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Sample records for final adult height

  1. [Study of the growth and final body height in a young adult population].

    PubMed

    Alberola López, S; Redondo Merinero, D; Andrés de Llano, J M; Martínez Sopena, M J; Sánchez Villares, E

    1993-03-01

    To know the final height of young adults in our environment, we obtained a control group with 340 students of medical and professional training and compared them with the patterns of Hernandez et al. Medium values of weight, height, weight/height rate, and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds are similar in both groups. If we separate them by birth year (1965-1966 and 1970-71), we find significant differences, on behalf of the younger group, in women for weight and weight/height rate (p < 0.05), and in both sexes for skinfolds (p < 0.001). If we separate them by oriing (medicine-professional training), we find significant differences, on behalf of male university students in weight and weight/height rate (p < 0.05) and of female professional students in skinfolds (p < 0.001). We verify the suitability of the tables of Hernandez et al. for the final growth of young people around us and justify their use in the daily practise.

  2. Relationship between final height and health outcomes in adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: United Kingdom congenital adrenal hyperplasia adult study executive (CaHASE).

    PubMed

    Han, T S; Conway, G S; Willis, D S; Krone, N; Rees, D A; Stimson, R H; Arlt, W; Walker, B R; Ross, R J

    2014-08-01

    Treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in childhood focuses on growth and development and adult final height (FH) is a measure of effective treatment. We hypothesized that shorter adults will have more severe underlying disease and worse health outcomes. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 199 adults with CAH. FH and quality of life were expressed as z-scores adjusted for midparental target height or UK population height. FH correlated inversely with age (men, r = -0.38; women, r = -0.26, P < .01). Men and women had z-scores adjusted for midparental target height of -2 and -1, respectively, and both groups had UK population height z-scores of -1 below the UK population (P < .01). In women, FH was shorter in non-salt-wasting than salt-wasting classic CAH (P < .05) and in moderately affected genotype group B women than either more severely affected groups null and A (P < .01) or the mildest group C (P < .001). Short stature and a higher prevalence of hypertension were observed in classic CAH patients diagnosed late (after 1 y) compared with those diagnosed early and in women treated with glucocorticoid only compared with those treated with both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids (P < .05). FH did not associate with insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, adiposity, or quality of life. Adult CAH patients remain short, although height prognosis has improved over time. The shortest adults are those diagnosed late with moderate severity CAH and are at increased risk of adult hypertension; we hypothesize that these patients are exposed in childhood to high androgens and/or excessive glucocorticoids with potential programming of hypertension. Another possibility is inadequate mineralocorticoid treatment early in life in the late-diagnosed patient group. Prospective studies are now required to examine these hypotheses.

  3. Final height in elite male artistic gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia K; Koukkou, Eftychia; Leglise, Michel; Markou, Kostas B

    2012-01-01

    Elite male artistic gymnasts (AG) are exposed to high levels of physical and psychological stress during adolescence and experience a significant late maturation in both linear growth and pubertal development. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of intensive physical training on the adult final height in elite male AG. This study is unique in character, as all variables were measured on the field of competition. The study was prospective and longitudinal; however, the current analysis of data is cross-sectional. Data from 86 elite male AG were obtained during the gymnastics competitions of European and World Championships. Clinical evaluation included height and weight measurements, as well as assessment of pubic hair and genital development according to Tanner's stages of pubertal development. The laboratory investigation included determination of skeletal maturation. All athletes completed a questionnaire that included questions on personal (onset and intensity of training, number of competitions per year) and family data (paternal and maternal heights). Male AG were below the 50th percentile for both final height and weight. Elite male AG had final height standard deviation score (SDS) lower than their genetic predisposition. Final height SDS was correlated positively with target height SDS (r = 0.430, p < 0.001) and weight SDS (r = 0.477, p < 0.001) and negatively to the intensity of training (r = -0.252, p = 0.022). The main factors influencing final height, by multiple regression analysis were weight SDS (p < 0.001) and target height SDS (p = 0.003). In elite maleAG, final height falls short of genetic predisposition, still well within normal limits. Considering medical and psychological risks in general, and based on the results of this research project, the International Federation of Gymnastics has increased the age limit for participants in international gymnastics competitions by 1 year.

  4. Adult Height and Childhood Disease

    PubMed Central

    BOZZOLI, CARLOS; DEATON, ANGUS; QUINTANA-DOMEQUE, CLIMENT

    2009-01-01

    Taller populations are typically richer populations, and taller individuals live longer and earn more. In consequence, adult height has recently become a focus in understanding the relationship between health and wealth. We investigate the childhood determinants of population adult height, focusing on the respective roles of income and of disease. Across a range of European countries and the United States, we find a strong inverse relationship between postneonatal (ages 1 month to 1 year) mortality, interpreted as a measure of the disease and nutritional burden in childhood, and the mean height of those children as adults. Consistent with these findings, we develop a model of selection and stunting in which the early-life burden of undernutrition and disease not only is responsible for mortality in childhood but also leaves a residue of long-term health risks for survivors, risks that express themselves in adult height and in late-life disease. The model predicts that at sufficiently high mortality levels, selection can dominate scarring, leaving a taller population of survivors. We find evidence of this effect in the poorest and highest-mortality countries of the world, supplementing recent findings on the effects of the Great Chinese Famine. PMID:20084823

  5. Determinants of variation in adult body height.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri

    2003-04-01

    Final body height is achieved as the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this article is to review past studies on body height that have followed different scientific traditions. In modern Western societies, about 20% of variation in body height is due to environmental variation. In poorer environments, this proportion is probably larger, with lower heritability of body height as well as larger socioeconomic body height differences. The role of childhood environment is seen in the increase in body height during the 20th century simultaneously with the increase in the standard of living. The most important non-genetic factors affecting growth and adult body height are nutrition and diseases. Short stature is associated with poorer education and lower social position in adulthood. This is mainly due to family background, but other environmental factors in childhood also contribute to this association. Body height is a good indicator of childhood living conditions, not only in developing countries but also in modern Western societies. Future studies combining different scientific traditions in auxology are needed to create a more holistic view of body height.

  6. Adult height, nutrition, and population health.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Davey Smith, George; Özaltin, Emre

    2016-03-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence.

  7. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  8. Growth velocity and final height in elite female rhythmic and artistic gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Roupas, Nikolaos A; Rottstein, Loredana; Tsekouras, Athanasios; Mylonas, Panagiotis; Vagenakis, George A; Koukkou, Eftychia; Armeni, Anastasia K; Sakellaropoulos, George; Leglise, Michel; Vagenakis, Apostolos G; Markou, Kostas B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of intensive training on adult final height in elite female rhythmic and artistic gymnasts. The study included 215 rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 113 artistic gymnasts (AG). AG were below the 50th percentile, while RG were taller than average. Final adult height was lower than target height in AG, while in RG, it exceeded target height. AG started training earlier than RG (p<0.001) and reported lower intensity of training (p<0.001). RG were taller than AG, with higher target height, greater Δ final height-target height and lower body fat and BMI (p<0.001). Using multiple regression analysis, the main factors influencing final height were weight SDS (p<0.001), target height SDS (p<0.001) and age of menarche (p<0.001) for RG, and weight SDS (p<0.001) and target height SDS (p<0.001) for AG. In both elite female RG and AG, genetic predisposition to final height was not disrupted and remained the main force of growth. Although in elite RG genetic predisposition for growth was fully preserved, in elite female AG final adult height falls shorter than genetically determined target height, though within the standard error of prediction.

  9. Growth Hormone (GH) Retesting and Final Adult Height in Childhood-Onset GH Deficiency (CO-GHD): Experiences from King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wacharasindhu, Suttipong; Aroonparkmongkol, Suphab; Sahakitrungrueng, Taninee; Supornsilchai, Vichit

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate GHstatus in CO-GHD subjects after completion of linear growth, and report the auxological outcomes of rhGH treatment. Twenty-four CO-GHD subjects (14 with IGHD and 10 with MPHD), treated with rhGH for a period of 6.6 ± 3.1 years were re-evaluated for their capacity of GH secretion by performing insulin tolerance test (ITT). Ht SDS at final height was compared with Ht SDS at the start of the treatment and MPH SDS. Thirty-eight percent (9 in 24) of CO-GHD subjects had normal GH secretion on retesting. All subjects were diagnosed as isolated GHD during childhood. In contrast, all MPHD subjects during childhood period had GH insufficiency on retesting. GH insufficient subjects had higher total cholesterol level than those with GH sufficiency (214 ± 51 vs. 1 74 ± 36 mg/mL, p = 0.03). rhGH treatment significantly increased Ht SDS of -2.0 ± 1.1 at the start of the treatment to -0.6 ± 1.3 at the end of the treatment (p < 0.01) and -0.8 ± 1.2 at GH retesting (p < 0.01). GH retesting is recommended in subjects with IGHD during the childhood period. However rhGH treatment can enhance the final height in both GH sufficient and insufficient subjects on retesting.

  10. Association between infection burden and adult height.

    PubMed

    Hedges, Dawson W; Berrett, Andrew N; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Gale, Shawn D

    2017-09-02

    Although highly heritable, adult height is also associated with numerous environmental factors, including exposure to infection. Particularly in developing regions of the world, infection burden appears to slow growth during childhood. Using a large database representative of the US population, we examined associations between adult height and leg length and an infection-burden index based on past exposure to Toxocara species, Toxoplasmosis gondii, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, herpes simplex virus 1, and herpes simplex virus 2. In models controlled for age, sex, educational attainment, socioeconomic status, and race-ethnicity, we found that the infection-burden index predicted height (β=-0.10 [95% CI: -0.15, -0.05], p .001<0.001) but not leg length (β=-0.04 [95% CI: -0.12, 0.04], p=0.357). Both sex and race-ethnicity moderated this association. In addition, exposures to Toxocara species, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis A were each individually associated with reduced height and reduced leg length. While associations between growth and infection have been found principally in children in developing regions of the world, our findings suggest that the effects of infection on height may persist into adulthood even in developed nations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality.Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations.Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations.Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P-trend < 0.001). In addition, we found a significant interaction of height with a prudent dietary pattern in relation to healthy aging (P-interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification (P-interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake.Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society

  12. Early-onset Crohn's disease is a risk factor for smaller final height.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Denise; Fournier, Nicolas; Buehr, Patrick; Koller, Rebekka; Rueger, Vanessa; Heyland, Klaas; Nydegger, Andreas; Spalinger, Johannes; Schibli, Susanne; Braegger, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Growth retardation is a frequent complication of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Only a few studies report the final height of these patients, with controversial results. We compared adult height of patients with paediatric IBD with that of patients with adult-onset disease. Height data of 675 women 19-44 years of age and 454 men 23-44 years of age obtained at inclusion in the Swiss IBD cohort study registry were grouped according to the age at diagnosis: (a) prepubertal (men≤13, women≤11 years), (b) pubertal (men 13-22, women 11-18 years) and (c) adult (men>22, women>18 years of age), and compared with each other and with healthy controls. Male patients with prepubertal onset of Crohn's disease (CD) had significantly lower final height (mean 172±6 cm, range 161-182) compared with men with pubertal (179±6 cm, 161-192) or adult (178±7 cm, 162-200) age at onset and the general population (178±7 cm, 142-204). Height z-scores standardized against heights of the normal population were significantly lower in all patients with a prepubertal diagnosis of CD (-0.8±0.9) compared with the other patient groups (-0.1±0.8, P<0.001). Prepubertal onset of CD emerged as a risk factor for reduced final height in patients with prepubertal CD. No difference for final height was found between patients with ulcerative or unclassified IBD diagnosed at prepubertal, pubertal or adult age. Prepubertal onset of CD is a risk for lower final height, independent of the initial disease location and the necessity for surgical interventions.

  13. Use of knee height for the estimation of body height in Thai adult women.

    PubMed

    Chumpathat, Nopphanath; Rangsin, Ram; Changbumrung, Supranee; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Durongritichai, Vanida; Kwanbunjan, Karunee

    2016-01-01

    Knee height has been the most frequently used measure for height prediction where full height is difficult to measure. The aim of this study was to develop and validate predictive equations using knee height to estimate the height of Thai women. The female participants were 18-59 years of age and lived in Bangkok or three surrounding provinces. They were assigned to one of two groups; the equation development group (n=488) and the equation validation group (n=188). Standing height and knee height were measured in duplicate using a stadiometer and a knee height calliper. Age and physical characteristics of the equation development group and the validate group were comparable. The measured heights showed a significant strongly positive correlation with the mean knee height (r=0.84, p<0.001). Mean knee height in a regression model exhibited the most accurate height prediction (adjusted R(2)=0.718, standard error of estimate=2.80), according to the equation "Height=38.1+2.45 (average knee height) - 0.051(age)". This study proposes a new height estimation equation for Thai adult women using knee height. The equation shows more estimation power than the previous studies conducted in Thailand.

  14. Adult height in boys and girls with untreated short stature and constitutional delay of growth and puberty: accuracy of five different methods of height prediction.

    PubMed

    Brämswig, J H; Fasse, M; Holthoff, M L; von Lengerke, H J; von Petrykowski, W; Schellong, G

    1990-12-01

    To determine how accurately several methods of height prediction estimate adult height, we compared height predictions calculated by the Bayley-Pinneau, Roche-Wainer-Thissen (RWT), target height, and Tanner-Whitehouse Mark I (TW-MI), and Mark II (TW-MII) methods with final adult height in 37 boys and 32 girls with short stature and constitutional delay of growth and puberty. They were first seen at a chronologic age (mean +/- SD) of 14.80 +/- 1.70 years (boys) and 12.87 +/- 2.56 years (girls). Adult height at 23.14 +/- 1.95 years and 21.05 +/- 2.02 years was 170.4 +/- 5.4 cm (boys) and 157.8 +/- 4.2 cm (girls), respectively, and thus within the lower range of normal. Height predictions were calculated for the total group and for patients with parents of normal (group 1) as well as short stature (group 2). For boys, the RWT method gave very accurate results, underestimating adult height by -0.6 cm for the total group. The prediction errors for the other methods were -7.3 cm (TW-MI), -4.2 cm (TW-MII), and +3.1 cm (Bayley-Pinneau method) or +1.7 cm (target height). For girls, no method was superior in estimating adult height. The mean prediction error was -0.8 cm, -2.1 cm, and -1.8 cm with the Bayley-Pinneau, TW-MI, and TW-MII methods, respectively. In contrast, adult height was overpredicted by +2.3 cm and +1.2 cm with the RWT and target height methods. We conclude that patients with short stature and constitutional delay of growth and puberty reach an adult height in the lower range of normal. Height prediction methods differ with respect to their accuracy and their tendency to overestimate or underestimate adult height.

  15. Effect of inhaled glucocorticoids in childhood on adult height.

    PubMed

    Kelly, H William; Sternberg, Alice L; Lescher, Rachel; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L; Williams, Paul; Zeiger, Robert S; Raissy, Hengameh H; Van Natta, Mark L; Tonascia, James; Strunk, Robert C

    2012-09-06

    The use of inhaled glucocorticoids for persistent asthma causes a temporary reduction in growth velocity in prepubertal children. The resulting decrease in attained height 1 to 4 years after the initiation of inhaled glucocorticoids is thought not to decrease attained adult height. We measured adult height in 943 of 1041 participants (90.6%) in the Childhood Asthma Management Program; adult height was determined at a mean (±SD) age of 24.9±2.7 years. Starting at the age of 5 to 13 years, the participants had been randomly assigned to receive 400 μg of budesonide, 16 mg of nedocromil, or placebo daily for 4 to 6 years. We calculated differences in adult height for each active treatment group, as compared with placebo, using multiple linear regression with adjustment for demographic characteristics, asthma features, and height at trial entry. Mean adult height was 1.2 cm lower (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.9 to -0.5) in the budesonide group than in the placebo group (P=0.001) and was 0.2 cm lower (95% CI, -0.9 to 0.5) in the nedocromil group than in the placebo group (P=0.61). A larger daily dose of inhaled glucocorticoid in the first 2 years was associated with a lower adult height (-0.1 cm for each microgram per kilogram of body weight) (P=0.007). The reduction in adult height in the budesonide group as compared with the placebo group was similar to that seen after 2 years of treatment (-1.3 cm; 95% CI, -1.7 to -0.9). During the first 2 years, decreased growth velocity in the budesonide group occurred primarily in prepubertal participants. The initial decrease in attained height associated with the use of inhaled glucocorticoids in prepubertal children persisted as a reduction in adult height, although the decrease was not progressive or cumulative. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Center for Research Resources; CAMP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000575.).

  16. Height, weight and skinfold thickness of Michigan adults.

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, R J; Sady, S P; Owen, G M

    1980-01-01

    Height, weight, and selected skinfold measurements were taken on 544 Michigan males and 557 females age 18 and over. Mean body weight showed a tendency to increase with age for both sexes up to age 64 while mean height progressively decreased from its maximum at age 18-24 years. Between ages 18 and 64 years, mean triceps skinfold thickness of men increased 10 per cent, female triceps skinfolds 50 per cent. Mean subscapular skinfold values rose consistently with age for both sexes. Comparison of these findings with those from earlier national studies suggest that Michigan adults are heavier and fatter but no taller than other US adults. PMID:7435748

  17. Linear Growth and Final Height Characteristics in Adolescent Females with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Kochavi, Brigitte; Toledano, Anat; Segev, Sharon; Balawi, Fadel; Mitrany, Edith; Stein, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Growth retardation is an established complication of anorexia nervosa (AN). However, findings concerning final height of AN patients are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess these phenomena in female adolescent inpatients with AN. Methods We retrospectively studied all 211 female adolescent AN patients hospitalized in an inpatient eating disorders department from 1/1/1987 to 31/12/99. Height and weight were assessed at admission and thereafter routinely during hospitalization and follow-up. Final height was measured in 69 patients 2–10 years after discharge. Pre-morbid height data was available in 29 patients. Results Patients’ height standard deviation scores (SDS) on admission (−0.285±1.0) and discharge (−0.271±1.02) were significantly (p<0.001) lower than expected in normal adolescents. Patients admitted at age ≤13 years, or less than 1 year after menarche, were more severely growth-impaired than patients admitted at an older age, (p = 0.03). Final height SDS, available for 69 patients, was −0.258±1.04, significantly lower than expected in a normal population (p = 0.04), and was more severely compromised in patients who were admitted less than 1 year from their menarche. In a subgroup of 29 patients with complete growth data (pre-morbid, admission, discharge, and final adult height), the pre-morbid height SDS was not significantly different from the expected (−0.11±1.1), whereas heights at the other time points were significantly (p = 0.001) lower (−0.56±1.2, −0.52±1.2, and −0.6±1.2, respectively). Conclusions Our findings suggest that whereas the premorbid height of female adolescent AN patients is normal, linear growth retardation is a prominent feature of their illness. Weight restoration is associated with catch-up growth, but complete catch-up is often not achieved. PMID:23029058

  18. A century of trends in adult human height.

    PubMed

    2016-07-26

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.

  19. A century of trends in adult human height

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13410.001 PMID:27458798

  20. Adult height in children with short stature and idiopathic delayed puberty after different management.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Stefano; Wasniewska, Malgorzata; Cisternino, Mariangela; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Maghnie, Mohamad; Street, Maria Elisabeth; Caruso-Nicoletti, Manuela; Cianfarani, Stefano

    2008-06-01

    By retrospectively collecting data from nine Italian centres of pediatric endocrinology, we assessed the different management and final outcome of children with short stature and idiopathic delayed puberty. Data were obtained in 77 patients (54 males, 23 females) diagnosed and followed-up in the various centres during the last 15 years. Inclusion criteria were short stature at initial observation and idiopathic delayed puberty diagnosed during follow-up. At first observation, age was 13.8 +/- 1.0 years and height standard deviation score (SDS) was -2.6 +/- 0.6 in males. In females age was 13.1 +/- 0.9 years and height SDS -2.6 +/- 0.4. Local diagnostic and therapeutic protocols included testing for growth-hormone deficiency (six centres) and treatment in case of deficiency or, in the remaining centres, testosterone or no treatment in males, and no treatment in females. At diagnosis, both in males and in females, the auxological features (height SDS, target height SDS and bone age delay) were similar in the patients treated with growth hormone, testosterone or not treated. Overall 32 patients received growth hormone (25 males, 7 females), 33 no treatment (17 males, 16 females) and 12 testosterone. There was no difference in the adult height of males and females in the different treatment groups. In males there were no differences between adult and target height SDSs (growth hormone-treated 0.31 +/- 0.79, untreated 0.10 +/- 0.82, testosterone-treated 0.05 +/- 0.95), between adult and initial height SDSs (growth hormone-treated 1.70 +/- 0.93, untreated 1.55 +/- 0.92, testosterone-treated 1.53 +/- 1.43) and percentage of subjects with adult height above target height. In females, there were no differences between adult and target height SDSs (growth hormone-treated -0.49 +/- 1.13; untreated 0.10 +/- 0.97) and between adult and initial height SDSs (growth hormone-treated 1.76 +/- 0.92; untreated 1.77 +/- 0.98), whereas a significantly higher percentage of patients

  1. [Influence of Mapuche origin and socioeconomic conditions on adult height].

    PubMed

    Erazo B, Marcia; Amigo C, Hugo; Bustos M, Patricia

    2005-04-01

    Studies in Chilean adults of low socioeconomic level suggest that their low height is likely to be due to their indigenous background. However this group also has been marginalized from socioeconomic development. To determine the influence of Mapuche ethnic origin and socioeconomic factors on the height of adults. In a cross sectional design, the height of 1,293 adults (528 males and 765 females) of Mapuche and non Mapuche origin were studied in the Araucania Region (Southern Chile) and in the Metropolitan Region (Central Chile). Subjects with Mapuche surnames were considered as pertaining to this ethnic community and those with Spanish surnames were considered as non Mapuche. Linear regression models were done, stratifying by sex, considering ethnic origin, to live in counties of different social vulnerability, and the level of family poverty. Among males, the mean height was 166.6+/-7.3 cm and among females, the figure was 153.6+/-5.9 cm. Mapuche subjects were significantly shorter: -3.2 cm (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -4.0 to -2.3) among females and -4.8 cm (CI -6.0 to -3.6) among males (non adjusted models). This deficit increased to -4.5 and -7.6 cm among females and males, respectively when they lived in poverty and in areas with highest social vulnerability. These differences decreased significantly if Mapuche subjects lived in communities with low social vulnerability and less poverty (-0.59 and -1.14 cm among females and males respectively). The studied population had low height, being lower in Mapuche subjects. The differences decreased among subjects living in counties of less vulnerability and less family poverty.

  2. Growth variation, final height and secular trend. Proceedings of the 17th Aschauer Soiree, 7th November 2009.

    PubMed

    Hermanussen, M; Godina, E; Rühli, F J; Blaha, P; Boldsen, J L; van Buuren, S; MacIntyre, M; Assmann, C; Ghosh, A; de Stefano, G F; Sonkin, V D; Tresguerres, J A F; Meigen, C; Scheffler, C; Geiger, C; Lieberman, L S

    2010-08-01

    Growth and body height have always been topics interesting to the public. In particular, the stupendous increase of some 15-19cm in final adult height during the last 150 years in most European countries (the "secular trend"), the concomitant changes in body and head proportions, the tendency towards early onset of sexual maturation, the changes in the age when final height is being reached, and the very recent trend in body mass index, have generated much scientific literature. The marked plasticity of growth in height and weight over time causes problems. Child growth references differ between nations, they tend to quickly become out of date, and raise a number of questions regarding fitting methods, effects caused by selective drop-out, etc. New findings contradict common beliefs about the primary importance of nutritional and health related factors for secular changes in growth. There appears to be a broad age span from mid-childhood to early adolescence that is characterised by a peculiar insusceptibility. Environmental factors that are known to influence growth during this age span appear to have only little or no impact on final height. Major re-arrangements in height occur at an age when puberty has almost been completed and final height has almost been reached, implying that factors, which drive the secular trend in height, are limited to early childhood and late adolescence.

  3. Final height in children with chronic renal failure who have not received growth hormone.

    PubMed

    André, Jean-Luc; Bourquard, Rosine; Guillemin, Francis; Krier, Marie-Jeanne; Briançon, Serge

    2003-07-01

    Final height (FH), growth velocity after 16 and 18 years of age, and factors predictive for FH were assessed in 60 patients (21-36 years old), whose chronic renal failure (CRF) started before the age of 16 years (28 girls and 32 boys). At 16 years of age, 22 had conservative treatment (CT, group A) and 38 end-stage renal failure [ESRF, group B, which includes 19 receiving hemodialysis (HD) and 19 with a functional renal transplant (RTx)]. None received recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment. FH was lower than in a normal population: 161.6+/-8 cm for males [-2.06+/-1.3 standard deviation score (SDS)] and 154.3+/-8.1 cm for females (-1.4+/-1.4 SDS). FH in group A (-1.15+/-1.4 SDS) was significantly higher than in group B (-2.1+/-1.3 SDS); 45% of all patients (56% of males and 23% of females) had a final height below -2 SDS (41% in group A and 47% in group B). FH was reached at 20.2+/-1.8 years in males and 18.8+/-2 years in females. A continuation of growth after 18 years of age was observed in 23 males (71.8%): +5.2 cm (+0.87 SDS) and in 14 females (50%): +1.75 cm (+0.3 SDS). However, this partial recovery concerned mainly patients with an important growth deficiency. A higher height at enrolment or at ESRF was significantly associated with a higher FH, whereas a longer period of ESRF had a significantly negative effect. In conclusion, all efforts should be made to diagnose CRF as early as possible and to try to improve growth before ESRF and RTx. Early institution of rhGH therapy should improve FH and improve the chance of achieving near-normal adult height in most patients.

  4. Final height in central precocious puberty after long term treatment with a slow release GnRH agonist.

    PubMed Central

    Oostdijk, W; Rikken, B; Schreuder, S; Otten, B; Odink, R; Rouwé, C; Jansen, M; Gerver, W J; Waelkens, J; Drop, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the resumption of puberty and the final height achieved in children with central precocious puberty (CPP) treated with the GnRH agonist triptorelin. PATIENTS: 31 girls and five boys with CPP who were treated with triptorelin 3.75 mg intramuscularly every four weeks. Girls were treated for a mean (SD) of 3.4 (1.0) years and were followed up for 4.0 (1.2) years after the treatment was stopped. RESULTS: The rate of bone maturation decreased during treatment and the predicted adult height increased from 158.2 (7.4) cm to 163.9 (7.5) cm at the end of treatment (p < 0.001). When treatment was stopped bone maturation accelerated, resulting in a final height of 161.6 (7.0) cm, which was higher than the predicted adult height at the start of treatment (p < 0.001). Height at the start of treatment was the most important factor positively influencing final height (r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Bone age at cessation of treatment negatively influenced final height (r = -0.52, p = 0.03). A negative correlation between bone age and height increment after discontinuation of treatment was observed (r = -0.85, p = 0.001). Residual growth capacity was optimal when bone age on cessation of treatment was 12 to 12.5 years. Body mass index increased during treatment and remained high on cessation. At final height, the ratio of sitting height to subischial leg length was normal. Menarche occurred at 12.3 (1.1) years, and at a median (range) of 1.1 (0.4 to 2.6) years after treatment was stopped. The ovaries were normal on pelvic ultrasonography. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of CPP with triptorelin increases final height, with normal body proportions, and seems to increase body mass index. The best results were achieved in girls who were taller at the start of treatment. Puberty was resumed after treatment, without the occurrence of polycystic ovaries. PMID:8984913

  5. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin(®)) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean duration of 4.1 yr. The anabolic steroid hormone was started approximately 1 yr after initiation of treatment with the GnRH analog. The mean pubertal height gain from onset of puberty till adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (33.9 cm) than in the untreated group (26.4 cm) (p<0.0001). The mean adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (164.3 cm) than in the untreated group (156.9 cm) (p<0.0001). The percentage of subjects with an adult height of 160 cm or taller was 90.5% (19/21) in the combination treatment group, and it was 13.8% (4/29) in the untreated group (p<0.0001). Since growth of the penis and pubic hair is promoted by the anabolic steroid hormone, no psychosocial problems arose because of delayed puberty. No clinically significant adverse events appeared. Combined treatment with GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone significantly increased height gain during puberty and adult height in boys who entered puberty with a short stature, since the period until epiphyseal closure was extended due to deceleration of the bone age maturation by administration of the GnRH analog and the growth rate at this time was maintained by the anabolic steroid hormone.

  6. Association between adult height, genetic susceptibility and risk of glioma

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Cari M; Wang, Sophia S; Melin, Beatrice S; Wang, Zhaoming; Braganza, Melissa; Inskip, Peter D; Albanes, Demetrius; Andersson, Ulrika; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Buring, Julie E; Carreón, Tania; Feychting, Maria; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E; Henriksson, Roger; Hsing, Ann W; Johansen, Christoffer; Linet, Martha S; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Michaud, Dominique S; Peters, Ulrike; Purdue, Mark P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M; Sesso, Howard D; Severi, Gianluca; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Stevens, Victoria L; Visvanathan, Kala; Waters, Martha A; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Hoover, Robert; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J; Hartge, Patricia; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2012-01-01

    Background Some, but not all, observational studies have suggested that taller stature is associated with a significant increased risk of glioma. In a pooled analysis of observational studies, we investigated the strength and consistency of this association, overall and for major sub-types, and investigated effect modification by genetic susceptibility to the disease. Methods We standardized and combined individual-level data on 1354 cases and 4734 control subjects from 13 prospective and 2 case–control studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for glioma and glioma sub-types were estimated using logistic regression models stratified by sex and adjusted for birth cohort and study. Pooled ORs were additionally estimated after stratifying the models according to seven recently identified glioma-related genetic variants. Results Among men, we found a positive association between height and glioma risk (≥190 vs 170–174 cm, pooled OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.11–2.61; P-trend = 0.01), which was slightly stronger after restricting to cases with glioblastoma (pooled OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.17–3.38; P-trend = 0.02). Among women, these associations were less clear (≥175 vs 160–164 cm, pooled OR for glioma = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.70–1.62; P-trend = 0.22; pooled OR for glioblastoma = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.77–2.39; P-trend = 0.04). In general, we did not observe evidence of effect modification by glioma-related genotypes on the association between height and glioma risk. Conclusion An association of taller adult stature with glioma, particularly for men and stronger for glioblastoma, should be investigated further to clarify the role of environmental and genetic determinants of height in the etiology of this disease. PMID:22933650

  7. Final heights of boys with normal growth hormone responses to provocative tests following priming.

    PubMed

    Gonc, E Nazli; Kandemir, Nurgun; Ozon, Alev; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer

    2008-10-01

    Priming with sex steroids prior to growth hormone (GH) stimulation tests for the diagnosis of GH deficiency is still debatable. We analyzed the auxological data of boys with growth retardation who had normal GH responses to stimulation tests only after priming to establish the validity of priming in the diagnosis of GH deficiency. We also analyzed the effect of different protocols for priming and their efficiency in the diagnosis of GH deficiency. Fifty boys with growth retardation who failed to respond to unprimed GH stimulation tests but responded normally to primed tests were included in the study. Thirty-one of 50 boys responded to GH stimulation tests after single low dose testosterone, 11/50 boys after single conventional dose, and 8/50 boys with multiple-dose testosterone. The study group was followed till final height; height velocity, final height and height SDS were compared to parental and mid-parental heights to determine whether or not the children achieved their height potential. Mean final height SDS of the study group (-1.27 +/- 0.72 SDS) was similar to mid-parental (-1.38 +/- 0.72 SDS) (p = 0.249) and maternal height SDS (-1.26 +/- 1.05 SDS) (p = 0.941), whereas it was greater than the paternal height SDS (-1.7 +/- 0.86) (p = 0.001). The final height SDS of the study group was correlated to maternal, paternal and mid-parental height SDS. Height velocity after the test was greater than the previous height velocity. Final height SDS of the boys who responded to the GH stimulation tests with different priming protocols were compared and found to be similar. Normal responders in primed GH tests grow normally to their target height, suggesting that priming might be a valuable method in the assessment of GH status. Use of priming in the GH stimulation tests of peripubertal boys with decreased growth rate may help avoid unnecessary GH therapy. Multiple-dose testing might exclude GHD in a patient population who failed to respond to a single dose of

  8. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Females with Moderately Early Puberty: No Effect on Final Height

    PubMed Central

    Savaş-Erdeve, Şenay; Şıklar, Zeynep; Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Kocaay, Pınar; Çamtosun, Emine; Öcal, Gönül; Berberoğlu, Merih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) on final height in girls who experienced moderately early puberty with symptoms beginning at 7-8.5 years of age. Methods: Female cases diagnosed with moderately early puberty which had started between ages 7 to 8.5 years were included in the study. In the treatment groups, all cases with a bone age ≤10.5 years constituted group 1 (n=18) and those with a bone age >10.5 years constituted group 2 (n=23). The 8 patients for which treatment approval could not be obtained constituted group 3. The 49 cases in all three groups were observed until they reached their final height. Results: Target height, target height standard deviation score (SDS), final height, and final height SDS values were similar in all 3 groups. Final height showed a significant positive correlation with target height (p=0.000, r=0.54) and height at diagnosis (p=0.003, r=0.467) in all groups. Linear regression analysis revealed that a 1 cm longer height at diagnosis increased the final height 0.213 fold, and a 1 cm longer target height at diagnosis increased the final height 0.459 fold. Conclusion: We found that GnRHa did not make a positive contribution to final height in cases of moderately early puberty. PMID:26758571

  9. Variation in Methods of Predicting Adult Height in Children with Idiopathic Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Topor, Lisa Swartz; Feldman, Henry A.; Bauchner, Howard; Cohen, Laurie E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recombinant human growth hormone (GH) is approved for treatment of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Endocrinologists often depend on algorithms to predict adult height. As algorithm performance is often included in treatment decision, we sought to evaluate agreement among height prediction formulas. Methods We identified 3 commonly used algorithms for height prediction: Bayley-Pinneau (BP), Roche-Wainer-Thissen (RWT), and Khamis-Roche (KR). We constructed simulated samples of children with typical distributions of ages, heights, weights, bone ages, and parental heights seen in patients with ISS, and applied the algorithms to the simulated children to determine if predicted adult height was <160 cm for boys or <150 cm for girls, the 1.2nd height percentiles for adults. Results We found substantial disagreement amongst algorithms in the percentage of simulated children with predicted adult height < 1.2nd percentile, a cut-off that may influence GH treatment decisions. Using the BP formula, 43% of boys and 81% of girls had predicted adult height below this threshold, whereas only 3% of boys and 0.2% of girls had predicted heights < 1.2nd percentile using the KR method. RWT predictions fell in between. Overall agreement of the methods was poor (kappa = 0.21) in boys and negative in girls. Conclusions Wide variation exists among formulas used to predict adult height. As these algorithms may be used in decisions about whether to initiate GH treatment and to assess GH’s efficacy in research trials, it is important for parents, pediatricians, and investigators to recognize the considerable variation involved in height prediction. PMID:20974789

  10. Does recombinant growth hormone improve adult height in children with chronic renal failure?

    PubMed

    Haffner, D; Schaefer, F

    2001-09-01

    During the past decade, the safety and efficacy of long-term treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in children with chronic renal failure before and after renal transplantation has been established. This article reviews the increasing evidence that rhGH treatment also results in a significant improvement of adult height in patients with childhood-onset chronic renal failure. The eventual height benefit of extended rhGH treatment appears to be 1.0 to 1.5 standard deviations on average. Whereas prepubertal rhGH treatment has a beneficial effect on final height, the efficacy of rhGH during puberty is less evident. The cumulative duration of rhGH treatment was found to be the most important positive, and the duration of dialysis treatment periods a negative predictor of rhGH efficacy, stressing the importance of prolonged rhGH treatment starting early in the course of chronic renal failure. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  11. Effect of growth hormone treatment on the adult height of children with chronic renal failure. German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D; Schaefer, F; Nissel, R; Wühl, E; Tönshoff, B; Mehls, O

    2000-09-28

    Growth hormone treatment stimulates growth in short children with chronic renal failure. However, the extent to which this therapy increases final adult height is not known. We followed 38 initially prepubertal children with chronic renal failure treated with growth hormone for a mean of 5.3 years until they reached their final adult height. The mean (+/-SD) age at the start of treatment was 10.4+/-2.2 years, the mean bone age was 7.1+/-2.3 years, and the mean height was 3.1+/-1.2 SD below normal. Fifty matched children with chronic renal failure who were not treated with growth hormone served as controls. The children treated with growth hormone had sustained catch-up growth, whereas the control children had progressive growth failure. The mean final height of the growth hormone-treated children was 165 cm for boys and 156 cm for girls. The mean final adult height of the growth hormone-treated children was 1.6+/-1.2 SD below normal, which was 1.4 SD above their standardized height at base line (P< 0.001). In contrast, the final height of the untreated children (2.1+/-1.2 SD below normal) was 0.6 SD below their standardized height at base line (P<0.001). Although prepubertal bone maturation was accelerated in growth hormone-treated children, treatment was not associated with a shortening of the pubertal growth spurt. The total height gain was positively associated with the initial target-height deficit and the duration of growth hormone therapy and was negatively associated with the percentage of the observation period spent receiving dialysis treatment. Long-term growth hormone treatment of children with chronic renal failure induces persistent catch-up growth, and the majority of patients achieve normal adult height.

  12. Overestimation of final height prediction in patients with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia using the Bayley and Pinneau method.

    PubMed

    Bonfig, Walter; Schwarz, Hans Peter

    2012-01-01

    A typical growth pattern with decreased pubertal growth spurt has been identified in patients with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). To evaluate the accuracy of final height predictions in patients with CAH using the Bayley and Pinneau (B&P) method. Using growth and final height data of 92 patients (57 F/35 M) with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (38 SV/54 SW), final height predictions with the B&P method were compared to actual final heights. In females, mean final height was 159.9 +/- 5.3 cm (-1.0 +/- 0.7 SDS) compared to predicted mean final height of 167.9 +/- 10.7 cm (+0.5 +/- 1.7 SDS), p < 0.001, overestimation 7.3 +/- 9.5 cm. In males, mean final height was 170.1 +/- 6 cm (-1.2 +/- 0.8 SDS) compared to predicted mean final height of 185.6 +/- 13.4 cm (+1.2 +/- 1.9 SDS), p < 0.001, overestimation 13.9 +/- 10.8 cm. In classical CAH, final height prediction using the B&P method results in significant overestimation of final height.

  13. GH treatment to final height produces similar height gains in patients with SHOX deficiency and Turner syndrome: results of a multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Blum, Werner F; Ross, Judith L; Zimmermann, Alan G; Quigley, Charmian A; Child, Christopher J; Kalifa, Gabriel; Deal, Cheri; Drop, Stenvert L S; Rappold, Gudrun; Cutler, Gordon B

    2013-08-01

    Growth impairment in short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) deficiency and Turner syndrome share a similar etiology. Because of the established effect of GH treatment on height in patients with Turner syndrome, we hypothesized that GH therapy would also stimulate growth in patients with SHOX deficiency. Our objectives were to evaluate long-term efficacy of GH treatment in short patients with SHOX deficiency and to compare the effect on final (adult) height (FH) in patients with SHOX deficiency and Turner syndrome. A prospective, multinational, open-label, randomized 3-arm study consisting of a 2-year control period and a subsequent extension period to FH. The treatment groups were 1) SHOX-D-C/GH (untreated during the control period, GH-treated during the extension), 2) SHOX-D-GH/GH, and 3) Turner-GH/GH (GH-treated during both study periods). Short-statured prepubertal patients with genetically confirmed SHOX deficiency (n = 49) or Turner syndrome (n = 24) who participated in the extension. Depending on the study arm, patients received a daily sc injection of 0.05 mg/kg recombinant human GH from start of the study or start of the extension until attainment of FH or study closure. Height SD score gain from start of GH treatment to FH was similar between the combined SHOX-deficient groups (n = 28, 1.34 ± 0.18 [least-squares mean ± SE]) and the Turner group (n = 19, 1.32 ± 0.22). In this FH population, 57% of the patients with SHOX deficiency and 32% of the patients with Turner syndrome achieved a FH greater than -2 SD score. GH treatment in short children with SHOX deficiency showed similar long-term efficacy as seen in girls with Turner syndrome.

  14. Outcome analysis of aromatase inhibitor therapy to increase adult height in males with predicted short adult stature and/or rapid pubertal progress: a retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Shams, Kim; Cameo, Tamara; Fennoy, Ilene; Hassoun, Abeer A; Lerner, Shulamit E; Aranoff, Gaya S; Sopher, Aviva B; Yang, Christine; McMahon, Donald J; Oberfield, Sharon E

    2014-07-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been used off-label to increase adult height in short adolescent males. Studies have shown that AIs increase the predicted adult height (PAH) while delaying bone age (BA) maturation. We sought to determine whether AI therapy increases PAH in boys with short stature or rapid pubertal progression, and to evaluate any untoward effects. The charts of 27 boys with BA ≥ 13 and short stature [height ≥ 2 standard deviation (SD) below the mean or ≥ 2 SD below mid-parental target height (MPTH)] or rapid pubertal progress, treated with anastrozole were reviewed. Outcome measures included anthropomorphic, hormonal, and metabolic data. The AI therapy averaged 21 months (range 14-30 months) for all, with Rx group 1 receiving <18 months therapy (n=7) and Rx group 2 receiving 18-30 months therapy (n=20). Post-therapy, in Rx group 1 and all subjects, there was no significant change in the PAH, height SDS, or BA/chronological age (CA). In Rx group 2, there was a small, nonsignificant increase in PAH, no change in height SDS, and a small decrease in BA/CA. Post-therapy PAH was different from MPTH in all and in both Rx groups 1 and 2, p<0.02. Eight of them achieved near-final height, averaging 6.73 ± 1.40 cm less than MPTH and 1.91 ± 0.86 cm less than the pre-therapy PAH. Post-therapy, the initially decreased estradiol did not persist but mildly increased testosterone and decreased high-density lipoprotein were noted, as was an increase in hematocrit, and decrease in growth velocity. We suggest that although bone age progression may be slightly delayed with longer duration of therapy, an overall short-term AI therapy does not lead to a final height that is greater than the predicted pre-therapy height.

  15. Final Height and Associated Factors in Perinatally HIV-Infected Asian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bunupuradah, Torsak; Kariminia, Azar; Aurpibul, Linda; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Lumbiganon, Pagakrong; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Vibol, Ung; Saghayam, Suneeta; Nallusamy, Revathy; Van Nguyen, Lam; Yusoff, Nik Khairulddin N.; Sohn, Annette H.; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed final height (FH) of 273 perinatally HIV-infected Asian adolescents aged ≥18 years at their last clinic visit. By the WHO child growth reference, 30% were stunted, but by the Thai child growth reference, 19% were stunted. Half of those who were stunted at antiretroviral therapy initiation remained stunted over time. Being male and having a low baseline height-for-age z-score of <−1.0 were associated with low FH z-score. PMID:26484429

  16. Gradually increasing ethinyl estradiol for Turner syndrome may produce good final height but not ideal BMD.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Ariyasu, Daisuke; Izawa, Masako; Igaki-Miyamoto, Junko; Fukuma, Mami; Hatano, Megumi; Yagi, Hiroko; Goto, Masahiro

    2017-02-27

    Estrogen replacement therapy in Turner syndrome should theoretically mimic the physiology of healthy girls. The objective of this study was to describe final height and bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of 17 Turner syndrome patients (group E) who started their ethinyl estradiol therapy with an ultra-low dosage (1-5 ng/kg/day) from 9.8-13.7 years. The subjects in group E had been treated with GH 0.35 mg/kg/week since the average age of 7.4 years. The 30 subjects in group L, one of the historical groups, were given comparable doses of GH, and conjugated estrogen 0.3125 mg/week ∼0.3125 mg/day was initiated at 12.2-18.7 years. The subjects in group S, the other historical group, were 21 patients who experienced breast development and menarche spontaneously. Final height (height gain < 2 cm/year) in group E was 152.4 ± 3.4 cm and the standard deviation (SD) was 2.02 ± 0.62 for Turner syndrome. The final height in group L was 148.5 ± 3.0 cm with a SD of 1.30 ± 0.55, which was significantly different from the values for group E. The volumetric BMD of group S (0.290 ± 0.026 g/cm(3)) was significantly different from that of group L or E (0.262 or 0.262 g/cm(3) as a mean, respectively). This is the first study of patients with Turner syndrome where estrogen was administered initially in an ultra-low dose and then increased gradually. Our estrogen therapy in group E produced good final height but not ideal BMD.

  17. Final height in a prospective trial of late steroid withdrawal after pediatric renal transplantation treated with cyclosporine and mizoribine.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Osamu; Hasegawa, Akira; Aikawa, Atsushi; Shishido, Seiichirou; Honda, Masataka; Tsuzuki, Kazuo; Kinukawa, Tsuneo; Hattori, Motoshi; Ogawa, Osamu; Yanagihara, Toshio; Saito, Kazuhide; Takahashi, Kota; Ohshima, Shinichi

    2012-02-01

    A prospective trial of corticosteroid (steroid) withdrawal after pediatric renal transplantation was started in 1990. Fifty-eight recipients with functioning grafts reached their final height. They were transplanted at a mean age of 10.7 yr. Immunosuppressive therapy with CyA, MP, and MZ was started after transplantation. MP was reduced to an alternate-day dose in 49 patients and was withdrawn in 23. Their mean height SDS was -2.4 at the time of transplantation and -2.1 at their final height. Mean final height was 157.9 cm in men and 147.6 cm in women. In 18 patients who had been withdrawn from MP for more than two yr before reaching final height, mean age at transplantation was 8.9 yr. Their mean height SDS of -2.2 at the time of transplantation increased to -1.6 at their final height (p = 0.02), and mean final height was 163.8 cm in men and 147.8 cm in women. The height SDS in all 58 patients was maintained during the immunosuppressive therapy with steroid minimization, and final height SDS increased in recipients older than five yr at transplantation with steroid withdrawal. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. A rigorous algorithm to detect and clean inaccurate adult height records within EHR systems.

    PubMed

    Muthalagu, A; Pacheco, J A; Aufox, S; Peissig, P L; Fuehrer, J T; Tromp, G; Kho, A N; Rasmussen-Torvik, L J

    2014-01-01

    Height is a critical variable for many biomedical analyses because it is an important component of Body Mass Index (BMI). Transforming EHR height measures into meaningful research-ready values is challenging and there is limited information available on methods for "cleaning" these data. We sought to develop an algorithm to clean adult height data extracted from EHR using only height values and associated ages. The algorithm we developed is sensitive to normal decreases in adult height associated with aging, is implemented using an open-source software tool and is thus easily modifiable, and is freely available. We checked the performance of our algorithm using data from the Northwestern biobank and a replication sample from the Marshfield Clinic biobank obtained through our participation in the eMERGE consortium. The algorithm identified 1262 erroneous values from a total of 33937 records in the Northwestern sample. Replacing erroneous height values with those identified as correct by the algorithm resulted in meaningful changes in height and BMI records; median change in recorded height after cleaning was 7.6 cm and median change in BMI was 2.9 kg/m(2). Comparison of cleaned EHR height values to observer measured values showed that 94.5% (95% C.I 93.8-% - 95.2%) of cleaned values were within 3.5 cm of observer measured values. Our freely available height algorithm cleans EHR height data with only height and age inputs. Use of this algorithm will benefit groups trying to perform research with height and BMI data extracted from EHR.

  19. Combined analysis of genomewide scans for adult height: results from the NHLBI Family Blood Pressure Program.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaodong; Cooper, Richard S; Boerwinkle, Eric; Turner, Stephen T; Hunt, Steve; Myers, Richard; Olshen, Richard A; Curb, David; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kan, Donghui; Luke, Amy

    2003-03-01

    A combined analysis of genome scans was performed for adult height in the NHLBI Family Blood Pressure Program. Height data were available on 6752 individuals. Linkage analysis was performed first separately for each of the eight ethnic groups in the four networks using the variance component method. To increase the power to detect the common genetic components affecting height for all the individuals, a linkage analysis was performed subsequently for the combined data set by pooling the average allele-sharing IBD () for all groups. By combining the data, we replicated evidence for a QTL influencing adult height on chromosome 7 (7q31) (LOD=2.46), which has been reported in two previous studies. Suggestive linkage (LOD>1) was found in another six regions in our combined analysis. Evidence for linkage for two of these regions (2p12, 20p11) has also been reported previously.

  20. Childhood family disruption and adult height: is there a mediating role of puberty?

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Paula; Garcia, Justin R.; Sear, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Childhood family background is known to be associated with child growth and development, including the onset of puberty, but less is known about the influence of childhood family disruption on outcomes in later life. Given the associations between early family disruption and childhood development, we predicted that there may be long-term health-relevant consequences of childhood disruption. Methodology: Using data from a large US interview sample (n = 16 207), we test if death or divorce of parents, at different childhood periods, was associated with adult stature, and whether age at puberty mediated this relationship, for men and women. Results: Men: parental death and divorce during early childhood was associated with shorter adult height, and later puberty. Later puberty was associated with shorter adult height. Path analyses demonstrated that the relationship between parental divorce and height was completely mediated by age at puberty; although parental death was only partially mediated by age at puberty. Women: the father’s death during early childhood was associated with earlier puberty, which was in turn associated with shorter adult stature. The relationship between paternal death and height is entirely mediated by age at puberty; no evidence of a direct relationship between childhood family disruption and adult height. Conclusions: Early childhood familial disruption is associated with shorter height for men, and is partially mediated by later puberty. For women, the relationship between father’s death, and height was completely mediated by earlier puberty. These findings indicate that disruption during childhood can have long-reaching health repercussions, particularly for boys. PMID:26609061

  1. Childhood family disruption and adult height: is there a mediating role of puberty?

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Paula; Garcia, Justin R; Sear, Rebecca

    2015-11-24

    Childhood family background is known to be associated with child growth and development, including the onset of puberty, but less is known about the influence of childhood family disruption on outcomes in later life. Given the associations between early family disruption and childhood development, we predicted that there may be long-term health-relevant consequences of childhood disruption. Using data from a large US interview sample (n = 16 207), we test if death or divorce of parents, at different childhood periods, was associated with adult stature, and whether age at puberty mediated this relationship, for men and women. RESULTS MEN: : parental death and divorce during early childhood was associated with shorter adult height, and later puberty. Later puberty was associated with shorter adult height. Path analyses demonstrated that the relationship between parental divorce and height was completely mediated by age at puberty; although parental death was only partially mediated by age at puberty. WOMEN: the father's death during early childhood was associated with earlier puberty, which was in turn associated with shorter adult stature. The relationship between paternal death and height is entirely mediated by age at puberty; no evidence of a direct relationship between childhood family disruption and adult height. Early childhood familial disruption is associated with shorter height for men, and is partially mediated by later puberty. For women, the relationship between father's death, and height was completely mediated by earlier puberty. These findings indicate that disruption during childhood can have long-reaching health repercussions, particularly for boys. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  2. Adult height and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis within the INHANCE Consortium.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Ricciardi, Walter; Cadoni, Gabriella; Arzani, Dario; Petrelli, Livia; Paludetti, Gaetano; Brennan, Paul; Luce, Daniele; Stucker, Isabelle; Matsuo, Keitaro; Talamini, Renato; La Vecchia, Carlo; Olshan, Andrew F; Winn, Deborah M; Herrero, Rolando; Franceschi, Silvia; Castellsague, Xavier; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Levi, Fabio; Dal Maso, Luigino; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Vaughan, Thomas L; Lazarus, Philip; Purdue, Mark P; Hayes, Richard B; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shangina, Oxana; Koifman, Sergio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Matos, Elena; Lagiou, Pagona; Lissowska, Jolanta; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Fernandez, Leticia; Menezes, Ana; Agudo, Antonio; Daudt, Alexander W; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Mates, Dana; Betka, Jaroslav; Yu, Guo-Pei; Schantz, Stimson; Simonato, Lorenzo; Brenner, Hermann; Conway, David I; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Thomson, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Znaor, Ariana; Rudnai, Peter; Healy, Claire; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between adult height and cancer incidence. The only study conducted among women on mouth and pharynx cancer risk, however, reported an inverse association. This study aims to investigate the association between height and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) within a large international consortium of HNC. We analyzed pooled individual-level data from 24 case-control studies participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated separately for men and women for associations between height and HNC risk. Educational level, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption were included in all regression models. Stratified analyses by HNC subsites were performed. This project included 17,666 cases and 28,198 controls. We found an inverse association between height and HNC (adjusted OR per 10 cm height = 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.95 for men; adjusted OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.79-0.93 for women). In men, the estimated OR did vary by educational level, smoking status, geographic area, and control source. No differences by subsites were detected. Adult height is inversely associated with HNC risk. As height can be considered a marker of childhood illness and low energy intake, the inverse association is consistent with prior studies showing that HNC occur more frequently among deprived individuals. Further studies designed to elucidate the mechanism of such association would be warranted.

  3. Height gain at adult-height age in 184 short patients treated with growth hormone from prepubertal age to near adult-height age is not related to GH secretory status at GH therapy onset.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, A; Audí, L; Fernández-Cancio, M; Yeste, D; Gussinye, M; Campos, A; Albisu, M A; Clemente, M; Bel, J; Nosás, R; Rabanal, M; Del Pozo, C; Gómez, J M; Mesa, J

    2013-01-01

    GH release after stimuli classifies short children as severe idiopathic isolated GH deficiency (IIGHD), mild IIGHD, dissociated GH release (DGHR) and normal GH release (NGHR) and anthropometric birth data as adequate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA). GH release after stimuli classifies AGA patients as IIGHD or as idiopathic short stature (ISS). To compare height gain induced by GH therapy (31.8 ± 3.5 µg/kg/day, 7.7 ± 1.6 years) started at prepubertal age and stopped at near adult-height age. A retrospective longitudinal multicenter study including 184 short patients classified as severe IIGHD n = 25, mild IIGHD n = 75, DGHR n = 55 and NGHR n = 29; or as IIGHD n = 78, ISS n = 57 and SGA n = 49. Height gain was evaluated throughout GH therapy and at adult-height age. Height-SDS gain at adult-height age was similar among severe IIGHD (1.8 ± 0.8 SDS), mild IIGHD (1.6 ± 0.6 SDS), DGHR (1.7 ± 0.7 SDS) and NGHR (1.6 ± 0.7 SDS), or among IIGHD (1.7 ± 0.7 SDS), ISS (1.7 ± 0.6 SDS) and SGA (1.6 ± 0.8 SD). GH-release stimuli are of little help for deciding on GH therapy in the clinical management of prepubertal children with IIGHD, ISS or SGA. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Genetic Contributions to the Association between Adult Height and Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    SL 3...rs143383—a 50 UTR poly- morphism which influences GDF5 transcriptional ac - tivity in chondrogenic and non-chondrogenic cell lines.30,31 In our study...ute 20% of variability to adult height in most modern, developed countries, are mainly active within a short time-window during early

  5. [Adult height of children with idiopathic short stature treated with growth hormone therapy].

    PubMed

    Avilés Espinoza, Carolina; Bermúdez Melero, Carla; Martinez Aguayo, Alejandro; García Bruce, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic short stature (ISS) is defined as a height of < or = 2 standard deviations (SD) from the mean for age. The use of Growth Hormone (GH) in ISS is controversial, and there are not results for adult height (AH) in Chilean patients with ISS treated with GH. The objective of the study is to compare AH in patients treated with GH with the height prediction at beginning of treatment. AH was considered with bone age ≥ 17 in males and ≥15 in females. The height SD according to the NCHS curves at beginning and ending of treatment were used for the comparison. Height prediction (HP) was calculated by Bayley-Pinneau method. AH was reached by 18/47 patients with ISS treated with GH. Initial height -2.1 ± 0.85 SD (133.1±6.8 cm) and HP -1.94±0.86 SD, and were treated since 11.6 ± 1.2 years old. After one year of treatment their height was -1.64 ± 0.69 SD, and AH was -1.28 +/- 0.62 SD (163.76 +/- 7.22 cm). It is suggested that treatment with GH for ISS is effective to increase AH. Although with wide individual variability, a mean increase of 0.67±0.9 SD (+2.67 cm) was obtained in the AH. This is the first report on Adult Height in Chilean patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [Weight and height validation for diagnosis of adult nutritional status in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Erika Aparecida da; Araújo, Cora Luíza; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Aluisio J D; Lima, Maurício Silva de

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported weight and height for predicting adult nutritional status. In a cross-sectional study of 3,934 adults (> 20 years) in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, a sub-sample of 140 individuals was drawn and weight and height were measured. From the comparison between "measured" and "reported" BMI, the average reported BMI error was estimated and the associated factors were identified. Regardless of nutritional status, women underestimated their "reported" BMI, while in men this information was accurate. Among women, age and income were associated with underestimated BMI in a multivariate analysis. Thus, women over 50 and with lower income underestimated BMI by more than 2 kg/m2. The use of "reported" BMI to predict adult nutritional status can underestimate prevalence of obesity and overestimate that of overweight in women. Correction minimizes this kind of bias, thereby making the data more accurate.

  7. Growth hormone treatment improves final height and nutritional status of children with chronic kidney disease and growth deceleration.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, C; Lonero, A; Delvecchio, M; Cavallo, L; Faienza, M F; Giordano, M; Dello Strologo, L; Cappa, M

    2017-08-17

    Growth retardation is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been used to help short children with CKD to attain a height more in keeping with their age group, but the scientific evidence regarding the effect of rhGH on final height is scarce. Final heights of children with CKD receiving rhGH treatment (cases) were compared with final heights of a matched cohort of children with CKD that did not receive rhGH therapy (controls). Sixty-eight rhGH-treated cases (44 boys) were compared with 92 untreated controls (60 boys). Mean duration of rhGH therapy was 4.2 ± 0.9 years; rhGH dose was 0.3 ± 0.07 mg/kg/week. Height SDS at baseline was lower in rhGH-treated patients than in controls (-2.00 ± 1.02 versus -0.96 ± 1.11, p < 0.001). Baseline height SDS was significantly lower than target height SDS in both groups. Height SDS significantly improved from baseline to final height attainment in rhGH-treated patients, while it slightly decreased in controls (mean SDS variation 0.69 ± 1.05 in rhGH-treated cases versus -0.15 ± 1.2 in controls). Final height SDS was -1.25 ± 1.06 in rhGH-treated cases and -1.06 ± 1.17 in controls (p = 0.29). Target adjusted final height SDS was -0.91 ± 1.03 in rhGH-treated cases and -0.61 ± 1.17 in controls (p = 0.1). Long-term rhGH therapy is able to reduce the linear growth deceleration of children with CKD, and ultimately to improve their final height, reducing the difference with target height.

