Science.gov

Sample records for final cooling section

  1. New Approaches to Final Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, David

    2014-11-10

    A high-energy muon collider scenario require a “final cooling” system that reduces transverse emittances by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

  2. Structural cooling fluid tube for supporting a turbine component and supplying cooling fluid to transition section

    SciTech Connect

    Charron, Richard; Pierce, Daniel

    2015-08-11

    A shaft cover support for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The shaft cover support not only provides enhanced support to a shaft cover of the gas turbine engine, but also includes a cooling fluid chamber for passing fluids from a rotor air cooling supply conduit to an inner ring cooling manifold. Furthermore, the shaft cover support may include a cooling shield supply extending from the cooling fluid chamber between the radially outward inlet and the radially inward outlet on the radially extending region and in fluid communication with the cooling fluid chamber for providing cooling fluids to a transition section. The shaft cover support may also provide additional stiffness and reduce interference of the flow from the compressor. In addition, the shaft cover support accommodates a transition section extending between compressor and turbine sections of the gas turbine engine.

  3. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  4. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  5. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  6. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  7. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  8. Final Report: Cooling Molecules with Laser Light

    SciTech Connect

    Di Rosa, Michael D.

    2012-05-08

    Certain diatomic molecules are disposed to laser cooling in the way successfully applied to certain atoms and that ushered in a revolution in ultracold atomic physics, an identification first made at Los Alamos and which took root during this program. Despite their manipulation into numerous achievements, atoms are nonetheless mundane denizens of the quantum world. Molecules, on the other hand, with their internal degrees of freedom and rich dynamical interplay, provide considerably more complexity. Two main goals of this program were to demonstrate the feasibility of laser-cooling molecules to the same temperatures as laser-cooled atoms and introduce a means for collecting laser-cooled molecules into dense ensembles, a foundational start of studies and applications of ultracold matter without equivalence in atomic systems.

  9. [Development of model communities (Cool Communities)]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This report covers progress in the Cool Communities program and is intended to detail specific accomplishments during the year and to provide a limited amount of background information about the program and its progress over the past three years. The Cool Communities project is driven by local partnerships among business, citizens, government, and guided by a Local Advisory Committee of representatives from these organizations. A national overview of the program is given in the first section. The second section describes specific accomplishments in each of the model communities in Dade County, Atlanta, Frederick, Tucson, Springfield, Austin, and the Davis Monthan Air Force Base.

  10. Component having cooling channel with hourglass cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Christian X; Lee, Ching-Pang

    2015-04-28

    A cooling channel (36, 36B, 63-66) cools inner surfaces (48, 50) of exterior walls (41, 43) of a component (20, 60). Interior side surfaces (52, 54) of the channel converge to a waist (W2), forming an hourglass shaped transverse profile (46). The inner surfaces (48, 50) may have fins (44) aligned with the coolant flow (22). The fins may have a transverse profile (56A, 56B) highest at mid-width of the inner surfaces (48, 50). Turbulators (92) may be provided on the side surfaces (52, 54) of the channel, and may urge the coolant flow toward the inner surfaces (48, 50). Each turbulator (92) may have a peak (97) that defines the waist of the cooling channel. Each turbulator may have a convex upstream side (93). These elements increase coolant flow in the corners (C) of the channel to more uniformly and efficiently cool the exterior walls (41, 43).

  11. COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA606. THREE OF SIX SECTIONS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-606. THREE OF SIX SECTIONS OF COOLING TOWER ARE VISIBLE ABOVE RAILING. PUMP HOUSE IN FOREGROUND IS ON SOUTH SIDE OF COOLING TOWER. NOTE THREE PIPES TAKING WATER FROM PUMP HOUSE TO HOT DECK OF COOLING TOWER. EMERGENCY WATER SUPPLY TOWER IS ALSO IN VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6197. Unknown Photographer, 6/27/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Directly connected heat exchanger tube section and coolant-cooled structure

    SciTech Connect

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Coico, Patrick A.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2015-09-15

    A method is provided for fabricating a cooling apparatus for cooling an electronics rack, which includes an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, one or more coolant-cooled structures, and a tube. The heat exchanger is associated with the electronics rack and disposed to cool air passing through the rack, includes a plurality of coolant-carrying tube sections, each tube section having a coolant inlet and outlet, one of which is coupled in fluid communication with a coolant loop to facilitate flow of coolant through the tube section. The coolant-cooled structure(s) is in thermal contact with an electronic component(s) of the rack, and facilitates transfer of heat from the component(s) to the coolant. The tube connects in fluid communication one coolant-cooled structure and the other of the coolant inlet or outlet of the one tube section, and facilitates flow of coolant directly between that coolant-carrying tube section of the heat exchanger and the coolant-cooled structure.

  13. Heat pipe cooling for scramjet engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, C.C.

    1986-12-01

    Liquid metal heat pipe cooling systems have been investigated for the combustor liner and engine inlet leading edges of scramjet engines for a missile application. The combustor liner is cooled by a lithium-TZM molybdenum annular heat pipe, which incorporates a separate lithium reservoir. Heat is initially absorbed by the sensible thermal capacity of the heat pipe and liner, and subsequently by the vaporization and discharge of lithium to the atmosphere. The combustor liner temperature is maintained at 3400 F or less during steady-state cruise. The engine inlet leading edge is fabricated as a sodium-superalloy heat pipe. Cooling is accomplished by radiation of heat from the aft surface of the leading edge to the atmosphere. The leading edge temperature is limited to 1700 F or less. It is concluded that heat pipe cooling is a viable method for limiting scramjet combustor liner and engine inlet temperatures to levels at which structural integrity is greatly enhanced.

  14. Advanced Cooling Technology, Inc. final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, H.S.

    1993-08-12

    Tasks performed to develop an improved version of Advanced Cooling Technology`s Evaporative Subcooling System are described. Work on pump stability, improved drainage mechanism, and the American Refrigeration Institute engineering performance tests is presented.

  15. Cool storage open hydronic systems design guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gatley, D.P.; Mackie, I.

    1995-09-01

    Cool storage systems circulating chilled water or glycol heat transfer fluids from open atmospheric pressure tanks require care in the analysis, design and installation of piping, pumping systems, heat exchangers (if used), controls and control valves, back pressure sustaining valves, filtration equipment, and cooling coils. The interface of the atmospheric storage tank to the water distribution system is vital because it impacts system design, reliability and operating costs. Tailored to meet the needs of designers, installers and operators, this design guide collects in one reference the data specific to cool storage open tank systems including stratified chilled water, ice-on-pipe external melt ice builders, ice harvesters, encapsulated ice, and encapsulated phase change. The data and diagrams in this guide will simplify the design, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance, and improve energy efficiency, performance, and reliability of cool storage systems using open tanks.

  16. Analytical investigation of chord size and cooling methods on turbine blade cooling requirements. Book 1: Sections 1 through 8 and appendixes A through I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of chord size on air cooled turbine blades. In the preliminary design phase, eight turbine blade cooling configurations in 0.75-in., 1.0-in., and 1.5-in. chord sizes were analyzed to determine the maximum turbine inlet temperature capabilities. A pin fin convection cooled configuration and a film-impingement cooled configuration were selected for a final design analysis in which the maximum turbine inlet temperature was determined as a function of the cooling air inlet temperature and the turbine inlet total pressure for each of the three chord sizes. The cooling air flow requirements were also determined for a varying cooling air inlet temperature with a constant turbine inlet temperature. It was determined that allowable turbine inlet temperature increases with increasing chord for the convection cooled and transpiration cooled designs, however, the film-convection cooled designs did not have a significant change in turbine inlet temperature with chord.

  17. Directly connected heat exchanger tube section and coolant-cooled structure

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J; Coico, Patrick A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    A cooling apparatus for an electronics rack is provided which includes an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, one or more coolant-cooled structures and a tube. The heat exchanger, which is associated with the electronics rack and disposed to cool air passing through the rack, includes a plurality of distinct, coolant-carrying tube sections, each tube section having a coolant inlet and a coolant outlet, one of which is coupled in fluid communication with a coolant loop to facilitate flow of coolant through the tube section. The coolant-cooled structure(s) is in thermal contact with an electronic component(s) of the rack, and facilitates transfer of heat from the component(s) to the coolant. The tube connects in fluid communication one coolant-cooled structure and the other of the coolant inlet or outlet of the one tube section, and facilitates flow of coolant directly between that coolant-carrying tube section of the heat exchanger and the coolant-cooled structure.

  18. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  19. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6; Computed Temperature Distribution Through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingood, John N. B.; Sams, Eldon W.

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the cross-sectional temperature distribution of a water-cooled turbine blade was made using the relaxation method to solve the differential equation derived from the analysis. The analysis was applied to specific turbine blade and the studies icluded investigations of the accuracy of simple methods to determine the temperature distribution along the mean line of the rear part of the blade, of the possible effect of varying the perimetric distribution of the hot gas-to -metal heat transfer coefficient, and of the effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the blade metal for a constant cross sectional area blade with two quarter inch diameter coolant passages.

  20. Sport fishery potential of power plant cooling ponds: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heidinger, R.C.; Lewis, W.M.

    1986-10-01

    This research was undertaken to determine if cooling ponds could serve as habitat for several coolwater fish species and also to evaluate the potential use of cooling ponds as nursery areas for receiving waters. The work was conducted on two cooling ponds in northern Illinois. Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), striped bass (Morone saxatilis) fingerlings, and adult threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) were stocked into both cooling ponds. The hybrids between the striped bass and white bass (M. chrysops) had been previously stocked into Collins Pond. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) fingerlings and larval striped bass and walleye were stocked in Dresden Pond. Several sampling techniques including seining, electrofishing, and rotenoning were used to monitor growth and survival of stocked species. In addition, escapement of stocked and indigenous species was monitored at the Dresden Pond spillway. Walleye, muskellunge, striped bass and hybrid striped bass exhibited excellent growth in Collins Pond as did smallmouth bass in Dresden Pond. One of the primary differences between an open system (such as Dresden Pond) and a closed system (such as Collins Pond) is the potential that the open system has to serve as a fish nursery area for receiving waters. The stocking of ''coolwater'' species in a closed type system such as Collins Pond is an effective way to control and maintain selected sport species. Dresden Pond was not open to public fishing during this study, but Collins Pond developed an excellent sport fishery as a result of these stockings.

  1. District cooling and heating development in Stamford, CT. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes the development options for introducing district cooling and heating in downtown Stamford, Connecticut. A district energy system as defined for the Stamford project is the production of chilled and hot water at a central energy plant, and its distribution underground to participating building in the vicinity. The objective of the study was to investigate implementation of a district energy system in conjunction with cogeneration as a means to encourage energy conservation and provide the city with an economic development tool. Analysis of the system configuration focused on selecting an arrangement which offered a realistic opportunity for implementation. Three main alternatives were investigated: (1) construction of an 82 MW cogeneration plant and a district heating and cooling system to serve downtown buildings, (2) construction of a small (4 MW) in-fence cogeneration plant combined with cooling and heating, and (3) construction of a district cooling and heating plant to supply selected buildings. Option (1) was determined to be unfeasible at this time due to low electricity prices. The analysis demonstrated that alternatives (2) and (3) were feasible. A number of recommendations are made for detailed cost estimates and ownership, leasing, and financial issues. 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Final Cooling For a High-luminosity High-Energy Lepton Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Sayed, H.; Hart, T.; Summers, D.

    2015-05-01

    The final cooling system for a high-energy high-luminosity heavy lepton collider requires reduction of the transverse emittance εt by an order of magnitude to ~0.00003 m (rms, N), while allowing longitudinal emittance εL to increase to ~0.1m. In the present baseline approach, this is obtained by transverse cooling of low-energy muons within a sequence of high-field solenoids with low-frequency rf systems. Recent studies of such systems are presented. Since the final cooling steps are mostly emittance exchange, a variant form of that final system can be obtained by a round to flat transform in x-y, with transverse slicing of the enlarged flat transverse dimension followed by longitudinal recombination of the sliced bunchlets. Other variants are discussed. More explicit emittance exchange can greatly reduce the cost of a final cooling system.

  3. Steamtown District Heating and Cooling Project, Scranton, Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-01

    This report summarizes the activities of a study intended to examine the feasibility of a district heating and cooling alternative for the Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton, PA. The objective of the study was to investigate the import of steam from the existing district heating system in Scranton which is operated by the Community Central Energy Corporation and through the use of modern technology provide hot and chilled water to Steamtown for its internal heating and cooling requirements. Such a project would benefit Steamtown by introducing a clean technology, eliminating on-site fuel use, avoiding first costs for central heating and cooling plants and reducing operation and maintenance expenditures. For operators of the existing district heating system, this project represents an opportunity to expand their customer base and demonstrate new technologies. The study was conducted by Joseph Technology Corporation, Inc. and performed for the Community Central Energy Corporation through a grant by the US Department of Energy. Steamtown was represented by the National Park Service, the developers of the site.

  4. Wastewater reuse as cooling-tower makeup: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.; Wei, I.; Casana, J.

    1987-08-01

    The objectives of this program are to document electric utility experience and concerns on the use of municipal wastewater as makeup to cooling towers and to identify areas lacking sufficient information for their application as well as to identify problem areas. Current users of municipal wastewater in electric utility cooling towers have been contacted and the literature has been reviewed. In addition, literature on the reuse of industrial wastewater has been reviewed. The findings are summarized in this report with emphasis on the use of municipal wastewater in electric utility cooling towers. It was found that this practice has been going on for sufficient time at sufficient places that the problems are fairly well understood. Scale formation by calcium phosphate is a problem. It is controlled by pH reduction or by removal of phosphate and suggested techniques are given. Fouling by slime is a problem. It is controlled by heavy doses of chlorine and other biocides or by mechanical and other non-chemical means without use of any biocide. Foaming, corrosion and blowdown disposal are not problems. There are a number of problem areas where more information is desired to establish a higher level of confidence in using sewage water as makeup. Three areas of research are recommended: (1) a study comparing the technological and environmental problems and costs of various technologies used to control the formation of biological slime, (2) laboratory and pilot scale testing to verify the prediction techniques for phosphate precipitation, and (3) to determine whether the health hazards of using sewage water are worse than the use of normal waters.

  5. Use of cooling air heat exchangers as replacements for hot section strategic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Because of financial and political constraints, strategic aerospace materials required for the hot section of future engines might be in short supply. As an alternative to these strategic materials, this study examines the use of a cooling air heat exchanger in combination with less advanced hot section materials. Cycle calculations are presented for future turbofan systems with overall pressure ratios to 65, bypass ratios near 13, and combustor exit temperatures to 3260 R. These calculations quantify the effect on TSFC of using a decreased materials technology in a turbofan system. The calculations show that the cooling air heat exchanger enables the feasibility of these engines.

  6. Mold heating and cooling microprocessor conversion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    Conversion of the microprocessors and software for the Mold Heating and Cooling (MHAC) pump package control systems was initiated to allow required system enhancements and provide data communications capabilities with the Plastics Information and Control System (PICS). The existing microprocessor-based control systems for the pump packages use an Intel 8088-based microprocessor board with a maximum of 64 Kbytes of program memory. The requirements for the system conversion were developed, and hardware has been selected to allow maximum reuse of existing hardware and software while providing the required additional capabilities and capacity. The new hardware will incorporate an Intel 80286-based microprocessor board with an 80287 math coprocessor, the system includes additional memory, I/O, and RS232 communication ports.

  7. Pathogenic amoebae in power-plant cooling lakes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

    1981-06-01

    Cooling waters and associated algae and sediments from four northern and four southern/western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. Unheated control waters and algae/sediments from four northern and five southern/western sites were also tested. When comparing results from the test versus control sites, a significantly higher proportion (P less than or equal to 0.05) of the samples from the test sites were positive for thermophilic amoeba, thermophilic Naegleria and pathogenic Naegleria. The difference in number of samples positive for thermophilic Naegleria between heated and unheated waters, however, was attributable predominantly to the northern waters and algae/sediments. While two of four northern test sites yielded pathogenic Naegleria, seven of the eight isolates were obtained from one site. Seasonality effects relative to the isolation of the pathogen were also noted at this site. One pathogen was isolated from a southwestern test site. Pathogens were not isolated from any control sites. Some of the pathogenic isolates were analyzed serologically and classified as pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. Salinity, pH, conductivity, and bacteriological profiles did not obviously correlate with the presence or absence of pathogenic Naegleria. While thermal addition was significantly associated with the presence of thermophilic Naegleria (P less than or equal to 0.05), the data implicate other as yet undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic thermophile. Until further delineation of these parameters is effected, generalizations cannot be made concerning the effect of thermal impact on the growth of pathogenic amoeba in a particular cooling system.

  8. District cooling engineering & design program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Phoenix, Arizona is located in the Sonoran desert. Daytime temperatures typically rise to over 100 F during the three summer months. Average and peak temperatures have tended to rise over recent decades. This is generally attributed to what is known as the heat island effect, due to an increase in heat absorbing concrete and a decrease in irrigated farmland in the area. Phoenix is the eighth largest city in the US with a population of just over one million (1,000,000). The metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing in the nation. Over the last ten years its population has increased by over 40%. It is not an exaggeration to say the general availability of refrigerated air conditioning, both for buildings and automobiles has been an important factor enabling growth. The cost of operating public buildings has risen significantly in the last decade. In fiscal year 92/93 the City of Phoenix had energy expenses of over thirty four million dollars ($34,000,000). Because the City was planning a major new construction project, a new high-rise City Hall, it was decided to study and then optimize the design and selection of building systems to minimize long term owning and operating costs. The City Hall was to be constructed in downtown Phoenix. Phoenix presently owns other buildings in the area. A number of large cooling systems serving groups of buildings are currently operating in the Phoenix area. The City requested that the design consultants analyze the available options and present recommendations to the City`s engineering staff.

  9. Studies of high-field sections of a muon helical cooling channel with coil separation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, M.L.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Yonehara, K.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) was proposed for 6D cooling of muon beams required for muon collider and some other applications. HCC uses a continuous absorber inside superconducting magnets which produce solenoidal field superimposed with transverse helical dipole and helical gradient fields. HCC is usually divided into several sections each with progressively stronger fields, smaller aperture and shorter helix period to achieve the optimal muon cooling rate. This paper presents the design issues of the high field section of HCC with coil separation. The effect of coil spacing on the longitudinal and transverse field components is presented and its impact on the muon cooling discussed. The paper also describes methods for field corrections and their practical limits. The magnetic performance of the helical solenoid with coil separation was discussed in this work. The separation could be done in three different ways and the performances could be very different which is important and should be carefully described during the beam cooling simulations. The design that is currently being considered is the one that has the poorest magnetic performance because it presents ripples in all three components, in particular in the helical gradient which could be quite large. Moreover, the average gradient could be off, which could affect the cooling performance. This work summarized methods to tune the gradient regarding the average value and the ripple. The coil longitudinal thickness and the helix period can be used to tune G. Thinner coils tend to reduce the ripples and also bring G to its target value. However, this technique reduces dramatically the operational margin. Wider coils can also reduce the ripple (not as much as thinner coils) and also tune the gradient to its target value. Longer helix periods reduce ripple and correct the gradient to the target value.

  10. Use of cooling air heat exchangers as replacements for hot section strategic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Because of financial and political constraints, strategic aerospace materials required for the hot section of future engines might be in short supply. As an alternative to these strategic materials, this study examines the use of a cooling air heat exchanger in combination with less advanced hot section materials. Cycle calculations are presented for future turbofan systems with overall pressure ratios to 65, bypass ratios near 13, and combustor exit temperatures to 3260 R. These calculations quantify the effect on TSFC of using a decreased materials technology in a turbofan system. The calculations show that the cooling air heat exchanger enables the feasibility of these engines. Previously announced in STAR as N83-34946

  11. ETR, TRA642. EASTWEST SECTION, LOOKING NORTH. PATH OF COOLING WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. EAST-WEST SECTION, LOOKING NORTH. PATH OF COOLING WATER PIPE TUNNEL. WORKING AND STORAGE CANAL. SUB-PILE ROOM. CONTROL ROD ACCESS ROOM. FLOOR NAMES. (THIS WAS A CONCEPT DRAWING.) KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-5, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100913. REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: State Compliance supplement pools for the Section 126 Final Rule (Tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final Section 126 Rule: State Compliance supplement pools for the Section 126 Final Rule (Tons) D Appendix D to Part 97 Protection of... PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Pt. 97, App. D Appendix D to Part 97—Final Section 126...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: State Compliance supplement pools for the Section 126 Final Rule (Tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final Section 126 Rule: State Compliance supplement pools for the Section 126 Final Rule (Tons) D Appendix D to Part 97 Protection of...: State Compliance supplement pools for the Section 126 Final Rule (Tons) State Compliance supplement...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: State Compliance supplement pools for the Section 126 Final Rule (Tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final Section 126 Rule: State Compliance supplement pools for the Section 126 Final Rule (Tons) D Appendix D to Part 97 Protection of...: State Compliance supplement pools for the Section 126 Final Rule (Tons) State Compliance supplement...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: State Compliance supplement pools for the Section 126 Final Rule (Tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Final Section 126 Rule: State Compliance supplement pools for the Section 126 Final Rule (Tons) D Appendix D to Part 97 Protection of... PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Pt. 97, App. D Appendix D to Part 97—Final Section 126...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: State Compliance supplement pools for the Section 126 Final Rule (Tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final Section 126 Rule: State Compliance supplement pools for the Section 126 Final Rule (Tons) D Appendix D to Part 97 Protection of... PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Pt. 97, App. D Appendix D to Part 97—Final Section 126...

  17. Final Cooling for a High-Energy High-Luminosity Lepton Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, David; Sayed, H.; Hart, T.; Summers, D.

    2015-12-03

    A high-energy muon collider scenario require a “final cooling” system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of an alternative approach. Wedge-based emittance exchange could provide much of the required transverse cooling with longitudinal heating. Li-lens and quadrupole focusing systems could also provide much of the required final cooling.

  18. Final Report for 'ParSEC-Parallel Simulation of Electron Cooling"

    SciTech Connect

    David L Bruhwiler

    2005-09-16

    The Department of Energy has plans, during the next two or three years, to design an electron cooling section for the collider ring at RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) [1]. Located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), RHIC is the premier nuclear physics facility. The new cooling section would be part of a proposed luminosity upgrade [2] for RHIC. This electron cooling section will be different from previous electron cooling facilities in three fundamental ways. First, the electron energy will be 50 MeV, as opposed to 100's of keV (or 4 MeV for the electron cooling system now operating at Fermilab [3]). Second, both the electron beam and the ion beam will be bunched, rather than being essentially continuous. Third, the cooling will take place in a collider rather than in a storage ring. Analytical work, in combination with the use and further development of the semi-analytical codes BETACOOL [4,5] and SimCool [6,7] are being pursued at BNL [8] and at other laboratories around the world. However, there is a growing consensus in the field that high-fidelity 3-D particle simulations are required to fully understand the critical cooling physics issues in this new regime. Simulations of the friction coefficient, using the VORPAL code [9], for single gold ions passing once through the interaction region, have been compared with theoretical calculations [10,11], and the results have been presented in conference proceedings papers [8,12,13,14] and presentations [15,16,17]. Charged particles are advanced using a fourth-order Hermite predictor corrector algorithm [18]. The fields in the beam frame are obtained from direct calculation of Coulomb's law, which is more efficient than multipole-type algorithms for less than {approx} 10{sup 6} particles. Because the interaction time is so short, it is necessary to suppress the diffusive aspect of the ion dynamics through the careful use of positrons in the simulations, and to run 100's of simulations with the same

  19. Thin section casting program: Volume 3, Vertical TSC (thin-section casting) approach: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    A prototype vertical twin belt caster was designed, constructed and tested at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Homer Research Laboratory for the development of a thin section casting process. In the prototype caster the moving mold was aligned vertically and each of the two endless steel belts was tensioned around an upper and a lower large pulley by means of a third smaller pulley. The mold consisted of a long parallel lower section and a shorter V-shaped top section into which liquid steel was fed from a tundish via a submerged refractory nozzle. Mold length, defined as the distance from the meniscus in the V-mouth to the tangent point of the lower pulleys, was about eleven feet. The length of the V-mouth was 27 in. The belts were continuously supported between the upper and lower pulleys by a unique back-up system. Downstream support consisted of two pairs of foot rolls and a vertical water-cooled steel structure that would permit a cast length of about nineteen feet. A chain driven bar was used to start a cast and support the slab. The aim was to cast 1 in. /times/ 17 in. sections at 250 in./min. The details of the prototype vertical caster, except the end walls, are given. The water modeling studies conducted at USSteel to establish tundish nozzle port sizes, inclinations and depth of submergence below the meniscus for optimum flow pattern in the V-mouth are included. The design analyses of the copper end walls and the 10-ton liquid steel trials conducted with the refractory end walls are presented. The fourteen liquid steel trials conducted with the vertical caster and the concluding remarks on vertical feeding system development are discussed.

  20. Management of cooling ponds and lakes for fish and wildlife - a guidance manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clugston, J.P.; Barwick, D.H.; Fendley, T.T.

    1982-09-30

    The manual highlights techniques to be used to enhance fish and wildlife communities at planned and existing cooling lakes. Relevant management theory and techniques for unaltered systems are combined with information on the effects of power plant operations on animal life to produce guidelines for optimum use of aquatic and terrestrial habitats created. Management options are provided to protect and provide refuge for some species and to encourage the production of other species for recreational use. This manual is divided into three major sections; the first considers construction practices and physical constraints of cooling systems. The second contains recommendations (primarily fishing management) for completed cooling lakes and the third is devoted to aquatic, riparian, and terrestrial wildlife. A special section highlights power plant-induced problems not identified earlier that may affect management strategies.

  1. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  2. Mid-section of a can-annular gas turbine engine with a cooling system for the transition

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, David J.; Rodriguez, Jose L.

    2015-12-08

    A cooling system is provided for a transition (420) of a gas turbine engine (410). The cooling system includes a cowling (460) configured to receive an air flow (111) from an outlet of a compressor section of the gas turbine engine (410). The cowling (460) is positioned adjacent to a region of the transition (420) to cool the transition region upon circulation of the air flow within the cowling (460). The cooling system further includes a manifold (121) to directly couple the air flow (111) from the compressor section outlet to an inlet (462) of the cowling (460). The cowling (460) is configured to circulate the air flow (111) within an interior space (426) of the cowling (460) that extends radially outward from an inner diameter (423) of the cowling to an outer diameter (424) of the cowling at an outer surface.

  3. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 6, Federally endangered species, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The Endangered Species Act requires that Federal agencies use their authorities to conduct programs for the conservation of endangered and threatened species and to ensure that agency actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat of protected species. Those Federally endangered or threatened species that occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, the red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, the wood stork, and the bald eagle. Of these species, the alligator, sturgeon, wood stork, and the bald eagle are likely to be affected directly and/or indirectly by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. 81 refs., 76 figs., 35 tabs.

  4. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west.

  5. Exploring the Airways for Adult Education. Section 310, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Betty

    Intended to enable an individual to converse with satellite antenna dealers and to select a dealer and acquire an antenna to suit his/her needs at the lowest cost, this edited version of a final project report provides detailed guidelines for purchasing of communications satellites distance education delivery systems and specific technical…

  6. Study plan for conducting a section 316(a) demonstration: K-Reactor cooling tower, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.

    1991-02-01

    The K Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS) began operation in 1954. The K-Reactor pumped secondary cooling water from the Savannah River and discharged directly to the Indian Grave Branch, a tributary of Pen Branch which flows to the Savannah River. During earlier operations, the temperature and discharge rates of cooling water from the K-reactor were up to approximately 70{degree}C and 400 cfs, substantially altering the thermal and flow regimes of this stream. These discharges resulted in adverse impacts to the receiving stream and wetlands along the receiving stream. As a component of a Consent Order (84-4-W as amended) with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, the Department of Energy (DOE) evaluated the alternatives for cooling thermal effluents from K Reactor and concluded that a natural draft recirculating cooling tower should be constructed. The cooling tower will mitigate thermal and flow factors that resulted in the previous impacts to the Indian Grave/Pen Branch ecosystem. The purpose of the proposed biological monitoring program is to provide information that will support a Section 316(a) Demonstration for Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch when K-Reactor is operated with the recirculating cooling tower. The data will be used to determine that Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch support Balanced Indigenous Communities when K-Reactor is operated with a recirculating cooling tower. 4 refs., 1 fig. 1 tab.

