inverse Problems' processing times are already among the fastest in the field—on average, authors receive our decision on their paper in less than three months. Thanks to our easy-to-use online refereeing system, publishing a Paper is now just as fast as publishing a Letter to the Editor, and we are striving to ensure that the journal's high standards are applied consistently to all our Papers, maintaining Inverse Problems' position as the leading journal in the field. Our highly acclaimed Topical Review section will also continue and grow; providing timely insights into the development of all topical fields within Inverse Problems. We have many exciting Topical Reviews currently in preparation for 2007 and will continue to commission articles at the cutting edge of research. We look forward to receiving your contributions and to continuing to provide the best publication service available.
Inverse Problems in Classical and Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almasy, Andrea A.
2009-12-01
The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. In this thesis, also two approaches of EIT image reconstruction are proposed. The first is based on reformulating the inverse problem in terms of integral equations. This method uses only a single set of measurements for the reconstruction. The second approach is an algorithm based on linearisation which uses more then one set of measurements. A promising result is that one can qualitatively reconstruct the conductivity inside the cross-section of a human chest. Even though the human volunteer is neither two-dimensional nor circular, such reconstructions can be useful in medical applications: monitoring for lung problems such as accumulating fluid or a collapsed lung and noninvasive monitoring of heart function and blood flow.
Estimating uncertainties in complex joint inverse problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afonso, Juan Carlos
2016-04-01
Sources of uncertainty affecting geophysical inversions can be classified either as reflective (i.e. the practitioner is aware of her/his ignorance) or non-reflective (i.e. the practitioner does not know that she/he does not know!). Although we should be always conscious of the latter, the former are the ones that, in principle, can be estimated either empirically (by making measurements or collecting data) or subjectively (based on the experience of the researchers). For complex parameter estimation problems in geophysics, subjective estimation of uncertainty is the most common type. In this context, probabilistic (aka Bayesian) methods are commonly claimed to offer a natural and realistic platform from which to estimate model uncertainties. This is because in the Bayesian approach, errors (whatever their nature) can be naturally included as part of the global statistical model, the solution of which represents the actual solution to the inverse problem. However, although we agree that probabilistic inversion methods are the most powerful tool for uncertainty estimation, the common claim that they produce "realistic" or "representative" uncertainties is not always justified. Typically, ALL UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATES ARE MODEL DEPENDENT, and therefore, besides a thorough characterization of experimental uncertainties, particular care must be paid to the uncertainty arising from model errors and input uncertainties. We recall here two quotes by G. Box and M. Gunzburger, respectively, of special significance for inversion practitioners and for this session: "…all models are wrong, but some are useful" and "computational results are believed by no one, except the person who wrote the code". In this presentation I will discuss and present examples of some problems associated with the estimation and quantification of uncertainties in complex multi-observable probabilistic inversions, and how to address them. Although the emphasis will be on sources of uncertainty related
Depth of ankle inversion and discrimination of foot positions.
Symes, Michael; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger
2010-10-01
Ankle inversion injuries are common, yet little is known about the error associated with different positions as inversion depth increases. In this study, absolute judgments made without feedback were used to measure discrimination of different extents of ankle inversion which arose from active movements made to physical stops by 20 self-reported right side-dominant participants. Testing was conducted over three sets of five inversion depths that were within a range of 1.4 degrees and centered around mean depths of 8,11, and 14 degrees. Discrimination of ankle inversion movements decreased linearly with depths of movement further into inversion, both within and across the sets of inversion depths. Thus, error in assessing movement position increased with inversion depth. Inversion movements that were made with the left foot were significantly better discriminated at all depths than those made with the right foot.
SISYPHUS: A high performance seismic inversion factory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gokhberg, Alexey; Simutė, Saulė; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas
2016-04-01
In the recent years the massively parallel high performance computers became the standard instruments for solving the forward and inverse problems in seismology. The respective software packages dedicated to forward and inverse waveform modelling specially designed for such computers (SPECFEM3D, SES3D) became mature and widely available. These packages achieve significant computational performance and provide researchers with an opportunity to solve problems of bigger size at higher resolution within a shorter time. However, a typical seismic inversion process contains various activities that are beyond the common solver functionality. They include management of information on seismic events and stations, 3D models, observed and synthetic seismograms, pre-processing of the observed signals, computation of misfits and adjoint sources, minimization of misfits, and process workflow management. These activities are time consuming, seldom sufficiently automated, and therefore represent a bottleneck that can substantially offset performance benefits provided by even the most powerful modern supercomputers. Furthermore, a typical system architecture of modern supercomputing platforms is oriented towards the maximum computational performance and provides limited standard facilities for automation of the supporting activities. We present a prototype solution that automates all aspects of the seismic inversion process and is tuned for the modern massively parallel high performance computing systems. We address several major aspects of the solution architecture, which include (1) design of an inversion state database for tracing all relevant aspects of the entire solution process, (2) design of an extensible workflow management framework, (3) integration with wave propagation solvers, (4) integration with optimization packages, (5) computation of misfits and adjoint sources, and (6) process monitoring. The inversion state database represents a hierarchical structure with
Inverse Gaussian and its inverse process as the subordinators of fractional Brownian motion.
Wyłomańska, A; Kumar, A; Połoczański, R; Vellaisamy, P
2016-10-01
In this paper we study the fractional Brownian motion (FBM) time changed by the inverse Gaussian (IG) process and its inverse, called the inverse to the inverse Gaussian (IIG) process. Some properties of the time-changed processes are similar to those of the classical FBM, such as long-range dependence. However, one can also observe different characteristics that are not satisfied by the FBM. We study the distributional properties of both subordinators, namely, IG and IIG processes, and also that of the FBM time changed by these subordinators. We establish also the connections between the subordinated processes considered and the continuous-time random-walk model. For the application part, we introduce the simulation procedures for both processes and discuss the estimation schemes for their parameters. The effectiveness of these methods is checked for simulated trajectories.
Inverse Gaussian and its inverse process as the subordinators of fractional Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wyłomańska, A.; Kumar, A.; Połoczański, R.; Vellaisamy, P.
2016-10-01
In this paper we study the fractional Brownian motion (FBM) time changed by the inverse Gaussian (IG) process and its inverse, called the inverse to the inverse Gaussian (IIG) process. Some properties of the time-changed processes are similar to those of the classical FBM, such as long-range dependence. However, one can also observe different characteristics that are not satisfied by the FBM. We study the distributional properties of both subordinators, namely, IG and IIG processes, and also that of the FBM time changed by these subordinators. We establish also the connections between the subordinated processes considered and the continuous-time random-walk model. For the application part, we introduce the simulation procedures for both processes and discuss the estimation schemes for their parameters. The effectiveness of these methods is checked for simulated trajectories.
Arnaiz, C; Buffiere, P; Elmaleh, S; Lebrato, J; Moletta, R
2003-11-01
This paper describes the application of the inverse fluidization technology to the anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater. Two reactors were investigated: the inverse fluidized bed reactor and the inverse turbulent reactor. In these reactors, a granular floating solid is expanded by a down-flow current of effluent or an up-flow current of gas, respectively. The carrier particles (Extendospheres) were chosen for their large specific surface area (20,000 m2m(-3)) and their low energy requirements for fluidization (gas velocity of 1.5 mm s(-1), 5.4 m h(-1)). Organic load was increased stepwise by reducing hydraulic retention time from more than 60 days to 3 days, while maintaining constant the feed COD concentration. Both reactors achieved more than 90% of COD removal, at an organic loading rate of 10-12 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. The performances observed were similar or even higher than that of other previously tested fluidized bed technologies treating the same wastewater. It was found that the main advantages of this system are: low energy requirement, because of the low fluidization velocities required; there is no need of a settling device, because solids accumulate at the bottom of the reactor, so they can be easily drawn out and particles with high-biomass content can be easily recovered. Lipid phosphate concentration has been revealed as a good method for biomass estimation in biofilms since it only includes living biomass.
Microwave spectrum of the H2DO+ ion: Inversion-rotation transitions and inversion splitting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furuya, Takashi; Saito, Shuji; Araki, Mitsunori
2007-12-01
Inversion-rotation spectral lines of the monodeuterated hydronium ion, H2DO+, have been observed by a source-modulation spectrometer in the millimeter- to submillimeter-wave region. The ion was generated by a hollow-cathode discharge in a gas mixture of H2O and D2O. Nine inversion-rotation lines were measured precisely for the lowest pair of inversion doublets in the frequency region from 210to720GHz. The measured lines were analyzed to derive rotational constants in the inversion-doublet states and inversion splitting. The inversion splitting in the ground state was determined to be 1215866(410)MHz, that is, 40.5569(137)cm-1, where the numbers in parentheses give probable uncertainties estimated from the Jacobian matrix of the assumed centrifugal distortion constants of the inversion-doublet states. The determined inversion splitting is off by -0.58cm-1 from the predicted value of 41.14cm-1 by Rayamäki et al. using high-order coupled cluster ab initio calculations [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 10929 (2003)], and by 0.039cm-1 from the observed value of 40.518(10)cm-1 by Dong and Nesbitt using high-resolution jet-cooled infrared spectroscopy [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 144311 (2006)] beyond the quoted uncertainty. The most astronomically important transition 000--10+ for the ortho species was measured at 673257.024(31)MHz, which could be used as a radioastronomical probe investigating interstellar chemistry of deuterium fractionation in space.
GENERATING FRACTAL PATTERNS BY USING p-CIRCLE INVERSION
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez, José L.; Rubiano, Gustavo N.; Zlobec, Borut Jurčič
2015-10-01
In this paper, we introduce the p-circle inversion which generalizes the classical inversion with respect to a circle (p = 2) and the taxicab inversion (p = 1). We study some basic properties and we also show the inversive images of some basic curves. We apply this new transformation to well-known fractals such as Sierpinski triangle, Koch curve, dragon curve, Fibonacci fractal, among others. Then we obtain new fractal patterns. Moreover, we generalize the method called circle inversion fractal be means of the p-circle inversion.
A Bayesian method for microseismic source inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.
2016-08-01
Earthquake source inversion is highly dependent on location determination and velocity models. Uncertainties in both the model parameters and the observations need to be rigorously incorporated into an inversion approach. Here, we show a probabilistic Bayesian method that allows formal inclusion of the uncertainties in the moment tensor inversion. This method allows the combination of different sets of far-field observations, such as P-wave and S-wave polarities and amplitude ratios, into one inversion. Additional observations can be included by deriving a suitable likelihood function from the uncertainties. This inversion produces samples from the source posterior probability distribution, including a best-fitting solution for the source mechanism and associated probability. The inversion can be constrained to the double-couple space or allowed to explore the gamut of moment tensor solutions, allowing volumetric and other non-double-couple components. The posterior probability of the double-couple and full moment tensor source models can be evaluated from the Bayesian evidence, using samples from the likelihood distributions for the two source models, producing an estimate of whether or not a source is double-couple. Such an approach is ideally suited to microseismic studies where there are many sources of uncertainty and it is often difficult to produce reliability estimates of the source mechanism, although this can be true of many other cases. Using full-waveform synthetic seismograms, we also show the effects of noise, location, network distribution and velocity model uncertainty on the source probability density function. The noise has the largest effect on the results, especially as it can affect other parts of the event processing. This uncertainty can lead to erroneous non-double-couple source probability distributions, even when no other uncertainties exist. Although including amplitude ratios can improve the constraint on the source probability
Gravity inversion in spherical coordinates using tesseroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valeria C. F.
2014-05-01
Satellite observations of the gravity field have provided geophysicists with exceptionally dense and uniform coverage of data over vast areas. This enables regional or global scale high resolution geophysical investigations. Techniques like forward modeling and inversion of gravity anomalies are routinely used to investigate large geologic structures, such as large igneous provinces, suture zones, intracratonic basins, and the Moho. Accurately modeling such large structures requires taking the sphericity of the Earth into account. A reasonable approximation is to assume a spherical Earth and use spherical coordinates. In recent years, efforts have been made to advance forward modeling in spherical coordinates using tesseroids, particularly with respect to speed and accuracy. Conversely, traditional space domain inverse modeling methods have not yet been adapted to use spherical coordinates and tesseroids. In the literature there are a range of inversion methods that have been developed for Cartesian coordinates and right rectangular prisms. These include methods for estimating the relief of an interface, like the Moho or the basement of a sedimentary basin. Another category includes methods to estimate the density distribution in a medium. The latter apply many algorithms to solve the inverse problem, ranging from analytic solutions to random search methods as well as systematic search methods. We present an adaptation for tesseroids of the systematic search method of "planting anomalous densities". This method can be used to estimate the geometry of geologic structures. As prior information, it requires knowledge of the approximate densities and positions of the structures. The main advantage of this method is its computational efficiency, requiring little computer memory and processing time. We demonstrate the shortcomings and capabilities of this approach using applications to synthetic and field data. Performing the inversion of gravity and gravity gradient
Geomechanical stress inversion for reservoir fracture characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lejri, Mostfa; Joonnekindt, Jean Pierre; Maerten, Frantz; Maerten, Laurent
2013-04-01
In this contribution we present preliminary results of the new generation of stress inversion technique using geomechanics (Maerten F, 2010) and based on a 3D boundary element method (BEM) (Thomas, 1993; Maerten, 2010) combined with a Monte Carlo simulation. As opposed to majority of the stress inversion techniques (Carey and Brunier, 1974; Angelier, 1975; Gephart and Forsyth, 1984; Reches, 1987), which are based on the Wallace-Bott hypothesis (Wallace, 1951; Bott, 1959) and where it is assumed no stress perturbation within the rock mass, this new method does not rely on such assumptions. On the contrary, using geomechanics allows stress inversion to be better constrained by taking into account observed mechanical perturbations (e.g., the variation in fractures orientation) and the possibility to use new types of data such as GPS, InSAR, slip and stresses with magnitude (Maerten F, 2010). We briefly describe the method, its benefits and limitations using an outcrop example, where we illustrate how joint development can be affected by local heterogeneous stress field as joints seem to be coherent with the perturbed stress field caused by slip along strike-slip faults. Heterogeneous paleostress field is therefore recovered and natural fractures are accurately reproduced. We also demonstrate how this new inversion technique can be used for both natural fractures and present day stress modelling that lead to a better characterization of natural fractures in reservoirs. Our goal is to better constrain reservoir natural fractures, which can be affected by the paleostress field as well as the distribution of the present day heterogeneous stress field. While open natural fractures are known to be capable of significantly promoting the flow of hydrocarbons, the present day stress distribution can lead to critical leakage during drilling and production when pressure is changed, increasing risks of fracture occurrence and opening, depending on the actual stress orientation
An inversion strategy for hydraulic tomography: Coupling travel time and amplitude inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brauchler, R.; Cheng, J.-T.; Dietrich, P.; Everett, M.; Johnson, B.; Liedl, R.; Sauter, M.
2007-10-01
SummaryWe present a hydraulic tomographic inversion strategy with an emphasis on the reduction of ambiguity of hydraulic travel time inversion results and the separation of the estimated diffusivity values into hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Our tomographic inversion strategy is tested by simulated multilevel interference slug tests in which the positions of the sources (injection ports) and the receivers (observation ports) isolated with packers are varied. Simulations include the delaying effect of wellbore storage on travel times which are quantified and shown to be of increasing importance for shorter travel distances. For the reduction of ambiguity of travel time inversion, we use the full travel time data set, as well as smaller data subsets of specified source-receiver angles. The inversion results of data subsets show different resolution characteristics and improve the reliability of the interpretation. The travel time of a pressure pulse is a function of the diffusivity of the medium between the source and receiver. Thus, it is difficult to directly derive values for hydraulic conductivity and specific storage by inverting travel times. In order to overcome this limitation, we exploit the great computational efficiency of hydraulic travel time tomography to define the aquifer structure, which is then input into the underlying groundwater flow model MODFLOW-96. Finally, we perform a model calibration (amplitude inversion) using the automatic parameter estimator PEST, enabling us to separate diffusivity into its two components hydraulic conductivity and specific storage.
Constraining inverse-curvature gravity with supernovae.
Mena, Olga; Santiago, José; Weller, Jochen
2006-02-03
We show that models of generalized modified gravity, with inverse powers of the curvature, can explain the current accelerated expansion of the Universe without resorting to dark energy and without conflicting with solar system experiments. We have solved the Friedmann equations for the full dynamical range of the evolution of the Universe and performed a detailed analysis of supernovae data in the context of such models that results in an excellent fit. If we further include constraints on the current expansion of the Universe and on its age, we obtain that the matter content of the Universe is 0.07
Aquifer Structure Identification Using Stochastic Inversion
Harp, Dylan R; Dai, Zhenxue; Wolfsberg, Andrew V; Vrugt, Jasper A
2008-01-01
This study presents a stochastic inverse method for aquifer structure identification using sparse geophysical and hydraulic response data. The method is based on updating structure parameters from a transition probability model to iteratively modify the aquifer structure and parameter zonation. The method is extended to the adaptive parameterization of facies hydraulic parameters by including these parameters as optimization variables. The stochastic nature of the statistical structure parameters leads to nonconvex objective functions. A multi-method genetically adaptive evolutionary approach (AMALGAM-SO) was selected to perform the inversion given its search capabilities. Results are obtained as a probabilistic assessment of facies distribution based on indicator cokriging simulation of the optimized structural parameters. The method is illustrated by estimating the structure and facies hydraulic parameters of a synthetic example with a transient hydraulic response.
Current methods of radio occultation data inversion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kliore, A. J.
1972-01-01
The methods of Abel integral transform and ray-tracing inversion have been applied to data received from radio occultation experiments as a means of obtaining refractive index profiles of the ionospheres and atmospheres of Mars and Venus. In the case of Mars, certain simplifications are introduced by the assumption of small refractive bending in the atmosphere. General inversion methods, independent of the thin atmosphere approximation, have been used to invert the data obtained from the radio occultation of Mariner 5 by Venus; similar methods will be used to analyze data obtained from Jupiter with Pioneers F and G, as well as from the other outer planets in the Outer Planet Grand Tour Missions.
Lasing without inversion in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Marthaler, M; Utsumi, Y; Golubev, D S; Shnirman, A; Schön, Gerd
2011-08-26
We study the photon generation in a transmission line oscillator coupled to a driven qubit in the presence of a dissipative electromagnetic environment. It has been demonstrated previously that a population inversion in the qubit can lead to a lasing state of the oscillator. Here we show that the circuit can also exhibit the effect of "lasing without inversion." It arises since the coupling to the dissipative environment enhances photon emission as compared to absorption, similar to the recoil effect predicted for atomic systems. While the recoil effect is very weak, and so far elusive, the effect described here should be observable with realistic circuits. We analyze the requirements for system parameters and environment. © 2011 American Physical Society
Approximate inverse preconditioners for general sparse matrices
Chow, E.; Saad, Y.
1994-12-31
Preconditioned Krylov subspace methods are often very efficient in solving sparse linear matrices that arise from the discretization of elliptic partial differential equations. However, for general sparse indifinite matrices, the usual ILU preconditioners fail, often because of the fact that the resulting factors L and U give rise to unstable forward and backward sweeps. In such cases, alternative preconditioners based on approximate inverses may be attractive. We are currently developing a number of such preconditioners based on iterating on each column to get the approximate inverse. For this approach to be efficient, the iteration must be done in sparse mode, i.e., we must use sparse-matrix by sparse-vector type operatoins. We will discuss a few options and compare their performance on standard problems from the Harwell-Boeing collection.
Darwin's “strange inversion of reasoning”
Dennett, Daniel
2009-01-01
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection unifies the world of physics with the world of meaning and purpose by proposing a deeply counterintuitive “inversion of reasoning” (according to a 19th century critic): “to make a perfect and beautiful machine, it is not requisite to know how to make it” [MacKenzie RB (1868) (Nisbet & Co., London)]. Turing proposed a similar inversion: to be a perfect and beautiful computing machine, it is not requisite to know what arithmetic is. Together, these ideas help to explain how we human intelligences came to be able to discern the reasons for all of the adaptations of life, including our own. PMID:19528651
Optical inverse-square displacement sensor
Howe, Robert D.; Kychakoff, George
1989-01-01
This invention comprises an optical displacement sensor that uses the inverse-square attenuation of light reflected from a diffused surface to calculate the distance from the sensor to the reflecting surface. Light emerging from an optical fiber or the like is directed onto the surface whose distance is to be measured. The intensity I of reflected light is angle dependent, but within a sufficiently small solid angle it falls off as the inverse square of the distance from the surface. At least a pair of optical detectors are mounted to detect the reflected light within the small solid angle, their ends being at different distances R and R+.DELTA.R from the surface. The distance R can then be found in terms of the ratio of the intensity measurements and the separation length as ##EQU1##
Optical inverse-square displacement sensor
Howe, R.D.; Kychakoff, G.
1989-09-12
This invention comprises an optical displacement sensor that uses the inverse-square attenuation of light reflected from a diffused surface to calculate the distance from the sensor to the reflecting surface. Light emerging from an optical fiber or the like is directed onto the surface whose distance is to be measured. The intensity I of reflected light is angle dependent, but within a sufficiently small solid angle it falls off as the inverse square of the distance from the surface. At least a pair of optical detectors are mounted to detect the reflected light within the small solid angle, their ends being at different distances R and R + [Delta]R from the surface. The distance R can then be found in terms of the ratio of the intensity measurements and the separation length as given in an equation. 10 figs.
Inverse Vernier effect in coupled lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Li; Türeci, Hakan E.
2015-07-01
In this report we study the Vernier effect in coupled laser systems consisting of two cavities. We show that depending on the nature of their coupling, not only can the "supermodes" formed at overlapping resonances of these two cavities have the lowest thresholds as previously found, leading to lasing at these overlapping resonances and a manifestation of the typical Vernier effect, but also they can have increased thresholds and are hence suppressed, which can be viewed as an inverse Vernier effect. The inverse Vernier effect can also lead to an increased free spectrum range and possibly single-mode lasing, which may explain the experimental findings in several previous studies. We illustrate this effect using two coupled micro-ring cavities and a micro-ring cavity coupled to a slab cavity, and we discuss its relation to the existence of exceptional points in coupled lasers.
Double inverse stochastic resonance with dynamic synapses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uzuntarla, Muhammet; Torres, Joaquin J.; So, Paul; Ozer, Mahmut; Barreto, Ernest
2017-01-01
We investigate the behavior of a model neuron that receives a biophysically realistic noisy postsynaptic current based on uncorrelated spiking activity from a large number of afferents. We show that, with static synapses, such noise can give rise to inverse stochastic resonance (ISR) as a function of the presynaptic firing rate. We compare this to the case with dynamic synapses that feature short-term synaptic plasticity and show that the interval of presynaptic firing rate over which ISR exists can be extended or diminished. We consider both short-term depression and facilitation. Interestingly, we find that a double inverse stochastic resonance (DISR), with two distinct wells centered at different presynaptic firing rates, can appear.
An efficient method for inverse problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daripa, Prabir
1987-01-01
A new inverse method for aerodynamic design of subcritical airfoils is presented. The pressure distribution in this method can be prescribed in a natural way, i.e. as a function of arclength of the as yet unknown body. This inverse problem is shown to be mathematically equivalent to solving a single nonlinear boundary value problem subject to known Dirichlet data on the boundary. The solution to this problem determines the airfoil, the free stream Mach number M(sub x) and the upstream flow direction theta(sub x). The existence of a solution for any given pressure distribution is discussed. The method is easy to implement and extremely efficient. We present a series of results for which comparisons are made with the known airfoils.
Inverse Kinematics of Concentric Tube Steerable Needles
Sears, Patrick; Dupont, Pierre E.
2013-01-01
Prior papers have introduced steerable needles composed of precurved concentric tubes. The curvature and extent of these needles can be controlled by the relative rotation and translation of the individual tubes. Under certain assumptions on the geometry and design of these needles, the forward kinematics problem can be solved in closed form by means of algebraic equations. The inverse kinematics problem, however, is not as straightforward owing to the nonlinear map between relative tube displacements and needle tip configuration as well as to the multiplicity of solutions as the number of tubes increases. This paper presents a general approach to solving the inverse kinematics problem using a pseudoinverse solution together with gradients of nullspace potential functions to enforce geometric and mechanical constraints. PMID:23685532
Space-time inversion and its consequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chelnokov, M.
2016-07-01
The article discusses some new aspects of both the inversion of space and the inversion of time. It is shown that behind the mirror is not symmetric to in front of the mirror. It, in its turn, leads to nonconservation of spatial parity. The same situation takes place in the combined CP-parity. Further, the article shows that from the point of view of different reference systems of the Universe (from the point of view of different galaxies or accumulation of galaxies) time flows not just differently, and, in some cases, in the opposite directions. It leads to major changes in the picture of the Universe. In particular, the concept of the age of the Universe loses its meaning, serious doubts about the idea of the Big Bang and so on.
Linear functional minimization for inverse modeling
Barajas-Solano, David A.; Wohlberg, Brendt Egon; Vesselinov, Velimir Valentinov; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.
2015-06-01
In this paper, we present a novel inverse modeling strategy to estimate spatially distributed parameters of nonlinear models. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimators of these parameters are based on a likelihood functional, which contains spatially discrete measurements of the system parameters and spatiotemporally discrete measurements of the transient system states. The piecewise continuity prior for the parameters is expressed via Total Variation (TV) regularization. The MAP estimator is computed by minimizing a nonquadratic objective equipped with the TV operator. We apply this inversion algorithm to estimate hydraulic conductivity of a synthetic confined aquifer from measurements of conductivity and hydraulic head. The synthetic conductivity field is composed of a low-conductivity heterogeneous intrusion into a high-conductivity heterogeneous medium. Our algorithm accurately reconstructs the location, orientation, and extent of the intrusion from the steady-state data only. Finally, addition of transient measurements of hydraulic head improves the parameter estimation, accurately reconstructing the conductivity field in the vicinity of observation locations.
Inverse electromagnetic diffraction by biperiodic dielectric gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Xue; Li, Peijun
2017-08-01
Consider the incidence of a time-harmonic electromagnetic plane wave onto a biperiodic dielectric grating, where the surface is assumed to be a small and smooth perturbation of a plane. The diffraction is modeled as a transmission problem for Maxwell’s equations in three dimensions. This paper concerns the inverse diffraction problem which is to reconstruct the grating surface from either the diffracted field or the transmitted field. A novel approach is developed to solve the challenging nonlinear and ill-posed inverse problem. The method requires only a single incident field and is realized via the fast Fourier transform. Numerical results show that it is simple, fast, and stable to reconstruct biperiodic dielectric grating surfaces with super-resolved resolution.
Function representation with circle inversion map systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boreland, Bryson; Kunze, Herb
2017-01-01
The fractals literature develops the now well-known concept of local iterated function systems (using affine maps) with grey-level maps (LIFSM) as an approach to function representation in terms of the associated fixed point of the so-called fractal transform. While originally explored as a method to achieve signal (and 2-D image) compression, more recent work has explored various aspects of signal and image processing using this machinery. In this paper, we develop a similar framework for function representation using circle inversion map systems. Given a circle C with centre õ and radius r, inversion with respect to C transforms the point p˜ to the point p˜', such that p˜ and p˜' lie on the same radial half-line from õ and d(õ, p˜)d(õ, p˜') = r2, where d is Euclidean distance. We demonstrate the results with an example.
3D Gravity Inversion using Tikhonov Regularization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toushmalani, Reza; Saibi, Hakim
2015-08-01
Subsalt exploration for oil and gas is attractive in regions where 3D seismic depth-migration to recover the geometry of a salt base is difficult. Additional information to reduce the ambiguity in seismic images would be beneficial. Gravity data often serve these purposes in the petroleum industry. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for a gravity inversion based on Tikhonov regularization and an automatically regularized solution process. They examined the 3D Euler deconvolution to extract the best anomaly source depth as a priori information to invert the gravity data and provided a synthetic example. Finally, they applied the gravity inversion to recently obtained gravity data from the Bandar Charak (Hormozgan, Iran) to identify its subsurface density structure. Their model showed the 3D shape of salt dome in this region.
Regeneration of stochastic processes: an inverse method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghasemi, F.; Peinke, J.; Sahimi, M.; Rahimi Tabar, M. R.
2005-10-01
We propose a novel inverse method that utilizes a set of data to construct a simple equation that governs the stochastic process for which the data have been measured, hence enabling us to reconstruct the stochastic process. As an example, we analyze the stochasticity in the beat-to-beat fluctuations in the heart rates of healthy subjects as well as those with congestive heart failure. The inverse method provides a novel technique for distinguishing the two classes of subjects in terms of a drift and a diffusion coefficients which behave completely differently for the two classes of subjects, hence potentially providing a novel diagnostic tool for distinguishing healthy subjects from those with congestive heart failure, even at the early stages of the disease development.
Inverse energy cascade in rotational turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Chen, Rou; Wang, Hengjie
2012-11-01
Rotation influences large-scale motions in the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and it is also important in many industrial applications such as turbo machinery, rotor-craft, and rotating channel etc. We study rotation effects on decaying isotropic turbulence through direct numerical simulation using lattice Boltzmann method. A Coriolis force characterized by the angular velocity of the frame of reference Ω is included in the lattice Boltzmann equations. The effects of rotation on fundamental turbulence features such as kinetic energy and enstrophy decay, energy spectrum, etc. are studied. The decay laws are quantitatively captured. Inverse energy cascade are observed in the 3D turbulence with and without rotation. The scaling of the inverse energy cascade and its relation to initial energy spectrum are explored. Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI).
New advances in Inverse Cerenkov acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, W. D.; Babzien, M.; Cline, D. B.; Fiorito, R. B.; Fontana, J. R.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gottschalk, S. C.; Kusche, K. P.; Liu, Y.; Pogorelsky, I. V.; Quimby, D. C.; Pantell, R. H.; Rule, D. W.; Skaritka, J.; Sandweiss, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Yakimenko, V.