  8. [Final height in symptomatic boys with late-onset adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH), treated with glucocorticoids. Clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Titania; Alonso, Guillermo; Fernández, Cecilia; Buzzalino, Noemí; Dain, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    Although corticoid replacement is recommended for those late-onset adrenal hyperplasia with clinical manifestations, asymptomatic patients do not need treatment. We describe clinical features at diagnosis, treatment, and growth till adult- height, in 4 boys. At diagnosis, age ranged from 9.2-11.6 years. The initial symptoms/signs were: precocious pubarche (n = 2), accelerated bone age (n = 1) and precocious puberty (n = 1). All of them presented elevated 17 hydroxyprogesterone levels and were compound heterozygotes carrying p.V281L mutation. Since, at diagnosis, bone age was significantly advanced for chronological age (13.1 ± 0.5 vs. 10.2 ± 1.1 p = 0.008), hydrocortisone therapy was initiated. During follow-up, mean height Z score decreased 1.4 ± 0.4 SDS (p = 0.007), though adult mean height was not different from target height (-0.39 ± 0.7 vs. -0.04 ± 0.5 SDS, p = 0.054). In conclusion, in 4 symptomatic patients, accurate treatment of late-onset adrenal hyperplasia led to an adult mean height not different from target height. Advanced bone age at diagnosis and the loss of height during pubertal development suggest the need of therapy.

  9. Adult height and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis within the INHANCE Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Ricciardi, Walter; Cadoni, Gabriella; Arzani, Dario; Petrelli, Livia; Paludetti, Gaetano; Brennan, Paul; Luce, Daniele; Stucker, Isabelle; Matsuo, Keitaro; Talamini, Renato; La Vecchia, Carlo; Olshan, Andrew F.; Winn, Deborah M.; Herrero, Rolando; Franceschi, Silvia; Castellsague, Xavier; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Levi, Fabio; Maso, Luigino Dal; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Vaughan, Thomas L; Lazarus, Philip; Purdue, Mark P.; Hayes, Richard B.; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Shangina, Oxana; Koifman, Sergio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Matos, Elena; Lagiou, Pagona; Lissowska, Jolanta; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Fernandez, Leticia; Menezes, Ana; Agudo, Antonio; Daudt, Alexander W.; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Mates, Dana; Betka, Jaroslav; Yu, Guo-Pei; Schantz, Stimson; Simonato, Lorenzo; Brenner, Hermann; Conway, David I; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Thomson, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Znaor, Ariana; Rudnai, Peter; Healy, Claire; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between adult height and cancer incidence. The only study conducted among women on mouth and pharynx cancer risk, however, reported an inverse association. This study aims to investigate the association between height and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) within a large international consortium of HNC. Methods We analyzed pooled individual-level data from 24 case-control studies participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Odds Ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were estimated separately for men and women for associations between height and HNC risk. Educational level, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption were included in all regression models. Stratified analyses by HNC subsites were performed. Results This project included 17,666 cases and 28,198 controls. We found an inverse association between height and HNC (adjusted OR per 10 cm height =0.91, 95% CI 0.86–0.95 for men; adjusted OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.79–0.93 for women). In men, the estimated OR did vary by educational level, smoking status, geographic area, and control source. No differences by subsites were detected. Conclusions Adult height is inversely associated with HNC risk. As height can be considered a marker of childhood illness and low energy intake, the inverse association is consistent with prior studies showing that HNC occur more frequently among deprived individuals. Further studies designed to elucidate the mechanism of such association would be warranted. PMID:24271556

  10. Adult height and risk of breast cancer: a possible effect of early nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, T I Lund; Vatten, L J

    2001-01-01

    The relationship of breast cancer to early reproductive development and height suggests that fetal and childhood nutrition may be important in its aetiology. Caloric restriction sufficient to reduce adult height may reduce breast cancer risk. During World War II (WWII) there was a marked reduction in average caloric intake in Norway that resulted in greater nutritional diversity. We hypothesized that a positive association between height and risk of breast cancer would be stronger among women who were born during this period than among women born before or after the war. A total of 25 204 Norwegian women were followed up for approximately 11 years, and 215 incident cases of breast cancer were registered. We found the strongest positive association between height and breast cancer among women born during WWII: women in the tallest tertile (>167 cm) had a relative risk of 2.5 (95% confidence interval = 1.2–5.5) compared with the shortest (≤ 162 cm). Among women born before or after the war we found no clear association with height. The association with height in the WWII cohort may imply a role for early nutrition in breast cancer aetiology. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11592765

  11. The association between adult attained height and sitting height with mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Sawada, Norie; Wark, Petra A; Merritt, Melissa A; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ward, Heather A; Rinaldi, Sabina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dartois, Laureen; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, María-Luisa; Travier, Noemie; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Dorronsoro, Miren; Cirera, Lluis; Ardanaz, Eva; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Valanou, Elissavet; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Hm Peeters, Petra; T van der Schouw, Yvonne; Melander, Olle; Manjer, Jonas; da Silva, Marisa; Skeie, Guri; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; J Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; J Cross, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Adult height and sitting height may reflect genetic and environmental factors, including early life nutrition, physical and social environments. Previous studies have reported divergent associations for height and chronic disease mortality, with positive associations observed for cancer mortality but inverse associations for circulatory disease mortality. Sitting height might be more strongly associated with insulin resistance; however, data on sitting height and mortality is sparse. Using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, a prospective cohort of 409,748 individuals, we examined adult height and sitting height in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Height was measured in the majority of participants; sitting height was measured in ~253,000 participants. During an average of 12.5 years of follow-up, 29,810 deaths (11,931 from cancer and 7,346 from circulatory disease) were identified. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for death were calculated using multivariable Cox regression within quintiles of height. Height was positively associated with cancer mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.11, 95%CI = 1.00-1.24; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.07-1.28). In contrast, height was inversely associated with circulatory disease mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.56-0.71; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70-0.93). Although sitting height was not associated with cancer mortality, it was inversely associated with circulatory disease (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.64, 95%CI = 0.55-0.75; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.49-0.74) and respiratory disease mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.28-0.71; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.40-0.89). We observed opposing effects of height on cancer and circulatory disease mortality. Sitting height was inversely associated with circulatory disease and respiratory disease mortality.

  12. The association between adult attained height and sitting height with mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Wark, Petra A.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ward, Heather A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dartois, Laureen; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, María-Luisa; Travier, Noemie; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Dorronsoro, Miren; Cirera, Lluis; Ardanaz, Eva; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Valanou, Elissavet; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; HM Peeters, Petra; T. van der Schouw, Yvonne; Melander, Olle; Manjer, Jonas; da Silva, Marisa; Skeie, Guri; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; J. Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; J. Cross, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Adult height and sitting height may reflect genetic and environmental factors, including early life nutrition, physical and social environments. Previous studies have reported divergent associations for height and chronic disease mortality, with positive associations observed for cancer mortality but inverse associations for circulatory disease mortality. Sitting height might be more strongly associated with insulin resistance; however, data on sitting height and mortality is sparse. Using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, a prospective cohort of 409,748 individuals, we examined adult height and sitting height in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Height was measured in the majority of participants; sitting height was measured in ~253,000 participants. During an average of 12.5 years of follow-up, 29,810 deaths (11,931 from cancer and 7,346 from circulatory disease) were identified. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for death were calculated using multivariable Cox regression within quintiles of height. Height was positively associated with cancer mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.11, 95%CI = 1.00–1.24; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.07–1.28). In contrast, height was inversely associated with circulatory disease mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.56–0.71; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.93). Although sitting height was not associated with cancer mortality, it was inversely associated with circulatory disease (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.64, 95%CI = 0.55–0.75; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.49–0.74) and respiratory disease mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.28–0.71; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.40–0.89). We observed opposing effects of height on cancer and circulatory disease mortality. Sitting height was inversely associated with circulatory disease and respiratory disease mortality. PMID:28257491

  13. Self-reported versus measured body height and weight in Polish adult men: the risk of underestimating obesity rates.

    PubMed

    Łopuszańska, Monika; Lipowicz, Anna; Kołodziej, Halina; Szklarska, Alicja; Bielicki, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Background: In some epidemiological studies, self-reported height and weight are often used to save time and money. Self-reported height and weight are commonly used to assess the prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between self-reported and measured height and weight in adult men, and to determine how the accuracy of self-reported data depended on age and education. The prevalence of obesity was also calculated based both on self-reported and measured data. Material and methods: Data were collected during two population studies carried out in Wroclaw in 2010. One study included 1,194 19-year-old males who reported for the health examination mandated by the National Conscription Board (younger group). The other group included 355 men between 35 and 80 years old who reported for a ten-year follow-up (older group). Data were analyzed separately for both age groups. Results: Both younger and older subjects overestimated their height by 1.4 cm and 1.0 cm (1.4 cm, 95   %CI: 1.26, 1.51, and 1.0 cm, 95   %CI: 0.85, 1.26, respectively). On average, younger subjects overestimated their weight by 0.7 kilograms (95   %CI: 0.55, 0.92), whereas older subjects underestimated their weight by 0.9 kilograms (95   %CI: –1.15, –0.48). The lower the level of education, the more the subjects overestimated their height. Conclusions: Adult men systematically overestimate their height and underestimate their weight. The magnitude of the inaccuracy depends on level of education. When self-reported data are used, the prevalence of obesity is generally underestimated. Using self-reported data to calculate BMI can lead to a substantial underestimation of the proportion of underweight and obese individuals in a population. Finally, using self-reported values for height in studies on social inequality may lead to false conclusions.

  14. Growing into obesity: Patterns of height growth in those who become normal weight, overweight or obese as young adults

    PubMed Central

    Stovitz, Steven D.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Hannan, Peter J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Himes, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study whether patterns of height growth differ by adult obesity status, and determine the contribution of subcutaneous fatness as an explanatory variable for any differences. Study design A multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort assessed in 3rd grade (8.8 years), 5th grade (11.1 years), 8th grade (14.1 years) and 12th grade (18.3 years). Exposures were young adult obesity status classified by CDC adult BMI categories at 12th grade. Skinfolds were measured in 3rd, 5th and 8th grades. Outcome was mean height (cm) at the four measurements using repeated-measures ANCOVA for young adult obesity status, and height increments between grades by adult obesity status in sequential models including initial height and, secondarily, initial skinfolds. Results Adjusted for age, and race/ethnicity, young adult obesity status explained a small, but statistically significant amount of height growth among both females and males within each of the three intervals. Compared with normal weight young adults, overweight or obese young adults stood taller in childhood, but had relatively less growth in height throughout the teenage years. There was no association between adult height and weight status. Skinfolds explained only a small amount of the height patterns in the three weight groups. Conclusion Childhood and adolescent height growth patterns differ between those who become young adults who are normal weight and those who become overweight or obese. Since differences in fatness explain only a small amount of these height growth patterns, research is needed to identify other determinants. PMID:21630370

  15. BMI rebound, childhood height and obesity among adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Freedman, D S; Kettel Khan, L; Serdula, M K; Srinivasan, S R; Berenson, G S

    2001-04-01

    The beginning of the post-infancy rise in the body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) has been termed the adiposity rebound, and several studies have found that an early rebound increases the risk for overweight in adulthood. We examined whether this relation is independent of childhood BMI levels. A longitudinal study of 105 subjects who examined at ages 5, 6, 7, 8 and 19-23 y. Subjects with an age at the BMI rebound (age(min)) of < or =5 y were, on average, 4-5 kg/m2 heavier in early adulthood than were subjects whose age(min) was > or =7 y. Age(min), however, was also correlated with childhood BMI levels (r approximately -0.5), and we found that age(min) provided no additional information on adult overweight if the BMI level at age 7 y (or 8 y) was known. In contrast, childhood height, which was also correlated with age(min) (r=-0.47), was independently related to adult BMI. Among relatively heavy (BMI=16.0 kg/m2) 5-y-olds, a child with a height of 120 cm was estimated to be 1.2 kg/m2 heavier in adulthood than would a 104 cm tall child. Although an early BMI rebound was related to higher levels of relative weight in adulthood, this association was not independent of childhood BMI levels. The relation of childhood height to adult BMI needs to confirmed in other cohorts, but it is possible that childhood height may help identify children who are likely to become overweight adults.

  16. Early Life Environmental Exposures and Height, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Older Adults in India

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jessica Y.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposures like rainfall and temperature influence infectious disease exposure and nutrition, two key early life conditions linked to later life health. However, few tests of whether early life environmental exposures impact adult health have been performed, particularly in developing countries. This study examines the effects of experiencing rainfall and temperature shocks during gestation and up through the first four years after birth on measured height, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk factors using data on adults aged 50 and above (N=1,036) from the 2007–2008 World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) and district-level meteorological data from India. Results from multivariate logistic regressions show that negative rainfall shocks during gestation and positive rainfall shocks during the post-birth period increase the risk of having adult hypertension and CVD risk factors. Exposure to negative rainfall shocks and positive temperature shocks in the post-birth period increases the likelihood of falling within the lowest height decile. Prenatal shocks may influence nutrition in utero, while postnatal shocks may increase exposure to infectious diseases and malnutrition. The results suggest that gestation and the first two years after birth are critical periods when rainfall and temperature shocks take on increased importance for adult health. PMID:26266969

  17. Adult height variants affect birth length and growth rate in children.

    PubMed

    Paternoster, Lavinia; Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Weedon, Michael N; Freathy, Rachel M; Frayling, Timothy M; Kemp, John P; Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ring, Susan M; Evans, David M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2011-10-15

    Previous studies identified 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adult height, explaining ∼10% of the variance. The age at which these begin to affect growth is unclear. We modelled the effect of these SNPs on birth length and childhood growth. A total of 7768 participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children had data available. Individual growth trajectories from 0 to 10 years were estimated using mixed-effects linear spline models and differences in trajectories by individual SNPs and allelic score were determined. The allelic score was associated with birth length (0.026 cm increase per 'tall' allele, SE = 0.003, P = 1 × 10(-15), equivalent to 0.017 SD). There was little evidence of association between the allelic score and early infancy growth (0-3 months), but there was evidence of association between the allelic score and later growth. This association became stronger with each consecutive growth period, per 'tall' allele per month effects were 0.015 SD (3 months-1 year, SE = 0.004), 0.023 SD (1-3 years, SE = 0.003) and 0.028 SD (3-10 years, SE = 0.003). By age 10, the mean height difference between individuals with ≤170 versus ≥191 'tall' alleles (the top and bottom 10%) was 4.7 cm (0.8 SD), explaining ∼5% of the variance. There was evidence of associations with specific growth periods for some SNPs (rs3791675, EFEMP1 and rs6569648, L3MBTL3) and supportive evidence for previously reported age-dependent effects of HHIP and SOCS2 SNPs. SNPs associated with adult height influence birth length and have an increasing effect on growth from late infancy through to late childhood. By age 10, they explain half the height variance (∼5%) of that explained in adults (∼10%).

  18. Dosing of praziquantel by height in sub-Saharan African adults.

    PubMed

    Palha De Sousa, Chiquita A; Brigham, Tracy; Chasekwa, Bernard; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Tielsch, James M; Humphrey, Jean H; Prendergast, Andrew J

    2014-04-01

    The cornerstone of schistosomiasis control is mass praziquantel treatment in high prevalence areas. Adults are an important target population, given increasing recognition of the burden of male and female genital schistosomiasis. However, use of weighing scales to calculate praziquantel dosing in rural areas can be challenging. For school-age children, the World Health Organization (WHO) has approved a dose pole to simplify praziquantel dosing based on height. We modified the pediatric dose pole by adding two height categories and incorporating a simple overweight/obesity adjustment, for simplified mass treatment of adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Using the rural Zimbabwean Demographic and Health Survey data, we show that the modified dose pole with body mass index adjustment would result in > 98% of adults receiving an acceptable dose (30-60 mg/kg), with only 1.4% and 0.3% receiving an inadequate dose (< 30 mg/kg) or high dose (> 60 mg/kg), respectively. An adult dose pole may provide a more feasible alternative to weighing scales in community-based praziquantel treatment programs.

  19. Associations among body size across the life course, adult height and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Farland, L V; Missmer, S A; Bijon, A; Gusto, G; Gelot, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Mesrine, S; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Kvaskoff, M

    2017-08-01

    Are body size across the life course and adult height associated with endometriosis? Endometriosis is associated with lean body size during childhood, adolescence and adulthood; tall total adult height; and tall sitting height. The literature suggests that both adult body size and height are associated with endometriosis risk, but few studies have investigated the role of body size across the life course. Additionally, no study has investigated the relationships between components of height and endometriosis. We used a nested case-control design within E3N (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de l'Education Nationale), a prospective cohort of French women. Data were updated every 2-3 years through self-administered questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were computed using logistic regression models adjusted for a priori confounding factors. A total of 2416 endometriosis cases were reported as surgically ascertained among the 61 208 included women. The odds of endometriosis were lower among women who reported having a large versus lean body size at 8 years (P for trend = 0.003), at menarche (P for trend < 0.0001) and at ages 20-25 years (P for trend < 0.0001). Women in the highest quartiles of height had statistically significantly increased odds of endometriosis compared to those in the lowest (<158 cm) (162-164 cm: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.12-1.46; ≥165 cm: OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.18-1.49, P for trend < 0.0001). Statistically significantly increased odds were also observed among women with a taller sitting height (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05-1.47, P for trend = 0.01). Leg length was not statistically significantly associated with endometriosis. Endometriosis cases may be prone to misclassification; however, we restricted our case definition to surgically-confirmed cases, which showed a high validation rate. Body size is based on retrospective self-report, which may be subject to recall bias. The results of this study suggest that endometriosis is positively

  20. Indicators of adult height outcome in classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Muirhead, Sarah; Sellers, Elizabeth A C; Guyda, Harvey

    2002-08-01

    To obtain objective information on the relationship between adult height (AH), glucocorticoid (GC) dose, and degree of hormonal suppression in a population of patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21-OHD CAH) to optimize treatment regimes. Multicenter retrospective chart review of patients with salt wasting 21-OHD CAH diagnosed in the first 6 months of life, and who had reached AH (n = 54). The data were compiled into a single database. Mean adult height standard deviation score - midparental height standard deviation score was -1.1 for both sexes. Growth velocity was normal during childhood but compromised during infancy and puberty. Onset and tempo of puberty were normal-to-delayed. Bone age was closely correlated with chronologic age (r = 0.93). AH was negatively correlated with androstenedione in infancy (r -0.68; P =.03) and childhood (-0.66; P <.01) and with testosterone in childhood (r -0.44; P =.01), but not with dehydroepiandrosterone or 17-hydroxyprogesterone. GC dose was not associated with AH. Mean AH was in the lower range of genetic potential in this group of persons with 21-OHD CAH. Androgen levels should be used in conjunction with growth velocity measurements to optimize GC dosing in persons with 21-OHD CAH.

  1. Factors that affect final height and change in height standard deviation scores in survivors of childhood cancer treated with growth hormone: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Carrie M; Mertens, Ann C; Mitby, Pauline A; Stovall, Marilyn; Qin, Jing; Heller, Glenn; Robison, Leslie L; Sklar, Charles A

    2004-09-01

    GH deficiency is a common late complication in survivors of pediatric malignancies, particularly those who are treated with radiation (RT) to the hypothalamic-pituitary region. Nonetheless, few reports have assessed final height outcomes in survivors treated with GH. In the present study, we investigated which patient and treatment variables correlate with final height and change in height sd score (SDS) in a large cohort of cancer survivors treated with GH. We previously identified 361 participants in the multicenter Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who were treated with GH. Final height data were available in 183 survivors (120 males). Diagnoses included: central nervous system tumors (n = 90), acute leukemia (n = 64), soft tissue sarcomas (n = 23), and miscellaneous (n = 6). The median age at diagnosis of the primary cancer was 4.6 yr, and the median age at start of GH treatment was 11.3 yr. Mean height SDS at start of GH therapy was -2.03 +/- 0.8, and the mean final height SDS was -1.48 +/- 0.10 (P < 0.001). Final height SDS was positively associated with target height and dose of GH but negatively associated with the presence of concomitant endocrinopathies and dose of spinal RT. Change in height SDS (start of GH-final height) was positively associated with male gender, younger bone age at start of GH, and dose of GH; presence of concomitant endocrinopathies and dose of spinal RT were negatively associated with change in height SDS. Risk factors associated with a final height of -2.0 sd or less included lower doses of GH and exposure to higher doses of spinal RT. Thus, to maximize final height, our findings emphasize the importance of beginning GH therapy at the earliest bone age that is clinically feasible; treating with conventional higher doses of GH; and, when possible, minimizing the dose of spinal RT.

  2. Adult Education School to Work. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Molly

    A project identified and established components related to adult basic education's role in school-to-work (STW) transition. It focused on developing a cognitive framework for competency-based adult employability classes, integrating adult basic and literacy education (ABLE)-funded programs into the Erie Area STW partnership, and establishing a…

  3. Secular change in heights of indigenous adults from a Zapotec-speaking community in Oaxaca, southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M; Reyes, Maria Eugenia Peña; Little, Bertis B

    2010-03-01

    Secular change in adult height of residents in a rural indigenous community in the Valley of Oaxaca was evaluated. Subjects were measured in 1971 (49 males, 26 females 19-70 years), 1978 (128 males, 124 females 19-82 years) and 2000 (155 males, 255 females 19-89 years). Heights were adjusted for estimated loss with age using two protocols; height at 21 years of age was also estimated. The effects of age and secular factors on measured and adjusted heights were evaluated through segmented linear regressions for three birth periods, <1930, 1930 through 1959 and >or=1960 which approximate significant periods in Mexican history. Secular increase in height occurred but estimated rates varied over time and between sexes. Males born before 1930 showed a secular increase in height but females did not. Adults of both sexes born 1930-1959 showed secular gains and estimated rates did not differ. The secular gain in height continued among those born 1960 and later and estimated rates were similar in both sexes. Estimated height at 21 years of age increased in males (not significant) but not in females born before 1930, showed little or no change in those born between 1930-1959, and increased (not significant) in those born 1960 and later. Combining observations on adults with those for youth in the community indicated several phases of secular change in height that varied with years of birth.

  4. The Effect of Fatigue on Electromyographic Characteristics during Obstacle Crossing of Different Heights in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Antonopoulos, Christos; Patikas, Dimitrios; Koutlianos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulou, Sofia D.; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Bassa, Eleni; Kotzamanidis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatigue on electromyographic (EMG) parameters of healthy young adults during obstacle crossing of two different heights. Twelve untrained male adults (23 ± 5 years of age) were fatigued running on a treadmill with increasing speed and inclination and walked over an obstacle with a height set at 10% and 20% of each individual’s lower limb length. Maximal plantar flexor torque and EMG of the medial gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior muscles of the trailing limb were assessed during obstacle crossing. Data were captured before, immediately after and 5 minutes after a fatigue session. Fatigue induced significant reduction on the plantar flexor torque output immediately after and 5 minutes after exhaustion. After fatigue gait speed was not affected, the minimum distance between the obstacle and the trailing or leading foot remained unchanged, and the trailing foot contacted the ground closer to the obstacle immediately after fatigue. Regarding the EMG, medial gastrocnemius became after fatigue more active during swing phase when increasing the obstacle height, whereas this was not the case before or 5 minutes after fatigue. No other significant difference was observed for any of the examined muscles. It is concluded that the assessed fatigue protocol induced only minimal changes in the EMG activity of the examined muscles during obstacle crossing. Therefore, it is suggested that the neuromuscular system of healthy young individuals is able to respond to the decreased force capacity after fatigue during obstacle crossing of heights up to the 20% of the limb length. Key Points Exhaustion after running on a treadmill induces significant reduction in plantar flexion strength and changes in the positioning of the feet relative to the obstacle during obstacle crossing. EMG activity of the calf muscles of the trailing limb does not change significantly after fatigue during the stance phase During swing phase

  5. Height at Ages 7-13 Years in Relation to Developing Type 2 Diabetes Throughout Adult Life.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Lise G; Jensen, Britt W; Baker, Jennifer L

    2017-07-01

    Short adults have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Although adult height results from childhood growth, the effects of height and growth trajectories during childhood are sparsely investigated. We investigated sex-specific associations between childhood height, growth and adult type 2 diabetes, including potential influences of birthweight and childhood body mass index (BMI). We followed 292 827 individuals, born 1930-83, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register in national registers for type 2 diabetes (11 548 men; 7472 women). Weights and heights were measured at ages 7-13 years. Hazard ratios (HR) of type 2 diabetes (age ≥30 years) were estimated without and with adjustment for birthweight and BMI. In men, associations between height and type 2 diabetes changed from inverse for below-average heights at age 7 years to positive for above-average heights at 13 years. No consistent associations were observed among women. These associations were not affected by birthweight. After adjustment for BMI, below-average childhood heights were inversely associated with type 2 diabetes among men (HR range: 0.91-0.93 per z-score) but above-average heights were not. Among women, after adjustment for BMI, below- and above-average heights in childhood were inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (HR range: 0.91-0.95). Greater height growth from 7 to 13 years was positively associated with type 2 diabetes in men and women. After adjustment for BMI, short childhood height at all ages and greater growth during childhood are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, suggesting that this period of life warrants mechanistic investigations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Bilingual Adult Basic Education Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Janet Roth

    The Bilingual Adult Basic Education Project provided bilingual life skills instruction, counseling, and informational services to approximately 150 non-English-dominant adults across Pennsylvania by means of contracts to local education agencies. Students were pre- and post-tested in English and/or their native language to measure their growth in…

  7. Adult Services in the Eighties: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Kathleen M.

    The American Library Association's (ALA) Adult Services in the Eighties (ASE) project was undertaken to supply information about areas of current and unique concentration to aid librarians in identifying, describing, and planning the scope of adult services in their own libraries. The ASE project updates a study conducted in 1954--the most recent…

  8. Saskatchewan Older Adult Literacy Survey. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    The Saskatchewan Older Adult Literacy Survey involved 16 literacy programs offered by the regional colleges, public libraries, and technical institutes throughout the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. The 2-month survey acquired information for an overview of the current state of older adults and literacy in Saskatchewan through mailed…

  9. Identification, Replication, and Fine-Mapping of Loci Associated with Adult Height in Individuals of African Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Bing; Tayo, Bamidele; Mathias, Rasika A.; Ding, Jingzhong; Nalls, Michael A.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Adoue, Véronique; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Atwood, Larry; Bandera, Elisa V.; Becker, Lewis C.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Britton, Angela; Casey, Graham; Chanock, Stephen J.; Demerath, Ellen; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Fox, Caroline; Harris, Tamara B.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Craig; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lohman, Kurt; Liu, Jiankang; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; North, Kari E.; Nyante, Sarah; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Papanicolaou, George; Patel, Sanjay; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Press, Michael F.; Redline, Susan; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotimi, Charles; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Salako, Babatunde; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Stanford, Janet L.; Stram, Alex H.; Stram, Daniel O.; Strom, Sara S.; Suktitipat, Bhoom; Thun, Michael J.; Witte, John S.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.; Liu, Yongmei; Becker, Diane M.; Cooper, Richard S.; Pastinen, Tomi; Henderson, Brian E.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lettre, Guillaume; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h 2 ∼0.8). More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain ∼10% of the variance in height. Discovery efforts in other populations, while limited, have revealed loci for height not previously implicated in individuals of European ancestry. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results for adult height in 20,427 individuals of African ancestry with replication in up to 16,436 African Americans. We found two novel height loci (Xp22-rs12393627, P = 3.4×10−12 and 2p14-rs4315565, P = 1.2×10−8). As a group, height associations discovered in European-ancestry samples replicate in individuals of African ancestry (P = 1.7×10−4 for overall replication). Fine-mapping of the European height loci in African-ancestry individuals showed an enrichment of SNPs that are associated with expression of nearby genes when compared to the index European height SNPs (P<0.01). Our results highlight the utility of genetic studies in non-European populations to understand the etiology of complex human diseases and traits. PMID:21998595

  10. [MODEL FOR ESTIMATING STANDING HEIGHT IN MEXICAN ADULTS FOR 20-59 YEARS, BASED ON KNEE LENGTH].

    PubMed

    Mendivil Alvarado, Herminia; Villegas Valle, Rosa Consuelo; Díaz Zavala, Rolando Giovanni; Antunez Roman, Lesley E; Valencia Juillerat, Mauro E

    2015-12-01

    Currently, bone distances are used to predict standing height in adults that might not be able to achieve a correct standing position. Knee length based algorithms for estimating standing height have been proposed and designed for specific populations. However, equations for other populations may not necessarily reflect environmental and genetic factors for the group of interest. The aim of this study was to develop and validate predictive models for standing height in Mexican adults. For this purpose, 240 male and female adults aged 20 to 59 years, with no apparent spine problems were measured. We measured weight, height and knee length, using an anthropometer of our own design and a glass fiber metric measuring tape. A predictive model for each measuring instrument was developed. Model selection and development of equations were carried out by "all possible regressions and multiple regression" procedures. The predictive models for standing height by the anthropometer and by the measuring tape did not show significant differences between measured and estimated height. The R2 for the two models were 0.93 and 0.92, with a standard error of the estimator (EE) of 2.30 and 2.40 cm, for the anthropometer and the measuring tape, respectively. Both methods were acceptable in terms of concordance, accuracy and precision; however, at very high and low predicted height values, both models showed significant bias, which should be considered when applying these algorithms in different populations.

  11. A common variant of HMGA2 is associated with adult and childhood height in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Weedon, Michael N; Lettre, Guillaume; Freathy, Rachel M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Voight, Benjamin F; Perry, John R B; Elliott, Katherine S; Hackett, Rachel; Guiducci, Candace; Shields, Beverley; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Lango, Hana; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Timpson, Nicholas J; Burtt, Noel P; Rayner, Nigel W; Saxena, Richa; Ardlie, Kristin; Tobias, Jonathan H; Ness, Andrew R; Ring, Susan M; Palmer, Colin N A; Morris, Andrew D; Peltonen, Leena; Salomaa, Veikko; Smith, George Davey; Groop, Leif C; Hattersley, Andrew T; McCarthy, Mark I; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2011-01-01

    Human height is a classic, highly heritable quantitative trait. To begin to identify genetic variants influencing height, we examined genome-wide association data from 4,921 individuals. Common variants in the HMGA2 oncogene, exemplified by rs1042725, were associated with height (P = 4 × 10−8). HMGA2 is also a strong biological candidate for height, as rare, severe mutations in this gene alter body size in mice and humans, so we tested rs1042725 in additional samples. We confirmed the association in 19,064 adults from four further studies (P = 3 × 10−11, overall P = 4 × 10−16, including the genome-wide association data). We also observed the association in children (P = 1 × 10−6, N = 6,827) and a tall/short case-control study (P = 4 × 10−6, N = 3,207). We estimate that rs1042725 explains ~0.3% of population variation in height (~0.4 cm increased adult height per C allele). There are few examples of common genetic variants reproducibly associated with human quantitative traits; these results represent, to our knowledge, the first consistently replicated association with adult and childhood height. PMID:17767157

  12. Associations between alveolar heights and vertical skeletal pattern in Moroccan adults: a cephalometric study of 127 clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Abdelali, Halimi; Benyahia, Hicham; Abouqal, Redouane; Azaroual, Mohammed-Faouzi; Zaoui, Fatima

    2012-03-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate vertical dentoalveolar compensation in untreated patients, in search of an association between vertical facial pattern and alveolar heights. This study involved the participation of 127 untreated Moroccan adults from the patient population of the ODF (Dentofacial Orthopedics) Department at the Center for Dental Treatment and Consultation (CCTD) in Rabat. Full adult dentition was the only criterion for inclusion. Patients with major syndromes and patients with facial clefts were excluded from the study. For the purposes of this analysis, we used profile teleradiography to measure vertical and sagittal skeletal variables as well as vertical dentoalveolar variables in the anterior and posterior maxillary and mandibular regions. We also measured the incisor axes. Analyses and statistical tests were performed with SPSS(®) statistics software (version 9.5 for Windows). Results indicate that: (i) upper posterior alveolar height (UPAH) does not correlate with skeletal variables of facial divergence, but correlates strongly with anterior facial height (AFH) and moderately with posterior facial height (PFH); (ii) lower anterior alveolar height (LAAH) correlates negatively with facial height index (FHI), positively with the FMA and AFH, but does not correlate with PFH; (iii) lower posterior alveolar height (LPAH) does not correlate with skeletal variables of facial divergence; (iv) upper anterior alveolar height (UAAH) changes inversely with FHI, correlates positively with the FMA and does not correlate with PFH.

  13. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian’an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna AE; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex SF; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M.; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor VA; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John JP; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela AF; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul IW; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Inês; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; McCarthy, Mark I; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J; Price, Alkes L.; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth JF; Weedon, Michael N; Ingelsson, Erik; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Chasman, Daniel I; Goddard, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explain one-fifth of heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ~2,000, ~3,700 and ~9,500 SNPs explained ~21%, ~24% and ~29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured the majority (60%) of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci enriched for genes, pathways, and tissue-types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/beta-catenin, and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants. PMID:25282103

  14. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrew R; Esko, Tonu; Yang, Jian; Vedantam, Sailaja; Pers, Tune H; Gustafsson, Stefan; Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Arnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor V A; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J P; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela A F; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul I W; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Inês; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; McCarthy, Mark I; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J; Price, Alkes L; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth J F; Weedon, Michael N; Ingelsson, Erik; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Chasman, Daniel I; Goddard, Michael E; Visscher, Peter M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2014-11-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.

  15. Interpedicular height as a predictor of radicular pain in adult degenerative scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Hawasli, Ammar H; Chang, Jodie; Yarbrough, Chester K; Steger-May, Karen; Lenke, Lawrence G; Dorward, Ian G

    2016-09-01

    Spine surgeons must correlate clinical presentation with radiographic findings in a patient-tailored approach. Despite the prevalence of adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS), there are few radiographic markers to predict the presence of radiculopathy. Emerging data suggest that spondylolisthesis, obliquity, foraminal stenosis, and curve concavity may be associated with radiculopathy in ADS. The purpose of this study was to determine if radicular pain in ADS is associated with reduced interpedicular heights (IPHs) as measured on routine radiographs. This is a retrospective case-controlled study. The authors carried out a retrospective chart review at a tertiary care referral center that included ADS patients referred to scoliosis surgeons between 2012 and 2014. Inclusion criteria included patients with ADS and no prior thoracolumbar surgery. Data were collected from initial spine surgeon clinic notes and radiographs. Clinical outcome data included presence, side(s), and level(s) of radicular pain; presence of motor deficits; and presence of sensory deficits. Variables included age, gender, Scoliosis Research Society-30 (SRS-30) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire data, and radiographic measurements. Radiographic measurements included Cobb angles and L1 to S1 IPHs on upright and supine radiographs. Associations between variables and outcome measures were assessed with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Authors have no conflicts of interests relevant to this study. A total of 200 patients with an average age of 51 years met the inclusion criteria. Sixty of the 200 patients presented with radicular pain. Older age was associated with radicular pain, weakness, and sensory deficits. Patients who were 55 years or older were approximately eight times more likely to have radicular pain (odds ratio [OR]=7.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.73, 17.0; p<.001), five times more likely to have motor deficit (OR=5, 95% CI: 2.55, 9.79; p<.001), and five

  16. Final Thoughts on Community in Adult ESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrott, Clarena

    2009-01-01

    Community building is an important, if not essential, element of adult English as a second language (ESL) learning. Communities, whether civic, work, religious, or identity-based, are the contexts within which people cease to be alone and become connected with others. Language is the main tool for communicating with others in communities. For…

  17. Determining Adult Agribusiness Training Needs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Donald L.; And Others

    The prupose of the study was to: (1) identify the agribusiness firms within Wisconsin's Vocational-Technical and Adult Education (VTAE) District One, (2) identify the occupations of those employed in the industry, (3) identify present and future employment need for identified skills along with training needs for those currently employed in…

  18. Adult Basic Education Outreach Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Vocational Centre, Edmonton.

    The Alberta Vocational Center (AVC) developed a portable competency-based learning system for use in non-institutional adult basic education community programs. The system addresses needs identified by the 1971 census which found 28% of Alberta's residents (over fifteen and out of school) had less than a ninth grade education. Administered through…

  19. Adult Basic Education Outreach Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Vocational Centre, Edmonton.

    The Alberta Vocational Center (AVC) developed a portable competency-based learning system for use in non-institutional adult basic education community programs. The system addresses needs identified by the 1971 census which found 28% of Alberta's residents (over fifteen and out of school) had less than a ninth grade education. Administered through…

  20. Mobilizing Adult Basic Education. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fausto, Vincent J.

    An adult basic education (ABE) project was undertaken in 1977 in southern New Jersey to take instruction to students in rural areas. The region was one in which some 75% of the population had not completed high school. Centered in Millville with satellite centers in four rural townships whose secondary students are bussed to Millville, the project…

  1. An Adult Manpower Training Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opportunities Industrialization Center, Inc., Little Rock, AR.

    The goals of the OIC organization in Little Rock include providing hope for impoverished and hard-core unemployed in the form of job preparation by providing adult education, pre-vocational training, skills training, counseling, job development, placement and followup. Another primary goal of OIC is providing and emphasizing minority group…

  2. AXIS: Adult Education eXpress Intercommunication Support. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Tana

    This package includes the final report and selected products of the Adult education eXpress Intercommunication Support (AXIS) project, which was conducted to facilitate communication related to professional development services administered by the Pennsylvania Department of Education's Bureau of Adult Basic and Literacy Education (ABLE) and…

  3. Growth hormone significantly increases the adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: comparison of subgroups and benefit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with Idiopathic Short Stature do not attain a normal adult height. The improvement of adult height with treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), at doses of 0.16 to 0.28 mg/kg/week is modest, usually less that 4 cm, and they remain short as adults. The benefit obtained seems dose dependent and benefits of 7.0 to 8.0 cm have been reported with higher doses of 0.32 to 0.4 mg/kg/week, but the number of studies is limited. The topic has remained controversial. Objective The objective was to conduct a retrospective analysis of our experience with 123 children with ISS treated with 0.32 ± 0.03 mg/kg/week of rhGH, with the aim of comparing the different subgroups of non-familial short stature, familial short stature, normal puberty, and delayed puberty and to assess the benefit by comparison with 305 untreated historical controls, from nine different randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. Results Eighty eight of our children (68 males and 20 females) attained an adult height or near adult height of -0.71 SDS (0.74 SD) (95% CI, -0.87 to -0.55) with a benefit over untreated controls of 9.5 cm (7.4 to 11.6 cm) for males and 8.6 cm (6.7 to 10.5 cm) for females. In the analysis of the subgroups, the adult height and adult height gain of children with non-familial short stature were significantly higher than of familial short stature. No difference was found in the cohorts with normal or delayed puberty in any of the subgroups, except between the non-familial short stature and familial short stature puberty cohorts. This has implications for the interpretation of the benefit of treatment in studies where the number of children with familial short stature in the controls or treated subjects is not known. The treatment was safe. There were no significant adverse events. The IGF-1 values were essentially within the levels expected for the stages of puberty. Conclusion Our experience was quite positive with normalization of

  4. Energy Efficiency Adult Tracking Report - Final

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson-Grant, Amy

    2014-09-30

    Postwave tracking study for the Energy Efficiency Adult Campaign This study serves as measure of key metrics among the campaign’s target audience, homeowners age 25+. Key measures include: Awareness of messages relating to the broad issue; Recognition of the PSAs; Relevant attitudes, including interest, ease of taking energy efficient steps, and likelihood to act; Relevant knowledge, including knowledge of light bulb alternatives and energy efficient options; and Relevant behaviors, including specific energy-saving behaviors mentioned within the PSAs. Wave 1: May 27 – June 7, 2011 Wave 2: May 29 – June 8, 2012 Wave 3: May 29 – June 19, 2014 General market sample of adults 25+ who own their homes W1 sample: n = 704; W2: n=701; W3: n=806 Online Survey Panel Methodology Study was fielded by Lightspeed Research among their survey panel. Sample is US Census representative of US homeowners by race/ethnicity, income, age, region, and family status. At least 30% of respondents were required to have not updated major appliances in their home in the past 5 years (dishwasher, stove, refrigerator, washer, or dryer).

  5. X-chromosome gene dosage as a determinant of impaired pre and postnatal growth and adult height in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fiot, Elodie; Zenaty, Delphine; Boizeau, Priscilla; Haigneré, Jeremy; Dos Santos, Sophie; Léger, Juliane

    2016-03-01

    Short stature is a key aspect of the phenotype of patients with Turner syndrome (TS). SHOX haploinsufficiency is responsible for about two-thirds of the height deficit. The aim was to investigate the effect of X-chromosome gene dosage on anthropometric parameters at birth, spontaneous height, and adult height (AH) after growth hormone (GH) treatment. We conducted a national observational multicenter study. Birth parameter SDS for gestational age, height, and AH before and after GH treatment respectively, and height deficit with respect to target height (SDS) were classified by karyotype subgroup in a cohort of 1501 patients with TS: 45,X (36%), isoXq (19%), 45,X/46,XX (15%), XrX (7%), presence of Y (6%), or other karyotypes (17%). Birth weight, length (P<0.0001), and head circumference (P<0.001), height and height deficit with respect to target height (SDS) before GH treatment, at a median age of 8.8 (5.3-11.8) years and after adjustment for age and correction for multiple testing (P<0.0001), and AH deficit with respect to target height at a median age of 19.3 (18.0-21.8) years and with additional adjustment for dose and duration of GH treatment (P=0.006), were significantly associated with karyotype subgroup. Growth retardation tended to be more severe in patients with XrX, isoXq, and, to a lesser extent, 45,X karyotypes than in patients with 45,X/46,XX karyotypes or a Y chromosome. These data suggest that haploinsufficiency for an unknown Xp gene increases the risk of fetal and postnatal growth deficit and short AH with respect to target height after GH therapy. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Growth and Adult Height in Patients with Crohn's Disease Treated with Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor α Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Damir; Viala, Jérôme; Carel, Jean-Claude; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Simon, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation contributes to growth failure associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. Anti-TNFα therapy induces sustained remission and short-term improvements in height velocity and/or height standard deviation score (H-SDS) patients with Crohn’s disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and adult height in patients with Crohn’s disease taking maintenance infliximab or adalimumab therapy.This university-hospital based retrospective study included 61 patients, with a median follow-up of 2.6 years (2.0; 3.3). 38 patients (62%) reached their adult height. H-SDS was collected at diagnosis and together with disease activity markers (Harvey-Bradshaw Index, albumin, and C-reactive protein) at treatment initiation (baseline), and follow-up completion. Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test was chosen for comparisons. Median H-SDS decreased from diagnosis to baseline (-0.08 [-0.73; +0.77] to -0.94 [-1.44; +0.11], p<0.0001) and then increased to follow-up completion (-0.63 [-1.08; 0.49], p = 0.003 versus baseline), concomitantly with an improvement in disease activity. Median adult H-SDS was within the normal range (-0.72 [-1.25; +0.42]) but did not differ from baseline H-SDS and was significantly lower than the target H-SDS (-0.09 [-0.67; +0.42], p = 0.01). Only 2 (6%) males had adult heights significantly below their target heights (10.5 and -13.5 cm [-1.75 and -2.25 SD]). In conclusion, anti-tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) therapy prevented loss of height without fully restoring the genetic growth potential in this group of patients with CD. Earlier treatment initiation might improve growth outcomes in these patients. PMID:27636201

  7. Randomised trial of LHRH analogue treatment on final height in girls with onset of puberty aged 7.5-8.5 years

    PubMed Central

    Cassio, A.; Cacciari, E.; Balsamo, A.; Bal, M.; Tassinari, D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the effectiveness of luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues in improving final height in girls affected by early puberty.
PATIENTS—Forty six consecutive girls with onset of puberty aged 7.5-8.5 years randomly divided into two groups: one treated with 3.75 mg triptorelin intramuscularly every four weeks (group 1); and the other with no treatment (group 2).
RESULTS—Mean (SD) chronological age at onset of menarche was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (11.9 (1.0) v 10.8 (0.7) years). However, mean (SD) height at menarche (152.7 (7.2) v 152.5(5.7) cm) and mean (SD) growth after menarche (4.9 (3.0) v 5.4(2.2) cm) were similar in both groups. The mean (SD) final height was similar in the two groups (group 1, 158.1 (6.2) cm; group 2, 158.6 (6.0) cm) and not significantly different from target height. Fourteen of 20 patients in group 1 and 12 of 18 patients in group 2 showed final height equal to or higher than target height. Final heights of girls with poor initial height prognosis were significantly lower than those of girls with good prognosis, but in patients with the same initial height prognosis, both groups showed final heights similar and not significantly different from their target heights.
CONCLUSIONS—LHRH analogue has no apparent effect on final height in subjects with onset of puberty between 7.5 and 8.5years.

 PMID:10490438

  8. Height, weight and body mass index in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Camilla; Rinnström, Daniel; Dellborg, Mikael; Thilén, Ulf; Sörensson, Peder; Nielsen, Niels-Erik; Christersson, Christina; Wadell, Karin; Johansson, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    High BMI is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and, in contrast, low BMI is associated with worse prognosis in heart failure. The knowledge on BMI and the distribution in different BMI-classes in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are limited. Data on 2424 adult patients was extracted from the Swedish Registry on Congenital Heart Disease and compared to a reference population (n=4605). The prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25) was lower in men with variants of the Fontan procedure, pulmonary atresia (PA)/double outlet right ventricle (DORV) and aortic valve disease (AVD) (Fontan 22.0% and PA/DORV 15.1% vs. 43.0%, p=0.048 and p<0.001) (AVD 37.5% vs. 49.3%, p<0.001). Overt obesity (BMI ≥ 30) was only more common in women with AVD (12.8% vs. 9.0%, p=0.005). Underweight (BMI<18.5) was generally more common in men with CHD (complex lesions 4.9% vs. 0.9%, p<0.001 and simple lesions 3.2% vs. 0.6%, <0.001). Men with complex lesions were shorter than controls in contrast to females that in general did not differ from controls. Higher prevalence of underweight in men with CHD combined with a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in men with some complex lesions indicates that men with CHD in general has lower BMI compared to controls. In women, only limited differences between those with CHD and the controls were found. The complexity of the CHD had larger impact on height in men. The cause of these gender differences as well as possible significance for prognosis is unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of computer display height and desk design on 3D posture during information technology work by young adults.

    PubMed

    Straker, L; Burgess-Limerick, R; Pollock, C; Murray, K; Netto, K; Coleman, J; Skoss, R

    2008-04-01

    Computer display height and desk design to allow forearm support are two critical design features of workstations for information technology tasks. However there is currently no 3D description of head and neck posture with different computer display heights and no direct comparison to paper based information technology tasks. There is also inconsistent evidence on the effect of forearm support on posture and no evidence on whether these features interact. This study compared the 3D head, neck and upper limb postures of 18 male and 18 female young adults whilst working with different display and desk design conditions. There was no substantial interaction between display height and desk design. Lower display heights increased head and neck flexion with more spinal asymmetry when working with paper. The curved desk, designed to provide forearm support, increased scapula elevation/protraction and shoulder flexion/abduction.

  10. The influence of chair seat height on the performance of community-dwelling older adults' 30-second chair stand test.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Liang

    2013-06-01

    Although chair seat height affects the performance of sit-to-stand movement, no previous study has examined the influence of chair seat height on the 30-second chair stand test (CST). Fifty-five community-dwelling older adults (age 70.0 ± 6.3 years) performed the test from the standard height of 43 cm and then from five randomly ordered seat heights from 80 to 120 % of each participant's lower leg length. Chair seat height significantly influences the performance of community-dwelling older adults' 30-s CST (F = 57.50, p < 0.001). The mean score for standard conditions was significantly lower from those at 120, 110, and 100 % conditions (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between the standard and 80 % conditions (p > 0.95) and between the standard and 90 % conditions (p = 0.353). When comparing the scores between the randomly ordered chair seat heights, all comparisons were significantly different (p < 0.001) except for the difference between the 120 and 110 % conditions (p = 0.104). Chair seat height's relation to the lower leg length should be considered when interpreting 30-s CST scores. Additionally, it is necessary to optimize the chair seat height when using the 30-s CST as an outcome measure for exercise intervention or to screen for people with weaker lower extremities.

  11. Validation of Prediction Models for Near Adult Height in Children with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency Treated with Growth Hormone: A Belgian Registry Study

    PubMed Central

    Straetemans, Saartje; De Schepper, Jean; Thomas, Muriel; Verlinde, Franciska; Rooman, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim To validate prediction models for near final adult height (nFAH) by Ranke et al. [Horm Res Paediatr 2013;79:51-67]. Methods Height data of 127 (82 male) idiopathic growth hormone (GH)-deficient children, treated with GH until nFAH, were retrieved from the database of the Belgian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology (BESPEED). nFAH was predicted after first-year GH treatment, applying prediction models by Ranke et al. Bland-Altman plots and Clarke error grid analyses were performed to assess clinical significance of the differences between observed and predicted nFAH. Results In males, the predicted nFAH was higher than the observed nFAH (difference: 0.2 ± 0.7 SD; p < 0.01). In females, there was no significant difference. Bland-Altman analyses showed that the means of the differences between observed and predicted nFAH were close but not equal to zero, with overprediction for smaller heights and underprediction for taller heights. Clarke error grid analysis: in males, 59-61% of the predicted nFAH were within 0.5 SDS and 88% within 1.0 SDS from the observed nFAH; in females, 40-44% of the predicted nFAH were within 0.5 SDS and 76-78% within 1.0 SDS from the observed nFAH. Conclusion Ranke's models accurately predicted nFAH in females and overpredicted nFAH in males by about 1.5 cm. In most individuals, the predicted nFAH was within 1 SDS of observed nFAH. These models can be of help in giving realistic expectations of adult height. PMID:27598343

  12. [Treatment with LHRH analogues in girls with precocious puberty does not improve final height. Longitudinal study compared with a control group].

    PubMed

    Llop-Viñolas, D; Vizmanos-Lamotte, B; Aresté-Piztzalis, A; Fernández-Ballart, J; Martí-Henneberg, C

    2001-06-30

    We analysed the effectiveness of therapy with LHRH analogues in girls with a puberty onset at age 8 years. We performed a non-randomised clinical study of 32 girls with advanced puberty. These included 16 treated with triptorelin LHRH analogue(3.75 mg/month during 1 year) and 16 control subjects. We carried out anthropometric measurements and determined the pubertal height growth (gain in height from the puberty onset up to the final height) and the pubertal duration (time in years from the puberty onset up to the age at which final height is attained). Treatment with LHRH analogue delayed the menarche age (11.5 [1.46]vs 10.37 [0.67] years of age; p = 0.03), led to an involution in secondary sexual characteristics and a temporary decrease ingrowth rate, and delayed skeletal maturation. However, pubertal duration, pubertal height growth and final height were all similar in both groups. In addition, no significant differences in body fat mass were observed. Treatment with LHRH analogues in advanced puberty modifies pubertal development, without modifying pubertal duration or pubertal height growth. Furthermore, this treatment does not improve final height.

  13. Intergenerational changes in knee height among Maya mothers and their adult daughters from Merida, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Azcorra, Hugo; RodrÍguez, Luis; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês; Datta Banik, Sudip; Dickinson, Federico

    2015-01-01

    To analyze differences in knee height (KH) between adult Maya mothers and daughters in Merida City, Mexico, and determine if these differences are associated with their childhood socioeconomic conditions. From September 2011 to January 2014, we measured KH and collected data on childhood conditions (place of birth, type of drinking water, family size, and fathers' occupation) from a sample of 180 Maya mother-daughter dyads. Mean KH intergenerational difference was calculated and compared for each category of socioeconomic variables and a multiple regression model was used to assess the association between childhood conditions and KH difference. A relative increase of 1.05 cm (SD = 2.3 cm) or 0.45 standard deviations (effect size of difference) was observed in KH between generations. Place of birth was significantly associated with KH. With three other variables statistically adjusted for, the intergenerational KH difference was 1.5 cm greater when mothers were born outside Merida but daughters were born in the city. Piped water consumption by mother-daughter dyads was associated with 1.5 cm of increase in KH difference compared with dyads who consumed well water (P = 0.058). The relative increase in KH between mothers and daughters represents a portion of the expected change in growth in a group that has experienced few substantial improvements in their living conditions. Some improvements in childhood living conditions resulting from the intergenerational transition from rural to urban environments seem to be linked to a modest, but statistically significant intergenerational increase in KH among Maya women in Merida. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of oxandrolone therapy on adult height in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sheanon, Nicole M; Backeljauw, Philippe F

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality in which there is complete or partial absence of the X chromosome. Turner syndrome effects 1 in every 2000 live births. Short stature is a cardinal feature of Turner Syndrome and the standard treatment is recombinant human growth hormone. When growth hormone is started at an early age a normal adult height can be achieved. With delayed diagnosis young women with Turner Syndrome may not reach a normal height. Adjuvant therapy with oxandrolone is used but there is no consensus on the optimal timing of treatment, the duration of treatment and the long term adverse effects of treatment. The objective of this review and meta-analysis is to examine the effect of oxandrolone on adult height in growth hormone treated Turner syndrome patients. Eligible trials were identified by a literature search using the terms: Turner syndrome, oxandrolone. The search was limited to English language randomized-controlled trials after 1980. Twenty-six articles were reviewed and four were included in the meta-analysis. A random effects model was used to calculate an effect size and confidence interval. The pooled effect size of 2.0759 (95 % CI 0.0988 to 4.0529) indicates that oxandrolone has a positive effect on adult height in Turner syndrome when combined with growth hormone therapy. In conclusion, the addition of oxandrolone to growth hormone therapy for treatment of short stature in Turner syndrome improves adult height. Further studies are warranted to investigate if there is a subset of Turner syndrome patients that would benefit most from growth hormone plus oxandrolone therapy, and to determine the optimal timing and duration of such therapy.

  15. Multi-County Assessment of Adult Needs Project: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan Community Coll., TX.

    The document is a summarized final report of the Multi-County Assessment of Adult Needs Project (MAP) which took place in central Texas (Bosque, Falls, Hill, and McLennan Counties). It summarizes the major activities and accomplishments of the project and contains all materials except Attachments 1 and 2, the reports on Phase I (Survey of Adult…

  16. Neck Circumference-Height Ratio as a Predictor of Sleep Related Breathing Disorder in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Alice W.; Moul, Douglas E.; Krishna, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: While neck circumference (NC) is a useful predictor of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults, childhood OSA is difficult to predict clinically. We utilized the neck circumference-height ratio (NHR) to normalize NC in growing children. Our study aimed to determine if (1) NC is a reproducible clinical measurement; (2) NHR predicts OSA in children; (3) this metric translates to adults. Methods: For this retrospective study, paired NC measurements (from clinic and sleep laboratory) in 100 consecutive adult subjects were used to confirm inter-observer reproducibility. Polysomnographic (PSG) and anthropometric data from children aged 5–18 years presenting consecutively between July 2007 and February 2012 was obtained. Children with genetic syndromes, severe neurological disorders, craniofacial abnormalities, tracheostomy, past adenotonsillectomy, in-hospital PSG or sleep efficiency < 80% were excluded. Data were analyzed using χ2 test and logistic and linear regression models. These analyses were also applied to 99 adult patients with similar exclusion criteria. Results: Adult NC measurement had inter-observer correlation of 0.85 (N = 100). Among children, after correcting for BMI-Z scores, NHR conferred additional predictive value, in both logistic regression and linear models, for both apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 2 and > 5 (N = 507). In children, for NHR > 0.25, the odds ratio of AHI > 2 was 3.47. In adults, for NHR > 0.25, the odds ratio of AHI > 5 was 18. Conclusions: NHR can be included as a simple screening tool for OSA in children and adults, which along with other predictors, may improve the ability of clinicians to triage children and adults at risk for OSA for further evaluation with PSG. Citation: Ho AW, Moul DE, Krishna J. Neck circumference-height ratio as a predictor of sleep related breathing disorder in children and adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):311–317. PMID:26518700

  17. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of adult height in East Asians identifies 17 novel loci.