  7. Great Plains ASPEN model development: Phosam section. Final topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S S; Kirman, J J

    1985-02-01

    An ASPEN model has been developed of the PHOSAM Section, Section 4600, of the Great Plains Gasification Plant. The bases for this model are the process description given in Section 6.18 of the Great Plains Project Management Plan and the Lummus Phosam Schematic Process Flow Diagram, Dwg. No. SKD-7102-IM-O. The ASPEN model that has been developed contains the complete set of components that are assumed to be in the gasifier effluent. The model is primarily a flowsheet simulation that will give the material and energy balance and equipment duties for a given set of process conditions. The model is unable to predict fully changes in process conditions that would result from load changes on equipment of fixed sizes, such as a rating model would predict. The model can be used to simulate the steady-state operation of the plant at or near design conditions or to design other PHOSAM units. Because of the limited amount of process information that was available, several major process assumptions had to be made in the development of the flowsheet model. Patent literature was consulted to establish the ammonia concentration in the circulating fluid. Case studies were made with the ammonia content of the feed 25% higher and 25% lower than the base feed. Results of these runs show slightly lower recoveries of ammonia with less ammonia in the feed. As expected, the duties of the Stripper and Fractionator reboilers were higher with more ammonia in the feed. 63 references.

  8. Projected Life of the SLAC Linac Braze Joints: Braze integrity and corrosion of cooling water hardware on accelerator sections

    SciTech Connect

    Glesener, W.F.; Garwin, E.L.; /SLAC

    2006-07-17

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the condition of braze joints and cooling water hardware from an accelerator section after prolonged use. Metallographic analysis was used to examine critical sites on an accelerator section that had been in use for more than 30 years. The end flange assembly showed no internal operational damage or external environmental effects. The cavity cylinder stack showed no internal operational damage however the internal surface was highly oxidized. The internal surface of the cooling water tubing was uniformly corroding at a rate of about 1 mil per year and showed no evidence of pitting. Tee fitting internal surfaces are corroding at non-uniform rates due to general corrosion and pitting. Remaining service life of the cooling water jacket is estimated to be about 20 years or year 2027. At this time, water supply pressure will exceed allowable fitting pressure due to corrosion of tubing walls.

  9. Flow Integrating Section for a Gas Turbine Engine in Which Turbine Blades are Cooled by Full Compressor Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, W. Gene

    1999-11-14

    Routing of full compressor flow through hollow turbine blades achieves unusually effective blade cooling and allows a significant increase in turbine inlet gas temperature and, hence, engine efficiency. The invention, ''flow integrating section'' alleviates the turbine dissipation of kinetic energy of air jets leaving the hollow blades as they enter the compressor diffuser.

  10. Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Project at Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This document is the final technical report of the solar energy facility located at the Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas, 78766. This system has been operational since April 1977. Major components of this system include 36 Northrup collectors, a 1500 gallon fiberglass thermal storage tank, an ARKLA absorption cooling unit and cooling tower, a Servel heating coil, pumps, heat exchanger, and a conventional backup heating and air conditioning unit. System controls consist of a dual-stage thermostat, a control panel, a differential temperature controller, and three absolute temperature controllers. The system is designed to operate in several modes with evaluation of each mode. System performance monitoring is accomplished through 47 sensors which are sampled and recorded every five minutes by a data acquisition system. An on-site-monitor test set allows instantaneous testing and evaluation. This report also references Monthly Performance Reports, a Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation Report, a Solar Project Cost Report and a Solar Project Description Report for this site which are available through the National Technical Information Service.

  11. Final draft: IEA Task 1. Report on Subtask D, optimization of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, T.L.

    1981-03-01

    A review of general techniques and specific methods useful in the optimization of solar heating and cooling systems is undertaken. A discussion of the state-of-the-art and the principal problems in both the simplified thermal performance analysis and economic analysis portions of the optimization problem are presented. Sample economic analyses are performed using several widely used economic criteria. The predicted thermal results of one typical, widely used simplified method is compared to detailed simulation results. A methodology for and the results of a sensitivity study of key economic parameters in the life cycle cost method are presented. Finally, a simple graphical optimization technique based on the life cycle cost method is proposed.

  12. Modeling the high-field section of a muon helical cooling channel

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, A.V.; Barzi, E.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lamm, M.J.; Lombardo, V.; Lopes, M.L.; Yu, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Flanagan, G.; Kahn, S.A.; Turenne, M.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design and parameters of a short model of a high-field helical solenoid for muon beam cooling. Structural materials choices, fabrication techniques and first test results are discussed.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget C Appendix C to Part 97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... C Appendix C to Part 97—Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget ST F126-EGU F126-NEGU Total DC 207...

  14. 75 FR 7522 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO United States Section; Notice of Availability of the Final... Project, Presidio, TX AGENCY: United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission (USIBWC..., International Boundary and Water Commission (USIBWC) has prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget C Appendix C to Part 97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... C Appendix C to Part 97—Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget ST F126-EGU F126-NEGU Total DC 207...

  16. Directional solidification of large cross-section nickel-base superalloy castings via liquid-metal cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Andrew J.

    The drive for higher efficiency in very large industrial gas turbines (IGTs) used in power generation applications has led to the need for directional solidification of large cross-section components, such as turbine blades, used in the hot gas path sections of the IGTs. The Bridgman directional solidification technique, which is currently used to produce these components, has been optimized for much smaller aero-engine components. The scale-up of this technique to produce large parts has resulted in numerous problems, and consequently low casting yield, which can all be related to the limited cooling capability of the Bridgman process. In this dissertation, a higher cooling efficiency process, liquid-metal cooling (LMC) using Sn as the cooling medium, has been evaluated for improved capability to cast large cross-section components. A series of castings were made for direct comparison using both the conventional Bridgman and the high thermal gradient LMC processes. Casting conditions were selected to simulate the state of the art for the Bridgman method and to assess the limits of casting with the less familiar LMC method. The experiments were evaluated through thermocouple analyses of casting conditions and post-casting analyses of grain defects, microstructural features, and mechanical behavior. Additionally, a finite element model of the solidification process was developed to further elucidate casting conditions. The casting parameters and elements of the LMC process that had the greatest influence on casting conditions were determined. Results indicated that the LMC process is capable of significantly enhancing cooling efficiency during directional solidification of large cross-section components. The enhanced cooling allowed much faster solidification withdrawal rates and resulted in substantially refined cast microstructure. The LMC process eliminated freckle-type defects in all cases and considerably reduced other casting defects under optimal conditions

  17. SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project. Final report, project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Proposals for research on solar cooling are presented for four Saudi Arabian universities. The universities are the University of Petroleum and Minerals in Dhahran, King Saud University in Riyadh, King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, and King Faisal University in Dammam. Topics researched include the Rankine cycle, passive solar cooling systems, a solar-powered lithium bromide-water absorption machine and a photovoltaic-powered thermoelectric cooling machine. (BCS)

  18. Calculations of Laminar Heat Transfer Around Cylinders of Arbitrary Cross Section and Transpiration-Cooled Walls with Application to Turbine Blade Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Livingood, J N B

    1955-01-01

    An approximate method for the development of flow and thermal boundary layers in the laminar region on cylinders with arbitrary cross section and transpiration-cooled walls is obtained by the use of Karman's integrated momentum equation and an analogous heat-flow equation. Incompressible flow with constant property values throughout the boundary layer is assumed. The velocity and temperature profiles within the boundary layer are approximated by expressions composed of trigonometric functions. Shape parameters for these profiles and functions necessary for the solution of the boundary-layer equations are presented as graphs so that the calculation for any specific case is reduced to the solution of two first-order differential equations. This method is applied to determine local heat-transfer coefficients and surface temperatures in the laminar flow region of the transpiration-cooled turbine blades for a given coolant flow rate, or to calculate the coolant flow distribution which is necessary in order to keep the blade temperature uniform along the surface.

  19. Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Phase 0. Executive Summary. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Baltimore, MD.

    After the Westinghouse Electric Corporation made a comprehensive analysis of the technical, economic, social, environmental, and institutional factors affecting the feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, it determined that solar heating and cooling systems can become competitive in most regions of the country in…

  20. 40 CFR 59.1 - Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA. 59.1 Section 59.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER...

  1. 40 CFR 59.1 - Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA. 59.1 Section 59.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER...

  2. Solar heating and cooling R and D program coordination support. Final report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the project was to support the US Department of Energy's international R and D activities in the solar heating and cooling area. The cooperative programs were of two types: bilateral (involving the US and one other country) and multilateral (involving the US and several other countries). The multilateral programs supported under this contract were: International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program; and NATO/CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study. Solar heating and cooling projects under the following bilateral programs were supported: US/Mexico; US/Israel; and US/Spain. The assistance to DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies, consisted primarily of program management and coordination support, plus a smaller amount of technical support. This final report summarizes the work performed during the three years of this contract and the accomplishments.

  3. Solar heating and cooling system installed at RKL Controls Company, Lumberton, New Jersey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    Solar heating and cooling of a 40,000 square foot manufacturing building, sales offices and the solar computer control center/display room are described. Information on system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, manufacturer's literature and as-built drawings are provided also. The solar system is composed of 6000 square feet of Sunworks double glazed flat plate collectors, external above ground storage subsystem, controls, ARKLA absorption chiller, heat recovery and a cooling tower.

  4. Report on Lincoln Electric System gas turbine inlet air cooling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ebeling, J.A.; Buecker, B.J.; Kitchen, B.J.; Lukas, H.; Mackie, E.I.

    1993-12-01

    As a result of increased electric power demand, the Lincoln Electric System (LES) of Lincoln, Nebraska (USA) decided to upgrade the generating capacity of their system. Based on capacity addition studies, the utility elected to improve performance of a GE MS7001B combustion turbine located at their Rokeby station. The turbine is used to meet summer-time peak loads, and as is common among combustion turbines, capacity declines as ambient air temperature rises. To improve the turbine capacity, LES decided to employ the proven technique of inlet air cooling, but with a novel approach: off-peak ice generation to be used for peak-load air cooling. EPRI contributed design concept definition and preliminary engineering. The American Public Power Association provided co-funding. Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, under contract to Lincoln Electric System, provided detailed design and construction documents. LES managed the construction, start-up, and testing of the cooling system. This report describes the technical basis for the cooling system design, and it discusses combustion turbine performance, project economics, and potential system improvements. Control logic and P&ID drawings are also included. The inlet air cooling system has been available since the fall of 1991. When in use, the cooling system has increased turbine capacity by up to 17% at a cost of less than $200 per increased kilowatt of generation.

  5. ORIGEN-ARP Cross-Section Libraries for Magnox, Advanced Gas-Cooled, and VVER Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, BD

    2004-03-10

    Cross-section libraries for the ORIGEN-ARP system were extended to include four non-U.S. reactor types: the Magnox reactor, the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor, the VVER-440, and the VVER-1000. Typical design and operational parameters for these four reactor types were determined by an examination of a variety of published information sources. Burnup simulation models of the reactors were then developed using the SAS2H sequence from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory SCALE code system. In turn, these models were used to prepare the burnup-dependent cross-section libraries suitable for use with ORIGEN-ARP. The reactor designs together with the development of the SAS2H models are described, and a small number of validation results using spent-fuel assay data are reported.

  6. Evaluating gas-fueled cooling technologies for application at Army installations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cler, G.L.

    1995-11-01

    Electric consumption at DOD fixed facilities accounts for about one-third of the energy consumed, but about two-thirds of the total fixed facility energy expenditures and 30 to 60 percent of the total electric bill, primarily due to summer air conditioning loads. Decreasing electricity use through conservation and/or fuel switching can effectively reduce energy costs at Army Installations. Natural gas cooling technologies may now be viable alternatives for specific applications since both absorption and engine-driven chillers have become available in nearly the same capacities as electric chillers. This study developed a simple method to evaluate gas cooling technologies as alternatives to conventional electric vapor compression cooling. A worksheet was developed to help users evaluate gas cooling technologies by entering local electric and gas rates, approximate cooling load profiles for building(s) being evaluated, equipment and installation costs, equipment performance and maintenance requirements, and other system parameters. The completed worksheet determines approximate system costs, annual operating costs, and life cycle costs for electric, absorption, and engine-driven chillers. Incremental simple payback and Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR) are also calculated for absorption and engine-driven chillers using electric chillers as the base case for comparison.

  7. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  8. Timonium Elementary School Solar Energy Heating and Cooling Augmentation Experiment. Final Engineering Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AAI Corp., Baltimore, MD.

    This report covers a two-year and seven-month solar space heating and cooling experiment conducted at the Timonium Elementary School, Timonium, Maryland. The system was designed to provide a minimum of 50 percent of the energy required during the heating season and to determine the feasibility of using solar energy to power absorption-type…

  9. Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Baseload Cooling Equipment: FY08 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, P. R.; Wang, Weimin; Fernandez, Nicholas; Cho, Heejin; Goetzler, W.; Burgos, J.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Ahlfeldt, C.

    2010-01-31

    Documentation of a study to investigate one heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system option, low-lift cooling, which offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004.

  10. Evaluation of a cooling-lake fishery. Volume 1. Introduction, water quality, and summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larimore, R.W.; McNurney, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    Volume 1 consists of (1) a statement of project objectives and a detailed description of the study areas, (2) a comparison of water quality in Lake Sangchris, a cooling lake, and Lake Shelbyville, a nearby flood control reservoir, and (3) a summary of the other three volumes.

  11. User's manual for WDCSIM II wet/dry cooling computer program. Final report, October 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Guyer, E.C.; Brownell, D.L.

    1980-08-01

    A user's guide to the WDCSIM II computer program has been compiled. Instructions are provided for the application of the computer program to the modeling of the thermal performance and economics of combined wet- and dry-cooling systems for large steam-electric plants. A FORTRAN listing of the program is presented along with a sample output.

  12. Heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) for high-speed aircraft propulsion. Phase 2 (feasibility) final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S.; Silverstein, C.C.

    1994-03-25

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos), and CCS Associates are conducting the Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC) for High-Speed Aircraft Propulsion program to determine the advantages and demonstrate the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This innovative approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from adjacent external surfaces. HPRC is viewed as an alternative (or complementary) cooling technique to the use of pumped cryogenic or endothermic fuels to provide regenerative fuel or air cooling of the hot surfaces. The HPRC program has been conducted through two phases, an applications phase and a feasibility phase. The applications program (Phase 1) included concept and assessment analyses using hypersonic engine data obtained from US engine company contacts. The applications phase culminated with planning for experimental verification of the HPRC concept to be pursued in a feasibility program. The feasibility program (Phase 2), recently completed and summarized in this report, involved both analytical and experimental studies.

  13. Advanced fabrication techniques for hydrogen-cooled engine structures. Final report, October 1975-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmann, O.A.; Arefian, V.V.; Warren, H.A.; Vuigner, A.A.; Pohlman, M.J.

    1985-11-01

    Described is a program for development of coolant passage geometries, material systems, and joining processes that will produce long-life hydrogen-cooled structures for scramjet applications. Tests were performed to establish basic material properties, and samples constructed and evaluated to substantiate fabrication processes and inspection techniques. Results of the study show that the basic goal of increasing the life of hydrogen-cooled structures two orders of magnitude relative to that of the Hypersonic Research Engine can be reached with available means. Estimated life is 19000 cycles for the channels and 16000 cycles for pin-fin coolant passage configurations using Nickel 201. Additional research is required to establish the fatigue characteristics of dissimilar-metal coolant passages (Nickel 201/Inconel 718) and to investigate the embrittling effects of the hydrogen coolant.

  14. Performance evaluation of the hydronic heat pump system: Volume 2, Cooling season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Stoltz, S.; Hagen, E.

    1995-04-01

    A hydronic heat pump system has been developed under EPRI sponsorship as a potential substitute for conventional residential forced-air heat pumps. The use of a hydronic thermal distribution system of circulating water to distribute the output of a residential heat pump compares favorably with other methods of distribution. To evaluate the performance of a hydronic heat pump compared to a conventional forced-air system, EPRI retained GEOMET Technologies, Inc., to test a prototype hydronic system in the controlled environment of an unoccupied research house. A prototype multizone hydronic system, developed and assembled by the Tecogen Division of Thermal Power Corporation, was tested in one of GEOMET`s two research houses during the 1992--1993 heating season and in the 1993 cooling season. This report describes the cooling-season tests of the hydronic heat pump system. The prototype hydronic system was tested to examine its efficiency and reliability. It was tested under several scenarios having different combinations of setpoints while the internal doors were either open or closed. The test data were analyzed to compare the hydronic system`s energy consumption, comfort, and efficiency to those of a conventional forced-air heat pump system. The hydronic system ran smoothly, and there were no operational problems in the cooling mode, though the hydronic system required more energy than the conventional system under comparable test conditions. However, the hydronic system provided a level of thermal comfort equivalent to that of the conventional system. Overall energy efficiency of the hydronic system might be improved with minor modifications in the operating/control scheme to increase low speed compressor operation, reduce compressor cycling and by circulating the water through the system only when heating or cooling is required in any of the zones.

  15. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.; Christensen, R.N.

    1992-10-01

    This project was designed to find effective surfactant friction reducing additives for use in district heating systems with temperatures of 50 to 90{degrees}C and effective additives fore district cooling systems with temperatures of 5 to 15{degrees}C. Heat transfer measurements in conventional shell and tube heat exchangers and in plate heat exchangers were also carried out to see how seriously these surfactant drag reducing additives reduce heat transfer coefficients.

  16. Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: downtime report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Solomon, J.A.; Christensen, S.W.

    1985-11-01

    Legionnaires' disease bacteria (Legionella) are a normal part of the aquatic community that, when aerosolized, can be pathogenic to man. The downtime study was designed to determine the degree to which Legionella populations are aerosolized during cleaning and maintenance operations in a closed-cycle steam-electric power plant. Both high-volume and impinger air samples were collected prior to and during downtime operations. Emphasis was placed on sampling inside or adjacent to water boxes, condensers, and cooling towers. Control air samples were taken upwind from the plant site. Water and sludge samples were also collected at various locations. In the laboratory, the concentrations of Legionella were determined using the direct fluorescent antibody method. All positive air samples, and other selected air samples, were injected into guinea pigs to detect infectious Legionella. Legionella could be detected in only 12 of the 127 air samples collected. These were predominantly L. pneumophila, serogroups 1-6. In contrast to the air samples, most of the water and sludge samples were positive for Legionella, again predominantly L. pneumophila, serogroups 1-6. The highest Legionella concentrations were found in sludge samples associated with condenser tube cleaning. Among the water samples, the highest Legionella concentrations were found in cooling towers, immediately after the tower basins were cleaned and refilled, and in condenser tubes. Two of the three cooling tower water samples collected prior to downtime operations were infectious for guinea pigs. 16 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Water treatment technologies for thermal storage systems: Final report. [Cool storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlgren, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Water has many properties which make it an almost ideal medium for storage and transfer of cooling energy. However, even pure water cannot be used in cooling thermal storage systems without careful attention to water chemistry management. There are three water conditions which may cause problems in cooling systems: corrosion, biofouling, and sludge deposits. Corrosion and biological fouling are usually the most common problems, but both can be readily controlled by suitable internal chemical treatment. Starting a system with good pre-operational cleaning procedures is essential and is probably the best route to long-term waterside efficiency and trouble-free performance. A wide variety of reference materials, professional and educational assistance, and water treatment chemical supplier support is readily available. The direct costs of good chemical management are not high and are a good investment when compared to the expenses that might be incurred if no attention is paid to system water chemistry. This discussion is not intended to be a detailed technical treatise on water chemistry or engineering technology. Rather, it is intended to serve as an introduction and interpretation of how good water treatment practice can be applied to, and benefit, thermal storage system operations. 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R. M.

    1980-06-01

    The solar heating and cooling system installed at the headquarters of Citizens Mutual Savings Association in Leavenworth, Kansas, is described in detail. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program and became operational in March, 1979. The designer was TEC, Inc. Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri and contractor was Norris Brothers, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. The solar system is expected to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2200 square feet. Five, 3-ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two, 3000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  19. Site 1 field testing for cooling-water treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Litherland, S.T.; Owen, M.L.; Scholl, F.A.; Kamas, J.W.; Nassos, P.A.

    1985-06-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute is sponsoring a three phase research project to develop a design and operating methodology for recirculating cooling water systems at high concentration factors. To expand the available data base for cooling water systems at high concentration factors, a portable field test unit (FTU) has been designed and fabricated for operation at sites with different makeup water qualities. For a ten month period during 1981, the FTU was operated at the first site, Comanche Generating Station in Pueblo, Colorado. During the field testing, several cooling water treatment options were used to increase the concentration factor for operating the FTU. These water treatment options included: (1) sulfuric acid addition for alkalinity control; (2) lime-soda makeup softening; (3) lime-soda sidestream softening; (4) combined lime-soda makeup and sidestream softening; and (5) inhibitor addition for gypsum scale control. The purpose of this report is to present a detailed discussion of all Site 1 field test activities, including FTU operation and data interpretation and analyses. 11 refs., 68 figs., 70 tabs.

  20. Optical tuning in the arcs and final focus sections of the Stanford Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Bambade, P.S.

    1989-03-01

    In this thesis, we present the experimental tuning procedures developed for the Arcs and for the Final Focus Section of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Such tuning is necessary to maximize the luminosity, by minimizing the beam size at the interaction point, and to reduce backgrounds in the experiment. In the final Focus Section, the correction strategy must result from the principles of the optical design, which is based on cancellations between second order aberrations, and on the ability to measure micron-size beams typical of the SLC. In the Arcs, the corrections were designed after the initial commissioning, to make the system more error-tolerant, through a modification in the optical design, and to enable adjustments of the beam phase-space a the injection to the Final Focus System, through a harmonic perturbation technique inspired from circular accelerators. Although the overall optimization of the SLC is not entirely finished, an almost optimal set-up has been achieved for the optics of the Arcs and of the Final Focus Section. Beams with transverse sizes close to the nominal ones, of a few microns, have been obtained at the interaction point. We present and discuss our results and the optical limits to the present performance. 24 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Optimization of strand and final electromagnetic stirrers of round bloom casters with multiple sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Bao, Yan-ping; Li, Yi-hong; An, Hang-Hang

    2016-10-01

    Strand electromagnetic stirring (S-EMS) and final electromagnetic stirring (F-EMS) are the main methods used to improve the center porosity and segregation for round blooms. To optimize the stirring conditions, nail shooting tests were conducted for three sections of large round blooms with diameters of ϕ380 mm, ϕ450 mm, and ϕ600 mm. Acid leaching and sulfur print tests were used to investigate the shell thickness. Based on the results of nail shooting tests, a mathematical model of solidification was established, and the variation of shell thickness and the central solid fraction were exactly calculated by the model. By taking all sections into account, the locations of S-EMS and F-EMS were optimized for each section. In the results, the macro-segregation of various sections is improved after the locations of S-EMS and F-EMS systems are changed.

  2. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Coy, R. G.; Braden, R. P.

    1980-09-01

    The Solar Energy System installed at Columbus Technical Institute, Columbus, Ohio was installed as a part of a new construction of a college building. The building will house classrooms and laboratories, administrative offices and three lecture halls. The Solar Energy System consists of 4096 square feet (128 panels) Owens/Illinois Evacuated Glass Tube Collector Subsystem, and a 5000 gallon steel tank below ground storage system, hot water is circulated between the collectors and storage tank, passing through a water/lithium bromide absorption chiller to cool the building. Extracts from the site files specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  3. Emissions characteristics of cooling towers using reclaimed wastewater in california. Final report, July 1979-July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Rogozen, M.B.; Phillips, A.R.; Guttman, M.A.; Shokes, R.F.; Fargo, L.

    1981-08-11

    Present and planned use of reclaimed municipal wastewater, industrial process water, and geothermal condensate as makeup to cooling towers have raised questions about the potential for atmospheric emissions of pathogenic microorganisms, organic compounds, heavy metals, and other wastewater constituents. In this study, the makeup and circulating water of six towers were sampled and analyzed for indicator bacteria and virus, volatile and nonvolatile organic compounds, metals, and other components of potential concern. Further water sampling and exhaust air emissions tests were then conducted on four of the towers; for the microbiological emissions tests, a special isokinetic sampling device was developed and employed.

  4. Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria in power plant cooling systems: downtime report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Solomon, J.A.; Christensen, S.W.

    1985-04-01

    Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal part of the aquatic community that, when aerosolized, can be pathogenic to man. The downtime study was designed to determine the degree to which Legionella populations are aerosolized during cleaning and maintenance operations in a closed-cycle steam-electric power plant. Both high-volume and impinger air samples were collected prior to and during downtime operations. Emphasis was placed on sampling inside or adjacent to water boxes, condensers, and cooling towers. Control air samples were taken upwind from the plant site. Water and sludge samples were also collected at various locations. In the laboratory, the concentrations of Groups A, B, and C Legionella were determined using the direct fluorescent antibody method. All positive air samples, and other selected air samples, were injected into guinea pigs to detect infectious Legionella. Legionella could be detected in only 12 of the 126 air samples collected. These were predominantly Group A Legionella (L. pneumophila, serogroups 1 to 6). All 12 positive samples had been collected in the vicinity of water boxes, condensers, detention ponds, and cooling towers during downtime operations where aerosolization of Legionella populations would be expected. None of the air samples yielded infectious Legionella when injected into guinea pigs. Detection of Legionella in air samples taken during downtime was significantly more likely than detection during normal operating conditions (p <0.01). 13 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Durability of high-albedo roof coatings and implications for cooling energy savings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bretz, S.E.; Akbari, H.

    1994-06-01

    Twenty-six spot albedo measurements of roofs were made using a calibrated pyranometer. The roofs were surfaced with either an acrylic elastomeric coating, a polymer coating with an acrylic base, or a cementitious coating. Some of the roofs` albedos were measured before and after washing to determine whether the albedo decrease was permanent. Data indicated that most of the albedo degradation occurred within the first year, and even within the first two months. On one roof, 70% of one year`s albedo degradation occurred in the first two months. After the first year, the degradation slowed, with data indicating small losses in albedo after the second year. Measurements of seasonal cooling energy savings by Akbari et al. (1993) included the effects of over two months of albedo degradation. We estimated {approximately}20% loss in cooling-energy savings after the first year because of dirt accumulation. For most of the roofs we cleaned, the albedo was restored to within 90% of its initial value. Although washing is effective at restoring albedo, the increase in energy savings is temporary and labor costs are significant in comparison to savings. By our calculations, it is not cost-effective to hire someone to clean a high-albedo roof only to achieve energy savings. Thus, it would be useful to develop and identify dirt-resistant high-albedo coatings.

  6. Legionnaires' Disease Bacterium in power-plant cooling systems: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.; Gough, S.B.; Tyndall, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1983-06-01

    A survey was undertaken of the distribution, density, viability, and infectivity of Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) in power plant cooling systems. Water samples were collected during each of the four seasons at various locations within each of nine power plants and from ambient waters at each site. Measurements of a number of physical and chemical characteristics were made, and Legionella profiles (density, viability, and infectivity for guinea pigs) were obtained. Legionella were detected in nearly all samples. Water from closed-cycle cooling systems frequently had lower densities of Legionella than the ambient water. Nonetheless, infectious Legionella, as defined by their isolation from inoculated guinea pigs, were significantly more likely to be found in samples from the plant-exposed water of closed-cycle plants than in samples from once-through plants or in ambient samples. A new species (L. oakridgensis) was initially isolated from two of the sites, and it has since been found to have a widespread distribution. Two other organisms found to cause illness in guinea pigs may also be new species. Phase II of the project involves investigating possible cause/effect relationships between physicochemical variables and Legionella. This work may contribute toward eventual control techniques for this pathogen.