1997-02-01
Inverse Cerenkov acceleration (ICA) has entered a new phase in its development. The issue of staging and rephasing the optical wave with a microbunched electron beam is now being examined. This ability to accelerate over multiple stages is important for scaling laser accelerator devices to higher energies. An inverse free electron laser (IFEL) will be positioned upstream from the ICA experiment and used to prebunch the electrons. These electrons will then be focused into the ICA interaction region for rephasing and acceleration by the laser beam. Issues that will be examined during these combined ICA/IFEL experiments include rephasing the laser beam with the microbunches, minimizing bunch smearing, and trapping the electrons in an acceleration bucket.
Inverse scattering problem for quantum graph vertices
Cheon, Taksu; Turek, Ondrej; Exner, Pavel
2011-06-15
We demonstrate how the inverse scattering problem of a quantum star graph can be solved by means of diagonalization of the Hermitian unitary matrix when the vertex coupling is of the scale-invariant (or Fueloep-Tsutsui) form. This enables the construction of quantum graphs with desired properties in a tailor-made fashion. The procedure is illustrated on the example of quantum vertices with equal transmission probabilities.
Geoacoustic inversion using the vector field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crocker, Steven E.
The main goal of this project was to study the use of the acoustic vector field, separately or in combination with the scalar field, to estimate the depth dependent geoacoustic properties of the seafloor via non-linear inversion. The study was performed in the context of the Sediment Acoustics Experiment 2004 (SAX04) conducted in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where a small number of acoustic vector sensors were deployed in close proximity to the seafloor. A variety of acoustic waveforms were transmitted into the seafloor at normal incidence. The acoustic vector sensors were located both above and beneath the seafloor interface where they measured the acoustic pressure and the acoustic particle acceleration. Motion data provided by the buried vector sensors were affected by a suspension response that was sensitive to the mass properties of the sensor, the sediment density and sediment elasticity (e.g., shear wave speed). The suspension response for the buried vector sensors included a resonance within the analysis band of 0.4 to 2.0 kHz. The suspension resonance represented an unknown complex transfer function between the acoustic vector field in the seabed and data representing that field. Therefore, inverse methods developed for this study were required to 1) estimate dynamic properties of the sensor suspension resonance and 2) account for the associated corruption of vector field data. A method to account for the vector sensor suspense response function was integrated directly into the inversion methods such that vector channel data corruption was reduced and an estimate of the shear wave speed in the sediment was returned. Inversions of real and synthetic data sets indicated that information about sediment shear wave speed was carried by the suspension response of the buried sensors, as opposed to being contained inherently within the acoustic vector field.
Inverse problem of radiofrequency sounding of ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velichko, E. N.; Yu. Grishentsev, A.; Korobeynikov, A. G.
2016-01-01
An algorithm for the solution of the inverse problem of vertical ionosphere sounding and a mathematical model of noise filtering are presented. An automated system for processing and analysis of spectrograms of vertical ionosphere sounding based on our algorithm is described. It is shown that the algorithm we suggest has a rather high efficiency. This is supported by the data obtained at the ionospheric stations of the so-called “AIS-M” type.
Recursive Inversion Of Externally Defined Linear Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Baram, Yoram
1992-01-01
Technical memorandum discusses mathematical technique described in "Recursive Inversion by Finite-Impulse-Response Filters" (ARC-12247). Technique is recursive algorithm yielding finite-impulse-response approximation of unknown single-input/single-output, causal, time-invariant, linear, real system, response of which is sequence of impulses. Useful in such diverse applications as medical diagnoses, identification of military targets, geophysical exploration, and nondestructive testing.
Multiresolution MR elastography using nonlinear inversion
McGarry, M. D. J.; Van Houten, E. E. W.; Johnson, C. L.; Georgiadis, J. G.; Sutton, B. P.; Weaver, J. B.; Paulsen, K. D.
2012-01-01
Purpose: Nonlinear inversion (NLI) in MR elastography requires discretization of the displacement field for a finite element (FE) solution of the “forward problem”, and discretization of the unknown mechanical property field for the iterative solution of the “inverse problem”. The resolution requirements for these two discretizations are different: the forward problem requires sufficient resolution of the displacement FE mesh to ensure convergence, whereas lowering the mechanical property resolution in the inverse problem stabilizes the mechanical property estimates in the presence of measurement noise. Previous NLI implementations use the same FE mesh to support the displacement and property fields, requiring a trade-off between the competing resolution requirements. Methods: This work implements and evaluates multiresolution FE meshes for NLI elastography, allowing independent discretizations of the displacements and each mechanical property parameter to be estimated. The displacement resolution can then be selected to ensure mesh convergence, and the resolution of the property meshes can be independently manipulated to control the stability of the inversion. Results: Phantom experiments indicate that eight nodes per wavelength (NPW) are sufficient for accurate mechanical property recovery, whereas mechanical property estimation from 50 Hz in vivo brain data stabilizes once the displacement resolution reaches 1.7 mm (approximately 19 NPW). Viscoelastic mechanical property estimates of in vivo brain tissue show that subsampling the loss modulus while holding the storage modulus resolution constant does not substantially alter the storage modulus images. Controlling the ratio of the number of measurements to unknown mechanical properties by subsampling the mechanical property distributions (relative to the data resolution) improves the repeatability of the property estimates, at a cost of modestly decreased spatial resolution. Conclusions: Multiresolution
Heuristics for the inversion median problem
2010-01-01
Background The study of genome rearrangements has become a mainstay of phylogenetics and comparative genomics. Fundamental in such a study is the median problem: given three genomes find a fourth that minimizes the sum of the evolutionary distances between itself and the given three. Many exact algorithms and heuristics have been developed for the inversion median problem, of which the best known is MGR. Results We present a unifying framework for median heuristics, which enables us to clarify existing strategies and to place them in a partial ordering. Analysis of this framework leads to a new insight: the best strategies continue to refer to the input data rather than reducing the problem to smaller instances. Using this insight, we develop a new heuristic for inversion medians that uses input data to the end of its computation and leverages our previous work with DCJ medians. Finally, we present the results of extensive experimentation showing that our new heuristic outperforms all others in accuracy and, especially, in running time: the heuristic typically returns solutions within 1% of optimal and runs in seconds to minutes even on genomes with 25'000 genes--in contrast, MGR can take days on instances of 200 genes and cannot be used beyond 1'000 genes. Conclusion Finding good rearrangement medians, in particular inversion medians, had long been regarded as the computational bottleneck in whole-genome studies. Our new heuristic for inversion medians, ASM, which dominates all others in our framework, puts that issue to rest by providing near-optimal solutions within seconds to minutes on even the largest genomes. PMID:20122203
Droplet Sizing Using the Shifrin Inversion
1992-11-01
Figure 2 Experimental distribution profile for Rosin - Rammler inversion schemes (I-irleman, 1991) have been suggested. Some of distribution, compared...distribution. An measured experimentally, and the area weighted size distribution example of the size distribution measured for the Rosin - Rammler was...to accurately measure monodisperse distributions, weighted number distribution, x 2n(x). calculated using the Shifrin Using a reticule with a Rosin
Time-resolved inverse Raman spectroscopy.
Rahn, L A
1982-02-01
A technique for obtaining sensitive, highly reproducible, time-resolved inverse Raman measurements is reported. Experimental results are presented for the nitrogen vibrational Q branch at a pressure of 10 atm. For these measurements the signal, normalized to the pump-laser energy, exhibits fluctuations of 1.4% (rms) about the average of 500 measurements; these deviations are within a factor of 2 of the quantum noise limit.
Recursive Inversion Of Externally Defined Linear Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Baram, Yoram
1992-01-01
Technical memorandum discusses mathematical technique described in "Recursive Inversion by Finite-Impulse-Response Filters" (ARC-12247). Technique is recursive algorithm yielding finite-impulse-response approximation of unknown single-input/single-output, causal, time-invariant, linear, real system, response of which is sequence of impulses. Useful in such diverse applications as medical diagnoses, identification of military targets, geophysical exploration, and nondestructive testing.
Research on the Inverse Problem of Scattering
1981-10-01
Levitan equation for the r)ne- dimensional and radial Schroedinger equations., ( b ) provided a vuiri•jtiona1 prine.l pie, and (c) extended inverse techniques...Variational Principle for the Gelfand- Levitan Equation and the Korteweg-deVries Equation (with M . Kanal), J. Math. Phys., 18, 2445 (1977). 3. A...Operators are Identical (with P. B . Abraham and B . DeFaclo), Studies in App. Math. (in press). 9. The Ceifand- Levitan Equation can Give Simple Examples of
Forecast Variance Estimates Using Dart Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gica, E.
2014-12-01
The tsunami forecast tool developed by the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) provides real-time tsunami forecast and is composed of the following major components: a pre-computed tsunami propagation database, an inversion algorithm that utilizes real-time tsunami data recorded at DART stations to define the tsunami source, and inundation models that predict tsunami wave characteristics at specific coastal locations. The propagation database is a collection of basin-wide tsunami model runs generated from 50x100 km "unit sources" with a slip of 1 meter. Linear combination and scaling of unit sources is possible since the nonlinearity in the deep ocean is negligible. To define the tsunami source using the unit sources, real-time DART data is ingested into an inversion algorithm. Based on the selected DART and length of tsunami time series, the inversion algorithm will select the best combination of unit sources and scaling factors that best fit the observed data at the selected locations. This combined source then serves as boundary condition for the inundation models. Different combinations of DARTs and length of tsunami time series used in the inversion algorithm will result in different selection of unit sources and scaling factors. Since the combined unit sources are used as boundary condition for inundation modeling, different sources will produce variations in the tsunami wave characteristics. As part of the testing procedures for the tsunami forecast tool, staff at NCTR and both National and Pacific Tsunami Warning Centers, performed post-event forecasts for several historical tsunamis. The extent of variation due to different source definitions obtained from the testing is analyzed by comparing the simulated maximum tsunami wave amplitude with recorded data at tide gauge locations. Results of the analysis will provide an error estimate defining the possible range of the simulated maximum tsunami wave amplitude for each specific inundation model.
Inverse heat mimicking of given objects
Alwakil, Ahmed; Zerrad, Myriam; Bellieud, Michel; Amra, Claude
2017-01-01
We address a general inverse mimicking problem in heat conduction. The objects to cloak and mimic are chosen beforehand; these objects identify a specific set of space transformations. The shapes that can be mimicked are derived from the conductivity matrices. Numerical calculation confirms all of the analytical predictions. The technique provides key advantages for applications and can be extended to the field of waves. PMID:28252031
Pole EXpansion and Selected Inversion (PEXSI)
2014-03-01
The Pole EXpansion and Selected Inversion method (PEXSI) is a fast method for evaluating certain selected elements of a matrix function. PEXSI is highly scalable on distributed memory parallel machines. For sparse matrices, the PEXSI method can be more efficient than the widely used diagonalization method for evaluating matrix functions, especially when a relatively large number of eigenpairs are needed to be computed in the diagonalization methond
Probabilistic regularization in inverse optical imaging.
De Micheli, E; Viano, G A
2000-11-01
The problem of object restoration in the case of spatially incoherent illumination is considered. A regularized solution to the inverse problem is obtained through a probabilistic approach, and a numerical algorithm based on the statistical analysis of the noisy data is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the question of the positivity constraint, which is incorporated into the probabilistically regularized solution by means of a quadratic programming technique. Numerical examples illustrating the main steps of the algorithm are also given.
Modelling and inversion -progress, problems, and challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raiche, Art
1994-03-01
Researchers in the field of electromagnetic modelling and inversion have taken advantage of the impressive improvements of new computer hardware to explore exciting new initiatives and solid extensions of older ideas. Finite-difference time-stepping methods have been successfully applied to full-domain 3D models. Another new method combines time-stepping with spatial frequency solutions. The 2D model 3D source (2.5D) problem is also receiving fresh attention both for continental and sea floor applications. The 3D inversion problem is being attacked by several researchers using distorted Born approximation methods. Q-domain inversions using transformation to pseudo-wave field and travel time tomography have also been successfully tested for low contrast problems. Subspace methods have been successful in dramatically reducing the computational burden of the under-determined style of inversion. Static magnetic field interpretation methods are proving useful for delineating the position of closely-spaced multiple targets. Novel (“appeals to nature”) methods are also being investigated. Neural net algorithms have been tested for determining the depth and offset of buried pipes from EM ellipticity data. Genetic algorithms and simulated annealing have been tested for extremal model construction. The failure of researchers to take adequate account of the properties of the mathematical transformation from algorithms to the number domain represented by the computing process remains a major stumbling block. Structured programming, functional languages, and other software tools and methods are presented as an essential part of the serial process leading from EM theory to geological interpretation.
Variational Bayesian Approximation methods for inverse problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammad-Djafari, Ali
2012-09-01
Variational Bayesian Approximation (VBA) methods are recent tools for effective Bayesian computations. In this paper, these tools are used for inverse problems where the prior models include hidden variables and where where the estimation of the hyper parameters has also to be addressed. In particular two specific prior models (Student-t and mixture of Gaussian models) are considered and details of the algorithms are given.
Geoacoustic model inversion using artificial neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benson, Jeremy; Chapman, N. Ross; Antoniou, Andreas
2000-12-01
An inversion technique using artificial neural networks (ANNs) is described for estimating geoacoustic model parameters of the ocean bottom and information about the sound source from acoustic field data. The method is applied to transmission loss data from the TRIAL SABLE experiment that was carried out in shallow water off Nova Scotia. The inversion is designed to incorporate the a priori information available for the site in order to improve the estimation accuracy. The inversion scheme involves training feedforward ANNs to estimate the geoacoustic and geometric parameters using simulated input/output training pairs generated with a forward acoustic propagation model. The inputs to the ANNs are the spectral components of the transmission loss at each sensor of a vertical hydrophone array for the two lowest frequencies that were transmitted in the experiment, 35 and 55 Hz. The output is the set of environmental model parameters, both geometric and geoacoustic, corresponding to the received field. In order to decrease the training time, a separate network was trained for each parameter. The errors for the parallel estimation are 10% lower than for those obtained using a single network to estimate all the parameters simultaneously, and the training time is decreased by a factor of six. When the experimental data are presented to the ANNs the geometric parameters, such as source range and depth, are estimated with a high accuracy. Geoacoustic parameters, such as the compressional speed in the sediment and the sediment thickness, are found with a moderate accuracy.
Solar structure inversion with LOWL data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Basu, Sarbani; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Schou, Jesper; Thompson, Michael J.; Tomczyk, Steven
1995-01-01
Inversion results for the radial hydrostatic structure of the Sun, using six months of oscillation data obtained with the LOWL instrument, are presented. Both low and intermediate degree modes are used, thus avoiding the systematic errors that might have occurred in previous inversions by merging more than one data set. Using modes of between 0 deg and 90 deg and frequencies of between 1.5 mHz and 3.5 mHz, the variations with depth of the speed of sound, the density and the pressure were inferred for radii of between 0.05 and 0.85 stellar radius. It was found that in this region, the sound speed was within 0.15% of that of a model constructed using an equation of state that incorporated helium diffusion. The density difference between the Sun and the model was less than 0.8%. Given the small error bars on the inversion results, these differences are considered as being significant.
Inverse problems biomechanical imaging (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oberai, Assad A.
2016-03-01
It is now well recognized that a host of imaging modalities (a list that includes Ultrasound, MRI, Optical Coherence Tomography, and optical microscopy) can be used to "watch" tissue as it deforms in response to an internal or external excitation. The result is a detailed map of the deformation field in the interior of the tissue. This deformation field can be used in conjunction with a material mechanical response to determine the spatial distribution of material properties of the tissue by solving an inverse problem. Images of material properties thus obtained can be used to quantify the health of the tissue. Recently, they have been used to detect, diagnose and monitor cancerous lesions, detect vulnerable plaque in arteries, diagnose liver cirrhosis, and possibly detect the onset of Alzheimer's disease. In this talk I will describe the mathematical and computational aspects of solving this class of inverse problems, and their applications in biology and medicine. In particular, I will discuss the well-posedness of these problems and quantify the amount of displacement data necessary to obtain a unique property distribution. I will describe an efficient algorithm for solving the resulting inverse problem. I will also describe some recent developments based on Bayesian inference in estimating the variance in the estimates of material properties. I will conclude with the applications of these techniques in diagnosing breast cancer and in characterizing the mechanical properties of cells with sub-cellular resolution.
Radiation-Insensitive Inverse Majority Gates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad
2008-01-01
To help satisfy a need for high-density logic circuits insensitive to radiation, it has been proposed to realize inverse majority gates as microscopic vacuum electronic devices. In comparison with solid-state electronic devices ordinarily used in logic circuits, vacuum electronic devices are inherently much less adversely affected by radiation and extreme temperatures. The proposed development would involve state-of-the-art micromachining and recent advances in the fabrication of carbon-nanotube-based field emitters. A representative three-input inverse majority gate would be a monolithic, integrated structure that would include three gate electrodes, six bundles of carbon nanotubes (serving as electron emitters) at suitable positions between the gate electrodes, and an overhanging anode. The bundles of carbon nanotubes would be grown on degenerately doped silicon substrates that would be parts of the monolithic structure. The gate electrodes would be fabricated as parts of the monolithic structure by means of a double-silicon-on-insulator process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The tops of the bundles of carbon nanotubes would lie below the plane of the tops of the gate electrodes. The particular choice of shapes, dimensions, and relative positions of the electrodes and bundles of carbon nanotubes would provide for both field emission of electrons from the bundles of carbon nanotubes and control of the electron current to obtain the inverse majority function, which is described in the paper.
Parallel tempering for strongly nonlinear geoacoustic inversion.
Dosso, Stan E; Holland, Charles W; Sambridge, Malcolm
2012-11-01
This paper applies parallel tempering within a Bayesian formulation for strongly nonlinear geoacoustic inverse problems. Bayesian geoacoustic inversion consists of sampling the posterior probability density (PPD) of seabed parameters to estimate integral properties, such as marginal probability distributions, based on ocean acoustic data and prior information. This sampling is usually carried out using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method of Metropolis-Hastings sampling. However, standard sampling methods can be very inefficient for strongly nonlinear problems involving multi-modal PPDs with the potential to miss important regions of the parameter space and to significantly underestimate parameter uncertainties. Parallel tempering achieves efficient/effective sampling of challenging parameter spaces with the ability to transition freely between multiple PPD modes by running parallel Markov chains at a series of increasing sampling temperatures with probabilistic interchanges between chains. The approach is illustrated for inversion of (simulated) acoustic reverberation data for which the PPD is highly multi-modal. While Metropolis-Hastings sampling gives poor results even with very large sample sizes, parallel tempering provides efficient, convergent sampling of the PPD. Methods to enhance the efficiency of parallel tempering are also considered.
Regularity Aspects in Inverse Musculoskeletal Biomechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lund, Marie; Stâhl, Fredrik; Gulliksson, Mârten
2008-09-01
Inverse simulations of musculoskeletal models computes the internal forces such as muscle and joint reaction forces, which are hard to measure, using the more easily measured motion and external forces as input data. Because of the difficulties of measuring muscle forces and joint reactions, simulations are hard to validate. One way of reducing errors for the simulations is to ensure that the mathematical problem is well-posed. This paper presents a study of regularity aspects for an inverse simulation method, often called forward dynamics or dynamical optimization, that takes into account both measurement errors and muscle dynamics. Regularity is examined for a test problem around the optimum using the approximated quadratic problem. The results shows improved rank by including a regularization term in the objective that handles the mechanical over-determinancy. Using the 3-element Hill muscle model the chosen regularization term is the norm of the activation. To make the problem full-rank only the excitation bounds should be included in the constraints. However, this results in small negative values of the activation which indicates that muscles are pushing and not pulling, which is unrealistic but the error maybe small enough to be accepted for specific applications. These results are a start to ensure better results of inverse musculoskeletal simulations from a numerical point of view.
An Inverse Approach for Elucidating Dendritic Function
Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; Stiefel, Klaus M.
2010-01-01
We outline an inverse approach for investigating dendritic function–structure relationships by optimizing dendritic trees for a priori chosen computational functions. The inverse approach can be applied in two different ways. First, we can use it as a “hypothesis generator” in which we optimize dendrites for a function of general interest. The optimization yields an artificial dendrite that is subsequently compared to real neurons. This comparison potentially allows us to propose hypotheses about the function of real neurons. In this way, we investigated dendrites that optimally perform input-order detection. Second, we can use it as a “function confirmation” by optimizing dendrites for functions hypothesized to be performed by classes of neurons. If the optimized, artificial, dendrites resemble the dendrites of real neurons the artificial dendrites corroborate the hypothesized function of the real neuron. Moreover, properties of the artificial dendrites can lead to predictions about yet unmeasured properties. In this way, we investigated wide-field motion integration performed by the VS cells of the fly visual system. In outlining the inverse approach and two applications, we also elaborate on the nature of dendritic function. We furthermore discuss the role of optimality in assigning functions to dendrites and point out interesting future directions. PMID:21258425
Inversion of tsunami waveforms and tsunami warning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Chao
Ever since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the technique of inversion of tsunami data and the importance of tsunami warning have drawn the attention of many researchers. However, since tsunamis are rare and extreme events, developed inverse techniques lack validation, and open questions rise when they are applied to a real event. In this study, several of those open questions are investigated, i.e., the wave dispersion, bathymetry grid size and subfault division. First, tsunami records from three large tsunami events -- 2010 Maule, 2011 Tohoku and 2012 Haida Gwaii -- are analyzed to extract the main characteristics of the leading tsunami waves. Using the tool of wavelet transforming, the instant wave period can be obtained and thus the dispersive parameter mu2 can be calculated. mu2 is found to be smaller than 0.02 for all records, indicating that the wave dispersion is minor for the propagation of tsunami leading waves. Second, inversions of tsunami data are carried out for three tsunami events -- 2011 Tohoku, 2012 Haida Gwaii and 2014 Iquique. By varying the subfault size and the bathymetry grid size in the inversions, general rules are established for choosing those two parameters. It is found that the choice of bathymetry grid size depends on various parameters, such as the subfault size and the depth of subfaults. The global bathymetry data GEBCO with spatial resolution of 30 arcsec is generally good if the subfault size is larger than 40 km x 40 km; otherwise, bathymetry data with finer resolution is desirable. Detailed instructions of choosing the bathymetry size can be found in Chapter 2. By contrast, the choice of subfault size has much more freedom; our study shows that the subfault size can be very large without significant influence on the predicted tsunami waves. For earthquakes with magnitude of 8.0 ˜ 9.0, the subfault size can be 60 km ˜ 100 km. In our study, the maximum subfault size results in 9 ˜ 16 subfault patches on the ruptured fault surface
Bayesian inverse modeling for quantitative precipitation estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schinagl, Katharina; Rieger, Christian; Simmer, Clemens; Xie, Xinxin; Friederichs, Petra
2017-04-01
Polarimetric radars provide us with a richness of precipitation related measurements. Especially the high spatial and temporal resolution make the data an important information, e.g. for hydrological modeling. However, uncertainties in the precipitation estimates are large. Their systematic assessment and quantification is thus of great importance. Polarimetric radar observables like horizontal and vertical reflectivity ZH and ZV , cross-correlation coefficient ρHV and specific differential phase KDP are related to the drop size distribution (DSD) in the scan. This relation is described by forward operators which are integrals over the DSD and scattering terms. Given the polarimetric observables, the respective forward operators and assumptions about the measurement errors, we investigate the uncertainty in the DSD parameter estimation and based on it the uncertainty of precipitation estimates. We assume that the DSD follows a Gamma model, N(D) = N0Dμ exp(-ΛD), where all three parameters are variable. This model allows us to account for the high variability of the DSD. We employ the framework of Bayesian inverse methods to derive the posterior distribution of the DSD parameters. The inverse problem is investigated in a simulated environment (SE) using the COSMO-DE numerical weather prediction model. The advantage of the SE is that - unlike in a real world application - we know the parameters we want to estimate. Thus, building the inverse model into the SE gives us the opportunity of verifying our results against the COSMO-simulated DSD-values.
An inverse approach for elucidating dendritic function.
Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; Stiefel, Klaus M
2010-01-01
We outline an inverse approach for investigating dendritic function-structure relationships by optimizing dendritic trees for a priori chosen computational functions. The inverse approach can be applied in two different ways. First, we can use it as a "hypothesis generator" in which we optimize dendrites for a function of general interest. The optimization yields an artificial dendrite that is subsequently compared to real neurons. This comparison potentially allows us to propose hypotheses about the function of real neurons. In this way, we investigated dendrites that optimally perform input-order detection. Second, we can use it as a "function confirmation" by optimizing dendrites for functions hypothesized to be performed by classes of neurons. If the optimized, artificial, dendrites resemble the dendrites of real neurons the artificial dendrites corroborate the hypothesized function of the real neuron. Moreover, properties of the artificial dendrites can lead to predictions about yet unmeasured properties. In this way, we investigated wide-field motion integration performed by the VS cells of the fly visual system. In outlining the inverse approach and two applications, we also elaborate on the nature of dendritic function. We furthermore discuss the role of optimality in assigning functions to dendrites and point out interesting future directions.
Chemical inversion in the subsurface hydrosphere
Yezhov, Yu.A.
1980-09-01
A quite common nature of chemical inversion in subsurface hydrosphere is shown in examples of several oil- and gas-bearing regions of the USSR. In particular, when the data of sampling from deep wells of the Volgo-Urals, Mangyshlak, and Western Turkmenian regions were compared, it became obvious that the composite chemical profile of subsurface hydrosphere consists of a vertical alternation of three zones: of increasing (I-II-IIIa genetic types of subsurface waters), maximum (IIIb), and decreasing water mineralization (III'a-II'-I'). The depth of occurrence of the lower inversion branch of zonality depends on the geotectonic activity at depth. It is closer to the Earth's surface in regions of Alpine tectogenesis, whereas in regions of ancient folding it lies at great depths which have not yet been reached by most deep wells. The formation of the inversion zone in the Earth's crust is connected with penetration from below ascending demineralized fluids of sodium bicarbonate type (I'). The latter is due to the presence at great depths of large quantities of free carbonic acid which is involved in hydrolytic processes of decomposition of sodium-containing minerals and produces sodium-type waters.
Tsunami waveform inversion by adjoint methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pires, Carlos; Miranda, Pedro M. A.
2001-09-01
An adjoint method for tsunami waveform inversion is proposed, as an alternative to the technique based on Green's functions of the linear long wave model. The method has the advantage of being able to use the nonlinear shallow water equations, or other appropriate equation sets, and to optimize an initial state given as a linear or nonlinear function of any set of free parameters. This last facility is used to perform explicit optimization of the focal fault parameters, characterizing the initial sea surface displacement of tsunamigenic earthquakes. The proposed methodology is validated with experiments using synthetic data, showing the possibility of recovering all relevant details of a tsunami source from tide gauge observations, providing that the adjoint method is constrained in an appropriate manner. It is found, as in other methods, that the inversion skill of tsunami sources increases with the azimuthal and temporal coverage of assimilated tide gauge stations; furthermore, it is shown that the eigenvalue analysis of the Hessian matrix of the cost function provides a consistent and useful methodology to choose the subset of independent parameters that can be inverted with a given dataset of observations and to evaluate the error of the inversion process. The method is also applied to real tide gauge series, from the tsunami of the February 28, 1969, Gorringe Bank earthquake, suggesting some reasonable changes to the assumed focal parameters of that event. It is suggested that the method proposed may be able to deal with transient tsunami sources such as those generated by submarine landslides.
Synthetic fracture network characterization with transdimensional inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somogyvári, Márk; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Jimenez Parras, Santos; Bayer, Peter
2017-06-01
Fracture network geometry is crucial for transport in hard rock aquifers, but it can only be approximated in models. While fracture orientation, spacing, and intensity can be obtained from borehole logs, core images, and outcrops, the characterization of in situ fracture network geometry requires the interpretation of spatially distributed hydraulic and transport experiments. In this study, we present a novel concept using a transdimensional inversion method (reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo, rjMCMC) to invert a two-dimensional cross-well discrete fracture network (DFN) geometry from tracer tomography experiments. The conservative tracer transport is modeled via a fast finite difference model neglecting matrix diffusion. The proposed DFN inversion method iteratively evolves DFN variants by geometry updates to fit the observed tomographic data evaluated by the Metropolis-Hastings-Green acceptance criteria. A main feature is the varying dimensions of the inverse problem, which allows for the calibration of fracture geometries and numbers. This delivers an ensemble of thousands of DFN realizations that can be utilized for probabilistic identification of fractures in the aquifer. In the presented hypothetical and outcrop-based case studies, cross sections between boreholes are investigated. The procedure successfully identifies major transport pathways in the investigated domain and explores equally probable DFN realizations, which are analyzed in fracture probability maps and by multidimensional scaling.
Analysis of Raman lasing without inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheldon, Paul Martin
1999-12-01
Properties of lasing without inversion were studied analytically and numerically using Maple computer assisted algebra software. Gain for probe electromagnetic field without population inversion in detuned three level atomic schemes has been found. Matter density matrix dynamics and coherence is explored using Pauli matrices in 2-level systems and Gell-Mann matrices in 3-level systems. It is shown that extreme inversion produces no coherence and hence no lasing. Unitary transformation from the strict field-matter Hamiltonian to an effective two-photon Raman Hamiltonian for multilevel systems has been derived. Feynman diagrams inherent in the derivation show interesting physics. An additional picture change was achieved and showed cw gain possible. Properties of a Raman-like laser based on injection of 3- level coherently driven Λ-type atoms whose Hamiltonian contains the Raman Hamiltonian and microwave coupling the two bottom states have been studied in the limits of small and big photon numbers in the drive field. Another picture change removed the microwave coupler to all orders and simplified analysis. New possibilities of inversionless generation were found.
Combinatorial approaches for inverse metabolic engineering applications
Skretas, Georgios; Kolisis, Fragiskos N.