    PubMed

    He, Meian; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ben; Liang, Jun; Chen, Peng; Lee, Jong-Young; Johnson, Todd A; Li, Huaixing; Yang, Xiaobo; Dai, Juncheng; Liang, Liming; Gui, Lixuan; Qi, Qibin; Huang, Jinyan; Li, Yanping; Adair, Linda S; Aung, Tin; Cai, Qiuyin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Cho, Yoon Shin; Chu, Minjie; Cui, Bin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Go, Min Jin; Gu, Dongfeng; Gu, Weiqiong; Guo, Huan; Hao, Yongchen; Hong, Jie; Hu, Zhibin; Hu, Yanling; Huang, Jianfeng; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Jin, Guangfu; Kang, Dae-Hee; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Hung Tae; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Juyoung; Lee, Nanette R; Li, Ruoying; Li, Jun; Liu, JianJun; Longe, Jirong; Lu, Wei; Lu, Xiangfeng; Miao, Xiaoping; Okada, Yukinori; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Qiu, Gaokun; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Song, Huaidong; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Taylor, Phil R; Wang, Laiyuan; Wang, Weiqing; Wang, Yiqin; Wu, Chen; Wu, Ying; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamamoto, Ken; Yang, Handong; Liao, Ming; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Young, Terri; Zhang, Xiaomin; Kato, Norihiro; Wang, Qing K; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Frank B; Lin, Dongxin; Shen, Hongbing; Teo, Yik Ying; Mo, Zengnan; Wong, Tien Yin; Lin, Xu; Mohlke, Karen L; Ning, Guang; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Tai, E Shyong; Wu, Tangchun; Qi, Lu

    2015-03-15

    Human height is associated with risk of multiple diseases and is profoundly determined by an individual's genetic makeup and shows a high degree of ethnic heterogeneity. Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) analyses of adult height in Europeans have identified nearly 180 genetic loci. A recent study showed high replicability of results from Europeans-based GWA studies in Asians; however, population-specific loci may exist due to distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns. We carried out a GWA meta-analysis in 93 926 individuals from East Asia. We identified 98 loci, including 17 novel and 81 previously reported loci, associated with height at P < 5 × 10(-8), together explaining 8.89% of phenotypic variance. Among the newly identified variants, 10 are commonly distributed (minor allele frequency, MAF > 5%) in Europeans, with comparable frequencies with in Asians, and 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms are with low frequency (MAF < 5%) in Europeans. In addition, our data suggest that novel biological pathway such as the protein tyrosine phosphatase family is involved in regulation of height. The findings from this study considerably expand our knowledge of the genetic architecture of human height in Asians. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of adult height in East Asians identifies 17 novel loci

    PubMed Central

    He, Meian; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ben; Liang, Jun; Chen, Peng; Lee, Jong-Young; Johnson, Todd A.; Li, Huaixing; Yang, Xiaobo; Dai, Juncheng; Liang, Liming; Gui, Lixuan; Qi, Qibin; Huang, Jinyan; Li, Yanping; Adair, Linda S.; Aung, Tin; Cai, Qiuyin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Cho, Yoon Shin; Chu, Minjie; Cui, Bin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Go, Min Jin; Gu, Dongfeng; Gu, Weiqiong; Guo, Huan; Hao, Yongchen; Hong, Jie; Hu, Zhibin; Hu, Yanling; Huang, Jianfeng; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Jin, Guangfu; Kang, Dae-Hee; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Hung Tae; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Juyoung; Lee, Nanette R.; Li, Ruoying; Li, Jun; Liu, JianJun; Longe, Jirong; Lu, Wei; Lu, Xiangfeng; Miao, Xiaoping; Okada, Yukinori; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Qiu, Gaokun; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Song, Huaidong; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Taylor, Phil R.; Wang, Laiyuan; Wang, Weiqing; Wang, Yiqin; Wu, Chen; Wu, Ying; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamamoto, Ken; Yang, Handong; Liao, Ming; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Young, Terri; Zhang, Xiaomin; Kato, Norihiro; Wang, Qing K.; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Frank B.; Lin, Dongxin; Shen, Hongbing; Teo, Yik Ying; Mo, Zengnan; Wong, Tien Yin; Lin, Xu; Mohlke, Karen L.; Ning, Guang; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Tai, E. Shyong; Wu, Tangchun; Qi, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Human height is associated with risk of multiple diseases and is profoundly determined by an individual's genetic makeup and shows a high degree of ethnic heterogeneity. Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) analyses of adult height in Europeans have identified nearly 180 genetic loci. A recent study showed high replicability of results from Europeans-based GWA studies in Asians; however, population-specific loci may exist due to distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns. We carried out a GWA meta-analysis in 93 926 individuals from East Asia. We identified 98 loci, including 17 novel and 81 previously reported loci, associated with height at P < 5 × 10−8, together explaining 8.89% of phenotypic variance. Among the newly identified variants, 10 are commonly distributed (minor allele frequency, MAF > 5%) in Europeans, with comparable frequencies with in Asians, and 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms are with low frequency (MAF < 5%) in Europeans. In addition, our data suggest that novel biological pathway such as the protein tyrosine phosphatase family is involved in regulation of height. The findings from this study considerably expand our knowledge of the genetic architecture of human height in Asians. PMID:25429064

  19. Comparison of two different formulas for body surface area in adults at extremes of height and weight.

    PubMed

    Fancher, Karen M; Sacco, Alicia J; Gwin, Robert C; Gormley, Luke K; Mitchell, Caitlin B

    2016-10-01

    Different equations for predicting body surface area have been derived. The DuBois and Mosteller body surface area equations are considered equivalent, but the accuracy in adult patients at extremes of height and weight is unknown. To compare body surface area in patients at extremes of height and weight using both formulas to determine whether a difference affected chemotherapy dose. Anthropometric data were extracted from the 2012 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vital and Health Statistics. Data for both males and females were examined. The 50th percentiles of weight and height were used to calculate the body surface area with both formulas. Calculations were repeated using the 5th through 95th percentiles for weight, then the 5th through 95th percentiles for height, and so forth until all extremes of height and weight were examined. Each body surface area was used to calculate a chemotherapy dose. A difference of ≥4.5% in dose was considered clinically significant. Differences were apparent in both males and females. Dosing differences were most apparent in patients in the 50th, 75th or 95th percentile for both height and weight. Differences are also noted in other percentiles, suggesting that patients of smaller stature may also be affected. Guidelines recommend full doses of chemotherapy for patients with curative intent but do not specify which body surface area formula is preferred. Our results imply that the Mosteller equation provides a greater chemotherapy dose, and this difference may be clinically significant in patients who are in the 50th to 95th percentiles for height, weight or both. Further study is necessary to validate these results and determine the impact on patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Early-Life Environmental Exposures and Height, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Older Adults in India.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jessica Y

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposures like rainfall and temperature influence infectious disease exposure and nutrition, two key early-life conditions linked to later-life health. However, few tests of whether early-life environmental exposures impact adult health have been performed, particularly in developing countries. This study examines the effects of experiencing rainfall and temperature shocks during gestation and up through the first four years after birth on measured height, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk factors using data on adults aged 50 and above (N = 1,036) from the 2007-2008 World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) and district-level meteorological data from India. Results from multivariate logistic regressions show that negative rainfall shocks during gestation and positive rainfall shocks during the postbirth period increase the risk of having adult hypertension and CVD risk factors. Exposure to negative rainfall shocks and positive temperature shocks in the postbirth period increases the likelihood of falling within the lowest height decile. Prenatal shocks may influence nutrition in utero, while postnatal shocks may increase exposure to infectious diseases and malnutrition. The results suggest that gestation and the first two years after birth are critical periods when rainfall and temperature shocks take on increased importance for adult health.

  1. Scaling of adult body weight to height across sex and race/ethnic groups: relevance to BMI.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Schuna, John M; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong

    2014-12-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is formulated on the assumption that body weight (BW) scales to height with a power of 2 (BW∝height(2)), independent of sex and race-ethnicity. Powers differing from 2 are observed in studies of selected samples, thus raising the question if BMI is a generalizable metric that makes BW independent of height across populations. The objectives were to test the hypothesis that adult BW scales to height with a power of 2 independent of sex and race-ethnicity and to advance an understanding of BMI as a measure of shape by extending allometric analyses to waist circumference (WC). We conducted cross-sectional subject evaluations, including body composition, from the NHANES and the Korean NHANES (KNHANES). Variations of the allometric model (Y = αX(β)) were used to establish height scaling powers (β ± SE) across non-Hispanic white and black, Mexican American, and Korean men and women. Exploratory analyses in population samples established age and adiposity as important independent determinants of height scaling powers (i.e., β). After age and adiposity in the next series of analyses were controlled for, BW scaling powers were nonsignificantly different between race/ethnic groups within each sex group; WC findings were similar in women, whereas small but significant between-race differences were observed in the men. Sex differences in β values were nonsignificant except for BW in non-Hispanic blacks and WC in Koreans (P < 0.05). Nationally representative powers for BW were (NHANES/KNHANES) 2.12 ± 0.05/2.11 ± 0.06 for men and 2.02 ± 0.04/1.99 ± 0.06 for women and for WC were 0.66 ± 0.03/0.67 ± 0.05 for men and 0.61 ± 0.04/0.56 ± 0.05 for women. Adult BW scales to height with a power of ∼2 across the 8 sex and race/ethnic groups, an observation that makes BMI a generalizable height-independent measure of shape across most populations. WC also follows generalizable scaling rules, a finding that has implications for defining body shape in

  2. Prenatal effects of intra-uterine growth retardation on adult height of conscripts from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Joubert, K; Gyenis, G

    2003-01-01

    Physical development appropriate for age, and the normal rate of development of children, are two well-known indicators of the biological status of populations. Physical development of children is influenced by several factors, and the intrauterine environment may be critical among them. The authors studied the effect of the prenatal environment, as measured by birth length and birth weight, and socio-economic factors, as measured by place of residence and educational level of parents, on the height of 18-year-old conscripts surveyed in 1998. The following results were obtained: 1. The conscripts were classified into one of the following groups: small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA), large for gestational age (LGA) according to their data of birth and their development at birth. Statistically significant differences in birth length and height at 18 years of age were found for the AGA and LGA groups, according to place of residence at birth. In addition, nutrition at birth (and the biological and social inclusion related to this) affects the extent of change in physique between birth and 18 years of age, within each group. The extent of change in height in the SGA group is 122.38 cm, 123.40 cm in the AGA group, and 124.11 cm in the LGA group. With each neonatal developmental group, conscripts from Budapest had the highest values both in body length and height at 18 years of age. 2. The educational level of parents influenced the physical development of their children. Means of birth length, and of body height at the age of 18 years, were greater, the higher the level of education of their parents. The lower the level of education the parents have, the more significant is the difference between birth length and height at the age of 18 years, compared to the sample mean. This is attributed to a health-cultural-information deficit arising from the low level of education of the parents.

  3. Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height.

    PubMed

    Marouli, Eirini; Graff, Mariaelisa; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Lo, Ken Sin; Wood, Andrew R; Kjaer, Troels R; Fine, Rebecca S; Lu, Yingchang; Schurmann, Claudia; Highland, Heather M; Rüeger, Sina; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Justice, Anne E; Lamparter, David; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Turcot, Valérie; Young, Kristin L; Winkler, Thomas W; Esko, Tõnu; Karaderi, Tugce; Locke, Adam E; Masca, Nicholas G D; Ng, Maggie C Y; Mudgal, Poorva; Rivas, Manuel A; Vedantam, Sailaja; Mahajan, Anubha; Guo, Xiuqing; Abecasis, Goncalo; Aben, Katja K; Adair, Linda S; Alam, Dewan S; Albrecht, Eva; Allin, Kristine H; Allison, Matthew; Amouyel, Philippe; Appel, Emil V; Arveiler, Dominique; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Auer, Paul L; Balkau, Beverley; Banas, Bernhard; Bang, Lia E; Benn, Marianne; Bergmann, Sven; Bielak, Lawrence F; Blüher, Matthias; Boeing, Heiner; Boerwinkle, Eric; Böger, Carsten A; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Bots, Michiel L; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bowden, Donald W; Brandslund, Ivan; Breen, Gerome; Brilliant, Murray H; Broer, Linda; Burt, Amber A; Butterworth, Adam S; Carey, David J; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Cramer; Chu, Audrey Y; Cocca, Massimiliano; Collins, Francis S; Cook, James P; Corley, Janie; Galbany, Jordi Corominas; Cox, Amanda J; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Danesh, John; Davies, Gail; de Bakker, Paul I W; de Borst, Gert J; de Denus, Simon; de Groot, Mark C H; de Mutsert, Renée; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George; Demerath, Ellen W; den Hollander, Anneke I; Dennis, Joe G; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Drenos, Fotios; Du, Mengmeng; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Ebeling, Tapani; Edwards, Todd L; Ellinor, Patrick T; Elliott, Paul; Evangelou, Evangelos; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Faul, Jessica D; Feitosa, Mary F; Feng, Shuang; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrario, Marco M; Ferrieres, Jean; Florez, Jose C; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Franks, Paul W; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Galesloot, Tessel E; Gan, Wei; Gandin, Ilaria; Gasparini, Paolo; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Giri, Ayush; Girotto, Giorgia; Gordon, Scott D; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Gorski, Mathias; Grarup, Niels; Grove, Megan L; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hayward, Caroline; He, Liang; Heid, Iris M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Helgeland, Øyvind; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Hewitt, Alex W; Hocking, Lynne J; Hollensted, Mette; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Hovingh, G Kees; Howson, Joanna M M; Hoyng, Carel B; Huang, Paul L; Hveem, Kristian; Ikram, M Arfan; Ingelsson, Erik; Jackson, Anne U; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Jarvik, Gail P; Jensen, Gorm B; Jhun, Min A; Jia, Yucheng; Jiang, Xuejuan; Johansson, Stefan; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahali, Bratati; Kahn, René S; Kähönen, Mika; Kamstrup, Pia R; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Karaleftheri, Maria; Kardia, Sharon L R; Karpe, Fredrik; Kee, Frank; Keeman, Renske; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kitajima, Hidetoshi; Kluivers, Kirsten B; Kocher, Thomas; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kontto, Jukka; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kriebel, Jennifer; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Küry, Sébastien; Kuusisto, Johanna; La Bianca, Martina; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lange, Ethan M; Lange, Leslie A; Langefeld, Carl D; Langenberg, Claudia; Larson, Eric B; Lee, I-Te; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lewis, Cora E; Li, Huaixing; Li, Jin; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lin, Honghuang; Lin, Li-An; Lin, Xu; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yeheng; Liu, Yongmei; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Luan, Jian'an; Lubitz, Steven A; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Mackey, David A; Madden, Pamela A F; Manning, Alisa K; Männistö, Satu; Marenne, Gaëlle; Marten, Jonathan; Martin, Nicholas G; Mazul, Angela L; Meidtner, Karina; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Paul; Mohlke, Karen L; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Morgan, Anna; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Munroe, Patricia B; Nalls, Mike A; Nauck, Matthias; Nelson, Christopher P; Neville, Matt; Nielsen, Sune F; Nikus, Kjell; Njølstad, Pål R; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ntalla, Ioanna; O'Connel, Jeffrey R; Oksa, Heikki; Loohuis, Loes M Olde; Ophoff, Roel A; Owen, Katharine R; Packard, Chris J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palmer, Colin N A; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Patel, Aniruddh P; Pattie, Alison; Pedersen, Oluf; Peissig, Peggy L; Peloso, Gina M; Pennell, Craig E; Perola, Markus; Perry, James A; Perry, John R B; Person, Thomas N; Pirie, Ailith; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Raitakari, Olli T; Rasheed, Asif; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reilly, Dermot F; Reiner, Alex P; Renström, Frida; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Robertson, Neil; Robino, Antonietta; Rolandsson, Olov; Rudan, Igor; Ruth, Katherine S; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Sandow, Kevin; Sapkota, Yadav; Sattar, Naveed; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schreiner, Pamela J; Schulze, Matthias B; Scott, Robert A; Segura-Lepe, Marcelo P; Shah, Svati; Sim, Xueling; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Small, Kerrin S; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smith, Jennifer A; Southam, Lorraine; Spector, Timothy D; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Starr, John M; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stringham, Heather M; Stumvoll, Michael; Surendran, Praveen; 't Hart, Leen M; Tansey, Katherine E; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Taylor, Kent D; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Deborah J; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thuesen, Betina H; Tönjes, Anke; Tromp, Gerard; Trompet, Stella; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uher, Rudolf; Uitterlinden, André G; Ulivi, Sheila; van der Laan, Sander W; Van Der Leij, Andries R; van Duijn, Cornelia M; van Schoor, Natasja M; van Setten, Jessica; Varbo, Anette; Varga, Tibor V; Varma, Rohit; Edwards, Digna R Velez; Vermeulen, Sita H; Vestergaard, Henrik; Vitart, Veronique; Vogt, Thomas F; Vozzi, Diego; Walker, Mark; Wang, Feijie; Wang, Carol A; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yiqin; Wareham, Nicholas J; Warren, Helen R; Wessel, Jennifer; Willems, Sara M; Wilson, James G; Witte, Daniel R; Woods, Michael O; Wu, Ying; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Yao, Jie; Yao, Pang; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Young, Robin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, He; Zhou, Wei; Rotter, Jerome I; Boehnke, Michael; Kathiresan, Sekar; McCarthy, Mark I; Willer, Cristen J; Stefansson, Kari; Borecki, Ingrid B; Liu, Dajiang J; North, Kari E; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Pers, Tune H; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Oxvig, Claus; Kutalik, Zoltán; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Loos, Ruth J F; Frayling, Timothy M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Deloukas, Panos; Lettre, Guillaume

    2017-02-09

    Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with approximately 700 common associated variants identified through genome-wide association studies so far. Here, we report 83 height-associated coding variants with lower minor-allele frequencies (in the range of 0.1-4.8%) and effects of up to 2 centimetres per allele (such as those in IHH, STC2, AR and CRISPLD2), greater than ten times the average effect of common variants. In functional follow-up studies, rare height-increasing alleles of STC2 (giving an increase of 1-2 centimetres per allele) compromised proteolytic inhibition of PAPP-A and increased cleavage of IGFBP-4 in vitro, resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors. These 83 height-associated variants overlap genes that are mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates (such as ADAMTS3, IL11RA and NOX4) and pathways (such as proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesis) involved in growth. Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low-frequency variants of moderate-to-large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes, and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways.

  4. Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height

    PubMed Central

    Marouli, Eirini; Graff, Mariaelisa; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Lo, Ken Sin; Wood, Andrew R; Kjaer, Troels R; Fine, Rebecca S; Lu, Yingchang; Schurmann, Claudia; Highland, Heather M; Rüeger, Sina; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Justice, Anne E; Lamparter, David; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Turcot, Valérie; Young, Kristin L; Winkler, Thomas W; Esko, Tõnu; Karaderi, Tugce; Locke, Adam E; Masca, Nicholas GD; Ng, Maggie CY; Mudgal, Poorva; Rivas, Manuel A; Vedantam, Sailaja; Mahajan, Anubha; Guo, Xiuqing; Abecasis, Goncalo; Aben, Katja K; Adair, Linda S; Alam, Dewan S; Albrecht, Eva; Allin, Kristine H; Allison, Matthew; Amouyel, Philippe; Appel, Emil V; Arveiler, Dominique; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Auer, Paul L; Balkau, Beverley; Banas, Bernhard; Bang, Lia E; Benn, Marianne; Bergmann, Sven; Bielak, Lawrence F; Blüher, Matthias; Boeing, Heiner; Boerwinkle, Eric; Böger, Carsten A; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Bots, Michiel L; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bowden, Donald W; Brandslund, Ivan; Breen, Gerome; Brilliant, Murray H; Broer, Linda; Burt, Amber A; Butterworth, Adam S; Carey, David J; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Cramer; Chu, Audrey Y; Cocca, Massimiliano; Collins, Francis S; Cook, James P; Corley, Janie; Galbany, Jordi Corominas; Cox, Amanda J; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Danesh, John; Davies, Gail; de Bakker, Paul IW; de Borst, Gert J.; de Denus, Simon; de Groot, Mark CH; de Mutsert, Renée; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George; Demerath, Ellen W; den Hollander, Anneke I; Dennis, Joe G; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Drenos, Fotios; Du, Mengmeng; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Ebeling, Tapani; Edwards, Todd L; Ellinor, Patrick T; Elliott, Paul; Evangelou, Evangelos; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Faul, Jessica D; Feitosa, Mary F; Feng, Shuang; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrario, Marco M; Ferrieres, Jean; Florez, Jose C; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Franks, Paul W; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Galesloot, Tessel E; Gan, Wei; Gandin, Ilaria; Gasparini, Paolo; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Giri, Ayush; Girotto, Giorgia; Gordon, Scott D; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Gorski, Mathias; Grarup, Niels; Grove, Megan L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hayward, Caroline; He, Liang; Heid, Iris M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Helgeland, Øyvind; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Hewitt, Alex W; Hocking, Lynne J; Hollensted, Mette; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Hovingh, G. Kees; Howson, Joanna MM; Hoyng, Carel B; Huang, Paul L; Hveem, Kristian; Ikram, M. Arfan; Ingelsson, Erik; Jackson, Anne U; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Jarvik, Gail P; Jensen, Gorm B; Jhun, Min A; Jia, Yucheng; Jiang, Xuejuan; Johansson, Stefan; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahali, Bratati; Kahn, René S; Kähönen, Mika; Kamstrup, Pia R; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Karaleftheri, Maria; Kardia, Sharon LR; Karpe, Fredrik; Kee, Frank; Keeman, Renske; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kitajima, Hidetoshi; Kluivers, Kirsten B; Kocher, Thomas; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kontto, Jukka; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kriebel, Jennifer; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Küry, Sébastien; Kuusisto, Johanna; La Bianca, Martina; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lange, Ethan M; Lange, Leslie A; Langefeld, Carl D; Langenberg, Claudia; Larson, Eric B; Lee, I-Te; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lewis, Cora E; Li, Huaixing; Li, Jin; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lin, Honghuang; Lin, Li-An; Lin, Xu; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yeheng; Liu, Yongmei; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Luan, Jian'an; Lubitz, Steven A; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Mackey, David A; Madden, Pamela AF; Manning, Alisa K; Männistö, Satu; Marenne, Gaëlle; Marten, Jonathan; Martin, Nicholas G; Mazul, Angela L; Meidtner, Karina; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Paul; Mohlke, Karen L; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Morgan, Anna; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Munroe, Patricia B; Nalls, Mike A; Nauck, Matthias; Nelson, Christopher P; Neville, Matt; Nielsen, Sune F; Nikus, Kjell; Njølstad, Pål R; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ntalla, Ioanna; O'Connel, Jeffrey R; Oksa, Heikki; Loohuis, Loes M Olde; Ophoff, Roel A; Owen, Katharine R; Packard, Chris J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palmer, Colin NA; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Patel, Aniruddh P; Pattie, Alison; Pedersen, Oluf; Peissig, Peggy L; Peloso, Gina M; Pennell, Craig E; Perola, Markus; Perry, James A; Perry, John R.B.; Person, Thomas N; Pirie, Ailith; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Raitakari, Olli T; Rasheed, Asif; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reilly, Dermot F; Reiner, Alex P; Renström, Frida; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Robertson, Neil; Robino, Antonietta; Rolandsson, Olov; Rudan, Igor; Ruth, Katherine S; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Sandow, Kevin; Sapkota, Yadav; Sattar, Naveed; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schreiner, Pamela J; Schulze, Matthias B; Scott, Robert A; Segura-Lepe, Marcelo P; Shah, Svati; Sim, Xueling; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Small, Kerrin S; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smith, Jennifer A; Southam, Lorraine; Spector, Timothy D; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Starr, John M; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stringham, Heather M; Stumvoll, Michael; Surendran, Praveen; Hart, Leen M ‘t; Tansey, Katherine E; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Taylor, Kent D; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Deborah J; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thuesen, Betina H; Tönjes, Anke; Tromp, Gerard; Trompet, Stella; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uher, Rudolf; Uitterlinden, André G; Ulivi, Sheila; van der Laan, Sander W; Van Der Leij, Andries R; van Duijn, Cornelia M; van Schoor, Natasja M; van Setten, Jessica; Varbo, Anette; Varga, Tibor V; Varma, Rohit; Edwards, Digna R Velez; Vermeulen, Sita H; Vestergaard, Henrik; Vitart, Veronique; Vogt, Thomas F; Vozzi, Diego; Walker, Mark; Wang, Feijie; Wang, Carol A; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yiqin; Wareham, Nicholas J; Warren, Helen R; Wessel, Jennifer; Willems, Sara M; Wilson, James G; Witte, Daniel R; Woods, Michael O; Wu, Ying; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Yao, Jie; Yao, Pang; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Young, Robin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, He; Zhou, Wei; Rotter, Jerome I; Boehnke, Michael; Kathiresan, Sekar; McCarthy, Mark I; Willer, Cristen J; Stefansson, Kari; Borecki, Ingrid B; Liu, Dajiang J; North, Kari E; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Pers, Tune H; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Oxvig, Claus; Kutalik, Zoltán; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Loos, Ruth JF; Frayling, Timothy M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Deloukas, Panos; Lettre, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Summary Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with ∼700 common associated variants identified so far through genome-wide association studies. Here, we report 83 height-associated coding variants with lower minor allele frequencies (range of 0.1-4.8%) and effects of up to 2 cm/allele (e.g. in IHH, STC2, AR and CRISPLD2), >10 times the average effect of common variants. In functional follow-up studies, rare height-increasing alleles of STC2 (+1-2 cm/allele) compromised proteolytic inhibition of PAPP-A and increased cleavage of IGFBP-4 in vitro, resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors. These 83 height-associated variants overlap genes mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates (e.g. ADAMTS3, IL11RA, NOX4) and pathways (e.g. proteoglycan/glycosaminoglycan synthesis) involved in growth. Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low-frequency variants of moderate to large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes, and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways. PMID:28146470

  5. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994

    PubMed Central

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Aaltonen, Sari; Heikkilä, Kauko; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Rebato, Esther; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Busjahn, Andreas; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth JF; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl-Aslan, Anna K; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spector, Timothy D; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM; Willemsen, Gonneke; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Corley, Robin P; Hjelmborg, Jacob v B; Goldberg, Jack H; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Rasmussen, Finn; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-01-01

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886–1994. Although genetic variance showed a generally increasing trend across the birth-year cohorts, heritability estimates (0.69-0.84 in men and 0.53-0.78 in women) did not present any clear pattern of secular changes. Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia), total height variance was greatest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but no clear pattern in the heritability estimates across the birth-year cohorts emerged. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that heritability of height is lower in populations with low living standards than in affluent populations, nor that heritability of height will increase within a population as living standards improve. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20320.001 PMID:27964777

  6. Central Precocious Puberty: Adult Height in Girls Treated with Quarterly or Monthly Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog Triptorelin.

    PubMed

    Bertelloni, Silvano; Massart, Francesco; Einaudi, Silvia; Wasniewska, Malgorzata; Miccoli, Mario; Baroncelli, Giampiero I

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with quarterly gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs may improve compliance and optimize outcome in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP), but long-term comparative data between the new and the monthly formulations are very scarce. A group of girls with idiopathic CPP (n = 13; age 7.9 ± 0.6 years) were treated from the beginning with quarterly triptorelin (11.25 mg/90 days) and followed up to the achievement of adult height (AH). A group of girls with idiopathic CPP (n = 12; age 8.0 ± 0.6 years) treated with monthly triptorelin (3.75 mg/28 days) served as controls. The AH (157.1 ± 4.9 cm) of girls treated with quarterly triptorelin was not significantly different from their mid-parental height (159.7 ± 3.8 cm) and significantly increased in comparison with predicted AH (average tables) at the beginning of GnRH analog therapy. The AH of girls treated with quarterly triptorelin was not significantly different in comparison with that of girls treated with the monthly formulation (158.1 ± 6.6 cm; mid-parental height 158.4 ± 5.0 cm). Treatment with quarterly triptorelin formulation permitted to achieve an AH adequate for mid-parental height in girls with CPP. Significant differences of AH between girls with CPP treated with quarterly or monthly formulations were not found. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Association of arch height with ankle muscle strength and physical performance in adult men.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Tsujimoto, T; Kim, B; Tanaka, K

    2017-06-01

    Differences in arch height may have a certain impact on lower extremity muscle strength and physical performance. However, there is little evidence from investigation of the possible correlation of arch height with ankle muscle strength and physical performance measures. Sixty-seven participants took part in this study. Arch height index (AHI) was assessed and categorized using a 3-dimension foot scanner. Ankle muscle strength was measured employing a dynamometer. Physical performance measures including agility, force and proprioception were randomly tested. Compared to the medium AHI, the high AHI had lower plantarflexion and inversion peak torque. The high AHI also had lower peak torque per body weight value for plantarflexion and inversion at 120°/s (P = 0.026 and 0.006, respectively), and dorsiflexion at 30°/s (P = 0.042). No significant ankle muscle strength difference was observed between the low and medium AHI. Additionally, AHI was negatively correlated with eversion and inversion peak torque at 120°/s, and negatively associated with plantarflexion, eversion and inversion peak torque per body weight at both 30°/s and 120°/s (r ranged from -0.26 to -0.36, P values < 0.050). However, no significant relationship was found between arch height and physical performance measures. The results showed that high arches had lower ankle muscle strength while low arches exhibited greater ankle muscle strength. Arch height was negatively associated with ankle muscle strength but not related to physical performance. We suggest that the lower arch with greater ankle muscle strength may be an adaptation to weight support and shock absorption.

  8. [The height target prediction by the Tanner method infra evaluates the final height in youths from the rural area of South East Spain].

    PubMed

    Ríos, Rafael; Bosch, Vicente; Santonja, Fernando; López, José Manuel; Garaulet, Marta

    2014-10-16

    Introducción: Conocer la talla final de un individuo antes de finalizar el crecimiento presenta utilidad clínica para el seguimiento de la salud infantil. Objetivo: Calcular la talla diana de una población rural del sudeste de España y comparar con la talla final alcanzada. Métodos: Fueron incluidos 50 jóvenes de 18 a 22 años (44% hombres) y 100 progenitores. La selección de los jóvenes se realizó en 2 fases: 1. Estudio retrospectivo a partir de historias clínicas. 2. Estudio prospectivo: reclutamiento y determinaciones antropométricas. Se calculó talla diana y el desvío de talla. Resultados: La talla final de los chicos fue de 4,44 cm superior a la talla diana (p.

  9. Height-diameter relationships for conifer species on the Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest. Forest Service research note (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, K.L.; Mori, S.R.; Oliver, W.W.

    1995-03-01

    An equation is presented for predicting total height as a function of diameter outside bark at breast height for conifer species of the eastside pine type on the Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest in northeastern California. Weighted nonlinear regression was used to estimate the equation coefficients. The equation, along with the species-specific regression coefficients, provides a reliable basis for estimating missing heights on inventory and growth plots.

  10. Weight-bearing shifts of hemiparetic and healthy adults upon stepping on stairs of various heights.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Y; Dickstein, R; Resnik, S; Marcovitz, E

    2000-04-01

    To examine and compare the effect of stepping on stairs of various heights on lower extremity weight bearing in hemiparetic patients. Flieman Geriatric Rehabilitation Hospital, Haifa, Israel. Fifteen ambulatory hemiparetic patients following an acute cerebrovascular accident, and 16 age-matched healthy controls. Each subject was tested twice on two consecutive days in five weight-bearing positions which included level stance and stepping with either leg on 10-cm- and 17-cm-high steps. Data concerning weight distribution on the lower extremities were collected by two computerized forceplates. Weight borne by each foot expressed as percentage of overall body weight. In the attempted symmetrical level stance, the percentage of body weight borne by the paretic limb of the stroke patients was significantly lower than that of the nonparetic limb. Placing one foot on a step induced a weight shift to the foot placed on the floor regardless of step height. Weight shifting to the paretic limb was, however, significantly lower than to the nonparetic limb. Weight shifting to the nonparetic limb was significantly lower than to the corresponding limb of healthy individuals. Step height had no significant effect on weight distributions on the feet. Raising a foot on a step appears to be an appropriate strategy for weight shift training of stroke patients. Since weight shifting to both the paretic and nonparetic limb of stroke patients is impaired, treatment strategies should include training in weight shifting to both lower extremities.

  11. An adult case of skeletal open bite with a large lower anterior facial height.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiji; Iwabe, Tatsunori; Kawai, Nobuhiko; Nishi, Mika; Dalla-Bona, Diego; Hasegawa, Takuro; Tanne, Kazuo

    2005-05-01

    Control of the height of posterior dentoalveolar regions is of great importance for the correction of skeletal open bite. Traditionally, second premolar extraction facilitates the closure of open bite by inducing a counterclockwise mandibular rotation without molar intrusion. This article reports treatment for a 24-year six-month-old female patient with an open bite and large anterior facial height. She complained of occlusal disturbances and difficulty of lip closure because of the open bite. Overjet and overbite were +3.0 mm and -3.0 mm, respectively. To correct open bite and crowding, the bilateral extraction of the maxillary and mandibular second premolars plus multibracket appliances for mesial movement of the molars was selected as the treatment plan. After a two-year treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved, the lower anterior facial height was decreased, and the lips showed less tension in a lip closure. An acceptable occlusion was maintained without recurrence of the open bite during a three-year retention period, indicating a long-term stability of the occlusion. The results of this treatment indicated that the correction of open bite with no or less molar intrusion or incisor extrusion is of great importance for achieving stable occlusion and avoiding the relapse of open bite.

  12. Developmental programming of growth: genetic variant in GH2 gene encoding placental growth hormone contributes to adult height determination.

    PubMed

    Timasheva, Y; Putku, M; Kivi, R; Kožich, V; Männik, J; Laan, M

    2013-11-01

    Given the physiological role of placental growth hormone (PGH) during intrauterine development and growth, genetic variation in the coding Growth hormone 2 (GH2) gene may modulate developmental programming of adult stature. Two major GH2 variants were described worldwide, determined by single polymorphism (rs2006123; c.171 + 50C > A). We sought to study whether GH2 variants may contribute to adult anthropometric measurements. Genotyping of GH2 SNP rs2006123 by RFLP, testing its genetic association with adult height and Body Mass Index (BMI) by linear regression analysis, and combining the results of three individual study samples in meta-analysis. HYPEST (Estonia), n = 1464 (506 men/958 women), CADCZ (Czech), n = 871 (518/353); UFA (Bashkortostan), n = 954 (655/299); meta-analysis, n = 3289 (1679/1610). Meta-analysis across HYPEST, CADCZ and UFA samples (n = 3289) resulted in significant association of GH2 rs2006123 with height (recessive model: AA-homozygote effect: beta (SE) = 1.26 (0.46), P = 5.90 × 10⁻³; additive model: A-allele effect: beta (SE) = 0.45 (0.18), P = 1.40 × 10⁻²). Among men (n = 1679), the association of the A-allele with taller stature remained significant after multiple-testing correction (additive effect: beta = 0.86 (0.28), P = 1.83 × 10⁻³). No association was detected with BMI. Notably, rs2006123 was in strong LD (r² ≥ 0.87) with SNPs significantly associated with height (rs2665838, rs7209435, rs11658329) and mapped near GH2 in three independent meta-analyses of GWA studies. This is the first study demonstrating a link between a placental gene variant and programming of growth potential in adulthood. The detected association between PGH encoding GH2 and adult height promotes further research on the role of placental genes in prenatal programming of human metabolism. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Isasi, Carmen R; Jung, Molly; Parrinello, Christina M; Kaplan, Robert C; Kim, Ryung; Crespo, Noe C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia A; Penedo, Frank J; Perreira, Krista M; Perrino, Tatiana; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084), a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA). Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one's family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing), and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0-12, 13-18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat (%BF). Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background). Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF). These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics.

  14. Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Isasi, Carmen R.; Jung, Molly; Parrinello, Christina M.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kim, Ryung; Crespo, Noe C.; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia A.; Penedo, Frank J.; Perreira, Krista M.; Perrino, Tatiana; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084), a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA). Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one’s family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing), and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0–12, 13–18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat (%BF). Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background). Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF). These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics. PMID:26919283

  15. [Placement of pH-monitoring probes using height-related formulas. Is it an applicable method to adults?].

    PubMed

    Molina Caballero, Ada Yessenia; Villar Varela, María Eugenia; Pérez Martínez, Alberto; Ayuso González, Lidia; Hernández Martín, Sara; Goñi Orayen, Concepción

    2016-04-01

    Oesophageal pH-monitoring allows the quantification of gastric reflux episodes in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The accuracy of the test depends on correct positioning of the pH sensor 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES). The most precise manner to locate the LES is through prior determination by oesophageal manometry. However, because this technique is uncomfortable, mathematical formulas tend to be used in children. To evaluate the applicability of paediatric formulas to estimate oesophageal length in adults and their effect on diagnostic accuracy. A prospective study was carried out in adult patients, in whom the distance between the nasal orifice and the LES was determined by manometry and was compared with the estimated height-related distance calculated by four paediatric formulas (numbered 1 to 4). We also evaluated the relationship between the position of the probe and the percentage of reflux detected in our series of impedance measurements. Formula 1 (9.31 + height in cm × 0.197) was the most accurate (comparison of means -0.38 with 95%CI -0.70/-0.06, P = .019). With this formula, none of the patients had estimation errors of ± 6 cm. With formulas 2, 3 and 4, the percentage of error was 4.4%, 1.5% and 32.0%, respectively. Oesophageal length estimation in adults by using formula 1 is acceptable and can be used in adult patients who refuse to undergo prior manometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimating eyeball protrusion from body height, interpupillary distance, and inter-orbital distance in adults.

    PubMed

    Swan, Lauren K; Stephan, Carl N

    2005-07-01

    Eyeball protrusion is one characteristic that must be assessed/predicted in craniofacial identification methods of skull-face superimposition and facial approximation. Previously it has been suggested that average exophthalmometry values, as measured on living individuals, should be used. However, it is unknown if proptosis prediction can be improved beyond the accuracy obtained when using mean values. Some authors have suggested that relationships between exophthalmos, height, interpupillary distance, and interorbital distance exist and it has been reported that these latter variables can be used to estimate eyeball projection. However, crucial tests are yet to be conducted. This study measures these variables and tests the accuracy of exophthalmometry means, a previously proposed prediction equation, and newly derived regression equations to determine which methods provide the best results. Data indicate that variation in exophthalmos is fairly small and as such prediction from other variables, like body height, are weak; thus, exophthalmometry means currently offer the best practical method of prediction. It should be noted that up to 2 mm error from either side of the mean is expected for 68% of cases.

  17. Adult height and cancer mortality: The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Batty, G. David; Barzi, Federica; Woodward, Mark; Jamrozik, Konrad; Woo, Jean; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Huxley, Rachel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The observation that taller people experience an increased risk of selected cancers is largely restricted to Caucasian cohorts. These associations may plausibly differ in Asian populations. For the first time, we make direct comparison of the associations between height and a series of malignancies in Australasian (Caucasian) and Asian populations. Methods Analyses were based on the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration of 506, 648 male and female study participants (408,381 Asia, 98267 Australasia) drawn from 38 population-based cohort studies. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the relationship between height and cancer rates. Results A total of 3,272,600 person years of follow-up gave rise to 7497 cancer deaths (5232 in men, 2265 in women). After multiple adjustments and left censoring, taller individuals experienced increased rates of carcinoma of the intestine (men and women); all cancers, liver, lung, breast, ‘other’ malignancies (all women); and prostate and bladder (men). No consistent regional (Asia vs. Australasia) or sex-differences were observed. Conclusions In the present study, taller men and women had an elevated risk of selected malignancies. These associations did not differ appreciably between Asian and Caucasian populations. PMID:19889610

  18. Whole-exome imputation of sequence variants identified two novel alleles associated with adult body height in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Du, Mengmeng; Auer, Paul L.; Jiao, Shuo; Haessler, Jeffrey; Altshuler, David; Boerwinkle, Eric; Carlson, Christopher S.; Carty, Cara L.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Curtis, Keith; Franceschini, Nora; Hsu, Li; Jackson, Rebecca; Lange, Leslie A.; Lettre, Guillaume; Monda, Keri L.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rosse, Stephanie A.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Willer, Cristen J.; Wilson, James G.; North, Kari; Kooperberg, Charles; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Peters, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Adult body height is a quantitative trait for which genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci, primarily in European populations. These loci, comprising common variants, explain <10% of the phenotypic variance in height. We searched for novel associations between height and common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) or infrequent (0.5% < MAF < 5%) variants across the exome in African Americans. Using a reference panel of 1692 African Americans and 471 Europeans from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project (ESP), we imputed whole-exome sequence data into 13 719 African Americans with existing array-based GWAS data (discovery). Variants achieving a height-association threshold of P < 5E−06 in the imputed dataset were followed up in an independent sample of 1989 African Americans with whole-exome sequence data (replication). We used P < 2.5E−07 (=0.05/196 779 variants) to define statistically significant associations in meta-analyses combining the discovery and replication sets (N = 15 708). We discovered and replicated three independent loci for association: 5p13.3/C5orf22/rs17410035 (MAF = 0.10, β = 0.64 cm, P = 8.3E−08), 13q14.2/SPRYD7/rs114089985 (MAF = 0.03, β = 1.46 cm, P = 4.8E−10) and 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 (MAF = 0.30; β = 0.47 cm; P = 4.7E−09). Conditional analyses suggested 5p13.3 (C5orf22/rs17410035) and 13q14.2 (SPRYD7/rs114089985) may harbor novel height alleles independent of previous GWAS-identified variants (r2 with GWAS loci <0.01); whereas 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 was correlated with GWAS-identified variants in European and African populations. Notably, 13q14.2/rs114089985 is infrequent in African Americans (MAF = 3%), extremely rare in European Americans (MAF = 0.03%), and monomorphic in Asian populations, suggesting it may be an African-American-specific height allele. Our findings demonstrate that whole-exome imputation of sequence variants can identify low

  19. Whole-exome imputation of sequence variants identified two novel alleles associated with adult body height in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Du, Mengmeng; Auer, Paul L; Jiao, Shuo; Haessler, Jeffrey; Altshuler, David; Boerwinkle, Eric; Carlson, Christopher S; Carty, Cara L; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Curtis, Keith; Franceschini, Nora; Hsu, Li; Jackson, Rebecca; Lange, Leslie A; Lettre, Guillaume; Monda, Keri L; Nickerson, Deborah A; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rosse, Stephanie A; Rotter, Jerome I; Willer, Cristen J; Wilson, James G; North, Kari; Kooperberg, Charles; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Peters, Ulrike

    2014-12-15

    Adult body height is a quantitative trait for which genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci, primarily in European populations. These loci, comprising common variants, explain <10% of the phenotypic variance in height. We searched for novel associations between height and common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) or infrequent (0.5% < MAF < 5%) variants across the exome in African Americans. Using a reference panel of 1692 African Americans and 471 Europeans from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project (ESP), we imputed whole-exome sequence data into 13 719 African Americans with existing array-based GWAS data (discovery). Variants achieving a height-association threshold of P < 5E-06 in the imputed dataset were followed up in an independent sample of 1989 African Americans with whole-exome sequence data (replication). We used P < 2.5E-07 (=0.05/196 779 variants) to define statistically significant associations in meta-analyses combining the discovery and replication sets (N = 15 708). We discovered and replicated three independent loci for association: 5p13.3/C5orf22/rs17410035 (MAF = 0.10, β = 0.64 cm, P = 8.3E-08), 13q14.2/SPRYD7/rs114089985 (MAF = 0.03, β = 1.46 cm, P = 4.8E-10) and 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 (MAF = 0.30; β = 0.47 cm; P = 4.7E-09). Conditional analyses suggested 5p13.3 (C5orf22/rs17410035) and 13q14.2 (SPRYD7/rs114089985) may harbor novel height alleles independent of previous GWAS-identified variants (r(2) with GWAS loci <0.01); whereas 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 was correlated with GWAS-identified variants in European and African populations. Notably, 13q14.2/rs114089985 is infrequent in African Americans (MAF = 3%), extremely rare in European Americans (MAF = 0.03%), and monomorphic in Asian populations, suggesting it may be an African-American-specific height allele. Our findings demonstrate that whole-exome imputation of sequence variants can identify low-frequency variants

  20. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Sovio, Ulla; Taal, H. Rob; Hennig, Branwen J.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Charoen, Pimphen; Kaakinen, Marika; Cousminer, Diana L.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Warrington, Nicole M.; Bustamante, Mariona; Feenstra, Bjarke; Berry, Diane J.; Thiering, Elisabeth; Pfab, Thiemo; Barton, Sheila J.; Shields, Beverley M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Fulford, Anthony J.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Zhao, Jing Hua; den Hoed, Marcel; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindi, Virpi; Goh, Liang-Kee; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Wu, Ying; Raitakari, Olli T.; Harder, Marie N.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Ntalla, Ioanna; Salem, Rany M.; Jameson, Karen A.; Zhou, Kaixin; Monies, Dorota M.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Kirin, Mirna; Heikkinen, Jani; Adair, Linda S.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Al-Odaib, Ali; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Bennett, Amanda J.; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Estivill, Xavier; Flexeder, Claudia; Froguel, Philippe; Geller, Frank; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gottrand, Frédéric; Groves, Christopher J.; Hansen, Torben; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hyppönen, Elina; Inskip, Hazel M.; Isaacs, Aaron; Jørgensen, Torben; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kemp, John P.; Kiess, Wieland; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Klopp, Norman; Knight, Bridget A.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McMahon, George; Newnham, John P.; Niinikoski, Harri; Oostra, Ben A.; Pedersen, Louise; Postma, Dirkje S.; Ring, Susan M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Simell, Olli; Slowinski, Torsten; Tiesler, Carla M.T.; Tönjes, Anke; Vaag, Allan; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Zhang, Haitao; Zhao, Jianhua; Wilson, James F.; Stumvoll, Michael; Prentice, Andrew M.; Meyer, Brian F.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Boreham, Colin A.G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Gillman, Matthew W.; Dedoussis, George V.; Moreno, Luis A; Pedersen, Oluf; Saarinen, Maiju; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Lakka, Timo A.; Körner, Antje; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Ong, Ken K.; Vollenweider, Peter; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Holloway, John W.; Hocher, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim; Power, Chris; Melbye, Mads; Guxens, Mònica; Pennell, Craig E.; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Eriksson, Johan G.; Widén, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Uitterlinden, André G.; Pouta, Anneli; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Smith, George Davey; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood1. Previous genome-wide association studies identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2 diabetes, and a second variant, near CCNL1, with no obvious link to adult traits2. In an expanded genome-wide association meta-analysis and follow-up study (up to 69,308 individuals of European descent from 43 studies), we have now extended the number of genome-wide significant loci to seven, accounting for a similar proportion of variance to maternal smoking. Five of the loci are known to be associated with other phenotypes: ADCY5 and CDKAL1 with type 2 diabetes; ADRB1 with adult blood pressure; and HMGA2 and LCORL with adult height. Our findings highlight genetic links between fetal growth and postnatal growth and metabolism. PMID:23202124

  1. Predicting height increment of young-growth red fir in California and southern Oregon. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    An equation is given to estimate 10-year height increment for young-growth red fir trees in California and Southern Oregon. The independent variables are the individual tree, stand, and site characteristics significantly related to a tree's height growth. Data used to develop the equation came from stem analysis of 492 trees sampled from 56 stands in the study area. Parameter estimates for the predictive equation were obtained using least-squares linear regression.

  2. Association between maternal education and blood pressure: mediation evidence through height components in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez López, Santiago; Bensenor, Isabela M; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-05-01

    Maternal education influences skeletal growth and offspring adult blood pressure (BP). Height components are negatively associated with BP in high-income countries. To evaluate the association between maternal education and offspring adult systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DBP), assessing whether different height components might mediate such an association. Simple mediation modelling was used to evaluate the maternal education-offspring SBP/DBP association, estimating the contribution of offspring height components, in a cross-sectional sample of 13 571 Brazilians aged 34-75 from the ELSA-Brasil study. After full adjustment for confounders, and compared to participants whose mothers received low education, those whose mothers received high education had, on average, 0.2 mm Hg lower SBP (95% CI = -0.274, -0.132), as result of the link between maternal education and offspring adult height which, in turn, influenced SBP. Thus, 18-26% of the maternal education-SBP association occurred indirectly, through height, trunk and leg length, alternatively. Better maternal education might influence higher leg and trunk lengths in offspring, which, in turn, might contribute to prevent higher BP in adults. The negative height-BP association reported in high-income countries is also present in a middle-income country with more recent economic development.

  3. Adiposity and height of adult Hmong refugees: relationship with war-related early malnutrition and later migration.

    PubMed

    Clarkin, Patrick F

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether historical proxies for poor nutrition early in life were associated with differences in body composition and height among adult Hmong refugees. Life history and anthropometric data were collected from a sample of 279 Hmong aged 18-51 years who were born in Laos or Thailand and resettled in French Guiana or the United States following the Second Indochina War. Overall, 30.5% were born in a war zone in Laos, while 38.8% were displaced as infants; these individuals were presumed to have experienced malnutrition in the perinatal and infant periods, respectively. Resettlement in urban areas in the US was utilized as a proxy for greater exposure to excessive energy balance, compared with Hmong who resettled in rural areas in French Guiana. In multiple linear regression models, being displaced in infancy was negatively associated with height after controlling for confounders, while being born in a war zone was associated with higher adiposity and centralized body fat distribution. Resettlement in the US was associated with a higher centralization of subcutaneous fat, but not overall adiposity. These findings may be of interest to the study of the developmental origins of obesity, in a population that has undergone early malnutrition followed by migration and rapid nutritional transition.

  4. Height and blood chemistry in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic poisoning interferes with bone metabolism in laboratory animal studies, and human studies suggest lowered bone mass density at elevated exposures. As the long-term consequences of developmental arsenic toxicity are poorly known, we carried out a clinical pilot study of survivors of the mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants in Japan in 1955. The purpose was to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and physical stature and routine blood chemistry reflecting major organ functions more than 50 years later. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals recruited at two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan: 27 known poisoning victims (14 men and 13 women), and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age (10 men, 13 women). We collected information from physical examinations that included routine blood counts and blood biochemistry. The average height of the exposed group was 6.5cm below that of the unexposed group (p=0.02), while the latter was in accordance with national data for both sexes. In addition, the exposed participants had a higher mean (SD) serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of 233 (63) U/L than the unexposed participants (191 (44) U/L) (p=0.01). No other statistically significant difference was observed, and liver enzymes were within normal ranges. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy showed decreased height and elevated ALP that suggests abnormalities in bone metabolism possibly induced by arsenic incorporated in the bone matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Secular changes and predictors of adult height for 86 105 male and female members of the Thai Cohort Study born between 1940 and 1990.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Susan; Lim, Lynette; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Bain, Christopher; Sleigh, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Height trends can be useful indicators of population health but, despite Thailand's rapid socioeconomic development since the 1950s, few studies have examined accompanying secular changes in adult height or the effects of the transition on the heights of rural versus urban populations. This study therefore sought to document average heights in different age groups of rural and urban Thais and to investigate factors associated with attained height. Data from 86,105 Thai Cohort Study participants was used to estimate mean heights for men and women in different birth year groups. Simple regression was used to calculate the change in height per decade of birth year among those based in rural or urban locations as children. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate effects of other childhood factors on height. Overall, average heights were found to have increased by approximately 1 cm per decade in those born between 1940 and 1990. However, the rate of increase was 0.4-0.5 cm per decade greater among urban-based Thais compared with those from the countryside. Parental education levels, household assets, birth size, sibling number, birth rank and region of residence were also significantly associated with adult height. These data suggest a marked secular increase in Thai heights in the second half of the 20th century probably reflecting improved childhood health and nutrition over this time. Rural-born Thais, who benefited to a lesser extent from the changes, may face future health challenges with greater risks of, among other things, obesity and its health consequences.

  6. LMS tables for waist circumference and waist–height ratio in Colombian adults: analysis of nationwide data 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, R; Correa-Bautista, J E; Martínez-Torres, J; Méneses-Echavez, J F; González-Ruiz, K; González-Jiménez, E; Schmidt-RioValle, J; Lobelo, F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). These data are lacking for Colombian adults. This study aims at establishing smoothed centile charts and LMS tables for WC and WHtR; appropriate cutoffs were selected using receiver-operating characteristic analysis based on data from the representative sample. Subjects/Methods: We used data from the cross-sectional, national representative nutrition survey (ENSIN, 2010). A total of 83 220 participants (aged 20–64) were enroled. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), WC and WHtR were measured and percentiles calculated using the LMS method (L (curve Box-Cox), M (curve median), and S (curve coefficient of variation)). Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cutoff point of WC and WHtR for overweight and obesity based on WHO definitions. Results: Reference values for WC and WHtR are presented. Mean WC and WHtR increased with age for both genders. We found a strong positive correlation between WC and BMI (r=0.847, P< 0.01) and WHtR and BMI (r=0.878, P<0.01). In obese men, the cutoff point value is 96.6 cm for the WC. In women, the cutoff point value is 91.0 cm for the WC. Receiver operating characteristic curve for WHtR was also obtained and the cutoff point value of 0.579 in men, and in women the cutoff point value was 0.587. A high sensitivity and specificity were obtained. Conclusions: This study presents first reference values of WC and WHtR for Colombians aged 20–64. Through LMS tables for adults, we hope to provide quantitative tools to study obesity and its complications. PMID:27026425

  7. LMS tables for waist circumference and waist-height ratio in Colombian adults: analysis of nationwide data 2010.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, R; Correa-Bautista, J E; Martínez-Torres, J; Méneses-Echavez, J F; González-Ruiz, K; González-Jiménez, E; Schmidt-RioValle, J; Lobelo, F

    2016-10-01

    Indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). These data are lacking for Colombian adults. This study aims at establishing smoothed centile charts and LMS tables for WC and WHtR; appropriate cutoffs were selected using receiver-operating characteristic analysis based on data from the representative sample. We used data from the cross-sectional, national representative nutrition survey (ENSIN, 2010). A total of 83 220 participants (aged 20-64) were enroled. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), WC and WHtR were measured and percentiles calculated using the LMS method (L (curve Box-Cox), M (curve median), and S (curve coefficient of variation)). Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cutoff point of WC and WHtR for overweight and obesity based on WHO definitions. Reference values for WC and WHtR are presented. Mean WC and WHtR increased with age for both genders. We found a strong positive correlation between WC and BMI (r=0.847, P< 0.01) and WHtR and BMI (r=0.878, P<0.01). In obese men, the cutoff point value is 96.6 cm for the WC. In women, the cutoff point value is 91.0 cm for the WC. Receiver operating characteristic curve for WHtR was also obtained and the cutoff point value of 0.579 in men, and in women the cutoff point value was 0.587. A high sensitivity and specificity were obtained. This study presents first reference values of WC and WHtR for Colombians aged 20-64. Through LMS tables for adults, we hope to provide quantitative tools to study obesity and its complications.

  8. A Procedure for Calculating the Vertical Space Height of the Sacrum When Determining Skeletal Height for Use in the Anatomical Method of Adult Stature Estimation.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Atsuko; Emanovsky, Paul D; Pietrusewsky, Michael; Holland, Thomas D

    2016-03-01

    Estimating stature from skeletonized remains is one of the essential parameters in the development of a biological profile. A new procedure for determining skeletal height (SKH) incorporating the vertical space height (VSH) from the anterior margin of the sacral promontory to the superior margins of the acetabulae for use in the anatomical method of stature estimation is introduced. Regression equations for stature estimation were generated from measurements of 38 American males of European ancestry from the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection. The modification to the procedure results in a SKH that is highly correlated with stature (r = 0.925-0.948). Stature estimates have low standard errors of the estimate ranging from 21.79 to 25.95 mm, biases from to 0.50 to 0.94 mm, and accuracy rates from 17.71 mm to 19.45 mm. The procedure for determining the VSH, which replaces "S1 height" in traditional anatomical method models, is a key improvement to the method. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Vitamin D status in young women and its relationship to body fat, final height and peak bone mass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin D insufficiency has now reached epidemic proportion and has been linked to low bone mineral density (BMD), increased risk of fracture and obesity in adults. However, this relationship has not been well characterized in adolescents and young adults. We examined the relationship between seru...

  10. Vitamin D Status and Its Relationship to Body Fat, Final Height, and Peak Bone Mass in Young Women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin D insufficiency has now reached epidemic proportion and has been linked to low bone mineral density (BMD), increased risk of fracture and obesity in adults. However, this relationship has not been well characterized in adolescents and young adults. We examined the relationship between seru...

  11. A Prospective Study of Height and Body Mass Index in Childhood, Birth Weight, and Risk of Adult Glioma Over 40 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Cari M.; Gamborg, Michael; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Baker, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth and differentiation. The Copenhagen School Health Records Register includes data on 320,425 Danish schoolchildren born between 1930 and 1989, with height and weight measurements from ages 7–13 years and parentally recorded birth weights. We prospectively evaluated associations between childhood height and BMI, birth weight, and adult glioma risk. During follow-up (1968–2010), 355 men and 253 women aged ≥18 years were diagnosed with glioma. In boys, height at each age between 7 and 13 years was positively associated with glioma risk; hazard ratios per standard-deviation score at ages 7 (approximately 5.1 cm) and 13 (approximately 7.6 cm) years were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.30) and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.35), respectively. No associations were observed for childhood height in girls or for BMI. Birth weight was positively associated with risk (per 0.5 kg: hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.24). These results suggest that exposures associated with higher birth weight and, in boys, greater height during childhood may contribute to the etiology of adult glioma. PMID:25205831

  12. Adult Undergraduate Students: Patterns of Learning Involvement. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasworm, Carol E.; Blowers, Sally S.

    A research study examined the complex roles of adult life in relation to the student role, the nature of adult undergraduate engagement in learning, and adult perceptions of involvement. Adult students were interviewed in three types of institutions: 38 at two liberal arts colleges, 29 at two community colleges, and 23 at two public universities.…

  13. The population distribution of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and SAD/height ratio among Finnish adults

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, H. S.; Rissanen, H.; Bullard, K. M.; Knekt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD; ‘abdominal height’ measured in supine position) may improve upon conventional anthropometry for predicting incident cardiometabolic diseases. However, the SAD is used infrequently by practitioners and epidemiologists. A representative survey of Finnish adults in 2000–2001 collected body measurements including SAD (by sliding-beam calliper) using standardized protocols. Sampled non-pregnant adults (ages 30+ years; 79% participation) provided 6123 SAD measurements from 80 health centre districts. Through stratified, complex survey design, these data represented 2.86 million adults at ages 30+ years. SAD ranged from 13.5 to 38.0 cm, with a population mean (standard error) of 21.7 (0.05) cm and median (interquartile range) of 21.0 (19.1–23.4). Median SAD was higher at ages 50+ years compared with ages 30–49 both for men (22.4 [20.5–24.6] vs. 20.8 [19.3–22.7]) and women (21.7 [19.6–23.9] vs. 19.4 [17.8–21.4]). The SAD/height ratio was similar (0.118) for both sexes at 30–39 years, rising more steeply with age for women than men. Attaining only a basic education, compared with a high level, was associated with increased mean (95% confidence interval) SADs for men (22.6 [22.3–22.8] vs. 22.0 [21.7–22.2]) and women (21.8 [21.5–22.0] vs. 20.6 [20.4–20.8]). Finland’s early experience with nationally representative SAD measurements provides normative reference values and physiological insights useful for investigations of cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25826163

  14. Genomewide linkage analysis of stature in multiple populations reveals several regions with evidence of linkage to adult height.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, J N; Lindgren, C M; Daly, M J; Kirby, A; Schaffner, S F; Burtt, N P; Altshuler, D; Parker, A; Rioux, J D; Platko, J; Gaudet, D; Hudson, T J; Groop, L C; Lander, E S

    2001-07-01

    Genomewide linkage analysis has been extremely successful at identification of the genetic variation underlying single-gene disorders. However, linkage analysis has been less successful for common human diseases and other complex traits in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to influence disease risk. We hypothesized that a highly heritable complex trait, in which the contribution of environmental factors was relatively limited, might be more amenable to linkage analysis. We therefore chose to study stature (adult height), for which heritability is approximately 75%-90% (Phillips and Matheny 1990; Carmichael and McGue 1995; Preece 1996; Silventoinen et al. 2000). We reanalyzed genomewide scans from four populations for which genotype and height data were available, using a variance-components method implemented in GENEHUNTER 2.0 (Pratt et al. 2000). The populations consisted of 408 individuals in 58 families from the Botnia region of Finland, 753 individuals in 183 families from other parts of Finland, 746 individuals in 179 families from Southern Sweden, and 420 individuals in 63 families from the Saguenay-Lac-St.-Jean region of Quebec. Four regions showed evidence of linkage to stature: 6q24-25, multipoint LOD score 3.85 at marker D6S1007 in Botnia (genomewide P<.06), 7q31.3-36 (LOD 3.40 at marker D7S2195 in Sweden, P<.02), 12p11.2-q14 (LOD 3.35 at markers D12S10990-D12S398 in Finland, P<.05) and 13q32-33 (LOD 3.56 at markers D13S779-D13S797 in Finland, P<.05). In a companion article (Perola et al. 2001 [in this issue]), strong supporting evidence is obtained for linkage to the region on chromosome 7. These studies suggest that highly heritable complex traits such as stature may be genetically tractable and provide insight into the genetic architecture of complex traits.