  7. Constraining age and rate of deformation in the northern Bolivian Andes from cross sections, cooling ages, and thermokinematic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuarrie, N.; Ehlers, T. A.; Rak, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    A critical component in assessing the viability of proposed plate tectonic or geodynamic processes in regions of convergence is the expected or predicted age and rate of deformation in the overriding plate. Commonly, age of deformation is inferred through geochronology of foreland basin and wedge-top sedimentary rocks and bedrock thermochronometer cooling signals. In Bolivia the original pulse of deformation of the fold-thrust belt is argue to be as young as 38-25 Ma based on the age of synorogenic strata or as old as 65-45 Ma due to proposed foreland basin rocks deposited in the Bolivian Altiplano. The large discrepancies in proposed age, rate and magnitude of deformation through the Bolivian Andes limit our ability to relate age and rate of shortening to internal geodynamic or external plate tectonic processes. We evaluate permissible ranges in age of initiation and rate of deformation through a forward kinematic model of the northern Bolivian fold-thrust belt. Each step of deformation accounts for isostatic loading from thrust faults and subsequent erosional of structural highs. The kinematic model predicts an evolution of flexural basins into which synorogenic sediments are deposited allowing us to fully integrate age of exhumation and deposition to age and magnitude of deformation. By assigning an age to each deformation step, we create a range of velocity vectors that are input into the thermokinematic model Pecube, which predicts thermochronometer cooling histories based on kinematics, topography, thermal parameters and shortening rates. We match the pattern of predicted ages with the across strike pattern of measured zircon fission track, apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/ He cooling ages. The sensitivity of modeled thermochronologic data to the age at which deformation initiates indicate that northern Bolivian EC started deforming at 50 Ma and may have begun as early as 55 Ma. The acceptable velocity envelope for the modeled section permits either a

  8. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  9. Final report-passive safety optimization in liquid sodium-cooled reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Cahalana, J. E.; Hahn, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    2007-08-13

    This report summarizes the results of a three-year collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to identify and quantify the performance of innovative design features in metallic-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor designs. The objective of the work was to establish the reliability and safety margin enhancements provided by design innovations offering significant potential for construction, maintenance, and operating cost reductions. The project goal was accomplished with a combination of advanced model development (Task 1), analysis of innovative design and safety features (Tasks 2 and 3), and planning of key safety experiments (Task 4). Task 1--Computational Methods for Analysis of Passive Safety Design Features: An advanced three-dimensional subassembly thermal-hydraulic model was developed jointly and implemented in ANL and KAERI computer codes. The objective of the model development effort was to provide a high-accuracy capability to predict fuel, cladding, coolant, and structural temperatures in reactor fuel subassemblies, and thereby reduce the uncertainties associated with lower fidelity models previously used for safety and design analysis. The project included model formulation, implementation, and verification by application to available reactor tests performed at EBR-II. Task 2--Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Innovative Design Features: Integrated safety assessments of innovative liquid metal reactor designs were performed to quantify the performance of inherent safety features. The objective of the analysis effort was to identify the potential safety margin enhancements possible in a sodium-cooled, metal-fueled reactor design by use of passive safety mechanisms to mitigate low-probability accident consequences. The project included baseline analyses using state-of-the-art computational models and advanced analyses using the new model developed in Task 1. Task 3--Safety

  10. Lodging industry solutions: Heating and cooling space conditioning technology guidebook. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, K.

    1998-12-01

    The American lodging industry has experienced growth and relative prosperity in recent years. Operating costs and occupancy rates are critical to the economic success of any lodging establishment. Recent financial gains in the lodging industry are making more funds available for heating and cooling system upgrades. Among new equipment installations in the lodging industry (air handling equipment, water heaters, laundry and cooking equipment), about 70% is in new construction, remodeling, or expansion, 14% replaces non-functioning equipment, and the remainder is for miscellaneous purposes (AGA 1998). By providing good advice on heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment, utilities can help property owners and managers make wise decisions and avoid poor equipment choices that could hamper their profits over the long run. The benefits to utilities of offering this service will take the form of improved customer relations and strengthened customer loyalty. This guidebook is developed to assist utilities in advising the loading industry about HVAC equipment options. By serving as a useful reference source, it can help them perform this much-needed, valuable service.

  11. Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.I.; Lorsch, H.G.

    1991-03-31

    The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMS) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMS, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literature values. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. For 10% and 25% PCM/water slurries, the heat transfer enhancement was found to be approximately 18 and 30 percent above the value for water, respectively. Within the turbulent region, there is only a minor pumping penalty from the addition of up to 25% PCM to the water. Research is continuing on these fluids in order to determine their behavior in large-size loops and to arrive at optimum formulations.

  12. Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This program was conducted to improve the performance and minimize the cost of existing water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks for electric utility and on-site applications. The goals for the electric utility stack technology were a power density of at least 175 watts per square foot over a 40,000-hour useful life and a projected one-of-a-kind, full-scale manufactured cost of less than $400 per kilowatt. The program adapted the existing on-site Configuration-B cell design to electric utility operating conditions and introduced additional new design features. Task 1 consisted of the conceptual design of a full-scale electric utility cell stack that meets program objectives. The conceptual design was updated to incorporate the results of material and process developments in Tasks 2 and 3, as well as results of stack tests conducted in Task 6. Tasks 2 and 3 developed the materials and processes required to fabricate the components that meet the program objectives. The design of the small area and 10-ft{sup 2} stacks was conducted in Task 4. Fabrication and assembly of the short stacks were conducted in Task 5 and subsequent tests were conducted in Task 6. The management and reporting functions of Task 7 provided DOE/METC with program visibility through required documentation and program reviews. This report describes the cell design and development effort that was conducted to demonstrate, by subscale stack test, the technical achievements made toward the above program objectives.

  13. ENDF/B-VII.1 Final Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library.

    2012-03-03

    produce the final distributed data. The result is linearly interpolable in energy, tabulated, temperature dependent cross sections, in the ENDF-6 format, ready to be used in applications. Note - this processing only involved the energy dependent neutron cross sections. All other data in the evaluations, e.g., angular and energy distributions, was not affected by this processing, and is identical in all versions of the final results, i.e., it is the same in all of the directories, ORIGINAL, as well as 0K through 2100 K, and 1ev through 10 kev, on the DVDs.« less

  14. Effect of temper rolling on final shape defects in a V-section roll forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abvabi, Akbar; Rolfe, Bernard; Hodgson, Peter D.; Weiss, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Roll forming is a continuous process in which a flat strip is shaped to the desired profile by sequential bending in a series of roll stands. Because of the large variety of applications of roll forming in the industry, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is increasingly utilized for roll forming process design. Bending is the dominant deformation mode in roll forming. Sheet materials used in this process are generally temper rolled, roller- or tension- leveled. These processes introduce residual stresses into the material, and recent studies have shown that those affect the material behavior in bending. In this study a numerical model of the temper rolling (skin passing) process was used to determine a residual stress distribution in a dual phase, DP780, steel strip. A 5-stand roll forming process for the forming of a V-section was modeled, and the effect of various thickness reduction levels in the temper rolling process on the final shape defects was analyzed. The results show that a small thickness reduction in the temper rolling process decreases the maximum bow height but the final springback angle increases. It is also shown that reasonable model accuracy can be achieved by including the residual stress information due to temper rolling as initial condition in the numerical modeling of a roll forming process.

  15. Maintenance of empathy levels among first and final year medical students: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bangash, Areeb Sohail

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to quantify the levels of empathy amongst medical students in the first year and final year of the medical curriculum at a medical university in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study, comprising of participating students in their first year and final year of the medical curriculum at Ziauddin University Medical College, was carried out, using the Empathy Quotient (EQ) scale consisting of 60 questions through a self-administered questionnaire. The results were collected anonymously over a time period of six months from a sample of 171 participants. Results : According to our analysis, we found 82.67% of fifth year students and 80.21% of first years showing average or above average levels of empathy. Female mean scores were 42±9.60 while males were 38.7±9.358 (P=0.03). No association was found between empathy and age of the participants (p=0.77). Conclusion: We found no significant difference in the levels of empathy between the first and fifth year medical students. However, it was shown that females exhibited higher levels of empathy than males. PMID:24358858

  16. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

  17. 75 FR 43160 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on One Arkansas Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on One Arkansas Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL... Arkansas, under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This TMDL was completed in response to the.../region6/water/npdes/tmdl/index.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Diane Smith at (214) 665-2145....

  18. MICE, the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Ionization Cooling is the only practical solution to preparing high brilliance muon beams for a neutrino factory or muon collider. MICE is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). It is characterized by exquisite emittance determination by 6D measurement of individual particles, a cooling section comprising 23 MV of acceleration at 200 MHz and 3 liquid hydrogen absorbers totaling 1m of liquid hydrogen on the path of 140-240 MeV/c muons. Thebeam has already been commissioned successfully and first measurements of beam emittance performed. We are setting up for the final high precision emittance determination and the measurements of cooling in Li Hydrogen. The design offers opportunities to observe cooling with various absorbers and several optics configurations. Results will be compared with detailed simulations of cooling channel performance to ensure full understanding of the cooling process. Progress towards the full cooling experiment with RF re-acceleration will also be reported.

  19. 31 CFR 800.601 - Finality of actions under section 721.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Finality of Action § 800.601 Finality of actions under...

  20. Final notice regarding section 602 of the Veterans Health Care Act of 1992 duplicate discounts and rebates on drug purchases--HRSA. Final notice.

    PubMed

    1993-06-23

    Section 602 of Public Law 102-585, the "Veterans Health Care Act of 1992," enacted section 340B of the Public Health Service Act, "Limitation on Prices of Drugs Purchased by Covered Entities." Section 340B provides discounts on covered outpatient drugs to eligible entities. Section 340B(a)(5)(A) provides that a drug purchase shall not be subject to both a discount under section 340B and a Medicaid rebate under section 1927 of the Social Security Act. The Department is directed to establish a mechanism to assure that covered entities comply with this prohibition. The purpose of this notice is to announce the final mechanism to prevent duplicate discounts and rebates. The proposed mechanism was announced in the Federal Register at 58 FR 27293 on May 7, 1993. A comment period of 30 days was established to allow public comment on the proposed mechanism. Two comments were received. Both comments concerned issues involving implementation of the mechanism and did not raise substantive issues concerning the mechanism itself; therefore, we will address both comments in the Effective Date section. The mechanism, in its final form, is adopted as proposed.

  1. Presence of pathogenic amoebae in power plant cooling waters. Final report, October 15, 1977-September 30, 1979. [Naegleria fowleri

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

    1981-03-01

    Cooling-water-associated algae and sediments from five northern and five southern or western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. In addition, water algae and sediments from five northern and five southern/western sites not associated with power plants were tested. There was a significant correlation at northern power plants between the presence of thermophilic, pathogenic amoebae in cooling waters and thermal additions. Presence of the pathogenic did not correlate with salinity, pH, conductivity, or a variety of various chemical components of the cooling waters. Selected pathogenic isolates were tested serologically and were classified as Naegleria fowleri. Although thermal additions were shown to be contributing factor in predisposing cooling waters to the growth of pathogenic amoebae, the data suggest the involvement of other currently undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic amoebae. 35 refs., 21 tabs.

  2. Final Technical Report on STTR Project DE-FG02-04ER86191 Hydrogen Cryostat for Muon Beam Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-05-07

    The project was to develop cryostat designs that could be used for muon beam cooling channels where hydrogen would circulate through refrigerators and the beam-cooling channel to simultaneously refrigerate 1) high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) magnet coils, 2) cold copper RF cavities, and 3) the hydrogen that is heated by the muon beam. In an application where a large amount of hydrogen is naturally present because it is the optimum ionization cooling material, it was reasonable to explore its use with HTS magnets and cold, but not superconducting, RF cavities. In this project we developed computer programs for simulations and analysis and conducted experimental programs to examine the parameters and technological limitations of the materials and designs of Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) components (magnet conductor, RF cavities, absorber windows, heat transport, energy absorber, and refrigerant).The project showed that although a hydrogen cryostat is not the optimum solution for muon ionization cooling channels, the studies of the cooling channel components that define the cryostat requirements led to fundamental advances. In particular, two new lines of promising development were opened up, regarding very high field HTS magnets and the HS concept, that have led to new proposals and funded projects.

  3. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 2, Appendices A-C

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NW, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this EN there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constricting Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER, which consists of Appendices A, B, and C, assesses the potential geologic impacts of the proposed Section 8B construction, presents the results of the Section 8B soil survey, and describes the water quality studies and analyses performed for the ER. The following summary sections provide information for geology, soils, and water quality.

  4. Combined makeup and sidestream softening field for a proposed closed-cycle cooling-system design. Final report. [Treated cooling water

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, J.T.; Campbell, K.S.; Litherland, S.C.; Owen, M.L.; Kamas, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of a special pilot-scale field test conducted at Comanche Generating Station in Pueblo, Colorado. The objective of this test was to evaluate a proposed closed-cycle cooling system design which incorporated combined makeup and sidestream softening for scale control at high cycles of concentration. Public Service Company of Colorado, which cofunded the field test, needed to evaluate the proposed design for the planned Southeast Generating Station. The test used a portable skid-mounted field test unit (FTU) which was designed and fabricated under EPRI RP1261-1. Based on proposed design conditions, the FTU was operated for three weeks to obtain steady-state system chemistry data. These data were then compared with design estimates. The FTU combined softening system produced a treated water chemistry better than anticipated and the FTU operated at design conditions (20 cycles of concentration) without condenser scaling. The FTU results were also compared with estimates based on computer model simulations (CS-2276). Comparisons of the recirculating water compositions were in close agreement on the softener treated water compositions were attributed to inaccurate chemical feed rate data used as input to the computer models.

  5. Method for Calculation of Laminar Heat Transfer in Air Flow Around Cylinders of Arbitrary Cross Section (including Large Temperature Differences and Transpiration Cooling)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R; Livingood, John N B

    1953-01-01

    The solution of heat-transfer problems has become vital for many aeronautical applications. The shapes of objects to be cooled can often be approximated by cylinders of various cross sections with flow normal to the axis as, for instance heat transfer on gas-turbine blades and on air foils heated for deicing purposes. A laminar region always exists near the stagnation point of such objects. A method previously presented by E. R. G. Eckert permits the calculation of local heat transfer around the periphery of cylinders of arbitrary cross section in the laminar region for flow of a fluid with constant property values with an accuracy sufficient for engineering purposes. The method is based on exact solutions of the boundary-layer equations for incompressible wedge-type flow and on the postulate that at any point on the cylinder the boundary-layer growth is the same as that on a wedge with comparable flow conditions. This method is extended herein to take into account the influence of large temperature differences between the cylinder wall and the flow as well as the influence of transpiration cooling when the same medium as the outside flow is used as coolant.

  6. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  7. Kinetic model for predicting the concentrations of active halogens species in chlorinated saline cooling waters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, W.R.; Lietzke, M.H.

    1981-08-01

    A kinetic model has been developed for describing the speciation of chlorine-produced oxidants in seawater as a function of time. The model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions, including all pH range, salinities, temperatures, ammonia concentrations, organic amine concentrations, and chlorine doses likely to be encountered during power plant cooling water chlorination. However, the effects of sunlight are not considered. The model can also be applied to freshwater and recirculating water systems with cooling towers. The results of the model agree with expectation, however, complete verification is not feasible at the present because analytical methods for some of the predicted species are lacking.

  8. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 6, Appendix N

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER documents the results of the architectural, historical, and cultural resources assessment for the entire Section 8B ROW that was completed in May 1995 to document the architectural, historical, and cultural resources located within the project area. The assessment included evaluation of the potential for cultural (i.e., rural historic) landscapes in the area of the ROW. The assessment showed that one National Register-listed property is located 0.3 mile south of the ROW

  9. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 4, Appendices E-I

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical, resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER consists of Appendices E through I (all ecological survey reports), which are summarized individually in the sections that follow. The following conclusions result from the completion of these surveys and the ER impact analysis: (1) Forest clearing should be limited as much as possible; (2) Disturbed areas should be replanted with native trees; (3) Drainages should be bridged rather than leveled with cut and fill; (4) For areas of steep slopes and potential erosion

  10. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 3, Appendix D

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER inventories the fishes and benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting the aquatic ecosystems potentially affected by the proposed construction of Section 8B. Stream biological surveys were completed at 31 stream sites during the Fall of 1994. The sampling strategy for both invertebrates and fish was to survey the different taxa from all available habitats. For benthic invertebrates, a standardized qualitative manual collection technique was employed for all 31 stations. For fish

  11. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 5, Appendices J-M

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER consists of Appendices J through M, which describe potential impacts regarding traffic, noise, and aesthetics. The results of the traffic studies described in these appendices resulted in the following conclusions: Unacceptable levels of service will occur on numerous roads within and outside of the park increasingly in the Mure based upon current and future regional growth. However, the results of the traffic assessment indicated that there would be no significant or

  12. Procedures for the Handling of Retaliation Complaints Under Section 1558 of the Affordable Care Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-10-13

    This document provides the final text of regulations governing employee protection (retaliation or whistleblower) claims under section 1558 of the Affordable Care Act, which added section 18C to the Fair Labor Standards Act to provide protections to employees who may have been subject to retaliation for seeking assistance under certain affordability assistance provisions (for example, health insurance premium tax credits) or for reporting potential violations of the Affordable Care Act's consumer protections (for example, the prohibition on rescissions). An interim final rule (IFR) governing these provisions and request for comments was published in the Federal Register on February 27, 2013. Thirteen comments were received; eleven were responsive to the IFR. This rule responds to those comments and establishes the final procedures and time frames for the handling of retaliation complaints under section 18C, including procedures and time frames for employee complaints to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), investigations by OSHA, appeals of OSHA determinations to an administrative law judge (ALJ) for a hearing de novo, hearings by ALJs, review of ALJ decisions by the Administrative Review Board (ARB) (acting on behalf of the Secretary of Labor), and judicial review of the Secretary of Labor's (Secretary's) final decision. It also sets forth the Secretary's interpretations of the Affordable Care Act whistleblower provision on certain matters.

  13. SOLERAS - Solar Cooling Engineering Field Tests Project: United Technologies Research Center. Final report, Volume 3. Engineering field test

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A solar-powered air conditioning system was designed, constructed, and installed at a Phoenix, Arizona site whose climatic conditions approximate those of Saudi Arabia. The nominal 18 ton capacity Rankine cycle chiller system with hot and cold storage and conventional fan/coil delivery units was operated for two cooling seasons and met its design objectives.

  14. Patterns of fish assemblage structure and dynamics in waters of the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study final report

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, J.M.; Anderson, C.S.; Floyd, K.B.; Negus, M.T.; Meador, M.R.

    1986-06-01

    Research conducted as part of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) has elucidated many factors that are important to fish population and community dynamics in a variety of habitats on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Information gained from these studies is useful in predicting fish responses to SRP operations. The overall objective of the CCWS was (1) to determine the environmental effects of SRP cooling water withdrawals and discharges and (2) to determine the significance of the cooling water impacts on the environment. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of thermal plumes on anadromous and resident fishes, including overwintering effects, in the SRP swamp and associated tributary streams; (2) assess fish spawning and locate nursery grounds on the SRP; (3) examine the level of use of the SRP by spawning fish from the Savannah River, this objective was shared with the Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; and (4) determine impacts of cooling-water discharges on fish population and community attributes. Five studies were designed to address the above topics. The specific objectives and a summary of the findings of each study are presented.

  15. VELM61 and VELM22: Multigroup cross-section libraries for sodium-cooled reactor shield analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C.Y.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1987-04-01

    Two coupled neutron and photon multigroup cross-section libraries, derived from ENDF/B-V nuclear data, are described. The energy group structures, 61n/23..gamma.. and 22n/10..gamma.., are subsets of the Vitamin-E 174n/38..gamma.. group structure, and are tailored to the iron and sodium resonances, windows, and capture gamma-ray spectra. Each of the two libraries are available in two formats, the AMPX master format and the ANISN format. Cross sections for all materials in the Vitamin-E library were collapsed using a standard energy weighting function, and in addition, several cross-section sets for each of the major constituents of commercial grade sodium, stainless steel (types 304 and 316), and carbon steel were derived using several problem-dependent weighting functions for averaging the fine groups. Effects of various group structures and weighting functions on the accuracy of the broad group libraries are studied by ANISN analysis of a typical sodium-iron shield configuration.

  16. 75 FR 26226 - Executive Order 13508 Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration Section 203 Final Coordinated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Order 13508, Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration, dated May 12, 2009 (74 FR 23099, May 15, 2009... released for public comment on November 9, 2009 (74 FR 57675, November 9, 2009). This final strategy... May 12, 2009 (74 FR 23099, May 15, 2009), required a Federal Leadership Committee composed of...

  17. Tumors of the salivary glands. Comparison of frozen-section diagnosis with final pathologic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wheelis, R F; Yarington, C T

    1984-02-01

    Of the 256 cases of salivary gland tumors subjected to frozen-section diagnosis, the error rate in diagnosis for malignant disease was one of four cases, and in benign disease, it was one of ten cases. Six of the 52 malignant tumors were erroneously labeled as benign, while four of the 204 benign tumors were diagnosed as malignant neoplasms. The occurrence of concurrent benign and malignant disease, nonneoplastic alterations of salivary gland tissue, and sampling errors militated against total reliance on frozen-section diagnosis in the management of salivary gland neoplasms.

  18. Impacts of Four Title V, Section 510 Abstinence Education Programs. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Ken; Quay, Ken; Wheeler, Justin; Clark, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Since fiscal year 1998, the Title V, Section 510 program has allocated $50 million annually in federal funding for programs that teach abstinence form sexual activity outside of marriage as the expected standard for school-age children. A new impact report from Mathematica's congressionally mandated multi-year evaluation of four abstinence…

  19. Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

  20. Laboratory studies supporting cooling-water treatment tests at a power plant with calcium-limited water. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, J.T.; Campbell, K.S.

    1985-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute is sponsoring a three phase research project to develop a design and operating methodology for recirculating cooling water systems at high concentration factors. As part of this program, a portable field test (FTU) has been designed and fabricated for operation at sites with different makeup water qualities. Phase II testing at the first site, Comanche Generating Station in Pueblo, Colorado, started February 1981 and stopped December 1981. During the field testing, several cooling water treatment options were used to increase the concentration factor for operating the FTU. In addition to the field test program, additional activities were conducted to supplement and support the data compiled from the field program. These additional activities included a literature survey, laboratory studies, and an independent makeup softener test. This report presents the results of these supplemental activities. 61 refs., 57 figs., 37 tabs.

  1. FY07 LDRD Final Report Neutron Capture Cross-Section Measurements at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Wilk, P; Becker, J; Wang, T

    2008-02-08

    We have measured neutron capture cross sections intended to address defense science problems including mix and the Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU), and provide details about statistical decay of excited nuclei. A major part of this project included developing the ability to produce radioactive targets. The cross-section measurements were made using the white neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, the detector array called DANCE (The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) and targets important for astrophysics and stockpile stewardship. DANCE is at the leading edge of neutron capture physics and represents a major leap forward in capability. The detector array was recently built with LDRD money. Our measurements are a significant part of the early results from the new experimental DANCE facility. Neutron capture reactions are important for basic nuclear science, including astrophysics and the statistics of the {gamma}-ray cascades, and for applied science, including stockpile science and technology. We were most interested in neutron capture with neutron energies in the range between 1 eV and a few hundred keV, with targets important to basic science, and the s-process in particular. Of particular interest were neutron capture cross-section measurements of rare isotopes, especially radioactive isotopes. A strong collaboration between universities and Los Alamos due to the Academic Alliance was in place at the start of our project. Our project gave Livermore leverage in focusing on Livermore interests. The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory did not have a resident expert in cross-section measurements; this project allowed us to develop this expertise. For many radionuclides, the cross sections for destruction, especially (n,{gamma}), are not well known, and there is no adequate model that describes neutron capture. The modeling problem is significant because, at low energies where capture reactions are important, the neutron

  2. A rapid, semiempirical method of calculating the stability margins of superconductors cooled with subcooled He-II: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Dresner, L.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid, semiempirical method is presented for calculating the stability margins of superconductors cooled with subcooled He-II. Based on a model of Seyfert, the method takes into account both time-dependent Gorter-Mellink heat transport and the effects of interfacial Kapitza resistance. The method has been compared favorably with heat transfer data of Seyfert, stability data of Meuris, and stability data of Pfotenhauer and van Sciver. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Methodology for evaluation of multiple power plant cooling system effects. Volume V. Methodology application to prototype: Cayuga Lake. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The models developed in this project can be used to evaluate impacts on ecosystems due to the operation of multiple power plant cooling systems on a single water body. The models simulate the behavior of ecosystems with added stresses from cooling system operation. The ecosystem is simulated simultaneously with cooling water withdrawal, passage of the water through the plants (with different induced mortality rates) and discharge back to the ecosystem. The equations, rationale for relationships, and user's guide are contained in earlier volumes (I, II, III, IV). This volume illustrates the use of the methodology for Cayuga Lake, New York. The application results show reasonable agreement between specific and generalized state variables. The results from 1-year and 10-year simulations appeared to be reasonable predictions. The additional power plants increased impingement and entrainment and transported nutrients from deeper waters to the photic zone since the intakes were located at lower depths. Increased nutrients in the photic zone resulted in an increase in the overall productivity of Cayuga Lake. As a result of methodology applications, it was tentatively concluded that ecosystem impacts of one or two additional power plants would fall within the natural variability of the lake. The Cayuga Lake application has demonstrated that the methodology is an important tool for assessing the effects of multiple power plants on a single waterbody. It provides a useful approach to combining ecosystem complexity and computing the integrated responses to cooling system operation. Future contributions to methodology development should come from better and more accurate definitions of the ecosystem processes so that mathematical models can be more precise.

  4. 76 FR 18548 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on Three Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...This notice announces final agency action on three TMDLs prepared by EPA Region 6 for waters listed in Louisiana's Mississippi River Basin, under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). Documents from the administrative record file for the three TMDLs, including TMDL calculations and responses to comments, may be viewed at http://www.epa.gov/region6/water/npdes/tmdl/index.htm. The......

  5. Presence of pathogenic microorganisms in power-plant cooling waters. Final report, October 1, 1981-June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    Air was sampled at the point of discharge and at short distances downwind and upwind from industrial and power-plant cooling towers. Both high-volume electrostatic and impinger type samplers were used. Concentrates of the air samples were analyzed for Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (LDB). In some cases, the samples were also tested for the presence of free-living amoebae. The concentrations of LDB in the air samples were well below the minimal infectious dose for guinea pigs and precluded testing of the samples for infectious LDB. Results of LDB analysis were related to the meteorological conditions at the time of sampling. Generally, the concentrations of LDB in the air at the discharge of the cooling towers were 1 x 10/sup -6/ to 1 x 10/sup -7/ of that found in comparable volumes of tower basin water. During periods of high humidity and wind speed, LDB was detected in a few downwind samples and one upwind sample. One site with extensive construction and excavation activity had higher LDB concentrations in air samples relative to other sites. Nonpathogenic Naegleria were present in one of two air samples taken in the mist at the base of a natural-draft cooling tower.

  6. POINT 2015: ENDF/B-VII.1 Final Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    2015-06-01

    Version 00 For use in applications the ENDF/B-VII.1 library has been processed into the form of temperature dependent cross sections at eight neutron reactor like temperatures, between 0 K and 2100 K, in steps of 300 K (the exception being 293.6 K, for exact room temperature at 20 Celsius). It has also been processed to five astrophysics like temperatures—1, 10, and 100 eV; and 1 and 10 keV. For reference purposes, 300 K is approximatelymore » 1/40 eV, so that 1 eV is approximately 12,000 K. At each temperature the cross sections are tabulated and linearly interpolable in energy.« less

  7. POINT 2015: ENDF/B-VII.1 Final Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    Version 00 For use in applications the ENDF/B-VII.1 library has been processed into the form of temperature dependent cross sections at eight neutron reactor like temperatures, between 0 K and 2100 K, in steps of 300 K (the exception being 293.6 K, for exact room temperature at 20 Celsius). It has also been processed to five astrophysics like temperatures—1, 10, and 100 eV; and 1 and 10 keV. For reference purposes, 300 K is approximately 1/40 eV, so that 1 eV is approximately 12,000 K. At each temperature the cross sections are tabulated and linearly interpolable in energy.

  8. Thin section casting program: Volume 4, Static cast product bending, straightening, and rolling: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Statically cast 1/2'', 3/4'', and 1'' thick steel slabs were subjected to hot rolling in a laboratory reversing mill and to simulated coiling-uncoiling on a three-point bender-unbender. Tensile properties and microstructures of hot bands thinner than 0.15'' produced from the statically cast slabs were found to be independent of initial slab thickness and similar to those from conventionally cast 8''-10'' thick slabs. Cold rolled and batch annealed product from the statically cast slabs had mechanical properties equivalent to those of conventionally processed deep-drawing quality steel. Overall, the results of this task indicated that 1/2''-1'' thick steel sections produced in a twin belt caster can be coiled and uncoiled in a hot coiler box downstream of the caster without generating any cracks in the product, and that the total range of hot and cold rolled sheet and strip products with qualities equivalent to those of conventionally produced can be obtained from the 1/2''-1'' thick sections. This report is the fifth of a six volume set on thin section casting.

  9. POINT 2012: ENDF/B-VII.1 Final Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D E

    2012-02-26

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B [R1]. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes: (1) publicly available nuclear data (the current ENDF/B data, available on-line at the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/) and, (2) publicly available computer codes (the current PREPRO codes, available on-line at the Nuclear Data Section, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, http://www-nds.iaea.or.at/ndspub/endf/prepro/) and, (3) My own personal computer located in my home. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and described in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results: by its very nature I consider this data to be born in the public domain.