2013-01-01
Traditional metabolic engineering analyzes biosynthetic and physiological pathways, identifies bottlenecks, and makes targeted genetic modifications with the ultimate goal of increasing the production of high-value products in living cells. Such efforts have led to the development of a variety of organisms with industrially relevant properties. However, there are a number of cellular phenotypes important for research and the industry for which the rational selection of cellular targets for modification is not easy or possible. In these cases, strain engineering can be alternatively carried out using “inverse metabolic engineering”, an approach that first generates genetic diversity by subjecting a population of cells to a particular mutagenic process, and then utilizes genetic screens or selections to identify the clones exhibiting the desired phenotype. Given the availability of an appropriate screen for a particular property, the success of inverse metabolic engineering efforts usually depends on the level and quality of genetic diversity which can be generated. Here, we review classic and recently developed combinatorial approaches for creating such genetic diversity and discuss the use of these methodologies in inverse metabolic engineering applications. PMID:24688681
Geomechanical paleostress inversion using fracture data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maerten, Laurent; Maerten, Frantz; Lejri, Mostfa; Gillespie, Paul
2016-08-01
We describe a fast geomechanically-based paleostress inversion technique that uses observed fracture data to constrain stress through multiple simulations. The method assumes that the local stress field around individual fractures is heterogeneous and derives the far field tectonic stress, that we also call the far field boundary conditions. We show how such far field tectonic stress can be recovered through a mechanical stress inversion technique using local observations of natural fractures (i.e. mechanical type, orientation and location). We test the paleostress inversion against outcrop analogues of fractured carbonates from both Nash Point, U.K., where there are well exposed faults and joints and the Matelles, France, where there are well exposed faults, veins and stylolites. We demonstrate through these case studies how the method can be efficiently applied to natural examples and we highlight its advantages and limitations. We discuss how such method could be applied to subsurface problems and how it can provide complementary constraints to drive discrete fracture models for better fractured reservoir characterization and modelling.
Parametric optimization of inverse trapezoid oleophobic surfaces.
Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin
2012-12-18
In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive and versatile approach to the parametric shape optimization of oleophobic surfaces. We evaluate the performance of inverse trapezoid microstructures in terms of three objective parameters: apparent contact angle, maximum sustainable hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical robustness (Im, M.; Im, H:; Lee, J.H.; Yoon, J.B.; Choi, Y.K. A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate. Soft Matter 2010, 6, 1401-1404; Im, M.; Im, H:; Lee, J.H.; Yoon, J.B.; Choi, Y.K. Analytical Modeling and Thermodynamic Analysis of Robust Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Inverse-Trapezoidal Microstructures. Langmuir 2010, 26, 17389-17397). We find that each of these parameters, if considered alone, would give trivial optima, while their interplay provides a well-defined optimal shape and aspect ratio. The inclusion of mechanical robustness in combination with conventional performance characteristics favors solutions relevant for practical applications, as mechanical stability is a critical issue not often addressed in idealized models.
Generalized multi-point inverse airfoil design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Selig, Michael S.; Maughmer, Mark D.
1991-01-01
In a rather general sense, inverse airfoil design can be taken to mean the problem of specifying a desired set of airfoil characteristics, such as the airfoil maximum thickness ratio, pitching moment, part of the velocity distribution or boundary-layer development, etc., then from this information determine the corresponding airfoil shape. This paper presents a method which approaches the design problem from this perspective. In particular, the airfoil is divided into segments along which, together with the design conditions, either the velocity distribution or boundary-layer development may be prescribed. In addition to these local desired distributions, single parameters like the airfoil thickness can be specified. The problem of finding the airfoil shape is determined by coupling an incompressible, inviscid, inverse airfoil design method with a direct integral boundary-layer analysis method and solving the resulting nonlinear equations via a multidimensional Newton iteration technique. The approach is fast and easily allows for interactive design. It is also flexible and could be adapted to solving compressible, inverse airfoil design problems.
Magnetic Resonance Elastography: Inversions in Bounded Media
Kolipaka, Arunark; McGee, Kiaran P.; Manduca, Armando; Romano, Anthony J.; Glaser, Kevin J.; Araoz, Philip A.; Ehman, Richard L.
2009-01-01
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a noninvasive imaging technique capable of quantifying and spatially resolving the shear stiffness of soft tissues by visualization of synchronized mechanical wave displacement fields. However, MRE inversions generally assume that the measured tissue motion consists primarily of shear waves propagating in a uniform, infinite medium. This assumption is not valid in organs such as the heart, eye, bladder, skin, fascia, bone and spinal cord in which the shear wavelength approaches the geometric dimensions of the object. The aim of this study was to develop and test mathematical inversion algorithms capable of resolving shear stiffness from displacement maps of flexural waves propagating in bounded media such as beams, plates and spherical shells using geometry-specific equations of motion. MRE and finite element modeling (FEM) of beam, plate, and spherical shell phantoms of various geometries were performed. Mechanical testing of the phantoms agreed with the stiffness values obtained from FEM and MRE data and a linear correlation of r2 ≥ 0.99 was observed between the stiffness values obtained using MRE and FEM data. In conclusion, we have demonstrated new inversion methods for calculating shear stiffness that may be more appropriate for waves propagating in bounded media. PMID:19780146
Inverse Opal Scaffolds and Their Biomedical Applications.
Zhang, Yu Shrike; Zhu, Chunlei; Xia, Younan
2017-09-01
Three-dimensional porous scaffolds play a pivotal role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine by functioning as biomimetic substrates to manipulate cellular behaviors. While many techniques have been developed to fabricate porous scaffolds, most of them rely on stochastic processes that typically result in scaffolds with pores uncontrolled in terms of size, structure, and interconnectivity, greatly limiting their use in tissue regeneration. Inverse opal scaffolds, in contrast, possess uniform pores inheriting from the template comprised of a closely packed lattice of monodispersed microspheres. The key parameters of such scaffolds, including architecture, pore structure, porosity, and interconnectivity, can all be made uniform across the same sample and among different samples. In conjunction with a tight control over pore sizes, inverse opal scaffolds have found widespread use in biomedical applications. In this review, we provide a detailed discussion on this new class of advanced materials. After a brief introduction to their history and fabrication, we highlight the unique advantages of inverse opal scaffolds over their non-uniform counterparts. We then showcase their broad applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, followed by a summary and perspective on future directions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests
Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.
2008-10-10
Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.
Full waveform inversion for ultrasonic flaw identification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seidl, Robert; Rank, Ernst
2017-02-01
Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing is concerned with detecting flaws inside components without causing physical damage. It is possible to detect flaws using ultrasound measurements but usually no additional details about the flaw like position, dimension or orientation are available. The information about these details is hidden in the recorded experimental signals. The idea of full waveform inversion is to adapt the parameters of an initial simulation model of the undamaged specimen by minimizing the discrepancy between these simulated signals and experimentally measured signals of the flawed specimen. Flaws in the structure are characterized by a change or deterioration in the material properties. Commonly, full waveform inversion is mostly applied in seismology on a larger scale to infer mechanical properties of the earth. We propose to use acoustic full waveform inversion for structural parameters to visualize the interior of the component. The method is adapted to US NDT by combining multiple similar experiments on the test component as the typical small amount of sensors is not sufficient for a successful imaging. It is shown that the combination of simulations and multiple experiments can be used to detect flaws and their position, dimension and orientation in emulated simulation cases.
Developmental origins of the face inversion effect.
Cashon, Cara H; Holt, Nicholas A
2015-01-01
A hallmark of adults' expertise for faces is that they are better at recognizing, discriminating, and processing upright faces compared to inverted faces. We investigate the developmental origins of "the face inversion effect" by reviewing research on infants' perception of upright and inverted faces during the first year of life. We review the effects of inversion on infants' face preference, recognition, processing (holistic and second-order configural), and scanning as well as face-related neural responses. Particular attention is paid to the developmental patterns that emerge within and across these areas of face perception. We conclude that the developmental origins of the inversion effect begin in the first few months of life and grow stronger over the first year, culminating in effects that are commonly thought to indicate adult-like expertise. We posit that by the end of the first year, infants' face-processing system has become specialized to upright faces and a foundation for adults' upright-face expertise has been established. Developmental mechanisms that may facilitate the emergence of this upright-face specialization are discussed, including the roles that physical and social development may play in upright faces' becoming more meaningful to infants during the first year. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Computationally efficient Bayesian inference for inverse problems.
Marzouk, Youssef M.; Najm, Habib N.; Rahn, Larry A.
2007-10-01
Bayesian statistics provides a foundation for inference from noisy and incomplete data, a natural mechanism for regularization in the form of prior information, and a quantitative assessment of uncertainty in the inferred results. Inverse problems - representing indirect estimation of model parameters, inputs, or structural components - can be fruitfully cast in this framework. Complex and computationally intensive forward models arising in physical applications, however, can render a Bayesian approach prohibitive. This difficulty is compounded by high-dimensional model spaces, as when the unknown is a spatiotemporal field. We present new algorithmic developments for Bayesian inference in this context, showing strong connections with the forward propagation of uncertainty. In particular, we introduce a stochastic spectral formulation that dramatically accelerates the Bayesian solution of inverse problems via rapid evaluation of a surrogate posterior. We also explore dimensionality reduction for the inference of spatiotemporal fields, using truncated spectral representations of Gaussian process priors. These new approaches are demonstrated on scalar transport problems arising in contaminant source inversion and in the inference of inhomogeneous material or transport properties. We also present a Bayesian framework for parameter estimation in stochastic models, where intrinsic stochasticity may be intermingled with observational noise. Evaluation of a likelihood function may not be analytically tractable in these cases, and thus several alternative Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) schemes, operating on the product space of the observations and the parameters, are introduced.
An overview of joint inversion in earthquake source imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koketsu, Kazuki
2016-10-01
We reviewed joint inversion studies of the rupture processes of significant earthquakes, using the definition of a joint inversion in earthquake source imaging as a source inversion of multiple kinds of datasets (waveform, geodetic, or tsunami). Yoshida and Koketsu (Geophys J Int 103:355-362, 1990), and Wald and Heaton (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:668-691, 1994) independently initiated joint inversion methods, finding that joint inversion provides more reliable rupture process models than single-dataset inversion, leading to an increase of joint inversion studies. A list of these studies was made using the finite-source rupture model database (Mai and Thingbaijam in Seismol Res Lett 85:1348-1357, 2014). Outstanding issues regarding joint inversion were also discussed.
Magnetotelluric inversion via reverse time migration algorithm of seismic data
Ha, Taeyoung . E-mail: tyha@math.snu.ac.kr; Shin, Changsoo . E-mail: css@model.snu.ac.kr
2007-07-01
We propose a new algorithm for two-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) inversion. Our algorithm is an MT inversion based on the steepest descent method, borrowed from the backpropagation technique of seismic inversion or reverse time migration, introduced in the middle 1980s by Lailly and Tarantola. The steepest descent direction can be calculated efficiently by using the symmetry of numerical Green's function derived from a mixed finite element method proposed by Nedelec for Maxwell's equation, without calculating the Jacobian matrix explicitly. We construct three different objective functions by taking the logarithm of the complex apparent resistivity as introduced in the recent waveform inversion algorithm by Shin and Min. These objective functions can be naturally separated into amplitude inversion, phase inversion and simultaneous inversion. We demonstrate our algorithm by showing three inversion results for synthetic data.
Approximate inverse preconditioning of iterative methods for nonsymmetric linear systems
Benzi, M.; Tuma, M.
1996-12-31
A method for computing an incomplete factorization of the inverse of a nonsymmetric matrix A is presented. The resulting factorized sparse approximate inverse is used as a preconditioner in the iterative solution of Ax = b by Krylov subspace methods.
Magnetotelluric inversion via reverse time migration algorithm of seismic data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha, Taeyoung; Shin, Changsoo
2007-07-01
We propose a new algorithm for two-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) inversion. Our algorithm is an MT inversion based on the steepest descent method, borrowed from the backpropagation technique of seismic inversion or reverse time migration, introduced in the middle 1980s by Lailly and Tarantola. The steepest descent direction can be calculated efficiently by using the symmetry of numerical Green's function derived from a mixed finite element method proposed by Nédélec for Maxwell's equation, without calculating the Jacobian matrix explicitly. We construct three different objective functions by taking the logarithm of the complex apparent resistivity as introduced in the recent waveform inversion algorithm by Shin and Min. These objective functions can be naturally separated into amplitude inversion, phase inversion and simultaneous inversion. We demonstrate our algorithm by showing three inversion results for synthetic data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crestel, Benjamin; Alexanderian, Alen; Stadler, Georg; Ghattas, Omar
2017-07-01
The computational cost of solving an inverse problem governed by PDEs, using multiple experiments, increases linearly with the number of experiments. A recently proposed method to decrease this cost uses only a small number of random linear combinations of all experiments for solving the inverse problem. This approach applies to inverse problems where the PDE solution depends linearly on the right-hand side function that models the experiment. As this method is stochastic in essence, the quality of the obtained reconstructions can vary, in particular when only a small number of combinations are used. We develop a Bayesian formulation for the definition and computation of encoding weights that lead to a parameter reconstruction with the least uncertainty. We call these weights A-optimal encoding weights. Our framework applies to inverse problems where the governing PDE is nonlinear with respect to the inversion parameter field. We formulate the problem in infinite dimensions and follow the optimize-then-discretize approach, devoting special attention to the discretization and the choice of numerical methods in order to achieve a computational cost that is independent of the parameter discretization. We elaborate our method for a Helmholtz inverse problem, and derive the adjoint-based expressions for the gradient of the objective function of the optimization problem for finding the A-optimal encoding weights. The proposed method is potentially attractive for real-time monitoring applications, where one can invest the effort to compute optimal weights offline, to later solve an inverse problem repeatedly, over time, at a fraction of the initial cost.
Towards Full-Waveform Ambient Noise Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sager, Korbinian; Ermert, Laura; Afanasiev, Michael; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas
2017-04-01
Noise tomography usually works under the assumption that the inter-station ambient noise correlation is equal to a scaled version of the Green function between the two receivers. This assumption, however, is only met under specific conditions, e.g. wavefield diffusivity and equipartitioning, or the isotropic distribution of both mono- and dipolar uncorrelated noise sources. These assumptions are typically not satisfied in the Earth. This inconsistency inhibits the exploitation of the full waveform information contained in noise correlations in order to constrain Earth structure and noise generation. To overcome this limitation, we attempt to develop a method that consistently accounts for the distribution of noise sources, 3D heterogeneous Earth structure and the full seismic wave propagation physics. This is intended to improve the resolution of tomographic images, to refine noise source distribution, and thereby to contribute to a better understanding of both Earth structure and noise generation. First, we develop an inversion strategy based on a 2D finite-difference code using adjoint techniques. To enable a joint inversion for noise sources and Earth structure, we investigate the following aspects: i) the capability of different misfit functionals to image wave speed anomalies and source distribution and ii) possible source-structure trade-offs, especially to what extent unresolvable structure can be mapped into the inverted noise source distribution and vice versa. In anticipation of real-data applications, we present an extension of the open-source waveform modelling and inversion package Salvus (http://salvus.io). It allows us to compute correlation functions in 3D media with heterogeneous noise sources at the surface and the corresponding sensitivity kernels for the distribution of noise sources and Earth structure. By studying the effect of noise sources on correlation functions in 3D, we validate the aforementioned inversion strategy and prepare the
Full Waveform Inversion Using Waveform Sensitivity Kernels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schumacher, Florian; Friederich, Wolfgang
2013-04-01
We present a full waveform inversion concept for applications ranging from seismological to enineering contexts, in which the steps of forward simulation, computation of sensitivity kernels, and the actual inversion are kept separate of each other. We derive waveform sensitivity kernels from Born scattering theory, which for unit material perturbations are identical to the Born integrand for the considered path between source and receiver. The evaluation of such a kernel requires the calculation of Green functions and their strains for single forces at the receiver position, as well as displacement fields and strains originating at the seismic source. We compute these quantities in the frequency domain using the 3D spectral element code SPECFEM3D (Tromp, Komatitsch and Liu, 2008) and the 1D semi-analytical code GEMINI (Friederich and Dalkolmo, 1995) in both, Cartesian and spherical framework. We developed and implemented the modularized software package ASKI (Analysis of Sensitivity and Kernel Inversion) to compute waveform sensitivity kernels from wavefields generated by any of the above methods (support for more methods is planned), where some examples will be shown. As the kernels can be computed independently from any data values, this approach allows to do a sensitivity and resolution analysis first without inverting any data. In the context of active seismic experiments, this property may be used to investigate optimal acquisition geometry and expectable resolution before actually collecting any data, assuming the background model is known sufficiently well. The actual inversion step then, can be repeated at relatively low costs with different (sub)sets of data, adding different smoothing conditions. Using the sensitivity kernels, we expect the waveform inversion to have better convergence properties compared with strategies that use gradients of a misfit function. Also the propagation of the forward wavefield and the backward propagation from the receiver
Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treumann, Rudolf A.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Narita, Yasuhito
2016-08-01
We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gelfand-Levitan-Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory. The last of these applies to transmission and reflection in an active medium. The theory of turbulent magnetic fluctuations does not refer to such quantities. It requires a somewhat different formulation. We reduce the theory to the measurement of the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum, which is not the turbulent spectral energy density. The inverse theory in this form enables obtaining information about the turbulent response function of the medium. The dynamic causes of the electromagnetic fluctuations are implicit to it. Thus, it is of vital interest in low-frequency magnetic turbulence. The theory is developed until presentation of the equations in applicable form to observations of turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations as input from measurements. Solution of the final integral equation should be done by standard numerical methods based on iteration. We point to the possibility of treating power law fluctuation spectra as an example. Formulation of the problem to include observations of spectral power densities in turbulence is not attempted. This leads to severe mathematical problems and requires a reformulation of inverse scattering theory. One particular aspect of the present inverse theory of turbulent fluctuations is that its structure naturally leads to spatial information which is obtained from the temporal information that is inherent to the observation of time series. The Taylor assumption is not needed here. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, which couple space and time evolution. The inversion procedure takes advantage of a particular
Direct inversion of rigid-body rotational dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bach, Ralph; Paielli, Russell
1990-01-01
The global linearization (inversion) of rigid-body rotational dynamics is reviewed, and representations in terms of quaternions and direction cosines are compared. Certain properties common to quaternions and direction cosines that make their use preferable to Euler angles and that simplify the inversion procedure are described. Applications of the inversion procedure for state estimation and attitude control are discussed. To avoid complexities caused by aerodynamics, an example of direct inversion for linear feedback control of spacecraft attitude is given.
Direct inversion of rigid-body rotational dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bach, Ralph; Paielli, Russell
1990-01-01
The global linearization (inversion) of rigid-body rotational dynamics is reviewed, and representations in terms of quaternions and direction cosines are compared. Certain properties common to quaternions and direction cosines that make their use preferable to Euler angles and that simplify the inversion procedure are described. Applications of the inversion procedure for state estimation and attitude control are discussed. To avoid complexities caused by aerodynamics, an example of direct inversion for linear feedback control of spacecraft attitude is given.
Direct inversion of rigid-body rotational dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bach, Ralph; Paielli, Russell
1990-01-01
The global linearization (inversion) of rigid-body rotational dynamics is reviewed and representations in terms of quaternions and direction cosines are compared. Certain properties common to quaternions and direction cosines that make their use preferable to Euler angles and that simplify the inversion procedure are described. Applications of the inversion procedure for state estimation and attitude control are discussed. To avoid complexities caused by aerodynamics, an example of direct inversion for linear feedback control of spacecraft attitude is given.
Liquid-impermeable inverse opals with invariant photonic bandgap.
Kang, Hyelim; Lee, Joon-Seok; Chang, Won Seok; Kim, Shin-Hyun
2015-02-18
Omniphobic inverse opals are created by structurally and chemically modifying the surface of inverse opals through reactive ion etching. During the etching, void arrays of the inverse opal surface evolves to a triangular post array with re-entrant geometry. The elaborate structure can efficiently pin the air-liquid interface and retain air cavities against water and oil, thereby providing liquid-impermeable inverse opals with invariant photonic bandgap.
Voxel inversion of airborne electromagnetic data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auken, E.; Fiandaca, G.; Kirkegaard, C.; Vest Christiansen, A.
2013-12-01
Inversion of electromagnetic data usually refers to a model space being linked to the actual observation points, and for airborne surveys the spatial discretization of the model space reflects the flight lines. On the contrary, geological and groundwater models most often refer to a regular voxel grid, not correlated to the geophysical model space. This means that incorporating the geophysical data into the geological and/or hydrological modelling grids involves a spatial relocation of the models, which in itself is a subtle process where valuable information is easily lost. Also the integration of prior information, e.g. from boreholes, is difficult when the observation points do not coincide with the position of the prior information, as well as the joint inversion of airborne and ground-based surveys. We developed a geophysical inversion algorithm working directly in a voxel grid disconnected from the actual measuring points, which then allows for informing directly geological/hydrogeological models, for easier incorporation of prior information and for straightforward integration of different data types in joint inversion. The new voxel model space defines the soil properties (like resistivity) on a set of nodes, and the distribution of the properties is computed everywhere by means of an interpolation function f (e.g. inverse distance or kriging). The position of the nodes is fixed during the inversion and is chosen to sample the soil taking into account topography and inversion resolution. Given this definition of the voxel model space, both 1D and 2D/3D forward responses can be computed. The 1D forward responses are computed as follows: A) a 1D model subdivision, in terms of model thicknesses and direction of the "virtual" horizontal stratification, is defined for each 1D data set. For EM soundings the "virtual" horizontal stratification is set up parallel to the topography at the sounding position. B) the "virtual" 1D models are constructed by interpolating
Radiation-induced chromosomal inversions in mice. Technical progress report
Roderick, T.H.
1986-01-01
Chromosomal inversions are being produced for the purpose of establishing efficient systems for assessing induced and spontaneous heritable mutations. The inversions and other chromosomal aberrations produced are used to ask basic questions about meiosis and reproductive performance. Chromosomal structure is being studied by identifying the cytological location of genes and break points related to the inversions. 2 tabs.
Inverse Functions: What Our Teachers Didn't Tell Us
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, Frank C.; Adamson, Scott; Cox, Trey; O'Bryan, Alan
2011-01-01
The mathematical topic of inverse functions is an important element of algebra courses at the high school and college levels. The inverse function concept is best understood by students when it is presented in a familiar, real-world context. In this article, the authors discuss some misconceptions about inverse functions and suggest some…
Index Theory-Based Algorithm for the Gradiometer Inverse Problem
2015-03-28
based gravity gradiometer inverse problem algorithm. This algorithm relates changes in the index value computed on a closed curve containing a line...account for the bounds. Key Words: Gravity Gradiometer, Inverse Problem, Index Theory Mathematics Subject Classification 31A99...Theory based gravity gradiometer inverse problem algorithm. This algorithm relates changes in the index value computed on a closed curve containing a
Inverse Functions: What Our Teachers Didn't Tell Us
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, Frank C.; Adamson, Scott; Cox, Trey; O'Bryan, Alan
2011-01-01
The mathematical topic of inverse functions is an important element of algebra courses at the high school and college levels. The inverse function concept is best understood by students when it is presented in a familiar, real-world context. In this article, the authors discuss some misconceptions about inverse functions and suggest some…
Use of the Mathematical Principle of Inversion in Young Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rasmussen, Carmen; Ho, Elaine; Bisanz, Jeffrey
2003-01-01
Presented preschoolers and first graders with 3-term inversion problems such as 3 + 2 - 2 and similar standard problems to examine whether children used the inversion principle and if use was based on qualitative identity, length, or quantity. Found that both age groups showed evidence of using inversion in a fully quantitative manner, indicating…
Use of the Mathematical Principle of Inversion in Young Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rasmussen, Carmen; Ho, Elaine; Bisanz, Jeffrey
2003-01-01
Presented preschoolers and first graders with 3-term inversion problems such as 3 + 2 - 2 and similar standard problems to examine whether children used the inversion principle and if use was based on qualitative identity, length, or quantity. Found that both age groups showed evidence of using inversion in a fully quantitative manner, indicating…
Pico-inplace-inversions between human and chimpanzee
Hou, Minmei; Yao, Ping; Antonou, Angela; Johns, Mitrick A.
2011-01-01
Motivation: There have been several studies on the micro-inversions between human and chimpanzee, but there are large discrepancies among their results. Furthermore, all of them rely on alignment procedures or existing alignment results to identify inversions. However, the core alignment procedures do not take very small inversions into consideration. Therefore, their analyses cannot find inversions that are too small to be detected by a classic aligner. We call such inversions pico-inversions. Results: We re-analyzed human–chimpanzee alignment from the UCSC Genome Browser for micro-inplace-inversions and screened for pico-inplace-inversions using a likelihood ratio test. We report that the quantity of inplace-inversions between human and chimpanzee is substantially greater than what had previously been discovered. We also present the software tool PicoInversionMiner to detect pico-inplace-inversions between closely related species. Availability: Software tools, scripts and result data are available at http://faculty.cs.niu.edu/~hou/PicoInversion.html. Contact: mhou@cs.niu.edu PMID:21994225
Adiabatic inversion pulses for myocardial T1-mapping
Kellman, Peter; Herzka, Daniel A.; Hansen, Michael Schacht
2013-01-01
Purpose To evaluate the error in T1-estimates using inversion recovery based T1-mapping due to imperfect inversion, and perform a systematic study of adiabatic inversion pulse designs in order to maximize inversion efficiency for values of transverse relaxation (T2) in the myocardium subject to a peak power constraint. Methods The inversion factor for hyperbolic secant (HS) and tangent/hyperbolic tangent (tan/tanh) adiabatic full passage waveforms was calculated using Bloch equations. A brute force search was conducted of design parameters: pulse duration, frequency range, shape parameters, and peak amplitude. A design was selected that maximized the inversion factor over a specified range of amplitude and off-resonance and validated using phantom measurements. Empirical correction for imperfect inversion was performed. Results The tan/tanh adiabatic pulse was found to outperform HS designs, and achieve an inversion factor of 0.96 within ±150 Hz over 25% amplitude range with 14.7 μTesla peak amplitude. T1-mapping errors of the selected design due to imperfect inversion was approx. 4% and could be corrected to <1%. Conclusion Non-ideal inversion leads to significant errors in inversion recovery based T1-mapping. The inversion efficiency of adiabatic pulses is sensitive to transverse relaxation. The tan/tanh design achieved the best performance subject to the peak amplitude constraint. PMID:23722695
Children's understanding of the arithmetic concepts of inversion and associativity.
Robinson, Katherine M; Ninowski, Jerilyn E; Gray, Melissa L
2006-08-01
Previous studies have shown that even preschoolers can solve inversion problems of the form a+b-b by using the knowledge that addition and subtraction are inverse operations. In this study, a new type of inversion problem of the form d x e/e was also examined. Grade 6 and 8 students solved inversion problems of both types as well as standard problems of the form a+b-c and d x e/f. Students in both grades used the inversion concept on both types of inversion problems, although older students used inversion more frequently and inversion was used most frequently on the addition/subtraction problems. No transfer effects were found from one type of inversion problem to the other. Students who used the concept of associativity on the addition/subtraction standard problems (e.g., a+b-c=[b-c]+a) were more likely to use the concept of inversion on the inversion problems, although overall implementation of the associativity concept was infrequent. The findings suggest that further study of inversion and associativity is important for understanding conceptual development in arithmetic.
One dimensional acoustic direct nonlinear inversion using the Volterra inverse scattering series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Jie; Lesage, Anne-Cécile; Bodmann, Bernhard G.; Hussain, Fazle; Kouri, Donald J.
2014-06-01
Direct inversion of acoustic scattering problems is nonlinear. One way to treat the inverse scattering problem is based on the reversion of the Born-Neumann series solution of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. An important issue for this approach is the radius of convergence of the Born-Neumann series for the forward problem. However, this issue can be tackled by employing a renormalization technique to transform the Lippmann-Schwinger equation from a Fredholm to a Volterra integral form. The Born series of a Volterra integral equation converges absolutely and uniformly in the entire complex plane. We present a further study of this new mathematical framework. A Volterra inverse scattering series (VISS) using both reflection and transmission data is derived and tested for several acoustic velocity models. For large velocity contrast, series summation techniques (e.g., Cesàro summation, Euler transform, etc) are employed to improve the rate of convergence of VISS. It is shown that the VISS method with summation techniques can provide a relatively good estimation of the velocity profile. The method is fully data-driven in the respect that no prior information of the model is required. Besides, no internal multiple removal is needed. This one dimensional VISS approach is useful for inverse scattering and serves as an important step for studying more complicated and realistic inversions.
Matrix-inversion method: Applications to Möbius inversion adn deconvolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Qian; Chen, Nan-Xian
1995-12-01
The purpose of this paper is threefold. The first is to show the matrix inversion method as a joint basis for the inversion of two important transforms: the Möbius and Laplace transforms. It is found that the Möbius transform is related to a multiplicative operator while the Laplace transform is related to an additive operator. The second is to show that the matrix inverison method is a useful tool for inverse problems not only in statistical physics but also in applied physics by means of adding two other applications, one the derivation of the Fuoss-Kirkwood formulas for relaxation spectra in studies of anelasticity and dielectrics and the other the reconstruction of real signal in signal processing. The third is to indicate the potentiality of the matrix inversion method as a rough algorithm for numerical solution of the convolution integral equation. The numerical examples given include the inversion of Laplace transform and the signal reconstruction with a Gaussian point spread kernel. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Lingfei; Laeuchli, Jesse; Kalantzis, Vassilis; Stathopoulos, Andreas; Gallopoulos, Efstratios
2016-12-01
A number of applications require the computation of the trace of a matrix that is implicitly available through a function. A common example of a function is the inverse of a large, sparse matrix, which is the focus of this paper. When the evaluation of the function is expensive, the task is computationally challenging because the standard approach is based on a Monte Carlo method which converges slowly. We present a different approach that exploits the pattern correlation, if present, between the diagonal of the inverse of the matrix and the diagonal of some approximate inverse that can be computed inexpensively. We leverage various sampling and fitting techniques to fit the diagonal of the approximation to the diagonal of the inverse. Depending on the quality of the approximate inverse, our method may serve as a standalone kernel for providing a fast trace estimate with a small number of samples. Furthermore, the method can be used as a variance reduction method for Monte Carlo in some cases. This is decided dynamically by our algorithm. An extensive set of experiments with various technique combinations on several matrices from some real applications demonstrate the potential of our method.