  15. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Kai McKeever

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Subjects/Methods Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011–2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. Results The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men’s SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40–49 (men) or 60–69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. Conclusions These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral

  16. Final Report for Project: Impacts of stratification and non-equilibrium winds and waves on hub-height winds

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Edward G.

    2015-07-14

    This project used a combination of turbulence-resolving large-eddy simulations, single-column modeling (where turbulence is parameterized), and currently available observations to improve, assess, and develop a parameterization of the impact of non-equilibrium wave states and stratification on the buoy-observed winds to establish reliable wind data at the turbine hub-height level. Analysis of turbulence-resolving simulations and observations illuminates the non-linear coupling between the atmosphere and the undulating sea surface. This analysis guides modification of existing boundary layer parameterizations to include wave influences for upward extrapolation of surface-based observations through the turbine layer. Our surface roughness modifications account for the interaction between stratification and the effects of swell’s amplitude and wavelength as well as swell’s relative motion with respect to the mean wind direction. The single-column version of the open source Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model (Skamarock et al., 2008) serves as our platform to test our proposed planetary boundary layer parameterization modifications that account for wave effects on marine atmospheric boundary layer flows. WRF has been widely adopted for wind resource analysis and forecasting. The single column version is particularly suitable to development, analysis, and testing of new boundary layer parameterizations. We utilize WRF’s single-column version to verify and validate our proposed modifications to the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) boundary layer parameterization (Nakanishi and Niino, 2004). We explore the implications of our modifications for two-way coupling between WRF and wave models (e.g.,Wavewatch III). The newly implemented parameterization accounting for marine atmospheric boundary layer-wave coupling is then tested in three-dimensional WRF simulations at grid sizes near 1 km. These simulations identify the behavior of simulated winds at the

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 1): Beacon Heights Landfill, Beacon Falls, Connecticut, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-23

    The Beacon Heights Landfill site is located two miles east of the intersection of Connecticut Routes 8 and 42 in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. From the 1920's until 1970 the site was known as Betkoski's Dump and consisted of approximately six acres on which active dumping occurred. According to records at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CT DEP), waste accepted at the dump included municipal refuse, rubber, plastics, and industrial chemicals and sludges. Landfill operations consisted primarily of open burning along with burial of noncombustibles. In 1970, the Betkoski property and adjacent properties totaling 83 acres were purchased by the Murtha Trucking Company, and the name was changed to Beacon Heights, Inc. Landfill. At this time, the landfill area was expanded to approximately 30 acres. Records of the CT DEP, including a 1973 report by the landfill engineer, listed rubber, plastics, oils, hydrocarbons, chemical liquids and sludges, and solvents as being disposed of at the landfill by the trucking company. The selected remedial action for this site are included.

  18. MISSOURI ADULT VOCATIONAL-LITERACY MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT PROJECT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEDING, HOWARD W.; AND OTHERS

    IN THE MISSOURI ADULT VOCATIONAL-LITERACY MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT PROJECT MATERIALS WERE DEVISED FOR TEACHING ADULTS TO READ, WRITE, AND SPELL AT THE FUNCTIONAL (SIXTH GRADE) LEVEL. IN THE RESEARCH PHASE, THE NEEDS, CHARACTERISTICS, LITERACY LEVEL, OCCUPATIONS, AND INTERESTS OF THE ILLITERATE ADULT WERE STUDIED, AND TEACHING MATERIALS AND METHODS…

  19. New York State Adult Functional Literacy Models. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Barbara R.

    This report discusses a nationwide study of Adult Performance Level (APL) which involved sixteen projects in seven states and was conducted to (1) examine the University of Texas at Austin's APL study and describe the results and recommendations in terms of the adult needs in New York State; (2) examine several New York State Adult Basic Education…

  20. Association between Adult Height and Risk of Colorectal, Lung, and Prostate Cancer: Results from Meta-analyses of Prospective Studies and Mendelian Randomization Analyses.

    PubMed

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Wen, Wanqing; Kraft, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Peters, Ulrike; Schildkraut, Joellen; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bofetta, Paolo; Risch, Angela; Bickeböller, Heike; Amos, Christopher I; Easton, Douglas; Eeles, Rosalind A; Gruber, Stephen B; Haiman, Christopher A; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Pierce, Brandon L; Zheng, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Observational studies examining associations between adult height and risk of colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers have generated mixed results. We conducted meta-analyses using data from prospective cohort studies and further carried out Mendelian randomization analyses, using height-associated genetic variants identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS), to evaluate the association of adult height with these cancers. A systematic review of prospective studies was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Using meta-analyses, results obtained from 62 studies were summarized for the association of a 10-cm increase in height with cancer risk. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted using summary statistics obtained for 423 genetic variants identified from a recent GWAS of adult height and from a cancer genetics consortium study of multiple cancers that included 47,800 cases and 81,353 controls. For a 10-cm increase in height, the summary relative risks derived from the meta-analyses of prospective studies were 1.12 (95% CI 1.10, 1.15), 1.07 (95% CI 1.05, 1.10), and 1.06 (95% CI 1.02, 1.11) for colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers, respectively. Mendelian randomization analyses showed increased risks of colorectal (odds ratio [OR] = 1.58, 95% CI 1.14, 2.18) and lung cancer (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.00, 1.22) associated with each 10-cm increase in genetically predicted height. No association was observed for prostate cancer (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92, 1.15). Our meta-analysis was limited to published studies. The sample size for the Mendelian randomization analysis of colorectal cancer was relatively small, thus affecting the precision of the point estimate. Our study provides evidence for a potential causal association of adult height with the risk of colorectal and lung cancers and suggests that certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height may also affect the risk of these cancers.

  1. Association between Adult Height and Risk of Colorectal, Lung, and Prostate Cancer: Results from Meta-analyses of Prospective Studies and Mendelian Randomization Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Khankari, Nikhil K.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Wen, Wanqing; Kraft, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Peters, Ulrike; Schildkraut, Joellen; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bofetta, Paolo; Risch, Angela; Bickeböller, Heike; Amos, Christopher I.; Easton, Douglas; Gruber, Stephen B.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Pierce, Brandon L.; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Observational studies examining associations between adult height and risk of colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers have generated mixed results. We conducted meta-analyses using data from prospective cohort studies and further carried out Mendelian randomization analyses, using height-associated genetic variants identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS), to evaluate the association of adult height with these cancers. Methods and Findings A systematic review of prospective studies was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Using meta-analyses, results obtained from 62 studies were summarized for the association of a 10-cm increase in height with cancer risk. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted using summary statistics obtained for 423 genetic variants identified from a recent GWAS of adult height and from a cancer genetics consortium study of multiple cancers that included 47,800 cases and 81,353 controls. For a 10-cm increase in height, the summary relative risks derived from the meta-analyses of prospective studies were 1.12 (95% CI 1.10, 1.15), 1.07 (95% CI 1.05, 1.10), and 1.06 (95% CI 1.02, 1.11) for colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers, respectively. Mendelian randomization analyses showed increased risks of colorectal (odds ratio [OR] = 1.58, 95% CI 1.14, 2.18) and lung cancer (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.00, 1.22) associated with each 10-cm increase in genetically predicted height. No association was observed for prostate cancer (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92, 1.15). Our meta-analysis was limited to published studies. The sample size for the Mendelian randomization analysis of colorectal cancer was relatively small, thus affecting the precision of the point estimate. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for a potential causal association of adult height with the risk of colorectal and lung cancers and suggests that certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height may also affect the

  2. Response to long-term growth hormone therapy in patients affected by RASopathies and growth hormone deficiency: Patterns of growth, puberty and final height data.

    PubMed

    Tamburrino, Federica; Gibertoni, Dino; Rossi, Cesare; Scarano, Emanuela; Perri, Annamaria; Montanari, Francesca; Fantini, Maria Pia; Pession, Andrea; Tartaglia, Marco; Mazzanti, Laura

    2015-11-01

    RASopathies are developmental disorders caused by heterozygous germline mutations in genes encoding proteins in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Reduced growth is a common feature. Several studies generated data on growth, final height (FH), and height velocity (HV) after growth hormone (GH) treatment in patients with these disorders, particularly in Noonan syndrome, the most common RASopathy. These studies, however, refer to heterogeneous cohorts in terms of molecular information, GH status, age at start and length of therapy, and GH dosage. This work reports growth data in 88 patients affected by RASopathies with molecularly confirmed diagnosis, together with statistics on body proportions, pubertal pattern, and FH in 33, including 16 treated with GH therapy for proven GH deficiency. Thirty-three patients showed GH deficiency after pharmacological tests, and were GH-treated for an average period of 6.8 ± 4.8 years. Before starting therapy, HV was -2.6 ± 1.3 SDS, and mean basal IGF1 levels were -2.0 ± 1.1 SDS. Long-term GH therapy, starting early during childhood, resulted in a positive height response compared with untreated patients (1.3 SDS in terms of height-gain), normalizing FH for Ranke standards but not for general population and Target Height. Pubertal timing negatively affected pubertal growth spurt and FH, with IGF1 standardized score increased from -2.43 to -0.27 SDS. During GH treatment, no significant change in bone age velocity, body proportions, or cardiovascular function was observed.

  3. Health assessment for Beacon Heights Landfill site, Beacon Falls, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD072122062. Addendum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-20

    The Beacon Heights Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. From the 1920's to 1979, municipal and industrial wastes were disposed of at the landfill. Leachate from the landfill has migrated into the local groundwater aquifers. Two residential wells to the northwest of the site have been contaminated with site-related contaminants. This site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted in Human Exposure Pathways Section below, human exposure to benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethane, and methylene chloride may have occurred via ingestion, inhalation, and direct dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. No health study follow-up is indicated at this time.

  4. Contribution of human growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) gene sequence variation to isolated severe growth hormone deficiency (ISGHD) and normal adult height.

    PubMed

    Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Carrascosa, Antonio; Andaluz, Pilar; Albisu, M Ángeles; Clemente, María; Gussinyé, Miquel; Yeste, Diego; Audí, Laura

    2012-10-01

    Molecular causes of isolated severe growth hormone deficiency (ISGHD) in several genes have been established. The aim of this study was to analyse the contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) gene sequence variation to GH deficiency in a series of prepubertal ISGHD patients and to normal adult height. A systematic GHRHR gene sequence analysis was performed in 69 ISGHD patients and 60 normal adult height controls (NAHC). Four GHRHR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 248 additional NAHC. An analysis was performed on individual SNPs and combined genotype associations with diagnosis in ISGHD patients and with height-SDS in NAHC. Twenty-one SNPs were found. P3, P13, P15 and P20 had not been previously described. Patients and controls shared 12 SNPs (P1, P2, P4-P11, P16 and P21). Significantly different frequencies of the heterozygous genotype and alternate allele were detected in P9 (exon 4, rs4988498) and P12 (intron 6, rs35609199); P9 heterozygous genotype frequencies were similar in patients and the shortest control group (heights between -2 and -1 SDS) and significantly different in controls (heights between -1 and +2 SDS). GHRHR P9 together with 4 GH1 SNP genotypes contributed to 6·2% of height-SDS variation in the entire 308 NAHC. This study established the GHRHR gene sequence variation map in ISGHD patients and NAHC. No evidence of GHRHR mutation contribution to ISGHD was found in this population, although P9 and P12 SNP frequencies were significantly different between ISGHD and NAHC. Thus, the gene sequence may contribute to normal adult height, as demonstrated in NAHC. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. A pillow of 8 cm height did not improve laryngeal view and alignment of airway axes but increased anesthesiologist discomfort compared to a pillow of 4 cm height during tracheal intubation in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyo Ju; Kim, Sung Hoon; Hwang, Jung Won; Lee, Hyung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Background Neck flexion by head elevation using an 8 to 10 cm thick pillow and head extension has been suggested to align the laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axis and facilitate tracheal intubation. Presently, the laryngeal view and discomfort for tracheal intubation were evaluated according to two different degrees of head elevation in adult patients. Methods This prospective randomized, controlled study included 50 adult patients aged 18 to 90 years. After induction of anesthesia, the Cormack Lehane grade was evaluated in 25 patients using a direct laryngoscope while the patient's head was elevated with a 4 cm pillow (4 cm group) and then an 8 cm pillow (8 cm group). In the other 25 patients, the grades were evaluated in the opposite sequence and tracheal intubation was performed. The success rate and anesthesiologist's discomfort score for tracheal intubation, and laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axes were assessed. Results There were no differences in the laryngeal view and success rate for tracheal intubation between the two groups. The discomfort score during tracheal intubation was higher in the 8 cm group when the patient's head was elevated 4 cm first and then 8 cm. The alignment of laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axes were not different between the two degrees of head elevation. Conclusions A pillow of 8 cm height did not improve laryngeal view and alignment of airway axes but increased the anesthesiologist discomfort, compared to a pillow of 4 cm height, during tracheal intubation in adult patients. PMID:27066204

  6. Maternal diabetes alters birth weight in glucokinase-deficient (MODY2) kindred but has no influence on adult weight, height, insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Velho, G; Hattersley, A T; Froguel, P

    2000-08-01

    Altered fetal insulin secretion caused by fetal or maternal glucokinase mutations influence birth weight. Here, we attempt to answer two additional questions: firstly, whether this variation in birth weight (from low birth weight to macrosomia) has an effect on adult height or weight. Secondly, whether maternal hyperglycaemia during fetal life has an effect on metabolic phenotypes of the adult offspring. We studied 447 family members from 37 MODY2 kindred, divided into four groups according to the presence or absence of a glucokinase mutation in the subject (S+ or S-, respectively) and his/her mother (M+ or M-). Birth weight data were obtained from a questionnaire sent to the mothers. Birth weight was reduced in the presence of a fetal mutation (M-S+) and increased in the presence of a maternal mutation (M+ S-). These effects are additive as similar birth weights were observed in M+ S+ and M-S- offspring. Adult height, weight or body mass index (weight/height2) were, however, similar in the four groups of subjects. Non-diabetic adult offspring, regardless of the glycaemic status of the mothers (M+ S- or M-S-), had similar insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, blood pressures and lipid profiles. These variables as well as the severity of hyperglycaemia were similar in adult M+ S+ and M-S+ MODY2 subjects. Maternal environment and fetal genotypes could alter growth in utero by changing fetal insulin secretion but these effects do not result in a persistent programming in latter life.

  7. A regression method including chronological and bone age for predicting final height in Turner's syndrome, with a comparison of existing methods.

    PubMed

    van Teunenbroek, A; Stijnen, T; Otten, B; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S; Naeraa, R W; Rongen-Westerlaken, C; Drop, S

    1996-04-01

    A total of 235 measurement points of 57 Dutch women with Turner's syndrome (TS), including women with spontaneous menarche and oestrogen treatment, served to develop a new Turner-specific final height (FH) prediction method (PTS). Analogous to the Tanner and Whitehouse mark 2 method (TW) for normal children, smoothed regression coefficients are tabulated for PTS for height (H), chronological age (CA) and bone age (BA), both TW RUS and Greulich and Pyle (GP). Comparison between all methods on 40 measurement points of 21 Danish TS women showed small mean prediction errors (predicted minus observed FH) and corresponding standard deviation (ESD) of both PTSRUS and PTSGP, in particular at the "younger" ages. Comparison between existing methods on the Dutch data indicated a tendency to overpredict FH. Before the CA of 9 years the mean prediction errors of the Bayley and Pinneau and TW methods were markedly higher compared with the other methods. Overall, the simplest methods--projected height (PAH) and its modification (mPAH)--were remarkably good at most ages. Although the validity of PTSRUS and PTSGP remains to be tested below the age of 6 years, both gave small mean prediction errors and a high accuracy. FH prediction in TS is important in the consideration of growth-promoting therapy or in the evaluation of its effects.

  8. Adult Basic Education Teacher Competency Inventory: Puerto Rico. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Lorraine M.

    With the increasing need to develop curriculum guidelines for Adult Basic Education (ABE) teacher training based upon teacher experiences, the Center for Resource Development in Adult Education (CRD) conducted a survey of a 10 percent sample of ABE educators in Puerto Rico to identify, classify, and rank the knowledges, behaviors, and attitudes…

  9. Height, health, and development

    PubMed Central

    Deaton, Angus

    2007-01-01

    Adult height is determined by genetic potential and by net nutrition, the balance between food intake and the demands on it, including the demands of disease, most importantly during early childhood. Historians have made effective use of recorded heights to indicate living standards, in both health and income, for periods where there are few other data. Understanding the determinants of height is also important for understanding health; taller people earn more on average, do better on cognitive tests, and live longer. This paper investigates the environmental determinants of height across 43 developing countries. Unlike in rich countries, where adult height is well predicted by mortality in infancy, there is no consistent relationship across and within countries between adult height on the one hand and childhood mortality or living conditions on the other. In particular, adult African women are taller than is warranted by their low incomes and high childhood mortality, not to mention their mothers' educational level and reported nutrition. High childhood mortality in Africa is associated with taller adults, which suggests that mortality selection dominates scarring, the opposite of what is found in the rest of the world. The relationship between population heights and income is inconsistent and unreliable, as is the relationship between income and health more generally. PMID:17686991

  10. Safety Outcomes and Near-Adult Height Gain of Growth Hormone-Treated Children with SHOX Deficiency: Data from an Observational Study and a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Benabbad, Imane; Rosilio, Myriam; Child, Christopher J.; Carel, Jean-Claude; Ross, Judith L.; Deal, Cheri L.; Drop, Stenvert L.S.; Zimmermann, Alan G.; Jia, Nan; Quigley, Charmian A.; Blum, Werner F.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims To assess auxological and safety data for growth hormone (GH)-treated children with SHOX deficiency. Methods Data were examined for GH-treated SHOX-deficient children (n = 521) from the observational Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short Stature International Study (GeNeSIS). For patients with near-adult height information, GeNeSIS results (n = 90) were compared with a clinical trial (n = 28) of SHOX-deficient patients. Near-adult height was expressed as standard deviation score (SDS) for chronological age, potentially increasing the observed effect of treatment. Results Most SHOX-deficient patients in GeNeSIS had diagnoses of Leri-Weill syndrome (n = 292) or non-syndromic short stature (n = 228). For GeNeSIS patients with near-adult height data, mean age at GH treatment start was 11.0 years, treatment duration 4.4 years, and height SDS gain 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.49-1.17). Respective ages, GH treatment durations and height SDS gains for GeNeSIS patients prepubertal at baseline (n = 42) were 9.2 years, 6.0 years and 1.19 (0.76-1.62), and for the clinical trial cohort they were 9.2 years, 6.0 years and 1.25 (0.92-1.58). No new GH-related safety concerns were identified. Conclusion Patients with SHOX deficiency who had started GH treatment before puberty in routine clinical practice had a similar height gain to that of patients in the clinical trial on which approval for the indication was based, with no new safety concerns. PMID:28002818

  11. Safety Outcomes and Near-Adult Height Gain of Growth Hormone-Treated Children with SHOX Deficiency: Data from an Observational Study and a Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Benabbad, Imane; Rosilio, Myriam; Child, Christopher J; Carel, Jean-Claude; Ross, Judith L; Deal, Cheri L; Drop, Stenvert L S; Zimmermann, Alan G; Jia, Nan; Quigley, Charmian A; Blum, Werner F

    2017-01-01

    To assess auxological and safety data for growth hormone (GH)-treated children with SHOX deficiency. Data were examined for GH-treated SHOX-deficient children (n = 521) from the observational Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short Stature International Study (GeNeSIS). For patients with near-adult height information, GeNeSIS results (n = 90) were compared with a clinical trial (n = 28) of SHOX-deficient patients. Near-adult height was expressed as standard deviation score (SDS) for chronological age, potentially increasing the observed effect of treatment. Most SHOX-deficient patients in GeNeSIS had diagnoses of Leri-Weill syndrome (n = 292) or non-syndromic short stature (n = 228). For GeNeSIS patients with near-adult height data, mean age at GH treatment start was 11.0 years, treatment duration 4.4 years, and height SDS gain 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.49-1.17). Respective ages, GH treatment durations and height SDS gains for GeNeSIS patients prepubertal at baseline (n = 42) were 9.2 years, 6.0 years and 1.19 (0.76-1.62), and for the clinical trial cohort they were 9.2 years, 6.0 years and 1.25 (0.92-1.58). No new GH-related safety concerns were identified. Patients with SHOX deficiency who had started GH treatment before puberty in routine clinical practice had a similar height gain to that of patients in the clinical trial on which approval for the indication was based, with no new safety concerns. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Comparison of body fat estimation using waist:height ratio using different 'waist' measurements in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine differences in predicting total and regional adiposity using the waist:height ratio (WHtR) calculated using different 'waist' measurements. Body composition of ninety-five males and 121 female Australian adults (aged 20 years and above) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The WHtR was calculated using: (1) the narrowest point between the lower costal border and the top of the iliac crest (WHtR-W), and (2) at the level of the umbilicus (WHtR-A). Relationships between calculated WHtR and measured body composition, such as percentage body fat (%BF) and percentage trunk fat (%TF) were determined. Values obtained from WHtR-A were significantly greater than WHtR-W in both groups (P < 0.05). While no correlation differences between WHtR-W and WHtR-A in relation to body composition variables were observed, females showed significantly lower correlation with lean mass compared with BMI. Regression analyses showed that neither WHtR had an age influence on %TF estimation. Estimated %BF and %TF were comparable for both WHtR and also with estimated values using a BMI of 25 kg/m2. Sensitivity of excess %BF and %TF increased by using WHtR-A, particularly in females. In conclusion, the umbilicus measurement may be better than using the narrowest site in the WHtR calculation, particularly in females. To improve the screening ability of the WHtR and make comparisons between studies easier there may be a need to standardise the measurement location. Further studies are recommended to confirm the findings across different ethnic groups.

  13. Growth, development, puberty and adult height before and during treatment in children with congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Smuel, Keren; Kauli, Rivka; Lilos, Pearl; Laron, Zvi

    2015-08-01

    To describe the growth, development and puberty in children with congenital IGHD before and during hGH treatment. Patients with cIGHD treated by hGH between the years 1958-1992. All patients were diagnosed, treated and followed in our clinic. Data were found in 37/41 patients (21 m, 16 f). 34 had hGH-1A deletions, 7 GHRH-R mutations. Patients, referred after age 25, were excluded. The birth length of 10/37 neonates was 48.29±2.26 (44-50) cm. Birth weight of 28/37 neonates was 3380±370 g (m), 3230±409 g (f). Neuromotor milestones were variable. Age at referral was 5.7±4.2 y (m) and 5.6±3.8 y (f). Initiation of hGH treatment (35μg/kg/d) was 7.5±4.8, (0.8-15.08) y (m) and 6.8±4.36 (0.8-16.5) y (f). Height SDS increased from -4.3 to -1.8 (m) and from -4.5 to -2.6 (f). Head circumference increased from -2.6 to -1.3 (m) and from -2.7 to -2.3 (f). BMI increased from 15.8 to 20.6 (m) and from 15.5 to 20.4 (f). There was a negative correlation between age of hGH initiation and change in height SDS (r=-0.66; ρ<0.01), same for bone age (r=-0.69; ρ<0.01). Upper/lower body ratio decreased from 2.5±2.1 (m±SD) to 1.08±0.1 (ρ<0.0005). Puberty was delayed in boys, less so in girls. Mean age of 1st ejaculation (14 m) was 17.6±2.2 y and of menarche (14 f. was 13.7±1.2 y. In both genders there was a positive correlation between age at start of hGH and age at onset of puberty (r=0.57; ρ<0.01). All reached full sexual development but the penile and testicular sizes were below normal. There was a positive correlation between length of hGH treatment and final testicular volume (r=0.597, ρ=0.05) and a negative correlation between the age at initiation of hGH treatment and final testicular volume(r=-0.523, ρ=0.018). All were obese and hGH treatment increased the adiposity progressively (r=0.418, ρ=0.013). Early diagnosis and treatment of cIGHD enables normal or near normal growth, development and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Feasibility study for utilization of landfill gas at the Royalton Road Landfill, Broadview Heights, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-09-01

    The technical viability of landfill gas recovery has been previously demonstrated at numerous sites. However, the economics of a full scale utilization system are dependent on proper market conditions, appropriate technologies, landfill gas quantity and quality, and public/purchaser acceptance. The specific objectives of this feasibility study were to determine: The available markets which might purchase landfill gas or landfill gas derived energy products; An extraction system concept design and to perform an on-site pumping test program; The landfill gas utilization technologies most appropriate for the site; Any adverse environmental, health, safety, or socioeconomic impacts associated with the various proposed technologies; The optimum project economics, based on markets and processes examined. Findings and recommendations were presented which review the feasibility of a landfill gas utilization facility on the Royalton Road Landfill. The three identified utilization alternatives are indeed technically feasible. However, current market considerations indicate that installation of a full scale system is not economically advisable at this time. This final report encompasses work performed by SCS Engineers from late 1980 to the present. Monitoring data from several extraction and monitoring wells is presented, including pumping rates and gas quality and quantity analysis. The Market Analysis Data Form, local climatological data, and barometric pressure data are included in the appendix section. 33 figures, 25 tables.

  15. Adult height after long term treatment with recombinant growth hormone for idiopathic isolated growth hormone deficiency: observational follow up study of the French population based registry

    PubMed Central

    Carel, Jean-Claude; Ecosse, Emmanuel; Nicolino, Marc; Tauber, Maïté; Leger, Juliane; Cabrol, Sylvie; Bastié-Sigeac, Irène; Chaussain, Jean-Louis; Coste, Joël

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of recombinant growth hormone for increasing adult height in children treated for idiopathic isolated growth hormone deficiency. Design Observational follow up study. Setting Population based registry. Participants All 2852 French children diagnosed as having isolated idiopathic growth hormone deficiency whose treatment started between 1987 and 1992 and ended before 1996. Main outcome measures Change in height between the start of treatment and adulthood; classification of patients according to whether treatment was completed as scheduled or stopped early. Results Adult height was obtained for 2165 (76%) patients. The mean dose of growth hormone at start of treatment was 0.42 IU/kg/week. Height gain was 1.1 (SD 0.9) standard deviation (SD) scores, resulting in an adult height of –1.6 (0.9) SD score (girls, 154 (5) cm; boys, 167 (6) cm). Patients who completed the treatment gained 1.0 (0.7) SD score of height in 3.6 (1.4) years. Patients with treatments stopped early gained 0.6 (0.6) SD score in 2.7 (1.4) years while receiving treatment and a further 0.4 (0.9) SD score after the end of treatment. Most of the variation in height gain was explained by regression towards the mean, patients' characteristics, and delay in starting puberty. Severe growth hormone deficiency was associated with better outcome. Each year of treatment was associated with a gain of 0.2 SD score(1.3 cm). Conclusion The effect of growth hormone is unclear in many patients treated for so called idiopathic isolated growth hormone deficiency. Most of the patients have pubertal delay and a spontaneous growth potential, which must be taken into account when measuring the effect and cost effectiveness of treatments. Growth hormone deficiency should be clearly distinguished from pubertal delay, and criteria should restrict the definition to patients with severely and permanently altered growth hormone secretion as our results support the use of growth hormone in

  16. Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people: individual participant meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wormser, David; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Kaptoge, Stephen; Wood, Angela M; Gao, Pei; Sun, Qi; Walldius, Göran; Selmer, Randi; Verschuren, WM Monique; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Engström, Gunnar; Ridker, Paul M; Njølstad, Inger; Iso, Hiroyasu; Holme, Ingar; Giampaoli, Simona; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Gaziano, J Michael; Brunner, Eric; Kee, Frank; Tosetto, Alberto; Meisinger, Christa; Brenner, Hermann; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Whincup, Peter H; Tipping, Robert W; Ford, Ian; Cremer, Peter; Hofman, Albert; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Clarke, Robert; de Boer, Ian H; Jukema, J Wouter; Ibañez, Alejandro Marín; Lawlor, Debbie A; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Casiglia, Edoardo; Stehouwer, Coen DA; Simons, Leon A; Nietert, Paul J; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Björkelund, Cecilia; Strandberg, Timo E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Blazer, Dan G; Meade, Tom W; Welin, Lennart; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Woodward, Mark; Nissinen, Aulikki; Kromhout, Daan; Jørgensen, Torben; Tilvis, Reijo S; Guralnik, Jack M; Rosengren, Annika; Taylor, James O; Kiechl, Stefan; Dagenais, Gilles R; Gerry, F; Fowkes, R; Wallace, Robert B; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Visser, Marjolein; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T; Gallacher, John; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kitamura, Akihiko; Sundström, Johan; Wennberg, Patrik; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Daimon, Makoto; de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez; Cooper, Jackie A; Onat, Altan; Devereux, Richard; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Dankner, Rachel; Knuiman, Matthew W; Crespo, Carlos J; Gansevoort, Ron T; Goldbourt, Uri; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Shaw, Jonathan E; Mussolino, Michael; Nakagawa, Hidaeki; Fletcher, Astrid; Kuller, Lewis H; Gillum, Richard F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Assmann, Gerd; Wald, Nicholas; Jousilahti, Pekka R; Greenland, Philip; Trevisan, Maurizio; Ulmer, Hanno; Butterworth, Adam S; Folsom, Aaron R; Davey-Smith, George; Hu, Frank B; Danesh, John; Tipping, Robert W; Ford, Charles E; Simpson, Lara M; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Folsom, Aaron R; Demerath, Ellen W; Franceschini, Nora; Lutsey, Pamela L; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Shaw, Jonathan E; Atkins, Robert; Zimmet, Paul Z; Barr, Elizabeth LM; Knuiman, Matthew W; Whincup, Peter H; Wannamethee, S Goya; Morris, Richard W; Willeit, Johann; Kiechl, Stefan; Weger, Siegfried; Oberhollenzer, Friedrich; Wald, Nicholas; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Gallacher, John; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Yarnell, John WG; Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Greenland, Philip; Shay, Christina M; Garside, Daniel B; Nietert, Paul J; Sutherland, Susan E; Bachman, David L; Keil, Julian E; de Boer, Ian H; Kizer, Jorge R; Psaty, Bruce M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Gorm B; Schnohr, Peter; Giampaoli, Simona; Palmieri, Luigi; Panico, Salvatore; Pilotto, Lorenza; Vanuzzo, Diego; de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez; Simons, Leon A; Simons, Judith; McCallum, John; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gerry, F; Fowkes, R; Price, Jackie F; Lee, Amanda J; Taylor, James O; Guralnik, Jack M; Phillips, Caroline L; Wallace, Robert B; Kohout, Frank J; Cornoni-Huntley, Joan C; Guralnik, Jack M; Blazer, Dan G; Guralnik, Jack M; Phillips, Caroline L; Phillips, Caroline L; Guralnik, Jack M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Brenner, Hermann; Schöttker, Ben; Müller, Heiko; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Wennberg, Patrik; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Nissinen, Aulikki; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Giampaoli, Simona; Woodward, Mark; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka R; Harald, Kennet; Salomaa, Veikko; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Fox, Caroline S; Pencina, Michael J; Daimon, Makoto; Oizumi, Toshihide; Kayama, Takamasa; Kato, Takeo; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Møller, Lars; Jespersen, Jørgen; Dankner, Rachel; Chetrit, Angela; Lubin, Flora; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Eriksson, Henry; Welin, Lennart; Lappas, Georgios; Rosengren, Annika; Lappas, Georgios; Welin, Lennart; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Eriksson, Henry; Lappas, Georgios; Bengtsson, Calle; Lissner, Lauren; Björkelund, Cecilia; Cremer, Peter; Nagel, Dorothea; Strandberg, Timo E; Salomaa, Veikko; Tilvis, Reijo S; Miettinen, Tatu A; Tilvis, Reijo S; Strandberg, Timo E; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Arima, Hisatomi; Doi, Yasufumi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, Coen DA; Hu, Frank B; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Noda, Hiroyuki; Goldbourt, Uri; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka R; Harald, Kennet; Salomaa, Veikko; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T; Kurl, Sudhir; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Poppelaars, Jan L; Deeg, Dorly JH; Visser, Marjolein; Meade, Tom W; De Stavola, Bianca Lucia; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Engström, Gunnar; Verschuren, WM Monique; Blokstra, Anneke; de Boer, Ian H; Shea, Steven J; Meisinger, Christa; Thorand, Barbara; Koenig, Wolfgang; Döring, Angela; Verschuren, WM Monique; Blokstra, Anneke; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Rosengren, Annika; Lappas, Georgios; Fletcher, Astrid; Nitsch, Dorothea; Kuller, Lewis H; Grandits, Greg; Tverdal, Aage; Selmer, Randi; Nystad, Wenche; Mussolino, Michael; Gillum, Richard F; Hu, Frank B; Sun, Qi; Manson, JoAnn E; Rimm, Eric B; Hankinson, Susan E; Meade, Tom W; De Stavola, Bianca Lucia; Cooper, Jackie A; Bauer, Kenneth A; Davidson, Karina W; Kirkland, Susan; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Shimbo, Daichi; Kitamura, Akihiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sato, Shinichi; Holme, Ingar; Selmer, Randi; Tverdal, Aage; Nystad, Wenche; Nakagawa, Hidaeki; Miura, Katsuyuki; Sakurai, Masaru; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Jouven, Xavier; Bakker, Stephan JL; Gansevoort, Ron T; van der Harst, Pim; Hillege, Hans L; Crespo, Carlos J; Garcia-Palmieri, Mario R; Kee, Frank; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Ferrières, Jean; Schulte, Helmut; Assmann, Gerd; Jukema, J Wouter; de Craen, Anton JM; Sattar, Naveed; Stott, David J; Cantin, Bernard; Lamarche, Benoît; Després, Jean-Pierre; Dagenais, Gilles R; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Bettencourt, Richele R; Buisson, Catherine; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Aspelund, Thor; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Thorsson, Bolli; Trevisan, Maurizio; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M Arfan; Tiemeier, Henning; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Tavendale, Roger; Lowe, Gordon DO; Woodward, Mark; Devereux, Richard; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Ali, Tauqeer; Calhoun, Darren; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Davey-Smith, George; Onat, Altan; Can, Günay; Nakagawa, Hidaeki; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Morikawa, Yuko; Njølstad, Inger; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Wilsgaard, Tom; Sundström, Johan; Ingelsson, Erik; Michaëlsson, Karl; Cederholm, Tommy; Gaziano, J Michael; Buring, Julie; Ridker, Paul M; Gaziano, J Michael; Ridker, Paul M; Ulmer, Hanno; Diem, Günter; Concin, Hans; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Tosetto, Alberto; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Manson, JoAnn E; Marmot, Michael; Clarke, Robert; Fletcher, Astrid; Brunner, Eric; Shipley, Martin; Kivimaki, Mika; Ridker, Paul M; Buring, Julie; Ford, Ian; Robertson, Michele; Ibañez, Alejandro Marín; Feskens, Edith; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Kromhout, Daan; Walker, Matthew; Watson, Sarah; Alexander, Myriam; Butterworth, Adam S; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Franco, Oscar H; Gao, Pei; Gobin, Reeta; Haycock, Philip; Kaptoge, Stephen; Seshasai, Sreenivasa R Kondapally; Lewington, Sarah; Pennells, Lisa; Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Sarwar, Nadeem; Thompson, Alexander; Thompson, Simon G; Walker, Matthew; Watson, Sarah; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M; Wormser, David; Zhao, Xiaohui; Danesh, John

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain. Methods We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual–participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies. Results For people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5–1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96–0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93–0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03–1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90–0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12–1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80–0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators. Conclusion Adult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases. PMID:22825588

  17. Attracting Adult Learners to Humanities Courses. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC.

    A round table discussion among community college presidents and humanities faculty on how to encourage adults to enroll in humanities courses resulted in eleven recommendations. These included experimentation in how to access community interests in humanities courses, the integration of humanities with occupational training to help people deal…

  18. Competency-Based Adult Vocational Education Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Dept. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    This applied project recognized the priority to identify, describe, and evaluate existing vocational education programs that are coordinated with the adult performance level (APL) competency based approach. Furthermore, the project supported the value of developing and testing one or more models for APL/vocational education interface. In order to…

  19. Adult Education School-to-Work Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gacka, Richard C.

    A project undertaken to determine the feasibility of integrating components of secondary-level tech prep and school-to-work programs into adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) programs. Applied academics curriculum materials developed by the Center for Occupational Research and Development (CORD) and the Agency for Instructional Technology…

  20. The Literacy Line! Napa Valley Adult School: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napa Valley Unified School District, Napa, CA.

    This report is an evaluation of an adult workplace literacy and English-as-a-Second-Language program for Napa Valley (California) vineyard workers of limited English proficiency. Many of the classes were held at the worksite. The first section of the report details the project's stated objectives and measures of accomplishment, anecdotal success…

  1. STANDARDIZATION OF A SPANISH LANGUAGE ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GREEN, RUSSEL F.; MARTINEZ, JUAN N.

    A NEED FOR AN ADEQUATELY DEVELOPED AND STANDARDIZED INTELLIGENCE SCALE IN THE WHOLE OF LATIN AMERICA RESULTED IN THE WAIS PROJECT WHOSE AIM WAS TO TRANSLATE INTO SPANISH, ADAPT TO SPANISH CULTURE, AND STANDARDIZE THE WECHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE IN PUERTO RICO. FOLLOWING A DISCUSSION OF THE FOUR GENERAL GOALS, THE PROJECT REPORT OUTLINES THE…

  2. Functional Literacy in the Context of Adult Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Josef, Ed.

    In presenting the work of participants before and during the Symposium, the report begins with an introduction giving an overall view of concepts, projects, and problems of functional literacy with reference to other sections of the report. The keynote lecture deals with functional literacy in the context of adult education--results and innovative…

  3. Computer Speech Devices for Adult Literacy Skills. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Technology for Literacy Center, MN.

    A project titled "Word of Mouth" was conducted to develop and evaluate model computer courseware to teach word attack skills to adult basic education students. The project was based on the use of multiple strategies to figure out unknown words, the importance of breaking down multisyllabic words, and the necessity of the use of audio in…

  4. Camp Verde Adult Reading Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, David A.

    This document begins with a four-page performance report describing how the Camp Verde Adult Reading Program site was relocated to the Community Center Complex, and the Town Council contracted directly with the Friends of the Camp Verde Library to provide for the requirements of the program. The U.S. Department of Education grant allowed the…

  5. Adult Body Height Is a Good Predictor of Different Dimensions of Cognitive Function in Aged Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Vitor H.; Costa, Patrício S.; Santos, Nadine C.; Cunha, Pedro G.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult height, weight, and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment, and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aimed to assess the value of height, weight, and abdominal perimeter to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals. Methods and Findings: Cross-sectional study performed between 2010 and 2012 in the Portuguese general community. A total of 1050 participants were included in the study and randomly selected from local area health authority registries. The cohort was representative of the general Portuguese population with respect to age (above 50 years of age) and gender. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of tests grouped in two dimensions: general executive function and memory. Two-step hierarchical multiple linear regression models were conducted to determine the predictive value of anthropometric measures in cognitive performance and mood before and after correction for possible confounding factors (gender, age, school years, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits). We found single associations of weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter, and age with executive function, memory and depressive symptoms. However, when included in a predictive model adjusted for gender, age, school years, and lifestyle factors only height prevailed as a significant predictor of general executive function (β = 0.139; p < 0.001) and memory (β = 0.099; p < 0.05). No relation was found between mood and any of the anthropometric measures studied. Conclusions and Relevance: Height is an independent predictor of cognitive function in late-life and its effects on the general and executive function and

  6. Adult Body Height Is a Good Predictor of Different Dimensions of Cognitive Function in Aged Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vitor H; Costa, Patrício S; Santos, Nadine C; Cunha, Pedro G; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Palha, Joana A; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult height, weight, and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment, and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aimed to assess the value of height, weight, and abdominal perimeter to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals. Methods and Findings: Cross-sectional study performed between 2010 and 2012 in the Portuguese general community. A total of 1050 participants were included in the study and randomly selected from local area health authority registries. The cohort was representative of the general Portuguese population with respect to age (above 50 years of age) and gender. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of tests grouped in two dimensions: general executive function and memory. Two-step hierarchical multiple linear regression models were conducted to determine the predictive value of anthropometric measures in cognitive performance and mood before and after correction for possible confounding factors (gender, age, school years, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits). We found single associations of weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter, and age with executive function, memory and depressive symptoms. However, when included in a predictive model adjusted for gender, age, school years, and lifestyle factors only height prevailed as a significant predictor of general executive function (β = 0.139; p < 0.001) and memory (β = 0.099; p < 0.05). No relation was found between mood and any of the anthropometric measures studied. Conclusions and Relevance: Height is an independent predictor of cognitive function in late-life and its effects on the general and executive function and

  7. The influence of foot orthoses on foot mobility magnitude and arch height index in adults with flexible flat feet.

    PubMed

    Sheykhi-Dolagh, Roghaye; Saeedi, Hassan; Farahmand, Behshid; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mohammad; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Derayatifar, Amir A; Curran, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Flexible flat foot is described as a reduction in the height of the medial longitudinal arch and may occur from abnormal foot pronation. A foot orthosis is thought to modify and control excessive pronation and improve arch height. To compare the immediate effect of three types of orthoses on foot mobility and the arch height index in subjects with flexible flat feet. A quasi-experimental study. The dorsal arch height, midfoot width, foot mobility and arch height index were assessed in 20 participants with flexible flat feet (mean age = 23.2 ± 3 years) for three different foot orthosis conditions: soft, semi-rigid and rigid University of California Biomechanics Laboratory (UCBL). Maximum midfoot width at 90% with arch mobility in the coronal plane was shown in the semi-rigid orthosis condition. The semi-rigid orthosis resulted in the highest mean foot mobility in 90% of weight bearing, and the rigid orthosis (UCBL) had the lowest mean foot mobility. The soft orthosis resulted in foot mobility between that of the rigid and the semi-rigid orthosis. UCBL orthosis showed the highest arch height index, and the semi-rigid orthosis showed the lowest mean arch height index. Due to its rigid structure and long medial-lateral walls, the UCBL orthosis appears to limit foot mobility. Therefore, it is necessary to make an orthosis that facilitates foot mobility in the normal range of the foot arch. Future studies should address the dynamic mobility of the foot with using various types of foot orthoses. Although there are many studies focussed on flat foot and the use of foot orthoses, the mechanism of action is still unclear. This study explored foot mobility and the influence of foot orthoses and showed that a more rigid foot orthosis should be selected based on foot mobility. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  8. Kinematics of sagittal spine and lower limb movement in healthy older adults during sit-to-stand from two seat heights.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Liang; Tully, Elizabeth A; Galea, Mary P

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study to examine the sagittal kinematics of spine and lower limb movement during sit-to-stand (STS). To describe the sagittal kinematics of the spine and lower limb in healthy older adults during STS from 2 seat heights. Older adults with age-related changes in the neuromusculoskeletal system are likely to have difficulty in STS. However, little is known about movement of the spinal regions and their interaction with the lower limb during STS, and the effect of seat height. Thirty-two healthy older adults aged over 60 years were videotaped performing STS from 2 seat heights. A 2-dimensional video motion analysis system with a revised sagittal model was used to measure angular displacement and velocity for the cervical, thoracic, lumbar spine, and the lower limb joints. Concurrent flexion in the hip joint and lumbar spine was accompanied by extension in the thoracic, lower, and upper cervical spine as the trunk leaned forward. After the buttocks lifted off (LO) the chair, the movement interaction in the spine and hip joint was reversed. Some significant age-related changes during STS included downward head tilt at LO, decreased lumbar range of motion, and a large between-participant variation in the movement ratios. Statistically significant differences in the temporal parameters, angular displacement, and velocity were also found when standing from a lower chair. This study provides a detailed description of STS in healthy older adults, which has implications for rehabilitation of elderly patients who have difficulty with this activity. Clinicians need to be aware of the concurrent contribution of the hip joint and lumbar spine to trunk forward lean, the importance of thoracic extension during the pre-LO phase and the downward gaze at LO in healthy older adults.

  9. Exploring the Airways for Adult Education. Section 310, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Betty

    Intended to enable an individual to converse with satellite antenna dealers and to select a dealer and acquire an antenna to suit his/her needs at the lowest cost, this edited version of a final project report provides detailed guidelines for purchasing of communications satellites distance education delivery systems and specific technical…

  10. Heritability of body height and educational attainment in an international context: comparison of adult twins in Minnesota and Finland.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Krueger, Robert F; Bouchard, Thomas J; Kaprio, Jaakko; McGue, Matt

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the association between self-reported height and education in Minnesota and Finland. Our data included 1,598 twin pairs in Minnesota and 5,454 twin pairs in Finland born between 1936 and 1955. Correlations between education and height were found in Minnesota (r = 0.09 in men and 0.11 in women) and in Finland (r = 0.17 and 0.14, respectively) after adjustment for age. This trait correlation was mainly because of the correlation between shared environmental factors in Minnesota (r(C) = 0.38 and 0.36, respectively) and in Finland (r(C) = 0.74 and 0.37, respectively). An unshared environmental correlation was found only in Finland (r(E) = 0.13 and 0.06, respectively). Our results indicate that the association between body height and education is overwhelmingly due to the correlation of the shared environmental factors affecting these two traits. The differences between Minnesota and Finland are possibly associated with average higher education in Minnesota, which decreases the effect of the childhood environment on education, seen as a weaker correlation between height and education. Nonfamilial factors affecting education are possibly different in Minnesota than in Finland, since in Finland they are partly associated with the factors affecting height.

  11. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  12. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations.

    PubMed

    Cassola, V F; Milian, F M; Kramer, R; de Oliveira Lira, C A B; Khoury, H J

    2011-07-07

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  13. [Concordance between self-reported weight and height for nutritional assessment in adults aged between 25 and 50 years without higher education].

    PubMed

    Matínez-Torres, Javier; Lee Osorno, Belinda Inés; Mendoza, Leylis; Mariotta, Sharom; López Epiayu, Yandra; Martínez, Yelitza; Jiménez, Nelly

    2014-11-01

    Overweight and obesity are metabolic disorders that have become a public health problem due to the current high prevalence; therefore, it is important to create simple monitoring systems to assess their trends. To determine the correlation between weight, height and body mass index reported by patients and the values measured directly in adults between 25 and 50 years old without higher education. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with participation of 207 adults between 25 and 50 years old. Each participant was asked weight and height; and body mass index was calculated with these data. Moreover, a qualified person determined the real value of these variables. The coefficient of intra-class correlation between self-reported and measurements was obtained. The body mass index measured for men was 25.8±3.7 kg/m2 and for women 26.0±4.1 kg/m2. Intraclass correlation coefficients were for weight 0.962 (IC95%: 0.950-0.971), height 0.909 (IC95%: 0.882-0.930), and body mass index 0.929 (IC95% 0.907-0.945); the real prevalence of people with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 was 52.1%, whereas the value obtained by self-reported data was 44%. Self-reported weight and height data are useful for obesity assessment in adults aged between 25 and 50 years without higher education at the population level. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of the Public Libraries in Adult Independent Learning. Part II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavor, Anne S.; And Others

    Part two of the final report on the adult independent learning program focuses on the following: (1) discussion of the 11 data collection categories developed to meet the information needs of specific groups--advisors working with adult learners, planners monitoring service performance, library policy decision makers responsible for determining…

  15. Cognitive Effects of Literacy: Linguistic Awareness in Adult Non-Readers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    A project that investigated the metalinguistic awareness of adults (what they know about language as distinct from their ability to use language) is described and summarized in this final report. Subjects were 60 monolingual English speakers and 26 bilingual (Spanish and English) speakers enrolled in adult education classes. They fell into three…

  16. Comprehensive multi-stage linkage analyses identify a locus for adult height on chromosome 3p in a healthy Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Justine A; Scurrah, Katrina J; Duncan, Anna E; Lamantia, Angela; Byrnes, Graham B; Harrap, Stephen B

    2007-04-01

    There have been a number of genome-wide linkage studies for adult height in recent years. These studies have yielded few well-replicated loci, and none have been further confirmed by the identification of associated gene variants. The inconsistent results may be attributable to the fact that few studies have combined accurate phenotype measures with informative statistical modelling in healthy populations. We have performed a multi-stage genome-wide linkage analysis for height in 275 adult sibling pairs drawn randomly from the Victorian Family Heart Study (VFHS), a healthy population-based Caucasian cohort. Height was carefully measured in a standardised fashion on regularly calibrated equipment. Following genome-wide identification of a peak Z-score of 3.14 on chromosome 3 at 69 cM, we performed a fine-mapping analysis of this region in an extended sample of 392 two-generation families. We used a number of variance components models that incorporated assortative mating and shared environment effects, and we observed a peak LOD score of approximately 3.5 at 78 cM in four of the five models tested. We also demonstrated that the most prevalent model in the literature gave the worst fit, and the lowest LOD score (2.9) demonstrating the importance of appropriate modelling. The region identified in this study replicates the results of other genome-wide scans of height and bone-related phenotypes, strongly suggesting the presence of a gene important in bone growth on chromosome 3p. Association analyses of relevant candidate genes should identify the genetic variants responsible for the chromosome 3p linkage signal in our population.

  17. Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, M; Gunn, P; Gibson, S

    2012-03-01

    Our aim was to differentiate the screening potential of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) for adult cardiometabolic risk in people of different nationalities and to compare both with body mass index (BMI). We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for assessing the discriminatory power of anthropometric indices in distinguishing adults with hypertension, type-2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and general cardiovascular outcomes (CVD). Thirty one papers met the inclusion criteria. Using data on all outcomes, averaged within study group, WHtR had significantly greater discriminatory power compared with BMI. Compared with BMI, WC improved discrimination of adverse outcomes by 3% (P < 0.05) and WHtR improved discrimination by 4-5% over BMI (P < 0.01). Most importantly, statistical analysis of the within-study difference in AUC showed WHtR to be significantly better than WC for diabetes, hypertension, CVD and all outcomes (P < 0.005) in men and women. For the first time, robust statistical evidence from studies involving more than 300 000 adults in several ethnic groups, shows the superiority of WHtR over WC and BMI for detecting cardiometabolic risk factors in both sexes. Waist-to-height ratio should therefore be considered as a screening tool.

  18. Second Wind: Bringing Good Coping Skills Materials to More Adult Students. Final Narrative Report [and] Coping Skills for Adults Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Educational Projects, Inc., Lancaster, PA.

    This document consists of a narrative final project report and the project product, a new edition of five booklets in the "Coping with Crisis" series. The report describes the process of redesigning and repackaging existing adult basic education materials; comments from three students are given. The five booklets are as follows: (1)…

  19. Toward Local Collaborative Networks for Adult Learners. Final Report of the Adult Learner Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Gerard G.

    The Adult Learner Project was a two-phase program in which a total of 10 community-level projects received funding to develop collaborative agendas that would meet the learning needs of adults in their respective communities. During the second phase of the project, the following community-level collaborative councils were also given $20,000 each:…

  20. Fall from heights: does height really matter?

    PubMed

    Alizo, G; Sciarretta, J D; Gibson, S; Muertos, K; Romano, A; Davis, J; Pepe, A

    2017-06-22

    Fall from heights is high energy injuries and constitutes a fraction of all fall-related trauma evaluations while bearing an increase in morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that despite advancements in trauma care, the overall survivability has not improved in this subset of trauma patients. All adult trauma patients treated after sustaining a fall from heights during a 40-month period were retrospectively reviewed. Admission demographics, clinical data, fall height (ft), injury patterns, ISS, GCS, length of stay, and mortality were reviewed. 116 patients sustained a fall from heights, 90.4% accidental. A mean age of 37± 14.7 years, 86% male, and a fall height of 19 ± 10 ft were encountered. Admission GCS was 13 ± 2 with ISS 10 ± 11. Overall LOS was 6.6 ± 14.9 days and an ICU LOS of 2.8 ± 8.9 days. Falls ≥ 25 ft.(16%) had lower GCS 10.4 ± 5.8, increased ISS 22.6 ± 13.8, a fall height 37.9 ± 13.1 ft and associated increased mortality (p < 0.001). Mortality was 5.2%, a mean distance fallen of 39 ± 22 ft. and an ISS of 31.5 ±16.5. Brain injury was the leading cause of death, 50% with open skull fractures. Level of height fallen is a good predictor of overall outcome and survival. Despite advances in trauma care, death rates remain unchanged. Safety awareness and injury prevention programs are needed to reduce the risk of high-level falls.

  1. Evidence of radiation-induced reduction of height and body weight from repeated measurements of adults exposed in childhood to the atomic bombs

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, Masanori; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Fujikoshi, Yasunori; Schull, W.J.

    1994-10-01

    Reduction of growth from exposure to atomic bomb radiation has been examined using individuals under 10 years old at the time of the bombing (ATB) and a growth curve analysis based on measurements of height and weight made in the course of the 4th-7th cycles of the Adult Health Study examinations (1964-1972). As expected, the largest difference in growth to emerge is between males and females. However, a highly significant reduction of growth associated with dose (DS86) was observed among those survivors for whom four repeated measurements of height and weight were available. Longitudinal analysis of a more extended data set (n = 821), using expected values based on simple linear regression models fitted to the three available sets of measurements of height and weight on the 254 individuals with a missing measurement, also indicates a significant radiation-related growth reduction. The possible contribution of such factors as poor nutrition and disruption of normal family life in the years immediately after the war is difficult to evaluate, but the effects of socioeconomic factors on the analysis of these data are discussed. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. [Self-reported weight and height for determining nutritional status of adults and elderly: validity and implications for data analysis].

    PubMed

    Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Santos, Janaína Vieira dos; Knuth, Alan Goularte; Camargo, Maria Beatriz Junqueira de; Araújo, Cora Luíza

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of self-reported weight and height for determining nutritional status and the implications of their use for analyzing associations with health outcomes. A population-based cross-sectional study in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2007 (n = 2,986) drew a sub-sample of 276 individuals aged ≥ 20 years. Mean self-reported weight was similar to measured weight; height was overestimated in men (1.4 cm) and women (2.5 cm); real body mass index (BMI) was underestimated by about 1 kg/m(2). Even with small mean differences, data variability was great. The results were influenced by gender, age, and schooling. The use of self-reported measures underestimated prevalence of overweight and obesity, and unpredictable errors were found in the analysis of association with health outcomes (underestimation, overestimation, and reversal of real effect measures). Correction equations reduced the mean differences but did not resolve variability of the differences, classification errors, or biases in the associations.

  3. Young adult outcomes in the follow-up of the multimodal treatment study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: symptom persistence, source discrepancy, and height suppression.

    PubMed

    Swanson, James M; Arnold, L Eugene; Molina, Brooke S G; Sibley, Margaret H; Hechtman, Lily T; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Abikoff, Howard B; Stehli, Annamarie; Owens, Elizabeth B; Mitchell, John T; Nichols, Quyen; Howard, Andrea; Greenhill, Laurence L; Hoza, Betsy; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Jensen, Peter S; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy; Epstein, Jeffery N; Tamm, Leanne; Lakes, Kimberly D; Waxmonsky, James; Lerner, Marc; Etcovitch, Joy; Murray, Desiree W; Muenke, Maximilian; Acosta, Maria T; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Pelham, William E; Kraemer, Helena C

    2017-06-01

    The Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) began as a 14-month randomized clinical trial of behavioral and pharmacological treatments of 579 children (7-10 years of age) diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type. It transitioned into an observational long-term follow-up of 515 cases consented for continuation and 289 classmates (258 without ADHD) added as a local normative comparison group (LNCG), with assessments 2-16 years after baseline. Primary (symptom severity) and secondary (adult height) outcomes in adulthood were specified. Treatment was monitored to age 18, and naturalistic subgroups were formed based on three patterns of long-term use of stimulant medication (Consistent, Inconsistent, and Negligible). For the follow-up, hypothesis-generating analyses were performed on outcomes in early adulthood (at 25 years of age). Planned comparisons were used to estimate ADHD-LNCG differences reflecting persistence of symptoms and naturalistic subgroup differences reflecting benefit (symptom reduction) and cost (height suppression) associated with extended use of medication. For ratings of symptom severity, the ADHD-LNCG comparison was statistically significant for the parent/self-report average (0.51 ± 0.04, p < .0001, d = 1.11), documenting symptom persistence, and for the parent/self-report difference (0.21 ± 0.04, p < .0001, d = .60), documenting source discrepancy, but the comparisons of naturalistic subgroups reflecting medication effects were not significant. For adult height, the ADHD group was 1.29 ± 0.55 cm shorter than the LNCG (p < .01, d = .21), and the comparisons of the naturalistic subgroups were significant: the treated group with the Consistent or Inconsistent pattern was 2.55 ± 0.73 cm shorter than the subgroup with the Negligible pattern (p < .0005, d = .42), and within the treated group, the subgroup with the Consistent pattern was 2.36 ± 1.13 cm shorter than the subgroup with the

  4. Adult height in short children born SGA treated with growth hormone and gonadotropin releasing hormone analog: results of a randomized, dose-response GH trial.