  10. Final ep DIS cross sections from H1 and ZEUS and HERAPDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Iris

    2016-07-01

    HERA was the first and only ep collider. It was in operation from 1992 to 2007 and the two collaborations ZEUS and H1 collected about 0.5 fb-1 of integrated luminosity each. Inclusive data from both collaborations were combined and used to determine the set of parton distribution functions called HERAPDF2.0. The history of HERA is presented as well as the long path to the final data combination and HERAPDF2.0. The proton remains full of wonders and parton distribution functions might have nothing to do with them. The legacy of HERA are the precise ep data which can be plotted as legacy plots.

  11. Thin section casting program: Volume 1, Executive summary and overview: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this project which started in September 1984 was to develop a new casting technology which could be both applied to the total range of hot- and cold-rolled sheet steels, and be successfully developed within a five-year project time scale. These requirements resulted in the choice of a thin-section-casting approach (casting around 1-inch-thick) over the alternative strip casting approach (casting around 0.1-inch-thick). The TSC approach was expected to result in significant capital cost, operating cost, and energy savings over current 10-inch-thick slab casting technology.

  12. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 2, Sections 6 and 7: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A.; Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M.; Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A.

    1992-11-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of the mechanisms governing the ash aerosol size segregated composition resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal in a laboratory scale down-flow combustor are described. The results of modeling activities used to interpret the results of the experiments conducted under his subtask are also described in this section. Although results from the entire program are included, Phase II studies which emphasized: (1) alkali behavior, including a study of the interrelationship between potassium vaporization and sodium vaporization; and (2) iron behavior, including an examination of the extent of iron-aluminosilicate interactions, are highlighted. Idealized combustion determination of ash particle formation and surface stickiness are also described.

  13. Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

    1986-06-01

    The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

  14. Nuclear Island Engineering MHTGR [Modular High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor] preliminary and final designs. Technical progress report, December 12, 1988--September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy (DOE)-funded work performed by General Atomics (GA) under the Nuclear Island Engineering (NIE)-Modular High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR) Preliminary and Final Designs Contract DE-AC03-89SF17885 for the period December 12, 1988 through September 30, 1989. This reporting period is the first (partial) fiscal year of the 5-year contract performance period. The objective of DOE`s MHTGR program is to advance the design from the conceptual design phase into preliminary design and then on to final design in support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) design review and approval of the MHTGR Design Team, is focused on the Nuclear Island portion of the technology and design, primarily in the areas of the reactor and internals, fuel characteristics and fuel fabrication, helium services systems, reactor protection, shutdown cooling, circulator design, and refueling system. Maintenance and implementation of the functional methodology, plant-level analysis, support for probabilistic risk assessment, quality assurance, operations, and reliability/availability assessments are included in GA`s scope of work.

  15. Annex D-200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] [Section 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    CARRELL, R D

    2002-07-16

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft{sup 2} and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped off-site to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA'--One Rad-Vault' container will store two DOT-6M3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks currently stored in the 400 Area. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-I cask4 with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, will be used for commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available.

  16. Development of safety analysis codes and experimental validation for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Oh

    2006-03-01

    The very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is envisioned as a single- or dual-purpose reactor for electricity and hydrogen generation. The concept has average coolant temperatures above 9000C and operational fuel temperatures above 12500C. The concept provides the potential for increased energy conversion efficiency and for high-temperature process heat application in addition to power generation. While all the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts have sufficiently high temperature to support process heat applications, such as coal gasification, desalination or cogenerative processes, the VHTR’s higher temperatures allow broader applications, including thermochemical hydrogen production. However, the very high temperatures of this reactor concept can be detrimental to safety if a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurs. Following the loss of coolant through the break and coolant depressurization, air will enter the core through the break by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heatup of the reactor core and the release of toxic gasses (CO and CO2) and fission products. Thus, without any effective countermeasures, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release. Prior to the start of this Korean/United States collaboration, no computer codes were available that had been sufficiently developed and validated to reliably simulate a LOCA in the VHTR. Therefore, we have worked for the past three years on developing and validating advanced computational methods for simulating LOCAs in a VHTR. Research Objectives As described above, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release in the VHTR. The objectives of this Korean/United States collaboration were to develop and validate advanced computational methods for VHTR safety analysis. The methods that have been developed are now

  17. Fast neutron cross section measurements. Final technical report, March 1, 1987--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1997-06-01

    The time-of-flight technique was used with the ring scattering geometry in a laboratory with low neutron scattering background to measure the angular distributions of the cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons in natural chromium, iron, nickel, and niobium. Specifically for inelastic scattering included were: the 1.43 MeV and 4.56 MeV levels of {sup 52}Cr, the 0.85 MeV level, and (2.94-3.12) MeV and (4.46-4.51) MeV level groups of {sup 56}Fe, the 1.33 MeV level of {sup 60}Ni combined with the 1.45 MeV level of {sup 58}Ni, and the 4.48 MeV level of {sup 58}Ni. Pulses of neutrons with time width of 0.9-1.1 ns were produced via the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction in a 150 keV Cockcroft-Walton linear accelerator, with average intensities of 9x10{sup 8} n/s. The energy of the incident neutrons was between 14.75 MeV (at 16{degree}) and 13.48 MeV (at 160{degree}). High purity scattering ring samples were used. The scattering angles ranged from {approx}16{degree} to {approx}150{degree}, for iron, chromium, and nickel, and from {approx}16{degree} to {approx}160{degree} for niobium, with a typical step of {approx}10{degree}. High purity ring samples were used.

  18. Emotional intelligence and academic performance in first and final year medical students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on emotional intelligence (EI) suggests that it is associated with more pro-social behavior, better academic performance and improved empathy towards patients. In medical education and clinical practice, EI has been related to higher academic achievement and improved doctor-patient relationships. This study examined the effect of EI on academic performance in first- and final-year medical students in Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using an objectively-scored measure of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Academic performance of medical school students was measured using continuous assessment (CA) and final examination (FE) results. The first- and final-year students were invited to participate during their second semester. Students answered a paper-based demographic questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT on their own. Relationships between the total MSCEIT score to academic performance were examined using multivariate analyses. Results A total of 163 (84 year one and 79 year five) medical students participated (response rate of 66.0%). The gender and ethnic distribution were representative of the student population. The total EI score was a predictor of good overall CA (OR 1.01), a negative predictor of poor result in overall CA (OR 0.97), a predictor of the good overall FE result (OR 1.07) and was significantly related to the final-year FE marks (adjusted R2 = 0.43). Conclusions Medical students who were more emotionally intelligent performed better in both the continuous assessments and the final professional examination. Therefore, it is possible that emotional skill development may enhance medical students’ academic performance. PMID:23537129

  19. Gas turbine cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  20. Feasibility assessment of vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling on water-cooked pork.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hui; Liu, Yi; Dai, Ruitong; Li, Xingmin

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling was designed to cool water-cooked pork (1.5±0.05 kg) compared with air blast cooling (4±0.5°C, 2 m/s), vacuum cooling (10 mbar) and immersion vacuum cooling. This combined cooling method was: vacuum cooling to an intermediate temperature of 25°C and then immersion vacuum cooling with water of 10°C to the final temperature of 10°C. It was found that the cooling loss of this combined cooling method was significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of air blast cooling and vacuum cooling. This combined cooling was faster (P<0.05) than air blast cooling and immersion vacuum cooling in terms of cooling rate. Moreover, the pork cooled by combined cooling method had significant differences (P<0.05) in water content, color and shear force.

  1. Wood Storks of the Savannah River Plant: Foraging and breeding ecology: Comprehensive cooling water study final report

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, M.C.

    1986-06-01

    This report presents the results of studies from 1983 through 1985 that deal with the use of the Savannah River Swamp System (SRSS) by Wood Storks. We examine the locations on the SRSS where storks have been observed foraging on the SRSS, and the time of year when birds were seen in the swamp. We compare measurements of habitat characteristics, water quality, vegetation and prey density at foraging sites on the SRSS with similar measurements at other foraging sites in east-central Georgia. Finally, we examine food demand of storks breeding at the Birdsville colony as an indication of the time of year when the birds would be most in need of food.

  2. Measurement of the WW+WZ Production Cross Section Using the Lepton+Jets Final State at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2009-11-01

    We report two complementary measurements of the diboson (WW + WZ) cross section in the final state consisting of an electron or muon, missing transverse energy, and jets, performed using p{bar p} collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The first method uses the dijet invariant mass distribution while the second method uses more of the kinematic information in the event through matrix-element calculations of the signal and background processes and has a higher sensitivity. The result from the second method has a signal significance of 5.4{sigma} and is the first observation of WW + WZ production using this signature. Combining the results from both methods gives {sigma}{sub WW+WZ} = 16.0 {+-} 3.3 pb, in agreement with the standard model prediction.

  3. Measurement of the WW + WZ production cross section using the lepton + jets final state at CDF II.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; di Giovanni, G P; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramanov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Rutherford, B; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Trovato, M; Tsai, S-Y; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Weinelt, J; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2010-03-12

    We report two complementary measurements of the WW + WZ cross section in the final state consisting of an electron or muon, missing transverse energy, and jets, performed using pp collision data at square root of s = 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector. The first method uses the dijet invariant mass distribution while the second more sensitive method uses matrix-element calculations. The result from the second method has a signal significance of 5.4sigma and is the first observation of WW + WZ production using this signature. Combining the results gives sigma(WW + WZ) = 16.0 +/- 3.3 pb, in agreement with the standard model prediction.

  4. Hydrogeologic Evaluation of a Ground-Source Cooling System at the BSF/CSF on the Battelle Campus: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Waichler, Scott R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Moon, Thomas W.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; DeSmet, Darrell J.; Lindsey, K. A.; Porcello, J. J.

    2010-05-12

    conductivity estimates for the Ringold Formation. Two different operational scenarios were simulated using conservative assumptions, such as the absence of river water intrusion in the near shore groundwater. When seasonal injection of warm and cool water occurred, temperature impacts were insignificant at the Columbia River (< +0.2ºC), irrespective of the hydraulic conductivity estimate. The second operational scenario simulated continuous heat rejection, a condition anticipated once the BSF/CSF is fully loaded with laboratory and computer equipment. For the continuous heat rejection case, where hourly peak conditions were simulated as month-long peaks, the maximum change in temperature along the shoreline was ~1ºC. If this were to be interpreted as an absolute change in a static river temperature, it could be considered significant. However, the warmer-than-ambient groundwater flux that would potentially discharge to the Columbia River is very small relative to the flow in the river. For temperatures greater than 17.0ºC, the flow relative to a low-flow condition in the river is only 0.012%. Moreover, field data has shown that diurnal fluctuations in temperature are as high as 5ºC along the shoreline.

  5. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  6. Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Section 232 Healthcare Facility Insurance Program--Strengthening Accountability and Regulatory Revisions Update Final Rule Amendment--revision of date of applicability. Final rule amendment.

    PubMed

    2013-04-30

    On September 7, 2012, HUD published a final rule that revised the regulations governing the insurance of healthcare facilities under section 232 of the National Housing Act (Section 232). HUD's Section 232 program insures mortgage loans to facilitate the construction, substantial rehabilitation, purchase, and refinancing of nursing homes, intermediate care facilities, board and care homes, and assisted-living facilities. The amendments made by the September 7, 2012, final rule updated the Section 232 regulations to reflect current policy and practices, improve accountability and strengthen risk management in the program. The final rule provided an applicability date of April 9, 2013, for certain of the updated requirements. This final rule amendment changes the applicability date to July 12, 2013, for the purpose of allowing more time to transition to the new requirements. PMID:23631016

  7. Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L.

    2011-01-19

    Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

  8. Is cooling still cool?

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Ashwin; Tiruvoipati, Ravindranath; Botha, John

    2015-03-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH), where patients are cooled to between 32°C and 36°C for a period of 12-24 hours and then gradually rewarmed, may reduce the risk of ischemic injury to cerebral tissue following a period of insufficient blood flow. This strategy of TH could improve mortality and neurological function in patients who have experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA). The necessity of TH in OOHCA was challenged in late 2013 by a fascinating and potentially practice changing publication, which found that targeting a temperature of 36°C had similar outcomes to cooling patients to 33°C. This article reviews the current literature and summarizes the uncertainties and questions raised when considering cooling of patients at risk of hypoxic brain injury. Irrespective of whether TH or targeted temperature management is deployed in patients at risk of hypoxic brain injury, it would seem that avoiding hyperpyrexia is important and that a more rigorous approach to neurological evaluation is mandated. PMID:25423577

  9. Final Report for Project DE-SC0006958: "An Investigation of the Effects of magnetic Fields and Collisionality on Shock Formation in Radiatively Cooled Plasma Flows"

    SciTech Connect

    Bott-Suzuki, Simon

    2014-11-05

    We have developed a new experimental platform to study bow-shock formation in plasma flows generated using an inverse wire array z-pinch. We have made significant progress on the analysis of both hydrodynamic and magnetized shocks using this system. The hydrodynamic experiments show formation of a well-defined Mach cone, and highly localized shock strong associated with radiative losses and rapidly cooling over the shock. Magnetized shocks show that the balance of magnetic and ram pressures dominate the evolution of the shock region, generating a low plasma beta void around the target. Manuscripts are in preparation for publication on both these topics. We have also published the development of a novel diagnostic method which allow recovery of interferometry and self-emission data along the same line of sight. Finally, we have carried out work to integrate a kinetic routine with the 3D MHD code Gorgon, however it remains to complete this process. Both undergraduate and graduate students have been involved in both the experimental work and publications.

  10. Electron cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  11. Stochastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  12. Issuance of final revised guidance on the use and issuance of administrative orders under Section 7003 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-26

    The directive discusses guidance on the use and issuance of Administrative Orders under Section 7003 of RCRA where there is an emiminent and substantial endangerment to public health and the environment. In order to issue a Section 7003 order, the Administrator must possess evidence that the handling, storage, treatment, transportation or disposal of any solid waste or hazardous waste may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to health or the environment (42 U.S.C. Section 6973). Additionally, Section 7003 requires that the Administrator provide notice to the affected State prior to issuance of the order. Each of these requirements is discussed in the directive.

  13. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  14. Hydronic rooftop cooling systems

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian Eric; Berman, Mark J.

    2008-01-29

    A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

  15. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  16. Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Final report, June 15, 1984--December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

    1987-12-31

    Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some application.

  17. Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporate downdraft chimneys. Final report, June 15, 1984--December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

    1987-12-31

    Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some applications.

  18. Development of advanced combustion technology for medium- and high-speed natural gas engines. Final report, January 1985-February 1989. Sections A, B, and C. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.E.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the project was to investigate the variables which influence the performance of medium and high speed natural gas engines. Section A provides a summary and overview of the project; and includes a reprint of a paper on a natural gas engine combustion rig with high-speed photography, and a paper on a study of a lean burn spark ignited gas engine. Section B (Theoretical Analysis - Methods of Increasing Exhaust Heat Recovery and Reducing Specific Fuel Consumption) describes COGEN, a computer program used to predict pre-chamber lean-burn cogeneration natural gas engine performance. Section C (Theoretical Analysis - Methods of Increasing Exhaust Heat Recovery and Reducing Cooling System Losses) describes a survey of possible modifications to adapt an engine to best fit different cogeneration requirements.

  19. Exhumation, cooling and deformation history of the necking zone of the fossil Adriatic rifted margin: the Campo/Grosina section (S-Switzerland and N-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, Benoît; Mohn, Geoffroy; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Manatschal, Gianreto; Beltrando, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Austroalpine units in SE Switzerland and N-Italy preserve remnants of the fossil Adriatic rifted margin. Notably the Campo-Grosina units represent the necking zone where major crustal thinning was accommodated during the Jurassic rifting. This contribution aims to unravel the complex tectonic evolution recorded in these units from the late Carboniferous - early Permian to the Jurassic rifting. The cooling and exhumation of the Campo and overlying Grosina units, separated by the Eita shear zone are explored by the acquisition of 40Ar/39Ar on hornblende, muscovite and biotite. New geochronological data on the Grosina unit present 40Ar/39Ar ages between 273 and 261 Ma for muscovite and between 248 and 246 Ma for biotite. The Campo unit shows clearly younger ages between 210 and 177 Ma on hornblende, between 186 and 176 Ma on muscovite and between 174 and 171 Ma on biotite. Numerous data were discarded due to frequent excess 40Ar on amphiboles, probably associated to the emplacement of the Sondalo gabbro with a high 40Ar/36Ar ratio in Permian times. These new ages, together with a compilation of existing ages obtained with different chronometers (U-Pb, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar) and performed on different lithologies from both the Campo and the Grosina units allow an estimation of the cooling rates for these units to be done. The new results show that both the Campo and the Grosina units underwent a cooling rate around 10°C/Ma in Permian time. The Grosina unit, being in a shallower crustal level, did not record the Jurassic cooling, reaching up to 50°C/Ma in the Campo unit. The notable difference in cooling rates between the Permian and the Jurassic events attests of a cooling without being associated to an exhumation in Permian times, whereas the Campo unit cooled rapidly in Jurassic times, due to an exhumation and an emplacement in shallow crustal levels. The latter tectonic event was likely caused by shearing along the Eita or other greenschist facies

  20. Use of treated gasification wastewater in a pilot cooling tower. Phase I. Final report for the period ending January 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, W.G.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Mann, M.D.; Galegher, S.J.; Gallagher, J.R.; Mayer, G.G.; Thomas, W.C.; Winton, S.L.; Nelson, D.F.

    1984-05-16

    During the UNDERC cooling tower tests, data were colleced and evaluated in five major areas: characterization of cooling tower streams, process performance, biofouling, corrosion, and inorganic/organic fouling. A summary of the results and conclusions for each area is presented. Recommendations are provided for research and development programs to further define the pretreatment and operating requirements for the use of wastewater as cooling tower makeup. The results of the Phase I-Pilot Cooling Tower test have revealed several potential problems that may arise from the use of a relatively high organic content gas liquor as cooling tower makeup. Most of the problems identified are related to the presence of organics in the wastewater which promote biofouling/fouling, corrosion, and emissions from the cooling tower. The Phase II-Pilot Cooling Tower Test will address this issue by identifying the advantages of further treatment of stripped gas liquor to reduce the organic content to a lower level before use in the cooling tower. This test will parallel the Phase I test using the same system and monitoring procedures. Comparison of the results of Phase I and Phase II tests will provide an indication of how well problem areas can be avoided with additional makeup water pretreatment. 39 references, 34 tables, and 25 figures.

  1. 75 FR 77662 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Procedures for Implementing Section 102 of NEPA, published in the Federal Register September 2, 1981, (46 FR... Project in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties, TX AGENCY: United States Section, International Boundary and... for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation Project located in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties,...

  2. Preliminary evaluation of LTPP continuously reinforced concrete (CRC) pavement test sections. Final report, February 1995--October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Tayabji, S.D.; Selezneva, O.; Jiang, Y.J.

    1999-07-01

    As part of the study reported here, analysis of data from the LTPP GPS-5 test sections was conducted to identify factors that influence long-term crack spacing in continuously reinforced concrete (CRC) pavements and to determine that effect of crack spacing on pavement performance. Data from the 85 test sections from the GPS-5 experiment were analyzed.

  3. Recovery Act: Federspiel Controls (now Vigilent) and State of California Department of General Services Data Center Energy Efficient Cooling Control Demonstration. Final technical project report

    SciTech Connect

    Federspiel, Clifford; Evers, Myah

    2011-09-30

    Eight State of California data centers were equipped with an intelligent energy management system to evaluate the effectiveness, energy savings, dollar savings and benefits that arise when powerful artificial intelligence-based technology measures, monitors and actively controls cooling operations. Control software, wireless sensors and mesh networks were used at all sites. Most sites used variable frequency drives as well. The system dynamically adjusts temperature and airflow on the fly by analyzing real-time demands, thermal behavior and historical data collected on site. Taking into account the chaotic interrelationships of hundreds to thousands of variables in a data center, the system optimizes the temperature distribution across a facility while also intelligently balancing loads, outputs, and airflow. The overall project will provide a reduction in energy consumption of more than 2.3 million kWh each year, which translates to $240,000 saved and a reduction of 1.58 million pounds of carbon emissions. Across all sites, the cooling energy consumption was reduced by 41%. The average reduction in energy savings across all the sites that use VFDs is higher at 58%. Before this case study, all eight data centers ran the cooling fans at 100% capacity all of the time. Because of the new technology, cooling fans run at the optimum fan speed maintaining stable air equilibrium while also expending the least amount of electricity. With lower fan speeds, the life of the capital investment made on cooling equipment improves, and the cooling capacity of the data center increases. This case study depicts a rare technological feat: The same process and technology worked cost effectively in eight very different environments. The results show that savings were achieved in centers with diverse specifications for the sizes, ages and types of cooling equipment. The percentage of cooling energy reduction ranged from 19% to 78% while keeping temperatures substantially within the

  4. Electron cooling of electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.J.

    1993-09-01

    Electron cooling of electron (and positron) sources may be important for future linear collider applications. In order to cool electrons with electrons, an intermediary positron beam must be employed, since it is impossible to merge two beams of identical particles into the cooling straight. By adjusting the beta functions of the electron and positron lattices appropriately, the final emittance of the stored electron beam can be made less than the emittance of the cooling electron beam. This paper will discuss accelerator physics issues relating to an electron-cooled electron beam source.

  5. Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance Freeze Failure Modes and Freeze Tolerance Strategies for GenDriveTM Material Handling Application Systems and Stacks Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, David, W.

    2012-02-14

    Air-cooled stack technology offers the potential for a simpler system architecture (versus liquid-cooled) for applications below 4 kilowatts. The combined cooling and cathode air allows for a reduction in part count and hence a lower cost solution. However, efficient heat rejection challenges escalate as power and ambient temperature increase. For applications in ambient temperatures below freezing, the air-cooled approach has additional challenges associated with not overcooling the fuel cell stack. The focus of this project was freeze tolerance while maintaining all other stack and system requirements. Through this project, Plug Power advanced the state of the art in technology for air-cooled PEM fuel cell stacks and related GenDrive material handling application fuel cell systems. This was accomplished through a collaborative work plan to improve freeze tolerance and mitigate freeze-thaw effect failure modes within innovative material handling equipment fuel cell systems designed for use in freezer forklift applications. Freeze tolerance remains an area where additional research and understanding can help fuel cells to become commercially viable. This project evaluated both stack level and system level solutions to improve fuel cell stack freeze tolerance. At this time, the most cost effective solutions are at the system level. The freeze mitigation strategies developed over the course of this project could be used to drive fuel cell commercialization. The fuel cell system studied in this project was Plug Power's commercially available GenDrive platform providing battery replacement for equipment in the material handling industry. The fuel cell stacks were Ballard's commercially available FCvelocity 9SSL (9SSL) liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack and FCvelocity 1020ACS (Mk1020) air-cooled PEM fuel cell stack.

  6. Development of advanced combustion technology for medium- and high-speed natural gas engines. Final report January 1985-February 1989. Sections A through I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the project was to investigate the variables which influence the performance of medium and high speed natural gas engines for applications in cogeneration plants. The final report includes the following: Summary and Overview; Theoretical analysis - Methods of increasing exhaust heat recovery and reducing specific fuel consumption; Theoretical analysis - Methods of increasing exhaust heat recovery and reducing cooling system losses; Design of constant volume combustion rig; Effect of pre-chamber geometry and fuel-air ratio; Parametric testing of the Ricardo Atlas single cylinder research engine; Effects of pre-chamber design on the combustion and performance of a lean-burn spark-ignited gas engine; and Effects of engine and operating variables on the performance of a commercial multi-cylinder pre-chamber natural gas engine. All five volumes of the report have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base. A separate abstract is included for each of the 5 volumes of this set.

  7. 76 FR 17159 - Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on Standard Review Plan, Section 17.4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    .... SUMMARY: The NRC staff is issuing its Final Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) DC/COL-ISG-018 (Agencywide... of ] the design certification (DC) and combined license (COL) applications. The NRC staff issues DC/COL-ISGs to facilitate timely implementation of current staff guidance and to facilitate...

  8. One-group fission cross sections for plutonium and minor actinides inserted in calculated neutron spectra of fast reactor cooled with lead-208 or lead-bismuth eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Khorasanov, G. L.; Blokhin, A. I.

    2012-07-01

    The paper is dedicated to one-group fission cross sections of Pu and MA in LFRs spectra with the aim to increase these values by choosing a coolant which hardens neutron spectra. It is shown that replacement of coolant from Pb-Bi with Pb-208 in the fast reactor RBEC-M, designed in Russia, leads to increasing the core mean neutron energy. As concerns fuel Pu isotopes, their one-group fission cross sections become slightly changed, while more dramatically Am-241 one-group fission cross section is changed. Another situation occurs in the lateral blanket containing small quantities of minor actinides. It is shown that as a result of lateral blanket mean neutron energy hardening the one-group fission cross sections of Np-237, Am-241 and Am-243 increases up to 8-11%. This result allows reducing the time of minor actinides burning in FRs. (authors)

  9. 46 CFR 119.420 - Engine cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the engine. (b) A propulsion or auxiliary diesel engine may be air cooled or employ an air cooled... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine cooling. 119.420 Section 119.420 Shipping COAST... Machinery Requirements § 119.420 Engine cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of...

  10. 46 CFR 119.420 - Engine cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the engine. (b) A propulsion or auxiliary diesel engine may be air cooled or employ an air cooled... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine cooling. 119.420 Section 119.420 Shipping COAST... Machinery Requirements § 119.420 Engine cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of...

  11. 46 CFR 119.420 - Engine cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the engine. (b) A propulsion or auxiliary diesel engine may be air cooled or employ an air cooled... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engine cooling. 119.420 Section 119.420 Shipping COAST... Machinery Requirements § 119.420 Engine cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of...

  12. 46 CFR 119.420 - Engine cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the engine. (b) A propulsion or auxiliary diesel engine may be air cooled or employ an air cooled... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engine cooling. 119.420 Section 119.420 Shipping COAST... Machinery Requirements § 119.420 Engine cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of...

  13. 46 CFR 119.420 - Engine cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the engine. (b) A propulsion or auxiliary diesel engine may be air cooled or employ an air cooled... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engine cooling. 119.420 Section 119.420 Shipping COAST... Machinery Requirements § 119.420 Engine cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of...

  14. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans...

  15. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans...

  16. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans...

  17. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans...

  18. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans...

  19. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  20. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Scalp Cooling System To Reduce the Likelihood of Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-02-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the scalp cooling system to reduce the likelihood of chemotherapy-induced alopecia into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the scalp cooling system to reduce the likelihood of chemotherapy-induced alopecia's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:26878740

  1. 76 FR 77025 - Office of New Reactors; Notice of Availability of the Final Staff Guidance Section 1.0, Revision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition,'' Section 1.0, Revision 2 on... Advanced Reactors and Rulemaking, Office of New Reactors, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington... Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Amy E. Cubbage, Chief, Policy Branch, Division of Advanced Reactors...

  2. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  3. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 1. Conceptual design, Sections 1 through 4

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume presents in detail the market analysis, parametric analysis, and the selection process for the preferred system. (WHK)

  4. Review of state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes. Task 1 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, J E; Diegle, R B

    1980-04-11

    The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank.

  5. Development and Implementation of Training Curriculum/Program in Solar Heating and Cooling at the Technician Level, December 1, 1976 - November 30, 1977. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnle, Carl J., Jr.

    The program proposal is designed to address the increasing demand for trained personnel to support the installation and maintenance of solar energy systems at residential and commercial sites. The three main objectives of the proposed program are: (1) to develop a flexible curricula to train a solar heating and cooling workforce; (2) to identify…

  6. Final Technical Report on STTR Project DE-FG02-02ER86145 Pressurized RF Cavities for Muon Ionization Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Rolland Johnson

    2006-07-13

    This project was to design and build an RF test cell (TC), which could be operated at 800 MHz, filled with high pressure gases including hydrogen, at temperatures down to that of liquid nitrogen, in strong magnetic fields, in a strong radiation environment, and with interchangeable electrodes, in order to examine the use of high-pressure RF cavities for muon beam cooling.

  7. Final Technical Report on STTR Project DE-FG02-06ER86282 Development and Demonstration of 6-Dimensional Muon Beam Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Muons, Inc.

    2011-05-24

    The overarching purpose of this project was to prepare a proposal for an experiment to demonstrate 6-dimensional muon beam cooling. The technical objectives were all steps in preparing the proposal, which was successfully presented to the Fermilab Accelerator Advisory Committee in February 2009. All primary goals of this project have been met.