Minimal inversion, command matching and disturbance decoupling in multivariable systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seraji, H.
1989-01-01
The present treatment of the related problems of minimal inversion and perfect output control in linear multivariable systems uses a simple analytical expression for the inverse of a square multivariate system's transfer-function matrix to construct a minimal-order inverse of the system. Because the poles of the minimal-order inverse are the transmission zeros of the system, necessary and sufficient conditions for the inverse system's stability are simply stated in terms of the zero polynomial of the original system. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of the required controllers is that the plant zero polynomial be neither identical to zero nor unstable.
Inverse spectral problems for differential operators on spatial networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yurko, V. A.
2016-06-01
A short survey is given of results on inverse spectral problems for ordinary differential operators on spatial networks (geometrical graphs). The focus is on the most important non-linear inverse problems of recovering coefficients of differential equations from spectral characteristics when the structure of the graph is known a priori. The first half of the survey presents results related to inverse Sturm-Liouville problems on arbitrary compact graphs. Results on inverse problems for differential operators of arbitrary order on compact graphs are then presented. In the conclusion the main results on inverse problems on non-compact graphs are given. Bibliography: 55 titles.
Inverse covariance simplification for efficient uncertainty management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jalobeanu, A.; Gutiérrez, J. A.
2007-11-01
When it comes to manipulating uncertain knowledge such as noisy observations of physical quantities, one may ask how to do it in a simple way. Processing corrupted signals or images always propagates the uncertainties from the data to the final results, whether these errors are explicitly computed or not. When such error estimates are provided, it is crucial to handle them in such a way that their interpretation, or their use in subsequent processing steps, remain user-friendly and computationally tractable. A few authors follow a Bayesian approach and provide uncertainties as an inverse covariance matrix. Despite its apparent sparsity, this matrix contains many small terms that carry little information. Methods have been developed to select the most significant entries, through the use of information-theoretic tools for instance. One has to find a Gaussian pdf that is close enough to the posterior pdf, and with a small number of non-zero coefficients in the inverse covariance matrix. We propose to restrict the search space to Markovian models (where only neighbors can interact), well-suited to signals or images. The originality of our approach is in conserving the covariances between neighbors while setting to zero the entries of the inverse covariance matrix for all other variables. This fully constrains the solution, and the computation is performed via a fast, alternate minimization scheme involving quadratic forms. The Markovian structure advantageously reduces the complexity of Bayesian updating (where the simplified pdf is used as a prior). Moreover, uncertainties exhibit the same temporal or spatial structure as the data.
Towards Full-Waveform Ambient Noise Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sager, K.; Ermert, L. A.; Boehm, C.; Fichtner, A.
2016-12-01
Noise tomography usually works under the assumption that the inter-station ambient noise correlation is equal to a scaled version of the Green function between the two receivers. This assumption, however, is only met under specific conditions, e.g. wavefield diffusivity and equipartitioning, or the isotropic distribution of both mono- and dipolar uncorrelated noise sources. These assumptions are typically not satisfied in the Earth. This inconsistency inhibits the exploitation of the full waveform information contained in noise correlations in order to constrain Earth structure and noise generation. To overcome this limitation, we attempt to develop a method that consistently accounts for the distribution of noise sources, 3D heterogeneous Earth structure and the full seismic wave propagation physics. This is intended to improve the resolution of tomographic images, to refine noise source location, and thereby to contribute to a better understanding of noise generation. We introduce an operator-based formulation for the computation of correlation functions and apply the continuous adjoint method that allows us to compute first and second derivatives of misfit functionals with respect to source distribution and Earth structure efficiently. Based on these developments we design an inversion scheme using a 2D finite-difference code. To enable a joint inversion for noise sources and Earth structure, we investigate the following aspects: The capability of different misfit functionals to image wave speed anomalies and source distribution. Possible source-structure trade-offs, especially to what extent unresolvable structure can be mapped into the inverted noise source distribution and vice versa. In anticipation of real-data applications, we present an extension of the open-source waveform modelling and inversion package Salvus, which allows us to compute correlation functions in 3D media with heterogeneous noise sources at the surface.
Statistical Sampling Enabled Full Waveform Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, K.; Huang, W.; Schiemenz, A. R.; Coates, R. T.
2013-12-01
Full-waveform Inversion has recently emerged as a promising method for refining seismic velocity models to achieve enhanced imaging. The algorithm involves iteratively updating the velocity model to improve the match between the recorded seismic data and the simulated waveforms, with the goal of estimating the true velocity structure. Each iteration typically requires multiple wavefield extrapolations. As a result the technique places significant computational burdens on even the largest computers when applied to commercial three-dimensional surface seismic datasets. This computational cost has been attacked previously by combining the processing of multiple physical shots into a single ';encoded-shot', using random encoding techniques (Krebs et al, 2009). The encoding can be based upon time shifts, polarity reversal or convolution with a short random series any of which may be changed between iterations. While this technique works well for geometries with fixed receiver arrays (e.g. ocean-bottom cables) additional steps are usually required when applied to moving arrays both because the area occupied by the encoded shot grows in comparison to a single shot, and because not every receiver registers data from every shot in the recorded data. This paper discusses an alternative approach using concepts from statistical sampling, proposed by van Leeuwen & Hermann 2012. Rather than using every shot, or encoding multiple shots, at each iteration we randomly select a different subset of shots as input to the inversion algorithm. The method promises a reduction in the computational costs while still ensuring that all the information in the data is utilized during the inversion. Furthermore, the method is applicable without modification to both fixed and moving geometries. Results are shown for a synthetic model and a real marine data set acquired with a multi-vessel coil geometry. Both examples show significant computational savings, compared to the conventional algorithm
A multiresolution inversion for imaging the ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Ping; Zheng, Ya-Nan; Mitchell, Cathryn N.; Li, Bo
2017-06-01
Ionospheric tomography has been widely employed in imaging the large-scale ionospheric structures at both quiet and storm times. However, the tomographic algorithms to date have not been very effective in imaging of medium- and small-scale ionospheric structures due to limitations of uneven ground-based data distributions and the algorithm itself. Further, the effect of the density and quantity of Global Navigation Satellite Systems data that could help improve the tomographic results for the certain algorithm remains unclear in much of the literature. In this paper, a new multipass tomographic algorithm is proposed to conduct the inversion using intensive ground GPS observation data and is demonstrated over the U.S. West Coast during the period of 16-18 March 2015 which includes an ionospheric storm period. The characteristics of the multipass inversion algorithm are analyzed by comparing tomographic results with independent ionosonde data and Center for Orbit Determination in Europe total electron content estimates. Then, several ground data sets with different data distributions are grouped from the same data source in order to investigate the impact of the density of ground stations on ionospheric tomography results. Finally, it is concluded that the multipass inversion approach offers an improvement. The ground data density can affect tomographic results but only offers improvements up to a density of around one receiver every 150 to 200 km. When only GPS satellites are tracked there is no clear advantage in increasing the density of receivers beyond this level, although this may change if multiple constellations are monitored from each receiving station in the future.
MAP estimators for piecewise continuous inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunlop, M. M.; Stuart, A. M.
2016-10-01
We study the inverse problem of estimating a field u a from data comprising a finite set of nonlinear functionals of u a , subject to additive noise; we denote this observed data by y. Our interest is in the reconstruction of piecewise continuous fields u a in which the discontinuity set is described by a finite number of geometric parameters a. Natural applications include groundwater flow and electrical impedance tomography. We take a Bayesian approach, placing a prior distribution on u a and determining the conditional distribution on u a given the data y. It is then natural to study maximum a posterior (MAP) estimators. Recently (Dashti et al 2013 Inverse Problems 29 095017) it has been shown that MAP estimators can be characterised as minimisers of a generalised Onsager-Machlup functional, in the case where the prior measure is a Gaussian random field. We extend this theory to a more general class of prior distributions which allows for piecewise continuous fields. Specifically, the prior field is assumed to be piecewise Gaussian with random interfaces between the different Gaussians defined by a finite number of parameters. We also make connections with recent work on MAP estimators for linear problems and possibly non-Gaussian priors (Helin and Burger 2015 Inverse Problems 31 085009) which employs the notion of Fomin derivative. In showing applicability of our theory we focus on the groundwater flow and EIT models, though the theory holds more generally. Numerical experiments are implemented for the groundwater flow model, demonstrating the feasibility of determining MAP estimators for these piecewise continuous models, but also that the geometric formulation can lead to multiple nearby (local) MAP estimators. We relate these MAP estimators to the behaviour of output from MCMC samples of the posterior, obtained using a state-of-the-art function space Metropolis-Hastings method.
Born Inversion with a Stratified Reference Velocity.
1984-12-08
observation point at z =0 (2) p = I~iIoffset (4) = !’. offset (11) r (K, z) travel time (8) Iphase function (14) wcircular frequency (2) * Carter and Frazer...the inversion results. See BG for further discussion of this point . The algorithm presented here has the same structure as the BG algorithm and hence it...the source/receiver point and the output point at depth. We must still determine the amplitude, A, in this operator. To do so, we require that the
ITOUGH2: Solving TOUGH inverse problems
Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K.
1995-03-01
ITOUGH2 is a program that provides inverse modeling capabilities for the TOUGH2 code. While the main purpose of ITOUGH2 is to estimate two-phase hydraulic properties of calibrating a TOUGH2 model to laboratory or field data, the information obtained by evaluating parameter sensitivities can also be used to optimize the design of an experiment, and to analyze the uncertainty of model predictions. ITOUGH2 has been applied to a number of laboratory and field experiments on different scales. Three examples are discussed in this paper, demonstrating the code`s capability to support test design, data analysis, and model predictions for a variety of TOUGH problems.
Inverse moments equilibria for helical anisotropic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, W. A.; Hirshman, S. P.; Depassier, M. C.
1987-11-01
An energy functional is devised for magnetic confinement schemes that have anisotropic plasma pressure. The minimization of this energy functional is demonstrated to reproduce components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force balance relation in systems with helical symmetry. An iterative steepest descent procedure is applied to the Fourier moments of the inverse magnetic flux coordinates to minimize the total energy and thus generate anisotropic pressure MHD equilibria. Applications to straight ELMO Snaky Torus (NTIS Document No. DE-84002406) configurations that have a magnetic well on the outermost flux surfaces have been obtained.
The NYU inverse swept wing code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, F.; Garabedian, P.; Mcfadden, G.
1983-01-01
An inverse swept wing code is described that is based on the widely used transonic flow program FLO22. The new code incorporates a free boundary algorithm permitting the pressure distribution to be prescribed over a portion of the wing surface. A special routine is included to calculate the wave drag, which can be minimized in its dependence on the pressure distribution. An alternate formulation of the boundary condition at infinity was introduced to enhance the speed and accuracy of the code. A FORTRAN listing of the code and a listing of a sample run are presented. There is also a user's manual as well as glossaries of input and output parameters.
Inverse Ising Inference Using All the Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aurell, Erik; Ekeberg, Magnus
2012-03-01
We show that a method based on logistic regression, using all the data, solves the inverse Ising problem far better than mean-field calculations relying only on sample pairwise correlation functions, while still computationally feasible for hundreds of nodes. The largest improvement in reconstruction occurs for strong interactions. Using two examples, a diluted Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and a two-dimensional lattice, we also show that interaction topologies can be recovered from few samples with good accuracy and that the use of l1 regularization is beneficial in this process, pushing inference abilities further into low-temperature regimes.
Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.
2007-09-01
Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.
Inversion layer solar cell fabrication and evaluation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Call, R. L.
1974-01-01
Inversion layer solar cells have been fabricated by etching through the diffused layer on p-type silicon wafers in a comb-like contact pattern. The charge separation comes from an induced p-n junction at the surface. This inverted surface is caused by a layer of transparent material applied to the surface that either contains free positive ions or that creates donor states at the interface. Cells have increased from 3 ma Isc to 100 ma by application of sodium silicate. The action is unstable, however, and decays with time.
Fast Parallel Computation Of Manipulator Inverse Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.
1991-01-01
Method for fast parallel computation of inverse dynamics problem, essential for real-time dynamic control and simulation of robot manipulators, undergoing development. Enables exploitation of high degree of parallelism and, achievement of significant computational efficiency, while minimizing various communication and synchronization overheads as well as complexity of required computer architecture. Universal real-time robotic controller and simulator (URRCS) consists of internal host processor and several SIMD processors with ring topology. Architecture modular and expandable: more SIMD processors added to match size of problem. Operate asynchronously and in MIMD fashion.
Uncertainty estimation in finite fault inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dettmer, Jan; Cummins, Phil R.; Benavente, Roberto
2016-04-01
This work considers uncertainty estimation for kinematic rupture models in finite fault inversion by Bayesian sampling. Since the general problem of slip estimation on an unknown fault from incomplete and noisy data is highly non-linear and currently intractable, assumptions are typically made to simplify the problem. These almost always include linearization of the time dependence of rupture by considering multiple discrete time windows, and a tessellation of the fault surface into a set of 'subfaults' whose dimensions are fixed below what is subjectively thought to be resolvable by the data. Even non-linear parameterizations are based on a fixed discretization. This results in over-parametrized models which include more parameters than resolvable by the data and require regularization criteria that stabilize the inversion. While it is increasingly common to consider slip uncertainties arising from observational error, the effects of the assumptions implicit in parameterization choices are rarely if ever considered. Here, we show that linearization and discretization assumptions can strongly affect both slip and uncertainty estimates and that therefore the selection of parametrizations should be included in the inference process. We apply Bayesian model selection to study the effect of parametrization choice on inversion results. The Bayesian sampling method which produces inversion results is based on a trans-dimensional rupture discretization which adapts the spatial and temporal parametrization complexity based on data information and does not require regularization. Slip magnitude, direction and rupture velocity are unknowns across the fault and causal first rupture times are obtained by solving the Eikonal equation for a spatially variable rupture-velocity field. The method provides automated local adaptation of rupture complexity based on data information and does not assume globally constant resolution. This is an important quality since seismic data do not
Solving inversion problems with neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.
1990-01-01
A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.
Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze
2016-07-01
There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially
Inverse Cerenkov acceleration using an IFEL prebuncher
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, W. D.; Pogorelsky, I. V.; Liu, Y.; Kusche, K. P.; van Steenbergen, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; Sandweiss, J.; Cline, D. B.; Quimby, D. C.; Babzien, M.
1997-03-01
The BNL IFEL will be used to optically prebunch the e-beam before sending it into an inverse Cerenkov acceleration (ICA) stage. Prebunching the beam will greatly improve the efficiency of the ICA process. The basic experimental design and preliminary model predictions for the combined ICA/IFEL experiment are discussed. Near-term goals are to demonstrate optical prebunching, rephasing of the prebunched beam with the optical field, and more efficient acceleration. Long-term goals are to demonstrate 100 MeV net acceleration using an ICA accelerator.
EDITORIAL: Inverse Problems' 25th year of publication Inverse Problems' 25th year of publication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2008-01-01
2009 is Inverse Problems' 25th year of publication. In this quarter-century, the journal has established itself as the premier publication venue for inverse problems research. It has matured from its beginnings as a niche journal serving the emerging field of inverse and ill-posed problems to a monthly publication in 2009 covering all aspects of a well-established, vibrant and still-expanding subject. Along with its core readership of pure and applied mathematicians and physicists, Inverse Problems has become widely known across a broad range of researchers in areas such as geophysics, optics, radar, acoustics, communication theory, signal processing and medical imaging, amongst others. The journal's appeal to the inverse problems community and those researchers from the varied fields that encounter such problems can be attributed to our commitment to publishing only the very best papers, and to offering unique services to the community. Besides our regular research papers, which average a remarkably short five months from submission to electronic publication, we regularly publish heavily cited topical review papers and topic-specific special sections, which first appeared in 2004. These highly-downloaded invited articles focus on the latest developments and hot topics in all areas of inverse problems. No other journal in the field offers these features. I am very pleased to take Inverse Problems into its 25th year as Editor-in-Chief. The journal has an impressive tradition of scholarship, established at its inception by the founder and first Editor-in-Chief, Professor Pierre Sabatier. Professor Sabatier envisioned the journal in 1985 as providing a medium for publication of exemplary research in our intrinsically interdisciplinary field. I am glad to say that the support of our authors, readers, referees, Editors-in-Chief, Editorial Boards and Advisory Panels over the years, has resulted in Inverse Problems becoming the top publication in this field, publishing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, W. D.; Babzien, M.; Cline, D. B.; Fiorito, R. B.; Gallardo, J. C.; Kusche, K. P.; Liu, Y.; Pogorelsky, I. V.; Quimby, D. C.; Rule, D. W.; Sandweiss, J.; Skaritka, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Yakimenko, V.
1997-05-01
An experiment to use an inverse free electron laser (IFEL) to prebunch at optical wavelengths the electrons entering into an inverse Cerenkov accelerator (ICA) is being prepared at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The detailed design and simulations for this experiment will be presented. Microbunches on the order of 2 microns in length separated by 10.6 microns are predicted. Under the anticipated ATF conditions, space charge effects should not be an issue. Characterizing the microbunches and maintaining the proper phase relation between the IFEL and ICA modules are important issues that will also be discussed.
A climatology of tropospheric humidity inversions in five reanalyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunke, Michael A.; Stegall, Steve T.; Zeng, Xubin
2015-02-01
Specific humidity is generally thought to decrease with height in the troposphere. However, here we document the existence of specific humidity inversions in five reanalyses: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) second reanalysis (NCEP-2), the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF) 40-year reanalysis (ERA-40), the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research Applications (MERRA), NCEP's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), and the ECMWF interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim). These inversions are most frequent in the polar regions. Inversions do occur elsewhere, most notably over the subtropical stratus regions, but are less frequent and likely overproduced depending on the location. Polar inversions are the most persistent in winter and the strongest (as defined by the humidity difference divided by the pressure difference across the inversion) in summer or autumn with low bases (at pressures > 900 hPa). Winter humidity inversions are lower, being near-surface, due to the persistence of low-level temperature inversions associated with these humidity inversions, while summer humidity inversions tend to be located near cloud top providing moisture to prevent the melt season stratus from evaporating. The most important contributions to affect humidity inversions in MERRA are dynamics, turbulence, and moist physics. However, local advection may not play as much of a role as regional humidity convergence. The subtropical stratus inversions are as thick as polar humidity inversions but with higher bases generally at pressures < 900 hPa. These inversions are confirmed by rawinsonde data, but there are discrepancies between the observed annual and diurnal cycles in inversion frequency and those portrayed in the reanalyses.
Kent, B; Garvey, C J; Cookson, D; Bryant, G
2009-01-05
The inverse hexagonal to inverse ribbon phase transition in a mixed phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylethanolamine system at low hydration is studied using small and wide angle X-ray scattering. It is found that the structural parameters of the inverse hexagonal phase are independent of temperature. By contrast the length of each ribbon of the inverse ribbon phase increases continuously with decreasing temperature over a range of 50 ºC. At low temperatures the inverse ribbon phase is observed to have a transition to a gel lamellar phase, with no intermediate fluid lamellar phase. This phase transition is confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry.
Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolgorian, Meysam
In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.
Approaching the Island of Inversion: 34P
Bender, P.C.; Hoffman, C.R.; Wiedeking, M.; Allmond, J.M.; Bernstein, L.A.; Burke, J.T.; Bleuel, D.L.; Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Goldblum, B.L.; Hinners, T.A.; Jeppesen, H.B.; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, I.Y.; Lesher, S.R.; Machiavelli, A.O.; McMahan, M.A.; Morris, D.; Perry, M.; Phair, L.; Scielzo, N.D.; Tabor, S.L.; Tripathi, Vandana; Volya, A.
2011-06-14
Yrast states in 34P were investigated using the 18O(18O,pn) reaction at energies of 20, 24, 25, 30, and 44 MeV at Florida State University and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The level scheme was expanded, ray angular distributions were measured, and lifetimes were inferred with the Doppler-shift attenuation method by detecting decay protons in coincidence with one or more rays. The results provide a clearer picture of the evolution of structure approaching the 'Island of Inversion', particularly how the 1 and 2 particle-hole (ph) states fall in energy with increasing neutro number approaching inversion. However, the agreement of the lowest few states with pure sd shell model predictions shows that the level scheme of 34P is not itself inverted. Rather, the accumulated evidence indicates that the 1-ph states start at 2.3 MeV. A good candidate for the lowest 2-ph state lies at 6236 keV, just below the neutron separation energy of 6291 keV. Shell model calculations made using a small modification of the WBP interaction reproduce the negative-parity, 1-ph states rather well.
Compressive geoacoustic inversion using ambient noise.
Yardim, Caglar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Traer, James
2014-03-01
Surface generated ambient noise can be used to infer sediment properties. Here, a passive geoacoustic inversion method that uses noise recorded by a drifting vertical array is adopted. The array is steered using beamforming to compute the noise arriving at the array from various directions. This information is used in two different ways: Coherently (cross-correlation of upward/downward propagating noise using a minimum variance distortionless response fathometer), and incoherently (bottom loss vs frequency and angle using a conventional beamformer) to obtain the bottom properties. Compressive sensing is used to invert for the number of sediment layer interfaces and their depths using coherent passive fathometry. Then the incoherent bottom loss estimate is used to refine the sediment thickness, sound speed, density, and attenuation values. Compressive sensing fathometry enables automatic determination of the number of interfaces. It also tightens the sediment thickness priors for the incoherent bottom loss inversion which reduces the search space. The method is demonstrated on drifting array data collected during the Boundary 2003 experiment.
Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels.
Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze
2016-07-14
There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.
Topological Nonsymmorphic Metals from Band Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muechler, Lukas; Alexandradinata, A.; Neupert, Titus; Car, Roberto
2016-10-01
We expand the phase diagram of two-dimensional, nonsymmorphic crystals at integer fillings that do not guarantee gaplessness. In addition to the trivial, gapped phase that is expected, we find that band inversion leads to a class of topological, gapless phases. These topological phases are exemplified by the monolayers of M Te2 (M =W ,Mo ) if spin-orbit coupling is neglected. We characterize the Dirac band touching of these topological metals by the Wilson loop of the non-Abelian Berry gauge field. Furthermore, we develop a criterion for the proximity of these topological metals to 2D and 3D Z2 topological insulators when spin-orbit coupling is included; our criterion is based on nonsymmorphic symmetry eigenvalues, and may be used to identify topological materials without inversion symmetry. An additional feature of the Dirac cone in monolayer M Te2 is that it tilts over in a Lifshitz transition to produce electron and hole pockets—a type-II Dirac cone. These pockets, together with the pseudospin structure of the Dirac electrons, suggest a unified, topological explanation for the recently reported, nonsaturating magnetoresistance in WTe2 , as well as its circular dichroism in photoemission. We complement our analysis and first-principles band structure calculations with an ab-initio-derived tight-binding model for the WTe2 monolayer.
A Simplified Scheme for Kinematic Source Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iglesias, A.; Castro-Artola, O.; Singh, S.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Legrand, D.
2013-05-01
It is well known that different kinematic source inversion schemes lead to non-unique solutions. For this reason, a simplified scheme, which yields the main characteristics of the rupture process, rather than the details, may be desirable. In this work we propose a modification of the frequency-domain inversion scheme of Cotton & Campillo (1995) to extract kinematic parameters using simplified geometries (ellipses). The forward problem is re-parameterized by including one or two ellipses in which the displacement is smoothly distributed. For the ellipses we invert for the position of the centers within the fault plane, the major and minor semi-axes, the maximum displacements, the angles of rotation and a parameter that controls the distribution of slip. A simulated annealing scheme is used to invert near-source displacements. We first test the method on synthetic displacement records corresponding to the Guerrero-Oaxaca earthquake (20/03/2012, Mw=7.5) by comparing the results obtained from the modified technique with the original method. In the next step, we use displacements obtained by double numerical integration of recorded accelerograms. We find that, in spite of the simple geometry, the modified method leads to a good fit between observed and synthetic displacements and recovers the main rupture characteristics.
Application of stochastic inversion in auroral tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nygrén, T.; Markkanen, M.; Lehtinen, M.; Kaila, K.
1996-11-01
A software package originally developed for satellite radio tomography is briefly introduced and its use in two-dimensional auroral tomography is described. The method is based on stochastic inversion, i.e. finding the most probable values of the unknown volume emission rates once the optical measurements are made using either a scanning photometer or an auroral camera. A set of simulation results is shown for a different number and separations of optical instruments at ground level. It is observed that arcs with a thickness of a few kilometers and separated by a few tens of kilometers are easily reconstructed. The maximum values of the inversion results, however, are often weaker than in the model. The most obvious reason for this is the grid size, which cannot be much smaller than the arc thickness. The grid necessarily generates a spatial averaging effect broadening the arc cross-sections and reducing the peak values. Finally, results from TV-camera observations at Tromsø and Esrange are shown. Although these sites are separated by more than 200 km, arcs close to Tromsø have been successfully reconstructed. Acknowledgements. The work done by P. Henelius and E. Vilenius in programme development is gratefully acknowledged. Topical Editor D. Alcayde thanks I. Pryse and A. Vallance-Jones for their help in evaluating this paper.--> Correspondence to: T. Nygrén-->
Posterior population expansion for solving inverse problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jäggli, C.; Straubhaar, J.; Renard, P.
2017-04-01
Solving inverse problems in a complex, geologically realistic, and discrete model space and from a sparse set of observations is a very challenging task. Extensive exploration by Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) methods often results in considerable computational efforts. Most optimization methods, on the other hand, are limited to linear (continuous) model spaces and the minimization of an objective function, what often proves to be insufficient. To overcome these problems, we propose a new ensemble-based exploration scheme for geostatistical prior models generated by a multiple-point statistics (MPS) tool. The principle of our method is to expand an existing set of models by using posterior facies information for conditioning new MPS realizations. The algorithm is independent of the physical parametrization. It is tested on a simple synthetic inverse problem. When compared to two existing McMC methods (iterative spatial resampling (ISR) and Interrupted Markov chain Monte Carlo (IMcMC)), the required number of forward model runs was divided by a factor of 8-12.
Inverse statistical mechanics, lattice packings, and glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcotte, Etienne
Computer simulation methods enable the investigation of systems and properties that are intractable by purely analytical or experimental approaches. Each chapter of this dissertation contains an application of simulation methods to solve complex physical problems consisting of interacting many-particle or many-spin systems. The problems studied in this dissertation can be divided up into the following two broad categories: inverse and forward problems. The inverse problems considered are those in which we construct an interaction potential such that the corresponding ground state is a targeted configuration. In Chapters 2 and 3, we devise convex pair-potential functions that result in low-coordinated ground states. Chapter 2 describes targeted ground states that are the square and honeycomb crystals, while in Chapter 3 the targeted ground state is the diamond crystal. Chapter 4 applies similar techniques to explicitly enumerate all unique ground states up to a given system size, for spin configurations that interact according to generalized isotropic Ising potentials with finite range. We also consider forward statistical-mechanical problems. In Chapter 5, we adapt a linear programming algorithm to find the densest lattice packings across Euclidean space dimensions. In Chapter 6, we demonstrate that for two different glass models a signature of the glass transition is apparent well before the transition temperature is reached. In both models, this signature appears as nonequilibrium length scales that grow upon supercooling.
Pool boiling inversion through bubble induced macroconvection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaikumar, A.; Kandlikar, S. G.
2017-02-01
While numerous surface geometries have been explored to achieve enhancements in pool boiling critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient (HTC), their mechanistic contributions towards the characteristics of the pool boiling curve are not clear. Recently reported pool boiling curves in literature have shown a trend where an increase in heat flux leads to a decrease in wall superheat. Consequently, a negative slope in the pool boiling curve accompanied by a sharp increase in HTC, termed here as boiling inversion, is observed. We demonstrate that this inversion is due to vapor stream induced reinforcement of an impinging liquid jet over the non-boiling regions. This behavior is characteristic of surfaces developed using separate liquid-vapor pathways and macroconvection enhancement mechanism resulting in a highly efficient self-sustained boiling configuration. The increased jet impingement velocities lead to higher HTCs with lower wall superheats. The analytical models available in literature are employed to quantitatively explain this trend. Furthermore, a self-adjusting boiling mechanism is seen at play wherein a reduction in nucleation activity due to lowering of wall superheat counters the increase in HTC induced by the macroconvective currents.
Bowl inversion of surface-adsorbed sumanene.
Jaafar, Rached; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Bussi, Giovanni; Aït-Mansour, Kamel; Groening, Oliver; Amaya, Toru; Hirao, Toshikazu; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal
2014-10-01
Bowl-shaped π-conjugated compounds offer the possibility to study curvature-dependent host-guest interactions and chemical reactivity in ideal model systems. For surface-adsorbed π bowls, however, only conformations with the bowl opening pointing away from the surface have been observed so far. Here we show for sumanene on Ag(111) that both bowl-up and bowl-down conformations can be stabilized. Analysis of the molecular layer as a function of coverage reveals an unprecedented structural phase transition involving a bowl inversion of one-third of the molecules. On the basis of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and complementary atomistic simulations, we develop a model that describes the observed phase transition in terms of a subtle interplay between inversion-dependent adsorption energies and intermolecular interactions. In addition, we explore the coexisting bowl-up and -down conformations with respect to host-guest binding of methane. STM reveals a clear energetic preference for methane binding to the concave face of sumanene.
Spectral solution of the inverse Mie problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanov, Andrey V.; Konokhova, Anastasiya I.; Yastrebova, Ekaterina S.; Gilev, Konstantin V.; Strokotov, Dmitry I.; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Maltsev, Valeri P.; Yurkin, Maxim A.