    PubMed

    Lem, Annemieke J; van der Kaay, Danielle C M; de Ridder, Maria A J; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M; van der Hulst, Flip J P C M; Mulder, Jaap C; Noordam, Cees; Odink, Roel J; Oostdijk, Wilma; Schroor, Eelco J; Sulkers, Eric J; Westerlaken, Ciska; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2012-11-01

    GH treatment is effective in improving height in short children born small for gestational age (SGA). GH is thought to have limited effect when started during adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate GH treatment efficacy in short SGA children when treatment was started during adolescence; to assess whether GH 2 mg/m(2) · d during puberty improves adult height (AH) compared with 1 mg/m(2) · d; and to assess whether an additional 2-yr postponement of puberty by GnRH analog (GnRHa) improves AH in children who are short at the start of puberty (<140 cm), with a poor AH expectation. In this longitudinal, randomized, dose-response GH trial, we included 121 short SGA children (60 boys) at least 8 yr of age. We performed intention-to-treat analyses on all children and uncensored case analyses on 84 children who reached AH. Besides, we evaluated growth during 2 yr of combined GH/GnRHa and subsequent GH treatment until AH in a subgroup of 40 pubertal children with a height of less than 140 cm at the start. Short SGA children started treatment at a median age of 11.2 yr, when 46% had already started puberty. Median height increased from -2.9 at start to -1.7 sd score (SDS) at AH (P < 0.001). Treatment with GH 2 vs. 1 mg/m(2) · d during puberty resulted in significantly better AH (P = 0.001), also after correction for gender, age at start, height SDS at start, treatment years before puberty, and target height SDS. AH was similar in children who started puberty at less than 140 cm and received GH/GnRHa, compared with children who started puberty greater than 140 cm and received GH only (P = 0.795). When started in adolescence, GH treatment significantly improves AH in short SGA children, particularly with GH 2 mg/m(2) · d during puberty. When SGA children are short at the start of puberty, they can benefit from combined GH/GnRHa treatment.

  5. Dimensional changes in height of labial alveolar bone of proclined lower incisor after lingual positioning by orthodontic treatment: A cephalometric study on adult Bengali population

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The study aims to know whether modern orthodontic treatment procedure do actually cause permanent bone loss at the alveolar bone crest or improve alveolar bone morphology on labial aspect of permanent incisors which are to be moved lingually. Settings and Design: Manual tracings of pre and post treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were used. Material and Method: The cephalometric radiographs of 34 adult bengali subjects whose orthodontic treatment involved lingual positioning of procumbent mandibular central incisors were examined to determine the morphologic changes (bone height) in the labial alveolar bone that resulted from orthodontic treatment. Result: Comparison of tracings of radiographs taken before and after treatment indicated that 57.6% shows an increase in labial alveolar bone height, 30.3% shows decreased value and 12.1% shows no change with the decrease in the angulation between long axis of lower incisor and mandibular plane (GoGn). In the increase group there is a significant increase in the distance ‘incisal edge to D point’ whereas this dimension decreased significantly in the rest of the cases. In addition, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.56) was found between the changes in the distance from the incisal edge to the ‘D’ point and the alveolar bone height. But no significant relation was found between alveolar bone height and decrease in angulation of lower incisor either in the ‘increase group’ (r = 0.13, p > 0.05) or in the ‘decrease group’ (r = 0.37, p > 0.05). Conclusion: These findings indicate that during orthodontic treatment that involves lingual positioning of procumbent teeth but no intrusion, an increase in the amount of buccal alveolar bone may take place. PMID:25684908

  6. Sex and ethnic differences in validity of self-reported adult height, weight and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Describe self-reported and measured height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) stratified by sex and ethnicity in the United States, explore ethnic variations in the likelihood of under-reporting BMI, and investigate pathways linking race/ethnicity to the underassessment of BMI. An observational study. The entire United States. Data were from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized civilian Americans. Objectively measured and subjectively reported BMI. Independent variables include race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and others), sex, age groups (age 20-29, 30-49, 50-69, and > or =70), marital status (currently married vs other marital categories), education (less than high school, high school graduate or equivalent, some college, college graduate or above), and poverty income ratio (PIR). This study confirmed that the use of reported BMI led to underestimates of the population prevalence of overweight and obesity due to the general tendency towards over-reporting height and under-reporting weight. Women were more likely than men to under-report BMI. And whites were more likely than Blacks and Hispanics to under-report BMI. Other factors positively associated with higher likelihood of under-reporting of BMI included overweight and obese weight status, aged > or =60 years, and college education. Among women, family income was an additional positive covariate. The results from this study underscore the need for frequently monitoring ethnic differences in validity of reported BMI and highlight the care which needs to be taken in making comparisons across sociodemographic groups based on reported BMI.

  7. Final Evaluation and Monitoring Report of Demonstration Project for Adult Education "Mobilizing Adult Basic Education".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Dolores M.

    A demonstration adult education project aimed at a rural New Jersey population and involving class sessions 1 evening per week at 6 sites (N=85 students, including 65 caucasians, 10 blacks, and 10 Hispanic) was evaluated in terms of compliance, process, and performance. Compliance monitoring included examination of: visitations; budget; staff…

  8. Adult body height of twins compared with that of singletons: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we evaluated whether childhood differences in body height between singletons and twins persist into adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. This study used data on the 457,999 males who were born alive and without physical anomalies in single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years; 1985-2003). For sibling comparisons, the authors selected the 1,721 sibships of full brothers that included at least 1 male born in a single birth and at least 1 male born in a twin birth (4,520 persons, including 2,493 twins and 2,027 singletons). An analysis of the total study population using generalized estimating equations showed that the twins were 0.6 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.7) shorter than were the singletons after adjustment for a series of background factors. The fixed-effects regression analysis of the sibships that included both twins and singletons showed that the twins were 0.9 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.2) shorter than were their singleton brothers. The study suggests that male twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 were slightly shorter in early adulthood than were singletons.

  9. Growth hormone treatment impact on growth rate and final height of patients who received HSCT with TBI or/and cranial irradiation in childhood: a report from the French Leukaemia Long-Term Follow-Up Study (LEA).

    PubMed

    Isfan, F; Kanold, J; Merlin, E; Contet, A; Sirvent, N; Rochette, E; Poiree, M; Terral, D; Carla-Malpuech, H; Reynaud, R; Pereira, B; Chastagner, P; Simeoni, M C; Auquier, P; Michel, G; Deméocq, F

    2012-05-01

    The literature contains a substantial amount of information about factors that adversely influence the linear growth in up to 85% of patients undergoing haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) with TBI and/or cranial irradiation (CI) for acute leukaemia (AL). By contrast, only a few studies have evaluated the impact of growth hormone (GH) therapy on growth rate and final height (FH) in these children. We evaluated growth rates during the pre- and post-transplant periods to FH in a group of 25 children treated with HSCT (n=22), TBI (n=21) or/and CI (n=8) for AL and receiving GH therapy. At the start of GH treatment, the median height Z-score was -2.19 (-3.95 to 0.02), significantly lower than at AL diagnosis (P<0.001). Overall height gain from start of GH treatment to FH was 0.59Z (-2.72 to 2.93) with a median height Z-score at FH of -1.35 (-5.35 to 0.27). This overall height gain effect was greater in girls than in boys (P=0.04). The number of children with heights in the reference population range was greater after than before GH therapy (P=0.07). At FH the GVHD and GH treatments lasting <2 years were associated with shorter FH (P=0.02 and 0.05). We found a measurable beneficial effect of GH treatment on growth up to FH.

  10. The approximal bone height and intrabony defects in young adults, related to the salivary buffering capacity and counts of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Wikner, S; Söder, P O; Frithiof, L; Wouters, F

    1990-01-01

    Using a computerized technique the bone height and prevalence of approximal periodontal intrabony defects were assessed on posterior bite-wing radiographs from 151 young adults. The results were related to the buffering capacity and counts of Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli in whole stimulated saliva. The mean distance from the cement-enamel junction to the alveolar bone crest was greater in the high buffering group than in the low buffering group (p less than 0.05), and particularly in non-smokers (p less than 0.01). Intrabony defects were more common in the low buffering group (p less than 0.05) and in women (p less than 0.001).

  11. Keeping patient beds in a low position: an exploratory descriptive study to continuously monitor the height of patient beds in an adult acute surgical inpatient care setting.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Prakash, Atul; Brehob, Mark; Devecsery, David Andrew; Anderson, Allison; Yin, Chang-Yi

    2012-06-01

    This descriptive study was intended to measure the percentage of the time that patient beds were kept in high position in an adult acute inpatient surgical unit with medical overflow in a community hospital in Michigan, United States. The percentage of the time was calculated for morning, evening, and night shifts. The results showed that overall, occupied beds were in a high position 5.6% of the time: 5.40% in the day shift, 6.88% in the evening shift, and 4.38% in the night shift. It is recognized that this study was unable to differentiate whether those times patient beds being kept in a high position were appropriate for an elevated bed height (e.g., staff were working with the patient). Further research is warranted. Falls committees may conduct high-bed prevalence surveys in a regular basis as a proxy to monitor staff members' behaviors in keeping beds in a high position.

  12. Keeping patient beds in a low position: An exploratory descriptive study to continuously monitor the height of patient beds in an adult acute surgical inpatient care setting

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Prakash, Atul; Brehob, Mark; Devecsery, David Andrew; Anderson, Allison; Yin, Chang-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive study was intended to measure the percentage of the time that patient beds were kept in high position in an adult acute inpatient surgical unit with medical overflow in a community hospital in Michigan, United States. The percentage of the time was calculated for morning, evening, and night shifts. The results showed that overall, occupied beds were in a high position 5.6% of the time: 5.40% in the day shift, 6.88% in the evening shift, and 4.38% in the night shift. It is recognized that this study was unable to differentiate whether those times patient beds being kept in a high position were appropriate for an elevated bed height (e.g., staff were working with the patient). Further research is warranted. Falls committees may conduct high-bed prevalence surveys in a regular basis as a proxy to monitor staff members’ behaviors in keeping beds in a high position. PMID:22800384

  13. Waist circumference, body mass index and waist-height ratio: Are two indices better than one for identifying hypertension risk in older adults?

    PubMed

    Luz, Rafaela Haeger; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-12-01

    To investigate if the combination of Waist Circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI) or Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR) and BMI measures is superior to the separate indicators in identifying hypertension risk in older adults from southern Brazil. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the second wave (2013/14) of a population- and household-based survey carried out with 1197 older adults (778 women). Hypertension (i.e., outcome) was identified by self-report. The independent variables were body mass index (BMI≥27kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC≥88cm for women and WC≥102cm for men), waist/height ratio (WHtR≥0.5), and the combined indexes BMI+WC (BMI≥27kg/m(2)+WC≥88cm for women and WC≥102cm for men) and BMI+WHtR (BMI≥27kg/m(2)+WHtR≥0.5). The associations were explored using binary logistic regression. The results showed sex differences in all study characteristics. In women, all indicators were associated with the outcome, after adjustments (age, race/color, marital status, schooling, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diabetes). WHtR was the indicator most strongly associated with hypertension (OR=2.97; 95% CI 1.58 to 5.59). For men, only BMI and the combined indicators were associated with hypertension. Combined measures of BMI+WHtR showed a stronger association with the outcome (OR=2.68; IC95% 1.62 to 4.44). The associated indicators differed between the sexes. The combination of BMI+WC and BMI+WHtR using current cut-off points may provide an improved measure of hypertension risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Scaling of adult regional body mass and body composition as a whole to height: Relevance to body shape and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Schuna, John M; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht(2) ), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht(2) ? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass [head (MH), trunk, arms, and legs] and whole-body composition [fat, lean soft tissue (LST), and bone mineral content (BMC)] in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 17,126) and Korean NHANES (n = 8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four population groups: regional mass powers, head (∼0.8-1) < arms and trunk (∼1.8-2.3) < legs (∼2.3-2.6); and body composition, LST (∼2.0-2.3) < BMC (∼2.1-2.4). Small sex and population differences in scaling powers were also observed. As body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and population groups as Ht(∼2) , tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., MH/MB ∝ Ht(-∼1) ) and composition. Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as represented by stature, a finding that reveals a previously unrecognized phenotypic heterogeneity as defined by BMI. These observations provide new pathways for exploring mechanisms governing the interrelations between adult stature, body morphology, biomechanics, and metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Utility of the waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index in the screening of metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of macrovascular complications and morbidities associated to metabolic syndrome are increasing in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The combination of T1DM with features of insulin resistance similar to that of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), sometimes called “double diabetes”, has been associated with central obesity. Since the most methods to accurately detect body fat and insulin resistance are not readily available, we propose that certain indirect indexes for detecting obesity as waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index, may be useful when screening for metabolic syndrome in patients with T1DM. Methods We performed a transversal evaluation (clinical and biochemical) in all the patients of the T1DM Clinic (n = 120). We determined the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the Joint Statement Criteria by the American Heart Association/ National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the International Diabetes Federation and the utility of certain anthropometric indexes for predicting double diabetes was evaluated. Results Thirty seven percent of the patients were considered to have metabolic syndrome using these criteria (n = 30). These patients were significantly older (p = 0.002), have a higher glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.036), cholesterol (p < 0.012) and triglyceride concentration (p < 0.01) as well as body mass index (p = 0.004), waist circumference (p = 0.01) and waist-to-height ratio (p < 0.01) than the group without metabolic syndrome. Also their c-HDL is lower (p < 0.01). A value of 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio correctly classified the largest number of patients (68% of correctly classified) well as the waist circumference (66% of correctly classified) with an adequate specificity and sensibility. Meanwhile the most precise body mass index value only classified correctly to 61% of patients. Conclusion Our data show that waist circumference and waist-to-height

  16. Scaling of Adult Regional Body Mass and Body Composition as a Whole to Height: Relevance to Body Shape and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Schuna, John M.; Peterson, Courtney M.; Thomas, Diana M.; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht2), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht2? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index. Methods Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass (head [MH], trunk, arms, legs) and whole-body composition (fat, lean soft tissue [LST], and bone mineral content [BMC]) in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n=17,126) and Korean NHANES (n=8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Results Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four race/ethnic groups: regional mass powers, head (~0.8-1) < arms and trunk (~1.8-2.3) < legs (~2.3-2.6); and body composition, LST (~2.0-2.3) < BMC (~2.1-2.4). Small sex and race/ethnic differences in scaling powers were also observed. As body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and race/ethnic groups as Ht~2, tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., Mh/Mb ∝ Ht−~1) and composition. Conclusions Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as defined by stature, a finding that has important implications in multiple areas of biological research. PMID:25381999

  17. The effect of a partial bite raising splint on the occlusal face height. An x-ray cephalometric study in human adults.

    PubMed

    Dahl, B L; Krogstad, O

    1982-01-01

    20 patients (18 - 50 years) with pathological attrition of upper and/or lower anterior teeth were treated, as a temporary measure, by means of a partial chrome-cobalt splint covering the palatal surfaces of the six upper front teeth. Tantalum implants to provide reference points were placed in the basal portion of upper and lower jaw bones. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken with and without the splint at the beginning of treatment and thereafter every two months till the difference between measurements was as small as possible. Changes in the occlusal face height were evaluated. Measurement reliability proved to be very high. Continuous use of the splint caused intrusion of the front teeth and eruption of the others in all patients. The intrusion was on an average 1.05 mm and the eruption 1.47 mm after 6 - 14 months, indicating a possible potential for tooth eruption in human adults. More eruption than intrusion appeared to take place in the youngest age groups. Sexual differences could not be established. Use of the splint did not cause the common symptoms of mandibular dysfunction. Lisping was the most serious complaint.

  18. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 1): Beacon Heights Landfill site, Beacon Falls, CT. (First remedial action), September 1990. (Supplemental). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    The 34-acre Beacon Heights Landfill site is on the northwest corner of an 82-acre property in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. The ROD supplements the 1985 ROD by resolving those determinations left open in the 1985 ROD, including the manner and locations of leachate treatment/disposal; cleanup levels for soil deemed impracticable to cap in areas contiguous to the landfill; and the need for air pollution controls on the landfill gas vents. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, ground water, surface water, and air are VOCs, including benzene, toluene, and xylene.

  19. Coaligned observations of solar magnetic fields at different heights: MSFC Center director's discretionary fund final report (Project No. 88-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Gary, G. A.; Smith, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The objective was to develop the capability for and coaligned observations of the structure and evolution of the Sun's magnetic field at two different heights in the solar atmosphere: the photosphere, which is the lowest region observable with optical telescopes; and the chromosphere, which lies just above the photosphere and is the region where the magnetic field dominates the gas motion so that a well-ordered structure governed by the field is observed. By obtaining this three-dimensional picture of the solar magnetic field, a better understanding can be developed of the magnetic forces that produce and control the dynamic, high-energy phenomena occurring in the solar atmosphere that can affect the entire heliosphere, including the terrestrial environment.

  20. Health assessment for Beacon Heights Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Beacon Falls, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD001145671. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-26

    The Beacon Heights Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. From the 1920's to 1979, municipal and industrial wastes were disposed of at the landfill. Leachate from the landfill has migrated into the local groundwater aquifers. Two residential wells to the northwest of the site have been contaminated with site-related contaminants. This site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. Human exposure to benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethane, and methylene chloride may have occurred via ingestion, inhalation, and direct dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. No health study follow-up is indicated at this time.

  1. Demonstration Program in Individualized Adult Education in Rural Areas, July 1, 1974-December 31, 1975. Final Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Div. of Continuing Education.

    The final report of a demonstration project in individualized adult education in rural areas of Arkansas, which took place during the period of July 1974 through December 1975, is presented. Program goals included: (1) to recruit and retain rural male adults who are operating at less than a fourth grade educational level, with emphasis on the…

  2. Nicholls State University: Adult Basic Education Institute for Teachers, Administrators, and Paraprofessionals of Rural ABE Programs: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls State Univ., Thibodaux, LA. Graduate School.

    The report is a final evaluation of a three-week Adult Basic Education (ABE) institute emphasizing rural ABE, and of the research phase of the project conducted July 1971--May 1972. Throughout the institute, participants were requested to compile a list of areas of adult education research based on the presentations and discussions during the…

  3. Corrective Equations to Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among U.S. Adults: NHANES 1999-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Estimating obesity prevalence using self-reported height and weight is an economic and effective method and is often used in national surveys. However, self-reporting of height and weight can involve misreporting of those variables and has been found to be associated to the size of the individual. This study investigated the biases in…

  4. Corrective Equations to Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among U.S. Adults: NHANES 1999-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Estimating obesity prevalence using self-reported height and weight is an economic and effective method and is often used in national surveys. However, self-reporting of height and weight can involve misreporting of those variables and has been found to be associated to the size of the individual. This study investigated the biases in…

  5. Adult Literacy: Policies, Programs and Practices. Lessons Learned. Final Report = Alphabetisation des adultes: politiques, programmes et pratiques. Etude bilan. Rapport final.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    Studies and reports examining the problems associated with adult literacy and efforts to address those problems were reviewed to identify lessons for adult literacy programs in Canada and elsewhere. Low literacy levels were linked to above-average rates of personal and/or learning difficulties, low self-esteem, associated social problems, and…

  6. Epigenetic heredity of human height.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Pasquale; Alberti, Saverio

    2014-06-01

    Genome-wide SNP analyses have identified genomic variants associated with adult human height. However, these only explain a fraction of human height variation, suggesting that significant information might have been systematically missed by SNP sequencing analysis. A candidate for such non-SNP-linked information is DNA methylation. Regulation by DNA methylation requires the presence of CpG islands in the promoter region of candidate genes. Seventy two of 87 (82.8%), height-associated genes were indeed found to contain CpG islands upstream of the transcription start site (USC CpG island searcher; validation: UCSC Genome Browser), which were shown to correlate with gene regulation. Consistent with this, DNA hypermethylation modules were detected in 42 height-associated genes, versus 1.5% of control genes (P = 8.0199e(-17)), as were dynamic methylation changes and gene imprinting. Epigenetic heredity thus appears to be a determinant of adult human height. Major findings in mouse models and in human genetic diseases support this model. Modulation of DNA methylation are candidate to mediate environmental influence on epigenetic traits. This may help to explain progressive height changes over multiple generations, through trans-generational heredity of progressive DNA methylation patterns.

  7. Adult Education Information and Referral Hot-Line. Adult Education Special Project. Final Report, July 1980-June 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jim

    A toll-free adult education information and referral hotline provided information and referral services to approximately 1500 adults in Region IX in Texas from September 1980 to June 1981. Adult education co-ops and testing centers forwarded pertinent program information (class schedules, General Educational Development testing information) to the…

  8. [Fear of Heights in Primary School Children].

    PubMed

    Huppert, D

    2016-03-01

    The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance in adults is 28 percent, whereas in primary school children, as recently shown, it develops in 34 percent. Triggers and symptoms are similar in children and adults. A significant difference in visual height intolerance of prepubertal children compared to adults is the good prognosis with mostly spontaneous remission within a few years, possibly facilitated by repeated exposure to the triggering situations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The Women's Leadership Project: A One-Year Training Project in Adult Education Administration. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Univ., MA. School of Education.

    The Women's Leadership Project represents an initial effort to combat discrimination against women in adult education, with special emphasis on adult basic education. Overall goals involved leadership development, impact, and support to: (1) recruit and prepare 10 qualified women adult educators for leadership positions in adult education, (2)…

  10. The Development and Testing of Adult Vocational Programs Utilizing the Adult Performance Level Competency Approach. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    A project set out to develop and test adult performance level (APL) materials for pre-vocational programs to enable adults to develop those skills needed to seek and retain employment. Addressing the APL area of occupational knowledge only, methodology focused on (1) joint planning in material development and testing; (2) extensive training in…

  11. Summer Institute for Adult Basic Education Teachers of Spanish-Speaking Adults: July 12-30, 1971. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Dept. of Education, Santa Fe. Div. of Adult Education.

    The University of New Mexico conducted an Institute for Adult Basic Education Teachers with the goal of encouraging the approximately 100 participants, all teachers of Spanish-speaking adults, to integrate their previous knowledge and training with the information, materials, ideas, and techniques presented at the institute, to make them more…

  12. Descriptions of the final stadium larva and female adult of Coeliccia mingxiensis Xu (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi-han

    2013-01-01

    The final stadium larva of Coeliccia mingxiensis Xu is described and illustrated. The female adult is also described for the first time. The larva can be easily separated from all known Coeliccia larvae by the following distinct morphological characters: (1) prementum longest in all known Coeliccia larvae; median lobe with 4 pairs of premental setae and palpal lobe with 6 palpal setae; (2) caudal gills shortest of all known Coeliccia larvae when compared with body length; median gill rounded at apex and lateral gill with a small median projection at apex. The female is similar to the male in many respects, differing chiefly in several respects as follows: the transverse yellow band on vertex of head broader and straighter than in male; antehumeral stripe on mesepisternum somewhat incurved basally, not forming a strong hook, which is present in male; distal abdomen with obviously different colour pattern; anal appendages brownish-black, shorter than S10; vulvar scales robust, brownish-yellow, projecting well beyond end of abdomen.

  13. Fear of heights and visual height intolerance.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Thomas; Huppert, Doreen

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this review is, first, to cover the different aspects of visual height intolerance such as historical descriptions, definition of terms, phenomenology of the condition, neurophysiological control of gaze, stance and locomotion, and therapy, and, second, to identify warranted epidemiological and experimental studies. Vivid descriptions of fear of heights can be found in ancient texts from the Greek, Roman, and Chinese classics. The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance is as high as 28% in the general population, and about 50% of those who are susceptible report an impact on quality of life. When exposed to heights, visual exploration by eye and head movements is restricted, and the velocity of locomotion is reduced. Therapy for fear of heights is dominated by the behavioral techniques applied during real or virtual reality exposure. Their efficacy might be facilitated by the administration of D-cycloserine or glucocorticoids. Visual height intolerance has a considerable impact on daily life and interpersonal interactions. It is much more frequent than fear of heights, which is defined as an environmental subtype of a specific phobia. There is certainly a continuum stretching from acrophobia to a less-pronounced visual height intolerance, to which the categorical distinction of a specific phobia does not apply.

  14. Cataloging Adult Education Programs in Region VIII and In-Depth Study of Selected Exemplar Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Douglas; Jacobson, Larry

    The final report of a project that developed a catalog of all 4,783 adult education programs in Region 8 (Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming) is presented. The document discusses two aspects of the project: (1) the development and implementation of the catalog and (2) the identification and in-depth study of nine…

  15. Demonstration, Developmental, and Research Project for Programs, Materials, Facilities and Educational Technology for Undereducated Adults. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead State Univ., KY.

    This final report summarizes the activities of the Appalachian Adult Basic Education Demonstration Center (AABEDC) at Morehead State University in Kentucky for the grant period from July 1, 1969 to June 30, 1970. The AABEDC operates in the Appalachian counties of thirteen states from New York to Mississippi. Its target audience is the rural…

  16. Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents: the Kangwha study. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Chae, Hyun Wook; Suh, Il; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Yong Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Ha Yan; Oh, Sun Min; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity are essential to monitor for appropriate linear growth. We aimed to construct standards in Korean children and adolescents through the population-based longitudinal Kangwha study. Our study was a part of a community-based prospective cohort study from 1986 to 1999 with 800 school children. Height and height velocity were recorded annually from age 6 until final height. Results were compared with cross-sectional data from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Final height was 173.5 cm in boys and 160.5 cm in girls. Although final height was similar between longitudinal and cross-sectional standards, the mean height for age was higher in the longitudinal standard by 1-4 cm from age 6 until the completion of puberty. Using the longitudinal standard, age at peak height velocity (PHV) was 12 in boys and 10 in girls; height velocity at PHV was 8.62 cm/yr in boys and 7.07 cm/yr in girls. The mean height velocity was less than 1 cm/yr at age 17 in boys and 15 in girls. Thus, we have presented the first report of longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents by analyzing longitudinal data from the Kangwha cohort.

  17. Participation in Kansas Noncredit Adult Education. A Survey of Seven Participant Groups. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaklief, Charles R.; Oaklief, Margery M.

    This project studied participation and benefits of noncredit adult education in Kansas. It was geared to determine appropriate roles for the state of Kansas in delivering educational services for adults through lifelong learning and noncredit educational programs. The population included 1,334 participants in noncredit adult learning experiences…

  18. Adult Basic Education Component; Manpower Development Component; and Program Evaluation. Delta Opportunities Corporation: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Opportunities Corp., Greenville, MS.

    The Adult Education Component of the Delta Opportunities Corporation (DOC) operated learning centers in four Mississippi delta counties for educationally disadvantaged rural poor adults. The centers served an excess of 200 participants, preparing them for General Education Development Tests (GED) and providing prevocational and adult basic…

  19. AXIS (Adult Education Express Intercommunication Support) Final Report, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Tana

    The project AXIS: Adult education eXpress Intercommunication Support was designed to provide systematic communication and coordination between Pennsylvania's Bureau of Adult Basic and Literacy Education and professional service providers and adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) providers, including support for online and World Wide Web…

  20. Helping Learning Disabled Adults through Special Tutorial Techniques. Final Report. 1992-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Area Community Coll., PA.

    A project offered special training to instructors and volunteer tutors for adult basic education classes in recognizing and helping adults who are enrolled in adult education programs with learning disabilities. These instructors and tutors were taught the necessary skills through a series of three 3-hour inservice sessions. The regular…

  1. Literacy in the Information Age: Final Report of the International Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statistics Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Data drawn from 3 cycles of data collection for the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) were analyzed to identify the levels and distributions of literacy skills in the adult populations of 20 countries. The following were among the main conclusions: (1) in 14 of the countries, at least 15% of all adults have literacy skills at only the…

  2. Relationships among Teacher's Knowledge and Application of Principles of Adult Teaching and Student Satisfaction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Clay N., Jr.

    The nature of the relationship between a teacher's knowledge of certain principles of adult teaching, his application of those principles in classroom practice, and the resultant level of satisfaction reported by his adult students was studied. Agroup of 1,596 adults in 100 university classes were the subjects. A theoretical framework adapted from…

  3. Does the sex of one's co-twin affect height and BMI in adulthood? A study of dizygotic adult twins from 31 cohorts.

    PubMed

    Bogl, Leonie H; Jelenkovic, Aline; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Cutler, Tessa L; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Pang, Zengchang; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Rebato, Esther; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Busjahn, Andreas; Lichtenstein, Paul; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hopper, John L; Loos, Ruth J F; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2017-01-01

    The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric traits, we compared mean height, body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of being overweight or obese between men and women from OS and SS dizygotic twin pairs. The data were derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) database, and included 68,494 SS and 53,808 OS dizygotic twin individuals above the age of 20 years from 31 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. Zygosity was determined by questionnaires or DNA genotyping depending on the study. Multiple regression and logistic regression models adjusted for cohort, age, and birth year with the twin type as a predictor were carried out to compare height and BMI in twins from OS pairs with those from SS pairs and to calculate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for being overweight or obese. OS females were, on average, 0.31 cm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20, 0.41) taller than SS females. OS males were also, on average, taller than SS males, but this difference was only 0.14 cm (95% CI 0.02, 0.27). Mean BMI and the prevalence of overweight or obesity did not differ between males and females from SS and OS twin pairs. The statistically significant differences between OS and SS twins for height were small and appeared to reflect our large sample size rather than meaningful differences of public health relevance. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that prenatal hormonal exposure or postnatal socialization (i.e., having grown up with a twin of the opposite sex) has a major impact on height and BMI in adulthood.

  4. [Height vertigo, fear of heights, acrophobia].

    PubMed

    Rennert, H

    1990-06-01

    Height vertigo (acrophobia) is a very frequent phenomenon being of interest for its physiological and psychological background, though usually only of limited significance in neuropsychiatry and otology. The different aspects as to its nature and origin are discussed. If acrophobia has developed into a conditioned reaction of avoidance with pressure of suffering, or acrophobia in persons, who have to work at heights, behavior therapeutic measures with systematic desensibilisation, starting from an imaginative training, are indicated.

  5. Release bursts in English word-final stops: A longitudinal study of Korean adults' and children's production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Kimiko; Mack, Molly; Sung, Hyekyung; Birdsong, David; Bialystok, Ellen

    2002-05-01

    Stops at the end of Korean words are always unreleased. The question addressed here was whether Korean adults and children living in the U.S. can learn to release stops at the end of English words. Four groups of 18 native Koreans (NK) who differed according to age (adult versus child) and length of residence in the U.S. (3 vs 5 years at T1) participated. Two native English (NE) groups served as age-matched controls. Production data were collected at two times (T1, T2) separated by one year. English words ending in /t/ and /k/ were then examined in perception experiments (Exp. 1, Exp. 2). NE-speaking judges decided whether the final stop has a release burst or not. Exp. 1 showed that NE talkers released /t/ more often than NK talkers did. The effect of time was also significant. Talkers produced release bursts more often at T2 than at T1. Exp. 2 showed that, unlike Exp. 1, there were significant differences between NK adults and children. While NK children did not differ from NE children, NK adults released the final /k/ much less often than NE adults did. Possible reasons for why the expected children's advantage was seen for /k/, but not for /t/, will be discussed. [Work supported by NIH.

  6. Skilling Me Softly: The Impact of Adult Literacy Classes. Longitudinal Study of the Destination of Adult Literacy Students. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Patrick; Pollock, John; Corneille, Karen; Fitzpatrick, Maree

    An Australian study investigated the destinations of adult literacy students in nationally-funded programs, including their economic and employment patterns, educational development (maintenance of educational involvement and advancement, skill development), social well-being (family and personal development, life satisfaction, self-esteem), and…

  7. Climate Cloud Height

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-05-16

    article title:  Is Climate Changing Cloud Heights? Too Soon to Say Climate change may eventually change global cloud heights, but scientists need ... whether that's happening already. For details see: Is Climate Changing Cloud Heights? Too Soon to Say . Climate ...

  8. Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood. Study design Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother–child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estimated associations between maternal height and offspring growth using multivariate regression models adjusted for household income, child sex, birth order, and study site. Results Maternal height was associated with birth weight and with both height and conditional height at each age examined. The strongest associations with conditional heights were for adulthood and 2 years of age. A 1-cm increase in maternal height predicted a 0.024 (95% CI: 0.021-0.028) SD increase in offspring birth weight, a 0.037 (95% CI: 0.033-0.040) SD increase in conditional height at 2 years, a 0.025 (95% CI: 0.021-0.029 SD increase in conditional height in MC, and a 0.044 (95% CI: 0.040-0.048) SD increase in conditional height in adulthood. Short mothers (<150.1 cm) were more likely to have a child who was stunted at 2 years (prevalence ratio = 3.20 (95% CI: 2.80-3.60) and as an adult (prevalence ratio = 4.74, (95% CI: 4.13-5.44). There was no evidence of heterogeneity by site or sex. Conclusion Maternal height influences offspring linear growth over the growing period. These influences likely include genetic and non-genetic factors, including nutrition-related intergenerational influences on growth that prevent the attainment of genetic height potential in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23477997

  9. TEACHING ADULTS VIA TELE-LECTURE AND ELECTROWRITER (VICTOR ELECTRONIC REMOTE BLACKBOARD). FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDELMAN, LILY

    THIS PROJECT TESTED WHETHER THE TELE-LECTURE AND ELECTROWRITER COULD (1) BE USED EFFECTIVELY FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS INSTRUCTION OF ADULTS IN MULTIPLE REMOTE AREAS, AND (2) USED BY A MASTER TEACHER TO PROVIDE LEARNING EXPERIENCE FOR ADULTS WHICH IS AT LEAST AS EFFECTIVE AS FACE-TO-FACE INSTRUCTION. UTILIZING AMPLIFICATION AND MICROPHONE TRANSMISSION…

  10. Incorporation of Consumer Education [Lessons] in Adult Basic Education Programs in North Dakota. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurr, Harriet

    Two North Dakota home economists developed consumer education curricula based on adult performance level (APL) objectives and the perceived needs of their vocational students. They worked with local directors of adult basic and secondary education (ABSE) to incorporate the curricula into regular ABSE classes. Project objectives were to (1)…

  11. A 309 b Adult Education Special Project. Final Report, FY 1974-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niagara Falls Board of Education, NY.

    The HEW 309(b) Special Project carried out by the Niagara Falls Adult Basic Education program, "The Identification of Preferred Cognitive Styles and Matching Adult Reading Program Alternatives for the 0-4 Grade Levels," involved research, training in cognitive style mapping, and development of a survey and process to assess the adult…

  12. Adult Educator Exchange Program. Pennsylvania 310 Project. Final Report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royce, Sherry

    Field experience reports are provided for exemplary adult education programs in Connecticut, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Virginia which were each visited by an adult education administrator from another of the programs. Each report overviews the program, makes observations on unique aspects of the program (such as programs,…

  13. The Georgia Express: Final Report. A 310 Planning Project for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin City - Spalding County Board of Education, GA.

    This report summarizes the work of the Georgia Express project staff and the five task teams that provided research services to the Georgia Task Force on Adult Education. (The purpose of the Task Force was to review Georgia Adult Education's current goals, objectives, and procedures and to make recommendations for program improvement.) The report…

  14. The New York City Adult Literacy Initiative. Final Report 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Assistance Center, New York, NY.

    The New York City Adult Literacy Initiative served 54,568 adults in sponsored classes in fiscal 1990-91. The program is administered through six agencies, including the public schools, City University of New York, a community development agency, and three public library systems. The Literacy Assistance Center was established to provide technical…

  15. Adult Education through Technology Project. Program Year 1990-1991. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odessa Coll., TX.

    Many adults in basic literacy programs tend to drop out if they cannot see the program's relevance to the real world. In response to this problem, Odessa College (Odessa, Texas) developed, implemented, and evaluated an innovative program for adult education through technology designed to provide high quality, multimedia literacy education directly…

  16. Analysis of Seven Special Projects in Adult Basic Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Electric Co., Washington, DC. TEMPO.

    This report summarizes innovations being developed in seven special adult basic education (ABE) projects: the Washington, D.C. ABE Demonstration Center; Opportunities Industrialization Center pupil recruitment and Adult Armchair Education projects in Philadelphia; Laborers' International Union participation in ABE in Columbus, Ohio; Southwest…

  17. Vocational Assessment of Deaf Adults. Final Report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, David S.; And Others

    A model vocational assessment for deaf adults in New Jersey was created through the implementation of a project with three objectives. The first objective was to review existing vocational assessment procedures in New Jersey and the surrounding region in order to select and purchase appropriate components for use with deaf adults. Materials were…

  18. "What's the Buzz?"--Pennsylvania's Adult Basic and Literacy Professional Development Newsletter. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What's the Buzz, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Five issues of an adult basic education newsletter were developed and disseminated to more than 4,000 adult educators in Pennsylvania. The newsletters contained information appropriate to their professional development in a format and by a delivery method that would reach the large rural area of Pennsylvania and the large number of part-time adult…

  19. The Arlington Adult Learning System (AALS) Final Report, October 1992-December 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arlington County Public Schools, VA. REEP, Arlington Education and Employment Program.

    The Arlington (Virginia) Adult Learning System (AALS), a program designed to link resources and enhance services of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) providers, is described. The AALS is a consortium in which an adult education provider (the public school system) coordinates efforts of its own organization with a community-based organization, a…

  20. Public Libraries and Adult Independent Learners. Final Report of the PLAIL Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denbighshire County Council, Mold (Wales).

    The Public Libraries and Adult Independent Learners (PLAIL) Project was conducted in the United Kingdom, Portugal, and Spain to identify the following: needs of adult independent learners; services required to meet those needs; extent to which those services rely on existing and new technology; and skills and competencies required to provide the…

  1. Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume I. Adults 18-55. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

    The first part of a two-part, two volume study deals with adults aged 18-55 and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Fully 54% of adult Americans participate once a month in social or business situations where alcohol is served. They are termed Alcohol Related…

  2. A Regional High-Technology Delivery System Model for Adult Literacy. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Independent School District, TX.

    The Houston Regional High-Technology Delivery System Model for Adult Literacy meets the need for a technology-based system to deliver instruction in basic literacy skills. The system provides multilevel instruction in reading, writing, and computation skills to out-of-school youth and under-educated adults. A variety of technologies are used to…

  3. A Countywide Adult Basic Education Program. Final Report, 1986-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanis, Mary I.; Mills, Karen L.

    In July 1979, the countywide Adult Basic Education (ABE) Program at Rio Salado Community College (RSCC) was established to provide adult basic education services to Maricopa County (Arizona) residents. Between 1979 and 1987, enrollments rose from 729 students to more than 5,700 students. A major contributing factor to the on-going growth lies in…

  4. Development of Teaching Aids for ABE/ESL Adult Education Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berna, Joan; Alkasab, Helen

    The purpose of Special Project E-109A, Development of Teaching Aids for Adult Basic Education/English (Second Language) (ABE/ESL) Adult Education Programs, was to develop skill packets consisting of visual materials, teacher manuals, and student work sheets for statewide use in ABE/ESL classes in Illinois. The project was conducted cooperatively…

  5. Height Increment and Laboratory Profile of Boys Treated With Aromatase Inhibitors With or Without Growth Hormone.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Ludmila Fernandes; de Oliveira, Joice Marquez; Thomé, Paula Roberta Vieira; Kochi, Cristiane; Damiani, Durval; Longui, Carlos Alberto

    2017-08-31

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been used to recover height loss due to their capacity to delay growth plate closure. Long-term studies describing final heights are needed to determine the efficacy and safety profiles of these drugs for the treatment of impaired growth. This study aims to identify the therapeutic efficiency of AIs in improve growth and to describe potential adverse effects during treatment. Retrospective data analysis of 96 adolescents, among which 22 patients already attained near-final height, were followed at outpatient clinics of two referral centers. Patients were all in puberty and present idiopathic decrease in predicted adult height. Patients were treated with Anastrozole (ANZ: 1 mg/day) or Letrozole (LTZ: 2.5 mg/day) with/without recombinant human growth hormone (0.05 mg/kg/day) for 1.0 to 3.5 years (2.1±1.2 years). Height gain, body mass index, lipid, liver enzyme, gonadotropins and testosterone levels were described before and at the end of treatment. Predicted adult height (PAH) and NF height were compared with the TH. The height SDS (adjusted to bone age) significantly increased (p<0.05) in all groups [0.8±0.7 (ANZ), 0.7±0.7 (ANZ+GH), 0.3±0.5 (LTZ), and 1.2±0.8 (LTZ+GH)]; the latter group exhibited the highest increment of PAH and growth recovery to the TH (p<0.004). No significant side effects were observed. AI treatment, especially when used in association with GH was able to improve growth and the attainment of familial target height. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Effects of height acceleration on Geosat heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, David W., III; Brooks, Ronald L.; Lockwood, Dennis W.

    1990-01-01

    A radar altimeter tracking loop, such as that utilized by Geosat, produces height errors in the presence of persistent height acceleration h(a). The correction factor for the height error is a function of both the loop feedback parameters and the height acceleration. The correction, in meters, to the sea-surface height (SSH) derived from Geosat is -0.16 h(a), where h(a) is in m/sec per sec. The errors induced by accelerations are produced primarily by changes in along-track geoid slopes. The nearly circular Geosat orbit and dynamic ocean topography produce small h(a) values. One area studied in detail encompasses the Marianas Trench and the Challenger Deep in the west central Pacific Ocean. Histograms of SSH corrections due to range accelerations have also been determined from 24-hour segments of Geosat global data. The findings are that 20 percent of the Geosat measurements have acceleration-induced errors of 2 cm or more, while 8 percent have errors of 3 cm or more.

  7. Pin-Height Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Daniel R.; Nichols, Vincent P.

    1992-01-01

    Gauge aligns itself and retains indication for later reading. Measuring tool indicates height of protrusion of pin from flat surface. Tool surrounds pin and holds itself square with flat surface, ensuring proper alignment and accuracy of measurement. Used in hard-to-see and hard-to-reach places. Holds indication of height until read. Metal scale slides in and out through slot in top plate. Scale value at slot gives height of pin under piston. Dimensions in inches.

  8. Genetically Determined Height and Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, C.P.; Hamby, S.E.; Saleheen, D.; Hopewell, J.C.; Zeng, L.; Assimes, T.L.; Kanoni, S.; Willenborg, C.; Burgess, S.; Amouyel, P.; Anand, S.; Blankenberg, S.; Boehm, B.O.; Clarke, R.J.; Collins, R.; Dedoussis, G.; Farrall, M.; Franks, P.W.; Groop, L.; Hall, A.S.; Hamsten, A.; Hengstenberg, C.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ingelsson, E.; Kathiresan, S.; Kee, F.; König, I.R.; Kooner, J.; Lehtimäki, T.; März, W.; McPherson, R.; Metspalu, A.; Nieminen, M.S.; O’Donnell, C.J.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Peters, A.; Perola, M.; Reilly, M.P.; Ripatti, S.; Roberts, R.; Salomaa, V.; Shah, S.H.; Schreiber, S.; Siegbahn, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Veronesi, G.; Wareham, N.; Willer, C.J.; Zalloua, P.A.; Erdmann, J.; Deloukas, P.; Watkins, H.; Schunkert, H.; Danesh, J.; Thompson, J.R.; Samani, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. METHODS We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested the association between a change in genetically determined height of 1 SD (6.5 cm) with the risk of CAD in 65,066 cases and 128,383 controls. Using individual-level genotype data from 18,249 persons, we also examined the risk of CAD associated with the presence of various numbers of height-associated alleles. To identify putative mechanisms, we analyzed whether genetically determined height was associated with known cardiovascular risk factors and performed a pathway analysis of the height-associated genes. RESULTS We observed a relative increase of 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4 to 22.1; P<0.001) in the risk of CAD per 1-SD decrease in genetically determined height. There was a graded relationship between the presence of an increased number of height-raising variants and a reduced risk of CAD (odds ratio for height quartile 4 versus quartile 1, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.84; P<0.001). Of the 12 risk factors that we studied, we observed significant associations only with levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (accounting for approximately 30% of the association). We identified several overlapping pathways involving genes associated with both development and atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS There is a primary association between a genetically determined shorter height and an increased risk of CAD, a link that is partly explained by the association between shorter height and an adverse lipid profile. Shared biologic processes that determine achieved height and the development of atherosclerosis may explain some of the association. PMID:25853659

  9. Craniofacial norms in white adult males. Final report 1 Oct 80-30 Sep 83

    SciTech Connect

    Kapur, K.K.; Lestrel, P.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish clinical 'norms' of craniofacial skeletal orientation and the associated soft tissue facial profile for adult white males. Lateral and frontal cephalometric radiographs and study casts taken on 305 white males, with 28 or more teeth and 25-75 years of age, were used to develop these craniofacial standards. The goal of the research program has been to develop a computerized approach based upon dentofacial templates for the fabrication of complete dentures and to define clinical standards that can be applied in assessing the prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment needs of adult patients.

  10. Soul City Expanded--An Experimental Demonstration Project for Adult Involvement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Mary Catherine

    The University of Alabama successfully used the improvement of homemaking skills among disadvantaged families in an inner-city poverty pocket as a focus for a multidisciplinary approach to a three-year adult basic education (ABE) program when traditional ABE programs were rejected. The stated program goals were: (1) use the interest in improving…

  11. Formative Evaluation of the Adult Learning, Literacy and Essential Skills Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of the formative evaluation of the Adult Learning, Literacy and Essential Skills Program (ALLESP). Data collection related to this evaluation took place between November 2008 and May 2009. The evaluation resulted in the following four recommendations: (1) It is recommended that Program objectives and activities…

  12. A Study of Educational Needs of Older Adults in Illinois. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Network for Older Adults, Chicago, IL.

    A project was conducted to develop a preliminary data base describing the academic, vocational, and occupational education needs of the Illinois older adult population (ages 50-70). A second purpose was to provide a state information base to aid in educational planning for older citizens. Utilizing available data bases, various state-wide…

  13. Adult Vocational Education Follow Through. A System for Participant Feedback for Decision Makers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Thomas R.

    The objectives of this project were (1) to develop participant feedback materials that can be used by local adult vocational education (AVE) administrators for program planning, implementation, and evaluation and (2) to determine why participants enroll in AVE programs. A follow-up survey which contained key items from the follow-through system…

  14. Improving the Use of Microcomputers in the Administration of Adult Basic Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard W.; Evans, Mary M.

    The major goal of a program was to improve the use of microcomputers in the management of New York State's adult basic education programs. Subgoals were optimizing the use of available microcomputer facilities, aiding the largest number of programs permitted by project funds, serving the particular needs of individual programs, and maximizing the…

  15. Inservice Education of Vocational Agriculture Teachers on New Curriculum Materials for Adult Class Instruction: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, J. David, Ed.; Newcomb, L. H., Ed.

    Twenty-two field-tested instructional units were developed for use in adult and young farmer education by 20 specially trained agriculture teachers in Ohio. The resource units were developed in the following agriculture areas of instruction: corn and soybean production, agriculture mechanics, swine production, farm management, and horticulture.…

  16. Adult Open Learning: Federal Investment in Research and Experimentation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolfi, George J.

    This report covers a three-part project ("white paper", working papers, and discussion seminars) in adult open learning designed to provide the basis for an expansive discussion of the need for research in open learning. Following an executive summary, contents are presented in three parts. Part I consists of an introduction and…

  17. Continued Development and Dissemination of Materials for Serving Senior Adults. FY '83 310 Project Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Iowa Technical Coll., Sheldon.

    A project was conducted in Iowa to develop educational programs for older adults who were not institutionalized. Focus of the activity was on sites that held community meals for the aging on a daily basis. Those who attended were targeted for after-dinner educational programs. A survey was taken of the interests of the senior citizens attending…

  18. The Life Cycle of an Adult Education Enterprise --The Swarthmore Chautauqua. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillavou, George J.

    A study to present a history of the Swarthmore Chautauqua as an adult education enterprise was conducted by investigating documents from many sources previously gathered for a review of the life of the Swarthmore Chautauqua. Several tape-recorded personal interviews were used to add to the documentation, and visits were made to towns where the…

  19. Continued Development and Dissemination of Materials for Serving Senior Adults. FY '83 310 Project Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Iowa Technical Coll., Sheldon.

    A project was conducted in Iowa to develop educational programs for older adults who were not institutionalized. Focus of the activity was on sites that held community meals for the aging on a daily basis. Those who attended were targeted for after-dinner educational programs. A survey was taken of the interests of the senior citizens attending…

  20. Instructional Material Development for Computer Applications in Adult Business Education Courses. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort Wayne Community Schools, IN.

    The goal of this special demonstration project was to develop adult secondary business education courses related to the computer. An additional phase focused on the development of a microcomputer-based program providing the needed computer literacy and applications for its use. An advisory committee identified five areas of instructional need:…

  1. Assessing the Effect of Adult High School Completion Programs on Graduate Placement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Area Community Coll., Ankeny, IA.

    Three thousand eight hundred ninety-eight adults who had received a High School Equivalency Diploma (HSED) during 1976 in Iowa were surveyed to assess the impact of finishing a high school completion program on their placement after completion. Three hundred Iowa employers were also surveyed to analyze existing personnel policies and practices…

  2. Competency-Based Training for Adults Who Work with Children. Postsecondary Project: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associates for Renewal in Education, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The objective of this project was to develop and test ten module units of a competency-based training system for adults who work with young children. Phases of the developmental process are described. Training sessions for voluntary participants in the module writing project are outlined, and planning, writing and editing activities are indicated.…

  3. Appalachian Adult Literacy Programs Survey (ALPS). Final Report. Volume I--Narrative; Volume 2--Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borei, Sven H. E.; Shively, Joe E.

    The Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL) contracted with the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) to seek information on the presence, operation, and impact of adult learning programs within the 13-state Appalachian Region. Literacy was defined on a program operation base, possible programs were listed, and program descriptions were obtained…

  4. Morehead Adult Basic Education Teacher-Trainer Reading Workshop, July 19-August 6, 1971. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, C. J., Comp.; And Others

    The workshop concentrated on the training of teacher-trainer teams in the areas of individualized reading and mathematics and the characteristics of disadvantaged adult learners. Each participant had an individual learning prescription for the three weeks based on his formal preparation, work experience, job responsibilities, own feelings of…

  5. CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR OLDER ADULTS, A DEMONSTRATION IN METHOD AND CONTENT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAUFFMAN, EARL

    FOUR KENTUCKY COMMUNITIES WITH COMMUNITY COLLEGES WERE CHOSEN, ON THE BASIS OF A "COMMUNITY READINESS PROFILE," FOR A PILOT DEMONSTRATION PROJECT IN CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR OLDER ADULTS. A STEERING COMMITTEE AND LOCAL PROGRAM COMMITTEES WERE SET UP, TOGETHER WITH LOCAL PROGRAM COORDINATORS. BY MEANS OF A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE, TEN…

  6. Adult Vocational Education Follow Through. A System for Participant Feedback for Decision Makers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Thomas R.

    The objectives of this project were (1) to develop participant feedback materials that can be used by local adult vocational education (AVE) administrators for program planning, implementation, and evaluation and (2) to determine why participants enroll in AVE programs. A follow-up survey which contained key items from the follow-through system…

  7. Exploring the Wonders of Books: A Family Literacy Program for Challenged Adults. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctor Gertrude A. Barber Center, Erie, PA.

    This report describes a family literacy program for adult students with mild learning challenges including mental retardation. The program's objective was to upgrade the reading skills of parents and introduce them to a wide variety of enjoyable children's literature. During each of 20 weekly sessions, a class of no more than 15 parents was…

  8. Continuing the Exploration of Books: A Family Literacy Program for Challenged Adults. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctor Gertrude A. Barber Center, Erie, PA.

    A family literacy program was developed for families containing young children and learning-challenged adults whose limited reading skills made it impossible for them to read aloud to their children. The program's primary objective was to upgrade the parents' reading skills and knowledge of children's literature. The program was staffed by a…

  9. RETRAINING OLDER ADULTS FOR EMPLOYMENT IN COMMUNITY SERVICE. FINAL PROGRESS REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THUNE, JEANNE M.; TINE, SEBASTIAN

    THIS PROJECT SOUGHT TO DEMONSTRATE THE CAPABILITY OF OLDER ADULTS TO BEGIN NEW CAREERS AS LEADERS IN COMMUNITY SERVICES. PROJECT STAFF OFFERED FIVE 3-MONTH TRAINING INSTITUTES IN COMMUNITY SERVICE IN NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE, DURING 1963-65 WITH THE HELP OF CONSULTANTS AND REPRESENTATIVES OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AGENCIES AND SEVERAL AREA UNIVERSITIES.…

  10. Staff Orientation Manual for Adult Basic and Literacy Education Providers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jamie; Wilson, Monty

    This report describes how the Center for Literacy (CFL) developed a staff orientation manual for new educators (teachers and coordinators of volunteers) who work in adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) programs. Orientation needs were assessed through two questionnaires--one for educators and another for administrators at CFL and 13 literacy…

  11. Choctaw Adult Education. (A 309 (B) Demonstration Project). Final Report, July 1, 1974 - June 30, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, Philadelphia.

    The Choctaw Adult Education Project is described in this annual report by the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. The report presents the following: (1) Summary of Class Sites and Staffing; (2) Curriculum (basic literacy, health education, menu planning, budgeting, income tax preparation, food stamp program, nutrition, and the Tribal…

  12. Height and Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zuccolo, Luisa; Harris, Ross; Gunnell, David; Oliver, Steven; Lane, Jane Athene; Davis, Michael; Donovan, Jenny; Neal, David; Hamdy, Freddie; Beynon, Rebecca; Savovic, Jelena; Martin, Richard Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Height, a marker of childhood environmental exposures, is positively associated with prostate cancer risk, perhaps through the insulin-like growth factor system. We investigated the relationship of prostate cancer with height and its components (leg and trunk length) in a nested case-control study and with height in a dose-response meta-analysis. Methods We nested a case-control study within a population-based randomized controlled trial evaluating treatments for localized prostate cancer in British men ages 50 to 69 years, including 1,357 cases detected through prostate-specific antigen testing and 7,990 controls (matched on age, general practice, assessment date). Nine bibliographic databases were searched systematically for studies on the height-prostate cancer association that were pooled in a meta-analysis. Results Based on the nested case-control, the odds ratio (OR) of prostate-specific antigen-detected prostate cancer per 10 cm increase in height was 1.06 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.97-1.16; ptrend = 0.2]. There was stronger evidence of an association of height with high-grade prostate cancer (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.06-1.43), mainly due to the leg component, but not with low-grade disease (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.90-1.10). In general, associations with leg or trunk length were similar. A meta-analysis of 58 studies found evidence that height is positively associated with prostate cancer (random-effects OR per 10 cm: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.03-1.09), with a stronger effect for prospective studies of more advanced/aggressive cancers (random-effects OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.05-1.19). Conclusion These data indicate a limited role for childhood environmental exposures—as indexed by adult height—on prostate cancer incidence, while suggesting a greater role for progression, through mechanisms requiring further investigation. PMID:18768501

  13. Analysis of New York City's Adult Literacy Data: 1985-1986. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metis Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    The New York City Adult Literacy Initiative was instituted in 1984. Approximately 22,000 students attended the city's literacy program in 1984, with the number increasing to nearly 50,000 by 1986. A study examined one year, 1985-1986, of the program's operation. Of the 49,986 students enrolled in 1985-1986, 40,754 were in bilingual education (BE)…

  14. The role of temporal and dynamic signal components in the perception of syllable-final stop voicing by children and adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, Susan

    2004-04-01

    Adults whose native languages permit syllable-final obstruents, and show a vocalic length distinction based on the voicing of those obstruents, consistently weight vocalic duration strongly in their perceptual decisions about the voicing of final stops, at least in laboratory studies using synthetic speech. Children, on the other hand, generally disregard such signal properties in their speech perception, favoring formant transitions instead. These age-related differences led to the prediction that children learning English as a native language would weight vocalic duration less than adults, but weight syllable-final transitions more in decisions of final-consonant voicing. This study tested that prediction. In the first experiment, adults and children (eight and six years olds) labeled synthetic and natural CVC words with voiced or voiceless stops in final C position. Predictions were strictly supported for synthetic stimuli only. With natural stimuli it appeared that adults and children alike weighted syllable-offset transitions strongly in their voicing decisions. The predicted age-related difference in the weighting of vocalic duration was seen for these natural stimuli almost exclusively when syllable-final transitions signaled a voiced final stop. A second experiment with adults and children (seven and five years old) replicated these results for natural stimuli with four new sets of natural stimuli. It was concluded that acoustic properties other than vocalic duration might play more important roles in voicing decisions for final stops than commonly asserted, sometimes even taking precedence over vocalic duration.

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon, Sawtooth Valley Project : 1992 Juvenile and Adult Trapping Program : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs in the Snake River Basin have severely declined. Redfish Lake near Stanley, Idaho is the only lake in the drainage known to still support a run. In 1989, two adults were observed returning to this lake and in 1990, none returned. In the summer of 1991, only four adults returned. If no action is taken, the Snake River sockeye salmon will probably cease to exist. On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared the Snake River sockeye salmon ``endangered`` (effective December 20, 1991), pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. In 1991, in response to a request from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded efforts to conserve and begin rebuilding the Snake River sockeye salmon run. The initial efforts were focused on Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Valley of southcentral Idaho. The 1991 measures involved: trapping some of the juvenile outmigrants (O. nerka) from Redfish Lake and rearing them in the Eagle Fish Health Facility (Idaho Department of Fish and Game) near Boise, Idaho; Upgrading of the Eagle Facility where the outmigrants are being reared; and trapping adult Snake River sockeye salmon returning to Redfish Lake and holding and spawning them at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental effects of the proposed actions for 1992. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and section 7 of the ESA of 1973.