  8. Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Phase 0. Feasibility and Planning Study. Volume 1: Executive Summary. Document No. 74SD419. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Electric Co., Philadelphia, PA. Space Div.

    The purpose of this study was to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings and to provide baseline information for the widespread application of solar energy. The initial step in this program was a study of the technical, economic, societal, legal, and environmental factors…

  9. The use of sunscreen products among final year medicine and pharmacy students: A cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitude, practice, and perception

    PubMed Central

    Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jamshed, Shazia; Elkalmi, Ramadan M.; Hadi, Hazrina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude, perception, and practice of medical and pharmacy students toward the usage of sunscreen as protection for the skin against ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among final year medical and pharmacy undergraduates at the International Islamic University Malaysia. Validated questionnaires were distributed to 134 medical students and 100 pharmacy students. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used where appropriate. Findings: One hundred and sixty-one out of 234 participants completed the questionnaires. The participants comprised 101 medical students (75.4%) and sixty pharmacy students (60.0%). The majority of the respondents were females (102; 63.4%), and 59 (36.6%) were males. The median of the knowledge scores of the final year medical students was significantly lower than that of the final year pharmacy students (P < 0.001). The female students showed significantly higher knowledge scores than the male students (P = 0.027). This study reported that 24 (39.3%) pharmacy students were influenced by the media to use sunscreen, whereas 35 (34.7%) medical students were influenced the most by friends to use sunscreen. The final year pharmacy students had a better perception compared to the medical students, with the total perception score of the final year pharmacy students being significantly higher than that of the final year medical students (P = 0.020). Most of the participants were also aware of the harmful effects of UV radiation and had a positive reaction toward the usage of sunscreen to prevent those harmful effects. Conclusion: The knowledge and perception of final year pharmacy students were significantly higher than the knowledge and perception of final year medical students with regard to the usage of sunscreen. PMID:27512711

  10. Cool Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praeger, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

  11. First measurement of top quark pair production cross-section in muon plus hadronic tau final states

    SciTech Connect

    Sumowidagdo, Suharyo

    2007-11-01

    This dissertation presents the first measurement of top quark pair production cross-section in events containing a muon and a tau lepton. The measurement was done with 1 fb-1 of data collected during April 2002 through February 2006 using the D0 detector at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider, located at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois. Events containing one isolated muon, one tau which decays hadronically, missing transverse energy, and two or more jets (at least one of which must be tagged as a heavy flavor jet) were selected. Twenty-nine candidate events were observed with an expected background of 9.16 events. The top quark pair production cross-section is measured to be σ(t$\\bar{t}$) = 8.0$+2.8\\atop{-2.4}$(stat)$+1.8\\atop{ -1.7}$(syst) ± 0.5(lumi) pb. Assuming a top quark pair production cross-section of 6.77 pb for Monte Carlo signal top events without a real tau, the measured σ x BR is σ(t$\\bar{t}$) x BR(t$\\bar{t}$ → μ + τ + 2v + 2b) = 0.18$+0.13\\atop{-0.11}$(stat)$+0.09\\atop{-0.09}$(syst) ± 0.01(lumi) pb.

  12. Final Project Report: Self-Correcting Controls for VAV System Faults Filter/Fan/Coil and VAV Box Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Cort, Katherine A.; Cho, Heejin; Ngo, Hung; Goddard, James K.

    2011-05-01

    This report addresses original research by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the California Institute for Energy and Environment on self-correcting controls for variable-air-volume (VAV) heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems and focuses specifically on air handling and VAV box components of the air side of the system. A complete set of faults for these components was compiled and a fault mode analysis performed to understand the detectable symptoms of the faults and the chain of causation. A set of 26 algorithms was developed to facilitate the automatic correction of these faults in typical commercial VAV systems. These algorithms include training tests that are used during commissioning to develop models of normal system operation, passive diagnostics used to detect the symptoms of faults, proactive diagnostics used to diagnose the cause of a fault, and finally fault correction algorithms. Ten of the twenty six algorithms were implemented in a prototype software package that interfaces with a test bed facility at PNNL's Richland, WA, laboratory. Measurement bias faults were instigated in the supply-air temperature sensor and the supply-air flow meter to test the algorithms developed. The algorithms as implemented in the laboratory software correctly detected, diagnosed and corrected these faults. Finally, an economic and impact assessment was performed for the State of California for deployment of self-correcting controls. Assuming 15% HVAC energy savings and a modeled deployment profile, 3.1-5.8 TBu of energy savings are possible by year 15.

  13. Measurement of the ttbar production cross section in the all-jets final state in pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$=8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-03-08

    The cross section for tt production in the all-jets final state is measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the LHC with the CMS detector, in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.4 fb-1. The inclusive cross section is found to be 275.6 ±6.1 (stat) ± 37.8 (syst) ± 7.2 (lumi) pb. The normalized differential cross sections are measured as a function of the top quark transverse momenta, pT, and compared to predictions from quantum chromodynamics. The results are reported at detector, parton, and particle levels. In all cases, the measured top quark pTmore » spectra are significantly softer than theoretical predictions.« less

  14. Measurement of the toverline{{t}} production cross section in the all-jets final state in pp collisions at √{s}=8 {TeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Yonamine, R.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Awad, A.; El Sawy, M.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garcia, J. Garay; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; de Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Miniello, G.; Maggi, M.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Primavera, F.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. 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F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, L. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Xiao, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Bierwagen, K.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Primavera, F.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The cross section for toverline{{t}} production in the all-jets final state is measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 {TeV} at the LHC with the CMS detector, in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.4 {fb}^{-1}. The inclusive cross section is found to be 275.6 ± 6.1 {(stat)} ± 37.8 {(syst)} ± 7.2 {(lumi)} { pb}. The normalized differential cross sections are measured as a function of the top quark transverse momenta, pT, and compared to predictions from quantum chromodynamics. The results are reported at detector, parton, and particle levels. In all cases, the measured top quark pT spectra are significantly softer than theoretical predictions.

  15. Planar near-field scanning for compact range bistatic radar cross-section measurement. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuhela-Reuning, S. R.; Walton, E. K.

    1991-01-01

    The design, construction, and testing of a low cost, planar scanning system to be used in a compact range environment for bistatic radar cross-section (bistatic RCS) measurement data are discussed. This scanning system is similar to structures used for measuring near-field antenna patterns. A synthetic aperture technique is used for plane wave reception. System testing entailed comparison of measured and theoretical bistatic RCS of a sphere and a right circular cylinder. Bistatic scattering analysis of the ogival target support, target and pedestal interactions, and compact range room was necessary to determine measurement validity.

  16. Beliefs and attitudes of final-year nursing students on honour crimes: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Can, M; Edirne, T

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate perceptions of nursing students about honour crimes and examine their beliefs about inquiring information from the victims of honour crimes. A questionnaire including demographic data was administered to a sample of 225 male and female final-year students in a nursing school. Among them, we found that significantly more male students than female students justify honour crimes. Although the majority of both male and female nursing students believed that asking for honour crimes is useful, significantly more male than female nursing students were against screening for honour crimes. This study supports the belief that gender has an influence on nurses' perceptions, attitudes and tolerance of honour crimes.

  17. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 3 (Appendices II, sections 2--3 and III)

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 3 contains the following appendix sections: Formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides in recovery boilers; Sintering and densification of recovery boiler deposits laboratory data and a rate model; and Experimental data on rates of particulate formation during char bed burning.

  18. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  19. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar heated and cooled buildings. Final report, January 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) storage unit in a solar heating and cooling system is established. Experimental performance data were obtained from the CSU Solar House I using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions. A simulation model for the system was developed. The model was validated using the experimental data and applied in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year. The life-cycle cost of the system was estimated for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger. It is concluded that while thare is a performance advantage with a DCLLHE system over a conventional solar system, the advantage is not sufficiently large to overcome slightly higher capital and operating costs for the DCLLHE system.

  20. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

  1. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar-heated and -cooled buildings. Final report, January 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01

    The procedure used was to obtain experimental performance data from a solar system using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions, develop a simulation model for the system, validate the model using the data, apply the model in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year, and estimate the life-cycle cost of the system for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

  2. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, William F.

    1996-01-01

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

  3. Multi-user cogeneration systems, natural-gas-fueled group heating and cooling systems: current status, prospects, and research and development needs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marciniak, T.J.

    1986-05-01

    Natural-gas-fueled group heating and cooling (GHC) systems combined with cogeneration offer an economical alternative to large-scale district heating and cooling systems by (a) lowering capital costs, (b) reducing construction time and (c) increasing thermal efficiency. The GHC concept offers an opportunity to expand the market for natural-gas-fueled packaged cogeneration systems through reductions in installation and operating costs. The report presents a review of the current status, future prospects, and research and development needs of the GHC concept. Also included are technical and economic reviews of district heating and cooling (DHC) applications and packaged cogeneration systems (PCS). Particular emphasis is given to the relationship of DHC and PCS technology to the GHC concept. The GHC/cogeneration concept is suitable for apartment complexes, office and light industrial parks, college campuses, medical facilities, urban redevelopment areas, and the business districts of small cities. Indications are that the installed cost of a new GHC/cogeneration system could be reduced by as much as $600/kW(e) compared to a one-unit PCS installation.

  4. Final Report For The Erosion And Corrosion Analysis Of Waste Transfer Primary Pipeline Sections From 241-SY Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Page, J. S.; Wyrwas, R. B.; Cooke, G. A.

    2012-10-04

    Three sections of primary transfer pipeline removed from the 241-SY Tank Farm in Hanford's 200 West area, labeled as SN-285, SN-286, and SN-278, were analyzed for the presence and amount of corrosion and erosion on the inside surface of the transfer pipe. All three sections of pipe, ranging in length between 6 and 8 in., were received at the 222-S Laboratory still in the pipe-in-pipe assembly. The annular spaces were filled with urethane foam injected into the pipes for as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) purposes. The 3-in. primary transfer pipes were first separated from the outer encasement, 6-in. pipes. The pipes were cut into small sections, or coupons, based upon the results of a non-destructive pipe wall thickness measurement which used an ultrasonic transducer. Following removal of the foam, the coupons were subjected to a series of analytical methods utilizing both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to obtain erosion and corrosion information. The ultrasonic transducer analysis of the SN-285 primary pipe did not show any thinned locations in the pipe wall which were outside the expected range for the 3-in. schedule 40 pipe of 216 mils. A coupon was cut from the thinnest area on the pipe, and analysis of the inside surface, which was in contact with the tank waste, revealed a continuous layer of corrosion ~ 100 11m (4 mils) thick under a semi-continuous layer of tank waste residue ~ 20 11m (1 mil) thick. This residue layer was composed of an amorphous phase rich in chromium, magnesium, calcium, and chlorine. Small pits were detected throughout the inside pipe surface with depths up to ~ 50 11m (2 mils). Similarly, the SN-286 primary pipe did not show, by the ultrasonic transducer measurements, any thinned locations in the pipe wall which were outside the expected range for this pipe. Analysis of the coupon cut from the pipe section showed the presence of a tank waste layer containing sodium aluminate and phases rich in iron, calcium

  5. Electron impact cross-sections and cooling rates for methane. [in thermal balance of electrons in atmospheres and ionospheres of planets and satellites in outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gan, L.; Cravens, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    Energy transfer between electrons and methane gas by collisional processes plays an important role in the thermal balance of electrons in the atmospheres and ionospheres of planets and satellites in the outer solar system. The literature is reviewed for electron impact cross-sections for methane in this paper. Energy transfer rates are calculated for elastic and inelastic processes using a Maxwellian electron distribution. Vibrational, rotational, and electronic excitation and ionization are included. Results are presented for a wide range of electron temperatures and neutral temperatures.

  6. New fine structure cooling rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    One of the dominant electron cooling processes in the ionosphere is caused by electron impact induced fine structure transitions among the ground state levels of atomic oxygen. This fine structure cooling rate is based on theoretical cross sections. Recent advances in the numerical cross section determinations to include polarization effects and more accurate representations of the atomic target result in new lower values. These cross sections are employed in this paper to derive a new fine structure cooling rate which is between 40% and 60% of the currently used rate. A new generalized formula is presented for the cooling rate (from which the fine structure cooling rate is derived), valid for arbitrary mass and temperature difference of the colliding particles and arbitrary inelastic energy difference.

  7. Cool Vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    ILC, Dover Division's lightweight cooling garment, called Cool Vest was designed to eliminate the harmful effects of heat stress; increases tolerance time in hot environments by almost 300 percent. Made of urethane-coated nylon used in Apollo, it works to keep the body cool, circulating chilled water throughout the lining by means of a small battery-powered pump. A pocket houses the pump, battery and the coolant which can be ice or a frozen gel, a valve control allows temperature regulation. One version is self-contained and portable for unrestrained movement, another has an umbilical line attached to an external source of coolant, such as standard tap water, when extended mobility is not required. It is reported from customers that the Cool Vest pays for itself in increased productivity in very high temperatures.

  8. Cool School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Suzanne

    1980-01-01

    The design for Floyd Elementary School in Miami (Florida) seeks to harness solar energy to provide at least 70 percent of the annual energy for cooling needs and 90 percent for hot water. (Author/MLF)

  9. Procedures for the handling of retaliation complaints under section 1558 of the Affordable Care Act. Interim final rule; request for comments.

    PubMed

    2013-02-27

    This document provides the interim final regulations governing the employee protection (whistleblower) provision of section 1558 of the Affordable Care Act, which added section 18C of the Fair Labor Standards Act, to provide protections to employees of health insurance issuers or other employers who may have been subject to retaliation for reporting potential violations of the law's consumer protections (e.g., the prohibition on denials of insurance due to pre-existing conditions) or affordability assistance provisions (e.g., access to health insurance premium tax credits). This interim rule establishes procedures and time frames for the handling of retaliation complaints under section 18C, including procedures and time frames for employee complaints to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), investigations by OSHA, appeals of OSHA determinations to an administrative law judge (ALJ) for a hearing de novo, hearings by ALJs, review of ALJ decisions by the Administrative Review Board (ARB) (acting on behalf of the Secretary of Labor), and judicial review of the Secretary's final decision.

  10. Procedures for the handling of retaliation complaints under section 1558 of the Affordable Care Act. Interim final rule; request for comments.

    PubMed

    2013-02-27

    This document provides the interim final regulations governing the employee protection (whistleblower) provision of section 1558 of the Affordable Care Act, which added section 18C of the Fair Labor Standards Act, to provide protections to employees of health insurance issuers or other employers who may have been subject to retaliation for reporting potential violations of the law's consumer protections (e.g., the prohibition on denials of insurance due to pre-existing conditions) or affordability assistance provisions (e.g., access to health insurance premium tax credits). This interim rule establishes procedures and time frames for the handling of retaliation complaints under section 18C, including procedures and time frames for employee complaints to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), investigations by OSHA, appeals of OSHA determinations to an administrative law judge (ALJ) for a hearing de novo, hearings by ALJs, review of ALJ decisions by the Administrative Review Board (ARB) (acting on behalf of the Secretary of Labor), and judicial review of the Secretary's final decision. PMID:23476992

  11. Transpiration And Regenerative Cooling Of Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1989-01-01

    Transpiration cooling extends limits of performance. Addition of transpiration cooling to regeneratively-cooled rocket-engine combustion chamber proposed. Modification improves performance of engine by allowing use of higher chamber pressure. Throat section of combustion-chamber wall cooled by transpiration, while chamber and nozzle sections cooled by fluid flowing in closed channels. Concept applicable to advanced, high-performance terrestrial engines or some kinds of industrial combustion chambers. With proper design, cooling scheme makes possible to achieve higher chamber pressure and higher overall performance in smaller engine.

  12. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part II: Prismatic Reactor Cross Section Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent Descotes

    2011-03-01

    The deep-burn prismatic high temperature reactor is made up of an annular core loaded with transuranic isotopes and surrounded in the center and in the periphery by reflector blocks in graphite. This disposition creates challenges for the neutronics compared to usual light water reactor calculation schemes. The longer mean free path of neutrons in graphite affects the neutron spectrum deep inside the blocks located next to the reflector. The neutron thermalisation in the graphite leads to two characteristic fission peaks at the inner and outer interfaces as a result of the increased thermal flux seen in those assemblies. Spectral changes are seen at least on half of the fuel blocks adjacent to the reflector. This spectral effect of the reflector may prevent us from successfully using the two step scheme -lattice then core calculation- typically used for light water reactors. We have been studying the core without control mechanisms to provide input for the development of a complete calculation scheme. To correct the spectrum at the lattice level, we have tried to generate cross-sections from supercell calculations at the lattice level, thus taking into account part of the graphite surrounding the blocks of interest for generating the homogenised cross-sections for the full-core calculation. This one has been done with 2 to 295 groups to assess if increasing the number of groups leads to more accurate results. A comparison with a classical single block model has been done. Both paths were compared to a reference calculation done with MCNP. It is concluded that the agreement with MCNP is better with supercells, but that the single block model remains quite close if enough groups are kept for the core calculation. 26 groups seems to be a good compromise between time and accu- racy. However, some trials with depletion have shown huge variations of the isotopic composition across a block next to the reflector. It may imply that at least an in- core depletion for the

  13. Cross section measurements of high-p{sub T} dilepton final-state processes using a global fitting method

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Budd, S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Gerberich, H.; Grundler, U.; Junk, T. R.; Kraus, J.; Liss, T. M.; Marino, C. P.; Pitts, K.; Rogers, E.; Taffard, A.; Veramendi, G.; Zhang, X.; Adelman, J.; Brubaker, E.; Fedorko, W. T.; Furic, I.

    2008-07-01

    We present a new method for studying high-p{sub T} dilepton events (e{sup {+-}}e{sup {+-}}, {mu}{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {+-}}, e{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {+-}}) and simultaneously extracting the production cross sections of pp{yields}tt, pp{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -}, and pp{yields}Z{sup 0}{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV. We perform a likelihood fit to the dilepton data in a parameter space defined by the missing transverse energy and the number of jets in the event. Our results, which use 360 pb{sup -1} of data recorded with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, are {sigma}(tt)=8.5{sub -2.2}{sup +2.7} pb, {sigma}(W{sup +}W{sup -})=16.3{sub -4.4}{sup +5.2} pb, and {sigma}(Z{sup 0}{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -})=291{sub -46}{sup +50} pb.

  14. Cross Section Measurements of High-p(T) Dilepton Final-State Processes Using a Global Fitting Method

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Brandeis U. /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Cantabria U., Santander /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2006-12-01

    The authors present a new method for studying high-p{sub T} dilepton events (e{sup {+-}}e{sup {-+}}, {mu}{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {-+}}, e{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {-+}}) and simultaneously extracting the production cross sections of p{bar p} {yields} t{bar t}, p{bar p} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}, and p{bar p} {yields} Z{sup 0} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. They perform a likelihood fit to the dilepton data in a parameter space defined by the missing transverse energy and the number of jets in the event. The results, which use 360 pb{sup -1} of data recorded with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, are {sigma}(t{bar t}) = 8.5{sub -2.2}{sup +2.7} pb, {sigma}(W{sup +}W{sup -}) = 16.3{sub -4.4}{sup +5.2} pb, and {sigma}(Z{sup 0} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}) = 291{sub -46}{sup +50} pb.

  15. Liquid rocket engine self-cooled combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Self-cooled combustion chambers are chambers in which the chamber wall temperature is controlled by methods other than fluid flow within the chamber wall supplied from an external source. In such chambers, adiabatic wall temperature may be controlled by use of upstream fluid components such as the injector or a film-coolant ring, or by internal flow of self-contained materials; e.g. pyrolysis gas flow in charring ablators, and the flow of infiltrated liquid metals in porous matrices. Five types of self-cooled chambers are considered in this monograph. The name identifying the chamber is indicative of the method (mechanism) by which the chamber is cooled, as follows: ablative; radiation cooled; internally regenerative (Interegen); heat sink; adiabatic wall. Except for the Interegen and heat sink concepts, each chamber type is discussed separately. A separate and final section of the monograph deals with heat transfer to the chamber wall and treats Stanton number evaluation, film cooling, and film-coolant injection techniques, since these subjects are common to all chamber types. Techniques for analysis of gas film cooling and liquid film cooling are presented.

  16. Experimental and theoretical triple differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of Ar (3p) for equal energy final state electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amami, Sadek; Ozer, Zehra N.; Dogan, Mevlut; Yavuz, Murat; Varol, Onur; Madison, Don

    2016-09-01

    There have been several studies of electron-impact ionization of inert gases for asymmetric final state energy sharing and normally one electron has an energy significantly higher than the other. However, there have been relatively few studies examining equal energy final state electrons. Here we report experimental and theoretical triple differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of Ar (3p) for equal energy sharing of the outgoing electrons. Previous experimental results combined with some new measurements are compared with distorted wave born approximation (DWBA) results, DWBA results using the Ward-Macek (WM) approximation for the post collision interaction (PCI), and three-body distorted wave (3DW) which includes PCI without approximation. The results show that it is crucially important to include PCI in the calculation particularly for lower energies and that the WM approximation is valid only for high energies. The 3DW, on the other hand, is in reasonably good agreement with data down to fairly low energies.

  17. Experimental and theoretical triple differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of Ar (3p) for equal energy final state electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amami, Sadek; Ozer, Zehra N.; Dogan, Mevlut; Yavuz, Murat; Varol, Onur; Madison, Don

    2016-09-01

    There have been several studies of electron-impact ionization of inert gases for asymmetric final state energy sharing and normally one electron has an energy significantly higher than the other. However, there have been relatively few studies examining equal energy final state electrons. Here we report experimental and theoretical triple differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of Ar (3p) for equal energy sharing of the outgoing electrons. Previous experimental results combined with some new measurements are compared with distorted wave born approximation (DWBA) results, DWBA results using the Ward–Macek (WM) approximation for the post collision interaction (PCI), and three-body distorted wave (3DW) which includes PCI without approximation. The results show that it is crucially important to include PCI in the calculation particularly for lower energies and that the WM approximation is valid only for high energies. The 3DW, on the other hand, is in reasonably good agreement with data down to fairly low energies.

  18. Thermal storage studies for solar heating and cooling: applications using chemical heat pumps. Final report, September 15, 1979-April 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Offenhartz, P O.D.

    1981-04-01

    TRNSYS-compatible subroutines for the simulation of chemical heat pumps have been written, and simulations (including heating, cooling, and domestic hot water) have been performed for Washington, DC and Ft. Worth, Texas. Direct weekly comparisons of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O and CaCl/sub 2//CH/sub 3/OH cycles have been carried out. Projected performance of the NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3//NH/sub 3/ cycle has also been investigated, and found to be essentially identical to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O. In all cases simulated, the solar collector is a fixed evacuated tube system, which is necessary because chemical heat pumps operate at higher solar collector temperatures (> 100/sup 0/C) than conventional solar systems. With standard residential loads, the chemical heat pumps performed surprisingly well. In the Ft. Worth climate, less than 45 m/sup 2/ of collectors were required to meet over 90% of the heating and cooling loads. In Washington, DC, the area required to meet the cooling load was smaller (as little as 20 m/sup 2/, depending on window shading), but was sufficient to meet only 50 to 60% of the heating load. However, gas-fired backup via the heat pump was quite effective in reducing fossil fuel consumption: the thermal COPs in the heating mode were in the range 1.6 to 1.7. Since chemical heat pumps are designed to reject heat at relatively high temperatures, they were also effective in providing domestic hot water, supplying ca. 70% of the DHW in summer, ca. 50% in winter, and nearly 100% in spring and fall.

  19. To develop a dynamic model of a collector loop for purpose of improved control of solar heating and cooling. Final technical report. [TRNSYS code

    SciTech Connect

    Herczfeld, P R; Fischl, R

    1980-01-01

    The program objectives were to (1) assess the feasibility of using the TRNSYS computer code for solar heating and cooling control studies and modify it wherever possible, and (2) develop a new dynamic model of the solar collector which reflects the performance of the collector under transient conditions. Also, the sensitivity of the performance of this model to the various system parameters such as collector time constants, flow rates, turn-on and turn-off temperature set points, solar insolation, etc., was studied. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  20. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  1. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2015-05-01

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  2. Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling. Final report, September 25, 1990--September 24, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.

  3. Cooling Vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Because quadriplegics are unable to perspire below the level of spinal injury, they cannot tolerate heat stress. A cooling vest developed by Ames Research Center and Upjohn Company allows them to participate in outdoor activities. The vest is an adaptation of Ames technology for thermal control garments used to remove excess body heat of astronauts. The vest consists of a series of corrugated channels through which cooled water circulates. Its two outer layers are urethane coated nylon, and there is an inner layer which incorporates the corrugated channels. It can be worn as a backpack or affixed to a wheelchair. The unit includes a rechargeable battery, mini-pump, two quart reservoir and heat sink to cool the water.

  4. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, W.F.

    1996-05-07

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

  5. Guidance on administrative response cost settlements under Section 122(h) of CERCLA and administrative cashout settlements with peripheral parties under Section 122(h) of CERCLA and Attorney General authority. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, B.; Gelber, B.

    1998-09-30

    The purpose of this memorandum and its attachments is to provide guidance on administrative response cost settlements entered under Section 122(h)(1) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, and on administrative ``cashout`` settlements with peripheral parties under Section 122(h)(1) of CERLCA and the authority of the Attorney General. Part 1 of this memorandum provides an overview of the guidance and explains the context in which the attached model settlements should be used. Part 2 of this memorandum explains the statutory provision, defines relevant terms, discusses the various types of administrative response cost settlements and the scope of covenants not to sue and reservations of rights in those settlements, provides guidance on amount of payment and use of premiums in future cost settlements, provides guidance on amount of payment and use of premiums in future cost settlements, and briefly discusses contribution protection clauses in such settlements. Part 3 outlines how administrative response cost settlements should be documented by the Regions and, when necessary, reviewed and approved by the Department of Justice (DOJ or the Department) and/or the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance in EPA Headquarters (OECA). Part 4 explains the public comment requirements for administrative response cost settlements. Finally, Part 5 addresses enforcement of such settlements.

  6. 14 CFR 27.1043 - Cooling tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling tests. 27.1043 Section 27.1043... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Cooling § 27.1043 Cooling tests. (a) General. For the tests prescribed in § 27.1041(b), the following apply: (1) If the tests are conducted under conditions...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1043 - Cooling tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooling tests. 29.1043 Section 29.1043... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Cooling § 29.1043 Cooling tests. (a) General. For the tests prescribed in § 29.1041(c), the following apply: (1) If the tests are conducted under...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1043 - Cooling tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling tests. 27.1043 Section 27.1043... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Cooling § 27.1043 Cooling tests. (a) General. For the tests prescribed in § 27.1041(b), the following apply: (1) If the tests are conducted under conditions...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1043 - Cooling tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooling tests. 25.1043 Section 25.1043... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 25.1043 Cooling tests. (a) General. Compliance with § 25.1041 must be shown by tests, under critical ground, water, and flight operating...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1043 - Cooling tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooling tests. 27.1043 Section 27.1043... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Cooling § 27.1043 Cooling tests. (a) General. For the tests prescribed in § 27.1041(b), the following apply: (1) If the tests are conducted under conditions...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1043 - Cooling tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling tests. 29.1043 Section 29.1043... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Cooling § 29.1043 Cooling tests. (a) General. For the tests prescribed in § 29.1041(c), the following apply: (1) If the tests are conducted under...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1043 - Cooling tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling tests. 29.1043 Section 29.1043... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Cooling § 29.1043 Cooling tests. (a) General. For the tests prescribed in § 29.1041(c), the following apply: (1) If the tests are conducted under...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1043 - Cooling tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling tests. 25.1043 Section 25.1043... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 25.1043 Cooling tests. (a) General. Compliance with § 25.1041 must be shown by tests, under critical ground, water, and flight operating...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1043 - Cooling tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling tests. 25.1043 Section 25.1043... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 25.1043 Cooling tests. (a) General. Compliance with § 25.1041 must be shown by tests, under critical ground, water, and flight operating...