2017-10-01
We developed a fast method to determine size and refractive index of homogeneous spheres from the power Fourier spectrum of their light-scattering patterns (LSPs), measured with the scanning flow cytometer. Specifically, we used two spectral parameters: the location of the non-zero peak and zero-frequency amplitude, and numerically inverted the map from the space of particle characteristics (size and refractive index) to the space of spectral parameters. The latter parameters can be reliably resolved only for particle size parameter greater than 11, and the inversion is unique only in the limited range of refractive index with upper limit between 1.1 and 1.25 (relative to the medium) depending on the size parameter and particular definition of uniqueness. The developed method was tested on two experimental samples, milk fat globules and spherized red blood cells, and resulted in accuracy not worse than the reference method based on the least-square fit of the LSP with the Mie theory. Moreover, for particles with significant deviation from the spherical shape the spectral method was much closer to the Mie-fit result than the estimated uncertainty of the latter. The spectral method also showed adequate results for synthetic LSPs of spheroids with aspect ratios up to 1.4. Overall, we present a general framework, which can be used to construct an inverse algorithm for any other experimental signals.
Inverse relationship between surface brightness and polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egan, Walter G.
1999-10-01
There is an inverse relationship between surface brightness and polarization in the wavelength range from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. This relationship was first observed by the French astronomers B. Lyot and A. Dollfus in the early 20th century for planetary surfaces and laboratory models. The relationship was later confirmed principally by Egan and his coworkers in the Grumman Research Department in lunar simulation experiments prior to the Lunar Module landing. The observations indicate that the percent polarization (The percent polarization is the ratio of the difference between two orthogonal polarized measurements ratioed to the sum multiplied by 100) is an inverse function of the surface brightness (albedo). The Grumman instrument was a unique large scale polarimeter/photometer that allowed measurements not only of coated surfaces, but of particulates or structural surfaces up to 10 centimeters in diameter. It was found that, for instance, a diffuse surface having a reflectance of 2% could have a percent polarization of nearly 100%. The polarization was found to be a function of the optical complex index of refraction of the surface and the surface structure, and the relationship was found to be true for farm soils, agricultural and forested areas and was useful to characterize them. Astronomical and recent laboratory data will be presented to illustrate the relationship. More recent polarimeters will be discussed that permit polarization measurements accurate to plus or minus 0.1% from 0 to 100%.
Inverse Ising inference with correlated samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obermayer, Benedikt; Levine, Erel
2014-12-01
Correlations between two variables of a high-dimensional system can be indicative of an underlying interaction, but can also result from indirect effects. Inverse Ising inference is a method to distinguish one from the other. Essentially, the parameters of the least constrained statistical model are learned from the observed correlations such that direct interactions can be separated from indirect correlations. Among many other applications, this approach has been helpful for protein structure prediction, because residues which interact in the 3D structure often show correlated substitutions in a multiple sequence alignment. In this context, samples used for inference are not independent but share an evolutionary history on a phylogenetic tree. Here, we discuss the effects of correlations between samples on global inference. Such correlations could arise due to phylogeny but also via other slow dynamical processes. We present a simple analytical model to address the resulting inference biases, and develop an exact method accounting for background correlations in alignment data by combining phylogenetic modeling with an adaptive cluster expansion algorithm. We find that popular reweighting schemes are only marginally effective at removing phylogenetic bias, suggest a rescaling strategy that yields better results, and provide evidence that our conclusions carry over to the frequently used mean-field approach to the inverse Ising problem.
Europa Tide Inversion from REASON Altimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haynes, M.; Schroeder, D. M.; Steinbrügge, G.; Bills, B. G.
2015-12-01
Determining the amplitude of Europa's tides is central to understanding its ice shell and subsurface ocean. We assess the accuracy of retrieving the tidal amplitude solely using altimetry profiles produced by the REASON instrument (Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface), selected for the Europa Clipper mission. We investigate retrieval of the first Love number, h2, by inverting the entire set of altimetric ground tracks over the life of the mission. The inversion simultaneously estimates h2, long-wavelength topography, and spacecraft orbit parameters. In its simplest form, the inversion is quite robust: the time and location of the ground track uniquely fixes the phase of the sampled tide, where surface roughness acts as noise to be averaged out. In addition, we make an initial evaluation of altimetric biases that arise from known and hypothesized Europa topography using surface point target simulations. Overall, we find that the altimeter alone is capable of retrieving the first tidal Love number with accuracy sufficient to observationally constrain ice-shell thickness.
Inverse PCR for Point Mutation Introduction.
Silva, Diogo; Santos, Gustavo; Barroca, Mário; Collins, Tony
2017-01-01
Inverse PCR is a powerful tool for the rapid introduction of desired mutations at desired positions in a circular double-stranded DNA sequence. Here, custom-designed mutant primers oriented in the inverse direction are used to amplify the entire circular template with incorporation of the required mutation(s). By careful primer design it can be used to perform such diverse modifications as the introduction of point mutations and multiple mutations, the insertion of new sequences, and even sequence deletions. Three primer formats are commonly used; nonoverlapping, partially overlapping and fully overlapping primers, and here we describe the use of nonoverlapping primers for introduction of a point mutation. Use of such a primer setup in the PCR reaction, with one of the primers containing the desired mismatch mutation, results in the amplification of a linear, double-stranded, mutated product. Methylated template DNA is removed from the nonmethylated PCR product by DpnI digestion and the PCR product is then phosphorylated by polynucleotide kinase treatment before being recircularized by ligation, and transformed to E. coli. This relatively simple site-directed mutagenesis procedure is of major importance in biology and biotechnology today where it is commonly employed for the study and engineering of DNA, RNA, and proteins.
New RADIOM algorithm using inverse EOS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Busquet, Michel; Sokolov, Igor; Klapisch, Marcel
2012-10-01
The RADIOM model, [1-2], allows one to implement non-LTE atomic physics with a very low extra CPU cost. Although originally heuristic, RADIOM has been physically justified [3] and some accounting for auto-ionization has been included [2]. RADIOM defines an ionization temperature Tz derived from electronic density and actual electronic temperature Te. LTE databases are then queried for properties at Tz and NLTE values are derived from them. Some hydro-codes (like FAST at NRL, Ramis' MULTI, or the CRASH code at U.Mich) use inverse EOS starting from the total internal energy Etot and returning the temperature. In the NLTE case, inverse EOS requires to solve implicit relations between Te, Tz,
Inverse modeling of soil infiltration process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuraz, Michal
2017-07-01
This paper presents an evaluation of the soil hydraulic parameters (SHP) for a mountainous podzolic soil profile. Due to the tickness of the top-soil layer only the SHPs for the lower layers can be identified using standard approaches - a single ring (SR) infiltration experiment and a Guelph permeameter (GP) measurement. The SHPs for the top soil layer were identified here by inverse modeling of the SR infiltration process, where, especially, the initial unsteady part of the experiment can provide very useful data for evaluating the retention curve parameters and the saturated hydraulic conductivity. This inverse analysis is the main topic of this paper. Since the infiltration process is a typical case of a model that describes the progressive breakthrough of the wetting curve, we made use of adaptive domain decomposition (dd-adaptivity) described by [1, 2, 3] for sequential activation and deactivation of the segments of our computational domain. Finally, we conducted a sensitivity analysis of our objective function on the SHP set.
Linear functional minimization for inverse modeling
Barajas-Solano, David A.; Wohlberg, Brendt Egon; Vesselinov, Velimir Valentinov; ...
2015-06-01
In this paper, we present a novel inverse modeling strategy to estimate spatially distributed parameters of nonlinear models. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimators of these parameters are based on a likelihood functional, which contains spatially discrete measurements of the system parameters and spatiotemporally discrete measurements of the transient system states. The piecewise continuity prior for the parameters is expressed via Total Variation (TV) regularization. The MAP estimator is computed by minimizing a nonquadratic objective equipped with the TV operator. We apply this inversion algorithm to estimate hydraulic conductivity of a synthetic confined aquifer from measurements of conductivity and hydraulicmore » head. The synthetic conductivity field is composed of a low-conductivity heterogeneous intrusion into a high-conductivity heterogeneous medium. Our algorithm accurately reconstructs the location, orientation, and extent of the intrusion from the steady-state data only. Finally, addition of transient measurements of hydraulic head improves the parameter estimation, accurately reconstructing the conductivity field in the vicinity of observation locations.« less
Floppy Molecules with Internal Rotation and Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreglewski, Marek
2016-06-01
There are different ways to analyze rovibrational structure of molecules having several large amplitude motions of different type, like internal rotation and inversion or ring-puckering. In my research group we have developed and used methods starting from potential surfaces for large amplitude motions but also applied purely effective Hamiltonians, where tunneling splittings were key parameters. Whatever is the method the following problems must be solved when addressing a rovibrational problem with large amplitude vibrations: 1) a definition of the permutation-inversion molecular symmetry group, 2) a choice of the internal coordinates and their transformation in the symmetry group, 3) derivation of the Hamiltonian in chosen coordinates, 4) calculation of the Hamiltonian matrix elements in a symmetrized basis set. These points will be discussed. The advantage of methods which start from the geometry and potential surface for large amplitude vibrations give much clearer picture of internal dynamics of molecules but generally the fit to experimental data is much poorer. The fitting procedure is strongly non-linear and the iteration procedure much longer. The effective Hamiltonians the fit is generally much better since almost all optimized parameters are linear but the parameters have no clear physical meaning. This method is very useful in the assignment of experimental spectra. Results of the application of both method to methylamine and hydrazine will be presented.
Inverse polynomial reconstruction method in DCT domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dadkhahi, Hamid; Gotchev, Atanas; Egiazarian, Karen
2012-12-01
The discrete cosine transform (DCT) offers superior energy compaction properties for a large class of functions and has been employed as a standard tool in many signal and image processing applications. However, it suffers from spurious behavior in the vicinity of edge discontinuities in piecewise smooth signals. To leverage the sparse representation provided by the DCT, in this article, we derive a framework for the inverse polynomial reconstruction in the DCT expansion. It yields the expansion of a piecewise smooth signal in terms of polynomial coefficients, obtained from the DCT representation of the same signal. Taking advantage of this framework, we show that it is feasible to recover piecewise smooth signals from a relatively small number of DCT coefficients with high accuracy. Furthermore, automatic methods based on minimum description length principle and cross-validation are devised to select the polynomial orders, as a requirement of the inverse polynomial reconstruction method in practical applications. The developed framework can considerably enhance the performance of the DCT in sparse representation of piecewise smooth signals. Numerical results show that denoising and image approximation algorithms based on the proposed framework indicate significant improvements over wavelet counterparts for this class of signals.
Bridging the Gap - Interactive Inverse Groundwater Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, A.; Minsker, B.
2005-12-01
This paper presents a novel approach for solving the inverse problem of estimating heterogeneous aquifer parameters for a groundwater flow model, using interactive multi-objective evolutionary optimization. A hypothetical aquifer, for which the `true' parameter values (in this case hydraulic conductivity) are known, is used as a test case to demonstrate the usefulness of this method. It is shown that using automated calibration techniques without using expert interaction leads to parameter values that are not consistent with site knowledge. In such cases, it is desirable to incorporate expert knowledge in the inversion process to generate more reasonable estimates. An interactive approach is proposed within a multi-objective framework that allows the user to evaluate trade-offs between the expert knowledge and other measures of numerical errors. Using Pilot points and geostatistical parameters as decision variables, numerical optimization is combined with expert knowledge leading to conductivity fields that respect both the observation data and site knowledge that the expert may have. Early results indicate that this approach leads to parameter estimates that are much more consistent with site knowledge. A major issue with interactive approaches, however, is `human fatigue' in evaluating numerous potential solutions. One way of dealing with human fatigue is to use machine learning to model user preferences. This work presents initial results showing that machine learning models can be successfully used to augment user interaction, allowing the interactive genetic algorithm to find good solutions with much less user-effort.
Inverse pupil wavefront optimization for immersion lithography.
Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Dong, Lisong; Ma, Xu; Guo, Xuejia
2014-10-10
As the critical dimension of integrated circuits is continuously shrunk, thick mask induced aberration (TMIA) cannot be ignored in the lithography image process. Recently, a set of pupil wavefront optimization (PWO) approaches has been proposed to compensate for TMIA, based on a wavefront manipulator in modern scanners. However, these prior PWO methods have two intrinsic drawbacks. First, the traditional methods fell short in building up the analytical relationship between the pupil wavefront and the cost function, and used time-consuming algorithms to solve for the PWO problem. Second, in traditional methods, only the spherical aberrations were optimized to compensate for the focus exposure matrix tilt and best focus shift induced by TMIA. Thus, the degrees of freedom were limited during the optimization procedure. To overcome these restrictions, we build the analytical relationship between the pupil wavefront and the cost function based on Abbe vector imaging theory. With this analytical model and the Fletcher-Reeves conjugate-gradient algorithm, an inverse PWO method is innovated to balance the TMIA including 37 Zernike terms. Simulation results illustrate that our approach significantly improves image fidelity within a larger process window. This demonstrates that TMIA is effectively compensated by our inverse PWO approach.
INVERSE CASCADE IN IMBALANCED ELECTRON MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE
Kim, Hoonkyu; Cho, Jungyeon E-mail: jcho@cnu.ac.kr
2015-03-10
Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluid-like description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. Balanced EMHD turbulence has been studied for a long time. However, driven imbalanced EMHD turbulence, in which waves moving in one direction (dominant waves) have higher amplitudes than waves moving in the other direction (sub-dominant waves), has not been well studied. In this paper, we numerically study driven three-dimensional imbalanced weak EMHD turbulence. We find the following results. First, in driven imbalanced EMHD turbulence, we clearly observe inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, as well as magnetic energy. This is because magnetic helicity is a conserved quantity and non-zero magnetic helicity is injected into the system in driven imbalanced EMHD turbulence. Second, the magnetic energy spectrum of the dominant waves on scales larger than the energy injection scale does not show a single power-law spectrum, which indicates that the inverse cascade is not a self-similar process. The peak of the spectrum roughly follows a k {sup –3/2} spectrum, which can be explained by a Kolmogorov-type argument for weak turbulence. Third, a small amount of sub-dominant waves is induced by the dominant waves on large scales and the ratio of helicity densities of the dominant and the sub-dominant waves on large scales seems to converge to a certain value.
Inverse Variational Problem for Nonstandard Lagrangians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, A.; Talukdar, B.
2014-06-01
In the mathematical physics literature the nonstandard Lagrangians (NSLs) were introduced in an ad hoc fashion rather than being derived from the solution of the inverse problem of variational calculus. We begin with the first integral of the equation of motion and solve the associated inverse problem to obtain some of the existing results for NSLs. In addition, we provide a number of alternative Lagrangian representations. The case studies envisaged by us include (i) the usual modified Emden-type equation, (ii) Emden-type equation with dissipative term quadratic in velocity, (iii) Lotka-Volterra model and (vi) a number of the generic equations for dissipative-like dynamical systems. Our method works for nonstandard Lagrangians corresponding to the usual action integral of mechanical systems but requires modification for those associated with the modified actions like S =∫abe L(x ,x˙ , t) dt and S =∫abL 1 - γ(x ,x˙ , t) dt because in the latter case one cannot construct expressions for the Jacobi integrals.
Crystallographic texture determinations from inverse susceptibility measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, L. H.; Welch, D. O.
1997-04-01
Determination of the quantitative relationship between crystallographic texture and magnetic properties in advanced permanent magnets may be hampered by complex microstructures, which complicate methods that rely on diffraction, or by interparticulate interactions, which adversely affect methods based on magnetic remanence measurements. To this end, new techniques in the determination of texture of bulk permanent magnets are being explored to overcome these inherent experimental difficulties. The analysis of inverse paramagnetic susceptibility measurements constitutes a new method to investigate crystallographic texture. Such measurements also provide Curie temperature data, which are sensitive to chemical changes that may have occurred in the magnetic phase during processing. The mathematical formalism underlying the analysis of inverse susceptibility measurements is outlined, and is used to evaluate magnetic measurements taken from a series of Nd2Fe14B magnets that have been processed by different means, and thus contain different degrees of texture. While this method does provide qualitative information concerning the relative crystallographic alignment of magnet samples, it needs calibration to obtain an explicit value for a texture order parameter.
Stoner magnetism in an inversion layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golosov, D. I.
2016-02-01
Motivated by recent experimental work on magnetic properties of Si-MOSFETs, we report a calculation of magnetisation and susceptibility of electrons in an inversion layer, taking into account the co-ordinate dependence of electron wave function in the direction perpendicular to the plane. It is assumed that the inversion-layer carriers interact via a contact repulsive potential, which is treated at a mean-field level, resulting in a self-consistent change of profile of the wave functions. We find that the results differ significantly from those obtained in the pure 2DEG case (where no provision is made for a quantum motion in the transverse direction). Specifically, the critical value of interaction needed to attain the ferromagnetic (Stoner) instability is decreased and the Stoner criterion is therefore relaxed. This leads to an increased susceptibility and ultimately to a ferromagnetic transition deep in the high-density metallic regime. In the opposite limit of low carrier densities, a phenomenological treatment of the in-plane correlation effects suggests a ferromagnetic instability above the metal-insulator transition. Results are discussed in the context of the available experimental data.
Inverse sampling regression for pooled data.
Montesinos-López, Osval A; Montesinos-López, Abelardo; Eskridge, Kent; Crossa, José
2017-06-01
Because pools are tested instead of individuals in group testing, this technique is helpful for estimating prevalence in a population or for classifying a large number of individuals into two groups at a low cost. For this reason, group testing is a well-known means of saving costs and producing precise estimates. In this paper, we developed a mixed-effect group testing regression that is useful when the data-collecting process is performed using inverse sampling. This model allows including covariate information at the individual level to incorporate heterogeneity among individuals and identify which covariates are associated with positive individuals. We present an approach to fit this model using maximum likelihood and we performed a simulation study to evaluate the quality of the estimates. Based on the simulation study, we found that the proposed regression method for inverse sampling with group testing produces parameter estimates with low bias when the pre-specified number of positive pools (r) to stop the sampling process is at least 10 and the number of clusters in the sample is also at least 10. We performed an application with real data and we provide an NLMIXED code that researchers can use to implement this method.
Inverse Magnus effect on a rotating sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jooha; Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon; Yoo, Jung Yul
2011-11-01
In this study, we investigate the flow characteristics of rotating spheres in the subcritical Reynolds number (Re) regime by measuring the drag and lift forces on the sphere and the two-dimensional velocity in the wake. The experiment is conducted in a wind tunnel at Re = 0 . 6 ×105 - 2 . 6 ×105 and the spin ratio (ratio of surface velocity to the free-stream velocity) of 0 (no spin) - 0.5. The drag coefficient on a stationary sphere remains nearly constant at around 0.52. However, the magnitude of lift coefficient is nearly zero at Re < 2 . 0 ×105 , but rapidly increases to 0.3 and then remains constant with further increasing Reynolds number. On the other hand, with rotation, the lift coefficient shows negative values, called inverse Magnus effect, depending on the magnitudes of the Reynolds number and spin ratio. The velocity field measured from a particle image velocimetry (PIV) indicates that non-zero lift coefficient on a stationary sphere at Re > 2 . 0 ×105 results from the asymmetry of separation line, whereas the inverse Magnus effect for the rotating sphere results from the differences in the boundary-layer growth and separation along the upper and lower sphere surfaces. Supported by the WCU, Converging Research Center and Priority Research Centers Program, NRF, MEST, Korea.
Topological nonsymmorphic metals from band inversion
Muechler, Lukas; Alexandradinata, A.; Neupert, Titus; ...
2016-12-29
Here, we expand the phase diagram of two-dimensional, nonsymmorphic crystals at integer fillings that do not guarantee gaplessness. In addition to the trivial, gapped phase that is expected, we find that band inversion leads to a class of topological, gapless phases. These topological phases are exemplified by the monolayers of MTe2 (M ¼ W; Mo) if spin-orbit coupling is neglected. We characterize the Dirac band touching of these topological metals by theWilson loop of the non-Abelian Berry gauge field. Furthermore, we develop a criterion for the proximity of these topological metals to 2D and 3D Z2 topological insulators when spinorbitmore » coupling is included; our criterion is based on nonsymmorphic symmetry eigenvalues, and may be used to identify topological materials without inversion symmetry. An additional feature of the Dirac cone in monolayer MTe2 is that it tilts over in a Lifshitz transition to produce electron and hole pockets—a type-II Dirac cone. These pockets, together with the pseudospin structure of the Dirac electrons, suggest a unified, topological explanation for the recently reported, nonsaturating magnetoresistance in WTe2, as well as its circular dichroism in photoemission. We complement our analysis and first-principles band structure calculations with an ab-initio-derived tight-binding model for the WTe2 monolayer.« less
Minimax approach to inverse problems of geophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balk, P. I.; Dolgal, A. S.; Balk, T. V.; Khristenko, L. A.
2016-03-01
A new approach is suggested for solving the inverse problems that arise in the different fields of applied geophysics (gravity, magnetic, and electrical prospecting, geothermy) and require assessing the spatial region occupied by the anomaly-generating masses in the presence of different types of a priori information. The interpretation which provides the maximum guaranteed proximity of the model field sources to the real perturbing object is treated as the best interpretation. In some fields of science (game theory, economics, operations research), the decision-making principle that lies in minimizing the probable losses which cannot be prevented if the situation develops by the worst-case scenario is referred to as minimax. The minimax criterion of choice is interesting as, instead of being confined to the indirect (and sometimes doubtful) signs of the "optimal" solution, it relies on the actual properties of the information in the results of a particular interpretation. In the hierarchy of the approaches to the solution of the inverse problems of geophysics ordered by the volume and quality of the retrieved information about the sources of the field, the minimax approach should take special place.
Inverse Free Electron Laser Accelerator Development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Steenbergen, Arie
1997-05-01
The study of the Inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) as a potential mode of electron acceleration has been pursued at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for a number of years. The studies focused on the development of a low energy (few GeV), high gradient, multistage linear accelerator. As part of this program a proof-of-principle experiment with a single module accelerator unit has been successfully carried out. The IFEL accelerator made use of the 40 MeV Linac beam and high power CO2 laser beam of the BNL's Accelerator Test Facility, in conjunction with a fast excitation, tapered period, beam wiggler. Basic aspects of the design of this single module IFEL accelerator will be presented, together with the experimental results of Δ E/E as a function of the IFEL parameters, which in comparison with analytical and 1, 3-D numerical simulations clearly establish the IFEL character of the electron - EM wave energy exchange, permitting thereby scaling to higher laser power magnitude and acceleration gradients. In addition, planned near term IFEL accelerator development will be indicated, incorporating the use of the IFEL as a beam prebuncher preceding an Inverse Cherenkov Accelerator, and the use of two IFEL modules in cascade in order to more realistically test the feasibility of a multi-module IFEL accelerator. New experimental results can be found at the IFEL World-Wide-Web page.
Waveform Inversion of the Teleseismic Wavefield
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Y.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.
2006-12-01
The issue of seismic inversion/imaging can be generalized to find the velocity perturbation field that provides the best explanation for seismic data. Theoretically, migration is the first iteration in the inversion process, not the solution that minimizes the RMS error between observed and model-predicted wavefield. Waveform inversion, however, seeks to find the true perturbation field by directly solving the partial differential wave equations. When the wavefield is densely sampled, waveform inversion has been proven to be able to image sub-wavelength scale structure. Recent developments in passive seismic observations make it possible to apply imaging techniques developed for petroleum exploration, such as waveform tomography, to investigate crustal and mantle structures. We have been attempting to apply this technique to the teleseismic wavefield. Here we start with the relative simple 2D SH-wave case with reflection source-receiver geometry to target the core-mantle boundary (CMB) region. Many studies suggest that the lowermost several hundreds of kilometers of Earth's mantle, the D" layer is complicated and heterogeneous in terms of seismic structure. D" heterogeneities cover a wide range of scales that vary from a few kilometers to a few thousands of kilometers laterally and tenths to tens of percents in intensity. The D" layer also has very different 1D velocity structure. Different techniques have been used to study these very different structures. It is thus very interesting to see whether we can use teleseismic S and ScS waveforms to image these heterogeneities. The partial differential SH wave equation is parameterized in the discrete frequency-space domain. Inversion is performed iteratively to minimize the misfit between observed and model-predicted waveforms using a local descent algorithm. Iteration is employed at discrete frequencies, moving from low to high to mitigate the nonlinearity of the problem. The teleseismic wavefield is approximated by a
Inverse modeling of April 2013 radioxenon detections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofman, Radek; Seibert, Petra; Philipp, Anne
2014-05-01
Significant concentrations of radioactive xenon isotopes (radioxenon) were detected by the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) in April 2013 in Japan. Particularly, three detections of Xe-133 made between 2013-04-07 18:00 UTC and 2013-04-09 06:00 UTC at the station JPX38 are quite notable with respect to the measurement history of the station. Our goal is to analyze the data and perform inverse modeling under different assumptions. This work is useful with respect to nuclear test monitoring as well as for the analysis of and response to nuclear emergencies. Two main scenarios will be pursued: (i) Source location is assumed to be known (DPRK test site). (ii) Source location is considered unknown. We attempt to estimate the source strength and the source strength along with its plausible location compatible with the data in scenario (i) and (ii), respectively. We are considering also the possibility of a vertically distributed source. Calculations of source-receptor sensitivity (SRS) fields and the subsequent inversion are aimed at going beyond routine calculations performed by the CTBTO. For SRS calculations, we employ the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART with high resolution ECMWF meteorological data (grid cell sizes of 0.5, 0.25 and ca. 0.125 deg). This is important in situations where receptors or sources are located in complex terrain which is the case of the likely source of detections-the DPRK test site. SRS will be calculated with convection enabled in FLEXPART which will also increase model accuracy. In the variational inversion procedure attention will be paid not only to all significant detections and their uncertainties but also to non-detections which can have a large impact on inversion quality. We try to develop and implement an objective algorithm for inclusion of relevant data where samples from temporal and spatial vicinity of significant detections are added in an
The Pyrenean inversion phase in northern Belgium: an example of a relaxation inversion?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deckers, Jef; Vandenberghe, Noël; Lanckacker, Timothy; De Koninck, Roel
2016-03-01
The analysis of 2D seismic and well data provides new insights into the late Eocene to earliest Oligocene dynamics along the southern border of the North Sea area, Belgium. From the start of the Priabonian onwards, the northwestern part of the Campine Basin and the London-Brabant Massif to its west experienced subsidence and developed into a shallow trough. Simultaneously, several other southern North Sea basins, including the central and eastern part of the Campine Basin and the Roer Valley Graben, were inverted by what is generally referred to as the Pyrenean inversion phase. Inversion caused broad flexural uplift and minor reverse fault movements. The characteristics of inversions in the southern North Sea basins are very similar to each other and to those described for a phase of intraplate stress relaxation. The results of this study therefore suggest that the Pyrenean inversion phase was triggered by a regional stress relaxation that started around the Bartonian/Priabonian boundary and ended before the onset of the Oligocene.
Integrated inversion using combined wave-equation tomography and full waveform inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Haiyang; Singh, Satish C.; Calandra, Henri
2014-07-01
Wave-equation tomography (WT) and full waveform inversion (FWI) are combined through a hybrid misfit function to estimate high-resolution subsurface structures starting from a poorly constrained initial velocity model. Both methods share the same wavefield forward modelling and inversion schemes, while they differ only on the ways to calculate misfit functions and hence the ways to sample in the model space. Aiming at minimizing the cross-correlation phase delay between synthetic and real data, WT can be used to retrieve the long- and middle-wavelength model components, which are essential to FWI. Compared to ray-based traveltime tomography that is based on asymptotic high-frequency approximation, WT provides a better resolution by exploring the band-limited feature of seismic wavefield. On the other hand, FWI is capable of resolving the short-wavelength model component, complementing the WT. In this study, we apply WT to surface first-arrival refraction data, and apply FWI to both refraction and reflection data. We assign adaptive weights to the two different misfit measurements and build a progressive inversion strategy. To illustrate the advantage of our strategy over conventional `ray tomography + FWI' approach, we show in a synthetic lens test that WT can provide extra subsurface information that is critical for a successful FWI application. To further show the efficiency, we test our strategy on the 2-D Marmousi model where satisfactory inversion results are achieved without much manual intervention. Finally, we apply the inversion strategy to a deep-water seismic data set acquired offshore Sumatra with a 12-km-long streamer. In order to alleviate several practical problems posed by the deep-water setting, we apply downward continuation (DC) to generate a virtual ocean bottom experiment data set prior to inversion. The new geometry after DC boosts up the shallow refractions, as well as avoiding cumbersome modelling through the thick water column, thus
An inverse problem by boundary element method
Tran-Cong, T.; Nguyen-Thien, T.; Graham, A.L.
1996-02-01
Boundary Element Methods (BEM) have been established as useful and powerful tools in a wide range of engineering applications, e.g. Brebbia et al. In this paper, we report a particular three dimensional implementation of a direct boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation and its application to numerical simulations of practical polymer processing operations. In particular, we will focus on the application of the present boundary element technology to simulate an inverse problem in plastics processing.by extrusion. The task is to design profile extrusion dies for plastics. The problem is highly non-linear due to material viscoelastic behaviours as well as unknown free surface conditions. As an example, the technique is shown to be effective in obtaining the die profiles corresponding to a square viscoelastic extrudate under different processing conditions. To further illustrate the capability of the method, examples of other non-trivial extrudate profiles and processing conditions are also given.
Some inversion formulas for the cone transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terzioglu, Fatma
2015-11-01
Several novel imaging applications have lead recently to a variety of Radon type transforms, where integration is made over a family of conical surfaces. We call them cone transforms (in 2D they are also called V-line or broken ray transforms). Most prominently, they are present in the so called Compton camera imaging that arises in medical diagnostics, astronomy, and lately in homeland security applications. Several specific incarnations of the cone transform have been considered separately. In this paper, we address the most general (and overdetermined) cone transform, obtain integral relations between cone and Radon transforms in {{{R}}}n, and a variety of inversion formulas. In many applications (e.g., in homeland security), the signal to noise ratio is very low. So, if overdetermined data is collected (as in the case of Compton imaging), attempts to reduce the dimensionality might lead to essential elimination of the signal. Thus, our main concentration is on obtaining formulas involving overdetermined data.