  16. Development of large Area Covering Height Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2014-04-01

    Height information is a basic part of topographic mapping. Only in special areas frequent update of height models is required, usually the update cycle is quite lower as for horizontal map information. Some height models are available free of charge in the internet; for commercial height models a fee has to be paid. Mostly digital surface models (DSM) with the height of the visible surface are given and not the bare ground height, as required for standard mapping. Nevertheless by filtering of DSM, digital terrain models (DTM) with the height of the bare ground can be generated with the exception of dense forest areas where no height of the bare ground is available. These height models may be better as the DTM of some survey administrations. In addition several DTM from national survey administrations are classified, so as alternative the commercial or free of charge available information from internet can be used. The widely used SRTM DSM is available also as ACE-2 GDEM corrected by altimeter data for systematic height errors caused by vegetation and orientation errors. But the ACE-2 GDEM did not respect neighbourhood information. With the worldwide covering TanDEM-X height model, distributed starting 2014 by Airbus Defence and Space (former ASTRIUM) as WorldDEM, higher level of details and accuracy is reached as with other large area covering height models. At first the raw-version of WorldDEM will be available, followed by an edited version and finally as WorldDEM-DTM a height model of the bare ground. With 12 m spacing and a relative standard deviation of 1.2 m within an area of 1° x 1° an accuracy and resolution level is reached, satisfying also for larger map scales. For limited areas with the HDEM also a height model with 6 m spacing and a relative vertical accuracy of 0.5 m can be generated on demand. By bathymetric LiDAR and stereo images also the height of the sea floor can be determined if the water has satisfying transparency. Another method of getting

  17. Relationship between brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone and final reproductive period of the adult male sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    PubMed

    Fahien, C M; Sower, S A

    1990-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) concentrations were measured in brains of adult male sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, during their final reproductive period. The lampreys were collected during their upstream migration in coastal New Hampshire rivers and sampled at the trap (referred to as Group A) or they were transferred to an artificial spawning channel (referred to as Group B). Plasma estradiol and progesterone were also measured, and histological examination of the gonadal stages was done as well. The concentrations of brain GnRH and plasma estradiol fluctuated significantly through time. There was a rise in brain concentrations of GnRH coincident with an increase in temperature just prior to spawning. In addition, there was a significant progressive correlation between increasing plasma estradiol and temperature in lampreys from Group B during the period studied. These studies provide evidence for progressive seasonal relationships between changes in brain GnRH and gametogenic and steroidogenic activity of the gonads in adult male sea lampreys during their final reproductive period.

  18. Comparison of the ability to identify cardiometabolic risk factors between two new body indices and waist-to-height ratio among Chinese adults with normal BMI and waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng Ju; Ma, Fang; Lou, Hui Ping; Zhu, Yan Ning

    2017-04-01

    Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) has been reported to be more strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among non-obese individuals than BMI and waist circumference (WC). A body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) have been proposed recently to assess obesity-related disorders or mortalities. Our aim was to compare the ability of ABSI and BRI with that of WHtR to identify cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese adults with normal BMI and WC. Receiver-operating characteristic curves and areas under the curve (AUC) were employed to evaluate the ability of the indices (WHtR, BRI, ABSI) to identify metabolic risk factors and to determine the indices' optimal cut-off values. The value of each index that resulted in maximization of the Youden index (sensitivity + specificity - 1) was defined as optimal. Differences in the AUC values between the indices were also evaluated. Individuals attending a voluntary health check-up in Beijing, China, July-December 2015, were recruited to the study. Non-obese adults (n 1596). Among both genders, ABSI exhibited the lowest AUC value for identifying each risk factor among the three indices; the AUC value of BRI for identifying each risk factor was very close to that of WHtR, and no significant differences were observed between the AUC values of the two new indices. When evaluating cardiometabolic risk factors among non-obese adults, WHtR was a simple and effective index in the assessment of cardiometabolic risk factors, BRI could be used as an alternative body index to WHtR, while ABSI could not.

  19. Local average height distribution of fluctuating interfaces.

    PubMed

    Smith, Naftali R; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V

    2017-01-01

    Height fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of height in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1+1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average height. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average height. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time height-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1+1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of height in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2+1 dimensions.

  20. Local average height distribution of fluctuating interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

    2017-01-01

    Height fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of height in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1 +1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average height. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average height. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time height-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1 +1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of height in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2 +1 dimensions.

  1. Epigenetic and genetic components of height regulation

    PubMed Central

    Benonisdottir, Stefania; Oddsson, Asmundur; Helgason, Agnar; Kristjansson, Ragnar P.; Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Oskarsdottir, Arna; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Davidsson, Olafur B.; Arnadottir, Gudny A.; Sulem, Gerald; Jensson, Brynjar O.; Holm, Hilma; Alexandersson, Kristjan F.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Walters, G. Bragi; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Ward, Lucas D.; Sigurdsson, Jon K.; Iordache, Paul D.; Frigge, Michael L.; Rafnar, Thorunn; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Helgason, Hannes; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Sulem, Patrick; Stefansson, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Adult height is a highly heritable trait. Here we identified 31.6 million sequence variants by whole-genome sequencing of 8,453 Icelanders and tested them for association with adult height by imputing them into 88,835 Icelanders. Here we discovered 13 novel height associations by testing four different models including parent-of-origin (|β|=0.4–10.6 cm). The minor alleles of three parent-of-origin signals associate with less height only when inherited from the father and are located within imprinted regions (IGF2-H19 and DLK1-MEG3). We also examined the association of these sequence variants in a set of 12,645 Icelanders with birth length measurements. Two of the novel variants, (IGF2-H19 and TET1), show significant association with both adult height and birth length, indicating a role in early growth regulation. Among the parent-of-origin signals, we observed opposing parental effects raising questions about underlying mechanisms. These findings demonstrate that common variations affect human growth by parental imprinting. PMID:27848971

  2. Neurologic effects of solvents in older adults. (UW retired worker study). Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniell, W.E.

    1993-11-12

    The possibility that previous occupational exposure to solvents might be associated with clinically significant neurological dysfunction in older adults was investigated in a cross-sectional study. Subjects included 67 painters, 22 aerospace painters and fuel cell sealers, and a comparison group of 126 carpenters. All subjects had retired from regular employment at least 1 year prior to the study. As measured by semiquantitative exposure index, the cumulative histories of lifetime occupational solvent exposure were on the average comparable in the two exposed study groups, painters and aerospace workers. The carpenters differed from the other groups in solvent exposure by several orders of magnitude. The painters had a significantly higher history of consuming alcoholic beverages than did the other two study groups. The painters had a significantly higher score on the Beck Depression Inventory, a measure of current depressive symptoms. The painters reported significantly more general neurologic symptoms than did the other two groups. The aerospace workers showed much greater evidence of possible adverse effects from former solvent exposure on current neuropsychological function than did the painters when determined by reasoning and memory tests, memory visual motor speed and motor tests. No evidence of persistent effects on liver or renal excretory function was seen in solvent exposed subjects.

  3. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-06-01

    A differential pulse-height discriminator circuit is described which is readily adaptable for operation in a single-channel pulse-height analyzer. The novel aspect of the circuit lies in the specific arrangement of differential pulse-height discriminator which includes two pulse-height discriminators having a comnnon input and an anticoincidence circuit having two interconnected vacuum tubes with a common cathode resistor. Pulses from the output of one discriminator circuit are delayed and coupled to the grid of one of the anticoincidence tubes by a resistor. The output pulses from the other discriminator circuit are coupled through a cathode follower circuit, which has a cathode resistor of such value as to provide a long time constant with the interelectrode capacitance of the tube, to lenthen the output pulses. The pulses are then fed to the grid of the other anticoincidence tube. With such connections of the circuits, only when the incoming pulse has a pesk value between the operating levels of the two discriminators does an output pulse occur from the anticoincidence circuit.

  4. Comparisons of modeled height predictions to ocular height estimates

    Treesearch

    W.A. Bechtold; S.J. Zarnoch; W.G. Burkman

    1998-01-01

    Equations used by USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis projects to predict individual tree heights on the basis of species and d.b.h. were improved by the addition of mean overstory height. However, ocular estimates of total height by field crews were more accurate than the statistically improved models, especially for hardwood species. Height predictions...

  5. Height as a basis for interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Hensley, W E

    1994-01-01

    Beginning with the observation of a male-taller basis in date/mate selection, this study investigated a complementary vs. a step function in choosing a dating partner. In addition, the relative advantages or disadvantages of height were examined for both genders in the dating marketplace. Our sample of college students (N = 594) indicated that while we may use a complementary standard in hypothetical date selection, the actual height of a chosen person is more likely to be made on a step function. Second, there appears to be no dating consequences for a female in a height-related sense, but taller males do enjoy a noticeable dating advantage. Finally, there appears to be a "ceiling effect" demonstrated here for the first time; the height advantage for a male seems to diminish when he is taller than six feet. Suggestions are offered which integrate the present findings into past research.

  6. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE HEIGHT DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Test, L.D.

    1958-11-11

    Pulse-height discriminators are described, specifically a differential pulse-height discriminator which is adapted to respond to pulses of a band of amplitudes, but to reject pulses of amplitudes greater or less than tbe preselected band. In general, the discriminator includes a vacuum tube having a plurality of grids adapted to cut off plate current in the tube upon the application of sufficient negative voltage. One grid is held below cutoff, while a positive pulse proportional to the amplltude of each pulse is applled to this grid. Another grid has a negative pulse proportional to the amplitude of each pulse simultaneously applied to it. With this arrangement the tube will only pass pulses which are of sufficlent amplitude to counter the cutoff bias but not of sufficlent amplitude to cutoff the tube.

  7. Louisiana Adult Performance Level Pilot Study: A Comparative Analysis of APL Competency-Based Instructional Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauzat, Sam V.

    Adults enrolled in local adult basic education programs at six sites in Louisiana were used to compare the credibility of Adult Performance Level (APL) competency-based instructional programs (experimental group) with traditional adult education instructional activities (control group). Focus was on determining the correlation between grade level…

  8. Analysis of web height ratios according to age and sex.

    PubMed

    Sari, Elif

    2015-06-01

    Each component of the web space, a three-dimensional structure, should be carefully created during reconstruction of web space loss. One of these web space components is the web height. In this study, the dorsal view of subjects' hands was analyzed to determine the web height ratios. The web height ratios were then compared with respect to age and sex. The second and third web height ratios differed between adult men and women and between children and adults. However, no differences were observed among children. This study is unique because it focuses on the web height ratios of all web spaces according to age and sex and provides a very easy-to-use scale that may help surgeons to perform web space reconstruction. Moreover, the present study adds to the literature by providing information on the first web height ratios of the hand.

  9. Genome-wide association and longitudinal analyses reveal genetic loci linking pubertal height growth, pubertal timing and childhood adiposity.

    PubMed

    Cousminer, Diana L; Berry, Diane J; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ang, Wei; Thiering, Elisabeth; Byrne, Enda M; Taal, H Rob; Huikari, Ville; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Kerkhof, Marjan; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Marinelli, Marcella; Holst, Claus; Leinonen, Jaakko T; Perry, John R B; Surakka, Ida; Pietiläinen, Olli; Kettunen, Johannes; Anttila, Verneri; Kaakinen, Marika; Sovio, Ulla; Pouta, Anneli; Das, Shikta; Lagou, Vasiliki; Power, Chris; Prokopenko, Inga; Evans, David M; Kemp, John P; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan; Palotie, Aarno; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S; Kähönen, Mika; Warrington, Nicole M; Lye, Stephen J; Palmer, Lyle J; Tiesler, Carla M T; Flexeder, Claudia; Montgomery, Grant W; Medland, Sarah E; Hofman, Albert; Hakonarson, Hakon; Guxens, Mònica; Bartels, Meike; Salomaa, Veikko; Murabito, Joanne M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Ballester, Ferran; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Koppelman, Gerard H; Grant, Struan F A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Martin, Nicholas G; Heinrich, Joachim; Pennell, Craig E; Raitakari, Olli T; Eriksson, Johan G; Smith, George Davey; Hyppönen, Elina; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; McCarthy, Mark I; Ripatti, Samuli; Widén, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    The pubertal height growth spurt is a distinctive feature of childhood growth reflecting both the central onset of puberty and local growth factors. Although little is known about the underlying genetics, growth variability during puberty correlates with adult risks for hormone-dependent cancer and adverse cardiometabolic health. The only gene so far associated with pubertal height growth, LIN28B, pleiotropically influences childhood growth, puberty and cancer progression, pointing to shared underlying mechanisms. To discover genetic loci influencing pubertal height and growth and to place them in context of overall growth and maturation, we performed genome-wide association meta-analyses in 18 737 European samples utilizing longitudinally collected height measurements. We found significant associations (P < 1.67 × 10(-8)) at 10 loci, including LIN28B. Five loci associated with pubertal timing, all impacting multiple aspects of growth. In particular, a novel variant correlated with expression of MAPK3, and associated both with increased prepubertal growth and earlier menarche. Another variant near ADCY3-POMC associated with increased body mass index, reduced pubertal growth and earlier puberty. Whereas epidemiological correlations suggest that early puberty marks a pathway from rapid prepubertal growth to reduced final height and adult obesity, our study shows that individual loci associating with pubertal growth have variable longitudinal growth patterns that may differ from epidemiological observations. Overall, this study uncovers part of the complex genetic architecture linking pubertal height growth, the timing of puberty and childhood obesity and provides new information to pinpoint processes linking these traits.

  10. The Effect of Adolescent Experience on Labor Market Outcomes: The Case of Height.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persico, Nicola; Postlewaite, Andrew; Silverman, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Taller workers receive a wage premium. Net of differences in family background, the disparity is similar in magnitude to the race and gender gaps. We exploit variation in an individual's height over time to explore how height affects wages. Controlling for teen height essentially eliminates the effect of adult height on wages for white men. The…

  11. The Effect of Adolescent Experience on Labor Market Outcomes: The Case of Height.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persico, Nicola; Postlewaite, Andrew; Silverman, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Taller workers receive a wage premium. Net of differences in family background, the disparity is similar in magnitude to the race and gender gaps. We exploit variation in an individual's height over time to explore how height affects wages. Controlling for teen height essentially eliminates the effect of adult height on wages for white men. The…

  12. Awareness of Standardised Tobacco Packaging among Adults and Young People during the Final Phase of Policy Implementation in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; Opazo Breton, Magdalena; Langley, Tessa; Britton, John

    2017-07-31

    Background: In May 2016, along with the latest European Tobacco Products Directive (TPD), standardised packaging legislation was implemented in the UK. During the following 12-month transition period, both new and old types of packaging were allowed on the market. This study aimed to assess awareness of standardised packaging and other TPD changes in the UK population in March 2017, when both forms of packaging were in widespread use. Methods: We conducted two surveys-one in adults and one in young people-investigating awareness of plain packaging legislation. In young people, we also measured susceptibility to smoking using previously validated questions. We asked smokers whether they had recently changed the product they used and also whether they used any of the products that are banned by the new legislation. Results: In the adult survey, 73.5% (95% CI: 71.5-75.5%) of the participants were aware of the new legislation and 32.4% (95% CI: 30.3-34.5%) had noticed changes in tobacco packaging, this proportion being considerably higher among smokers (83.7%; 95% CI: 78.9-87.5%) than never smokers (20.7%; 95% CI: 18.2-23.4%). More than half (52.4%; 95% CI: 46.5-58.4%) were using pack sizes or shapes (typically less than 20 cigarettes or 30 g loose tobacco), that would become illegal after full TPD implementation, and 31.4% (95% CI: 26.2-37.1%) reported switching to a different product since October 2016, in most cases to a cheaper brand. Among young people, 20.2% (95% CI: 17.8-22.7%) reported that they had noticed standardised packaging, comprising 16.2% (95% CI: 13.7-19.0%) of non-susceptible never smokers, 25.6% (95% CI: 18.0-35%) of susceptible never smokers, and 49% (95% CI: 37.8-60.2%) of ever smokers. Conclusions: In the final stages of implementation, awareness of the introduction of standardised packs was highest among smokers. The TPD will cause nearly half of adult smokers to purchase larger packs, and may cause many smokers to switch to cheaper brands.

  13. Long-Term, Open-Label Safety and Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Adults with ADHD: Final Report of a 4-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Williams, David W.; Moore, Rodney J.; Michelson, David

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previously, data from 97 weeks of open-label atomoxetine treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were reported. This final report of that study presents results from over 4 years of treatment. Method: Results were derived from the study of 384 patients (125 patients remaining in the open-label trial…

  14. Dissemination and Implementation of a Financial Management Program for Adult/Young Farmers in Vocational Agriculture Programs in Missouri. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Robert; Stewart, Bob R.

    In addition to an eight-page narrative, this final report contains materials and products from phase 2 of a project to develop, disseminate, and implement a three-year sequenced individualized and group instructional program in financial management for adult/young farmers in vocational agriculture. The narrative section discusses the four project…

  15. Developmental timing of a sensory-mediated larval surfacing behavior correlates with cessation of feeding and determination of final adult size

    PubMed Central

    Wegman, Lauren J.; Ainsley, Joshua A.; Johnson, Wayne A.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled organismal growth to an appropriate adult size requires a regulated balance between nutrient resources, feeding behavior and growth rate. Defects can result in decreased survival and/or reproductive capability. Since Drosophila adults do not grow larger after eclosion, timing of feeding cessation during the third and final larval instar is critical to final size. We demonstrate that larval food exit is preceded by a period of increased larval surfacing behavior termed the Intermediate Surfacing Transition(IST) that correlates with the end of larval feeding. This behavioral transition occurred during the larval Terminal Growth Period (TGP), a period of constant feeding and exponential growth of the animal. IST behavior was dependent upon function of a subset of peripheral sensory neurons expressing the Degenerin/Epithelial sodium channel(DEG/ENaC) subunit, Pickpocket1(PPK1). PPK1 neuron inactivation or loss of PPK1 function caused an absence of IST behavior. Transgenic PPK1 neuron hyperactivation caused premature IST behavior with no significant change in timing of larval food exit resulting in decreased final adult size. These results suggest a peripheral sensory mechanism functioning to alter the relationship between the animal and its environment thereby contributing to the length of the larval TGP and determination of final adult size. PMID:20630480

  16. Dissemination and Implementation of a Financial Management Program for Adult/Young Farmers in Vocational Agriculture Programs in Missouri. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Robert; Stewart, Bob R.

    In addition to an eight-page narrative, this final report contains materials and products from phase 2 of a project to develop, disseminate, and implement a three-year sequenced individualized and group instructional program in financial management for adult/young farmers in vocational agriculture. The narrative section discusses the four project…

  17. Measuring Height without a Stadiometer

    PubMed Central

    Froehlich-Grobe, Katherine; Nary, Dorothy E.; Van Sciver, Angela; Lee, Jaehoon; Little, Todd D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare whether four methods to measure or estimate height among wheelchair users result in significantly different estimates and to determine which method is most accurate. Design Height data were obtained for 141 wheelchair users. Height estimates included asking for self-report and measuring recumbent length, knee height, and armspan. All analyses were conducted separately for men and women. A two-group confirmatory factor analysis assessed which measure provided the best estimate of height in this population. It also tested the measurement invariance of the four height estimates between men and women and whether there were significant differences across these estimates within each sex. Results CFA findings indicated that the four measures yielded significantly different height estimates and BMI values for both men and women. For both sexes, armspan resulted in the longest estimate and measured recumbent length the shortest, with the reverse pattern for BMI values. The common variance estimates were outstanding for recumbent length (92%) and knee height (>83%) and very good for self-report (>75%), while the common variance for armspan was poor (<42%). Conclusions The measurement method used to estimate height yields significantly different values for both height and BMI among wheelchair users who cannot stand to be measured using a stadiometer. Recumbent length yields the most accurate height estimate for wheelchair users. However, when logistical and practical considerations pose difficulties for obtaining this measure, height estimates based on knee height and self-report may provide reasonable alternatives. PMID:21681063

  18. Public health assessment for petitioned public health assessment, West Pullman Iron and Metal (a/k/a West Pullman/Victory Heights), Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, Region 5: CERCLIS number ILD005428651. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The West Pullman/Victory Heights/Maple Park site consists of two abandoned industrial properties. The Navistar International Transportation Corporation (Navistar) property is commonly called International Harvester (IH) and the NL Industries, Incorporated property is commonly called Dutch Boy (DB). These industries were active from the early part of this century until the early 1980s when the factories were closed and abandoned. Currently, for people trespassing on the site, both the Dutch Boy and the International Harvester properties represent a potential public health hazard. Limited data are available to assess potential off-site exposures to site-related contaminants, and therefore, exposure to off-site contaminants from the International Harvester and Dutch Boy properties is classified as an indeterminate public health hazard.

  19. Scaling New Heights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Malia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a rock climbing program at Minneapolis-based Courage Center, a rehabilitation and resource center that advances the lives of children and adults experiencing barriers to health and independence. Rock climbing offered participants a unique opportunity for both personal and physical development. The author…

  20. Scaling New Heights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Malia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a rock climbing program at Minneapolis-based Courage Center, a rehabilitation and resource center that advances the lives of children and adults experiencing barriers to health and independence. Rock climbing offered participants a unique opportunity for both personal and physical development. The author…

  1. Applications: Cloud Height at Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The method used at airports in determining the cloud height at night is presented. Several problems, the equation used, and a simple design of an alidade (an instrument that shows cloud heights directly) are also included. (MP)

  2. Birth order progressively affects childhood height.

    PubMed

    Savage, Tim; Derraik, José G B; Miles, Harriet L; Mouat, Fran; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2013-09-01

    There is evidence suggesting that first-born children and adults are anthropometrically different to later-borns. Thus, we aimed to assess whether birth order was associated with changes in growth and metabolism in childhood. We studied 312 healthy prepubertal children: 157 first-borns and 155 later-borns. Children were aged 3-10 years, born 37-41 weeks gestation, and of birth weight appropriate-for-gestational-age. Clinical assessments included measurement of children's height, weight, fasting lipid and hormonal profiles and DEXA-derived body composition. First-borns were taller than later-borns (P < 0·0001), even when adjusted for parents' heights (0·31 vs 0·03 SDS; P = 0·001). There was an incremental height decrease with increasing birth order, so that first-borns were taller than second-borns (P < 0·001), who were in turn taller than third-borns (P = 0·007). Further, among sibling pairs both height SDS (P = 0·009) and adjusted height SDS (P < 0·0001) were lower in second- vs first-born children. Consistent with differences in stature, first- (P = 0·043) and second-borns (P = 0·003) had higher IGF-I concentrations than third-borns. Both first- (P < 0·001) and second-borns (P = 0·004) also had reduced abdominal adiposity (lower android fat to gynoid fat ratio) when compared with third-borns. Other parameters of adiposity and blood lipids were unaffected by birth order. First-borns were taller than later-born children, with an incremental height reduction from first to third birth order. These differences were present after correction for genetic height, and associated to some extent with alterations in plasma IGF-I. Our findings strengthen the evidence that birth order is associated with phenotypic changes in childhood. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K62: Nutrients in infant/adult formula—Vitamins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpless, Katherine E.; Rimmer, Catherine A.; Phinney, Karen W.; Nelson, Bryant C.; Duewer, David L.; Wise, Stephen A.; Kim, Byungjoo; Liu, Jun; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Key comparison CCQM-K62 was designed to enable demonstration of the equivalence in capabilities for measurement of vitamins in a food matrix. A milk-based fortified human infant/adult formula was selected as the matrix based upon material availability and relevance. Because vitamins were added to the CCQM-K62 study material in a single form and at levels significantly higher than those that would be naturally occurring in the milk base, the ability of a laboratory to measure the study vitamins is only indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure vitamins in fortified foods. Target analytes were selected for study because of the ready availability of suitable standard materials and the range of their chemical properties: folic acid (vitamin B9) is a single water-soluble molecular entity that typically occurs at low levels and can be unstable, niacin (vitamin B3) is a single stable molecular entity and is typically present at higher concentrations than the other water-soluble vitamins, vitamin A has multiple molecular forms (including retinol and retinyl palmitate), is fat-soluble and typically occurs at relatively high levels. Results for participants measuring only folic acid or niacin are only indicative of their ability to make that measurement; results for participants measuring both folic acid and niacin are indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure folic acid, thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin in fortified foods but not vitamin C or other water-soluble vitamins. The ability to measure vitamin A (reported as retinol equivalents) in this material is also indicative of the participant's ability to measure vitamin E (as alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl acetate) but is not indicative of the ability to measure vitamins D and K, which typically occur at much lower concentrations. The relative degrees of equivalence of the reported measurements for all three analytes in CCQM-K62 were within 10%; however, since only two results were submitted for niacin

  4. Child and Adult Care Food Program: Meal Pattern Revisions Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-25

    This final rule updates the meal pattern requirements for the Child and Adult Care Food Program to better align them with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. This rule requires centers and day care homes participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program to serve more whole grains and a greater variety of vegetables and fruit, and reduces the amount of added sugars and solid fats in meals. In addition, this final rule supports mothers who breastfeed and improves consistency with the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children and with other Child Nutrition Programs. Several of the changes are extended to the National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, and Special Milk Program. These changes are based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, science-based recommendations made by the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies), cost and practical considerations, and stakeholder's input. This is the first major revision of the Child and Adult Care Food Program meal patterns since the Program's inception in 1968. These improvements to the meals served in the Child and Adult Care Food Program are expected to safeguard the health of young children by ensuring healthy eating habits are developed early, and improve the wellness of adult participants.

  5. Developmental charts for children with osteogenesis imperfecta, type I (body height, body weight and BMI).

    PubMed

    Graff, Krzysztof; Syczewska, Malgorzata

    2017-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of type I collagen. Type I is the most common, which is called a non-deforming type of OI, as in this condition, there are no major bone deformities. This type is characterised by blue sclera and vertebral fractures, leading to mild scoliosis. The body height of these patients is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but there are no data proving this in the literature. The aim of this study is the preparation of the developmental charts of children with OI type I. The anthropometric data of 117 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were used in this study (61 boys and 56 girls). All measurements were pooled together into one database (823 measurements in total). To overcome the problem of the limited number of data being available in certain age classes and gender groups, the method called reverse transformation was used. The body height of the youngest children, aged 2 and 3 years, is less than that of their healthy peers. Children between 4 and 7 years old catch up slightly, but at later ages, development slows down, and in adults, the median body height shows an SDS of -2.7. These results show that children with type I OI are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old, and, ultimately, their body height is impaired. What is Known: • The body height of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but in the known literature, there is no measurement data supporting this opinion. What is New: • Children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old and, ultimately, their final body height is impaired. • The developmental charts for the body height, body weight and BMI of children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are shown.

  6. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania.

    The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of

  7. Effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy on body mass index and height in girls with central precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jae; Yang, Eun Mi; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Chan Jong

    2012-04-01

    Treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist is the treatment of choice for central precocious puberty (CPP). Many of the previous studies concerning the auxological effects of treatment with GnRH agonist in CPP have focused on final height. Much less attention has been paid to changes in body weight. However, concerns have been expressed that CPP may be associated with increased body mass index (BMI) both at initial presentation and during GnRH agonist treatment. We retrospectively reviewed the height and BMI of 38 girls with CPP. All patients were treated with GnRH agonist over 18 months. The height standard deviation score (SDS) for chronological age was significantly decreased during GnRH agonist treatment, whereas the height SDS for bone age was significantly increased. The predicted adult height was increased from 157.78±6.45 cm before treatment to 161.41±8.97 cm at 12 months after treatment. The BMI SDS for chronological age was significantly increased during treatment. The BMI SDS of normal-weight girls increased more than did the BMI SDS of overweight girls, but the increase was not significant. Preventive measures, such as increased physical activity, can be introduced to minimize possible alterations in body weight, and a long-term follow-up study is required to elucidate whether GnRH agonist treatment in Korean girls with CPP affects adult obesity.

  8. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  9. Demonstration, Developmental and Research Project for Programs, Materials, Facilities and Educational Technology for Undereducated Adults: Kentucky State Module. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead State Univ., KY.

    The objectives of this project were to: (1) demonstrate that when a public school-supported Adult Basic Education (ABE) program receives support from other agencies, the quantity of students and the quality and diversity of instruction are increased, (2) demonstrate to the Kentucky State Department of Adult Education the value of individualized…

  10. Assessment of the Status of Bilingual Vocational Training for Adults. Final Report-Phase I. Volume III: Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Morris; And Others

    This literature review is the third volume of a three-volume report on the status of bilingual vocational training (BVT) for adults in the United States. Few studies were found that directly related to conducting bilingual vocational training for adults of limited English-speaking ability. The review is divided into the following sections: (1)…

  11. Evidence of Inbreeding Depression on Human Height

    PubMed Central

    McQuillan, Ruth; Eklund, Niina; Pirastu, Nicola; Kuningas, Maris; McEvoy, Brian P.; Esko, Tõnu; Corre, Tanguy; Davies, Gail; Kaakinen, Marika; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Kristiansson, Kati; Havulinna, Aki S.; Gögele, Martin; Vitart, Veronique; Tenesa, Albert; Aulchenko, Yurii; Hayward, Caroline; Johansson, Åsa; Boban, Mladen; Ulivi, Sheila; Robino, Antonietta; Boraska, Vesna; Igl, Wilmar; Wild, Sarah H.; Zgaga, Lina; Amin, Najaf; Theodoratou, Evropi; Polašek, Ozren; Girotto, Giorgia; Lopez, Lorna M.; Sala, Cinzia; Lahti, Jari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Prokopenko, Inga; Kals, Mart; Viikari, Jorma; Yang, Jian; Pouta, Anneli; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Freimer, Nelson; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kähönen, Mika; Milani, Lili; Heliövaara, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Räikkönen, Katri; Masciullo, Corrado; Starr, John M.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Esposito, Laura; Kolčić, Ivana; Farrington, Susan M.; Oostra, Ben; Zemunik, Tatijana; Campbell, Harry; Kirin, Mirna; Pehlic, Marina; Faletra, Flavio; Porteous, David; Pistis, Giorgio; Widén, Elisabeth; Salomaa, Veikko; Koskinen, Seppo; Fischer, Krista; Lehtimäki, Terho; Heath, Andrew; McCarthy, Mark I.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Montgomery, Grant W.; Tiemeier, Henning; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Madden, Pamela A. F.; d'Adamo, Pio; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Dunlop, Malcolm; Rudan, Igor; Gasparini, Paolo; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Deary, Ian J.; Toniolo, Daniela; Eriksson, Johan G.; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli T.; Metspalu, Andres; Perola, Markus; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Uitterlinden, André; Visscher, Peter M.; Wilson, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%–90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2×10−20). There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT), paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance. PMID:22829771

  12. Height premium for job performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2017-02-02

    This study assessed the relationship of height with wages, using the 1998 and 2012 Korean Labor and Income Panel Study data. The key independent variable was height measured in centimeters, which was included as a series of dummy indicators of height per 5cm span (<155cm, 155-160cm, 160-165cm, and ≥165cm for women; <165cm, 165-170cm, 170-175cm, 175-180cm, and ≥180cm for men). We controlled for household- and individual-level random effects. We used a random-effect quantile regression model for monthly wages to assess the heterogeneity in the height-wage relationship, across the conditional distribution of monthly wages. We found a non-linear relationship of height with monthly wages. For men, the magnitude of the height wage premium was overall larger at the upper quantile of the conditional distribution of log monthly wages than at the median to low quantile, particularly in professional and semi-professional occupations. The height-wage premium was also larger at the 90th quantile for self-employed women and salaried men. Our findings add a global dimension to the existing evidence on height-wage premium, demonstrating non-linearity in the association between height and wages and heterogeneous changes in the dispersion and direction of the association between height and wages, by wage level.

  13. Early life mortality and height in Indian states

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Height is a marker for health, cognitive ability and economic productivity. Recent research on the determinants of height suggests that postneonatal mortality predicts height because it is a measure of the early life disease environment to which a cohort is exposed. This article advances the literature on the determinants of height by examining the role of early life mortality, including neonatal mortality, in India, a large developing country with a very short population. It uses state level variation in neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, and pre-adult mortality to predict the heights of adults born between 1970 and 1983, and neonatal and postneonatal mortality to predict the heights of children born between 1995 and 2005. In contrast to what is found in the literature on developed countries, I find that state level variation in neonatal mortality is a strong predictor of adult and child heights. This may be due to state level variation in, and overall poor levels of, pre-natal nutrition in India. PMID:25499239

  14. More practical critical height sampling.

    Treesearch

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2015-01-01

    Critical Height Sampling (CHS) (Kitamura 1964) can be used to predict cubic volumes per acre without using volume tables or equations. The critical height is defined as the height at which the tree stem appears to be in borderline condition using the point-sampling angle gauge (e.g. prism). An estimate of cubic volume per acre can be obtained from multiplication of the...

  15. Demonstration, Developmental and Research Project for Programs, Materials, Facilities and Educational Technology for Undereducated Adults: Alabama State Module. Adult Basic Education Materials Demonstration Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. C.

    This catalog contains a listing of the audio-visual aids used in the Alabama State Module of the Appalachian Adult Basic Education Program. Aids listed include filmstrips utilized by the following organizations: Columbia, South Carolina State Department of Education; Raleigh, North Carolina State Department of Education; Alden Films of Brooklyn,…

  16. Demonstration, Developmental and Research Project for Programs, Materials, Facilities and Educational Technology for Undereducated Adults: Adult Basic Education Materials Demonstration Project; Alabama State Module. Final Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead State Univ., KY. Appalachian Adult Basic Education Demonstration Center.

    The purpose of this project grant was to demonstrate feasibility of local video tape program development for Adult Basic Education, to determine the instructional effectiveness of that programming with ABE students, and to explore means of A.B.E. teacher improvement through use of videotape. Step one, the production of an audio-visual catalog…

  17. Research on and Guidelines for Effective Use of Assessment Instruments and Strategies for Adult Learners Enrolled in Adult Basic and Literacy Education Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Inst. for the Study of Adult Literacy.

    The goal of this research project was to create a guide on the effective use of assessment instruments and methodologies, related resources, and guidelines for measuring adult learners' attainment of basic skills and competencies to document educational gains and demonstrate program quality. The project focused on confirming current use of…

  18. The limits to tree height.

    PubMed

    Koch, George W; Sillett, Stephen C; Jennings, Gregory M; Davis, Stephen D

    2004-04-22

    Trees grow tall where resources are abundant, stresses are minor, and competition for light places a premium on height growth. The height to which trees can grow and the biophysical determinants of maximum height are poorly understood. Some models predict heights of up to 120 m in the absence of mechanical damage, but there are historical accounts of taller trees. Current hypotheses of height limitation focus on increasing water transport constraints in taller trees and the resulting reductions in leaf photosynthesis. We studied redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens), including the tallest known tree on Earth (112.7 m), in wet temperate forests of northern California. Our regression analyses of height gradients in leaf functional characteristics estimate a maximum tree height of 122-130 m barring mechanical damage, similar to the tallest recorded trees of the past. As trees grow taller, increasing leaf water stress due to gravity and path length resistance may ultimately limit leaf expansion and photosynthesis for further height growth, even with ample soil moisture.

  19. A Variable-Height Wheelchair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jack M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a variable-height wheelchair which can be raised 18 inches above normal chair height by means of an electrically operated screw jack. Photoqraphs illustrate the chair to be convenient and helpful for a handicapped chemistry student. (Author/SK)

  20. A Variable-Height Wheelchair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jack M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a variable-height wheelchair which can be raised 18 inches above normal chair height by means of an electrically operated screw jack. Photoqraphs illustrate the chair to be convenient and helpful for a handicapped chemistry student. (Author/SK)

  1. Effect of Handrail Height on Sit-To-Stand Movement.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Satomi; Kiyama, Ryoji; Yoshimoto, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Care-needing older adults and disabled individuals often require handrails for assistance of movements, such as sit-to-stand movements. Handrails must be set at the appropriate position; however, the effects of handrail height on joint movement and center-of-gravity movements during sit-to-stand movement remain unclear. In the present study, we sought to clarify the effects of handrail height on joint movement, center-of-gravity, and floor reaction force during sit-to-stand movement. Subjects included 16 healthy young adults and 25 older adults who require long-term care. Kinetic and kinematic measurements during sit-to-stand movement of young adults were conducted using a 3-D motion analyzer and a force plate. Trunk forward tilt angle during sit-to-stand movement of older adults was measured using a still image from a video recording. Using low handrails, sit-to-stand movement resulted in an increased hip flexion angle, ankle dorsiflexion angle, and trunk forward tilt angle and a greater forward center-of-gravity shift than when not using handrails in young adults during seat-off. In contrast, using high handrails resulted in a smaller hip flexion angle and trunk forward tilt angle in young adults. The backward force on the floor was decreased in the low handrail condition, and was increased in the high handrail condition rather than that of sit-to-stand movement without handrails in young adults. The effect of handrail height on trunk forward tilt angle was the same in both healthy young adults and care-needing older adults during seat-off. Because handrail height affects joint movement and shift in the center-of-gravity during sit-to-stand movement, handrail position should be selected to match the status of older adults with functional impairment.

  2. Effect of Handrail Height on Sit-To-Stand Movement

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Satomi; Kiyama, Ryoji; Yoshimoto, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Care-needing older adults and disabled individuals often require handrails for assistance of movements, such as sit-to-stand movements. Handrails must be set at the appropriate position; however, the effects of handrail height on joint movement and center-of-gravity movements during sit-to-stand movement remain unclear. In the present study, we sought to clarify the effects of handrail height on joint movement, center-of-gravity, and floor reaction force during sit-to-stand movement. Methods Subjects included 16 healthy young adults and 25 older adults who require long-term care. Kinetic and kinematic measurements during sit-to-stand movement of young adults were conducted using a 3-D motion analyzer and a force plate. Trunk forward tilt angle during sit-to-stand movement of older adults was measured using a still image from a video recording. Results Using low handrails, sit-to-stand movement resulted in an increased hip flexion angle, ankle dorsiflexion angle, and trunk forward tilt angle and a greater forward center-of-gravity shift than when not using handrails in young adults during seat-off. In contrast, using high handrails resulted in a smaller hip flexion angle and trunk forward tilt angle in young adults. The backward force on the floor was decreased in the low handrail condition, and was increased in the high handrail condition rather than that of sit-to-stand movement without handrails in young adults. The effect of handrail height on trunk forward tilt angle was the same in both healthy young adults and care-needing older adults during seat-off. Conclusion Because handrail height affects joint movement and shift in the center-of-gravity during sit-to-stand movement, handrail position should be selected to match the status of older adults with functional impairment. PMID:26207755

  3. Phonetic variation in consonants in infant-directed and adult-directed speech: the case of regressive place assimilation in word-final alveolar stops.

    PubMed

    Dilley, Laura C; Millett, Amanda L; McAuley, J Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R

    2014-01-01

    Pronunciation variation is under-studied in infant-directed speech, particularly for consonants. Regressive place assimilation involves a word-final alveolar stop taking the place of articulation of a following word-initial consonant. We investigated pronunciation variation in word-final alveolar stop consonants in storybooks read by forty-eight mothers in adult-directed or infant-directed style to infants aged approximately 0;3, 0;9, 1;1, or 1;8. We focused on phonological environments where regressive place assimilation could occur, i.e., when the stop preceded a word-initial labial or velar consonant. Spectrogram, waveform, and perceptual evidence was used to classify tokens into four pronunciation categories: canonical, assimilated, glottalized, or deleted. Results showed a reliable tendency for canonical variants to occur in infant-directed speech more often than in adult-directed speech. However, the otherwise very similar distributions of variants across addressee and age group suggested that infants largely experience statistical distributions of non-canonical consonantal pronunciation variants that mirror those experienced by adults.

  4. Methodological Considerations in Estimation of Phenotype Heritability Using Genome-Wide SNP Data, Illustrated by an Analysis of the Heritability of Height in a Large Sample of African Ancestry Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; He, Jing; Zhang, Jianqi; Chen, Gary K.; Thomas, Venetta; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Cai, Qiuyin; Carpten, John; Casey, Graham; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cheng, Iona; Chu, Lisa; Deming, Sandra L.; Driver, W. Ryan; Goodman, Phyllis; Hayes, Richard B.; Hennis, Anselm J. M.; Hsing, Ann W.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; John, Esther M.; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolb, Suzanne; Leske, M. Cristina; Monroe, Kristine R.; Murphy, Adam; Nemesure, Barbara; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Ostrander, Elaine A; Press, Michael F.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rybicki, Ben A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Stanford, Janet L.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Strom, Sara S.; Stevens, Victoria; Van Den Berg, David; Wang, Zhaoming; Witte, John S.; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Yamamura, Yuko; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Stram, Alexander H.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Marchand, Loïc Le; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Stram, Daniel O.

    2015-01-01

    Height has an extremely polygenic pattern of inheritance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed hundreds of common variants that are associated with human height at genome-wide levels of significance. However, only a small fraction of phenotypic variation can be explained by the aggregate of these common variants. In a large study of African-American men and women (n = 14,419), we genotyped and analyzed 966,578 autosomal SNPs across the entire genome using a linear mixed model variance components approach implemented in the program GCTA (Yang et al Nat Genet 2010), and estimated an additive heritability of 44.7% (se: 3.7%) for this phenotype in a sample of evidently unrelated individuals. While this estimated value is similar to that given by Yang et al in their analyses, we remain concerned about two related issues: (1) whether in the complete absence of hidden relatedness, variance components methods have adequate power to estimate heritability when a very large number of SNPs are used in the analysis; and (2) whether estimation of heritability may be biased, in real studies, by low levels of residual hidden relatedness. We addressed the first question in a semi-analytic fashion by directly simulating the distribution of the score statistic for a test of zero heritability with and without low levels of relatedness. The second question was addressed by a very careful comparison of the behavior of estimated heritability for both observed (self-reported) height and simulated phenotypes compared to imputation R2 as a function of the number of SNPs used in the analysis. These simulations help to address the important question about whether today's GWAS SNPs will remain useful for imputing causal variants that are discovered using very large sample sizes in future studies of height, or whether the causal variants themselves will need to be genotyped de novo in order to build a prediction model that ultimately captures a large fraction of the variability

  5. Methodological Considerations in Estimation of Phenotype Heritability Using Genome-Wide SNP Data, Illustrated by an Analysis of the Heritability of Height in a Large Sample of African Ancestry Adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; He, Jing; Zhang, Jianqi; Chen, Gary K; Thomas, Venetta; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Cai, Qiuyin; Carpten, John; Casey, Graham; Chanock, Stephen J; Cheng, Iona; Chu, Lisa; Deming, Sandra L; Driver, W Ryan; Goodman, Phyllis; Hayes, Richard B; Hennis, Anselm J M; Hsing, Ann W; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Kittles, Rick A; Kolb, Suzanne; Leske, M Cristina; Millikan, Robert C; Monroe, Kristine R; Murphy, Adam; Nemesure, Barbara; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Ostrander, Elaine A; Press, Michael F; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rybicki, Ben A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Stanford, Janet L; Signorello, Lisa B; Strom, Sara S; Stevens, Victoria; Van Den Berg, David; Wang, Zhaoming; Witte, John S; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Yamamura, Yuko; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Stram, Alexander H; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loïc; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A; Stram, Daniel O

    2015-01-01

    Height has an extremely polygenic pattern of inheritance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed hundreds of common variants that are associated with human height at genome-wide levels of significance. However, only a small fraction of phenotypic variation can be explained by the aggregate of these common variants. In a large study of African-American men and women (n = 14,419), we genotyped and analyzed 966,578 autosomal SNPs across the entire genome using a linear mixed model variance components approach implemented in the program GCTA (Yang et al Nat Genet 2010), and estimated an additive heritability of 44.7% (se: 3.7%) for this phenotype in a sample of evidently unrelated individuals. While this estimated value is similar to that given by Yang et al in their analyses, we remain concerned about two related issues: (1) whether in the complete absence of hidden relatedness, variance components methods have adequate power to estimate heritability when a very large number of SNPs are used in the analysis; and (2) whether estimation of heritability may be biased, in real studies, by low levels of residual hidden relatedness. We addressed the first question in a semi-analytic fashion by directly simulating the distribution of the score statistic for a test of zero heritability with and without low levels of relatedness. The second question was addressed by a very careful comparison of the behavior of estimated heritability for both observed (self-reported) height and simulated phenotypes compared to imputation R2 as a function of the number of SNPs used in the analysis. These simulations help to address the important question about whether today's GWAS SNPs will remain useful for imputing causal variants that are discovered using very large sample sizes in future studies of height, or whether the causal variants themselves will need to be genotyped de novo in order to build a prediction model that ultimately captures a large fraction of the variability

  6. Height-related risk factors for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Norrish, A E; McRae, C U; Holdaway, I M; Jackson, R T

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that adult height is positively associated with the risk of prostate cancer. The authors carried out a population-based case-control study involving 317 prostate cancer cases and 480 controls to further investigate the possibility that height is more strongly associated with advanced, compared with localized forms of this disease. Since the inherited endocrine factors, which in part determine height attained during the growing years, may influence the risk of familial prostate cancer later in life, the relationship with height was also investigated for familial versus sporadic prostate cancers. Adult height was not related to the risk of localized prostate cancer, but there was a moderate positive association between increasing height and the risk of advanced cancer (relative risk (RR) = 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-2.73, upper versus lowest quartile, P-trend = 0.07). Height was more strongly associated with the risk of prostate cancer in men with a positive family history compared with those reporting a negative family history. The RR of advanced prostate cancer for men in the upper height quartile with a positive family history was 7.41 (95% CI 1.68-32.67, P-trend = 0.02) compared with a reference group comprised of men in the shortest height quartile with a negative family history. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels did not correlate with height amongst men with familial or sporadic prostate cancers. These findings provide evidence for the existence of growth-related risk factors for prostate cancer, particularly for advanced and familial forms of this disease. The possible existence of inherited mechanisms affecting both somatic and tumour growth deserves further investigation.

  7. The Total Impact Model: A Community College/Trade School Collaboration for Learning Disabled Young Adults. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perin, Dolores; Flugman, Bert

    The report describes a federally funded 3-year demonstration program for the vocational training of urban young adults with severe learning diasbilities who have left high school special education programs. The program, "The Integrated Skills Vocational Training Program," involved the collaboration of a not-for-profit trade school, the…

  8. A Long-Range Follow-up of Post-Secondary Vocational, Technical and Adult Education Graduates. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    A study examined the job-related skills acquired and career opportunities that have arisen for 1966, 1971, and 1976 graduates of postsecondary vocational-technical programs in Wisconsin's Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education (VTAE) system. Fifteen VTAE graduates from each of the years 1966, 1971, and 1976 completed a 26-item survey designed…

  9. State-Wide Survey of Adult Vocational Education Programs and Services (Secondary and Post-Secondary Levels). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Fredric A.

    A statewide survey was made to provide current data on the status, nature, content, and scope of Adult Vocational Education (AVE) in Illinois. In addition, the study staff identified some exemplary program elements from which an AVE model program was synthesized. Survey data were collected from interviews with State personnel and from…

  10. Effective Vocational Guidance of the Adult Deaf. The Oregon Vocational Research Project June 1, 1966-August 31, 1970. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, David G., Ed.; And Others

    The data and findings of a four-year study designed to organize a battery of psychological tests for assessing the vocational adjustment of adult deaf and to establish the validity of the individual tests, as well as provide some information regarding their most economic and productive potential use, are presented. The study population was all…

  11. Descriptions of the final instar larvae of seven Chinese Chlorogomphidae species, with taxonomic notes on adults (Odonata: Anisoptera).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haomiao; Tong, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    The larvae of seven species of Chlorogomphidae from South China are described based on reared larvae, i.e. Chlorogomphus kitawakii Karube, C. nasutus nasutus Needham, C. papilio Ris, C. shanicus Wilson, C. usudai Ishida, C. yokoii Karube and Chloropetalia soarer Wilson. The adult female of C. kitawakii is first described. Biological information on Chlorogomphidae is provided and a diagnosis of the family proposed.

  12. A Prevention Education Project on the Abuse and Mistreatment of Older Adults in Northern Saskatchewan. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    A project was designed to begin an Elder Abuse Prevention Education initiative specific to northern and Aboriginal needs in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The key principle in every dimension of the project was getting to know one another and talking with Aboriginal older adults and those who work with them. In early 1993, LaRonge, Saskatchewan,…

  13. Washington State Even Start 1993-1994: Final Evaluation. A Report to the Office of Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglitzin, Lynne; Wandschneider, Mary

    All 18 Washington State Even Start sites participated in the program's evaluation. Site coordinators administered the assessment and evaluation measures to the adults served by the program and to teachers working with children at both entry and exit from the program. An indepth study was conducted of 134 families for whom there were complete sets…

  14. Demonstration, Developmental and Research Project for Programs, Materials, Facilities and Educational Technology for Undereducated Adults: Georgia State Module. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Thelma P.; Yeatts, Pearline

    The major purpose of the Georgia State Module was to demonstrate and investigate effective recruiting methods for Adult Basic Education (ABE) classes in the Appalachian Region of Georgia. In order to better understand the strengths and limitations of recruiters with differing backgrounds, this project utilized college students, lay persons,…

  15. A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of 284 Adults Classified as Learning Disabled When They Were Second Graders. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingey, Carol; Mortensen, Lance

    A follow-up study was undertaken of 284 adults who were diagnosed as learning disabled during second grade in 1968. At the time of follow up, the sample was 26 to 27 years old; 91 of these individuals were located by telephone and 4 were contacted by mail. The follow-up study used a questionnaire to determine participants' current status in five…

  16. Adult Basic Education Project: Career Centers Program: Division of Extension and Continuing Education: University of Puerto Rico: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico Univ., Rio Piedras. Div. of Extension and Continuing Education.

    The demonstration project, running from June 1971 to June 1974, sought to reduce the educational and occupational disadvantages of Puerto Rican unemployed and underemployed adults. The program served 1,241 participants, ranging in age from 16 to 60 and in grade level from zero to approximately twelfth grade. Average attendance was 24 days, on a…

  17. Automated Student and Adult Learner Follow-up System. Final Report for Program Year 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Austin.

    The Texas Automated Student and Adult Learner Follow-Up System was developed as part of a larger effort to improve and coordinate the delivery of education and training of a skilled work force. The primary task of the Follow-Up System in Program Year 1993-94 was to obtain outcome information on the former students and participants of the work…

  18. MOBRAL--Seminario Interamericano de Educacion de Adultos (MOBRAL--Interamerican Seminar on Adult Education). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Movimento Brasileiro de Alfabetizacao.

    The report contains the substance of the MOBRAL (Movimento Brasileiro de Alfabetizacao)--Interamerican Seminar on Adult Education held in Rio de Janeiro from April 9th to 18th, 1973, for invited representatives from 21 Latin America and Caribbean countries. The object was to make a contribution to the collective task of identifying, defining, and…

  19. A Total System Approach Attacking the Educational Problems of the Illiterate Spanish-Surnamed Adults. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwestern Cooperative Educational Lab., Albuquerque, NM.

    A program for the development and production of basic oral English lessons for the non-English-speaking, Spanish-speaking adults is discussed. This program is conceptualized incorporated animation, choreography, and other entertaining elements coupled with the instructional features of the lessons. Steps were taken to develop a total educational…

  20. Generational effects and gender height dimorphism in contemporary Spain.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; Gil, Joan

    2008-03-01

    We examine the influence of socio-environmental (and birth cohort specific) effects on both adult height and gender dimorphism (height gap). Our data set is from contemporary Spain, a country governed by an authoritarian regime for about 40 years. Both OLS and quantile regression approaches are used to examine these patterns. Furthermore, we then draw upon a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to explain the influence of socio-political environment in explaining gender dimorphism. Our findings point to a significant increase in adult height in the generations that benefited from the country's economic liberalization in the 1950s, and especially among those brought up after the transition to democracy in the 1970s. In contrast, individual heterogeneity suggests that only in recent generations has "height increased more among the tallest". We also find that the effects of education on height are greater among shorter individuals. Although the mean gender difference in height is 11.7cm, birth cohort and capabilities effects along with other controls explain on average roughly 4% of the gender height dimorphism, irrespective of the quantile considered.

  1. Effects of low-pass filtering on the perception of word-final plurality markers in children and adults with normal hearing

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Hodson, Hannah; McCreery, Ryan W.; Calandruccio, Lauren; Buss, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-pass filtering on the detection of word-final /s/ and /z/ for children and adults with normal hearing. Method Stimuli were nouns from the UWO Plurals Test (Glista & Scollie, 2012), low-pass filtered with five different cutoff frequencies: 8000, 5000, 4000, 3000, and 2000 Hz. Listeners were children (age range = 7 to 13 years) and adults with normal hearing. The task was a two-alternative forced-choice with a picture-pointing response. Results Performance was worse for lower than for higher low-pass filter cutoff frequencies, but the effect of low-pass filtering was similar for children and adults. Nearly all listeners achieved 100%-correct performance when stimuli were low-pass filtered with cutoff frequencies of 8000 or 5000 Hz. Performance remained well above chance even for the most severe filtering condition (2000 Hz). Restricting high-frequency audibility influenced performance for plural items to a greater extent than for singular items. Conclusions The results indicate that children and adults with normal hearing can use acoustic information below the spectral range of frication noise typically associated with /s/ and /z/ to discriminate between singular and plural forms of nouns in the context of the UWO Plurals Test. PMID:25036654

  2. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  3. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key points Vertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer. The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s-2 and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement. Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  4. Taking America To New Heights

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is taking America to new heights with its Commercial Crew Development Round 2 (CCDev2) partners. In 2011, NASA entered into funded Space Act Agreements (SAAs) w...

  5. Olive School, Arlington Heights, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington Heights, Illinois. (Author/RK)

  6. Olive School, Arlington Heights, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington Heights, Illinois. (Author/RK)

  7. Genome-wide association and longitudinal analyses reveal genetic loci linking pubertal height growth, pubertal timing and childhood adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Cousminer, Diana L.; Berry, Diane J.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ang, Wei; Thiering, Elisabeth; Byrne, Enda M.; Taal, H. Rob; Huikari, Ville; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Marinelli, Marcella; Holst, Claus; Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Perry, John R.B.; Surakka, Ida; Pietiläinen, Olli; Kettunen, Johannes; Anttila, Verneri; Kaakinen, Marika; Sovio, Ulla; Pouta, Anneli; Das, Shikta; Lagou, Vasiliki; Power, Chris; Prokopenko, Inga; Evans, David M.; Kemp, John P.; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan; Palotie, Aarno; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S.; Kähönen, Mika; Warrington, Nicole M.; Lye, Stephen J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Tiesler, Carla M.T.; Flexeder, Claudia; Montgomery, Grant W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hofman, Albert; Hakonarson, Hakon; Guxens, Mònica; Bartels, Meike; Salomaa, Veikko; Murabito, Joanne M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Ballester, Ferran; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heinrich, Joachim; Pennell, Craig E.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Smith, George Davey; Hyppönen, Elina; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; McCarthy, Mark I.; Ripatti, Samuli; Widén, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The pubertal height growth spurt is a distinctive feature of childhood growth reflecting both the central onset of puberty and local growth factors. Although little is known about the underlying genetics, growth variability during puberty correlates with adult risks for hormone-dependent cancer and adverse cardiometabolic health. The only gene so far associated with pubertal height growth, LIN28B, pleiotropically influences childhood growth, puberty and cancer progression, pointing to shared underlying mechanisms. To discover genetic loci influencing pubertal height and growth and to place them in context of overall growth and maturation, we performed genome-wide association meta-analyses in 18 737 European samples utilizing longitudinally collected height measurements. We found significant associations (P < 1.67 × 10−8) at 10 loci, including LIN28B. Five loci associated with pubertal timing, all impacting multiple aspects of growth. In particular, a novel variant correlated with expression of MAPK3, and associated both with increased prepubertal growth and earlier menarche. Another variant near ADCY3-POMC associated with increased body mass index, reduced pubertal growth and earlier puberty. Whereas epidemiological correlations suggest that early puberty marks a pathway from rapid prepubertal growth to reduced final height and adult obesity, our study shows that individual loci associating with pubertal growth have variable longitudinal growth patterns that may differ from epidemiological observations. Overall, this study uncovers part of the complex genetic architecture linking pubertal height growth, the timing of puberty and childhood obesity and provides new information to pinpoint processes linking these traits. PMID:23449627

  8. MULTI-CHANNEL PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, K.; Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-11-25

    An improved multi-channel pulse height analyzer of the type where the device translates the amplitude of each pulse into a time duration electrical quantity which is utilized to control the length of a train of pulses forwarded to a scaler is described. The final state of the scaler for any one train of pulses selects the appropriate channel in a magnetic memory in which an additional count of one is placed. The improvement consists of a storage feature for storing a signal pulse so that in many instances when two signal pulses occur in rapid succession, the second pulse is preserved and processed at a later time.

  9. Vitamin C in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.22.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Esther Campos; Martin, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    To determine the repeatability and reproducibility values of the AOAC INTERNATIONAL First Action Method 2012.22, Vitamin C in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection, a collaborative study was organized. The study was divided into two parts: method setup and qualification of participants (part 1) and collaborative study participation (part 2). During part 1, each laboratory was asked to analyze two practice samples using the aforementioned method. Laboratories that provided results within a range of expected levels were qualified for part 2, where they analyzed 10 samples in blind duplicates. Two of the samples were suspected of spoilage during the test and new cans of the same type of product were analyzed by a subset of laboratories in part 3. The results were compared with Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR®) 2012.012 established for vitamin C. The precision results were within the requirements stated in the SMPR: 1.4-7.3% and 3.2-11.4% respectively, for repeatability and reproducibility. Finally, Horwitz ratio values were all <2 (0.5-1.7). The Expert Review Panel for Stakeholder Panel for Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Nutrient Methods determined that the data presented met the SMPR and therefore recommended the method be granted Final Action status.

  10. Waist to height ratio is a simple and effective obesity screening tool for cardiovascular risk factors: Analysis of data from the British National Diet And Nutrition Survey of adults aged 19-64 years.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Margaret; Gibson, Sigrid

    2009-01-01

    To analyse data from the nationally representative National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) collected in 2000/2001 and to investigate how the BMI and two proxy indicators of central fat distribution, namely the waist circumference and the waist to height ratio (WHtR), are associated with each other and with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Screening health risk by BMI alone would 'miss' 35% of men and 14% of women who are within the normal BMI range (18.5-25 kg/m(2)) but have central fat distribution, defined by WHtR > 0.5. In the total population this equates to 17% of all men and 6% of all women who would be inadequately screened by BMI alone. Compared to BMI, WHtR was more closely associated with CVD risk factors among both men and women. Furthermore, in a combined analysis of men and women, central fat distribution with a normal BMI was associated with higher levels of CVD risk factors than being overweight without central fat distribution. WHtR is a simple and effective, non-invasive screening tool for CVD risk factors. Our proposed boundary value of 0.5 translates into a simple public health message: 'Keep your waist circumference to less than half your height'. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Boundary Layer Heights from CALIOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, R.; Ackerman, S. A.; Holz, R.; Roubert, L.