  15. Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water. Final report May 75-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr

    1982-05-01

    The report summarizes a 5-year study of the beneficial uses of waste heat from condenser cooling water from steam-electric generating plants. The major effort addressed the recovery of plant nutrients in swine manure by aquatic farming of selected fish and Chinese waterchestnuts. Another effort included biogas production from swine manure in an anaerobic digester and the use of the digester waste to fertilize the aquatic farming system. Optimum recovery of plant nutrients resulted from operation of an integrated fish and waterchestnut system. Flowing water systems were 30-50% more productive than static systems. Annual fish yields of 5000-7000 lb/acre are projected for a properly stocked system over a 150-180 day growing period. Similarly, waterchestnut yields of nearly 17.8 tons/acre and dry hay yields of 6.7 tons/acre from sand-bed filters would be expected when fed wastewater from the fish system. The quality of the water leaving the sand beds would meet tertiary wastewater treatment standards during the growing season. An estimated 2000-head swine facility with a $400,000 investment would annually produce a 20% rate of return, save 360,000 bbl of oil through waste heat utilization, and produce biogas equivalent to 3000 bbl of oil.

  16. Cool Sportswear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    New athletic wear design based on the circulating liquid cooling system used in the astronaut's space suits, allows athletes to perform more strenuous activity without becoming overheated. Techni-Clothes gear incorporates packets containing a heat-absorbing gel that slips into an insulated pocket of the athletic garment and is positioned near parts of the body where heat transfer is most efficient. A gel packet is good for about one hour. Easily replaced from a supply of spares in an insulated container worn on the belt. The products, targeted primarily for runners and joggers and any other athlete whose performance may be affected by hot weather, include cooling headbands, wrist bands and running shorts with gel-pack pockets.

  17. Global cooling?

    PubMed

    Damon, P E; Kunen, S M

    1976-08-01

    The world's inhabitants, including Scientists, live primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. It is quite natural to be concerned about events that occur close to home and neglect faraway events. Hence, it is not surprising that so little attention has been given to the Southern Hemisphere. Evidence for global cooling has been based, in large part, on a severe cooling trend at high northern latitudes. This article points out that the Northern Hemisphere cooling trend appears to be out of phase with a warming trend at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. The data are scanty. We cannot be sure that these temperature fluctuations are be not the result of natural causes. How it seems most likely that human activity has already significantly perturbed the atmospheric weather system. The effect of particulate matter pollution should be most severe in the highly populated and industrialized Northern Hemisphere. Because of the rapid diffusion of CO(2) molecules within the atmosphere, both hemispheres will be subject to warming due to the atmospheric (greenhouse) effect as the CO(2) content of the atmosphere builds up from the combustion of fossil fuels. Because of the differential effects of the two major sources of atmospheric pollution, the CO(2) greenhouse effect warming trend should first become evident in the Southern Hemisphere. The socioeconomic and political consequences of climate change are profound. We need an early warning system such as would be provided by a more intensive international world weather watch, particularly at high northern and southern latitudes.

  18. Measurement of WW + WZ production cross section and study of the dijet mass spectrum in the ℓν + jets final state at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Cavaliere, Viviana

    2010-01-01

    We present the measurement of the WW and WZ production cross section in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV, in a final state consisting of an electron or muon, neutrino and jets. The data analyzed were collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider and correspond to 4.3 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. The analysis uses a fit to the dijet mass distribution to extract the diboson contribution. We observe 1582 ± 275(stat.) ± 107(syst.) diboson candidate events and measure a cross section of σWW/WZ = 18.1 ± 3.3(stat.) ± 2.5(syst.) pb, consistent with the Standard Model prediction of 15.9 ± 0.9 pb. The best fit to the dijet mass of the known components shows a good agreement with the data except for the [120, 160] GeV/c2 mass range, where an excess is observed. We perform detailed checks of our background model and study the significance of the excess, assuming an additional gaussian component with a width compatible with the expected dijet mass resolution. A standard Δχ2 test of the presence of the additional component, returns a p-value of 4.2 x 10-4 when standard sources of systematics are considered, corresponding to a significance of 3.3{sigma}.

  19. Extracting the photoproduction cross sections off the neutron, via the γn→π-p reaction, from deuteron data with final-state interaction effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, V. E.; Briscoe, W. J.; Gao, H.; Kudryavtsev, A. E.; Strakovsky, I. I.

    2011-09-01

    The incoherent pion photoproduction reaction γd→π-pp is considered theoretically in a wide energy region Eth≤Eγ≤2700 MeV. The model applied contains the impulse approximation as well as the NN and πN final-state-interaction (FSI) amplitudes. The aim of the paper is to study a reliable way for getting the information on elementary γn→π-p reaction cross sections beyond the impulse approximation for γd→π-pp. For the elementary γN→πN, NN→NN, and πN→πN amplitudes, the results of The George Washington University (GW) Data Analysis Center (DAC) are used. There are no additional theoretical constraints. The calculated cross sections dσ/dΩ(γd→π-pp) are compared with existing data. The procedure used to extract information on the differential cross section dσ/dΩ(γn→π-p) on the neutron from the deuteron data using the FSI correction factor R is discussed. The calculations for R versus π-p center-of-mass (CM) angle θ1 of the outgoing pion are performed at different photon-beam energies with kinematic cuts for a “quasifree” process γn→π-p. The results show a sizable FSI effect R≠1 from the S-wave part of pp-FSI at small angles close to θ1˜0: this region narrows as the photon energy increases. At larger angles, the effect is small (|R-1|≪1) and agrees with estimations of FSI in the Glauber approach.

  20. Evaluation of Alternate Materials for Coated Particle Fuels for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2006 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Karen Wright; Jian Gan; David Petti; Todd Allen; Jake Blanchard

    2006-09-01

    Candidate ceramic materials were studied to determine their suitability as Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor particle fuel coatings. The ceramics examined in this work were: TiC, TiN, ZrC, ZrN, AlN, and SiC. The studies focused on (i) chemical reactivity of the ceramics with fission products palladium and rhodium, (ii) the thermomechanical stresses that develop in the fuel coatings from a variety of causes during burnup, and (iii) the radiation resiliency of the materials. The chemical reactivity of TiC, TiN, ZrC, and ZrN with Pd and Rh were all found to be much lower than that of SiC. A number of important chemical behaviors were observed at the ceramic-metal interfaces, including the formation of specific intermetallic phases and a variation in reaction rates for the different ceramics investigated. Based on the data collected in this work, the nitride ceramics (TiN and ZrN) exhibit chemical behavior that is characterized by lower reaction rates with Pd and Rh than the carbides TiC and ZrC. The thermomechanical stresses in spherical fuel particle ceramic coatings were modeled using finite element analysis, and included contributions from differential thermal expansion, fission gas pressure, fuel kernel swelling, and thermal creep. In general the tangential stresses in the coatings during full reactor operation are tensile, with ZrC showing the lowest values among TiC, ZrC, and SiC (TiN and ZrN were excluded from the comprehensive calculations due to a lack of available materials data). The work has highlighted the fact that thermal creep plays a critical role in the development of the stress state of the coatings by relaxing many of the stresses at high temperatures. To perform ion irradiations of sample materials, an irradiation beamline and high-temperature sample irradiation stage was constructed at the University of Wisconsin’s 1.7MV Tandem Accelerator Facility. This facility is now capable of irradiating of materials to high dose while controlling sample temperature

  1. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume 5, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume contains the backup data for the portion of the load and service assessment in Section 2, Volume II of this report. This includes: locations of industrial and commercial establishments, locations of high rise buildings, data from the Newark (Essex County) Directory of Business, data from the Hudson County Industrial Directory, data from the N. J. Department of Energy Inventory of Public Buildings, data on commercial and industrial establishments and new developments in the Hackensack Meadowlands, data on urban redevelopment and Operation Breakthrough, and list of streets in the potential district heating areas of Newark/Harrison and Jersey City/Hoboken.

  2. Cooling using complimentary tapered plenums

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Shawn Anthony

    2006-08-01

    Where a fluid cooling medium cools a plurality of heat-producing devices arranged in a row along a generalized coordinate direction, with a space between each adjacent pair of devices, each space may have a partition that defines a boundary between a first plenum and a second plenum. The first plenum carries cooling medium across an entrance and thence into a first heat-producing device located on a first side of the partition facing the first plenum. The second plenum carries cooling medium away from a second heat-producing device located on a second side of the partition facing the second plenum and thence across an exit. The partition is disposed so that the first plenum becomes smaller in cross-sectional area as distance increases from the entrance, and the second plenum becomes larger in cross sectional area as distance decreases toward the exit.

  3. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  4. VORPAL simulations relevant to coherent electron cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bell,G.; Bruhwiler, D.; Sobol, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Litvinenko, V.; Derbenev, Y.

    2008-06-23

    Coherent electron cooling (CEC) [1] combines the best features of electron cooling and stochastic cooling, via free-electron laser technology [2], to offer the possibility of cooling high-energy hadron beams with order-of-magnitude shorter cooling times. Many technical difficulties must be resolved via full-scale 3D simulations, before the CEC concept can be validated experimentally. VORPAL is the ideal code for simulating the modulator and kicker regions, where the electron and hadron beams will co-propagate as in a conventional electron cooling section. Unlike previous VORPAL simulations [3] of electron cooling physics, where dynamical friction on the ions was the key metric, it is the details of the electron density wake driven by each ion in the modulator section that must be understood, followed by strong amplification in the FEL. We present some initial simulation results.

  5. Field testing of behavioral barriers for fish exclusion at cooling-water intake systems, Central Hudson Gas and Electric Company Roseton Generating Station: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matousek, J.A.; Wells, A.W.; McGroddy, P.M.

    1988-09-01

    A seasonal field testing program was conducted during 1986 and 1987 to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral barriers at Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporations's Roseton Generating Station located in the euryhaline section of the Hudson River. This station was selected as representative of power plants with shoreline riverine/estuarine intake systems. Three commercially available devices (air bubble curtain, pneumatic gun, and underwater strobe light) were tested alone and in combination to determine their effectiveness in reducing impingement. The primary testing method incorporated three or four 6-h impingement collections during each test date, each consisting of two randomly assigned 3-h samples: one was an experimental test with a behavioral device in operation, the other a control test with no device operating. The effectiveness of the devices at excluding fish was determined by comparing impingement data from experimental and control periods. Results of the program do not establish that the deployment of underwater strobe lights, pneumatic guns, an air bubble curtain, or various combinations of the three devices will effectively lower fish impingement at power plants similar in design and location to the Roseton plant. Deterrent effectiveness was found to be species-specific and related to time of day. 51 refs., 67 figs., 72 tabs.

  6. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  7. 46 CFR 72.20-50 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 72.20-50 Section 72.20-50 Shipping... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-50 Heating and cooling. (a) All manned spaces must be adequately heated and cooled in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space. (b) The heating and cooling...

  8. 46 CFR 72.20-50 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 72.20-50 Section 72.20-50 Shipping... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-50 Heating and cooling. (a) All manned spaces must be adequately heated and cooled in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space. (b) The heating and cooling...

  9. 46 CFR 72.20-50 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 72.20-50 Section 72.20-50 Shipping... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-50 Heating and cooling. (a) All manned spaces must be adequately heated and cooled in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space. (b) The heating and cooling...

  10. 46 CFR 72.20-50 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 72.20-50 Section 72.20-50 Shipping... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-50 Heating and cooling. (a) All manned spaces must be adequately heated and cooled in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space. (b) The heating and cooling...

  11. 46 CFR 72.20-50 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 72.20-50 Section 72.20-50 Shipping... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-50 Heating and cooling. (a) All manned spaces must be adequately heated and cooled in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space. (b) The heating and cooling...

  12. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section... cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at... maintain sufficient engine cooling during dynamometer operation....

  13. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section... Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to... fan(s) may be used to maintain sufficient engine cooling during engine dynamometer operation....

  14. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  15. Measurement of the top quark pair production cross-section in dimuon final states in proton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Konrath, Jens Peter

    2008-10-24

    production cross-section of top quark pairs decaying to two muons is presented. In addition, a Monte Carlo study of the top quark spin correlation measurement was carried out. This thesis is laid out as follows: chapter two gives a short overview over the Standard Model of particle physics and the theoretical aspects of unpolarized and polarized top quark production and decay, chapter three describes the accelerator complex and the D0 experiment whose data is used in this analysis. The Reconstruction of events recorded with the D0 detector is explained in chapter four and the data and Monte Carlo samples used are presented in chapter five. Finally, the cross-section measurement is described in chapter six and the Monte Carlo study of top quark spin correlations in chapter seven.

  16. Cooled spool piston compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hydraulically powered gas compressor receives low pressure gas and outputs a high pressure gas. The housing of the compressor defines a cylinder with a center chamber having a cross-sectional area less than the cross-sectional area of a left end chamber and a right end chamber, and a spool-type piston assembly is movable within the cylinder and includes a left end closure, a right end closure, and a center body that are in sealing engagement with the respective cylinder walls as the piston reciprocates. First and second annual compression chambers are provided between the piston enclosures and center housing portion of the compressor, thereby minimizing the spacing between the core gas and a cooled surface of the compressor. Restricted flow passageways are provided in the piston closure members and a path is provided in the central body of the piston assembly, such that hydraulic fluid flows through the piston assembly to cool the piston assembly during its operation. The compressor of the present invention may be easily adapted for a particular application, and is capable of generating high gas pressures while maintaining both the compressed gas and the compressor components within acceptable temperature limits.

  17. Beverage dispenser cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Stanfill, T.M.

    1988-03-15

    In a beverage dispensing system of the type having a supply container of the beverage located at a storage site, valve means at a dispensing site remote from the storage site for dispensing the beverage, pressure means for supplying the beverage under pressure from the supply container to the valve means through a beverage conduit, refrigeration means at the storage site for cooling a liquid into a chilled liquid, pump means at the storage site for circulating the chilled liquid from the storage site to the dispensing site through a transmit chilled line and from the dispensing sites back to the storage site through a return chilled line, the chilled lines running in parallel with the beverage conduit within an insulated jacket conduit extending between the storage and dispensing site, the improvement is described comprising in combination: an insulated concentric section located at the dispensing site, having an inner conduit concentrically located within an outer conduit; and manifold means for connecting the transmit and return chilled lines to opposite ends of one of the concentric conduits, and for connecting the beverage conduit and valve means to opposite ends of the other concentric conduit, to further cool the beverage by heat transfer from the chilled liquid in the concentric section.

  18. Emergency core cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Schenewerk, William E.; Glasgow, Lyle E.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

  19. Epicyclic Twin-Helix Ionization Cooling Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vasiliy Morozov, Yaroslav Derbenev, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson

    2011-04-01

    Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a highluminosity muon collider. For the implementation of PIC, we earlier developed an epicyclic twin-helix channel with correlated behavior of the horizontal and vertical betatron motions and dispersion. We now insert absorber plates with short energy-recovering units located next to them at the appropriate locations in the twin-helix channel. We first demonstrate conventional ionization cooling in such a system with the optics uncorrelated. We then adjust the correlated optics state and induce a parametric resonance to study ionization cooling under the resonant condition.

  20. 14 CFR 33.21 - Engine cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine cooling. 33.21 Section 33.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.21 Engine cooling. Engine design...

  1. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water...

  2. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water...

  3. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water...

  4. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water...

  5. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water...

  6. 46 CFR 182.420 - Engine cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., it is in compliance with the requirements of ABYC P-4. (e) A propulsion or auxiliary diesel engine... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engine cooling. 182.420 Section 182.420 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.420 Engine cooling. (a) Except as...

  7. 40 CFR 89.327 - Charge cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.327 Charge cooling. For engines with an air-to-air intercooler (or any other low temperature charge... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charge cooling. 89.327 Section...

  8. 40 CFR 89.327 - Charge cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.327 Charge cooling. For engines with an air-to-air intercooler (or any other low temperature charge... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Charge cooling. 89.327 Section...

  9. 46 CFR 182.420 - Engine cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., may comply with the requirements of ABYC P-4 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) instead... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine cooling. 182.420 Section 182.420 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.420 Engine cooling. (a) Except as...

  10. 46 CFR 182.420 - Engine cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., may comply with the requirements of ABYC P-4 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) instead... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine cooling. 182.420 Section 182.420 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.420 Engine cooling. (a) Except as...

  11. 14 CFR 33.21 - Engine cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine cooling. 33.21 Section 33.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.21 Engine cooling. Engine design...

  12. 14 CFR 33.21 - Engine cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine cooling. 33.21 Section 33.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.21 Engine cooling. Engine design...

  13. 14 CFR 33.21 - Engine cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine cooling. 33.21 Section 33.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.21 Engine cooling. Engine design...

  14. 14 CFR 33.21 - Engine cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine cooling. 33.21 Section 33.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.21 Engine cooling. Engine design...

  15. 46 CFR 182.420 - Engine cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-jacketed and cooled by water from a pump that operates whenever the engine is operating. (2) A suitable... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS... provided in paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section, all engines must be water cooled and...

  16. Large Block Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    . Sections 5 through 9 report the measurements made on the block during the preheating, heating, and cooling phases. These measurements include temperature, thermal conductivity and diffusivity, hydrological measurements (electrical resistivity, neutron logging, gas pressure, and relative humidity), geomechanics, selected chemical analyses, and microbial activity. These sections also include analyses and simulations of the block behavior. Finally, conclusions are presented in Section 10. Complete data sets were submitted during the time the test was conducted. The data tracking numbers (DTNs) of all of the data are presented in Table 1-1.

  17. 28 CFR 68.56 - Judicial review of a final agency order in cases arising under section 274A or 274C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. 68.56 Section 68.56 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS, UNFAIR...

  18. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Active cooling system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross section and structural arrangement on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles are investigated. An active cooling system which maintains the aircraft's entire surface area at temperatures below 394 K at Mach 6 is developed along with a hydrogen fuel tankage thermal protection system. Thermodynamic characteristics of the actively cooled thermal protection systems established are summarized. Design heat loads and coolant flowrate requirements are defined for each major structural section and for the total system. Cooling system weights are summarized at the major component level. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  19. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    DOEpatents

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  20. Measurement of the WZ and ZZ production cross sections using leptonic final states in 8.6 fb⁻¹ of pp̄ collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Aoki, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Atkins, S.; Atramentov, O.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; BackusMayes, J.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Calpas, B.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M. A.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chevalier-Théry, S.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Croc, A.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dorland, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-Guerra, G. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jamin, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kaadze, K.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kulikov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lellouch, J.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; Obrant, G.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Oteroy y Garzón, G. J.; Padilla, M.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Piegaia, R.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Polozov, P.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Renkel, P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Safronov, G.; Sajot, G.; Salcido, P.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Sanghi, B.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schliephake, T.; Schlobohm, S.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K. J.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Strom, D.; Stutte, L.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Takahashi, M.; Tanasijczuk, A.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tschann-Grimm, K.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verdier, P.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weber, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; White, A.; Wicke, D.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, W.-C.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.; Zhao, T.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.

    2012-06-12

    We study the processes pp̄→WZ→l±νl⁺l⁻ and pp̄→ZZ→l⁺l⁻νν¯, where l=e or μ. Using 8.6 fb⁻¹ of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, we measure the WZ production cross section to be 4.50+0.63–0.66 pb which is consistent with, but slightly larger than, the prediction of the standard model. The ZZ cross section is measured to be 1.64±0.46 pb, in agreement with a prediction of the standard model. Combination with an earlier analysis of the ZZ→l⁺l⁻l⁺l⁻ channel yields a ZZ cross section of 1.44+0.35–0.34 pb.

  1. Measurement of the WZ and ZZ production cross sections using leptonic final states in 8.6 fb⁻¹ of pp̄ collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Aoki, M.; et al

    2012-06-12

    We study the processes pp̄→WZ→l±νl⁺l⁻ and pp̄→ZZ→l⁺l⁻νν¯, where l=e or μ. Using 8.6 fb⁻¹ of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, we measure the WZ production cross section to be 4.50+0.63–0.66 pb which is consistent with, but slightly larger than, the prediction of the standard model. The ZZ cross section is measured to be 1.64±0.46 pb, in agreement with a prediction of the standard model. Combination with an earlier analysis of the ZZ→l⁺l⁻l⁺l⁻ channel yields a ZZ cross section of 1.44+0.35–0.34 pb.

  2. FINAL ANALYTICAL RESULTS FROM THE EXAMINATION OF CORROSION ON SECTIONS OF CORROSION PROBE REMOVED FROM TANK 241-AN-107 ON 08/10/2006

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

    2007-03-22

    Tank Farms Operations removed an electrochemical noise probe from Tank 241-AN-107. In the field, the probe was cut into four sections, wrapped, and placed in a 55-gallon drum, This drum was delivered to the 222-S Laboratory. The 222 S Laboratory unpackaged the sections of the AN-107 electrochemical noise probe and examined the material for evidence of corrosion. Each of the four sections contained three C-ring and three bullet specimens. The specimens were examined for pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. No evidence of stress corrosion cracking was found in the stressed C-ring specimens. Minor pitting was evident on some surfaces. Crevice corrosion was the dominant type of corrosion observed.

  3. A measurement of the $WZ$ and $ZZ$ production cross sections using leptonic final states in 8.6 fb$^{-1}$ of $p\\bar{p}$ collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; Alverson, George O.; Aoki, Masato; Askew, Andrew Warren; /Florida State U. /Stockholm U.

    2012-01-01

    We study the processes p{bar p} {yields} WZ {yields} {ell}{nu}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and p{bar p} {yields} ZZ {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}{nu}{bar {nu}}, where {ell} = e or {mu}. Using 8.6 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, we measure the WZ production cross section to be 4.50{sub -0.66}{sup +0.63} pb which is consistent with, but slightly above a prediction of the standard model. The ZZ cross section is measured to be 1.64 {+-} 0.46 pb, in agreement with a prediction of the standard model. Combination with an earlier analysis of the ZZ {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} channel yields a ZZ cross section of 1.44{sub -0.34}{sup +0.35} pb.

  4. Field measurements in the Fermilab electron cooling solenoid prototype

    SciTech Connect

    A. C. Crawford et al.

    2003-10-02

    To increase the Tevatron luminosity, Fermilab is developing a high-energy electron cooling system [1] to cool 8.9-GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring. The schematic layout of the Recycler Electron Cooling (REC) system is shown in Figure 1. Cooling of antiprotons requires a round electron beam with a small angular spread propagating through a cooling section with a kinetic energy of 4.3 MeV. To confine the electron beam tightly and to keep its transverse angles below 10{sup -4} rad, the cooling section will be immersed into a solenoidal field of 50-150G. As part of the R&D effort, a cooling section prototype consisting of 9 modules (90% of the total length of a future section) was assembled and measured. This paper describes the technique of measuring and adjusting the magnetic field quality in the cooling section and presents preliminary results of solenoid prototype field measurements. The design of the cooling section solenoid is discussed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes details of a dedicated measurement system, capable of measuring small transverse field components, while the system's measurement errors are analyzed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains measured field distributions of individual elements of the cooling section as well as an evaluation of the magnetic shielding efficiency. An algorithm of field adjustments for providing lowest possible electron trajectory perturbations is proposed in Chapter 6; also, this chapter shows the results of our first attempts of implementing the algorithm.

  5. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

  6. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall...

  7. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall...

  8. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall...

  9. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall...

  10. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall...

  11. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  12. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  13. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  14. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  15. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block,...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block,...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block,...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block,...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block,...

  1. 46 CFR 92.20-50 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 92.20-50 Section 92.20-50 Shipping... AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-50 Heating and cooling. (a) All manned... heating and cooling system for accommodations must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 21 °C (70...

  2. 46 CFR 92.20-50 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 92.20-50 Section 92.20-50 Shipping... AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-50 Heating and cooling. (a) All manned... heating and cooling system for accommodations must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 21 °C (70...

  3. 46 CFR 92.20-50 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 92.20-50 Section 92.20-50 Shipping... AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-50 Heating and cooling. (a) All manned... heating and cooling system for accommodations must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 21 °C (70...

  4. 46 CFR 92.20-50 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 92.20-50 Section 92.20-50 Shipping... AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-50 Heating and cooling. (a) All manned... heating and cooling system for accommodations must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 21 °C (70...

  5. 46 CFR 92.20-50 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 92.20-50 Section 92.20-50 Shipping... AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-50 Heating and cooling. (a) All manned... heating and cooling system for accommodations must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 21 °C (70...

  6. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  7. 40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  8. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust cooling. 119.425 Section 119.425 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.425 Engine exhaust cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible...

  9. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine...

  10. 40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  11. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  12. 40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  13. 40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  14. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  15. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine...

  16. Development of advanced combustion technology for medium- and high-speed natural gas engines. Final report, January 1985-February 1989. Section F. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.E.

    1989-02-01

    The test work was carried out on the Ricardo Atlas single cylinder research engine. This had been specially adapted to run as a spark ignited pre-chamber natural gas fuelled engine. A series of tests across the operational range of air:fuel ratios and ignition timings for various engine operating conditions were undertaken. The parameters tested were: 3 compression ratios, 2 air manifold temperatures, 3 load conditions, Swirl introduced into main chamber charge. In-cylinder pressure data was obtained from both the pre- and main-chambers as well as normal engine pressure and temperature measurements. Analysis of this information was undertaken using in-house computer programs. The analysis identified the effects of the parametric changes on such conditions as rates of burn, cylinder pressures, exhaust emissions, fuel consumption, heat balance etc. The effect of the changing engine operation on BSGC and BSNOx trade offs was studied and the major causes of limitations to this trade off were identified as incomplete combustion and reduced combustion efficiency when operating with lean air:fuel ratios. The effects on overall engine performance, particularly with a view to co-generation applications were investigated. The changes in high grade and low grade heat output from the engine exhaust and cooling fluids were studied, and the results are presented.

  17. Development of advanced combustion technology for medium- and high-speed natural gas engines. Final report, January 1985-February 1989. Section I. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.E.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of this phase of the work was to quantify the effects of engine and operating variables on the performance of a commercial multi-cylinder pre-chamber natural gas engine. Of particular interest were the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). Data for thirteen series of tests are presented and the relationship between the variables discussed. The major variables and their effects are as follows: Increased Relative Air-Fuel Ratio--Increased BSFC and decreased NOx; Advanced Timing--Decreased BSFC and increased NOx; Changed Pre-chamber Design--Very little effect on either BSFC or NOx when the delay within the pre-chamber is considered; Increased Intercooler Water Temperature--Decreased BSFC and increased NOx; Dry Exhaust Manifold--Very small effect on either BSFC or NOx Increased exhaust gas temperature; Increased Compression Ratio--Decreased BSFC and increased NOx; and Ebullient Cooling--Decreased BSFC and slightly increased NOx. In every case, as noted above, any change which increased the BSFC also decreased the NOx, and vice versa; optimum performance is therefore a balance between all of these variables.

  18. 77 FR 12086 - Final Staff Guidance, Revision 4 to Standard Review Plan; Section 8.1 on Electric Power-Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants,'' Standard Review Plan (SRP) Section 8.1 on... New Reactors, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 20555- 0001; telephone at 301-415... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  19. NARSTO Texas Final Report

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-06

    Final Report for the Texas PM2.5 Sampling and Analysis Study (March 11, 1997, through March 12, 1998) ... files: Section 1: Introduction and Section 2: Sampling Network (PDF) Section 3: Data Base Structure (PDF) ...

  20. Hypersonic aerospace vehicle leading edge cooling using heat pipe, transpiration and film cooling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modlin, James Michael

    An investigation was conducted to study the feasibility of cooling hypersonic vehicle leading edge structures exposed to severe aerodynamic surface heat fluxes using a combination of liquid metal heat pipes and surface mass transfer cooling techniques. A generalized, transient, finite difference based hypersonic leading edge cooling model was developed that incorporated these effects and was demonstrated on an assumed aerospace plane-type wing leading edge section and a SCRAMJET engine inlet leading edge section. The hypersonic leading edge cooling model was developed using an existing, experimentally verified heat pipe model. Two applications of the hypersonic leading edge cooling model were examined. An assumed aerospace plane-type wing leading edge section exposed to a severe laminar, hypersonic aerodynamic surface heat flux was studied. A second application of the hypersonic leading edge cooling model was conducted on an assumed one-quarter inch nose diameter SCRAMJET engine inlet leading edge section exposed to both a transient laminar, hypersonic aerodynamic surface heat flux and a type 4 shock interference surface heat flux. The investigation led to the conclusion that cooling leading edge structures exposed to severe hypersonic flight environments using a combination of liquid metal heat pipe, surface transpiration, and film cooling methods appeared feasible.

  1. Liquid-Cooled Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-cooled bra, offshoot of Apollo moon suit technology, aids the cancer-detection technique known as infrared thermography. Water flowing through tubes in the bra cools the skin surface to improve resolution of thermograph image.

  2. Liquid cooled garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Liquid cooled garments employed in several applications in which severe heat is encountered are discussed. In particular, the use of the garments to replace air line cooling units in a variety of industrial processing situations is discussed.