An inversion method for cometary atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hubert, B.; Opitom, C.; Hutsemékers, D.; Jehin, E.; Munhoven, G.; Manfroid, J.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Shematovich, V. I.
2016-10-01
Remote observation of cometary atmospheres produces a measurement of the cometary emissions integrated along the line of sight. This integration is the so-called Abel transform of the local emission rate. The observation is generally interpreted under the hypothesis of spherical symmetry of the coma. Under that hypothesis, the Abel transform can be inverted. We derive a numerical inversion method adapted to cometary atmospheres using both analytical results and least squares fitting techniques. This method, derived under the usual hypothesis of spherical symmetry, allows us to retrieve the radial distribution of the emission rate of any unabsorbed emission, which is the fundamental, physically meaningful quantity governing the observation. A Tikhonov regularization technique is also applied to reduce the possibly deleterious effects of the noise present in the observation and to warrant that the problem remains well posed. Standard error propagation techniques are included in order to estimate the uncertainties affecting the retrieved emission rate. Several theoretical tests of the inversion techniques are carried out to show its validity and robustness. In particular, we show that the Abel inversion of real data is only weakly sensitive to an offset applied to the input flux, which implies that the method, applied to the study of a cometary atmosphere, is only weakly dependent on uncertainties on the sky background which has to be subtracted from the raw observations of the coma. We apply the method to observations of three different comets observed using the TRAPPIST telescope: 103P/ Hartley 2, F6/ Lemmon and A1/ Siding Spring. We show that the method retrieves realistic emission rates, and that characteristic lengths and production rates can be derived from the emission rate for both CN and C2 molecules. We show that the retrieved characteristic lengths can differ from those obtained from a direct least squares fitting over the observed flux of radiation, and
The inverse problem for Schwinger pair production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebenstreit, Florian
2016-02-01
The production of electron-positron pairs in time-dependent electric fields (Schwinger mechanism) depends non-linearly on the applied field profile. Accordingly, the resulting momentum spectrum is extremely sensitive to small variations of the field parameters. Owing to this non-linear dependence it is so far unpredictable how to choose a field configuration such that a predetermined momentum distribution is generated. We show that quantum kinetic theory along with optimal control theory can be used to approximately solve this inverse problem for Schwinger pair production. We exemplify this by studying the superposition of a small number of harmonic components resulting in predetermined signatures in the asymptotic momentum spectrum. In the long run, our results could facilitate the observation of this yet unobserved pair production mechanism in quantum electrodynamics by providing suggestions for tailored field configurations.
Elasticity and Inverse Temperature Transition in Elastin
Perticaroli, Stefania; Ehlers, Georg; Jalarvo, Niina; ...
2015-09-22
Structurally, elastin is protein and biomaterial that provides elasticity and resilience to a range of tissues. This work provides insights into the elastic properties of elastin and its peculiar inverse temperature transition (ITT). These features are dependent on hydration of elastin and are driven by a similar mechanism of hydrophobic collapse to an entropically favorable state. Moreover, when using neutron scattering, we quantify the changes in the geometry of molecular motions above and below the transition temperature, showing a reduction in the displacement of water-induced motions upon hydrophobic collapse at the ITT. Finally, we measured the collective vibrations of elastinmore » gels as a function of elongation, revealing no changes in the spectral features associated with local rigidity and secondary structure, in agreement with the entropic origin of elasticity.« less
Elasticity and Inverse Temperature Transition in Elastin
Perticaroli, Stefania; Ehlers, Georg; Jalarvo, Niina; Katsaras, John; Nickels, Jonathan D.
2015-09-22
Structurally, elastin is protein and biomaterial that provides elasticity and resilience to a range of tissues. This work provides insights into the elastic properties of elastin and its peculiar inverse temperature transition (ITT). These features are dependent on hydration of elastin and are driven by a similar mechanism of hydrophobic collapse to an entropically favorable state. Moreover, when using neutron scattering, we quantify the changes in the geometry of molecular motions above and below the transition temperature, showing a reduction in the displacement of water-induced motions upon hydrophobic collapse at the ITT. Finally, we measured the collective vibrations of elastin gels as a function of elongation, revealing no changes in the spectral features associated with local rigidity and secondary structure, in agreement with the entropic origin of elasticity.
Gradient-based inverse extreme ultraviolet lithography.
Ma, Xu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Xuanbo; Li, Yanqiu; Arce, Gonzalo R
2015-08-20
Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the most promising successor of current deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography. The very short wavelength, reflective optics, and nontelecentric structure of EUV lithography systems bring in different imaging phenomena into the lithographic image synthesis problem. This paper develops a gradient-based inverse algorithm for EUV lithography systems to effectively improve the image fidelity by comprehensively compensating the optical proximity effect, flare, photoresist, and mask shadowing effects. A block-based method is applied to iteratively optimize the main features and subresolution assist features (SRAFs) of mask patterns, while simultaneously preserving the mask manufacturability. The mask shadowing effect may be compensated by a retargeting method based on a calibrated shadowing model. Illustrative simulations at 22 and 16 nm technology nodes are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Inverse of the string theory KLT kernel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizera, Sebastian
2017-06-01
The field theory Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) kernel, which relates scattering amplitudes of gravitons and gluons, turns out to be the inverse of a matrix whose components are bi-adjoint scalar partial amplitudes. In this note we propose an analogous construction for the string theory KLT kernel. We present simple diagrammatic rules for the computation of the α'-corrected bi-adjoint scalar amplitudes that are exact in α'. We find compact expressions in terms of graphs, where the standard Feynman propagators 1 /p 2 are replaced by either 1 /sin(π α' p 2 /2) or 1 /tan(π α' p 2 /2), as determined by a recursive procedure. We demonstrate how the same object can be used to conveniently expand open string partial amplitudes in a BCJ basis.
Initial Efforts at Asteroid Lightcurve Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warner, B. D.
2007-05-01
The problem of determining the shape of an asteroid from its lightcurve has been studied for many years. Henry Norris Russell presented a paper in 1906 that said it couldn't be done with any certainty. However, further study during the 20th century said otherwise and several methods were developed that had various levels of success. In the last several years, many asteroid shape and spin axis models have been produced using methods pioneered by Mikko Kaasalainen and others. The author has converted the original FORTRAN and C code of Kaasalainen and Durech so that it is available to anyone wanting to develop their own inversion program. Models based on lightcurves the author and others have obtained are shown.
Crosswell born inversion for heterogeneous velocity models
Hegge, R.F.; Herman, G.C.; Sevink, A.G.J.
1994-12-31
The application of high-frequency asymptotic Born inverse scattering methods to cross-well imaging is discussed and illustrated with a number of model studies for synthetic data. In particular, attention is given to imaging problems that are associated with typical cross-well geometries. A severe problem is the existence of multiple travel paths between sources and receivers that are particularly apparent if low-velocity layers are present. When this occurs, the high-frequency asymptotic imaging method is no longer valid and large artifacts in the images can result. However, it is concluded that, even in the case of multiple travel paths, good images can be obtained by omitting the singularities in the imaging formula and by combining the results for different source locations.
Inverse lithography using sparse mask representations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ionescu, Radu C.; Hurley, Paul; Apostol, Stefan
2015-03-01
We present a novel optimisation algorithm for inverse lithography, based on optimization of the mask derivative, a domain inherently sparse, and for rectilinear polygons, invertible. The method is first developed assuming a point light source, and then extended to general incoherent sources. What results is a fast algorithm, producing manufacturable masks (the search space is constrained to rectilinear polygons), and flexible (specific constraints such as minimal line widths can be imposed). One inherent trick is to treat polygons as continuous entities, thus making aerial image calculation extremely fast and accurate. Requirements for mask manufacturability can be integrated in the optimization without too much added complexity. We also explain how to extend the scheme for phase-changing mask optimization.
Testing Newton's Gravitational Inverse-Square Law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagedorn, Charles
2015-04-01
Newton's inverse-square law of gravitation is the oldest standing mathematical description of a fundamental interaction. Experimental tests of gravity's distance-dependence define a frontier between our understanding of gravity and many proposed forms of new physics. These experiments constrain the size of possible extra dimensions, bound attempted resolution of the cosmological-constant problem, search for self-interacting chameleons, make direct measurements at the dark-energy length-scale, and more. As gravity is ~1040 times weaker than electromagnetism, gravity remains hidden by experimental backgrounds at distances smaller than the diameter of a fine human hair. This talk will survey the past, present, and near-future of the experimental field, with substantial emphasis on precision sub-millimeter laboratory experiments.
Intermediate simulation of the inverse seismic problem
Brolley, J.E.
1980-03-01
An introductory study of the inverse seismic problem is performed. The complex cepstrum of a seismogram generated by the convolution of three factors, the Seggern-Blandford source function of an explosion, the Futterman mantle transfer function, and the SRO seismometer transfer function, is used. For a given Q and yield, a synthetic seismogram is computed. Arbitrary values of Q and yield are introduced, and a search is conducted to find that pair of values that minimized the cepstral difference between the original and arbitrary seismograms. The original values are accurately recovered. Spectral and amplitude characteristics of the various factors are presented. Possible application to the problem of studying a medium intervening between a source and receiver is discussed. 25 figures, 1 table.
Time Domain Viscoelastic Full Waveform Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabien-Ouellet, Gabriel; Gloaguen, Erwan; Giroux, Bernard
2017-03-01
Viscous attenuation can have a strong impact on seismic wave propagation, but it is rarely taken into account in full waveform inversion (FWI). When viscoelasticity is considered in time domain FWI, the displacement formulation of the wave equation is usually used instead of the popular velocity-stress formulation. However, inversion schemes rely on the adjoint equations, which are quite different for the velocity-stress formulation than for the displacement formulation. In this paper, we apply the adjoint state method to the isotropic viscoelastic wave equation in the velocity-stress formulation based on the generalized standard linear solid rheology. By applying linear transformations to the wave equation before deriving the adjoint state equations, we obtain two symmetric sets of partial differential equations for the forward and adjoint variables. The resulting sets of equations only differ by a sign change and can be solved by the same numerical implementation. We also investigate the crosstalk between parameter classes (velocity and attenuation) of the viscoelastic equation. More specifically, we show that the attenuation levels can be used to recover the quality factors of P- and S- waves, but that they are very sensitive to velocity errors. Finally, we present a synthetic example of viscoelastic FWI in the context of monitoring CO2 geological sequestration. We show that FWI based on our formulation can indeed recover P- and S- wave velocities and their attenuation levels when attenuation is high enough. Both changes in velocity and attenuation levels recovered with FWI can be used to track the CO2 plume during and after injection. Further studies are required to evaluate the performance of viscoelastic FWI on real data.
Lewis inverse design code (LINDES): Users manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanz, Jose M.
1987-01-01
The method of complex characteristics and hodograph transformation for the design of shockless airfoils was introduced by Bauer, Garabedian, and Korn and has been extended by the author to design subcritical and supercritical cascades with high solidities and large inlet angles. This new capability was achieved by introducing a new conformal mapping of the hodograph domain onto an ellipse and expanding the solution in terms of Chebyshev polynomials. A new computer code, the NASA Lewis inverse design code, was developed based on this idea. This new design code is an efficient method for the design of airfoils in cascade. In particular, the design of subcritical cascades of airfoils is a very fast, robust, and versatile process. The inverse design code can be made to interact with a turbulent boundary layer calculation to obtain airfoils with no separated flows at the design condition. This report is intended to serve as a users manual for this design code. Material previously reported by the author is included here for completeness and quick access to the user. The manual contains a description of the method followed by a discussion of the design procedure and examples. The input parameters necessary to run the code are then described and their default values given. Output listings corresponding to six different blade shapes designed with the code are given, as well as the necessary input data to reproduce the computer runs. The examples have been chosen to show that a wide range of applications can be covered with the code, ranging from supercritical propeller sections to wind tunnel turning vanes that can operate with a large inlet flow angle range.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamick, Larry; Robinson, Shadow; Sharon, Yitzhak
2011-04-01
Two different interactions give very close results for properties of most even-even Ar isotopes, but for 46 Ar the results diverge. The interactions in question are a). WBT and b). SPDF-U. For 42 , 44 , 46 Ar the results are as follows : WBT E(21 +) (1 . 29 , 1 . 17 , 1 . 14) MeV E(22 +) (2 . 32 , 1 . 80 , 2 . 10) MeV g(21 +) (- . 095 , - . 022 , + . 100) g(22 +) (. 096 , . 045 , - . 070) SPDF-U E(21 +) (1 . 15 , 1 . 09 , 1 . 59) MeV E(22 +) (2 . 28 , 1 . 78 , 3 . 77) MeV g(21 +) (- . 084 , - . 040 , + . 513) g(22 +) (+ . 075 , + . 346 , + . 514). To understand the big differences for A = 46 we must look to the odd K isotopes. Consider the J = 3 / 2+-- J = 1 / 2+ splitting.(MeV) EXPT/WBT/SPDF-U A = 43 0 . 561 , 1 . 109 , 0 . 672 A = 45 0 . 474 , 0 . 871 , 0 . 345 A = 47 - 0 . 360 , 0 . 507 , - 0 . 320 A = 49 0 . 200 , 0 . 729 , 0 . 078 . We see that there is an inversion in the ``d3/2 -s1/2'' splitting for 47 K. The SPDF-U interaction successfully gives this inversion but WBT does not. Things are a bit different for B(E2, 01 - 21) . The values in e2 fm4 are WBT (338 , 425 , 541) /SPDF-U (351 , 357 , 525). Here the 2 interactions give very similar results. Both interactions yield a larger B(E2) for 46Ar than for 44Ar, as do previous calculations by others. This despite the fact that in single j A = 46 has a closed shell of neutrons. Most experimental measurements had the opposite--larger B(E2) for A = 44 than for A = 46 . But a most recent measurement by Mengone et al. disagrees with all previous measurements and agrees with the current shell model calculations.
The inverse gravimetric problem in gravity modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanso, F.; Tscherning, C. C.
1989-01-01
One of the main purposes of geodesy is to determine the gravity field of the Earth in the space outside its physical surface. This purpose can be pursued without any particular knowledge of the internal density even if the exact shape of the physical surface of the Earth is not known, though this seems to entangle the two domains, as it was in the old Stoke's theory before the appearance of Molodensky's approach. Nevertheless, even when large, dense and homogeneous data sets are available, it was always recognized that subtracting from the gravity field the effect of the outer layer of the masses (topographic effect) yields a much smoother field. This is obviously more important when a sparse data set is bad so that any smoothing of the gravity field helps in interpolating between the data without raising the modeling error, this approach is generally followed because it has become very cheap in terms of computing time since the appearance of spectral techniques. The mathematical description of the Inverse Gravimetric Problem (IGP) is dominated mainly by two principles, which in loose terms can be formulated as follows: the knowledge of the external gravity field determines mainly the lateral variations of the density; and the deeper the density anomaly giving rise to a gravity anomaly, the more improperly posed is the problem of recovering the former from the latter. The statistical relation between rho and n (and its inverse) is also investigated in its general form, proving that degree cross-covariances have to be introduced to describe the behavior of rho. The problem of the simultaneous estimate of a spherical anomalous potential and of the external, topographic masses is addressed criticizing the choice of the mixed collection approach.
Analytical benchmark solutions via numerical transform inversion
Ganapol, B.D.
1994-12-31
In all elementary texts on transport theory of which this author is aware, the first problem demonstrated is for the Green`s function of the one-group transport equation in an infinite medium. Except for Case`s method, the solution is obtained via a Fourier transform. Even when demonstrating Case`s method, the point is usually made that Case`s method and the Fourier transform method are virtually identical. The inversion is then performed analytically, requiring the reader to recall how a residue is formed and how to integrate along branch cuts with no more reward at the end than having to deal with the evaluation of a relatively complicated integral if numerical results are desired. For those scientists, engineers, and applied mathematicians who do not wish to learn transport theory or complex variables but who are in need of the Green`s function solution, there is apparently little recourse - until now. With today`s {open_quotes}number crunching{close_quotes} computational environments and associated developments in numerical methods, numerical Fourier and Laplace transform inversions are relatively commonplace. For this reason with recently developed software contained in the {open_quotes}Analytical Benchmark Libran for Nuclear Engineering,{close_quotes} the scalar flux Green`s function solution even with anisotropic scattering can be obtained numerically with minimal input indicating only the desired relative error, the coefficients of the scattering kernel, and the spatial edit points. The same is true for transport in a half-space and will soon be true for transport in a slab. The solution method, its advantages and disadvantages, and a demonstration are presented.
"Inverse Sandwich" Complexes of Perhalogenated Cyclohexasilane
Dai, Xuliang; Shulz, Douglas; Braun, Christopher; Ugrinov, Angel; and Boudjouk, Philip
2010-04-20
Perhalogenated cyclohexasilanes, Si_{6}X_{12} (X = Cl, Br), were prepared by reaction of Si_{6}H_{12} with molecular chlorine or bromine in cold (-89 °C) dichloromethane. Single-crystal structural determination by X-ray analysis shows that the six silicon atoms comprising Si_{6}Br_{12} adopt a chair conformation in the solid state. The addition of p-tolunitrile to Si_{6}X_{12} (X = Cl, Br) leads to the rapid formation of colorless precipitates. Si_{6}Br_{12} 3 2(p-CH_{3}C_{6}H_{4}CN) adopts an 'inverse sandwich' structure where the N atoms of the p-tolunitrile molecules are μ_{6} bonded and are located above and below the planar hexagonal Si_{6} ring. In conclusion, Si_{6}X_{12} (X = Cl, Br) was synthesized by molecular halogenation of Si_{6}H_{12} in high yield and good purity. Perhalogenated cyclohexasilanes react with p-tolunitrile to give 'inverse sandwich' adducts 3 and 4 with a planar Si_{6} ring upon coordination. Our future reports will detail dianionic adducts based on tetra-n-butylammonium halides as well as a monoanionic adamantyl azide adduct of Si_{6}Cl_{12}. It is straightforward to conceptualize the utility of Si_{6}X_{12} ∙ Ln chemistry in molecular assembly of silicon-based clusters/tubes/wires. Thereby, we proffer that this constitutes a new landscape in Si chemistry.
Sensitivity analysis of distributed volcanic source inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cannavo', Flavio; Camacho, Antonio G.; González, Pablo J.; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Fernández, José
2016-04-01
A recently proposed algorithm (Camacho et al., 2011) claims to rapidly estimate magmatic sources from surface geodetic data without any a priori assumption about source geometry. The algorithm takes the advantages of fast calculation from the analytical models and adds the capability to model free-shape distributed sources. Assuming homogenous elastic conditions, the approach can determine general geometrical configurations of pressured and/or density source and/or sliding structures corresponding to prescribed values of anomalous density, pressure and slip. These source bodies are described as aggregation of elemental point sources for pressure, density and slip, and they fit the whole data (keeping some 3D regularity conditions). Although some examples and applications have been already presented to demonstrate the ability of the algorithm in reconstructing a magma pressure source (e.g. Camacho et al., 2011,Cannavò et al., 2015), a systematic analysis of sensitivity and reliability of the algorithm is still lacking. In this explorative work we present results from a large statistical test designed to evaluate the advantages and limitations of the methodology by assessing its sensitivity to the free and constrained parameters involved in inversions. In particular, besides the source parameters, we focused on the ground deformation network topology, and noise in measurements. The proposed analysis can be used for a better interpretation of the algorithm results in real-case applications. Camacho, A. G., González, P. J., Fernández, J. & Berrino, G. (2011) Simultaneous inversion of surface deformation and gravity changes by means of extended bodies with a free geometry: Application to deforming calderas. J. Geophys. Res. 116. Cannavò F., Camacho A.G., González P.J., Mattia M., Puglisi G., Fernández J. (2015) Real Time Tracking of Magmatic Intrusions by means of Ground Deformation Modeling during Volcanic Crises, Scientific Reports, 5 (10970) doi:10.1038/srep
Full waveform inversion of solar interior flows
Hanasoge, Shravan M.
2014-12-10
The inference of flows of material in the interior of the Sun is a subject of major interest in helioseismology. Here, we apply techniques of full waveform inversion (FWI) to synthetic data to test flow inversions. In this idealized setup, we do not model seismic realization noise, training the focus entirely on the problem of whether a chosen supergranulation flow model can be seismically recovered. We define the misfit functional as a sum of L {sub 2} norm deviations in travel times between prediction and observation, as measured using short-distance filtered f and p {sub 1} and large-distance unfiltered p modes. FWI allows for the introduction of measurements of choice and iteratively improving the background model, while monitoring the evolution of the misfit in all desired categories. Although the misfit is seen to uniformly reduce in all categories, convergence to the true model is very slow, possibly because it is trapped in a local minimum. The primary source of error is inaccurate depth localization, which, due to density stratification, leads to wrong ratios of horizontal and vertical flow velocities ({sup c}ross talk{sup )}. In the present formulation, the lack of sufficient temporal frequency and spatial resolution makes it difficult to accurately localize flow profiles at depth. We therefore suggest that the most efficient way to discover the global minimum is to perform a probabilistic forward search, involving calculating the misfit associated with a broad range of models (generated, for instance, by a Monte Carlo algorithm) and locating the deepest minimum. Such techniques possess the added advantage of being able to quantify model uncertainty as well as realization noise (data uncertainty).
Direct Waveform Inversion: a New Recursive Scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Y.
2015-12-01
The goal of the full-waveform inversion (FWI) is to find an Earth's model such that the synthetic waveforms computed using the model fit the observed ones. In practice, such a model is found in the context of the perturbation approach in an iterative fashion. Specifically, to find such a model, one starts from an initial global velocity model and perform model updating iteratively based on the Frechet derivative or single scattering by adjoint methods to minimize some cost function. However, this process often leads to local minima for the nonlinear cost function in the optimization and slow or no convergence when the starting model is far from the true model. To solve for the initial-model dependence and the convergence issue, we show a new direct waveform inversion (DWI) idea to directly invert the waveform data recursively by explicitly enforcing the causality principle. The DWI offers the advantage of assuming no global initial model and no iteration is needed for the model updating. Starting from the source-receiver region, the DWI builds the model outward recursively by fitting the earliest part of the reflection waveforms and the DWI process is always convergent. The DWI combines seismic imaging and velocity model building into one single process and this is in contrast to many industrial applications where seismic imaging/migration and velocity modeling building are done alternatively. The DWI idea is applicable to one-, two-, and three-dimensional spaces. We show numerical examples to support our idea using full waveform data including both free-surface and inter-bed multiples. Using reflection seismic data, we show that the DWI can invert for both velocity and density, separately.
Stochastic inverse problems: Models and metrics
Sabbagh, Elias H.; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Aldrin, John C.; Annis, Charles; Knopp, Jeremy S.
2015-03-31
In past work, we introduced model-based inverse methods, and applied them to problems in which the anomaly could be reasonably modeled by simple canonical shapes, such as rectangular solids. In these cases the parameters to be inverted would be length, width and height, as well as the occasional probe lift-off or rotation. We are now developing a formulation that allows more flexibility in modeling complex flaws. The idea consists of expanding the flaw in a sequence of basis functions, and then solving for the expansion coefficients of this sequence, which are modeled as independent random variables, uniformly distributed over their range of values. There are a number of applications of such modeling: 1. Connected cracks and multiple half-moons, which we have noted in a POD set. Ideally we would like to distinguish connected cracks from one long shallow crack. 2. Cracks of irregular profile and shape which have appeared in cold work holes during bolt-hole eddy-current inspection. One side of such cracks is much deeper than other. 3. L or C shaped crack profiles at the surface, examples of which have been seen in bolt-hole cracks. By formulating problems in a stochastic sense, we are able to leverage the stochastic global optimization algorithms in NLSE, which is resident in VIC-3D®, to answer questions of global minimization and to compute confidence bounds using the sensitivity coefficient that we get from NLSE. We will also address the issue of surrogate functions which are used during the inversion process, and how they contribute to the quality of the estimation of the bounds.
Constrained Inversion of Enceladus Interaction Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herbert, Floyd; Khurana, K. K.
2007-10-01
Many detailed and sophisticated ab initio calculations of the electrodynamic interaction of Enceladus' plume with Saturn's corotating magnetospheric plasma flow have been computed. So far, however, all such calculations have been forward models, that assume the properties of the plume and compute perturbations to the magnetic (and in some cases, flow velocity) field. As a complement to the forward calculations, work reported here explores the inverse approach, of using simplified physical models of the interaction for computationally inverting the observed magnetic field perturbations of the interaction, in order to determine the cross-B-field conductivity distribution near Enceladus, and from that, the neutral gas distribution. Direct inversion of magnetic field observations to current systems is, of course, impossible, but adding the additional constraint of the interaction physics greatly reduces the non-uniqueness of the computed result. This approach was successfully used by Herbert (JGR 90:8241, 1985) to constrain the atmospheric distribution on Io and the Io torus mass density at the time of the Voyager encounter. Work so far has derived the expected result that there is a cone-shaped region of enhanced cross-field conductivity south of Enceladus, through which currents are driven by the motional electric field. That is, near Enceladus' south pole the cross-field currents are localized, but more widely spread at greater distance. This cross-field conductivity is presumably both pickup and collisional (Pedersen and Hall). Due to enforcement of current conservation, Alfven-wing-like currents north of the main part of the interaction region seem to close partly around Enceladus (assumed insulating) and also to continue northward with attenuated intensity, as though there were a tenuous global exosphere on Enceladus providing additional cross-field conductivity. FH thanks the NASA Outer Planets Research, Planetary Atmospheres, and Geospace Science Programs for
Time domain viscoelastic full waveform inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabien-Ouellet, Gabriel; Gloaguen, Erwan; Giroux, Bernard
2017-06-01
Viscous attenuation can have a strong impact on seismic wave propagation, but it is rarely taken into account in full waveform inversion (FWI). When viscoelasticity is considered in time domain FWI, the displacement formulation of the wave equation is usually used instead of the popular velocity-stress formulation. However, inversion schemes rely on the adjoint equations, which are quite different for the velocity-stress formulation than for the displacement formulation. In this paper, we apply the adjoint state method to the isotropic viscoelastic wave equation in the velocity-stress formulation based on the generalized standard linear solid rheology. By applying linear transformations to the wave equation before deriving the adjoint state equations, we obtain two symmetric sets of partial differential equations for the forward and adjoint variables. The resulting sets of equations only differ by a sign change and can be solved by the same numerical implementation. We also investigate the crosstalk between parameter classes (velocity and attenuation) of the viscoelastic equation. More specifically, we show that the attenuation levels can be used to recover the quality factors of P and S waves, but that they are very sensitive to velocity errors. Finally, we present a synthetic example of viscoelastic FWI in the context of monitoring CO2 geological sequestration. We show that FWI based on our formulation can indeed recover P- and S-wave velocities and their attenuation levels when attenuation is high enough. Both changes in velocity and attenuation levels recovered with FWI can be used to track the CO2 plume during and after injection. Further studies are required to evaluate the performance of viscoelastic FWI on real data.
On the design of pole modules for inverse systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wyman, B. F.; Sain, M. K.
1985-01-01
When a linear dynamical system admits more than one inverse, it is known that the pole module of any inverse must contain, either as a submodule or as a factor module, a module of fixed poles isomorphic to the zero module of the original system. Design of the pole module for such an inverse system is resolved by introducing a variable pole module for the inverse, by determining necessary and sufficient conditions for a desired module to be a variable pole module, and by studying the manner in which the fixed and variable modules assemble into the pole module of the inverse. If the fixed and variable pole spectra are disjoint, the pole module of the inverse system is a direct sum of the fixed- and variable-pole modules; if not, procedures for addressing the Jordan structure are presented.
Characterizing the inverses of block tridiagonal, block Toeplitz matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boffi, Nicholas M.; Hill, Judith C.; Reuter, Matthew G.
2015-01-01
We consider the inversion of block tridiagonal, block Toeplitz matrices and comment on the behaviour of these inverses as one moves away from the diagonal. Using matrix Möbius transformations, we first present an O(1) representation (with respect to the number of block rows and block columns) for the inverse matrix and subsequently use this representation to characterize the inverse matrix. There are four symmetry-distinct cases where the blocks of the inverse matrix (i) decay to zero on both sides of the diagonal, (ii) oscillate on both sides, (iii) decay on one side and oscillate on the other and (iv) decay on one side and grow on the other. This characterization exposes the necessary conditions for the inverse matrix to be numerically banded and may also aid in the design of preconditioners and fast algorithms. Finally, we present numerical examples of these matrix types.
An evolutive real-time source inversion based on a linear inverse formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez Reyes, H. S.; Tago, J.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Metivier, L.; Contreras Zazueta, M. A.; Virieux, J.
2016-12-01
Finite source inversion is a steppingstone to unveil earthquake rupture. It is used on ground motion predictions and its results shed light on seismic cycle for better tectonic understanding. It is not yet used for quasi-real-time analysis. Nowadays, significant progress has been made on approaches regarding earthquake imaging, thanks to new data acquisition and methodological advances. However, most of these techniques are posterior procedures once seismograms are available. Incorporating source parameters estimation into early warning systems would require to update the source build-up while recording data. In order to go toward this dynamic estimation, we developed a kinematic source inversion formulated in the time-domain, for which seismograms are linearly related to the slip distribution on the fault through convolutions with Green's functions previously estimated and stored (Perton et al., 2016). These convolutions are performed in the time-domain as we progressively increase the time window of records at each station specifically. Selected unknowns are the spatio-temporal slip-rate distribution to keep the linearity of the forward problem with respect to unknowns, as promoted by Fan and Shearer (2014). Through the spatial extension of the expected rupture zone, we progressively build-up the slip-rate when adding new data by assuming rupture causality. This formulation is based on the adjoint-state method for efficiency (Plessix, 2006). The inverse problem is non-unique and, in most cases, underdetermined. While standard regularization terms are used for stabilizing the inversion, we avoid strategies based on parameter reduction leading to an unwanted non-linear relationship between parameters and seismograms for our progressive build-up. Rise time, rupture velocity and other quantities can be extracted later on as attributs from the slip-rate inversion we perform. Satisfactory results are obtained on a synthetic example (FIgure 1) proposed by the Source
Bayesian geoacoustic inversion in a dynamic shallow water environment.