    2012-12-01

    This work is focused on the development of a planetary boundary layer (PBL) height retrieval algorithm for CALIOP and validation studies. Our current approach uses a wavelet covariance transform analysis technique to find the top of the boundary layer. We use the methodology similar to that found in Davis et. al. 2000, ours has been developed to work with the lower SNR data provided by CALIOP, and is intended to work autonomously. Concurrently developed with the CALIOP algorithm we will show results from a PBL height retrieval algorithm from profiles of potential temperature, these are derived from Aircraft Meteorological DAta Relay (AMDAR) observations. Results from 5 years of collocated AMDAR - CALIOP retrievals near O'Hare airport demonstrate good agreement between the CALIOP - AMDAR retrievals. In addition, because we are able to make daily retrievals from the AMDAR measurements, we are able to observe the seasonal and annual variation in the PBL height at airports that have sufficient instrumented-aircraft traffic. Also, a comparison has been done between the CALIOP retrievals and the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) PBL height retrievals acquired during the GoMACCS experiment. Results of this comparison, like the AMDAR comparison are favorable. Our current work also involves the analysis and verification of the CALIOP PBL height retrieval from the 6 year CALIOP global data set. Results from this analysis will also be presented.

  12. Measuring Ice Sheet Height with ICESat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, K.; Smith, B.; Neumann, T.; Hancock, D.

    2015-12-01

    ICESat-2 is NASA's next-generation laser altimeter, designed to measure changes in ice sheet height and sea ice freeboard. Over the ice sheets, it will use a continuous repeat-track pointing strategy to ensure that it accurately measures elevation changes along a set of reference tracks. Over most of the area of Earth's ice sheets, ICESat-2 will provide coverage with a track-to-track spacing better than ~3 km. The onboard ATLAS instrument will use a photon-counting approach to provide a global geolocated photon point cloud, which is then converted into surface-specific elevation data sets. In this presentation, we will outline our strategy for taking the low-level photon point cloud and turning it into measurements posted at 20 m along-track for a set of pre-defined reference points by (1) selecting groups of photon events (PEs) around each along-track point, (2) refining the initial PE selection by fitting selected PEs with an along-track segment model and eliminating outliers to the model, (3) applying histogram-based corrections to the surface height based on the residuals to the along-track segment model, (4) calculate error estimates based on estimates of relative contributions of signal and noise PEs to the observed PE count, and (5) determining the final location and surface height of the along-track segment. These measurements are then corrected for short-scale (100-200 m) across-track surface topography around the reference points to develop a time series of land ice heights. The resulting data products will allow us to measure ice sheet elevation change with a point-for-point accuracy of a few centimeters over Earth's ice sheets.

  13. The height premium in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kitae

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Indonesian Family Life Survey for the year 2007, this paper estimates that a 10 cm increase in physical stature is associated with an increase in earnings of 7.5% for men and 13.0% for women, even after controlling for an extensive set of productivity variables. When the height premium is estimated by sector, it is 12.3% for self-employed men and 18.0% for self-employed women; a height premium of 11.1% is also estimated for women in the private sector. In the public sector, however, the height premium estimate is not statistically significant for either men or women. This paper provides further evidence of discrimination based on customers' preferences for tall workers.

  14. Tree Height Calculator: An Android App for Estimating Tree Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burca, V. S.; Htet, N. M.; Huang, X.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Morelli, R.; Gourley, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventionally, measuring tree height requires a collection of different tools - clinometer, transit, pencil, paper, laptop computer. Results are recorded manually and entered into a spreadsheet or database for future calculation and analysis. Tree Height Calculator is a mobile Android app the integrates the various steps in this process thereby improving the accuracy and dramatically reducing the time required to go from taking measurements to analyzing data. Given the user's height and the distance from the base of the tree (which can be downloaded into the app from a server), the app uses the phone's orientation sensor to calculate the angle of elevation. A simple trigonometric formula is then used to calculate and record the tree's height in the phone's database. When the phone has a WiFi connection, the data are transmitted to a server, from where they can be downloaded directly into a spreadsheet. The application was first tested in an Environmental Science laboratory at Trinity College. On the first trial, 103 data samples were collected, stored, and uploaded to the online database with only couple of dropped data points. On the second trial, 98 data samples were gathered with no loss of data. The app combined the individual measurements taken by the students in the lab, reducing the time required to produce a graph of the class's results from days to hours.

  15. Fear of heights in infants?

    PubMed

    Adolph, Karen E; Kretch, Kari S; LoBue, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Based largely on the famous "visual cliff" paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion-the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible.

  16. Fear of heights in infants?

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Kretch, Kari S.; LoBue, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Based largely on the famous “visual cliff” paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion—the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible. PMID:25267874

  17. Down on heights? One in three has visual height intolerance.

    PubMed

    Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Brandt, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The distressing phenomenon of visual height intolerance (vHI) occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing control of balance and falling from some height. Epidemiological data of this condition in the general population are lacking. Assignment of prevalence, determinants, and compensation of vHI was performed in a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 3,517 individuals representing the German population. Life-time prevalence of vHI is 28 % (females 32 %). A higher prevalence is associated independently with a family history of vHI, anxiety disorders, migraine, or motion sickness susceptibility. Women aged 50-59 have a higher prevalence than younger women or men of all ages. Initial attacks occur most often (30 %) in the second decade; however, attacks can manifest throughout life. The main symptoms are fearfulness, inner agitation, a queasy-stomach feeling, subjective postural instability with to-and-fro vertigo, and weakness in the knees. Climbing a tower is the first most common precipitating stimulus; the spectrum of such stimuli widens with time in more than 50 % of afflicted individuals. The most frequent reaction to vHI is to avoid the triggering stimuli (>50 %); 11 % of susceptible individuals consult a doctor, most often a general practitioner, neurologist, ENT doctor, or psychiatrist. In brief, visual height intolerance affects one-third of the general population, considerably restricting the majority of these individuals in their daily activities. The data show that the two terms do not indicate a categorical distinction but rather a continuum from slight forms of visual height intolerance to the specific phobia of fear of heights.

  18. Height and skeletal morphology in relation to modern life style.

    PubMed

    Hermanussen, Michael; Scheffler, Christiane; Groth, Detlef; Aßmann, Christian

    2015-12-08

    Height and skeletal morphology strongly relate to life style. Parallel to the decrease in physical activity and locomotion, modern people are slimmer in skeletal proportions. In German children and adolescents, elbow breadth and particularly relative pelvic breadth (50th centile of bicristal distance divided by body height) have significantly decreased in recent years. Even more evident than the changes in pelvic morphology are the rapid changes in body height in most modern countries since the end-19th and particularly since the mid-20th century. Modern Japanese mature earlier; the age at take-off (ATO, the age at which the adolescent growth spurt starts) decreases, and they are taller at all ages. Preece-Baines modelling of six national samples of Japanese children and adolescents, surveyed between 1955 and 2000, shows that this gain in height is largely an adolescent trend, whereas height at take-off (HTO) increased by less than 3 cm since 1955; adolescent growth (height gain between ATO and adult age) increased by 6 cm. The effect of globalization on the modern post-war Japanese society ("community effect in height") on adolescent growth is discussed.

  19. Effects of petroleum-contaminated waterways on migratory behavior of adult pink salmon. Final report, 1987-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.J.; Whitmus, C.J.; Nevissi, A.E.; Cox, J.M.; Brocklehurst, L.A.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the effect of oil-contaminated water on the migratory behavior of adult pink salmon. Salmon behavior with and without oil contamination was examined during migration through Jakalof Bay in Alaska. Behavioral responses were measured in horizontal and vertical movement patterns, swimming speed, and duration-of-return to the home stream. Three control and three treatment experiments were conducted. The treatment group was exposed to a solution of aromatic hydrocarbons, similar in composition to Prudhoe Bay crude oil, which was injected into Jakalof Bay midway between a salmon holding pen and Jakalof Creek, a migratory stream. The study found that (1) migrating salmon do not appear to avoid oil-contaminated water with hydrocarbon concentrations at levels of 1 to 10 ppb, but do experience disorientation; (2) disorientation behaviors include searching and negative rheotaxis (retreat); (3) disorientation temporarily disrupts migration, but salmon eventually return to the home stream. These findings suggest that, even at concentrations too low to cause tainting or mortality, salmon exposed to hydrocarbons during migration retreat to re-establish orientation.

  20. Sea Surface Height 1993 - 2011

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation depicts year-to-year variability in sea surface height, and chronicles two decades of El Niño and La Niña events. It was created using NASA ocean altimetry data from 1993 to 2011, ...

  1. Rise Heights of Lazy Fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Gary

    2005-11-01

    The initial rise height zm of turbulent Boussinesq fountains is determined analytically for small and large source Froude numbers Fr0. Solutions were obtained after recasting the plume conservations equations of Morton, Taylor & Turner (1956) in terms of the inverse square of a local Froude number and a local dimensionless fountain width. For large Fr0, the fountain is `forced' and the well-established linear increase of the rise height with Fr0 is obtained, i.e. zm/r0˜Fr0; r0 denoting the source radius. However, for small Fr0 the fountain is `lazy' and the dependence zm/r0˜Fr0^2 more sensitive. Additionally, the rise height for lazy fountains is predicted to be independent of the entrainment coefficient α. Comparison of our solutions with existing experimental and numerical results of fountain rise height, as well as with our own experimental results, show good agreement and support the derived scalings. Experimental results suggest that the entrainment coefficient for highly-forced fountains is αf 0.058, i.e. closer to that of a jet than of a plume. Morton, B. R., Taylor, G. I. & Turner, J. S. (1956), "Turbulent gravitational convection from maintained and instantaneous sources", Proc. Roy. Soc. A 234, 1-23.

  2. Global patterns and determinants of forest canopy height.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shengli; Guo, Qinghua; Li, Chao; Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun

    2016-12-01

    Forest canopy height is an important indicator of forest biomass, species diversity, and other ecosystem functions; however, the climatic determinants that underlie its global patterns have not been fully explored. Using satellite LiDAR-derived forest canopy heights and field measurements of the world's giant trees, combined with climate indices, we evaluated the global patterns and determinants of forest canopy height. The mean canopy height was highest in tropical regions, but tall forests (>50 m) occur at various latitudes. Water availability, quantified by the difference between annual precipitation and annual potential evapotranspiration (P-PET), was the best predictor of global forest canopy height, which supports the hydraulic limitation hypothesis. However, in striking contrast with previous studies, the canopy height exhibited a hump-shaped curve along a gradient of P-PET: it initially increased, then peaked at approximately 680 mm of P-PET, and finally declined, which suggests that excessive water supply negatively affects the canopy height. This trend held true across continents and forest types, and it was also validated using forest inventory data from China and the United States. Our findings provide new insights into the climatic controls of the world's giant trees and have important implications for forest management and improvement of forest growth models.

  3. Change of patellar height with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Kar, Maitreyee Nandi; Bhakta, Abhijit; Mondal, Gopal Chandra; Bandyopadhyay, Maitreyi; Kar, Chinmaya; Nandi, Sujit Narayan

    2012-12-01

    Patellar height is one of the important parameter in patellar stability. Growth spurt or excessive physical strain can lead to high-riding patella or patella alta. But this is not yet proved. This study was mainly targeted at eliciting the influence of age on Insall-Salvati index, one of the important index to measure patellar height. As the present study is meant for measuring the patellar height separately in male and female, it is also to find out the effect of gender on patellar height if any. The study was been conducted in North Bengal Medical College and Hospital among 93 subjects covering both adult and adolescent age groups. Patellar height of respective subjects was measured radiologically using Insall-Salvati Index; results were extrapolated for statistical analysis. It revealed that value of Insall-Salvati index was higher in adult compared to adolescent group but the difference was not statistically significant. Statistical tests shows no significant difference in Insall-Salvati index according to sex. While screening the athletes patella alta must be kept in mind as this can be associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome, chondromalacia patellae, knees with apophysitis of tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schiatter disease). Not only that, significant cause of recurrent patellar dislocation can be associated with patella alta

  4. Estrogen-mediated Height Control in Girls with Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Hyun, Hye Sun; Huh, Rimm; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a stepwise regimen of estradiol valerate for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome. Eight girls with Marfan syndrome who had completed estrogen treatment for height control were included. Estradiol valerate was started at a dose of 2 mg/day, and then was increased. The projected final height was estimated using the initial height percentile (on a disease-specific growth curve for Korean Marfan syndrome [gcPFHt]), and the initial bone age (baPFHt). After the estrogen treatment, the projected final height was compared to the actual final height (FHt). The median baseline chronological and bone age were 10.0 and 10.5 years, respectively. After a median of 36.5 months of treatment, the median FHt (172.6 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.0 cm) and baPFHt (175.9 cm). In the six patients who started treatment before the age of 11 years, the median FHt (171.8 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.5 cm) and baPFHt (177.4 cm) after treatment. The median differences between the FHt and gcPFHt and baPFHt were 9.2 and 8.3 cm, respectively. In two patients started treatment after the age of 11, the differences between FHt and gcPFHt, and baPFHt after treatment were -4 and 1.4 cm, and -1.2 and 0 cm for each case, respectively. A stepwise increasing regimen of estradiol valerate may be an effective treatment for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome, especially when started under 11 years old.

  5. Estrogen-mediated Height Control in Girls with Marfan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Rimm; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Koo

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a stepwise regimen of estradiol valerate for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome. Eight girls with Marfan syndrome who had completed estrogen treatment for height control were included. Estradiol valerate was started at a dose of 2 mg/day, and then was increased. The projected final height was estimated using the initial height percentile (on a disease-specific growth curve for Korean Marfan syndrome [gcPFHt]), and the initial bone age (baPFHt). After the estrogen treatment, the projected final height was compared to the actual final height (FHt). The median baseline chronological and bone age were 10.0 and 10.5 years, respectively. After a median of 36.5 months of treatment, the median FHt (172.6 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.0 cm) and baPFHt (175.9 cm). In the six patients who started treatment before the age of 11 years, the median FHt (171.8 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.5 cm) and baPFHt (177.4 cm) after treatment. The median differences between the FHt and gcPFHt and baPFHt were 9.2 and 8.3 cm, respectively. In two patients started treatment after the age of 11, the differences between FHt and gcPFHt, and baPFHt after treatment were -4 and 1.4 cm, and -1.2 and 0 cm for each case, respectively. A stepwise increasing regimen of estradiol valerate may be an effective treatment for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome, especially when started under 11 years old. PMID:26839483

  6. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall be prominently posted where the height is insufficient for vehicles and equipment. ...

  7. Seasonal changes of brain GnRH-I, -II, and -III during the final reproductive period in adult male and female sea lamprey.

    PubMed

    Sower, Stacia A; Balz, Eileen; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Kavanaugh, Scott I

    2011-01-15

    Sea lampreys are anadromous and semelparous, i.e., they spawn only once in their lifetime, after which they die. Sexual maturation is thus a synchronized process coordinated with the life stages of the lamprey. Recently, a novel gonadotropin-releasing hormone, lamprey GnRH-II (lGnRH-II), was identified in lampreys and suggested to have a hypothalamic role in reproduction (Kavanaugh et al., 2008). To further understand the role of lGnRH-II, changes in ovarian morphology, brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (lGnRH-I, -II, and -III), and plasma estradiol were examined during the final two months of the reproductive season of adult male and female sea lamprey. The results showed significant correlations between water temperature, fluctuation of brain GnRHs, plasma estradiol and reproductive stages during this time. In males, lGnRH-I concentration increased early in the season, peaked, then declined with a subsequent increase with the final maturational stages. In comparison, lGnRH-II and -III concentrations were also elevated early in the season in males, dropped and then peaked in mid-season with a subsequent decline of lGnRH-II or increase of lGnRH-III at spermiation. In females, lGnRH-III concentration peaked in mid-season with a drop at ovulation while lGnRH-I remained unchanged during the season. In contrast, lGnRH-II concentrations in females were elevated at the beginning of the season and then dropped and remained low during the rest of the season. In summary, these data provide evidence that there are seasonal and differential changes of the three GnRHs during this final reproductive period suggesting specific roles for each of the GnRHs in male and female reproduction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Another definition of forest canopy height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, T.; Sumida, A.; Kodama, Y.; Hara, T.

    2008-12-01

    Forest canopy height, the height of the highest vegetation components above ground level, is essential in normalizing micrometeorological parameters and in estimating forest biomass and carbon pools, but previous definitions of forest canopy height from inventory data bear uncertainties owing to arbitrary criteria of tall trees accounting for top height (i.e. mean height of tall trees selected by a certain definition) or to the effect of many shorter understory trees on Lorey's mean height (i.e. mean height weighted by basal area). We proposed a new concept of forest canopy height: the representative height of taller trees composing the crown surface or the upper canopy layer estimated on the basis of cumulative basal area from the shortest tree plotted against corresponding individual tree height. Because tall trees have large basal area, the cumulative basal area showing a sigmoidal curve would have an inflection point at a height class where many tall trees occur. Hence the forest canopy height is defined as the inflection point of the sigmoid function fitted to the cumulative basal area curve. This new forest canopy height is independent of the presence or absence of many shorter understory trees unlike Lorey's mean height, and is free from the definition of selecting the trees composing the upper canopy to determine their mean height. Applying this concept to actual forests, we found the new canopy height was larger than the arithmetic mean height and Lorey's mean height, and it was close to the aerodynamic canopy height determined by micrometeorological method, not only in the birch forest (even-aged pure stand) but also in the complex mixed forest of evergreen conifer and deciduous broadleaf species. Therefore the new canopy height would be suitable for intersite comparison studies and ground truth for remote sensing such as airborne laser scanning (ALS).

  9. Physical height in pedophilic and hebephilic sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Cantor, James M; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert; Blanchard, Ray

    2007-12-01

    Adult men's height reflects, not only their genetic endowment, but also the conditions that were present during their development in utero and in childhood. We compared the adult heights of men who committed one or more sexual offenses and who were erotically interested in prepubescent children (pedophilic sexual offenders; n=223), those who were erotically interested in pubescent children (hebephilic sexual offenders; n=615), and those who were erotically interested in adults (teleiophilic sexual offenders; n=187), as well as men who had no known sexual offenses and who were erotically interested in adults (teleiophilic nonoffender controls; n=156). The pedophilic and the hebephilic sexual offenders were significantly shorter than the teleiophilic nonoffender controls. The teleiophilic sexual offenders were intermediate in height between the nonoffenders and the pedophilic and hebephilic sexual offenders and not significantly different from any of the other groups. This suggests that-regardless of whatever psychological sequelae might also have followed from the conditions present during early development-pedophilic and hebephilic sexual offenders were subject to conditions capable of affecting their physiological development.

  10. Smoke Soars to Stratospheric Heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A new look at smoke from the Chisholm forest fire, which ignited on May 23, 2001 about 160 kilometers north of Edmonton in Alberta, Canada, provides confirming evidence that dense smoke can reach the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Scientists have postulated a link between fires in northern forests and the observed enhancements in stratospheric aerosols, but it is difficult to measure smoke aerosol heights directly. Here, height information for the Chisholm fire was retrieved using stereoscopic processing of data from multiple Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) cameras. These images were acquired on May 29, when the severity of the fire had begun to stabilize after a cold front and strong low-level winds caused rapid spread of flame and an eruption of large-scale convection on May 28. This dramatic event was studied in detail by M. Fromm and R. Servranckx, 'Transport of forest fire smoke above the tropopause by supercell convection,' Geophys. Res. Lett., vol. 30, no. 10 (2003).

    The two left-hand images are natural color views from MISR's nadir and 60o forward viewing cameras in which a pall of yellowish smoke is apparent both above the surface and above clouds in the top portion of the images. This area is near the junction of Canada's Keewatin region and Northwest Territory, and about 1200 km northward of the originalfire location. Lake Athabasca is at the lower left. The second panel from the right is MISR's standard stereo height product (derived from the nadir and the two 26o cameras), while the right-hand panel is a specially-generated product using MISR's 46o and 60o forward-pointing cameras. Because the smoke appears thicker at the oblique view angles, better areal coverage is obtained and the retrievals are less sensitive to the underlying cloud deck. The southern portion of the smoke cloud is at an altitude of about 3.5 km; however, the smoke further to the north has risen above the tropopause (which is at about 11 km

  11. MULTICHANNEL PULSE-HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.T.; Lefevre, H.W.

    1958-01-21

    This patent deals with electronic computing circuits and more particularly to pulse-height analyzers used for classifying variable amplitude pulses into groups of different amplitudes. The device accomplishes this pulse allocation by by converting the pulses into frequencies corresponding to the amplitudes of the pulses, which frequencies are filtered in channels individually pretuned to a particular frequency and then detected and recorded in the responsive channel. This circuit substantially overcomes the disadvantages of prior annlyzers incorporating discriminators pre-set to respond to certain voltage levels, since small variation in component values is not as critical to satisfactory circuit operation.

  12. Seminario Tecnico Regional Sobre Alternativas de Educacion Basica de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y el Caribe (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, 29 de Septiembre al 3 de Octubre, 1986). Documento Final. (Regional Seminar on Alternatives for Basic Adult Education in the REDALF Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, September 29-October 3, 1986). Final Document.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The final report of a conference concerning adult basic education de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del related to innovative projects in adult education in nine countries. A wide spectrum of issues related to adult basic education, curriculum, methodology, evaluation, and research are analyzed in the context of educational planning. Among the…

  13. Seminario Tecnico Regional Sobre Alternativas de Educacion Basica de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y el Caribe (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, 29 de Septiembre al 3 de Octubre, 1986). Documento Final. (Regional Seminar on Alternatives for Basic Adult Education in the REDALF Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, September 29-October 3, 1986). Final Document.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The final report of a conference concerning adult basic education de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del related to innovative projects in adult education in nine countries. A wide spectrum of issues related to adult basic education, curriculum, methodology, evaluation, and research are analyzed in the context of educational planning. Among the…

  14. Parental height and child growth from birth to 2 years in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study.

    PubMed

    Garza, Cutberto; Borghi, Elaine; Onyango, Adelheid W; de Onis, Mercedes

    2013-09-01

    Linear growth from birth to 2 years of children enrolled in the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study was similar despite substantial parental height differences among the six study sites. Within-site variability in child length attributable to parental height was estimated by repeated measures analysis of variance using generalized linear models. This approach was also used to examine relationships among selected traits (e.g. breastfeeding duration and child morbidity) and linear growth between 6 and 24 months of age. Differences in intergenerational adult heights were evaluated within sites by comparing mid-parental heights (average of the mother's and father's heights) to the children's predicted adult height. Mid-parental height consistently accounted for greater proportions of observed variability in attained child length than did either paternal or maternal height alone. The proportion of variability explained by mid-parental height ranged from 11% in Ghana to 21% in India. The average proportion of between-child variability accounted for by mid-parental height was 16% and the analogous within-child estimate was 6%. In the Norwegian and US samples, no significant differences were observed between mid-parental and children's predicted adult heights. For the other sites, predicted adult heights exceeded mid-parental heights by 6.2-7.8 cm. To the extent that adult height is predicted by height at age 2 years, these results support the expectation that significant community-wide advances in stature are attainable within one generation when care and nutrition approximate international recommendations, notwithstanding adverse conditions likely experienced by the previous generation.

  15. Influence of real and virtual heights on standing balance.

    PubMed

    Cleworth, Taylor W; Horslen, Brian C; Carpenter, Mark G

    2012-06-01

    Fear and anxiety induced by threatening scenarios, such as standing on elevated surfaces, have been shown to influence postural control in young adults. There is also a need to understand how postural threat influences postural control in populations with balance deficits and risk of falls. However, safety and feasibility issues limit opportunities to place such populations in physically threatening scenarios. Virtual reality (VR) has successfully been used to simulate threatening environments, although it is unclear whether the same postural changes can be elicited by changes in virtual and real threat conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of real and virtual heights on changes to standing postural control, electrodermal activity (EDA) and psycho-social state. Seventeen subjects stood at low and high heights in both real and virtual environments matched in scale and visual detail. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed increases with height, independent of visual environment, in EDA, anxiety, fear, and center of pressure (COP) frequency, and decreases with height in perceived stability, balance confidence and COP amplitude. Interaction effects were seen for fear and COP mean position; where real elicited larger changes with height than VR. This study demonstrates the utility of VR, as simulated heights resulted in changes to postural, autonomic and psycho-social measures similar to those seen at real heights. As a result, VR may be a useful tool for studying threat related changes in postural control in populations at risk of falls, and to screen and rehabilitate balance deficits associated with fear and anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall...

  17. Remarks on Height-Diameter Modeling

    Treesearch

    Lei Yuancai; Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Height-diameter model forms in earlier published papers are examined. The selection criteria used in height-diameter model forms are not reasonable when considering tree biological growth pattern. During model selection, forms for height-diameter relationships should include consideration of both data-related and reasonable biological criteria, not just data-related...

  18. The genetic architecture of maize height

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state (IBS) among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formida...

  19. Height growth in western white pine progenies

    Treesearch

    G. E. Rehfeldt; R. J. Steinhoff

    1970-01-01

    Heights of 31 progenies of western white pines from four geographic localities and four crosses between localities were assessed on 14-year-old trees at two sites. Differences in height among individual progenies were detected but could not be related to localities or crosses between localities. Although differential effects of sites on tree height became apparent...

  20. Effect of Treatment Table Height on Shoulder Muscles during Ultrasound Therapy Work.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung Yoo; Kim, In Bae; Kang, Jong Ho; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to propose a table height that can reduce shoulder muscle fatigue by analyzing and comparing median frequencies of shoulder muscles at different table heights when performing therapeutic ultrasounds work. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 63 healthy male adults who were equally and randomly assigned to a standard height group (SHG), a high height group (HHG), and a low height group (LHG). The standard table height was set at the level of the elbow joint when the subjects flexed their elbow while in a sitting position. High height and low height were set 10 cm higher and 10 cm lower, respectively, than the standard height. Muscle fatigue of the upper trapezius, middle deltoid, rhomboid, and infraspinatus of the subjects was measured during ultrasound treatment work at each table height. [Results] Median frequencies of the upper trapezius, middle deltoid, rhomboid, and infraspinatus muscles were significantly lower in the HHG than in to the LHG. [Conclusion] When therapeutic ultrasound is performed using a table that has a height lower than that of the elbow joint, the median frequency of the shoulder muscle increases, hence decreasing muscle fatigue. This way, musculoskeletal pain as a result of performing therapeutic ultrasound can be prevented.

  1. Correlation between height selection and electronic structure of the uniform height Pb/Si(111) islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupalo, Myron; Tringides, Michael

    2002-03-01

    Uniform height islands, with preferred heights differing by bilayer height increments, can be grown on Pb/Si(111) at low temperatures as a result of Quantum Size Effects (QSE). By generating a non-equilibrium island height distribution, that includes both preferred and non-preferred height islands, we have carried out STM spectroscopic measurements on individual islands to determine differences in their electronic structure as a function of their height. For preferred heights the HOL (Highest Occupied Level) is further away from the Fermi level than for non-preferred heights which confirms that preferred island heights are of lower energy. The difference in the Fermi level separation from the HOL for preferred vs non-preferred heights, is further supported from oscillations of the measured apparent barrier D(logI)/Dz with island height for fixed tunneling voltage.

  2. Estimating vehicle height using homographic projections

    DOEpatents

    Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F; Ghebretati, Jr., Frezghi H; Goddard, James S; Karnowski, Thomas P; Ziock, Klaus-peter

    2013-07-16

    Multiple homography transformations corresponding to different heights are generated in the field of view. A group of salient points within a common estimated height range is identified in a time series of video images of a moving object. Inter-salient point distances are measured for the group of salient points under the multiple homography transformations corresponding to the different heights. Variations in the inter-salient point distances under the multiple homography transformations are compared. The height of the group of salient points is estimated to be the height corresponding to the homography transformation that minimizes the variations.

  3. The association between height and birth order: evidence from 652,518 Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Myrskylä, Mikko; Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-07-01

    Birth order is associated with outcomes such as birth weight and adult socioeconomic position (SEP), but little is known about the association with adult height. This potential birth order-height association is important because height predicts health, and because the association may help explain population-level height trends. We studied the birth order-height association and whether it varies by family characteristics or birth cohort. We used the Swedish Military Conscription Register to analyse adult height among 652,518 men born in 1951-1983 using fixed effects regression models that compare brothers and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. We stratified the analysis by family size, parental SEP and birth cohort. We compared models with and without birth weight and birth length controls. Unadjusted analyses showed no differences between the first two birth orders but in the fixed effects regression, birth orders 2, 3 and 4 were associated with 0.4, 0.7 and 0.8 cm (p<0.001 for each) shorter height than birth order 1, respectively. The associations were similar in large and small and high-SEP and low-SEP families, but were attenuated in recent cohorts. Birth characteristics did not explain these associations. Birth order is an important determinant of height. The height difference between birth orders 3 and 1 is larger than the population-level height increase achieved over 10 years. The attenuation of the effect over cohorts may reflect improvements in living standards. Decreases in family size may explain some of the secular-height increases in countries with decreasing fertility.

  4. A prospective investigation of height and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Sequoia, Jacqueline S P; Wright, Margaret E; McCarron, Peter; Pietinen, Pirjo; Taylor, Philip R; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2006-11-01

    Greater adult height, which reflects a combination of early nutrition, exposure to androgens, growth hormones, and other factors during growth and development, as well as heredity, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk in several observational studies, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined this relationship in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. At baseline, 29,119 Finnish male smokers 50 to 69 years old had height and weight measured by trained personnel, provided information on demographic, smoking, medical, and other characteristics, and completed an extensive diet history questionnaire. A total of 1,346 incident prostate cancer cases were identified during a follow-up period of up to 17.4 years (median, 14.1 years). In age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for prostate cancer according to increasing quintiles of height [178 cm] were 1.00 (reference), 1.11 (0.93-1.32), 1.11 (0.95-1.31), 1.30 (1.01-1.55), and 1.14 (0.96-1.35); P(trend) = 0.04. In analyses stratified by disease stage (available for 916 cases), a strong dose-response relationship was observed between greater height and advanced, but not earlier-stage, disease [tumor-node-metastasis stage III-IV, hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval for increasing quintiles of height: 1.77 (1.18-2.65), 1.82 (1.25-2.65), 1.93 (1.29-2.90), and 2.02 (1.37-2.97); P(trend) = 0.0008, P(interaction) = 0.002]. Our study provides additional evidence that increased height is a risk factor for prostate cancer and suggests that taller men are particularly susceptible to advanced disease.

  5. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Adiposity Index (BAI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR) as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lam, Benjamin Chih Chiang; Koh, Gerald Choon Huat; Chen, Cynthia; Wong, Michael Tack Keong; Fallows, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI) was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and CVD risk factors in the local adult population. This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%), aged 21-74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012) undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol). When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ≥23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ≥0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC. BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

  6. Height at Late Adolescence and Incident Diabetes among Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Furer, Ariel; Afek, Arnon; Beer, Zivan; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Reichman, Brian; Twig, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    Background Short stature was suggested as a risk factor for diabetes onset among middle age individuals, but whether this is the case among young adults is unclear. Our goal was to assess the association between height and incident diabetes among young men. Methods and Findings Incident diabetes was assessed among 32,055 men with no history of diabetes, from the prospectively followed young adults of the MELANY cohort. Height was measured at two time points; at adolescence (mean age 17.4±0.3 years) and grouped according to the US-CDC percentiles and at young adulthood (mean age 31.0±5.6 years). Cox proportional hazards models were applied. There were 702 new cases of diabetes during a mean follow-up of 6.3±4.3 years. There was a significant increase in the crude diabetes incidence rate with decreasing adolescent height percentile, from 4.23 cases/104 person-years in the <10th percentile group to 2.44 cases/104 person-years in the 75th≤ percentile group. These results persisted when clinical and biochemical diabetes risk factors were included in multivariable models. Compared to the 75th≤ percentile group, height below the 10th percentile was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.64 (95%CI 1.09–2.46, p = 0.017) for incident diabetes after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels, white blood cells count, socioeconomic status, country of origin, family history of diabetes, sleep quality and physical activity. At age 30 years, each 1-cm decrement in adult height was associated with a 2.5% increase in diabetes adjusted risk (HR 1.025, 95%CI 1.01–1.04, p = 0.001). Conclusions Shorter height at late adolescence or young adulthood was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes among young men, independent of BMI and other diabetes risk factors. PMID:26305680

  7. Uncertainties in derived temperature-height profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Nomographs were developed for relating uncertainty in temperature T to uncertainty in the observed height profiles of both pressure p and density rho. The relative uncertainty delta T/T is seen to depend not only upon the relative uncertainties delta P/P or delta rho/rho, and to a small extent upon the value of T or H, but primarily upon the sampling-height increment Delta h, the height increment between successive observations of p or delta. For a fixed value of delta p/p, the value of delta T/T varies inversely with Delta h. No limit exists in the fineness of usable height resolution of T which may be derived from densities, while a fine height resolution in pressure-height data leads to temperatures with unacceptably large uncertainties.

  8. Imagery and fear influence height perception.

    PubMed

    Clerkin, Elise M; Cody, Meghan W; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R; Teachman, Bethany A

    2009-04-01

    The current study tested whether height overestimation is related to height fear and influenced by images of falling. To assess perceptual biases, participants high (n=65) versus low (n=64) in height fear estimated the vertical extents of two balconies using a visual matching task. On one of the balconies, participants engaged in an imagery exercise designed to enhance the subjective sense that they were acting in a dangerous environment by picturing themselves falling. As expected, we found that individuals overestimated the balcony's height more after they imagined themselves falling, particularly if they were already afraid of heights. These findings suggest that height fear may serve as a vulnerability factor that leads to perceptual biases when triggered by a stressor (in this case, images of falling).

  9. Imagery and Fear Influence Height Perception

    PubMed Central

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Cody, Meghan W.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study tested whether height overestimation is related to height fear and influenced by images of falling. To assess perceptual biases, participants high (n = 65) versus low (n = 64) in height fear estimated the vertical extents of two balconies using a visual matching task. On one of the balconies, participants engaged in an imagery exercise designed to enhance the subjective sense that they were acting in a dangerous environment by picturing themselves falling. As expected, we found that individuals overestimated the balcony’s height more after they imagined themselves falling, particularly if they were already afraid of heights. These findings suggest that height fear may serve as a vulnerability factor that leads to perceptual biases when triggered by a stressor (in this case, images of falling). PMID:19162437

  10. Height convergence in response to neighbour growth: genotypic differences in the stoloniferous plant Potentilla reptans.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Peter J; Anten, Niels P R; Schieving, Feike; Werger, Marinus J A; During, Heinjo J

    2008-01-01

    Using a new experimental set up, the way in which height growth of stoloniferous plants is adjusted to that of their neighbours, as well as differences between genotypes in their ability to keep up with neighbour height growth were tested. Five Potentilla reptans genotypes inherently differing in petiole length were subjected to three experimental light gradients, involving light intensity and red : far-red ratio. Each plant was placed in a vertically adjustable cylinder of green foil, and the treatments differed in the speed of cylinder height increase and final height. Total weight of plants decreased from the 'Slow' to the 'Fast' treatment, while petiole length increased. Leaves reaching the top of the cylinder stopped petiole elongation, resulting in similar final heights for all genotypes in the 'Slow' treatment. In the 'Fast' treatment only the fastest-growing genotype maintained its position in the top of the cylinder and genotypes differed strongly in final height within the cylinders. Plants adjust their height growth to that of the surrounding vegetation, leading to height convergence in short light gradients that slowly increase. These adjustments and genotypic differences in ability to keep up with fast-growing neighbours can influence the outcome of competition for light.

  11. The Return of the Golan Heights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    interrupt water flow from the Golan Heights rivers; President Asad of Syria must instill peace m southern Lebanon; and Syria and Israel must reinitiate talks...have early warning stations; Israel must have a phased withdrawal from the Golan Heights; Syria must not interrupt water flow from the Golan Heights...DISARMAMENT ZONES, EARLY WARNING STATIONS, AND PHASED WITHDRAWAL 15 THREE. WATER 25 FOUR. PEACE IN SOUTHERN LEBANON 31 FIVE. REINITIATION OF TALKS 42 SDC

  12. 1975-76 Pennsylvania Adult Basic Education Assessment Project: An Examination of the APL Construct and Mezirow's Program Evaluation Model as a Basis for Program Improvement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Carl A.; And Others

    A project was conducted in Pennsylvania to determine what changes might improve the effectiveness of the State's adult basic education (ABE) program. Northcutt's construct of functional competency adult performance level (APL) and Mezirow's program evaluation model provided the basis for the project's two components: APL assessment and program…

  13. Final Report of the Evaluation of the Summer Program for Mentally Retarded Young Adults--Occupational Training Centers. Summer 1970. ESEA Title I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalven, Fredric; Oliver, Adela

    The 1970 Summer Program for Mentally Retarded Young Adults Occupational Training Centers program, funded under Title I of the 1965 Elementary Secondary Education Act, was designed to serve the summer educational, prevocational, and social needs of approximately 170 retarded adolescents and young adults. The general objectives of the project were…

  14. A Demonstration of the Interrelating of Library and Basic Education Services for Disadvantaged Adults. Final Report, Richland County School District Number One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Eunice

    Two agencies of the Columbia, South Carolina community, the Richland County Public Library and the Adult Education office of Richland County School District One, merged their efforts to better serve clients and potential clients of the Adult Basic Education (ABE) program of District One in 1972-73 with the support of a grant channeled through…

  15. Demonstration, Developmental and Research Project for Programs, Materials, Facilities and Educational Technology for Undereducated Adults: New York State Module. Project Learn. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead State Univ., KY.

    The purpose of this project was to establish a rural adult basic education program through an existing community school program to demonstrate the need for adult basic education (ABE) in rural, disadvantaged section in the state of New York. Specific objectives were to increase the basic education level and employability of this undereducated…

  16. The Service System's Hidden Places: Adult Homes and Room and Board Homes Housing People with Developmental Disability and Psychiatric Labels in Onondaga County. Final Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racino, Julie Ann; And Others

    The paper describes adult homes and room and board homes serving persons with disabilities in Onondaga County, New York. Visits were made to eight adult homes and five room and board homes. Briefly considered are ownership and licensing regulations, referrals, and admission criteria. Observations at the homes are offered. Concerns are raised about…

  17. Evaluation of the Adaptation of the Personalized System of Instruction to Nontraditional Adult Learners. Final Report. Volume III: PSI Meets ABE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, J. Lamarr; Lane, Carolee

    A Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) program for nontraditional adult learners was developed, implemented, and evaluated for the purpose of making recommendations as to the need for and nature of further related research. Proposed program settings were two classes of adult basic education students and one of prison inmates. A case study…

  18. How feasible was a bed-height alert system?

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Prakash, Atul; Brehob, Mark; Anderson, Allison; Devecsery, David Andrew; Yin, Chang-Yi

    2013-08-01

    This qualitative and descriptive study examined the feasibility of a bed-height alert system as a fall-prevention strategy. The alpha prototype was developed to measure and record bed height, and to remind staff to keep patient beds in the lowest position. This pilot project was conducted in a 52-bed adult acute surgical inpatient care unit of a Michigan community hospital. Qualitative and quantitative information was gathered during semistructured interviews of nursing staff (18 RNs and 13 PCAs; January-April 2011). Descriptive content analysis and descriptive analyses were performed. The overall response rate was 44.9%. The mean values of the feasibility questions are all favorable. Staff's comments also support the view that the alert system would promote patient safety and prevent falls. In short, this system was found to be somewhat useful, feasible, appropriate, and accurate. It has the potential to promote patient safety and prevent bed-associated injurious falls in inpatient care settings.

  19. Health, Height, Height Shrinkage, and SES at Older Ages: Evidence from China†

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Lei, Xiaoyan; Ridder, Geert; Strauss, John

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we build on the literature that examines associations between height and health outcomes of the elderly. We investigate the associations of height shrinkage at older ages with socioeconomic status, finding that height shrinkage for both men and women is negatively associated with better schooling, current urban residence, and household per capita expenditures. We then investigate the relationships between pre-shrinkage height, height shrinkage, and a rich set of health outcomes of older respondents, finding that height shrinkage is positively associated with poor health outcomes across a variety of outcomes, being especially strong for cognition outcomes. PMID:26594311

  20. Critical Height for the Unstabilization of Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Wang, Y.; Shen, C.

    2010-12-01

    At which altitude will a prominence probably erupt? This question is statistically studied based on the 10072 solar limb prominences recognized by SLIPCAT from 2007 April to the end of 2009. We manually check all the prominences with leading edge greater than 1.2 Rs, and find that there are 256 disrupted prominences (DPs) and 106 stable prominences (SPs). Among the DPs, there are 149 prominences (EPs) showing a clear and successful eruption process in the STEREO/EUVI field of view and 107 prominences (FPs) presenting a failed eruption. The eruption process of EPs can be further classified into 3 types, single eruption (SE), multiple eruptions (ME) and gradual eruption (GE). When the main body of a EP first begins to ascend rapidly with a uniform velocity, we define the height of the prominence’s leading edge at this moment as the unstabilization height. FPs also have unstabilization heights as well. All the unstabilization heights are identified by hands. It is found that 65% DPs are unstabilized between 49 and 90 Mm. The comparison of the number of DPs with all the well-tracked prominences suggests that the ratio between them is a double-peak distribution with the most probable heights for a prominence being unstable at 83 and 125 Mm. The above two results suggest that there are two critical heights for the unstabilization of prominences: the primary height is 83 Mm and the secondary height is 125 Mm. We think two different heights present two kinds of prominences, the primary one corresponding to DPs around or at active region and the secondary one corresponding to DPs at quiet region. We also find eruption velocity of DPs is anti-correlated with the unstabilization height and the total brightness, which means that prominences with less mass and lower unstabilization height would require larger inputting energy and large eruption velocity. The association of EPs with CME in this study is 49%.

  1. The Genetic Architecture Of Maize Height

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Jason A.; Romay, Maria C.; Gore, Michael A.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.; Zhang, Zhiwu; Millard, Mark J.; Gardner, Candice A. C.; McMullen, Michael D.; Holland, James B.; Bradbury, Peter J.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formidable challenge. To address this challenge, we measured the plant height, ear height, flowering time, and node counts of plants grown in >64,500 plots across 13 environments. These plots contained >7300 inbreds representing most publically available maize inbreds in the United States and families of the maize Nested Association Mapping (NAM) panel. Joint-linkage mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), fine mapping in near isogenic lines (NILs), genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) were performed. The heritability of maize height was estimated to be >90%. Mapping NAM family-nested QTL revealed the largest explained 2.1 ± 0.9% of height variation. The effects of two tropical alleles at this QTL were independently validated by fine mapping in NIL families. Several significant associations found by GWAS colocalized with established height loci, including brassinosteroid-deficient dwarf1, dwarf plant1, and semi-dwarf2. GBLUP explained >80% of height variation in the panels and outperformed bootstrap aggregation of family-nested QTL models in evaluations of prediction accuracy. These results revealed maize height was under strong genetic control and had a highly polygenic genetic architecture. They also showed that multiple models of genetic architecture differing in polygenicity and effect sizes can plausibly explain a population’s variation in maize height, but they may vary in predictive efficacy. PMID:24514905

  2. The genetic architecture of maize height.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Jason A; Romay, Maria C; Gore, Michael A; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A; Zhang, Zhiwu; Millard, Mark J; Gardner, Candice A C; McMullen, Michael D; Holland, James B; Bradbury, Peter J; Buckler, Edward S

    2014-04-01

    Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formidable challenge. To address this challenge, we measured the plant height, ear height, flowering time, and node counts of plants grown in >64,500 plots across 13 environments. These plots contained >7300 inbreds representing most publically available maize inbreds in the United States and families of the maize Nested Association Mapping (NAM) panel. Joint-linkage mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), fine mapping in near isogenic lines (NILs), genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) were performed. The heritability of maize height was estimated to be >90%. Mapping NAM family-nested QTL revealed the largest explained 2.1 ± 0.9% of height variation. The effects of two tropical alleles at this QTL were independently validated by fine mapping in NIL families. Several significant associations found by GWAS colocalized with established height loci, including brassinosteroid-deficient dwarf1, dwarf plant1, and semi-dwarf2. GBLUP explained >80% of height variation in the panels and outperformed bootstrap aggregation of family-nested QTL models in evaluations of prediction accuracy. These results revealed maize height was under strong genetic control and had a highly polygenic genetic architecture. They also showed that multiple models of genetic architecture differing in polygenicity and effect sizes can plausibly explain a population's variation in maize height, but they may vary in predictive efficacy.

  3. Spine Height and Disc Height Changes As the Effect of Hyperextension Using Stadiometry and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kourtis, Dimitrios; Magnusson, Marianne L; Smith, Francis; Hadjipavlou, Alex; Pope, Malcolm H

    2004-01-01

    Study Design. In vivo biomechanical design using stadiometry and MRI to measure the height change due to (hyper)extension. Summary of Background Data. Spine height is decreased under loads such as lifting, whole body vibration and sitting. Extension including increased lumbar lordosis reduces the load on the spine. Methods. The aim was to assess the effects of a supine hyperextended posture as a means of restoring the intervertebral disc height after loading and allowing rehydration of the discs. Ten healthy male subjects were tested. A hyperextension intervention was achieved by the means of an inflatable cushion placed under the lumbar spine. The spine height was measured using a stadiometer and MRI was used to assess disc height changes. Results. The spine height gain after 10 minutes of a supine hyperextended posture differed significantly between individuals but everybody gained height. MRI images of the lumbar spine were used to measure the disc height. All but one subjects gained height during the hyperextension. Images of the spine during hyperextended posture showed increased lumbar curve and an increased anterior height of each disc compared with the dimensions of the disc with the spine in neutral posture. Conclusions. All subjects lost height during sitting. Both methods demonstrated a recovery of height due to hyperextension. Hyperextension could be considered as a prophylaxis against the height loss in occupational loading. PMID:15296209

  4. 24 CFR 3280.104 - Ceiling heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.104 Ceiling..., 0 inches for a minimum of 50 percent of the room's floor area. The remaining area may have a ceiling with a minimum height of 5 feet, 0 inches. Minimum height under dropped ducts, beams, etc. shall be...

  5. Fall from height: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zasa, Michele

    2015-09-14

    The manuscript reports the case of a 16-year-old boy who fell from a height of 15 meters while having a cellphone conversation. Surprisingly, only minor injuries were reported. Prognostic factors related to falls from height are still debated; the present case is a further contribution to the discussion.

  6. 30 CFR 57.19036 - Headframe height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Headframe height. 57.19036 Section 57.19036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 57.19036 Headframe height. Headframes shall be high enough to provide clearance for...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19036 - Headframe height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Headframe height. 57.19036 Section 57.19036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 57.19036 Headframe height. Headframes shall be high enough to provide clearance for...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19036 - Headframe height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Headframe height. 56.19036 Section 56.19036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 56.19036 Headframe height. Headframes shall be high enough to provide clearance for...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19036 - Headframe height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Headframe height. 56.19036 Section 56.19036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 56.19036 Headframe height. Headframes shall be high enough to provide clearance for...

  10. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  11. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  12. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  13. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  14. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  15. Grandparental education, parental education and child height: evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Shirley S L; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-08-01

    Adult height is the sum of growth during fetal, infancy, childhood, and puberty, controlled by different biological factors. In long-term developed Western populations, height is positively associated with socioeconomic position, but less clearly so in recently developing populations. We aimed to elucidate socioeconomic influences on height at different growth phases. We examined the associations of parents' education and grandparents' education with birth weight and height gain z-scores during infancy (birth to <2 years), childhood (2 to <8 years), and puberty (8 to <14 years) adjusted for parents' height using generalized estimating equations in Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort (n = 8264). Parents' education, but not grandparents', was positively associated with birth weight (z-score, 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.12 for grade ≥12 compared with grade ≤9) and height gain during infancy (0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.18), adjusted for gender, gestational age, initial size, parity, parents' age, parents' birthplace, and parents' height. Conversely, similarly adjusted, grandparents' education, but not parents', was associated with height gain during childhood (0.11; 95% CI, 0.04-0.18). Parental education was associated with fetal and infant, but not childhood, linear growth, suggesting the mechanism underlying socioeconomic influences on height at different growth phases may be contextually specific. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Height and weight bias: the influence of time.

    PubMed

    Shiely, Frances; Hayes, Kevin; Perry, Ivan J; Kelleher, C Cecily

    2013-01-01

    We have previously identified in a study of both self-reported body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured BMI that the sensitivity score in the obese category has declined over a 10-year period. It is known that self-reported weight is significantly lower that measured weight and that self-reported height is significantly higher than measured height. The purpose of this study is to establish if self-reported height bias or weight bias, or both, is responsible for the declining sensitivity in the obese category between self-reported and clinically measured BMI. We report on self-reported and clinically measured height and weight from three waves of the Surveys of Lifestyle Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN) involving a nationally representative sample of Irish adults. Data were available from 66 men and 142 women in 1998, 147 men and 184 women in 2002 and 909 men and 1128 women in 2007. Respondents were classified into BMI categories normal (<25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-<30 kg/m(2)) and obese (≥30 kg/m(2)). Self-reported height bias has remained stable over time regardless of gender, age or clinical BMI category. Self-reported weight bias increases over time for both genders and in all age groups. The increased weight bias is most notable in the obese category. BMI underestimation is increasing across time. Knowledge that the widening gap between self-reported BMI and measured BMI is attributable to an increased weight bias brings us one step closer to accurately estimating true obesity levels in the population using self-reported data.

  17. Height and Weight Bias: The Influence of Time

    PubMed Central

    Shiely, Frances; Hayes, Kevin; Perry, Ivan J.; Kelleher, C. Cecily

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously identified in a study of both self-reported body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured BMI that the sensitivity score in the obese category has declined over a 10-year period. It is known that self-reported weight is significantly lower that measured weight and that self-reported height is significantly higher than measured height. The purpose of this study is to establish if self-reported height bias or weight bias, or both, is responsible for the declining sensitivity in the obese category between self-reported and clinically measured BMI. Methods We report on self-reported and clinically measured height and weight from three waves of the Surveys of Lifestyle Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN) involving a nationally representative sample of Irish adults. Data were available from 66 men and 142 women in 1998, 147 men and 184 women in 2002 and 909 men and 1128 women in 2007. Respondents were classified into BMI categories normal (<25 kg/m2), overweight (25–<30 kg/m2) and obese (≥30 kg/m2). Results Self-reported height bias has remained stable over time regardless of gender, age or clinical BMI category. Self-reported weight bias increases over time for both genders and in all age groups. The increased weight bias is most notable in the obese category. Conclusions BMI underestimation is increasing across time. Knowledge that the widening gap between self-reported BMI and measured BMI is attributable to an increased weight bias brings us one step closer to accurately estimating true obesity levels in the population using self-reported data. PMID:23372717

  18. Roentgenographic measurement of lumbar intervertebral disc height.

    PubMed

    Andersson, G B; Schultz, A; Nathan, A; Irstam, L

    1981-01-01

    The influences of differences in both intervertebral motion segment orientations and in reader judgments on measurements of the apparent intervertebral disc heights in lateral roentgenographs of the lumbar spine were examined. Forty-nine roentgenographs were obtained of nine discs that were titled laterally up to +/- 10 degrees, and rotated longitudinally up to +/- 20 degrees. Three orthopaedic surgeons and three radiologists measured disc heights from five of these roentgenographs, all using the same measurement method. The differences in apparent height that resulted from the orientation changes and differences in judgments among the six readers were considerable, usually of the order of one half of the nominal disc height. The results show that, while roentgenographic measurements can be used to estimate disc height, accurate measurements cannot readily be made from routine roentgenographs, and the interpretation should always be cautious.

  19. Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ferrare, Richard

    2012-12-14

    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL heights. PBL heights were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL heights were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These heights are provided as meters above ground level.

  20. New Emphases for Adult Education in the Caribbean in the Eighties. Final Report on a Meeting of Experts from Adult Education Institutions in the Caribbean (Castries, St. Lucia, September 1-6, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

    A meeting was held in St. Lucia in September, 1980, at which representatives of Caribbean countries discussed the present state and future progress of adult education in the region. The meeting viewed adult education as a vital part of national and regional development. Meeting participants stressed the following four themes: (1) political changes…

  1. Northampton Community College Adult Learner Competencies Implementation. Final Report, 1998-1999 [and] Adult Learner Competencies Implementation Manual for Workshops #1 and #2 and NCC Competencies-Based Lesson Plan "Mini-Bank".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Judy

    A project provided training and guidance to Northampton Community College (NCC) staff in implementing the "new" adult learner skill competencies. Two workshops were held to serve 29 staff in Monroe, Wayne, and Pike counties in Pennsylvania. Among the topics covered were defining and introducing portfolios to adult learners, individualizing…

  2. Predicting diameter at breast height from total height and crown length

    Treesearch

    Quang V. Cao; Thomas J. Dean

    2013-01-01

    Tree diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) is often predicted from total height (model 1a) or both total height and number of trees per acre (model 1b). These approaches are useful when Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data are available. LiDAR height data can be employed to predict tree d.b.h., and consequently individual tree volumes and volume/ ha can be obtained...

  3. Covariation among vowel height effects on acoustic measures.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jeff; Moyle, Maura

    2011-11-01

    Covariation among vowel height effects on vowel intrinsic fundamental frequency (IF(0)), voice onset time (VOT), and voiceless interval duration (VID) is analyzed to assess the plausibility of a common physiological mechanism underlying variation in these measures. Phrases spoken by 20 young adults, containing words composed of initial voiceless stops or /s/ and high or low vowels, were produced in habitual and voluntarily increased F(0) conditions. High vowels were associated with increased IF(0) and longer VIDs. VOT and VID exhibited significant covariation with IF(0) only for males at habitual F(0). The lack of covariation for females and at increased F(0) is discussed.

  4. Deriving Temporal Height Information for Maize Breeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malambo, L.; Popescu, S. C.; Murray, S.; Sheridan, R.; Richardson, G.; Putman, E.

    2016-12-01

    Phenotypic data such as height provide useful information to crop breeders to better understand their field experiments and associated field variability. However, the measurement of crop height in many breeding programs is done manually which demands significant effort and time and does not scale well when large field experiments are involved. Through structure from motion (SfM) techniques, small unmanned aerial vehicles (sUAV) or drones offer tremendous potential for generating crop height data and other morphological data such as canopy area and biomass in cost-effective and efficient way. We present results of an on-going UAV application project aimed at generating temporal height metrics for maize breeding at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research farm in Burleson County, Texas. We outline the activities involved from the drone aerial surveys, image processing and generation of crop height metrics. The experimental period ran from April (planting) through August (harvest) 2016 and involved 36 maize hybrids replicated over 288 plots ( 1.7 Ha). During the time, crop heights were manually measured per plot at weekly intervals. Corresponding aerial flights were carried out using a DJI Phantom 3 Professional UAV at each interval and images captured processed into point clouds and image mosaics using Pix4D (Pix4D SA; Lausanne, Switzerland) software. LiDAR data was also captured at two intervals (05/06 and 07/29) to provide another source of height information. To obtain height data per plot from SfM point clouds and LiDAR data, percentile height metrics were then generated using FUSION software. Results of the comparison between SfM and field measurement height show high correlation (R2 > 0.7), showing that use of sUAV can replace laborious manual height measurement and enhance plant breeding programs. Similar results were also obtained from the comparison of SfM and LiDAR heights. Outputs of this project are helping plant breeders at Texas A&M automate routine height

  5. An evaluation of modeled plume injection height with satellite-derived observed plume height

    Treesearch

    Sean M. Raffuse; Kenneth J. Craig; Narasimhan K. Larkin; Tara T. Strand; Dana Coe Sullivan; Neil J.M. Wheeler; Robert. Solomon

    2012-01-01

    Plume injection height influences plume transport characteristics, such as range and potential for dilution. We evaluated plume injection height from a predictive wildland fire smoke transport model over the contiguous United States (U.S.) from 2006 to 2008 using satellite-derived information, including plume top heights from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (...

  6. Height-age and height-diameter relationships for monocultures and mixtures of eastern cottonwood clones

    Treesearch

    Steven A. Knowe; G. Sam Foster; Randall J. Rousseau; Warren L Nance

    1998-01-01

    Data from an eastern cottonwood clonal mixing study in Mississippi and Kentucky, USA, were used to test the effects of planting locations and genetics (clonal proportions) on height-age and height-d.b.h. functions. Planting locations, which accounted for 5.6 percent of the variation in observed dominant height growth (p = 0.0001), were more important than clonal...

  7. Phonetic Variation in Consonants in Infant-Directed and Adult-Directed Speech: The Case of Regressive Place Assimilation in Word-Final Alveolar Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; Millett, Amanda L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.

    2014-01-01

    Pronunciation variation is under-studied in infant-directed speech, particularly for consonants. Regressive place assimilation involves a word-final alveolar stop taking the place of articulation of a following word-initial consonant. We investigated pronunciation variation in word-final alveolar stop consonants in storybooks read by forty-eight…

  8. Development of a single-frequency bioimpedance prediction equation for fat-free mass in an adult Indigenous Australian population.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J T; Maple-Brown, L J; Piers, L S; Meerkin, J; O'Dea, K; Ward, L C

    2015-01-01

    To describe the development of a single-frequency bioimpedance prediction equation for fat-free mass (FFM) suitable for adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with and without diabetes or indicators of chronic kidney disease (CKD). FFM was measured by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 147 adult Indigenous Australians. Height, weight, body circumference and resistance were also measured. Adults with and without diabetes and indicators of CKD were examined. A random split sample with internal cross-validation approach was used to predict and subsequently validate FFM using resistance, height, weight, age and gender against measured FFM. Among 147 adults with a median body mass index of 31 kg/m(2), the final model of FFM was FFM (kg)=0.432 (height, cm(2)/resistance, ohm)-0.086 (age, years)+0.269 (weight, kg)-6.422 (if female)+16.429. Adjusted R(2) was 0.94 and the root mean square error was 3.33 kg. The concordance was high (rc=0.97) between measured and predicted FFM across a wide range of FFM (31-85 kg). In the context of the high burden of diabetes and CKD among adult Indigenous Australians, this new equation for FFM was both accurate and precise and based on easily acquired variables (height, weight, age, gender and resistance) among a heterogeneous adult cohort.