  3. Measurement of the top quark pair production cross section in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV in dilepton final states containing a tau

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2012-06-01

    The top quark pair production cross section is measured in dilepton events with one electron or muon, and one hadronically decaying tau lepton from the decay t anti-t to (l nu(l)) (tau nu(tau)) b anti-b, where l can be either an electron or a muon. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.0 inverse femtobarns for the electron channel and 2.2 inverse femtobarns for the muon channel, collected by the CMS detector at the LHC. This is the first measurement of the t anti-t cross section explicitly including tau leptons in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV. The measured value sigma(t anti-t) = 143 +/- 14 (stat.) +/- 22 (syst.) +/- 3 (lumi.) pb is consistent with the standard model predictions.

  4. Measurement of the tt¯ production cross section in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV in dilepton final states containing a τ

    DOE PAGES

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; et al

    2012-06-19

    The top quark pair production cross section is measured in dilepton events with one electron or muon, and one hadronically decaying τ lepton from the decay tt¯→(lνl)(τhντ)bb¯, (l=e,μ). The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.0 fb⁻¹ for the electron channel and 2.2 fb⁻¹ for the muon channel, collected by the CMS detector at the LHC. This is the first measurement of the tt¯ cross section explicitly including τ leptons in proton-proton collisions at √s=7 TeV. The measured value σtt¯=143±14(stat)±22(syst)±3(lumi) pb is consistent with the standard model predictions.

  5. Review of emergency systems: Report to congress, section 305(b) title III Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The report presents the findings and recommendations of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) review of emergency systems for monitoring, detecting, and preventing accidental releases of extremely hazardous substances to the environmental, and of systems for alerting the public to such releases. EPA is submitting the report to Congress in fulfillment of Section 305(b) of Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA).

  6. Gulf of Mexico Sales 147 and 150: Central and Western planning areas. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 1: Sections 1 through 4.C

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covers the proposed 1994 Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales [Central Gulf of Mexico Sale 147 (March 1994) and Western Gulf of Mexico Sale 150 (August 1994)]. This document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, the alternatives, the descriptions of the affected environment, and the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives. Proposed mitigating measures and their effects are analyzed, in addition to potential cumulative impacts resulting from proposed activities.

  7. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    The technology of high temperature cooled radial turbines is reviewed. Aerodynamic performance considerations are described. Heat transfer and structural analysis are addressed, and in doing so the following topics are covered: cooling considerations, hot side convection, coolant side convection, and rotor mechanical analysis. Cooled rotor concepts and fabrication are described, and the following are covered in this context: internally cooled rotor, hot isostatic pressure bonded rotor, laminated rotor, split blade rotor, and the NASA radial turbine program.

  8. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of high temperature cooled radial turbines is reviewed. Aerodynamic performance considerations are described. Heat transfer and structural analysis are addressed, and in doing so the following topics are covered: cooling considerations, hot side convection, coolant side convection, and rotor mechanical analysis. Cooled rotor concepts and fabrication are described, and the following are covered in this context: internally cooled rotor, hot isostatic pressure bonded rotor, laminated rotor, split blade rotor, and the NASA radial turbine program.

  9. Data center cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J; Dang, Hien P; Parida, Pritish R; Schultz, Mark D; Sharma, Arun

    2015-03-17

    A data center cooling system may include heat transfer equipment to cool a liquid coolant without vapor compression refrigeration, and the liquid coolant is used on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack housed in the data center. The system may also include a controller-apparatus to regulate the liquid coolant flow to the liquid cooled information technology equipment rack through a range of liquid coolant flow values based upon information technology equipment temperature thresholds.

  10. Towards demonstration of electron cooling with bunched electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.

    2012-01-11

    All electron cooling systems which were in operation so far employed electron beam generated with an electrostatic electron gun in DC operating mode, immersed in a longitudinal magnetic field. At low energies magnetic field is also being used to transport electron beam through the cooling section from the gun to the collector. At higher energies (few MeV), it was shown that one can have simpler electron beam transport without continuous magnetic field. Because of a rather weak magnetic field on the cathode and in the cooling section the latter approach was referred to as 'non-magnetized cooling', since there was no suppression of the transverse angular spread of the electron beam with the magnetic field in the cooling section. Such a cooler successfully operated at FNAL (2005-11) at electron beam energy of 4.3 MeV. Providing cooling at even higher energies would be easier with RF acceleration of electron beam, and thus using bunched electron beam for cooling. Significant efforts were devoted to explore various aspects of such bunched electron beam cooling as part of R and D of high-energy electron cooling for RHIC. However, experimental studies of such cooling are still lacking. Establishing this technique experimentally would be extremely useful for future high-energy applications. Presently there is an ongoing effort to build Proof-of-Principle (PoP) experiment of Coherent Electron Cooling (CEC) at RHIC, which promises to be superior to conventional electron cooling for high energies. Since the CEC experiment is based on bunched electron beam and it has sections where electron beam co-propagates with the ion beam at the same velocity, it also provides a unique opportunity to explore experimentally conventional electron cooling but for the first time with a bunched electron beam. As a result, it allows us to explore techniques needed for the high-energy electron cooling such as 'painting' with a short electron beam and control of ion beam distribution under

  11. Cool flame quench distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R.; Hirsch, E.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a brief experimental investigation are presented which confirm the expectation that cool flame quenching distances should be larger than hot flame quenching distances. It is also discovered that whereas quenching distances for hot flames reach their minimum values near stoichiometric conditions, cool flame quenching distances are least under rich conditions. Rich conditions are well known to favor cool flame formation.

  12. Cooling of stored beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, F.E.

    1986-10-15

    Beam cooling methods developed for the accumulation of antiprotons are being employed to assist in the performance of experiments in Nuclear and Particle Physics with ion beams stored in storage rings. The physics of beam cooling, and the ranges of utility of stochastic and electron cooling are discussed in this paper.

  13. Stochastic cooling in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

    2009-05-04

    After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

  14. Final Report - Novel investigation of iron cross sections via spherical shell transmission measurements and particle transport calculations for material embrittlement studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Steven M. Grimes; Thomas N. Massey; Allan D. Carlson; James M. Adams; Alireza Haghighat; Michael T. Wenner; Shane R. Gardner

    2003-04-25

    OAK B204 We have been pursuing a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to study neutron scattering interactions in iron. The principal objective of this work is to investigate the well-known deficiency that exists for reactor pressure vessel neutron fluence determinations. Specifically, we are using the spherical-shell transmission method, employing iron shells with different thicknesses, and neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of the scattered neutrons, in an effort to precisely determine specific energy regions over which deficiencies in the non-elastic scattering cross section for neutron scattering in iron appear to exist.

  15. Cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader coupled to electronic component

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2016-04-05

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  16. Cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader coupled to electronic component

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2016-08-09

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  17. Cooling water distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  18. Heating and cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Imig, L.A.; Gardner, M.R.

    1982-08-01

    A heating and cooling apparatus capable of cyclic heating and cooling of a test specimen undergoing fatigue testing is discussed. Cryogenic fluid is passed through a block clamped to the speciment to cool the block and the specimen. Heating cartridges penetrate the block to heat the block and the specimen to very hot temperaures. Control apparatus is provided to alternatively activate the cooling and heating modes to effect cyclic heating and cooling between very hot and very cold temperatures. The block is constructed of minimal mass to facilitate the rapid temperature changes. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

  19. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

  20. Postexercise Cooling Rates in 2 Cooling Jackets

    PubMed Central

    Brade, Carly; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen; Polglaze, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Cooling jackets are a common method for removing stored heat accumulated during exercise. To date, the efficiency and practicality of different types of cooling jackets have received minimal investigation. Objective: To examine whether a cooling jacket containing a phase-change material (PC17) results in more rapid postexercise cooling than a gel cooling jacket and a no-jacket (control) condition. Design: Randomized, counterbalanced design with 3 experimental conditions. Setting: Participants exercised at 75% V̇o2max workload in a hot climate chamber (temperature  =  35.0 ± 1.4°C, relative humidity  =  52 ± 4%) for 30 minutes, followed by postexercise cooling for 30 minutes in cool laboratory conditions (ambient temperature  =  24.9 ± 1.8°C, relative humidity  =  39% ± 10%). Patients or Other Participants: Twelve physically active men (age  =  21.3 ± 1.1 years, height  =  182.7 ± 7.1 cm, body mass  =  76.2 ± 9.5 kg, sum of 6 skinfolds  =  50.5 ± 6.9 mm, body surface area  =  1.98 ± 0.14 m2, V̇o2max  =  49.0 ± 7.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated. Intervention(s): Three experimental conditions, consisting of a PC17 jacket, a gel jacket, and no jacket. Main Outcome Measure(s): Core temperature (TC), mean skin temperature (TSk), and TC cooling rate (°C/min). Results: Mean peak TC postexercise was 38.49 ± 0.42°C, 38.57 ± 0.41°C, and 38.55 ± 0.40°C for the PC17 jacket, gel jacket, and control conditions, respectively. No differences were observed in peak TC cooling rates among the PC17 jacket (0.038 ± 0.007°C/min), gel jacket (0.040 ± 0.009°C/min), and control (0.034 ± 0.010°C/min, P > .05) conditions. Between trials, no differences were calculated for mean TSk cooling. Conclusions: Similar cooling rates for all 3 conditions indicate that there is no benefit associated with wearing the PC17 or gel jacket. PMID:20210620

  1. Passive cooling system for a vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Terry Joseph; Thoensen, Thomas

    2005-11-15

    A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

  2. Passive Cooling System for a Vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, T. J.; Thoensen, T.

    2005-11-15

    A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

  3. Cooling circuit for and method of cooling a gas turbine bucket

    DOEpatents

    Jacala, Ariel C. P.

    2002-01-01

    A closed internal cooling circuit for a gas turbine bucket includes axial supply and return passages in the dovetail of the bucket. A first radial outward supply passage provides cooling medium to and along a passageway adjacent the leading edge and then through serpentine arranged passageways within the airfoil to a chamber adjacent the airfoil tip. A second radial passage crosses over the radial return passage for supplying cooling medium to and along a pair of passageways along the trailing edge of the airfoil section. The last passageway of the serpentine passageways and the pair of passageways communicate one with the other in the chamber for returning spent cooling medium radially inwardly along divided return passageways to the return passage. In this manner, both the leading and trailing edges are cooled using the highest pressure, lowest temperature cooling medium.

  4. Fighting Fire with Fire: Superlattice Cooling of Silicon Hotspots to Reduce Global Cooling Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, S; Tiwari, M; Sherwood, T; Theogarajan, L; Chong, F T

    2010-10-05

    hot-spots can be cooled selectively and allow global coolers to operate at much more efficient temperatures. Recent advances in processor cooling technologies have demonstrated that thermoelectric coolers (TEC), which use a Peltier effect to form heat pumps, can be used to reduce the temperature of hot spots. By applying a thermoelectric cooler between the heat spreader and the processor die and applying current selectively at the hot spots, heat from the hot-spots can be spread much more efficiently. The ability to implement such thermoelectric coolers on a real silicon device has been demonstrated recently, albeit for small prototype chips. The key question then, that needs to be answered before such thermoelectric coolers can be integrated in commodity server processors, is 'What is the potential for superlattice microrefrigeration to reduce global cooling costs in data centers?'. In order to answer this question, we present a comprehensive analysis of the impact of thermoelectric coolers on global cooling costs. Our thermal analysis covers all aspects of cooling a server in a data center, and integrates on-chip dynamic and leakage power sources with a detailed heat diffusion model of a processor (that models the silicon to the thermoelectric cooler to the heat spreader and the heat sink) and finally the computer room air conditioner (CRAC) efficiency, as shown in Figure 1. In Section II, we present the components of the system model.

  5. VORPAL Simulations Relevant to Coherent Electron Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, G.I.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Sobol, A.V.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Litvinenko, Vladimir; Derbenev, Yaroslav

    2008-07-01

    Coherent electron cooling (CEC)* combines the best features of electron cooling and stochastic cooling, via free-electron laser technology**, to offer the possibility of cooling high-energy hadron beams with order-of-magnitude shorter cooling times. Many technical difficulties must be resolved via full-scale 3D simulations, before the CEC concept can be validated experimentally. VORPAL is the ideal code for simulating the â modulatorâ and â kickerâ regions, where the electron and hadron beams will co-propagate as in a conventional electron cooling section. Unlike previous VORPAL simulations*** of electron cooling physics, where dynamical friction on the ions was the key metric, it is the details of the electron density wake driven by each ion in the modulator section that must be understood, followed by strong amplification in the FEL. We present some initial simulation results. In particular, we compare the semi-analytic binary collision model with electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC).

  6. The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, S. A.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Robertsa, T. J.; Yoneharab, K.

    2010-03-01

    The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being set up at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. We discuss the placement of detection planes to optimize the muon track resolution.

  7. HIRFL-CSR electron cooling devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. D.; Zhao, H. W.; Xia, J. W.; Zhan, W. L.; Wei, B. W.; Parkhomchuk, V. V.

    2001-12-01

    Electron cooling devices for HIRFL-CSR were under construction through collaboration between BINP and IMP [1]. The main parameters, design points and progress of the cooler devices will be presented. The electron motions in the gun region, adiabatic expansion region, toroid region and collector region were simulated with the help of numerical calculation. Cooling times of the typical heavy ions with injection energy were calculated with aid of the code. The prototypes of solenoid coils at the cooling section were fabricated and measured, the results show that the transverse components of the magnetic field for single coil is less than 2×10-4.

  8. Environmental Impact Research Program and Defense Natural Resources Program: Section 7. 5. 7, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management manual. Final report. [ELAEAGNUS UMBELLATA

    SciTech Connect

    Dittberner, P.L.; Dietz, D.R.; Wasser, C.H.; Martin, C.O.; Mitchell, W.A.

    1992-02-01

    A plant materials report on autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) is provided as Section 7.5.7 of the US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources management Manual. The report was prepared as a guide to assist project/installation natural resources personnel with the selection, establishment, and management of appropriate plant materials for wildlife and habitat development programs. Major topics covered are description, distribution, habitat requirements, wildlife and land management value, establishment, maintenance, and cautions and limitations. Autumn olive is a hardy shrub or small tree introduced into the United States from Asia. It is widely used in the East in habitat improvement projects designed to attract wildlife, provide barriers, beautify existing landscapes, and reclaim disturbed sites. Autumn olive is tolerant of a wide range of soils and climatic conditions. Plants grow best on well-drained soils that are deep, sandy, loamy, or moderately fine-textured. Establishment of autumn olive is often recommended for borders, hedgerows, windbreaks, and disturbed sites. Planting stock of autumn olive is readily available, and some commercial nurseries produce propagules in quantity. Four cultivars (Cardinal, Ellagood, Elsberry, and Redwing) have been developed and are adapted to geographically specific regions. This report provides information on management objectives, site selection and preparation, propagule selection, planting methods, and maintenance requirements for autumn olive throughout its area of potential use. Management cautions and limitations are discussed, and guidelines are provided on the appropriate use of autumn olive in wildlife and habitat management programs.

  9. Epidemiology of HPV infection and current status of cervical cancer prevention in Greece: final results of the LYSISTRATA cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Agorastos, Theodoros; Chatzistamatiou, Kimon; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Siamanta, Vagia; Katsamagkas, Taxiarchis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C; Lampropoulos, Alexandros F

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the overall prevalence of the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and distribution of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types in Greece and evaluate the participation of women in primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study carried out between October 2005 and January 2011 in Greece; 5379 women filled out the study questionnaire anonymously. 5107 women underwent cervical HPV-DNA testing, either by Hybrid Capture 2, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR, or by the Abbott Real-Time High-Risk HPV test. Overall, 5.8% (295/5107) of women were positive for hrHPV infection. The most common hrHPV type was HPV-16 (24.8% among infected women; 1.4% overall), followed by HPV types 31, 35, 53, 18, 51, 56, 58, 52, 39, 66, 45, 33, 59, and 68. In respect to primary prevention of cervical cancer, acceptance of anti-HPV vaccination appeared to decrease over time (from 85-89.9% annually during 2005-2008 to 64.4-60.5% during 2009-2010, P<0.001). In respect to secondary prevention, only 30.3% of women had regular (annually for more than 5 years) Pap smears; regular gynecologic examinations, Papanicolaou testing, and knowledge of HPV were all associated with various demographic parameters (age, education, place of residence, occupation, and income). The prevalence of hrHPV infection in Greece is similar to that in other European countries; the most common type is HPV-16. The initially relatively high acceptance of HPV vaccination decreased after licensing of the vaccine. Demographic parameters appear to influence participation in cervical cancer screening.

  10. A measurement of the top-antitop production cross section in the dimuon final state with the D0 detector for proton-antiproton collisions as √s = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Susan Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    A measurement of the top pair production cross section in the dimuon final state for proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV is presented. Approximately 420 pb-1 of data collected with the Run II D0 detector are used for this measurement. Two data events are observed with a total expected signal plus background yield of 3.6 events. Assuming a top mass of 175 GeV, the measured cross section is: σt$\\bar{t}$= 3.13$+4.17\\atop{-2.60}$(stat)$+0.92\\atop{-0.86}$(sys)±0.19(lumi)pb, which is consistent with a NNLO prediction of 6.77 ± 0.42 pb.

  11. Measurement of the t anti-t production cross section in p anti-p collistions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV in dilepton final states

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Arnoud, Y.; Askew, A.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U. /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay

    2005-05-01

    The authors present a measurement of the top quark pair (t{bar t}) production cross section in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using events with two charged leptons in the final state. This analysis utilizes an integrated luminosity of 224-243 pb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. They observe 13 events in the e{sup +}e{sup -}, e{mu} and {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} channels with an expected background of 3.2 {+-} 0.7 events. For a top quark mass of 175 GeV, we measure a t{bar t} production cross section of {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} = 8.6{sub -2.7}{sup +3.2}(stat) {+-} 1.1(syst) {+-} 0.6(lumi) pb, consistent with the standard model prediction.

  12. Solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartera, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    To emphasize energy conservation and low cost energy, the systems of solar heating and cooling are analyzed and compared with fossil fuel systems. The application of solar heating and cooling systems for industrial and domestic use are discussed. Topics of discussion include: solar collectors; space heating; pools and spas; domestic hot water; industrial heat less than 200 F; space cooling; industrial steam; and initial systems cost. A question and answer period is generated which closes out the discussion.

  13. In-vessel Retention Strategy for High Power Reactors - K-INERI Final Report (includes SBLB Test Results for Task 3 on External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) Boiling Data and CHF Enhancement Correlations)

    SciTech Connect

    F. B. Cheung; J. Yang; M. B. Dizon; J. Rempe

    2005-01-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe PWR (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing LWRs. However, it is not clear that currently proposed external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) without additional enhancements could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). Hence, a collaborative, three-year, U.S. - Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project was completed in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) investigated the performance of ERVC and an in-vessel core catcher (IVCC) to determine if IVR is feasible for reactors up to 1500 MWe.

  14. Measurement of the production cross-section of pair of top quarks in a final state with di-electrons in the data collected by D0 experiment in Run-IIa

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Dit Latour, Bertrand

    2008-09-29

    The top quark has been discovered in 1995 by CDF and D0 collaborations in proton-antiproton collisions at the Tevatron. The amount of data recorded by both experiments makes it possible to accurately measure the properties of this very massive quark. This thesis is devoted to the measurement of the top pair production cross-section via the strong interaction, in a final state composed of two electrons, two particle jets and missing transverse energy. It is based on a 1 fb-1 data set collected by the D0 experiment between 2002 and 2006. The reconstruction and identification of electrons and jets is of major importance in this analysis, and have been studied in events where a Z boson is produced together with one or more jets. The Z+jets process is indeed the dominant physics background to top pair production in the dielectron final state. The primary goal of this cross-section measurement is to verify Standard Model predictions. In this document, this result is also interpreted to indirectly extract the top quark mass. Moreover, the cross-section measurement is sensitive to new physics such as the existence of a charged Higgs boson. The selection established for the cross-section analysis has been used to search for a H+ boson lighter than the top quark, where the latter can decay into a W+ or H+ boson and a b quark. The model that has been studied makes the assumption that the H+ boson can only decay into a tau lepton and a neutrino.

  15. The cooling of particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling.

  16. Semioptimal practicable algorithmic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2011-04-01

    Algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon’s entropy bound. Algorithmic cooling of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semioptimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein a few cycles (typically two to six) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. These algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

  17. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Stewart, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  18. High energy electron cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  19. Body cooling after death.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, L A; Tikuisis, P; Livingstone, S; Limmer, R

    1980-09-01

    In the analyses of cases of death in cold air environments, it is often of interest to determine the time required for the body of the individual to cool to ambient temperature. Usually such determinations have been based on Newton's law of cooling. This paper describes a case history in which this technique was experimentally tested and consequently abandoned in favour of a more complex biophysical model which more accurately described the thermo-physical events inherent in body cooling. This model is recommended for determination of the times required for various body parts to cool to ambient environmental temperatures.

  20. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  1. Measurement of the WW and WZ production cross section using final states with a charged lepton and heavy-flavor jets in the full CDF Run II data set

    DOE PAGES

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; et al

    2016-08-23

    We present a measurement of the total WW and WZ production cross sections inmore » $$p\\bar{p}$$ collision at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 1.96 TeV, in a final state consistent with leptonic W boson decay and jets originating from heavy-flavor quarks from either a W or a Z boson decay. This analysis uses the full data set collected with the CDF II detector during Run II of the Tevatron collider, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.4 fb-1. An analysis of the dijet mass spectrum provides 3.7σ evidence of the summed production processes of either WW or WZ bosons with a measured total cross section of σWW+WZ = 13.7±3.9 pb. Independent measurements of the WW and WZ production cross sections are allowed by the different heavy-flavor decay patterns of the W and Z bosons and by the analysis of secondary-decay vertices reconstructed within heavy-flavor jets. The productions of WW and of WZ dibosons are independently seen with significances of 2.9σ and 2.1σ, respectively, with total cross sections of σWW = 9.4±4.2 pb and σWZ = 3.7$$+2.5\\atop{-2.2}$$ pb. Lastly, the measurements are consistent with standard-model predictions.« less

  2. Measurement of the W W and W Z production cross section using final states with a charged lepton and heavy-flavor jets in the full CDF Run II data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; De Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d'Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez, M.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Sorin, V.; Song, H.; Stancari, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    We present a measurement of the total W W and W Z production cross sections in p p ¯ collision at √{s }=1.96 TeV , in a final state consistent with leptonic W boson decay and jets originating from heavy-flavor quarks from either a W or a Z boson decay. This analysis uses the full data set collected with the CDF II detector during Run II of the Tevatron collider, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.4 fb-1 . An analysis of the dijet mass spectrum provides 3.7 σ evidence of the summed production processes of either W W or W Z bosons with a measured total cross section of σW W +W Z=13.7 ±3.9 pb . Independent measurements of the W W and W Z production cross sections are allowed by the different heavy-flavor decay patterns of the W and Z bosons and by the analysis of secondary-decay vertices reconstructed within heavy-flavor jets. The productions of W W and of W Z dibosons are independently seen with significances of 2.9 σ and 2.1 σ , respectively, with total cross sections of σW W=9.4 ±4.2 pb and σW Z=3. 7-2.2+2.5 pb . The measurements are consistent with standard-model predictions.

  3. Section 506 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003--limitation on charges for services furnished by Medicare participating inpatient hospitals to individuals eligible for care purchased by Indian health programs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-06-01

    The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) hereby issues this final rule establishing regulations required by section 506 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA), (Pub. L. 108-173). Section 506 of the MMA amended section 1866 (a)(1) of the Social Security Act to add subparagraph (U) which requires hospitals that furnish inpatient hospital services payable under Medicare to participate in the contract health services program (CHS) of the Indian Health Service (IHS) operated by the IHS, Tribes, and Tribal organizations, and to participate in programs operated by urban Indian organizations that are funded by IHS (collectively referred to as I/T/Us) for any medical care purchased by those programs. Section 506 also requires such participation to be in accordance with the admission practices, payment methodology, and payment rates set forth in regulations established by the Secretary, including acceptance of no more than such payment rates as payment in full. PMID:17577967

  4. Epicyclic helical channels for parametric resonance ionization cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Johson, Rolland Paul; Derbenev, Yaroslav

    2015-08-23

    Proposed next-generation muon colliders will require major technical advances to achieve rapid muon beam cooling requirements. Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. In PIC, a half-integer parametric resonance causes strong focusing of a muon beam at appropriately placed energy absorbers while ionization cooling limits the beam’s angular spread. Combining muon ionization cooling with parametric resonant dynamics in this way should then allow much smaller final transverse muon beam sizes than conventional ionization cooling alone. One of the PIC challenges is compensation of beam aberrations over a sufficiently wide parameter range while maintaining the dynamical stability with correlated behavior of the horizontal and vertical betatron motion and dispersion. We explore use of a coupling resonance to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and to shift the dynamics away from non-linear resonances. PIC simulations are presented.

  5. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and

  6. Miniature, Cooled Pressure-Measuring Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Eves, John W.; White, David R.

    1994-01-01

    Probe designed to reduce settling time dramatically. Pressure-sensing transducer mounted in probe and connected to tip by short tube having cross-sectional area substantially smaller than conventional connecting tubes. Probe includes stainless-steel cylindrical exterior housing holding closed pressure chamber in which piezoelectric pressure transducer mounted. Open connecting tube passes portion of high-velocity, high-temperature fluid stream into closed pressure chamber. Any change of pressure in sampled stream propagates into closed pressure chamber with settling time inversely proportional to cross-sectional area of connecting tube. Cooling chamber formed around pressure chamber connected to source of water or other cooling fluid via inlet and outlet tubes.

  7. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Fanning, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  8. Atom cooling by nonadiabatic expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xi; Muga, J. G.; Campo, A. del; Ruschhaupt, A.

    2009-12-15

    Motivated by the recent discovery that a reflecting wall moving with a square-root-in-time trajectory behaves as a universal stopper of classical particles regardless of their initial velocities, we compare linear-in-time and square-root-in-time expansions of a box to achieve efficient atom cooling. For the quantum single-atom wave functions studied the square-root-in-time expansion presents important advantages: asymptotically it leads to zero average energy whereas any linear-in-time (constant box-wall velocity) expansion leaves a nonzero residual energy, except in the limit of an infinitely slow expansion. For finite final times and box lengths we set a number of bounds and cooling principles which again confirm the superior performance of the square-root-in-time expansion, even more clearly for increasing excitation of the initial state. Breakdown of adiabaticity is generally fatal for cooling with the linear expansion but not so with the square-root-in-time expansion.

  9. Elastocaloric cooling: Stretch to actively cool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossmer, Hinnerk; Kohl, Manfred

    2016-10-01

    The elastocaloric effect can be exploited in solid-state cooling technologies as an alternative to conventional vapour compression. Now, an elastocaloric device based on the concept of active regeneration achieves a temperature lift of 15.3 K and efficiencies competitive with other caloric-based approaches.

  10. Performance of active solar space-cooling systems: The 1980 cooling season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, D.; Frock, S.; Logee, T.; Missal, D.; Wetzel, P.

    1980-12-01

    Solar cooling by an absorption chiller is not a cost effective method to use solar heat. This statement is substantiated by careful analysis of each subsystem and equipment component. Good designs and operating procedures are identified. The problems which reduce cost effectiveness are pointed out. There are specific suggestions for improvements. Finally, there is a comparison of solar cooling by absorption chilling and using photovoltaic cells.

  11. District cooling in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.

    1996-11-01

    This paper will present the status of the development of district cooling systems in Scandinavia over the last 5 years. It will describe the technologies used in the systems that have been constructed as well as the options considered in different locations. It will identify the drivers for the development of the cooling business to-date, and what future drivers for a continuing development of district cooling in Sweden. To-date, approximately 25 different cities of varying sizes have completed feasibility studies to determine if district cooling is an attractive option. In a survey, that was conducted by the Swedish District Heating Association, some 25 cities expected to have district cooling systems in place by the year 2000. In Sweden, district heating systems with hot water is very common. In many cases, it is simply an addition to the current service for the district heating company to also supply district cooling to the building owners. A parallel from this can be drawn to North America where district cooling systems now are developing rapidly. I am convinced that in these cities a district heating service will be added as a natural expansion of the district cooling company`s service.

  12. Cool Earth Solar

    ScienceCinema

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2016-07-12

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  13. Data center cooling method

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-08-11

    A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.