Jiang, Yong-Min; Chapman, N Ross
2008-06-01
This paper presents results for matched field Bayesian geoacoustic inversion of multitonal continuous wave data collected on the New Jersey continental shelf. To account for effects of significant spatial and temporal variation of the water column sound speed, the sound speed profile was represented by empirical orthogonal functions. Data error information for the inversion was estimated from multiple time windows of the data. Inversion results for the sediment sound speeds at three ranges are in excellent agreement with the ground truth.
Generalized matrix inversion is not harder than matrix multiplication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petkovic, Marko D.; Stanimirovic, Predrag S.
2009-08-01
Starting from the Strassen method for rapid matrix multiplication and inversion as well as from the recursive Cholesky factorization algorithm, we introduced a completely block recursive algorithm for generalized Cholesky factorization of a given symmetric, positive semi-definite matrix . We used the Strassen method for matrix inversion together with the recursive generalized Cholesky factorization method, and established an algorithm for computing generalized {2,3} and {2,4} inverses. Introduced algorithms are not harder than the matrix-matrix multiplication.
Quadratic function approaching method for magnetotelluric soundingdata inversion
Liangjun, Yan; Wenbao, Hu; Zhang, Keni
2004-04-05
The quadratic function approaching method (QFAM) is introduced for magnetotelluric sounding (MT) data inversion. The method takes the advantage of that quadratic function has single extreme value, which avoids leading to an inversion solution for local minimum and ensures the solution for global minimization of an objective function. The method does not need calculation of sensitivity matrix and not require a strict initial earth model. Examples for synthetic data and field measurement data indicate that the proposed inversion method is effective.
Population Genomics of Inversion Polymorphisms in Drosophila melanogaster
Corbett-Detig, Russell B.; Hartl, Daniel L.
2012-01-01
Chromosomal inversions have been an enduring interest of population geneticists since their discovery in Drosophila melanogaster. Numerous lines of evidence suggest powerful selective pressures govern the distributions of polymorphic inversions, and these observations have spurred the development of many explanatory models. However, due to a paucity of nucleotide data, little progress has been made towards investigating selective hypotheses or towards inferring the genealogical histories of inversions, which can inform models of inversion evolution and suggest selective mechanisms. Here, we utilize population genomic data to address persisting gaps in our knowledge of D. melanogaster's inversions. We develop a method, termed Reference-Assisted Reassembly, to assemble unbiased, highly accurate sequences near inversion breakpoints, which we use to estimate the age and the geographic origins of polymorphic inversions. We find that inversions are young, and most are African in origin, which is consistent with the demography of the species. The data suggest that inversions interact with polymorphism not only in breakpoint regions but also chromosome-wide. Inversions remain differentiated at low levels from standard haplotypes even in regions that are distant from breakpoints. Although genetic exchange appears fairly extensive, we identify numerous regions that are qualitatively consistent with selective hypotheses. Finally, we show that In(1)Be, which we estimate to be ∼60 years old (95% CI 5.9 to 372.8 years), has likely achieved high frequency via sex-ratio segregation distortion in males. With deeper sampling, it will be possible to build on our inferences of inversion histories to rigorously test selective models—particularly those that postulate that inversions achieve a selective advantage through the maintenance of co-adapted allele complexes. PMID:23284285
Inverse Analysis of Cavitation Impact Phenomena on Structures
2007-07-02
Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--07-9051 Inverse Analysis of Cavitation Impact Phenomena on Structures July 2, 2007...ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Inverse Analysis of Cavitation Impact Phenomena on Structures S.G. Lambrakos and N.E...signature analysis A general methodology is presented for in situ detection of cavitation impact phenomena on structures based on inverse analysis of
Dirac Points in Two-Dimensional Inverse Opals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahan, G. D.
2013-10-01
The electron energy states and energy bands are calculated for a two-dimensional inverse opal structure. Assume that the opal structure is closed-packed circles, the inverse opal has the honeycomb lattice. The honeycomb lattice in two dimensions has a Dirac point. Its properties can be manipulated by altering the structure of the inverse opal: the radius of the circle, and the small gap between circles.
Distribution modeling of nonlinear inverse controllers under a Bayesian framework.
Herzallah, Randa; Lowe, David
2007-01-01
The inverse controller is traditionally assumed to be a deterministic function. This paper presents a pedagogical methodology for estimating the stochastic model of the inverse controller. The proposed method is based on Bayes' theorem. Using Bayes' rule to obtain the stochastic model of the inverse controller allows the use of knowledge of uncertainty from both the inverse and the forward model in estimating the optimal control signal. The paper presents the methodology for general nonlinear systems and is demonstrated on nonlinear single-input-single-output (SISO) and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) examples.
Updated Results for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robins, Robert E.; Lai, David Y.; Delisi, Donald P.; Mellman, George R.
2008-01-01
NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an Inverse Model for inverting aircraft wake vortex data. The objective of the inverse modeling is to obtain estimates of the vortex circulation decay and crosswind vertical profiles, using time history measurements of the lateral and vertical position of aircraft vortices. The Inverse Model performs iterative forward model runs using estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Outputs from an Inverse Model run are the best estimates of the time history of the vortex circulation derived from the observed data, the vertical crosswind profile, and several vortex parameters. The forward model, named SHRAPA, used in this inverse modeling is a modified version of the Shear-APA model, and it is described in Section 2 of this document. Details of the Inverse Model are presented in Section 3. The Inverse Model was applied to lidar-observed vortex data at three airports: FAA acquired data from San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and Denver International Airport (DEN), and NASA acquired data from Memphis International Airport (MEM). The results are compared with observed data. This Inverse Model validation is documented in Section 4. A summary is given in Section 5. A user's guide for the inverse wake vortex model is presented in a separate NorthWest Research Associates technical report (Lai and Delisi, 2007a).
An inverse dynamic method yielding flexible manipulator state trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwon, Dong-Soo; Book, Wayne J.
1990-01-01
An inverse dynamic equation for a flexible manipulator is derived in a state form. By dividing the inverse system into the causal part and the anticausal part, torque is calculated in the time domain for a certain end point trajectory, as well as trajectories of all state variables. The open loop control of the inverse dynamic method shows an excellent result in simulation. For practical applications, a control strategy adapting feedback tracking control to the inverse dynamic feedforward control is illustrated, and its good experimental result is presented.
Frequency domain, waveform inversion of laboratory crosswell radar data
Ellefsen, Karl J.; Mazzella, Aldo T.; Horton, Robert J.; McKenna, Jason R.
2010-01-01
A new waveform inversion for crosswell radar is formulated in the frequency-domain for a 2.5D model. The inversion simulates radar waves using the vector Helmholtz equation for electromagnetic waves. The objective function is minimized using a backpropagation method suitable for a 2.5D model. The inversion is tested by processing crosswell radar data collected in a laboratory tank. The estimated model is consistent with the known electromagnetic properties of the tank. The formulation for the 2.5D model can be extended to inversions of acoustic and elastic data.
Efficient 2d full waveform inversion using Fortran coarray
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Donghyun; Kim, ahreum; Ha, Wansoo
2016-04-01
We developed a time-domain seismic inversion program using the coarray feature of the Fortran 2008 standard to parallelize the algorithm. We converted a 2d acoustic parallel full waveform inversion program with Message Passing Interface (MPI) to a coarray program and examined performance of the two inversion programs. The results show that the speed of the waveform inversion program using the coarray is slightly faster than that of the MPI version. The standard coarray lacks features for collective communication; however, it can be improved in following standards since it is introduced recently. The parallel algorithm can be applied for 3D seismic data processing.
An inverse dynamic method yielding flexible manipulator state trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwon, Dong-Soo; Book, Wayne J.
1990-01-01
An inverse dynamic equation for a flexible manipulator is derived in a state form. By dividing the inverse system into the causal part and the anticausal part, one can calculate torque in the time domain for a certain end-point trajectory, as well as trajectories of all state variables. The open-loop control of the inverse dynamic method shows an excellent result in simulation. For practical applications, a control strategy adapting feedback tracking control to the inverse dynamic feedforward control is illustrated, and experimental results are presented.
Chromosome inversions, adaptive cassettes and the evolution of species' ranges.
Kirkpatrick, Mark; Barrett, Brian
2015-05-01
A chromosome inversion can spread when it captures locally adapted alleles or when it is introduced into a species by hybridization with adapted alleles that were previously absent. We present a model that shows how both processes can cause a species range to expand. Introgression of an inversion that carries novel, locally adapted alleles is a particularly powerful mechanism for range expansion. The model supports the earlier proposal that introgression of an inversion triggered a large range expansion of a malaria mosquito. These results suggest a role for inversions as cassettes of genes that can accelerate adaptation by crossing species boundaries, rather than protecting genomes from introgression.
Key parameter optimization and analysis of stochastic seismic inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhe-Yuan; Gan, Li-Deng; Dai, Xiao-Feng; Li, Ling-Gao; Wang, Jun
2012-03-01
Stochastic seismic inversion is the combination of geostatistics and seismic inversion technology which integrates information from seismic records, well logs, and geostatistics into a posterior probability density function (PDF) of subsurface models. The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is used to sample the posterior PDF and the subsurface model characteristics can be inferred by analyzing a set of the posterior PDF samples. In this paper, we first introduce the stochastic seismic inversion theory, discuss and analyze the four key parameters: seismic data signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), variogram, the posterior PDF sample number, and well density, and propose the optimum selection of these parameters. The analysis results show that seismic data S/N adjusts the compromise between the influence of the seismic data and geostatistics on the inversion results, the variogram controls the smoothness of the inversion results, the posterior PDF sample number determines the reliability of the statistical characteristics derived from the samples, and well density influences the inversion uncertainty. Finally, the comparison between the stochastic seismic inversion and the deterministic model based seismic inversion indicates that the stochastic seismic inversion can provide more reliable information of the subsurface character.
Inverse Methods. Interdisciplinary Elements of Methodology, Computation, and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobsen, Bo Holm; Mosegaard, Klaus; Sibani, Paolo
Over the last few decades inversion concepts have become an integral part of experimental data interpretation in several branches of science. In numerous cases similar inversion-like techniques were developed independently in separate disciplines, sometimes based on different lines of reasoning, but not always to the same level of sophistication. This book is based on the Interdisciplinary Inversion Conference held at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. For scientists and graduate students in geophysics, astronomy, oceanography, petroleum geology, and geodesy, the book offers a wide variety of examples and theoretical background in the field of inversion techniques.
Voxel inversion of airborne electromagnetic data for improved model integration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Kirkegaard, Casper; Vest Christiansen, Anders
2014-05-01
Inversion of electromagnetic data has migrated from single site interpretations to inversions including entire surveys using spatial constraints to obtain geologically reasonable results. Though, the model space is usually linked to the actual observation points. For airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys the spatial discretization of the model space reflects the flight lines. On the contrary, geological and groundwater models most often refer to a regular voxel grid, not correlated to the geophysical model space, and the geophysical information has to be relocated for integration in (hydro)geological models. We have developed a new geophysical inversion algorithm working directly in a voxel grid disconnected from the actual measuring points, which then allows for informing directly geological/hydrogeological models. The new voxel model space defines the soil properties (like resistivity) on a set of nodes, and the distribution of the soil properties is computed everywhere by means of an interpolation function (e.g. inverse distance or kriging). Given this definition of the voxel model space, the 1D forward responses of the AEM data are computed as follows: 1) a 1D model subdivision, in terms of model thicknesses, is defined for each 1D data set, creating "virtual" layers. 2) the "virtual" 1D models at the sounding positions are finalized by interpolating the soil properties (the resistivity) in the center of the "virtual" layers. 3) the forward response is computed in 1D for each "virtual" model. We tested the new inversion scheme on an AEM survey carried out with the SkyTEM system close to Odder, in Denmark. The survey comprises 106054 dual mode AEM soundings, and covers an area of approximately 13 km X 16 km. The voxel inversion was carried out on a structured grid of 260 X 325 X 29 xyz nodes (50 m xy spacing), for a total of 2450500 inversion parameters. A classical spatially constrained inversion (SCI) was carried out on the same data set, using 106054
Robust dynamic inversion control laws for aircraft control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balas, Gary J.; Garrard, William L.; Reiner, Jakob
1992-01-01
Dynamic inversion is a technique for control law design in which feedback is used to simultaneously cancel system dynamics and achieve desired dynamic response characteristics. However, dynamic inversion control laws lack robustness to modeling errors if improperly designed. This paper examines a simple linear example, control of roll rate about the body axis of high performance aircraft, to illustrate some robustness problems which may occur with a simple dynamic inversion control law. The paper demonstrates how structured singular value synthesis techniques can be used to enhance the robustness properties of the dynamic inversion controller.
Inverse Beta: Inverse cumulative density function (CDF) of a Beta distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kipping, David
2014-03-01
The Beta Inverse code solves the inverse cumulative density function (CDF) of a Beta distribution, allowing one to sample from the Beta prior directly. The Beta distribution is well suited as a prior for the distribution of the orbital eccentricities of extrasolar planets; imposing a Beta prior on orbital eccentricity is valuable for any type of observation of an exoplanet where eccentricity can affect the model parameters (e.g. transits, radial velocities, microlensing, direct imaging). The Beta prior is an excellent description of the current, empirically determined distribution of orbital eccentricities and thus employing it naturally incorporates an observer’s prior experience of what types of orbits are probable or improbable. The default parameters in the code are currently set to the Beta distribution which best describes the entire population of exoplanets with well-constrained orbits.
3D stochastic inversion and joint inversion of potential fields for multi scale parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamsipour, Pejman
In this thesis we present the development of new techniques for the interpretation of potential field (gravity and magnetic data), which are the most widespread economic geophysical methods used for oil and mineral exploration. These new techniques help to address the long-standing issue with the interpretation of potential fields, namely the intrinsic non-uniqueness inversion of these types of data. The thesis takes the form of three papers (four including Appendix), which have been published, or soon to be published, in respected international journals. The purpose of the thesis is to introduce new methods based on 3D stochastical approaches for: 1) Inversion of potential field data (magnetic), 2) Multiscale Inversion using surface and borehole data and 3) Joint inversion of geophysical potential field data. We first present a stochastic inversion method based on a geostatistical approach to recover 3D susceptibility models from magnetic data. The aim of applying geostatistics is to provide quantitative descriptions of natural variables distributed in space or in time and space. We evaluate the uncertainty on the parameter model by using geostatistical unconditional simulations. The realizations are post-conditioned by cokriging to observation data. In order to avoid the natural tendency of the estimated structure to lay near the surface, depth weighting is included in the cokriging system. Then, we introduce algorithm for multiscale inversion, the presented algorithm has the capability of inverting data on multiple supports. The method involves four main steps: i. upscaling of borehole parameters (It could be density or susceptibility) to block parameters, ii. selection of block to use as constraints based on a threshold on kriging variance, iii. inversion of observation data with selected block densities as constraints, and iv. downscaling of inverted parameters to small prisms. Two modes of application are presented: estimation and simulation. Finally, a novel
Pettenati, M.J.; Rao, P.N.; Grss, F.
1995-01-16
We present a large review of 446 cases of paracentric inversions (PAI), including 120 new cases, to assess their incidence, distribution, inheritance, modes of ascertainment, interchromosomal effects, viable recombinant offspring, and clinical relevance. All 23 autosomes and sex chromosomes had inversions. However, none were identified in chromosome arms 18p, 19q, 20q, and Yp. PAI were most commonly reported in chromosomes 4, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and Y. Inversions were most common in chromosome arms 6p, 7q, 11q, and 14q and observed least in chromosome arms 2p, 2q, 3q, 4q, and 6q. Frequently encountered breakpoints included 3(p13p25), 6(p12p23), 6(p12p25), 7(q11q22), and 11(q21q23). Ascertainment was primarily incidental (54.5%), mental retardation and/or congenital anomalies (22.2%), spontaneous abortions (11.4%), associations with syndromes (3.0%), and infertility (2.0%) accounted for the remainder. Ascertainment was neither related to the length of the inverted segment nor to specific inversions except for PAI of Xq which often presented with manifestations of Ullrich-Turner syndrome. Sixty-six percent of PAI were inherited while 8.5% were de novo. Recombination was observed in 17 cases, 15 of which resulted in a monocentric chromosomal deletion or duplication. No common factors were identified that suggested a tendency toward recombination. The incidence of viable recombinants was estimated to be 3.8%. This review documents that PAI are perhaps more commonly identified than suggested in previous reviews. Despite the possible bias of ascertainment in some cases, there may be associated risks with PAI that require further examination. Our data suggest that PAI carriers do not appear to be free of risks of abnormalities or abnormal progeny and caution is recommended when counseling. 162 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.
2010-03-12
denotes the state, c the speed of sound, a viscous dissipation, and S the source term. If all variables are time- harmonic with a fixed angular...for the 2008 Gordon Bell Prize. • PI Ghattas gave the keynote talk at the 10th LCI International Conference on High- Performance Clustered Computing...diagonal of the inverse, adaptivity, and integration of all of these components within a particle filter methodology. In addition, our
[MEG inverse solution using Gauss-Newton algorithm modified by Moore-Penrose inversion].
Li, J
2001-06-01
In magnetoencephalogram(MEG) basic studies, it is an important issue to estimate magnetic source parameters by inverse solution. It is known that the magnetic field equations are nonlinear, thus explicit solutions are difficult to obtain. However optimization methods are available to this parameter estimation. In many usually used nonlinear local optimization algorithms, Gauss-Newton's is of fast convergent speed. When this algorithm is used, the singularity of the Jacobien matrix about the minimum least square error must be considered carefully. If the matrix is singular, the equation for searching direction has no general solution. One way to overcome this problem is to use negative gradient as searching direction, but it may cause descent of convergent speed. Another way is known as Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm which makes the matrix non-singular by adding some improved factors to it. In this paper we utilize Moore-Penrose inversion for the solution of iterative searching direction equation. In appendix we demonstrate that the searching direction obtained by the proposed method is successful. Computer simulation also demonstrates that by reasonable selection of initial iterative values, the modified Gauss-Newton algorithm is effective for MEG inverse solution in the case with one or two source dipoles.
Simultaneous Inversion of Full Data Bandwidth by Tomographic Full Waveform Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almomin, A. A.; Biondi, B. C.
2015-12-01
The convergence of full-waveform inversion can be improved by extending the velocity model along either the subsurface-offset axis or the time-lag axis. The extension of the velocity model along the time-lag axis enables us to linearly model large time shifts caused by velocity perturbations. This linear modeling was based on a new linearization of the scalar wave equation in which perturbation of the extended slowness squared was convolved in time with the second time derivative of the background wavefield. The linearization was accurate for reflected events and transmitted events. We determined that it can effectively model conventional reflection data as well as modern long-offset data containing diving waves. It also enabled the simultaneous inversion of reflections and diving waves, even when the starting velocity model was far from being accurate. We solved the optimization problem related to the inversion with a nested algorithm. The inner iterations were based on the proposed linearization and on a mixing of scales between the short- and long-wavelength components of the velocity model. We significantly improved the convergence rate by preconditioning the extended model to balance the amplitude-versus-angle behavior of the wave-equation and by imposing wavelength continuation of the gradient in the outer loop. Numerical tests performed on synthetic data modeled on the Marmousi model and on Chevron's FWI blind-test data demonstrated the global convergence properties as well as the high-resolution potential of the proposed method.
Laplace-domain waveform inversion versus refraction-traveltime tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Ho Seuk; Pyun, Sukjoon; Shin, Changsoo; Marfurt, Kurt J.; Chung, Wookeen
2012-07-01
Geophysicists and applied mathematicians have proposed a rich suite of long-wavelength velocity estimation algorithms to construct starting velocity models for subsequent pre-stack depth migration and inversion. Refraction-traveltime tomography derives subsurface velocity models from picked first-arrival traveltimes. In contrast, Laplace-domain waveform inversion recovers long-wavelength velocity structure using the weighted amplitudes of first and later arrivals. There are several implementations of first-arrival traveltime inversion, with most based on ray tracing, and some based on the damped monochromatic wave equation, which accurately represent simple and finite-frequency first arrivals. Computationally, Laplace-domain wavefield inversion is quite similar to refraction-traveltime tomography using damped monochromatic wavefield, but the objective functions used in inversion are radically different. As in classical ray trace-based traveltime inversion, the objective of refraction-traveltime tomography using damped monochromatic wavefield is to match the phase (traveltime) of the first arrival of each measured seismic trace. In contrast, the objective of Laplace-domain wavefield inversion is to match the weighted amplitudes of both first and later arrivals to the weighted amplitudes of the measured seismic trace. Principles of refraction-traveltime tomography were used to generate velocity models of the earth one century ago. Laplace-domain waveform inversion is a more recently introduced algorithm and has been less rigorously studied by the seismic research community, with many workers believing it be equivalent to finite-frequency first-arrival traveltime tomography. We show that Laplace-domain waveform inversion is both theoretically and empirically different from finite-frequency first-arrival traveltime tomography. Specifically, we examine the Jacobian (sensitivity) kernels used in the two inversion schemes to quantify the different sensitivities (and hence
ENDOR with band-selective shaped inversion pulses.
Tait, Claudia E; Stoll, Stefan
2017-04-01
Electron Nuclear DOuble Resonance (ENDOR) is based on the measurement of nuclear transition frequencies through detection of changes in the polarization of electron transitions. In Davies ENDOR, the initial polarization is generated by a selective microwave inversion pulse. The rectangular inversion pulses typically used are characterized by a relatively low selectivity, with full inversion achieved only for a limited number of spin packets with small resonance offsets. With the introduction of pulse shaping to EPR, the rectangular inversion pulses can be replaced with shaped pulses with increased selectivity. Band-selective inversion pulses are characterized by almost rectangular inversion profiles, leading to full inversion for spin packets with resonance offsets within the pulse excitation bandwidth and leaving spin packets outside the excitation bandwidth largely unaffected. Here, we explore the consequences of using different band-selective amplitude-modulated pulses designed for NMR as the inversion pulse in ENDOR. We find an increased sensitivity for small hyperfine couplings compared to rectangular pulses of the same bandwidth. In echo-detected Davies-type ENDOR, finite Fourier series inversion pulses combine the advantages of increased absolute ENDOR sensitivity of short rectangular inversion pulses and increased sensitivity for small hyperfine couplings of long rectangular inversion pulses. The use of pulses with an almost rectangular frequency-domain profile also allows for increased control of the hyperfine contrast selectivity. At X-band, acquisition of echo transients as a function of radiofrequency and appropriate selection of integration windows during data processing allows efficient separation of contributions from weakly and strongly coupled nuclei in overlapping ENDOR spectra within a single experiment.
ENDOR with band-selective shaped inversion pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tait, Claudia E.; Stoll, Stefan
2017-04-01
Electron Nuclear DOuble Resonance (ENDOR) is based on the measurement of nuclear transition frequencies through detection of changes in the polarization of electron transitions. In Davies ENDOR, the initial polarization is generated by a selective microwave inversion pulse. The rectangular inversion pulses typically used are characterized by a relatively low selectivity, with full inversion achieved only for a limited number of spin packets with small resonance offsets. With the introduction of pulse shaping to EPR, the rectangular inversion pulses can be replaced with shaped pulses with increased selectivity. Band-selective inversion pulses are characterized by almost rectangular inversion profiles, leading to full inversion for spin packets with resonance offsets within the pulse excitation bandwidth and leaving spin packets outside the excitation bandwidth largely unaffected. Here, we explore the consequences of using different band-selective amplitude-modulated pulses designed for NMR as the inversion pulse in ENDOR. We find an increased sensitivity for small hyperfine couplings compared to rectangular pulses of the same bandwidth. In echo-detected Davies-type ENDOR, finite Fourier series inversion pulses combine the advantages of increased absolute ENDOR sensitivity of short rectangular inversion pulses and increased sensitivity for small hyperfine couplings of long rectangular inversion pulses. The use of pulses with an almost rectangular frequency-domain profile also allows for increased control of the hyperfine contrast selectivity. At X-band, acquisition of echo transients as a function of radiofrequency and appropriate selection of integration windows during data processing allows efficient separation of contributions from weakly and strongly coupled nuclei in overlapping ENDOR spectra within a single experiment.
Abel inversion method for cometary atmospheres.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hubert, Benoit; Opitom, Cyrielle; Hutsemekers, Damien; Jehin, Emmanuel; Munhoven, Guy; Manfroid, Jean; Bisikalo, Dmitry V.; Shematovich, Valery I.
2016-04-01
Remote observation of cometary atmospheres produces a measurement of the cometary emissions integrated along the line of sight joining the observing instrument and the gas of the coma. This integration is the so-called Abel transform of the local emission rate. We develop a method specifically adapted to the inversion of the Abel transform of cometary emissions, that retrieves the radial profile of the emission rate of any unabsorbed emission, under the hypothesis of spherical symmetry of the coma. The method uses weighted least squares fitting and analytical results. A Tikhonov regularization technique is applied to reduce the possible effects of noise and ill-conditioning, and standard error propagation techniques are implemented. Several theoretical tests of the inversion techniques are carried out to show its validity and robustness, and show that the method is only weakly dependent on any constant offset added to the data, which reduces the dependence of the retrieved emission rate on the background subtraction. We apply the method to observations of three different comets observed using the TRAPPIST instrument: 103P/ Hartley 2, F6/ Lemmon and A1/ Siding spring. We show that the method retrieves realistic emission rates, and that characteristic lengths and production rates can be derived from the emission rate for both CN and C2 molecules. We show that the emission rate derived from the observed flux of CN emission at 387 nm and from the C2 emission at 514.1 nm of comet Siding Spring both present an easily-identifiable shoulder that corresponds to the separation between pre- and post-outburst gas. As a general result, we show that diagnosing properties and features of the coma using the emission rate is easier than directly using the observed flux. We also determine the parameters of a Haser model fitting the inverted data and fitting the line-of-sight integrated observation, for which we provide the exact analytical expression of the line-of-sight integration
Designer spin systems via inverse statistical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DiStasio, Robert A., Jr.; Marcotte, Étienne; Car, Roberto; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore
2013-10-01
In this work, we extend recent inverse statistical-mechanical methods developed for many-particle systems to the case of spin systems. For simplicity, we focus in this initial study on the two-state Ising model with radial spin-spin interactions of finite range (i.e., extending beyond nearest-neighbor sites) on the square lattice under periodic boundary conditions. Our interest herein is to find the optimal set of shortest-range pair interactions within this family of Hamiltonians, whose corresponding ground state is a targeted spin configuration such that the difference in energies between the energetically closest competitor and the target is maximized. For an exhaustive list of competitors, this optimization problem is solved exactly using linear programming. The possible outcomes for a given target configuration can be organized into the following three solution classes: unique (nondegenerate) ground state (class I), degenerate ground states (class II), and solutions not contained in the previous two classes (class III). We have chosen to study a general family of striped-phase spin configurations comprised of alternating parallel bands of up and down spins of varying thicknesses and a general family of rectangular block checkerboard spin configurations with variable block size, which is a generalization of the classic antiferromagnetic Ising model. Our findings demonstrate that the structurally anisotropic striped phases, in which the thicknesses of up- and down-spin bands are equal, are unique ground states for isotropic short-ranged interactions. By contrast, virtually all of the block checkerboard targets are either degenerate or fall within class III solutions. The degenerate class II spin configurations are identified up to a certain block size. We also consider other target spin configurations with different degrees of global symmetries and order. Our investigation reveals that the solution class to which a target belongs depends sensitively on the
Interactive Inverse Groundwater Modeling - Addressing User Fatigue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, A.; Minsker, B. S.
2006-12-01
This paper builds on ongoing research on developing an interactive and multi-objective framework to solve the groundwater inverse problem. In this work we solve the classic groundwater inverse problem of estimating a spatially continuous conductivity field, given field measurements of hydraulic heads. The proposed framework is based on an interactive multi-objective genetic algorithm (IMOGA) that not only considers quantitative measures such as calibration error and degree of regularization, but also takes into account expert knowledge about the structure of the underlying conductivity field expressed as subjective rankings of potential conductivity fields by the expert. The IMOGA converges to the optimal Pareto front representing the best trade- off among the qualitative as well as quantitative objectives. However, since the IMOGA is a population-based iterative search it requires the user to evaluate hundreds of solutions. This leads to the problem of 'user fatigue'. We propose a two step methodology to combat user fatigue in such interactive systems. The first step is choosing only a few highly representative solutions to be shown to the expert for ranking. Spatial clustering is used to group the search space based on the similarity of the conductivity fields. Sampling is then carried out from different clusters to improve the diversity of solutions shown to the user. Once the expert has ranked representative solutions from each cluster a machine learning model is used to 'learn user preference' and extrapolate these for the solutions not ranked by the expert. We investigate different machine learning models such as Decision Trees, Bayesian learning model, and instance based weighting to model user preference. In addition, we also investigate ways to improve the performance of these models by providing information about the spatial structure of the conductivity fields (which is what the expert bases his or her rank on). Results are shown for each of these
Nonlinear inversion for arbitrarily-oriented anisotropic models II: Inversion techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bremner, P. M.; Panning, M. P.