  9. Height and cognition at work: Labor market productivity in a low income setting.

    PubMed

    LaFave, Daniel; Thomas, Duncan

    2016-11-05

    Taller workers earn more, particularly in lower income settings. It has been argued that adult height is a marker of strength which is rewarded in the labor market; a proxy for cognitive performance or other dimensions of human capital such as school quality; a proxy for health status; and a proxy for family background and genetic characteristics. As a result, the argument goes, height is rewarded in the labor market because it is an informative signal of worker quality to an employer. It has also been argued that the height premium is driven by occupational and sectoral choice. This paper evaluates the relative importance of these potential mechanisms underlying the link between adult stature and labor market productivity in a specific low income setting, rural Central Java, Indonesia. Drawing on twelve waves of longitudinal survey data, we establish that height predicts hourly earnings after controlling education, multiple indicators of cognitive performance and physical health status, measures of family background, sectoral and occupational choice, as well as local area market characteristics. The height premium is large and significant in both the wage and self-employed sectors indicating height is not only a signal of worker quality to employers. Since adult stature is largely determined in the first few years of life, we conclude that exposures during this critical period have an enduring impact on labor market productivity.

  10. Height-diameter equations for thirteen midwestern bottomland hardwood species

    Treesearch

    Kenneth C. Colbert; David R. Larsen; James R. Lootens

    2002-01-01

    Height-diameter equations are often used to predict the mean total tree height for trees when only diameter at breast height (dbh) is measured. Measuring dbh is much easier and is subject to less measurement error than total tree height. However, predicted heights only reflect the average height for trees of a particular diameter. In this study, we present a set of...

  11. Cross-sectional study of height and weight in the population of Andalusia from age 3 to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    López-Siguero, Juan Pedro; García, Juan Manuel Fernández; Castillo, Juan de Dios Luna; Molina, Jose Antonio Moreno; Cosano, Carlos Ruiz; Ortiz, Antonio Jurado

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives In Andalusia there were no studies including a representative sample of children and adolescent population assessing growth and weight increase. Our objectives were to develop reference standards for weight, height and BMI for the Andalusian pediatric population, from 3 to 18 years of age for both genders, and to identify the final adult height in Andalusia. Subjects and methods Two samples were collected. The first included individuals from 3 to 18 years of age (3592 girls and 3605 boys). They were stratified according type of study center, size of population of origin, age (32 categories of 0.5 years) and gender, using cluster sampling. Subjects from >18 to 23 years of age (947 women and 921 men) were sampled in 6 non-university educational centers and several university centers in Granada. Exclusion criteria included sons of non-Spanish mother or father, and individuals with chronic conditions and/or therapies affecting growth. Two trained fellows collected the data through February to December 2004, for the first sample, and through January to May 2005, for the second. Reference curves were adjusted using Cole's LMS method, and the quality of the adjustment was assessed using the tests proposed by Royston. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was applied to the final models obtained. Results Data for 9065 cases (4539 women and 4526 men) were obtained; 79.39% (n = 7197) in the up to 18 years of age group. In the first sampling only 0.07% (3 girls and 2 boys) refused to participate in the study. In addition, 327 students (4.5%) were absent when sampling was done. We present mean and standard deviation fort height, weight and BMI at 0.5 years intervals, from 3 to 23 years of age, for both genders. After adjustment with the different models, percentiles for height, weight (percentiles 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 97) and BMI (percentiles 3, 5, 50, 85, 95, and 97) are presented for both genders. Conclusion This is the first study in

  12. Partitioning Kripke frames of finite height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudinov, A. V.; Shapirovsky, I. B.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we prove the finite model property and decidability of a family of modal logics. A binary relation R is said to be pretransitive if R^*=\\bigcupi≤slant m R^i for some m≥slant 0, where R^* is the transitive reflexive closure of R. By the height of a frame (W,R) we mean the height of the preorder (W,R^*). We construct special partitions (filtrations) of pretransitive frames of finite height, which implies the finite model property and decidability of their modal logics.

  13. Low Melt Height Solidification of Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montakhab, Mehdi; Bacak, Mert; Balikci, Ercan

    2016-06-01

    Effect of a reduced melt height in the directional solidification of a superalloy has been investigated by two methods: vertical Bridgman (VB) and vertical Bridgman with a submerged baffle (VBSB). The latter is a relatively new technique and provides a reduced melt height ahead of the solidifying interface. A low melt height leads to a larger primary dendrite arm spacing but a lower mushy length, melt-back transition length, and porosity. The VBSB technique yields up to 38 pct reduction in the porosity. This may improve a component's mechanical strength especially in a creep-fatigue type dynamic loading.

  14. Risk factors for L5-S1 disk height reduction after lumbar posterolateral floating fusion surgery.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Gen; Takaso, Masashi; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Imura, Takayuki; Ueno, Masaki; Saito, Wataru; Uchida, Kentaro; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2014-07-01

    This is a retrospective study. To investigate the risk factors for radiographic L5-S1 disk height reduction after lumbar posterolateral floating fusion surgery. We investigated data from 86 patients (45 men) who underwent posterolateral floating fusion surgery from 2007 to 2010. The follow-up was from 2 to 6 years. The mean age of the patients was 65.4 years. L5-S1 disk height was calculated and >2 mm reduction was defined as significant. Age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, number of fused levels, grade of disk degeneration, disk height and diameter, sacrolumbar alignment, alignment of fused level, achievement of union, and proximal adjacent segment disorder at final follow-up were compared. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed. L5-S1 disk height reduction occurred in 14 patients (30.2%). The number of fused levels was significantly greater (1.8±0.8 vs. 1.4±0.6) in patients without disk height reduction. Radiology showed a significant change of L1-S1 sacrolumbar alignment after surgery in patients without disk height reduction (0.3±6.6 vs. -4.5±7.6 degrees). The height of the disk posterior to the L5-S1 intervertebral disk before surgery was significantly greater (7.3±2.1 vs. 6.1±2.1 mm) in patients without disk height reduction. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, fusion of >3 levels was a significant risk factor for L5-S1 disk height reduction. In posterolateral floating fusion surgery, there was a higher risk of L5-S1 disk height reduction and consequent foraminal stenosis in patients with multiple-level fusion. Surgical methods and fusion levels should be chosen after considering their association with L5-S1 disk height reduction.

  15. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  16. Soft computing methods for geoidal height transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Özlüdemir, M. T.; Ayan, T.; Çelik, R. N.

    2009-07-01

    Soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, have enabled researchers to create precise models for use in many scientific and engineering applications. Applications that can be employed in geodetic studies include the estimation of earth rotation parameters and the determination of mean sea level changes. Another important field of geodesy in which these computing techniques can be applied is geoidal height transformation. We report here our use of a conventional polynomial model, the Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy (or in some publications, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy) Inference System (ANFIS), an ANN and a modified ANN approach to approximate geoid heights. These approximation models have been tested on a number of test points. The results obtained through the transformation processes from ellipsoidal heights into local levelling heights have also been compared.

  17. The epigenesis of wariness of heights.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Audun; Campos, Joseph J; Anderson, David I; Uchiyama, Ichiro; Witherington, David C; Ueno, Mika; Poutrain-Lejeune, Laure; Barbu-Roth, Marianne

    2013-07-01

    Human infants with little or no crawling experience surprisingly show no wariness of heights, but such wariness becomes exceptionally strong over the life span. Neither depth perception nor falling experiences explain this extraordinary developmental shift; however, something about locomotor experience does. The crucial component of locomotor experience in this emotional change is developments in visual proprioception-the optically based perception of self-movement. Precrawling infants randomly assigned to drive a powered mobility device showed significantly greater visual proprioception, and significantly greater wariness of heights, than did controls. More important, visual proprioception mediated the relation between wariness of heights and locomotor experience. In a separate study, crawling infants' visual proprioception predicted whether they would descend onto the deep side of a visual cliff, a finding that confirms the importance of visual proprioception in the development of wariness of heights.

  18. Sectional Pole for Measuring Tree Heights

    Treesearch

    R. H. Brendemuehl; James B. Baker

    1965-01-01

    A sectional aluminum pole designed by the Silviculture Laboratory at Marianna, Florida, has proved useful for measuring tree heights. It is more convenient than a sectional bamboo pole 1 or a telescoping fiberglass pole. A tree 5 to 30 feet in height can be measured to the nearest tenth of a foot in 30 seconds. The pole is constructed of low-cost, readily available...

  19. Growth-related disappearance of the childhood relationship between height and blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yuki; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Nakamura, Harunobu; Nishio, Nobuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroichi; Iki, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a positive relationship between height and blood pressure (BP) levels in children, there are no reports regarding the association between height and BP levels in adolescents and adults. This study examined whether there is an association between height and BP levels in Japanese adolescents. The source population was all fifth (10 and 11-year-olds) and ninth graders (14 and 15-year-olds) who attended 11 elementary schools and five junior high schools in the Iwata area from 2002-2008. School-based screenings were conducted annually by the local government from April to June. Data obtained from health examinations were analysed, including anthropometric measurements and BP levels, for 11 780 children (98.7% of the source population). Height showed significant positive relationships with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in childhood and in adolescent males. In contrast, the relationship between height and SBP was significantly weaker in adolescent females than in childhood and there was no significant relationship between height and DBP in adolescent females. The relationship between height and SBP was attenuated by development in females and the relationship between height and DBP disappeared.

  20. The Final Frontier: Exploring Spaces in the Education of Adults. SCUTREA Annual Conference (29th, Warwick, England, July 5-7, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Barbara, Ed.

    This document contains 51 papers from a conference devoted to the theme of exploring spaces in adult education. The following are among the papers included: "Exploring Everyday Spaces: Women's Transitions from Welfare to Paid Work and Education" (Cynthia Lee Andruske); "Lost in Space? Re-valuing the Impact of Education…

  1. Special Demonstration Project for Involvement of Adult Residents of Soul City, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Volume I: Evaluation and Final Report; Volume II: Supplementary Materials; Volume III: Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., Tuscaloosa.

    This special demonstration project was designed to develop ways of reaching illiterate women and motivating them toward adult basic education goals through programs that support and strengthen family life. Volume I presents the following: Introduction and Purpose: Project Procedure; Program Accomplishments and Evaluation (Description of the…

  2. Collection, Evaluation, Dissemination System (CEDS). An Index of 309/310 Adult Basic Education Projects, Indiana 1976-1981. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anabel; Huffman, Ruth E.

    The purpose of the CEDS project was to assist funded resource centers in the collection and review of completed adult basic education special projects in Indiana. Successful special projects for 1976-81 that resulted in publication of products were identified by applying criteria presented in three instruments. Product reports were then obtained…

  3. Development and Validation of Competency Based Instructional Systems for Adult, Post Secondary, Special Needs, and Entrepreneurship Via the IDECC System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadnax, Reginald; And Others

    The Interstate Distributive Education Curriculum Consortium (IDECC) was used as the nucleus in a five-part project to develop competency-based instructional systems for (1) adult distributive education, (2) postsecondary education, (3) special needs (of handicapped and disadvantaged groups), (4) additional occupations (such as marketing and…

  4. A STUDY OF THE OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF THE YOUNG ADULT DEAF OF THE SOUTHWEST AND THEIR NEED FOR SPECIALIZED VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION FACILITIES. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLAKE, GARY D.; KRONENBERG, HENRY H.

    AN INTERVIEW-QUESTIONNAIRE STUDY WAS MADE TO INVESTIGATE THE OCCUPATIONAL STATUS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF YOUNG DEAF ADULTS, AND WHETHER FURTHER VOCATIONAL PREPARATION WOULD ENHANCE THEIR VOCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES. ON-THE-JOB DIFFICULTIES WERE REVIEWED. THE MAJORITY OF THOSE INTERVIEWED SAW A NEED FOR POST-SCHOOL TRAINING. SEVERAL TYPES OF PROGRAMS…

  5. Independent Living: A Study of Rehabilitation of Physically Handicapped Adults Living in Foster Homes; Social Work Intervention in the Adaptation to Family Environment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Howard D.

    As an alternative to unnecessary inpatient care of adults with orthopedic disabilities, the Independent Living Project (ILP) placed persons who were institutionalized without need and persons who were living in the community under unsatisfactory circumstances in foster homes. Information is presented on the intake procedures, homefinding…

  6. The Content Area Reading Project: An Inservice Education Program for Junior High School Teachers and Teachers of Adults. Appendix C, Model Teaching Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Mary M.; Askov, Eunice N.

    Materials developed by teacher participants in the Content Area Reading Project are presented in this appendix to the Project report. The first section provides group informal reading inventories developed for use in adult education, teaching English as a second language, and nine content areas; it then presents cloze tests developed for use in…

  7. Demonstration, Developmental and Research Project for Programs, Materials, Facilities and Educational Technology for Undereducated Adults. Counselor Aides; Virginia State Module. Final Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead State Univ., KY. Appalachian Adult Basic Education Demonstration Center.

    The Counselor-Aide Program is implemented by para-professionals working cooperatively with a certified counselor, in an effort to raise the economic level of the adults in Carroll County, through an improvement in the educational level of achievement. The counselor aides feel that they have been reasonably successful in meeting the objectives as…

  8. A Regional Approach for Improvement of Adult Basic Education Staff Development in Health, Education, and Welfare, Region V. Phase II--Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Management Inst., Inc., Westerville, OH.

    The document is concerned with the accomplishments of the Region Five Adult Basic Education Staff Development Project. An introduction and background information are followed by a review of the 10 objectives achieved in phase two. Succeeding brief sections provide a review of the management and decision-making process; a list of Region Five Staff…

  9. The Development of Individualized Supportive Services for Physically and Sensorially Limited Adults at a Post-Secondary Area Vocational School. Final Report. January 1975-June 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Catherine H.

    A project was conducted to develop and implement a coordinated program of supportive services for the physically and sensorially limited adult at the postsecondary level. Phase I consisted of removing architectural barriers, establishing an advisory committee, staffing the project, preparing the budget, and purchasing needed equipment. During…

  10. Design, Development, and Evaluation of Career Education Materials for Adult Farmworkers. Final Report, Volume II - Curriculum Guide and Career Education Manual, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.

    This document contains the last nine monographs of a career education manual developed to assist the instructor in presenting a career-awareness course to adult, limited-English-speaking farmworkers. (A companion document, CE 024 589, contains the first seven monographs and a curriculum guide.) These career monographs are written at the 5th-grade…

  11. Collection, Evaluation, Dissemination System (CEDS). An Index of 309/310 Adult Basic Education Projects, Indiana 1976-1981. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anabel; Huffman, Ruth E.

    The purpose of the CEDS project was to assist funded resource centers in the collection and review of completed adult basic education special projects in Indiana. Successful special projects for 1976-81 that resulted in publication of products were identified by applying criteria presented in three instruments. Product reports were then obtained…

  12. Development of an Individualized and Group Instructional Program Based on Financial Management for Adult/Young Farmers in Vocational Agriculture Programs in Missouri. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolting, Greg; And Others

    A study was conducted to develop competency-based curriculum materials and a computer-based analysis system for farm business records to assist local vocational agriculture teachers of adult/young farmers in their group and individualized instructional programs. A list of thirty-five competencies in financial management were validated using…

  13. Cottage Crafts Final Report. ESL Cottage Industry Education and Employment Program. July 1, 1982 - June 30, 1983. A 310 Adult Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jean; And Others

    The ESL (English as a second language) Cottage Industry Education and Employment Program was developed to provide ESL and life skills instruction to homebound and elderly refugees while, at the same time, fostering the continuation of native crafts and folklife. The program was the cooperative effort of local adult education staff, leaders and…

  14. Cottage Crafts Final Report. ESL Cottage Industry Education and Employment Program. July 1, 1982 - June 30, 1983. A 310 Adult Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jean; And Others

    The ESL (English as a second language) Cottage Industry Education and Employment Program was developed to provide ESL and life skills instruction to homebound and elderly refugees while, at the same time, fostering the continuation of native crafts and folklife. The program was the cooperative effort of local adult education staff, leaders and…

  15. The Final Frontier: Exploring Spaces in the Education of Adults. SCUTREA Annual Conference (29th, Warwick, England, July 5-7, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Barbara, Ed.

    This document contains 51 papers from a conference devoted to the theme of exploring spaces in adult education. The following are among the papers included: "Exploring Everyday Spaces: Women's Transitions from Welfare to Paid Work and Education" (Cynthia Lee Andruske); "Lost in Space? Re-valuing the Impact of Education…

  16. Development of an Individualized and Group Instructional Program Based on Financial Management for Adult/Young Farmers in Vocational Agriculture Programs in Missouri. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolting, Greg; And Others

    A study was conducted to develop competency-based curriculum materials and a computer-based analysis system for farm business records to assist local vocational agriculture teachers of adult/young farmers in their group and individualized instructional programs. A list of thirty-five competencies in financial management were validated using…

  17. Space-borne observations of aerosol - cloud relations for cloud systems of different heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stathopoulos, S.; Georgoulias, A. K.; Kourtidis, K.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we examine the aerosol - cloud relations over three major urban clusters of China, representative of three different climatic regimes, under different water vapor conditions and cloud heights, using Aerosol Optical Depth at 550 nm (AOD), Cloud Fraction (CC), Cloud Optical Depth (COD), Water Vapor (WV) and Cloud Top Pressure (CTP) data from the MODIS instrument. Over all regions and for all seasons, CC is found to increase with increasing AOD, WV and cloud height. Aerosols, at low WV environments and under constant CTP, have less impact on CC than at high WV environments. Furthermore, AOD has a varying influence on COD depending on CTP. Finally, COD is found to increase with height for low and middle height clouds, and with increasing AOD, especially at low AOD. Our results demonstrate that the role of WV in the observed satellite-based aerosol - cloud relations is significant for all cloud heights.

  18. Height and calories in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Andrew S

    2016-03-01

    This paper estimates a height production function using data from a randomized nutrition intervention conducted in rural Guatemala from 1969 to 1977. Using the experimental intervention as an instrument, the IV estimates of the effect of calories on height are an order of magnitude larger than the OLS estimates. Information from a unique measurement error process in the calorie data, counterfactuals results from the estimated model and external evidence from migration studies suggest that IV is not identifying a policy relevant average marginal impact of calories on height. The preferred, attenuation bias corrected OLS estimates from the height production function suggest that, averaging over ages, a 100 calorie increase in average daily calorie intake over the course of a year would increase height by 0.06 cm. Counterfactuals from the model imply that calories gaps in early childhood can explain at most 16% of the height gap between Guatemalan children and the US born children of Guatemalan immigrants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Association Study of GWAS-Derived Loci with Height in Brazilian Children: Importance of MAP3K3, MMP24 and IGF1R Polymorphisms for Height Variation.

    PubMed

    Fontenele, Eveline Gadelha Pereira; Moraes, Maria Elisabete Amaral de; d'Alva, Catarina Brasil; Pinheiro, Daniel Pascoalino; Landim, Sara Aguiar Sales Pinheiro; Barros, Fernando Antonio de Sousa; Trarbach, Ericka Barbosa; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho de; Jorge, Alexander Augusto Lima

    2015-01-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2282978 (CDK6), rs2425019 (MMP24), rs8081612 (MAP3K3), rs2871865 (IGF1R) and rs3782415 (SOCS2) were among the SNPs most strongly associated with height in a meta-analysis of 47 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) involving 114,223 adults from six ethnic groups. The present study aimed to examine associations between these SNPs and height in Brazilian children. Cross-sectional heights of 1,008 healthy unrelated 4.4- to 9.7-year-old children were evaluated. All genotypes were determined by allele-specific polymerase chain reactions. Height standard deviation scores (SDS) were generated for this population and regressed on allele counts. Linear regressions were performed to estimate the effect of individual SNPs or a polygenic allelic score on height. The T allele of rs8081612 (MAP3K3), the C allele of rs2871865 (IGF1R) and the G allele of rs2425019 (MMP24) were significantly associated with a 0.091-SDS greater height (95% CI 0.089-0.093, p = 0.001) by polygenic analysis. The mean height SDS difference between children with 2 'tall' alleles and children with 4 'tall' alleles was 0.24 SDS (95% CI 0.05-0.43, p = 0.01). The observed allelic effect is consistent with that found in previous GWAS. Polymorphisms in MAP3K3, MMP24 and IGF1R act additively on height in children of an admixed population. These results demonstrate the importance of these loci for children's height. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Height and Breast Cancer Risk: Evidence From Prospective Studies and Mendelian Randomization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J.; Zeng, Chenjie; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Wen, Wanqing; Long, Jirong; Li, Chun; Dunning, Alison M.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J.; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Floris, Giuseppe; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Rookus, Matti A.; van den Hurk, Katja; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Hallberg, Emily; Vachon, Celine; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Brand, Judith; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Yang, Rongxi; Surowy, Harald; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M. Pilar; Perez, Jose I. A.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Marchand, Loic Le; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W. M.; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; McLean, Catriona; Fasching, Peter A.; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Figueroa, Jonine; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise; Lissowska, Jolanta; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Radice, Paolo; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe I.; Pierce, Brandon L.; Kraft, Peter; Peters, Ulrike; Lindstrom, Sara; Seminara, Daniela; Burgess, Stephen; Ahsan, Habibul; Whittemore, Alice S.; John, Esther M.; Gammon, Marilie D.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S.; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Simard, Jacques; Hall, Per; Hunter, David J.; Easton, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control subjects, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control subjects. Results: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15 to 1.19) per 10cm increase in height in the meta-analysis of prospective studies. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the odds ratio of breast cancer per 10cm increase in genetically predicted height was 1.22 (95% CI = 1.13 to 1.32) in the first consortium and 1.21 (95% CI = 1.05 to 1.39) in the second consortium. The association was found in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women but restricted to hormone receptor–positive breast cancer. Analyses of height-associated variants identified eight new loci associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for multiple comparisons, including three loci at 1q21.2, DNAJC27, and CCDC91 at genome-wide significance level P < 5×10–8. Conclusions: Our study provides strong evidence that adult height is a risk factor for breast cancer in women and certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height have an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:26296642

  1. Height, age at menarche, body weight and body mass index in life-long vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Magdalena; Appleby, Paul; Key, Tim

    2005-10-01

    We investigated whether life-long adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with adult height, age at menarche, adult body weight and body mass index (BMI), used as indicators of growth, development and obesity, in a large sample of adults. This was a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data and information on age, ethnicity, education, age at menarche and age at becoming a vegetarian were obtained through a questionnaire. Self-reported height and weight were calibrated using predictive equations derived from a previous validation study. United Kingdom. The study includes 45 962 British men and women aged > or = 20 years of whom 16,083 were vegetarians (not eating fish or meat). In men and women, there were no significant differences in height, weight or BMI between life-long vegetarians (n = 125 (men) and n = 265 (women)) and people who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years (n = 3122 (men) and n = 8137 (women)). Nor was there a significant difference in age at menarche between life-long vegetarian women and women who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years. This study suggests that, compared with people who become vegetarian when adult, life-long vegetarians do not differ in adult height, weight, BMI or age at menarche in women.

  2. Accuracy analysis of height difference models derived from terrestrial laser scanning point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glira, Philipp; Briese, Christian; Pfeifer, Norbert; Dusik, Jana; Hilger, Ludwig; Neugirg, Fabian; Baewert, Henning

    2014-05-01

    In many research areas the temporal development of the earth surface topography is investigated for geomorphological analysis (e.g. landslide monitoring). Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) often is used for this purpose, as it allows a fast and detailed 3d reconstruction of the sampled object. The temporal development of the earth surface usually is investigated on the basis of rasterized data, i.e. digital terrain models (DTM). The difference between two DTMs - the difference model - should preferably correspond to the terrain height changes occurred between the measurement campaigns. Actually, these height differences can be influenced by numerous potential error sources. The height accuracy of each raster cell is affected primarily by (a) the measurement accuracy of the deployed TLS, (b) the terrain topography (e.g. roughness), (c) the registration accuracy, (d) the georeferencing accuracy and (e) the raster interpolation method. Thus, in this contribution, height differences are treated as stochastic variables in order to estimate their precision. For an accurate estimation of the height difference precision a detailed knowledge about the whole processing pipeline (from the raw point clouds to the final difference model) is essential. In this study, first the height difference precision is estimated by a rigorous error propagation. As main result, for each raster cell of the difference model, a corresponding height error is estimated, forming an error map. A statistical hypothesis test is presented in order to judge the significance of a height difference. Furthermore, in order to asses the effect of single factors on the final height difference precision, multivariate statistic methods are applied. This analysis allows the deduction of a simple error propagation model, neglecting error sources with small impact on the final precision. The proposed method is demonstrated by means of TLS data acquired at the Gepatschferner (Tyrol, Austria). This study was carried

  3. Love and fear of heights: the pathophysiology and psychology of height imbalance.

    PubMed

    Salassa, John R; Zapala, David A

    2009-01-01

    Individual psychological responses to heights vary on a continuum from acrophobia to height intolerance, height tolerance, and height enjoyment. This paper reviews the English literature and summarizes the physiologic and psychological factors that generate different responses to heights while standing still in a static or motionless environment. Perceptual cues to height arise from vision. Normal postural sway of 2 cm for peripheral objects within 3 m increases as eye-object distance increases. Postural sway >10 cm can result in a fall. A minimum of 20 minutes of peripheral retinal arc is required to detect motion. Trigonometry dictates that a 20-minute peripheral retinal arch can no longer be achieved in a standing position at an eye-object distance of >20 m. At this distance, visual cues conflict with somatosensory and vestibular inputs, resulting in variable degrees of imbalance. Co-occurring deficits in the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems can significantly increase height imbalance. An individual's psychological makeup, influenced by learned and genetic factors, can influence reactions to height imbalance. Enhancing peripheral vision and vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic functions may improve height imbalance. Psychotherapy may improve the troubling subjective sensations to heights.

  4. Measuring height without a stadiometer: empirical investigation of four height estimates among wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Froehlich-Grobe, Katherine; Nary, Dorothy E; Van Sciver, Angela; Lee, Jaehoon; Little, Todd D

    2011-08-01

    : This study aimed to compare four methods of measuring or estimating height among wheelchair users, to determine whether these methods result in significantly different estimates, and to determine which method is most accurate. : Height data were obtained for 141 wheelchair users. Height estimates included asking for self-report and measuring recumbent length, knee height, and armspan. All analyses were conducted separately for men and women. A two-group confirmatory factor analysis assessed which measure provided the best estimate of height in this population. It also tested the measurement invariance of the four height estimates between men and women and whether there were significant differences across these estimates within each sex. : Confirmatory factor analysis findings indicated that the four measures yielded significantly different height estimates and body mass index values for both men and women. For both sexes, armspan resulted in the longest estimate, and measured recumbent length resulted in the shortest, with the reverse pattern for body mass index values. The common variance estimates were outstanding for recumbent length (92%) and knee height (>83%) and were very good for self-report (>75%), whereas the common variance for armspan was poor (<42%). : The measurement method used to estimate height yields significantly different values for both height and body mass index among wheelchair users who cannot stand to be measured using a stadiometer. Recumbent length yields the most accurate height estimate for wheelchair users. However, when logistical and practical considerations pose difficulties for obtaining this measure, height estimates based on knee height and self-report may provide reasonable alternatives.

  5. Analysis of the COS/NUV Extraction Box Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synder, Elaine M.; Sonnentrucker, Paule

    2017-08-01

    We present a diagnostic test of the extraction box heights (EBHs) used when extracting NUV spectroscopic data. This study was motivated by a discrepancy between the EBH used by the COS Exposure Time Calculator during observation planning (8 pixels) and the COS calibration pipeline (CALCOS) during the creation of the final spectra (57 pixels). In this Instrument Science Report, we study the effects of decreasing the EBH on the net counts and signal-to-noise ratio for CALCOS-reduced spectra of many different targets. We also provide detailed instructions for users who wish to perform a custom extraction for their data

  6. Evaluation of proper height for squatting stool.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hwa S; Jung, Hyung-Shik

    2008-05-01

    Many jobs and activities in people's daily lives have them in squatting postures. Jobs such as housekeeping, farming and welding require various squatting activities. It is speculated that prolonged squatting without any type of supporting stool would gradually and eventually impose musculoskeletal injuries on workers. This study aims to examine the proper height of the stool according to the position of working materials for the squatting worker. A total of 40 male and female college students and 10 female farmers participated in the experiment to find the proper stool height. Student participants were asked to sit and work in three different positions: floor level of 50 mm; ankle level of 200 mm; and knee level of 400 mm. They were then provided with stools of various heights and asked to maintain a squatting work posture. For each working position, they were asked to write down their thoughts on a preferred stool height. A Likert summated rating method as well as pairwise ranking test was applied to evaluate user preference for provided stools under conditions of different working positions. Under a similar experimental procedure, female farmers were asked to indicate their body part discomfort (BPD) on a body chart before and after performing the work. Statistical analysis showed that comparable results were found from both evaluation measures. When working position is below 50 mm, the proper stool height is 100 or should not be higher than 150 mm. When working position is 200 mm, the proper stool height is 150 mm. When working position is 400 mm, the proper stool height is 200 mm. Thus, it is strongly recommended to use proper height of stools with corresponding working position. Moreover, a wearable chair prototype was designed so that workers in a squatting posture do not have to carry and move the stool from one place to another. This stool should ultimately help to relieve physical stress and hence promote the health of squatting workers. This study sought

  7. Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids : Phase 1, Examination of Fish at Lookingglass Hatchery in 1996 : Addendum to Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Groberg, Warren J.

    1996-11-01

    This information is an addendum to the report 'Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids, Phase 1: Examination of Fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996' by Ralph Elston because there may be relevant observations included here. The author of this document participated in the examinations at Lower Granite Dam described in that report. Because of Endangered Species Act issues, the Rapid River stock of spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery on the Grande Ronde River in northeastern Oregon are annually being captured as returning adults at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River and trucked to Lookingglass. During the peak migration period they are held in an adult holding facility at Lower Granite for as long as 72 hours and then transported by truck to Lookingglass for holding in an adult pond for spawning. In 1996 a total of 572 adults were transported from Lower Granite Dam between May 3 and August 6. Two-hundred eighty-one of these were later transported from Lookingglass to Wallowa Hatchery for artificial spawning and the remaining 291 were held for spawning at Lookingglass. On May 21, 24, 30 and June 2, 1996 hatchery personnel identified a total of 32 off-loaded fish with lesions on the dorsal area of the head they described as having the appearance of blisters (Robert Lund personal communication). By date these are shown in Table 1 (fish with similar lesions were also observed on May 27 but the number of these was not recorded). Such lesions were not observed on fish offloaded on any other dates. On May 24, 1996 hatchery personnel took photographs of fish with these lesions but do to light-meter problems the photographs did not turn out. On June 28, 1996 personnel of the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Fish Pathology laboratory in La Grande were notified by James Lauman, ODFW Northeast Region supervisor, of discussions and concerns of head burn on returning adult chinook while he was on a visitation to Lower Granite Dam. That led

  8. Hierarchical control of ride height system for electronically controlled air suspension based on variable structure and fuzzy control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing; Zhou, Kongkang; Zou, Nannan; Jiang, Hong; Cui, Xiaoli

    2015-09-01

    The current research of air suspension mainly focuses on the characteristics and design of the air spring. In fact, electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) has excellent performance in flexible height adjustment during different driving conditions. However, the nonlinearity of the ride height adjusting system and the uneven distribution of payload affect the control accuracy of ride height and the body attitude. Firstly, the three-point measurement system of three height sensors is used to establish the mathematical model of the ride height adjusting system. The decentralized control of ride height and the centralized control of body attitude are presented to design the ride height control system for ECAS. The exact feedback linearization method is adopted for the nonlinear mathematical model of the ride height system. Secondly, according to the hierarchical control theory, the variable structure control (VSC) technique is used to design a controller that is able to adjust the ride height for the quarter-vehicle anywhere, and each quarter-vehicle height control system is independent. Meanwhile, the three-point height signals obtained by three height sensors are tracked to calculate the body pitch and roll attitude over time, and then by calculating the deviation of pitch and roll and its rates, the height control correction is reassigned based on the fuzzy algorithm. Finally, to verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed combined control strategy, a validating test of ride height control system with and without road disturbance is carried out. Testing results show that the height adjusting time of both lifting and lowering is over 5 s, and the pitch angle and the roll angle of body attitude are less than 0.15°. This research proposes a hierarchical control method that can guarantee the attitude stability, as well as satisfy the ride height tracking system.

  9. Consistent height transformations between geodetic and meteorologic reference systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobiger, T.; Boehm, J.; Boy, J.; Foster, J. H.; Gegout, P.; Haas, R.; Ichikawa, R.; MacMillan, D. S.; Ming, S.; Niell, A. E.; Nievinski, F. G.; Nordman, M.; Salstein, D. A.; Santos, M. C.; Schindelegger, M.; van Dam, T. M.; Vedel, H.; Wickert, J.; Zus, F.

    2012-12-01

    Numerical weather models (NWMs) contain valuable information that is relevant for removing the environmental signal from geodetic data. Currently no clear documentation exists regarding how to deal with the coordinate systems when carrying out the calculations in a geodetic reference frame. A "conventional" transformation model (available also as source code) would enable geodesists to handle such data easily and allow them to use data from different meteorologic data-sets. In addition, geodetic products such as GNSS derived zenith total delays are being assimilated into NWMs. Thus, the transformations that convert the meteorological data into a geodetic reference frame should also support the use of geodetic data in meteorological models. The IAG Intercomission Committee on Theory - Special Study Group 12 "Coordinate systems in numerical weather models" has been set-up to 1) deal with the differences between geodetic and meteorologic reference systems and 2) provide consistent models for transforming between the two systems. We present the first product from this effort: a conventional height transformation that transforms between ellipsoidal heights and the various height systems used in NWMs. We will discuss the choice of the gravity model, which is crucial for such a transformation, and we will present the final model that the study group believes best describes the transformation in an unambiguous and bi-directional sense.

  10. Forest Height Inversion Using Dual-pol Polarimetric SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, W. X.; Guo, H. D.; Xie, C.; Lu, Y. C.; Li, X. W.

    2014-03-01

    Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (PolInSAR) has been extensively applied for forest parameter inversion over different frequencies and polarimetric conditions. So far, most research was based on full-pol SAR images with relatively small coverage. A spaceborne SAR system will have the potential for PolInSAR applications used for global forest monitoring. Spaceborne dual-pol SAR images usually have higher resolution and larger swath than full-pol mode. In this paper, forest height retrieval was attempted by PolInSAR from a L-band spaceborne dual-pol SAR pairs using HH and HV channels. The random volume over ground (RVoG) model was used to retrieve the height and the coherence optimization method was extended to the dual-pol PolInSAR, which makes use of polarimetry to enhance the quality of SAR interferograms. The three-stage process is also used in the dual-pol PolInSAR technique. Finally, the experimental test was performed for forest height estimation on the dual-pol L-band SAR data of the Saihanba forest acquired by the ALOS PALSAR sensor in 2009.

  11. Determination of Vitamin B12 in Infant, Adult, and Pediatric Formulas by HPLC-UV and Column Switching: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2011.10.

    PubMed

    Butler-Thompson, Linda D; Jacobs, Wesley A; Schimpf, Karen J

    2015-01-01

    AOAC First Action Method 2011.10, Vitamin B12 in Infant and Pediatric Formulas and Adult Nutritionals, was collaboratively studied. This method uses a pH 4.5 sodium acetate buffer and potassium cyanide at 105°C to extract and convert all biologically active forms of vitamin B12 present to cyanocobalamin; octylsilyl (C8) or C18 SPE cartridges to purify and concentrate cyanocobalamin; a combination of size-exclusion and RPLC to isolate cyanocobalamin; and visible absorbance at 550 nm to detect and quantitate cyanocobalamin in infant, pediatric, and adult nutritionals with vitamin B12 concentrations greater than 0.025 μg/100 g ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid. During this collaborative study, nine to 11 laboratories from eight different countries analyzed blind duplicates of 12 infant, pediatric, and adult nutritional formulas. Per the AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) on Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Nutrient Methods the method demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and met SPIFAN Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for the majority of product matrixes analyzed. Vitamin B12 SPIFAN SMPRs for repeatability were ≤15% RSD at vitamin B12 concentrations of 0.01 μg/100 g RTF liquid and ≤7% RSD at vitamin B12 concentrations of 0.2-5.0 μg/100 g RTF liquid. Vitamin B12 SPIFAN SMPRs for reproducibility were ≤11% RSD in products with vitamin B12 concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 5.0 μg/100 g RTF liquid. During this collaborative study, the RSDr ranged from 2.98 to 9.77%, and the RSDR ranged from 3.54 to 19.5%. During previous single-laboratory validation studies, the method LOQ was estimated to be 0.025 μg/100 g RTF liquid.

  12. Determination of Chromium, Selenium, and Molybdenum in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritional Products by Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2011.19.

    PubMed

    Pacquette, Lawrence H; Thompson, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    AOAC First Action Method 2011.19: Chromium, Selenium, and Molybdenum in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritional Products, was collaboratively studied. This method uses microwave digestion of samples with nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and internal standard followed by simultaneous detection of the elements by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP)/MS instrument equipped with a collision/reaction cell. During this collaborative study, nine laboratories from four different countries, using seven different models of ICP/MS instruments, analyzed blind duplicates of seven infant, pediatric, and adult nutritional formulas. One laboratory's set of data was rejected in its entirety. The method demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and met the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for almost all of the matrixes analyzed. The Cr, Mo, and Se SPIFAN requirement for repeatability was ≤5% RSD. The SMPR called for a reproducibility of ≤15% RSD for products with ultratrace element concentrations above the targeted LOQ of 20 μg/kg Cr/Mo and 10 μg/kg Se (as ready-to-feed). During this collaborative study, RSDr ranged from 1.0 to 7.0% and RSDR ranged from 2.5 to 13.4% across all three ultratrace elements.

  13. Divergent associations of height with cardiometabolic disease and cancer: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and global implications.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Norbert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hu, Frank B; Schulze, Matthias B

    2016-05-01

    Among chronic non-communicable diseases, cardiometabolic diseases and cancer are the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although high BMI and waist circumference, as estimates of total and abdominal fat mass, are now accepted as predictors of the increasing incidence of these diseases, adult height, which also predicts mortality, has been neglected. Interestingly, increasing evidence suggests that height is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, but higher cancer risk, associations supported by mendelian randomisation studies. Understanding the complex epidemiology, biology, and pathophysiology related to height, and its association with cardiometabolic diseases and cancer, is becoming even more important because average adult height has increased substantially in many countries during recent generations. Among the mechanisms driving the increase in height and linking height with cardiometabolic diseases and cancer are insulin and insulin-like growth factor signalling pathways. These pathways are thought to be activated by overnutrition, especially increased intake of milk, dairy products, and other animal proteins during different stages of child development. Limiting overnutrition during pregnancy, early childhood, and puberty would avoid not only obesity, but also accelerated growth in children-and thus might reduce risk of cancer in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping forest height in Alaska using GLAS, Landsat composites, and airborne LiDAR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Birgit; Nelson, Kurtis

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation structure, including forest canopy height, is an important input variable to fire behavior modeling systems for simulating wildfire behavior. As such, forest canopy height is one of a nationwide suite of products generated by the LANDFIRE program. In the past, LANDFIRE has relied on a combination of field observations and Landsat imagery to develop existing vegetation structure products. The paucity of field data in the remote Alaskan forests has led to a very simple forest canopy height classification for the original LANDFIRE forest height map. To better meet the needs of data users and refine the map legend, LANDFIRE incorporated ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data into the updating process when developing the LANDFIRE 2010 product. The high latitude of this region enabled dense coverage of discrete GLAS samples, from which forest height was calculated. Different methods for deriving height from the GLAS waveform data were applied, including an attempt to correct for slope. These methods were then evaluated and integrated into the final map according to predefined criteria. The resulting map of forest canopy height includes more height classes than the original map, thereby better depicting the heterogeneity of the landscape, and provides seamless data for fire behavior analysts and other users of LANDFIRE data.

  15. Restoration of lordosis and disk height after single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Radcliff, Kristen E; Patel, Amar A; Anderson, D Greg; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Hilibrand, Alan S; Albert, Todd J

    2012-02-01

    To study radiographic and clinical outcomes after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in order to determine the impact of TLIF on lumbar lordosis, intervertebral height and improvement in clinical outcome measures. Forty-five patients who had undergone a single-level TLIF procedure for a single-level degenerative condition were retrospectively reviewed and their clinical histories, degree of pre- and post-operative lumbar lordosis, intervertebral height, and cage position recorded. Clinical assessment included use of modified Odom's criteria and a visual analog scale (VAS) for back and leg pain. At 21 months, the patients had gained an average of 3.6° of lumbar lordosis and 4.5 mm disc height. Change in disc height was significantly associated with an anterior cage position while lumbar lordosis was unaffected by cage position. A spondylolisthesis subgroup demonstrated 31% reduction in the magnitude of anterior slip. Less lordosis was associated with worse back and leg pain as assessed by VAS and greater disk heights were associated with higher Odom's criteria scores. Patients with persistent leg pain at final follow-up had less lumbar lordosis and intervertebral height than patients without leg pain. Intervertebral height and lumbar lordosis reconstruction are important for achieving good surgical results; guidance regarding the likely changes in lumbar lordosis and disk height after TLIF is provided by our findings. © 2012 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Challenges in Defining Tsunami Wave Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Paula; Mungov, George; Sweeney, Aaron; Stroker, Kelly; Arcos, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics maintain the global tsunami archive consisting of the historical tsunami database, imagery, and raw and processed water level data. The historical tsunami database incorporates, where available, maximum wave heights for each coastal tide gauge and deep-ocean buoy that recorded a tsunami signal. These data are important because they are used for tsunami hazard assessment, model calibration, validation, and forecast and warning. There have been ongoing discussions in the tsunami community about the correct way to measure and report these wave heights. It is important to understand how these measurements might vary depending on how the data were processed and the definition of maximum wave height. On September 16, 2015, an 8.3 M w earthquake located 48 km west of Illapel, Chile generated a tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific region. We processed the time-series water level data for 57 coastal tide gauges that recorded this tsunami and compared the maximum wave heights determined from different definitions. We also compared the maximum wave heights from the NCEI-processed data with the heights reported by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. We found that in the near field different methods of determining the maximum tsunami wave heights could result in large differences due to possible instrumental clipping. We also found that the maximum peak is usually larger than the maximum amplitude (½ peak-to-trough), but the differences for the majority of the stations were <20 cm. For this event, the maximum tsunami wave heights determined by either definition (maximum peak or amplitude) would have validated the forecasts issued by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. Since there is currently only one field in the NCEI historical tsunami database to store the maximum tsunami wave height for each tide gauge and

  17. Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yong-Sik; Cho, Jeong-Seon

    2015-04-01

    surveyed again. The run-up heights for both 1983 and 1993 Tsunami events are computed along the Eastern Coastline of the Korean Peninsula. Finally, a tsunami hazard map is generated based on the computed and observed run-up heights. Significant information such as proper evacuation routes, shelters and hot lines are included in the map. Acknowledgements The research described in this publication was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (Reference No. 2010-0022337).

  18. Height velocity curves in female patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Chazono, Masaaki; Soshi, Sigeru; Kida, Yoshikuni; Hashimoto, Kurando; Inoue, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yousuke; Shinohara, Akira; Marumo, Keishi; Kono, Katsuki; Suzuki, Nobumasa

    2012-01-01

    Following identification of peak height velocity (PHV) by a recent study as a possible prognostic factor for curve progression in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS), the aim of this study was to investigate PHV curves in Japanese female patients with IS. The study subjects were 20 skeletally immature IS patients who were followed until maturity. The mean age and the mean pubertal status at the initial visit were 9.8 years and 24 months before menarche, respectively, with a follow-up period of 5.2 years. Height measurements were recorded at each visit, and HV was calculated as the change in height (cm) divided by the time interval (yr.) between visits of 6 to 12 months. The PHV, age at PHV (APHV), height at PHV (HPHV), and final height (FH) were determined. Patient HV curves were plotted using their HV data, and growth periods (GPs) were calculated from the curves. PHVs and GPs of study patients were compared to standard data from unaffected girls. The median values and interquartile ranges in PHV, APHV, HPHV, and FH were 8.5 cm/yr. (7.9-9.7), 11.8 yr. (11.2-12.1), 153.2 cm (150.1-155.8), and 160.1 cm (157.4-162.4), respectively. The median GP was 27 months. The PHV and GP values in IS female patients were higher and shorter than those in unaffected girls. These findings indicate that the patterns of height velocity curves in IS patients are different from those in unaffected girls, suggesting that curve progression in IS patients is associated with the magnitude of PHV and duration of GP. Recently, we have developed an HV reader to easily and quickly identify the present HV in patients with scoliosis, applicable for the clinical setting or school screening. We conclude that risk assessments of curve progression in patients with IS should include HV along with measures of skeletal maturity such as the Risser sign and/or digital skeletal age using hand X-rays.

  19. Laser Technician Associate Degree Program. A Proposal Submitted to Wisconsin State Board of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education. (Curriculum Development.) Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Technical Inst., Wausau, WI.

    This final report contains the program proposal with supporting data for developing curriculum materials for and implementing an associate-degree laser technology program at the North Central Technical Institute. The proposal outline provides this information: (1) objectives for the program designed to prepare a technician to safely operate,…

  20. Approach for a Global Height Reference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihde, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Hermann Drewes, Christoph Foerste, Thomas Gruber, Gunter Liebsch, Roland Pail, Laura Sanchez For Earth system monitoring the heights are main parameters for global changes. Physical heights are potential differences of the outer Earth gravity field at different positions. Long term monitoring of the vertical component of the Earth surface needs a standardized defined and realized global reference relating the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth. In the last two decades, in several working groups of the International Association of Geodesy were different concepts for definition and realization of global height reference system discussed. Furthermore, the satellite gravity missions have the Earth gravity field data basis general extended. So far, it is possible to develop the present local and regional height reference systems concepts to a global approach. The presented proposal has to be understood as a model that consider the present possibilities and actual needs for the realization of a global height reference system. It includes aspects for the combination of observations and products representing the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth.

  1. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine the

  2. The difference between the Weil height and the canonical height on elliptic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Joseph H.

    1990-10-01

    Estimates for the difference of the Weil height and the canonical height of points on elliptic curves are used for many purposes, both theoretical and computational. In this note we give an explicit estimate for this difference in terms of the j-invariant and discriminant of the elliptic curve. The method of proof, suggested by Serge Lang, is to use the decomposition of the canonical height into a sum of local heights. We illustrate one use for our estimate by computing generators for the Mordell-Weil group in three examples.

  3. Modeling Missing Remeasurement Tree Heights in Forest Inventory Data

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2005-01-01

    Missing tree heights are often problematic in compiling forest inventory remeasurement data. Heights for cut and mortality trees are usually not available; calculations of removal or mortality volumes must utilize either a modeled height at the time of tree death or the height assigned to the tree at a previous remeasurement. Less often, tree heights are not available...

  4. Modeling missing remeasurement tree heights in forest inventory data

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2002-01-01

    Missing tree heights are often problematic in compiling forest inventory renleasureinent data. Heights for cut and niortality trees are usually not available; calculations of removal or mortality volumes must utilize either a modeled height at the time of tree death or the height assigned to the tree at a previous remeasurement. Less often, tree heights are not...

  5. Determination of Total Iodine in Infant Formula and Adult/ Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS): Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.15.

    PubMed

    Zywicki, Richard S; Sullivan, Darryl M

    2015-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to determine total iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula by inductively coupled plasma-MS (ICP-MS) using AOAC First Action Official Method(SM) 2012.15. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the method's intralaboratory and interlaboratory performance and submit the results to AOAC INTERNATIONAL for adoption as a Final Action Official Method for the determination of total iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. Upon providing acceptable results for practice samples National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849a and a low-fat adult nutritional powder, 13 laboratories analyzed seven various infant and adult nutritional products including a blind duplicate of each. Products were chosen with varying levels of iodine and included low-fat, soy-based, and milk-based formulas and NIST SRM 1849a. Random identification numbers were assigned to each of the seven fortified test materials. Digestion of the test samples occurred using a potassium hydroxide solution in an oven or open-vessel microwave system. Iodine was stabilized with ammonium hydroxide and sodium thiosulfate after digestion. The solutions were brought to volume followed by filtration. The filtrates were then analyzed by ICP-MS after dilution. Results for all seven test samples met all the AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR(®) 2012.008) guidelines. The RSDr ranged from 0.77 to 4.78% and the RSDR from 5.42 to 11.5%. The Horwitz ratio (HorRat) for each result was excellent, ranging from 0.35 to 1.31%. The results demonstrate that the method is fit-for-purpose to determine iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula.

  6. Scale height of the thin galactic disk in solar neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D. L.; Zhu, Z.

    2008-04-01

    Thanks to astrometric data of unprecedented accuracy from Hipparcos Catalogue (ESA 1997), it becomes possible to investigate, by directly counting stars, the scale height of the thin Galactic disk in solar neighborhood defined by the perpendicular distribution of stellar populations. In order to trace out the evolution of scale height, which is partly a measure of the dynamical evolution of the disk, main sequence (MS) and horizontal branch stars are divided into sub-samples on Hertzsprung-Russell diagram according to color index from Tycho Catalogue (ESA 1997), so that an age sequence is approximately constructed. As dim objects are hardly observed completely, not all the sub-samples meet the requirement of completeness in some distance. Finally, with the completeness checked carefully, reliable results are able to be derived only from O-B type MS and horizontal branch populations, both of which are luminous populations. Scale height defined by O-B type MS sample is 103.1±3.0 pc and mean plane of the thin Galactic disk is 15.2±7.3 pc below the sun while scale height defined by horizontal branch sample is144.0±10.0 pc and midplane of the thin Galactic disk is 3.5±5.4 pc below the sun. Additionally, a method of simulation is developed to obtain quantitative counting error distribution with respect to corresponding observed stellar distribution. Moreover, a model-dependent statistical method to derive qualitative error distribution is presented briefly as well. Qualitative results under the hypothesis of an exponential decay perpendicular distribution prove to be correspondent very well with ultimate quantitative results, which strongly implies the justification of the exponential decay model.

  7. The height of watermelons with wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15-22) on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067-83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions.

  8. Relative Width and Height of Handwritten Letter.

    PubMed

    Lizega Rika, Joseba

    2017-02-28

    This is an exploratory study that analyzes the width and the height of letters in two texts written by each of the 21 writers analyzed. After detrending the linear, text, and allograph trends, we proceeded to comparing the sizes obtained in different texts. The different detrended series were compared by means of correlation and t-test. According to the results regarding the width of letters, the texts of 19 of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas the texts of two writers did not correlate with the limits of the threshold. With regard to the height of letters, texts written by between 18 and 21 writers of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas texts that did not correlate were within the threshold value. Regarding both the width and the height of letters, of 21 writers, texts written by between 19 and 21 individuals were found to correlate strongly.

  9. The height limit of a siphon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatwright, A.; Hughes, S.; Barry, J.

    2015-12-01

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure—about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion.

  10. The height limit of a siphon

    PubMed Central

    Boatwright, A.; Hughes, S.; Barry, J.

    2015-01-01

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure—about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion. PMID:26628323

  11. Differences in height by education among 371,105 Dutch military conscripts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; van Poppel, Frans; Lumey, L H

    2015-04-01

    Adult height is associated with a variety of familial and socio-economic factors and large, well-defined populations are needed for a reliable assessment of their relative contributions. We therefore analyzed recorded heights from the military health examinations of 18-year conscripts in the Netherlands born between 1944 and 1947 and observed large differences by their attained education and by their father's occupation. The 5.1 cm height gradient from lowest to highest education level was more than twice as large as the gradient between father's occupation levels. The education gradient was not explained by common determinants of height including paternal occupation as a measure of familial background, region of birth, family size, or religion.

  12. Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids : Phase 1 : Examination of Fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Elston, Ralph

    1996-08-01

    Head burn is a descriptive clinical term used by fishery biologists to describe exfoliation of skin and underlying connective tissue of the jaw and cranial region of salmonids, observed at fish passage facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The observations are usually made on upstream migrant adult salmon or steelhead. An expert panel, convened in 1996, to evaluate the risk and severity of gas bubble disease (GBD) in the Snake and Columbia River system believed that, while head burns appeared to be distinct from GBD, the relationship between dissolved gas saturation in the rivers and head burns was uncertain.

  13. The mental space of pitch height.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno; Umiltà, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian

    2005-12-01

    Through stimulus-response compatibility we tested whether sound frequency (pitch height) elicits a mental spatial representation. Musically untrained and, mostly, trained participants were shown a stimulus-response compatibility effect (Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes or SMARC effect). When response alternatives were either vertically or horizontally aligned, performance was better when the lower (or leftward) button had to be pressed in response to a low sound and the upper (or rightward) button had to be pressed in response to a high sound, even when pitch height was irrelevant to the task.

  14. Content Knowledge of the Internet Among Public Reference Librarians at the Cleveland Heights Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Matthew J.

    The Internet is becoming an increasingly important medium of electronic information dissemination, and thus an increasingly important library reference tool. This study examines the Internet skills of a sample group of 15 public reference librarians in the Adult Services Department at the Cleveland Heights Public Library. The Internet skills that…

  15. The recent decline in the height of African-American women.

    PubMed

    Komlos, John

    2010-03-01

    Height trends since World War II are analyzed using the NHANES surveys for US-born individuals stratified by gender, ethnicity and income. After stagnating or declining for nearly a generation, the height of adult white men and women began to increase among the birth cohorts of ca. 1975-1986, who reached adulthood between 1995 and 2006. The increase in their height overcame the prior downturn that lasted between ca. 1965 and 1974. The height gap between white and black men has increased by 0.43cm (0.17in.) during past decade compared to the previous quarter century, to reach 1.0cm (0.39in.). In contrast to the three other groups examined, the height of black women has been actually declining by some 1.42cm (0.56in.). Consequently, a very considerable wedge has developed between black and white women's height of 1.95cm (0.77in.). In addition, black women in the age range 20-39 weigh some 9.5kg (21.0lb) more than their white counterparts. Two hypotheses are worth considering, namely, (a) that the decline in their height is related to the obesity epidemic and to inadequate dietary balance, and (b) that their future health will be subject to a double jeopardy in the sense that both their increasing weight and decreasing physical stature are likely associated with negative health consequences. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Body height, birth cohort and social background in Finland and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, K; Lahelma, E; Lundberg, O; Rahkonen, O

    2001-06-01

    Poor childhood living conditions are associated with short stature. Before the Second World War Finland had much lower living standards than Sweden, but this gap had largely disappeared by the 1970s. Body height differences were examined by birth cohort, economic difficulties in childhood and adult socioeconomic position in Finland and Sweden. Two nationally representative data sets were used (n = 7,300 in Finland and n = 4,551 in Sweden). Three indicators of social background were included, i.e. economic difficulties in childhood, education and occupational class. The methods used were direct age-standardisation, index of dissimilarity and regression analysis. In the cohort born in 1920-1929 body height was taller in Sweden (175.8 cm among men and 163.7 cm among women) than in Finland (173.9 and 161.2 cm respectively). Body height by birth cohort increased faster in Finland, with the result that, in the cohort born in 1960-1969, the gap between the countries had narrowed to 0.8 cm among men and 0.3 cm among women. Body height differences by social background were larger in Finland than in Sweden. Socioeconomic body height differences have remained largely stable over the birth cohorts in both countries. The results suggest that differential economic development is partly seen in the narrowing of body height differences between Finland and Sweden. However, socioeconomic differences in body height have remained largely similar over the birth cohorts studied and between Finland and Sweden.

  17. Use of National and International Growth Charts for Studying Height in European Children: Development of Up-To-Date European Height-For-Age Charts

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Verrina, Enrico; Edefonti, Alberto; Molchanova, Elena A.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Growth charts based on data collected in different populations and time periods are key tools to assess children’s linear growth. We analyzed the impact of geographic factors and the secular trend on height-for-age charts currently used in European populations, developed up-to-date European growth charts, and studied the effect of using different charts in a sample of growth retarded children. Methods and Findings In an international survey we obtained 18 unique national height-for-age charts from 28 European countries and compared them with charts from the World Health Organization (WHO), Euro-Growth reference, and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). As an example, we obtained height data from 3,534 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from 13 countries via the ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry, a patient group generally suffering from growth retardation. National growth charts showed a clear secular trend in height (mean height increased on average 0.6 cm/decade) and a North-South height gradient in Europe. For countries without a recent (>1990) national growth chart novel European growth charts were constructed from Northern and Southern European reference populations, reflecting geographic height differences in mean final height of 3.9 cm in boys and 3.8 cm in girls. Mean height SDS of 2- to 17-year-old ESRD patients calculated from recent national or derived European growth charts (−1.91, 95% CI: −1.97 to −1.85) was significantly lower than when using CDC or WHO growth charts (−1.55, 95% CI: −1.61 to −1.49) (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differences between height-for-age charts may reflect true population differences, but are also strongly affected by the secular trend in height. The choice of reference charts substantially affects the clinical decision whether a child is considered short-for-age. Therefore, we advocate using recent national or European height-for-age charts derived from recent national data when monitoring growth

  18. Fear of heights and mild visual height intolerance independent of alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Brandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Visual height intolerance occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing balance and falling from some height. Affecting one-third of the population, it has a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from minor distress to fear of heights, which is defined as a specific phobia. Specific phobias are associated with higher alcohol consumption. This has not been specifically shown for susceptibility to the more general visual height intolerance. Methods Representative case–control study nested within a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey to assess epidemiologically 1253 individuals ≥14 years, using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, typical symptoms, precipitating visual stimuli, and alcohol drinking patterns (overall frequency of alcohol consumption, the daily quantities, and the motives). Results Individuals susceptible or nonsusceptible to visual height intolerance showed no significant differences in drinking patterns. The daily average alcohol consumption was slightly higher in persons susceptible to visual height intolerance (4.1 g/day vs. 3.7 g/day). Of those consuming alcohol, cases and controls reported on average consuming 2.3 glasses per day. The prevalence of visual height intolerance was insignificantly higher in the small minority of those drinking 2–3 times per week versus teetotalers. Conclusions Our study does not provide evidence that visual height intolerance – contrary to various specific phobias – is significantly associated with individual alcohol consumption patterns. PMID:24392279

  19. Fear of heights and mild visual height intolerance independent of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Huppert,