2011-12-01
We present output models from inversion of a synthetic surface wave dataset. We implement new 3-D finite-frequency kernels, based on the Born approximation, to invert for upper mantle structure beneath western North America. The kernels are formulated based on a hexagonal symmetry with an arbitrary orientation. Numerical tests were performed to achieve a robust inversion scheme. Four synthetic input models were created, to include: isotropic, constant strength anisotropic, variable strength anisotropic, and both anisotropic and isotropic together. The reference model was a simplified version of PREM (dubbed PREM LIGHT) in which the crust and 220 km discontinuity have been removed. Output models from inversions of calculated synthetic data are compared against these input models to test for accurate reproduction of input model features, and the resolution of those features. The object of this phase of the study was to determine appropriate nonlinear inversion schemes that adequately recover the input models. The synthetic dataset consists of collected seismic waveforms of 126 earthquake mechanisms, of magnitude 6-7 from Dec 2006 to Feb 2009, from the IRIS database. Events were selected to correlate with USArray deployments, and to have as complete an azimuthal coverage as possible. The events occurred within a circular region of radius 150o centered about 44o lat, -110o lon (an arbitrary location within USArray coverage). Synthetic data were calculated utilizing a spectral element code (SEM) coupled to a normal mode solution. The mesh consists of a 3-D heterogeneous outer shell, representing the upper mantle above 450 km depth, coupled to a spherically symmetric inner sphere. From the synthetic dataset, multi-taper fundamental mode surface wave phase delay measurements are taken. The orthogonal 2.5π -prolate spheroidal wave function eigentapers (Slepian tapers) reduce noise biasing, and can provide error estimates in phase delay measurements. This study is a
Matrix methods for reflective inverse diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgi, Kenneth W.; Marciniak, Michael A.; Nauyoks, Stephen E.; Oxley, Mark E.
2016-09-01
Reflective inverse diffusion is a method of refocusing light scattered by a rough surface. An SLM is used to shape the wavefront of a HeNe laser at 632.8-nm wavelength to produce a converging phase front after reflection. Iterative methods previously demonstrated intensity enhancements of the focused spot over 100 times greater than the surrounding background speckle. This proof-of-concept method was very time consuming and the algorithm started over each time the desired location of the focus spot in the observation plane was moved. Transmission matrices have been developed to control light scattered by transmission through a turbid media. Time varying phase maps are applied to an SLM and used to interrogate the phase scattering properties of the material. For each phase map, the resultant speckle intensity pattern is recorded less than 1 mm from the material surface and represents an observation plane of less than 0.02 mm2. Fourier transforms are used to extract the phase scattering properties of the material from the intensity measurements. We investigate the effectiveness this method for constructing the reflection matrix (RM) of a diffuse reflecting medium where the propagation distances and observation plane are almost 1,000 times greater than the previous work based on transmissive scatter. The RM performance is based on its ability to refocus reflectively scattered light to a single focused spot or multiple foci in the observation plane. Diffraction-based simulations are used to corroborate experimental results.
Two and three dimensional magnetotelluric inversion
Booker, J.
1993-01-01
Electrical conductivity depends on properties such as the presence of ionic fluids in interconnected pores that are difficult to sense with other remote sensing techniques. Thus improved imaging of underground electrical structure has wide practical importance in exploring for groundwater, mineral and geothermal resources, and in assessing the diffusion of fluids in oil fields and waste sites. Because the electromagnetic inverse problem is fundamentally multi-dimensional, most imaging algorithms saturate available computer power long before they can deal with the complete data set. We have developed an algorithm to directly invert large multi-dimensional data sets that is orders of magnitude faster than competing methods. We have proven that a two-dimensional (2D) version of the algorithm is highly effective for real data and have made substantial progress towards a three-dimensional (3D) version. We are proposing to cure identified shortcomings and substantially expand the utility of the existing 2D program, overcome identified difficulties with extending our method to three-dimensions (3D) and embark on an investigation of related EM imaging techniques which may have the potential for even further increasing resolution.
Inversion of diffraction data for amorphous materials
Pandey, Anup; Biswas, Parthapratim; Drabold, D. A.
2016-01-01
The general and practical inversion of diffraction data–producing a computer model correctly representing the material explored–is an important unsolved problem for disordered materials. Such modeling should proceed by using our full knowledge base, both from experiment and theory. In this paper, we describe a robust method to jointly exploit the power of ab initio atomistic simulation along with the information carried by diffraction data. The method is applied to two very different systems: amorphous silicon and two compositions of a solid electrolyte memory material silver-doped GeSe3. The technique is easy to implement, is faster and yields results much improved over conventional simulation methods for the materials explored. By direct calculation, we show that the method works for both poor and excellent glass forming materials. It offers a means to add a priori information in first-principles modeling of materials, and represents a significant step toward the computational design of non-crystalline materials using accurate interatomic interactions and experimental information. PMID:27652893
The Two-Body Inversion Effect.
Papeo, Liuba; Stein, Timo; Soto-Faraco, Salvador
2017-03-01
How does one perceive groups of people? It is known that functionally interacting objects (e.g., a glass and a pitcher tilted as if pouring water into it) are perceptually grouped. Here, we showed that processing of multiple human bodies is also influenced by their relative positioning. In a series of categorization experiments, bodies facing each other (seemingly interacting) were recognized more accurately than bodies facing away from each other (noninteracting). Moreover, recognition of facing body dyads (but not nonfacing body dyads) was strongly impaired when those stimuli were inverted, similar to what has been found for individual bodies. This inversion effect demonstrates sensitivity of the visual system to facing body dyads in their common upright configuration and might imply recruitment of configural processing (i.e., processing of the overall body configuration without prior part-by-part analysis). These findings suggest that facing dyads are represented as one structured unit, which may be the intermediate level of representation between multiple-object (body) perception and representation of social actions.
Inverse turbulent cascade in swarming sperm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Kohnke, Philippa; Plouraboue, Franck; Inra, Cnrs, Umr, F-37380 Nouzilly, France Team; Université de Toulouse, Inpt, Ups, Imft, Umr 5502, France Team
2014-11-01
Collective motion of self-sustained swarming flows has recently provided examples of small scale turbulence arising where viscosity effects are dominant. We report the first observation of an universal inverse enstrophy cascade in concentrated swarming sperm consistent with a body of evidence built from various independent measurements. We found a well-defined k-3 power-law decay of velocity field power-spectrum and relative dispersion of small beads consistent with theoretical predictions in two-dimensional turbulence. Concentrated living sperm displays long-range, correlated whirlpool structures the size of which provides turbulence's integral scale. We propose a consistent explanation for this quasi-two-dimensional turbulence based on self-structured laminated flow forced by steric interaction and alignment, a state of active matter that we call ``swarming liquid crystal.'' We develop scaling arguments consistent with this interpretation. The implication of multi-scale collective dynamics of sperm's collective motility for fertility assessment is discussed. This work has been supported by the French Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR) in the frame of the Contract MOTIMO (ANR-11-MONU-009-01). We thank Pierre Degond, Eric Climent, Laurent Lacaze and Frédéric Moulin for interesting discussions.
Source Estimation by Full Wave Form Inversion
Sjögreen, Björn; Petersson, N. Anders
2013-08-07
Given time-dependent ground motion recordings at a number of receiver stations, we solve the inverse problem for estimating the parameters of the seismic source. The source is modeled as a point moment tensor source, characterized by its location, moment tensor components, the start time, and frequency parameter (rise time) of its source time function. In total, there are 11 unknown parameters. We use a non-linear conjugate gradient algorithm to minimize the full waveform misfit between observed and computed ground motions at the receiver stations. An important underlying assumption of the minimization problem is that the wave propagation is accurately described by the elastic wave equation in a heterogeneous isotropic material. We use a fourth order accurate finite difference method, developed in [12], to evolve the waves forwards in time. The adjoint wave equation corresponding to the discretized elastic wave equation is used to compute the gradient of the misfit, which is needed by the non-linear conjugated minimization algorithm. A new source point moment source discretization is derived that guarantees that the Hessian of the misfit is a continuous function of the source location. An efficient approach for calculating the Hessian is also presented. We show how the Hessian can be used to scale the problem to improve the convergence of the non-linear conjugated gradient algorithm. Numerical experiments are presented for estimating the source parameters from synthetic data in a layer over half-space problem (LOH.1), illustrating rapid convergence of the proposed approach.
Inverse Batschelet distributions for circular data.
Jones, M C; Pewsey, Arthur
2012-03-01
We provide four-parameter families of distributions on the circle which are unimodal and display the widest ranges of both skewness and peakedness yet available. Our approach is to transform the scale of a generating distribution, such as the von Mises, using various nontrivial extensions of an approach first used in Batschelet's (1981, Circular Statistics in Biology) book. The key is to employ inverses of Batschelet-type transformations in certain ways; these exhibit considerable advantages over direct Batschelet transformations. The skewness transformation is especially appealing as it has no effect on the normalizing constant. As well as a variety of interesting theoretical properties, when likelihood inference is explored these distributions display orthogonality between elements of a pairing of parameters into (location, skewness) and (concentration, peakedness). Further, the location parameter can sometimes be made approximately orthogonal to all the other parameters. Profile likelihoods come to the fore in practice. Two illustrative applications, one concerning the locomotion of a Drosophila fly larva, the other analyzing a large set of sudden infant death syndrome data, are investigated. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.
Highly Efficient Vector-Inversion Pulse Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rose, Franklin
2004-01-01
Improved transmission-line pulse generators of the vector-inversion type are being developed as lightweight sources of pulsed high voltage for diverse applications, including spacecraft thrusters, portable x-ray imaging systems, impulse radar systems, and corona-discharge systems for sterilizing gases. In this development, more than the customary attention is paid to principles of operation and details of construction so as to the maximize the efficiency of the pulse-generation process while minimizing the sizes of components. An important element of this approach is segmenting a pulse generator in such a manner that the electric field in each segment is always below the threshold for electrical breakdown. One design of particular interest, a complete description of which was not available at the time of writing this article, involves two parallel-plate transmission lines that are wound on a mandrel, share a common conductor, and are switched in such a manner that the pulse generator is divided into a "fast" and a "slow" section. A major innovation in this design is the addition of ferrite to the "slow" section to reduce the size of the mandrel needed for a given efficiency.
Towards inverse modeling of intratumor heterogeneity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brutovsky, Branislav; Horvath, Denis
2015-08-01
Development of resistance limits efficiency of present anticancer therapies and preventing it remains a big challenge in cancer research. It is accepted, at the intuitive level, that resistance emerges as a consequence of the heterogeneity of cancer cells at the molecular, genetic and cellular levels. Produced by many sources, tumor heterogeneity is extremely complex time dependent statistical characteristics which may be quantified by measures defined in many different ways, most of them coming from statistical mechanics. In this paper, we apply the Markovian framework to relate population heterogeneity to the statistics of the environment. As, from an evolutionary viewpoint, therapy corresponds to a purposeful modi- fication of the cells' fitness landscape, we assume that understanding general relationship between the spatiotemporal statistics of a tumor microenvironment and intratumor heterogeneity will allow to conceive the therapy as an inverse problem and to solve it by optimization techniques. To account for the inherent stochasticity of biological processes at cellular scale, the generalized distancebased concept was applied to express distances between probabilistically described cell states and environmental conditions, respectively.
Direct and Inverse Problems in Statistical Wavefields
Wolf, Emil
2002-09-01
In this report account is presented of research carried out during the period September 1, 1999-August 31, 2002 under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, grant DE-FG02-90ER14119. The research covered several areas of modern optical physics, particularly propagation of partially coherent light and its interaction with deterministic and with random media, spectroscopy with partially coherent light, polarization properties of statistical wave fields, effects of moving diffusers on coherence and on the spectra of light transmitted and scattered by them, reciprocity inequalities involving spatial and angular correlations of partially coherent beams, spreading of partially coherent beams in-random media, inverse source problems, computed and diffraction tomography and partially coherent solitons. We have discovered a new phenomenon in an emerging field of physical optics, known as singular optics; specifically we found that the spectrum of light changes drastically in the neighborhood of points where the intensity has zero value and where, consequently, the phase becomes singular, We noted some potential applications of this phenomenon. The results of our investigations were reported in 39 publications. They are listed on pages 3 to 5. Summaries of these publications are given on pages 6-13. Scientists who have participated in this research are listed on page 14.
Linearized Functional Minimization for Inverse Modeling
Wohlberg, Brendt; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Dentz, Marco
2012-06-21
Heterogeneous aquifers typically consist of multiple lithofacies, whose spatial arrangement significantly affects flow and transport. The estimation of these lithofacies is complicated by the scarcity of data and by the lack of a clear correlation between identifiable geologic indicators and attributes. We introduce a new inverse-modeling approach to estimate both the spatial extent of hydrofacies and their properties from sparse measurements of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head. Our approach is to minimize a functional defined on the vectors of values of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head fields defined on regular grids at a user-determined resolution. This functional is constructed to (i) enforce the relationship between conductivity and heads provided by the groundwater flow equation, (ii) penalize deviations of the reconstructed fields from measurements where they are available, and (iii) penalize reconstructed fields that are not piece-wise smooth. We develop an iterative solver for this functional that exploits a local linearization of the mapping from conductivity to head. This approach provides a computationally efficient algorithm that rapidly converges to a solution. A series of numerical experiments demonstrates the robustness of our approach.
Inverse Problem in Self-assembly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tkachenko, Alexei
2012-02-01
By decorating colloids and nanoparticles with DNA, one can introduce highly selective key-lock interactions between them. This leads to a new class of systems and problems in soft condensed matter physics. In particular, this opens a possibility to solve inverse problem in self-assembly: how to build an arbitrary desired structure with the bottom-up approach? I will present a theoretical and computational analysis of the hierarchical strategy in attacking this problem. It involves self-assembly of particular building blocks (``octopus particles''), that in turn would assemble into the target structure. On a conceptual level, our approach combines elements of three different brands of programmable self assembly: DNA nanotechnology, nanoparticle-DNA assemblies and patchy colloids. I will discuss the general design principles, theoretical and practical limitations of this approach, and illustrate them with our simulation results. Our crucial result is that not only it is possible to design a system that has a given nanostructure as a ground state, but one can also program and optimize the kinetic pathway for its self-assembly.
Aligning genomes with inversions and swaps
Holloway, J.L.; Cull, P.
1994-12-31
The decision about what operators to allow and how to charge for these operations when aligning strings that arise in a biological context is the decision about what model of evolution to assume. Frequently the operators used to construct an alignment between biological sequences axe limited to deletion, insertion, or replacement of a character or block of characters, but there is biological evidence for the evolutionary operations of exchanging the positions of two segments in a sequence and the replacement of a segment by its reversed complement. In this paper we describe a family of heuristics designed to compute alignments of biological sequences assuming a model of evolution with swaps and inversions. The heuristics will necessarily be approximate since the appropriate way to charge for the evolutionary events (delete, insert, substitute, swap, and invert) is not known. The paper concludes with a pair-wise comparison of 20 Picornavirus genomes, and a detailed comparison of the hepatitis delta virus with the citrus exocortis viroid.
Inverse Kinetic Theory for Incompressible Thermofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cremaschini, C.; Tessarotto, M.
2008-12-01
An interesting issue in fluid dynamics is represented by the possible existence of inverse kinetic theories (IKT) which are able to deliver, in a suitable sense, the complete set of fluid equations which are associated to a prescribed fluid. From the mathematical viewpoint this involves the formal description of a fluid by means of a classical dynamical system which advances in time the relevant fluid fields. The possibility of defining an IKT for the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (INSE), recently investigated (Ellero et al., 2004-2007) raises the interesting question whether the theory can be applied also to thermofluids, in such a way to satisfy also the second principle of thermodynamics. The goal of this paper is to prove that such a generalization is actually possible, by means of a suitable extended phase-space formulation. We consider, as a reference test, the case of non-isentropic incompressible thermofluids, whose dynamics is described by the Fourier and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, the latter subject to the conditions of validity of the Boussinesq approximation.
Inversion of diffraction data for amorphous materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, Anup; Biswas, Parthapratim; Drabold, D. A.
2016-09-01
The general and practical inversion of diffraction data-producing a computer model correctly representing the material explored-is an important unsolved problem for disordered materials. Such modeling should proceed by using our full knowledge base, both from experiment and theory. In this paper, we describe a robust method to jointly exploit the power of ab initio atomistic simulation along with the information carried by diffraction data. The method is applied to two very different systems: amorphous silicon and two compositions of a solid electrolyte memory material silver-doped GeSe3. The technique is easy to implement, is faster and yields results much improved over conventional simulation methods for the materials explored. By direct calculation, we show that the method works for both poor and excellent glass forming materials. It offers a means to add a priori information in first-principles modeling of materials, and represents a significant step toward the computational design of non-crystalline materials using accurate interatomic interactions and experimental information.
Effect of geometrical frustration on inverse freezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, M.; Morais, C. V.; Zimmer, F. M.
2016-01-01
The interplay between geometrical frustration (GF) and inverse freezing (IF) is studied within a cluster approach. The model considers first-neighbor (J1) and second-neighbor (J2) intracluster antiferromagnetic interactions between Ising spins on a checkerboard lattice and long-range disordered couplings (J ) among clusters. We obtain phase diagrams of temperature versus J1/J in two cases: the absence of J2 interaction and the isotropic limit J2=J1 , where GF takes place. An IF reentrant transition from the spin-glass (SG) to paramagnetic (PM) phase is found for a certain range of J1/J in both cases. The J1 interaction leads to a SG state with high entropy at the same time that can introduce a low-entropy PM phase. In addition, it is observed that the cluster size plays an important role. The GF increases the PM phase entropy, but larger clusters can give an entropic advantage for the SG phase that favors IF. Therefore, our results suggest that disordered systems with antiferromagnetic clusters can exhibit an IF transition even in the presence of GF.
Full waveform inversion for mechanized tunneling reconnaissance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamert, Andre; Musayev, Khayal; Lambrecht, Lasse; Friederich, Wolfgang; Hackl, Klaus; Baitsch, Matthias
2016-04-01
In mechanized tunnel drilling processes, exploration of soil structure and properties ahead of the tunnel boring machine can greatly help to lower costs and improve safety conditions during drilling. We present numerical full waveform inversion approaches in time and frequency domain of synthetic acoustic data to detect different small scale structures representing potential obstacles in front of the tunnel boring machine. With the use of sensitivity kernels based on the adjoint wave field in time domain and in frequency domain it is possible to derive satisfactory models with a manageable amount of computational load. Convergence to a suitable model is assured by the use of iterative model improvements and gradually increasing frequencies. Results of both, time and frequency approach, will be compared for different obstacle and source/receiver setups. They show that the image quality strongly depends on the used receiver and source positions and increases significantly with the use of transmission waves due to the installed receivers and sources at the surface and/or in bore holes. Transmission waves lead to clearly identified structure and position of the obstacles and give satisfactory guesses for the wave speed. Setups using only reflected waves result in blurred objects and ambiguous position of distant objects and allow to distinguish heterogeneities with higher or lower wave speed, respectively.
Inverse modeling of human contrast response.
Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha; Sagi, Dov
2007-10-01
Mathematical singularities found in the Signal Detection Theory (SDT) based analysis of the 2-Alternative-Forced-Choice (2AFC) method [Katkov, M., Tsodyks, M., & Sagi, D. (2006a). Analysis of two-alternative force-choice Signal Detection Theory model. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 50, 411-420; Katkov, M., Tsodyks, M., & Sagi, D. (2006b). Singularities in the inverse modeling of 2AFC contrast discrimination data. Vision Research, 46, 256-266; Katkov, M., Tsodyks, M., & Sagi, D. (2007). Singularities explained: Response to Klein. Vision Research, doi:10.1016/j.visres.2006.10.030] imply that contrast discrimination data obtained with the 2AFC method cannot always be used to reliably estimate the parameters of the underlying model (internal response and noise functions) with a reasonable number of trials. Here we bypass this problem with the Identification Task (IT) where observers identify one of N contrasts. We have found that identification data varies significantly between experimental sessions. Stable estimates using individual session data showed Contrast Response Functions (CRF) with high gain in the low contrast regime and low gain in the high contrast regime. Noise Amplitudes (NA) followed a decreasing function of contrast at low contrast levels, and were practically constant above some contrast level. The transition between these two regimes corresponded approximately to the position of the dipper in the Threshold versus Contrast (TvC) curves that were computed using the estimated parameters and independently measured using 2AFC.
Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido
2016-11-01
We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.
The relativistic inverse stellar structure problem
Lindblom, Lee
2014-01-14
The observable macroscopic properties of relativistic stars (whose equations of state are known) can be predicted by solving the stellar structure equations that follow from Einstein’s equation. For neutron stars, however, our knowledge of the equation of state is poor, so the direct stellar structure problem can not be solved without modeling the highest density part of the equation of state in some way. This talk will describe recent work on developing a model independent approach to determining the high-density neutron-star equation of state by solving an inverse stellar structure problem. This method uses the fact that Einstein’s equation provides a deterministic relationship between the equation of state and the macroscopic observables of the stars which are composed of that material. This talk illustrates how this method will be able to determine the high-density part of the neutron-star equation of state with few percent accuracy when high quality measurements of the masses and radii of just two or three neutron stars become available. This talk will also show that this method can be used with measurements of other macroscopic observables, like the masses and tidal deformabilities, which can (in principle) be measured by gravitational wave observations of binary neutron-star mergers.
Structure of laminar sooting inverse diffusion flames
Mikofski, Mark A.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Williams, Timothy C.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Blevins, Linda G.
2007-06-15
The flame structure of laminar inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) was studied to gain insight into soot formation and growth in underventilated combustion. Both ethylene-air and methane-air IDFs were examined, fuel flow rates were kept constant for all flames of each fuel type, and airflow rates were varied to observe the effect on flame structure and soot formation. Planar laser-induced fluorescence of hydroxyl radicals (OH PLIF) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH PLIF), planar laser-induced incandescence of soot (soot PLII), and thermocouple-determined gas temperatures were used to draw conclusions about flame structure and soot formation. Flickering, caused by buoyancy-induced vortices, was evident above and outside the flames. The distances between the OH, PAH, and soot zones were similar in IDFs and normal diffusion flames (NDFs), but the locations of those zones were inverted in IDFs relative to NDFs. Peak OH PLIF coincided with peak temperature and marked the flame front. Soot appeared outside the flame front, corresponding to temperatures around the minimum soot formation temperature of 1300 K. PAHs appeared outside the soot layer, with characteristic temperature depending on the wavelength detection band. PAHs and soot began to appear at a constant axial position for each fuel, independent of the rate of air flow. PAH formation either preceded or coincided with soot formation, indicating that PAHs are important components in soot formation. Soot growth continued for some time downstream of the flame, at temperatures below the inception temperature, probably through reaction with PAHs. (author)
Inverse borehole coupling filters and their applications
Peng, C.
1994-12-31
This paper describes a new procedure for processing VSP and crosswell data acquired using an array of hydrophone. The procedure consists of three steps. In the first step the authors apply an inverse borehole coupling equation to convert hydrophone pressure data into borehole squeeze pressure data, by which the tube waves are significantly attenuated and the P-wave and S-wave are partially compensated for the borehole effects. In the second step, they make use of a partial differential equation that relates the borehole squeeze pressure to the pressure of the incident P-wave. In the third step, they show that one can also map the hydrophone pressure data into the geophone response, provided that both the P-wave and S-wave velocity profiles along the borehole are known. Several synthetic examples are used to demonstrate its accuracy. The Kent Cliffs hydrophone data are successfully processed using the above steps, and the data quality is found to be significantly improved.
Targeted chromosomal deletions and inversions in zebrafish.
Gupta, Ankit; Hall, Victoria L; Kok, Fatma O; Shin, Masahiro; McNulty, Joseph C; Lawson, Nathan D; Wolfe, Scot A
2013-06-01
Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) provide powerful platforms for genome editing in plants and animals. Typically, a single nuclease is sufficient to disrupt the function of protein-coding genes through the introduction of microdeletions or insertions that cause frameshifts within an early coding exon. However, interrogating the function of cis-regulatory modules or noncoding RNAs in many instances requires the excision of this element from the genome. In human cell lines and invertebrates, two nucleases targeting the same chromosome can promote the deletion of intervening genomic segments with modest efficiencies. We have examined the feasibility of using this approach to delete chromosomal segments within the zebrafish genome, which would facilitate the functional study of large noncoding sequences in a vertebrate model of development. Herein, we demonstrate that segmental deletions within the zebrafish genome can be generated at multiple loci and are efficiently transmitted through the germline. Using two nucleases, we have successfully generated deletions of up to 69 kb at rates sufficient for germline transmission (1%-15%) and have excised an entire lincRNA gene and enhancer element. Larger deletions (5.5 Mb) can be generated in somatic cells, but at lower frequency (0.7%). Segmental inversions have also been generated, but the efficiency of these events is lower than the corresponding deletions. The ability to efficiently delete genomic segments in a vertebrate developmental system will facilitate the study of functional noncoding elements on an organismic level.
Inverse characterization of NAPL source zones.
Newman, Mark A; Hatfield, Kirk; Hayworth, Joel; Rao, P Suresh C; Stauffer, Tom
2006-10-01
This work presents a possible tool for inverse characterization of NAPL (nonaqueous phase liquid) source zones in terms of contaminant mass flux. A hybrid solution technique was applied that considers contaminant transport through a vertical flux plane. The hybrid solution technique takes advantage of the robust solution capabilities of simulated annealing (SA) and the uncertainty estimation capabilities of minimum relative entropy (MRE). The coupled technique (SA-MRE) provides probability density functions and confidence intervals that would not be available from an independent SA algorithm, and they are obtained more efficiently than if provided by an independent MRE algorithm. The SA-MRE method was used to characterize a NAPL source zone that was emplaced in a three-dimensional aquifer model. When dissolution experiments were complete, the aquifer model was excavated, and the distribution of NAPL zones was recorded using digital images of excavation grids. The excavation images were compiled into a three-dimensional representation of the source zone for comparison with and validation of modeling results.
West Flank Coso, CA FORGE Magnetotelluric Inversion
Doug Blankenship
2016-05-16
The Coso Magnetotelluric (MT) dataset of which the West Flank FORGE MT data is a subset, was collected by Schlumberger / WesternGeco and initially processed by the WesternGeco GeoSolutions Integrated EM Center of Excellence in Milan, Italy. The 2011 data was based on 99 soundings that were centered on the West Flank geothermal prospect. The new soundings along with previous data from 2003 and 2006 were incorporated into a 3D inversion. Full impedance tensor data were inverted in the 1-3000 Hz range. The modelling report notes several noise sources, specifically the DC powerline that is 20,000 feet west of the survey area, and may have affected data in the 0.02 to 10 Hz range. Model cell dimensions of 450 x 450 x 65 feet were used to avoid computational instability in the 3D model. The fit between calculated and observed MT values for the final model run had an RMS value of 1.807. The included figure from the WesternGeco report shows the sounding locations from the 2011, 2006 and 2003 surveys.
Inverse lithography technique for advanced CMOS nodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villaret, Alexandre; Tritchkov, Alexander; Entradas, Jorge; Yesilada, Emek
2013-04-01
Resolution Enhancement Techniques have continuously improved over the last decade, driven by the ever growing constraints of lithography process. Despite the large number of RET applied, some hotspot configurations remain challenging for advanced nodes due to aggressive design rules. Inverse Lithography Technique (ILT) is evaluated here as a substitute to the dense OPC baseline. Indeed ILT has been known for several years for its near-to-ideal mask quality, while also being potentially more time consuming in terms of OPC run and mask processing. We chose to evaluate Mentor Graphics' ILT engine "pxOPCTM" on both lines and via hotspot configurations. These hotspots were extracted from real 28nm test cases where the dense OPC solution is not satisfactory. For both layer types, the reference OPC consists of a dense OPC engine coupled to rule-based and/or model-based assist generation method. The same CM1 model is used for the reference and the ILT OPC. ILT quality improvement is presented through Optical Rule Check (ORC) results with various adequate detectors. Several mask manufacturing rule constraints (MRC) are considered for the ILT solution and their impact on process ability is checked after mask processing. A hybrid OPC approach allowing localized ILT usage is presented in order to optimize both quality and runtime. A real mask is prepared and fabricated with this method. Finally, results analyzed on silicon are presented to compare localized ILT to reference dense OPC.
Inverse Stochastic Resonance in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells
Häusser, Michael; Gutkin, Boris S.; Roth, Arnd
2016-01-01
Purkinje neurons play an important role in cerebellar computation since their axons are the only projection from the cerebellar cortex to deeper cerebellar structures. They have complex internal dynamics, which allow them to fire spontaneously, display bistability, and also to be involved in network phenomena such as high frequency oscillations and travelling waves. Purkinje cells exhibit type II excitability, which can be revealed by a discontinuity in their f-I curves. We show that this excitability mechanism allows Purkinje cells to be efficiently inhibited by noise of a particular variance, a phenomenon known as inverse stochastic resonance (ISR). While ISR has been described in theoretical models of single neurons, here we provide the first experimental evidence for this effect. We find that an adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model fitted to the basic Purkinje cell characteristics using a modified dynamic IV method displays ISR and bistability between the resting state and a repetitive activity limit cycle. ISR allows the Purkinje cell to operate in different functional regimes: the all-or-none toggle or the linear filter mode, depending on the variance of the synaptic input. We propose that synaptic noise allows Purkinje cells to quickly switch between these functional regimes. Using mutual information analysis, we demonstrate that ISR can lead to a locally optimal information transfer between the input and output spike train of the Purkinje cell. These results provide the first experimental evidence for ISR and suggest a functional role for ISR in cerebellar information processing. PMID:27541958
On the inversion of Fueter's theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Baohua; Kou, Kit Ian; Qian, Tao; Sabadini, Irene
2016-10-01
The well known Fueter theorem allows to construct quaternionic regular functions or monogenic functions with values in a Clifford algebra defined on open sets of Euclidean space R n + 1, starting from a holomorphic function in one complex variable or, more in general, from a slice hyperholomorphic function. Recently, the inversion of this theorem has been obtained for odd values of the dimension n. The present work extends the result to all dimensions n by using the Fourier multiplier method. More precisely, we show that for any axially monogenic function f defined in a suitable open set in R n + 1, where n is a positive integer, we can find a slice hyperholomorphic function f → such that f =Δ (n - 1) / 2 f →. Both the even and the odd dimensions are treated with the same, viz., the Fourier multiplier, method. For the odd dimensional cases the result obtained by the Fourier multiplier method coincides with the existing result obtained through the pointwise differential method.