  14. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  15. Cool Earth Solar

    SciTech Connect

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2013-04-22

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  16. S'COOL Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This article describes one fifth grade's participation in in NASA's S'COOL (Students' Cloud Observations On-Line) Project, making cloud observations, reporting them online, exploring weather concepts, and gleaning some of the things involved in authentic scientific research. S?COOL is part of a real scientific study of the effect of clouds on…

  17. Why Cool Roofs?

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2016-07-12

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  18. DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

  19. Why Cool Roofs?

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Steven

    2010-01-01

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  20. How does gas cool in dark matter haloes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, M.; Monaco, P.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Tornatore, L.

    2008-01-01

    reach very low temperature, better agrees with the cooled mass fraction found in the simulations, especially at early times, when the density profile of the cooling gas is shallow. With the addition of the simple assumption that the increase in the radius of the cooling region is counteracted by a shrinking at the sound speed, the MORGANA model is also able to reproduce for all simulations the evolution of the cooled mass fraction to within 20-50 per cent, thereby providing a substantial improvement with respect to the classical model. Finally, we provide a very simple fitting function which accurately reproduces the cooling flow for the first ~10 central cooling times.

  1. Psychrometric Bin Analysis for Alternative Cooling Strategies in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; VanGeet, O.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Dean, J.; Kurnik, C.

    2011-01-01

    Data centers are significant energy users and require continuous cooling to maintain high levels of computing performance. The majority of data centers have direct-expansion cooling which typically accounts for approximately 50% of the energy usage of data centers. However, using typical meteorological year 3 (TMY3) weather data and a simple psychometric bin analysis, alternative cooling strategies using a combination of economizer, evaporative, and supplemental DX cooling have been shown to be applicable in all climate zones in the United States. Average data center cooling energy savings across the U.S. was approximately 80%. Analysis of cooling energy savings is presented for various ASHRAE climate zones. The psychometric bin analysis is conducted for the ASHRAE recommended and allowable operating environment zones, as well as, a modified allowable operating environment. Control strategies are discussed. Finally, examples of energy efficient data centers using alternative cooling strategies are presented.

  2. Toward laser cooling of negative lanthanum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Elena; Cerchiari, Giovanni; Erlewein, Stefan; Kellerbauer, Alban; UNIC Team

    2016-05-01

    Anion laser cooling holds the potential to allow the production of ultracold ensembles of any negatively charged species by sympathetic cooling. It is a promising technique for cooling of antiprotons to a few mK and could clear the way for precision measurements on cold antihydrogen. Laser cooling of negative ions has never been achieved, since most species have no bound-bound electric dipole transitions. Negative lanthanum (La-) is one of the few anions with multiple electric dipole transitions. The bound-bound transition from the 3F2e ground state to the 3D1o excited state in La- has been proposed theoretically as a candidate for laser cooling. The potential laser cooling transition was identified using laser photodetachment spectroscopy and its excitation energy was measured. We have studied the aforementioned transition in a beam of La anions by high-resolution laser photodetachment spectroscopy. Seven of the nine expected hyperfine structure transitions have been resolved and the transition cross sections have been estimated from experimental observations. It was found that presently La- is the most promising candidate among the atomic anions. We plan to demonstrate the first direct laser cooling of negative ions in a linear radio frequency trap. We gratefully acknowledge support from the European Research Council (ERC).

  3. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

  4. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  5. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  6. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, J.

    1986-08-01

    The topics discussed are the stochastic cooling systems in use at Fermilab and some of the techniques that have been employed to meet the particular requirements of the anti-proton source. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab became of paramount importance about 5 years ago when the anti-proton source group at Fermilab abandoned the electron cooling ring in favor of a high flux anti-proton source which relied solely on stochastic cooling to achieve the phase space densities necessary for colliding proton and anti-proton beams. The Fermilab systems have constituted a substantial advance in the techniques of cooling including: large pickup arrays operating at microwave frequencies, extensive use of cryogenic techniques to reduce thermal noise, super-conducting notch filters, and the development of tools for controlling and for accurately phasing the system.

  7. MEIC electron cooling program

    SciTech Connect

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-12-01

    Cooling of proton and ion beams is essential for achieving high luminosities (up to above 1034 cm-2s-1) for MEIC, a Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider envisioned at JLab [1] for advanced nuclear science research. In the present conceptual design, we utilize the conventional election cooling method and adopted a multi-staged cooling scheme for reduction of and maintaining low beam emittances [2,3,4]. Two electron cooling facilities are required to support the scheme: one is a low energy (up to 2 MeV) DC cooler installed in the MEIC ion pre-booster (with the proton kinetic energy up to 3 GeV); the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) cooler in the collider ring (with the proton kinetic energy from 25 to 100 GeV). The high energy cooler, which is based on the ERL technology and a circulator ring, utilizes a bunched electron beam to cool bunched proton or ion beams. To complete the MEIC cooling concept and a technical design of the ERL cooler as well as to develop supporting technologies, an R&D program has been initiated at Jefferson Lab and significant progresses have been made since then. In this study, we present a brief description of the cooler design and a summary of the progress in this cooling R&D.

  8. MEIC electron cooling program

    DOE PAGES

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-12-01

    Cooling of proton and ion beams is essential for achieving high luminosities (up to above 1034 cm-2s-1) for MEIC, a Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider envisioned at JLab [1] for advanced nuclear science research. In the present conceptual design, we utilize the conventional election cooling method and adopted a multi-staged cooling scheme for reduction of and maintaining low beam emittances [2,3,4]. Two electron cooling facilities are required to support the scheme: one is a low energy (up to 2 MeV) DC cooler installed in the MEIC ion pre-booster (with the proton kinetic energy up to 3 GeV); the other is amore » high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) cooler in the collider ring (with the proton kinetic energy from 25 to 100 GeV). The high energy cooler, which is based on the ERL technology and a circulator ring, utilizes a bunched electron beam to cool bunched proton or ion beams. To complete the MEIC cooling concept and a technical design of the ERL cooler as well as to develop supporting technologies, an R&D program has been initiated at Jefferson Lab and significant progresses have been made since then. In this study, we present a brief description of the cooler design and a summary of the progress in this cooling R&D.« less

  9. Use of a temperature-initiated passive cooling system (TIPACS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Conklin, J.; Reich, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    A new type of passive cooling system has been invented (Forsberg 1993): the Temperature-Initiated Passive Cooling System (TIPACS). The characteristics of the TIPACS potentially match requirements for an improved reactor-cavity-cooling system (RCCS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). This report is an initial evaluation of the TIPACS for the MHTGR with a Rankines (steam) power conversion cycle. Limited evaluations were made of applying the TIPACS to MHTGRs with reactor pressure vessel temperatures up to 450 C. These temperatures may occur in designs of Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and process heat MHTGRs. The report is structured as follows. Section 2 describes the containment cooling issues associated with the MHTGR and the requirements for such a cooling system. Section 3 describes TIPACS in nonmathematical terms. Section 4 describes TIPACS`s heat-removal capabilities. Section 5 analyzes the operation of the temperature-control mechanism that determines under what conditions the TIPACS rejects heat to the environment. Section 6 addresses other design and operational issues. Section 7 identifies uncertainties, and Section 8 provides conclusions. The appendixes provide the detailed data and models used in the analysis.

  10. Cryogenic generator cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckels, P. W.; Fagan, T. J.; Parker, J. H., Jr.; Long, L. J.; Shestak, E. J.; Calfo, R. M.; Hannon, W. F.; Brown, D. B.; Barkell, J. W.; Patterson, A.

    The concept for a hydrogen cooled aluminum cryogenic generator was presented by Schlicher and Oberly in 1985. Following their lead, this paper describes the thermal design of a high voltage dc, multimegawatt generator of high power density. The rotor and stator are cooled by saturated liquid and supercritical hydrogen, respectively. The brushless exciter on the same shaft is also cooled by liquid hydrogen. Component development testing is well under way and some of the test results concerning the thermohydraulic performance of the conductors are reported. The aluminum cryogenic generator's characteristics are attractive for hydrogen economy applications.

  11. Current Pulses Momentarily Enhance Thermoelectric Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Chen, Gang; Yang, Rong Gui

    2004-01-01

    The rates of cooling afforded by thermoelectric (Peltier) devices can be increased for short times by applying pulses of electric current greater than the currents that yield maximum steady-state cooling. It has been proposed to utilize such momentary enhancements of cooling in applications in which diode lasers and other semiconductor devices are required to operate for times of the order of milliseconds at temperatures too low to be easily obtainable in the steady state. In a typical contemplated application, a semiconductor device would be in contact with the final (coldest) somewhat taller stage of a multistage thermoelectric cooler. Steady current would be applied to the stages to produce steady cooling. Pulsed current would then be applied, enhancing the cooling of the top stage momentarily. The principles of operation are straightforward: In a thermoelectric device, the cooling occurs only at a junction at one end of the thermoelectric legs, at a rate proportional to the applied current. However, Joule heating occurs throughout the device at a rate proportional to the current squared. Hence, in the steady state, the steady temperature difference that the device can sustain increases with current only to the point beyond which the Joule heating dominates. If a pulse of current greater than the optimum current (the current for maximum steady cooling) is applied, then the junction becomes momentarily cooled below its lowest steady temperature until thermal conduction brings the resulting pulse of Joule heat to the junction and thereby heats the junction above its lowest steady temperature. A theoretical and experimental study of such transient thermoelectric cooling followed by transient Joule heating in response to current pulses has been performed. The figure presents results from one of the experiments. The study established the essential parameters that characterize the pulse cooling effect, including the minimum temperature achieved, the maximum

  12. TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS OF A COOLING CORONAL LOOP

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R. J.; Erdelyi, R. E-mail: Robertus@sheffield.ac.u

    2009-12-10

    Here we present an investigation into how cooling of the plasma influences the oscillation properties (e.g., eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies) of transverse (i.e., kink) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in a compressible magnetic flux tube embedded in a gravitationally stratified and uniformly magnetized atmosphere. The cooling is introduced via a temperature-dependent density profile. A time-dependent governing equation is derived and an approximate zeroth-order solution is then obtained. From this the influence of cooling on the behavior of the eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of the transverse MHD waves is determined for representative cooling timescales. It is shown analytically, as the loop cools, how the amplitude of the perturbations is found to decrease as time increases. For cooling timescales of 900-2000 s (as observed in typical EUV loops), it is shown that the cooling has important and relevant influence on the damping times of loop oscillations. Next, the theory is put to the test. The damping due to cooling is fitted to a representative observation of standing kink oscillation of EUV loops. It is also shown with an explicit approximate analytical form, how the period of the fundamental and first harmonic of the kink mode changes with time as the loop cools. A consequence of this is that the value of the period ratio P {sub 1}/P {sub 2}, a tool that is popular in magneto-seismological studies in coronal diagnostics, decreases from the value of a uniform loop, 2, as the temperature decreases. The rate of change in P {sub 1}/P {sub 2} is dependent upon the cooling timescale and is well within the observable range for typical EUV loops. Further to this, the magnitude of the anti-node shift of the eigenfunctions of the first harmonic is shown to continually increase as the loop cools, giving additional impetus to the use of spatial magneto-seismology of the solar atmosphere. Finally, we suggest that measurements of the rate of change in the

  13. Evaporative Cooling Membrane Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Curtis (Inventor); Moskito, John (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An evaporative cooling membrane device is disclosed having a flat or pleated plate housing with an enclosed bottom and an exposed top that is covered with at least one sheet of hydrophobic porous material having a thin thickness so as to serve as a membrane. The hydrophobic porous material has pores with predetermined dimensions so as to resist any fluid in its liquid state from passing therethrough but to allow passage of the fluid in its vapor state, thereby, causing the evaporation of the fluid and the cooling of the remaining fluid. The fluid has a predetermined flow rate. The evaporative cooling membrane device has a channel which is sized in cooperation with the predetermined flow rate of the fluid so as to produce laminar flow therein. The evaporative cooling membrane device provides for the convenient control of the evaporation rates of the circulating fluid by adjusting the flow rates of the laminar flowing fluid.

  14. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  15. Stimulated radiative laser cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muys, P.

    2008-04-01

    Building a refrigerator based on the conversion of heat into optical energy is an ongoing engineering challenge. Under well-defined conditions, spontaneous anti-Stokes fluorescence of a dopant material in a host matrix is capable of lowering the host temperature. The fluorescence is conveying away a part of the thermal energy stored in the vibrational oscillations of the host lattice. In particular, applying this principle to the cooling of (solid-state) lasers opens up many potential device applications, especially in the domain of high-power lasers. In this paper, an alternative optical cooling scheme is outlined, leading to the radiative cooling of solid-state lasers. It is based on converting the thermal energy stored in the host into optical energy by means of a stimulated nonlinear process, rather than a spontaneous process. This should lead to better cooling efficiencies and a higher potential of applying the principle for device applications.

  16. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...

  17. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo...

  18. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo...

  19. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo...

  20. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo...

  1. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1043 - Cooling tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooling tests. 23.1043 Section 23.1043... tests. (a) General. Compliance with § 23.1041 must be shown on the basis of tests, for which the following apply: (1) If the tests are conducted under ambient atmospheric temperature conditions...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1043 - Cooling tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling tests. 23.1043 Section 23.1043... tests. (a) General. Compliance with § 23.1041 must be shown on the basis of tests, for which the following apply: (1) If the tests are conducted under ambient atmospheric temperature conditions...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1043 - Cooling tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling tests. 23.1043 Section 23.1043... tests. (a) General. Compliance with § 23.1041 must be shown on the basis of tests, for which the following apply: (1) If the tests are conducted under ambient atmospheric temperature conditions...

  5. Laser cooling of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Richard I; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  6. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Seiber, Larry E.; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2007-09-11

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  7. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  8. Weld electrode cooling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Robert C.; Simon, Daniel L.

    1999-03-01

    The U.S. auto/truck industry has been mandated by the Federal government to continuously improve their fleet average gas mileage, measured in miles per gallon. Several techniques are typically used to meet these mandates, one of which is to reduce the overall mass of cars and trucks. To help accomplish this goal, lighter weight sheet metal parts, with smaller weld flanges, have been designed and fabricated. This paper will examine the cooling characteristics of various water cooled weld electrodes and shanks used in resistance spot welding applications. The smaller weld flanges utilized in modern vehicle sheet metal fabrications have increased industry's interest in using one size of weld electrode (1/2 inch diameter) for certain spot welding operations. The welding community wants more data about the cooling characteristics of these 1/2 inch weld electrodes. To hep define the cooling characteristics, an infrared radiometer thermal vision system (TVS) was used to capture images (thermograms) of the heating and cooling cycles of several size combinations of weld electrodes under typical production conditions. Tests results will show why the open ended shanks are more suitable for cooling the weld electrode assembly then closed ended shanks.

  9. Measurement of the Single Top Quark Cross Section in the Lepton Plus Jets Final State in Proton-Antiproton Collisions at a Center of Mass Energy of 1.96 TeV Using the CDF II Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhenbin

    2012-01-01

    We present a measurement of the single top quark cross section in the lepton plus jets final state using an integrated luminosity corresponding to 7.5 fb-1 of p\\bar p collision data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The single top candidate events are identified by the signature of a charged lepton, large missing transverse energy, and two or three jets with at least one of them identified as originating from a bottom quark. A new Monte Carlo generator POWHEG is used to model the single top quark production processes, which include s-channel, t-channel, and Wt-channel. A neural network multivariate method is exploited to discriminate the single top quark signal from the comparatively large backgrounds. We measure a single top production cross section of $3.04^{+0.57}_{-0.53} (\\mathrm{stat.~+~syst.})$ pb assuming $m_{\\rm top}=172.5$~GeV/$c^2$. In addition, we extract the CKM matrix element value $|V_{tb}|=0.96\\pm 0.09~(\\mathrm{stat.~+~syst.})\\ ± 0.05~(\\mathrm{theory})$ and set a lower limit of $|V_{tb}|>0.78$ at the 95% credibility level.

  10. 46 CFR 56.85-5 - Heating and cooling method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating and cooling method. 56.85-5 Section 56.85-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Heat Treatment of Welds § 56.85-5 Heating and cooling method. Heat treatment may be...

  11. 46 CFR 56.85-5 - Heating and cooling method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heating and cooling method. 56.85-5 Section 56.85-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Heat Treatment of Welds § 56.85-5 Heating and cooling method. Heat treatment may be...

  12. 46 CFR 56.85-5 - Heating and cooling method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heating and cooling method. 56.85-5 Section 56.85-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Heat Treatment of Welds § 56.85-5 Heating and cooling method. Heat treatment may be...

  13. 46 CFR 56.85-5 - Heating and cooling method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heating and cooling method. 56.85-5 Section 56.85-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Heat Treatment of Welds § 56.85-5 Heating and cooling method. Heat treatment may be...

  14. 46 CFR 56.85-5 - Heating and cooling method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heating and cooling method. 56.85-5 Section 56.85-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Heat Treatment of Welds § 56.85-5 Heating and cooling method. Heat treatment may be...

  15. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  16. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  17. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  18. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  19. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  20. Discoveries in Superconductivity, Persistent-Switch Magnets, and Magnetic Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. Dwight

    2016-07-01

    A historical review of developments in superconducting magnets begins with Kamerlingh Onnes' construction of the first one in 1914 and extends to the invention of the superconducting persistent switch reported in 1963. A section on magnetic cooling includes refrigeration by paramagnetic salts and by nuclei in metals, as well as direct nuclear demagnetization in which only the nuclei are cooled.

  1. 46 CFR 182.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) will be considered as meeting the requirements... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine exhaust cooling. 182.425 Section 182.425 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.425 Engine exhaust cooling. (a) Except...

  2. 46 CFR 111.59-3 - No mechanical cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false No mechanical cooling. 111.59-3 Section 111.59-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-3 No mechanical cooling. A busway must not need mechanical...

  3. 46 CFR 111.59-3 - No mechanical cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false No mechanical cooling. 111.59-3 Section 111.59-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-3 No mechanical cooling. A busway must not need mechanical...

  4. 46 CFR 111.59-3 - No mechanical cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false No mechanical cooling. 111.59-3 Section 111.59-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-3 No mechanical cooling. A busway must not need mechanical...

  5. 46 CFR 111.59-3 - No mechanical cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false No mechanical cooling. 111.59-3 Section 111.59-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-3 No mechanical cooling. A busway must not need mechanical...

  6. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... meets the requirements. (c) The cooling and temperature requirements for liquid egg products shall be as specified in Table I of this section. Table I—Minimum Cooling and Temperature Requirements for Liquid Egg... product) to be held in excess of 8 hours Liquid salt product Temperature within 2 hours...

  7. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... meets the requirements. (c) The cooling and temperature requirements for liquid egg products shall be as specified in Table I of this section. Table I—Minimum Cooling and Temperature Requirements for Liquid Egg... product) to be held in excess of 8 hours Liquid salt product Temperature within 2 hours...

  8. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... meets the requirements. (c) The cooling and temperature requirements for liquid egg products shall be as specified in Table I of this section. Table I—Minimum Cooling and Temperature Requirements for Liquid Egg... product) to be held in excess of 8 hours Liquid salt product Temperature within 2 hours...

  9. Discoveries in Superconductivity, Persistent-Switch Magnets, and Magnetic Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. Dwight

    2016-11-01

    A historical review of developments in superconducting magnets begins with Kamerlingh Onnes' construction of the first one in 1914 and extends to the invention of the superconducting persistent switch reported in 1963. A section on magnetic cooling includes refrigeration by paramagnetic salts and by nuclei in metals, as well as direct nuclear demagnetization in which only the nuclei are cooled.

  10. 46 CFR 111.59-3 - No mechanical cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No mechanical cooling. 111.59-3 Section 111.59-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-3 No mechanical cooling. A busway must not need mechanical...

  11. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14 Section 401.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location,...

  12. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.530 Liquid egg cooling. (a) Liquid egg storage rooms, including... condensation. Surface coolers and liquid holding vats containing product shall be kept covered while in...

  13. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.530 Liquid egg cooling. (a) Liquid egg storage rooms, including... condensation. Surface coolers and liquid holding vats containing product shall be kept covered while in...

  14. Measurement of the top - anti-top Production Cross Section at √s = 1.96-TeV in the e + jets Final State of proton anti-proton Collisions at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, DooKee

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the measurement of the cross section for t$\\bar{t}$ production in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV in e+jets final states observed at the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. Our result is based on data collected from the June 2002 to September 2003 period of Run II of the p$\\bar{p}$ Collider. In the Standard Model, the top quark is expected to decay mainly into a W boson and a b quark. The W boson can decay subsequently into a lepton and its neutrino or a q$\\bar{q}$ quark-antiquark pair. In this thesis, we focus on the e+ ve or e- $\\bar{v}$e decays of one of the W bosons and the q$\\bar{q}$ decays of the other W boson in t$\\bar{t}$ final states. The b, q and q' quarks appear as jets of particles in the detector, thereby defining the e+jets final state. We present two methods used for performing this measurement. The first method is based on a Random Grid Search (RGS) that minimizes the uncertainty on the extracted cross section. The variables used in the search take advantage of differences between expected background and signal processes to obtain the yield of t$\\bar{t}$ events. The second method uses a Neural Network (NN) procedure that discriminates signal from background through the application of a NN trained on simulated t$\\bar{t}$ signal and W+jets background events. The preliminary results presented in this thesis for inclusive t$\\bar{t}$ production are σ p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$ + x of 7.9$+2.6\\atop{-2.4}$(stat) $+2.2\\atop{-2.3}$(syst) ± 0.5 (L) pb for the NN analysis, where the uncertainties correspond to contributions from statistical and systematic sources and from the uncertainty on luminosity. Our measurements are consistent with each other, and are within error of the value of 6.77 ± 0.42 pb expected in the Standard Model.

  15. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOEpatents

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  16. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOEpatents

    Pendergrass, Joseph C.

    1997-01-01

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  17. Cesarean Section

    MedlinePlus

    A Cesarean section (C-section) is surgery to deliver a baby. The baby is taken out through the mother's abdomen. In the United ... three women has their babies this way. Some C-sections are planned, but many are done when ...

  18. Structural cooling fluid tube for supporting a turbine component and supplying cooling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Charron, Richard; Pierce, Daniel

    2015-02-24

    A shaft cover support for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The shaft cover support not only provides enhanced support to a shaft cover of the gas turbine engine, but also includes a cooling fluid chamber for passing fluids from a rotor air cooling supply conduit to an inner ring cooling manifold. As such, the shaft cover support accomplishes in a single component what was only partially accomplished in two components in conventional configurations. The shaft cover support may also provide additional stiffness and reduce interference of the flow from the compressor. In addition, the shaft cover support accommodates a transition section extending between compressor and turbine sections of the engine. The shaft cover support has a radially extending region that is offset from the inlet and outlet that enables the shaft cover support to surround the transition, thereby reducing the overall length of this section of the engine.

  19. Comparing Social Stories™ to Cool versus Not Cool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Mitchell, Erin; Townley-Cochran, Donna; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compared the cool versus not cool procedure to Social Stories™ for teaching various social behaviors to one individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The researchers randomly assigned three social skills to the cool versus not cool procedure and three social skills to the Social Stories™ procedure. Naturalistic probes…

  20. Process and apparatus for cooling coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Austermuhle, F.

    1980-12-16

    A two-stage process, and the apparatus for practicing the process, for cooling process gas are disclosed. The process gas is firstly air-cooled by convection to a temperature above the dew point of naphthalene and finally cooled to the desired discharge temperature by heat exchange with a cooling liquid. The condensed portion of the process gas resulting from the first cooling stage may be utilized to flush the gas conduits of the liquid heat exchanger of the second stage, followed by a recirculation of that condensed portion of the coke oven gas either back through the second stage or by introduction into the stream of process gas prior to its introduction into the first cooling stage.

  1. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  2. Rotational Cooling of Trapped Polyatomic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Rosa; Prehn, Alexander; Englert, Barbara G U; Rempe, Gerhard; Zeppenfeld, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Controlling the internal degrees of freedom is a key challenge for applications of cold and ultracold molecules. Here, we demonstrate rotational-state cooling of trapped methyl fluoride molecules (CH_{3}F) by optically pumping the population of 16 M sublevels in the rotational states J=3, 4, 5 and 6 into a single level. By combining rotational-state cooling with motional cooling, we increase the relative number of molecules in the state J=4, K=3, M=4 from a few percent to over 70%, thereby generating a translationally cold (≈30  mK) and nearly pure state ensemble of about 10^{6} molecules. Our scheme is extendable to larger sets of initial states, other final states, and a variety of molecule species, thus paving the way for internal-state control of ever-larger molecules.

  3. Pressure Available for Cooling with Cowling Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, George W; Naiman, Irven; Crigler, John L

    1941-01-01

    Report presents the results of a full-scale investigation conducted in the NACA 20-foot tunnel to determine the pressure difference available for cooling with cowling flaps. The flaps were applied to an exit slot of smooth contour at 0 degree flap angle. Flap angles of 0 degree, 15 degrees, and 30 degrees were tested. Two propellers were used; propeller c which has conventional round blade shanks and propeller f which has airfoil sections extending closer to the hub. The pressure available for cooling is shown to be a direct function of the thrust disk-loading coefficient of the propeller.

  4. Conductor for a fluid-cooled winding

    DOEpatents

    Kenney, Walter J.

    1983-01-01

    A conductor and method of making the conductor are provided for use in winding electrical coils which are cooled by a fluid communicating with the conductor. The conductor is cold worked through twisting and reshaping steps to form a generally rectangular cross section conductor having a plurality of helical cooling grooves extending axially of the conductor. The conductor configuration makes it suitable for a wide variety of winding applications and permits the use of simple strip insulation between turns and perforated sheet insulation between layers of the winding.

  5. Cooling in a compound bucket

    SciTech Connect

    Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Hu, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    Electron cooling in the Fermilab Recycler ring is found to create correlation between longitudinal and transverse tails of the antiproton distribution. By separating the core of the beam from the tail and cooling the tail using 'gated' stochastic cooling while applying electron cooling on the entire beam, one may be able to significantly increase the overall cooling rate. In this paper, we describe the procedure and first experimental results.

  6. Pin diode calibration - beam overlap monitoring for low energy cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, A.; Montag, C.; Thieberger, P.

    2015-09-30

    We were trying to address the question whether or not the Pin Diodes, currently installed approximately 1 meter downstream of the RHIC primary collimators, are suitable to monitor a recombination signal from the future RHIC low energy cooling section. A maximized recombination signal, with the Au+78 ions being lost on the collimator, will indicate optimal Au-electron beam overlap as well as velocity matching of the electron beam in the cooling section.

  7. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Don E; Ezell, Matthew A; Becklehimer, Jeff; Donovan, Matthew J; Layton, Christopher C

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  8. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  9. Winds from cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral observations of cool stars enable study of the presence and character of winds and the mass loss process in objects with effective temperatures, gravities, and atmospheric compositions which differ from that of the Sun. A wealth of recent spectroscopic measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer complement high resolution ground-based measures in the optical and infrared spectral regions. Such observations when combined with realistic semi-empirical atmospheric modeling allow us to estimate the physical conditions in the atmospheres and winds of many classes of cool stars. Line profiles support turbulent heating and mass motions. In low gravity stars, evidence is found for relatively fast (approximately 200 km s(exp -1)), warm winds with rapid acceleration occurring in the chromosphere. In some cases outflows commensurate with stellar escape velocities are present. Our current understanding of cool star winds will be reviewed including the implications of stellar observations for identification of atmospheric heating and acceleration processes.

  10. [Selective brain cooling].

    PubMed

    Corrard, F

    1999-01-01

    The brain is especially sensitive to heat stress. To limit the increase of intracranial heat in case of hyperthermia or fever, a system of selective cooling is put on. It includes two heat-exchangers. The first one, in the face and scalp skin, disperses calories through sweat evaporation. The second one is intracranial, close to the arteries which irrigate the brain. They are connected by a vascular network. In these conditions, the arterial blood temperature, of which cerebral temperature depends upon, is reduced by the cooled venous blood which comes from subcutaneous tissues through the skull wall. On feverish children, increasing such a selective cooling by face fanning can limit cerebral thermal stress. PMID:9974103

  11. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  12. STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,J.M.CAMERON,P.WEI,J.

    2003-05-12

    Emittance growth due to Intra-Beam Scattering significantly reduces the heavy ion luminosity lifetime in RHIC. Stochastic cooling of the stored beam could improve things considerably by counteracting IBS and preventing particles from escaping the rf bucket [1]. High frequency bunched-beam stochastic cooling is especially challenging but observations of Schottky signals in the 4-8 GHz band indicate that conditions are favorable in RHIC [2]. We report here on measurements of the longitudinal beam transfer function carried out with a pickup kicker pair on loan from FNAL TEVATRON. Results imply that for ions a coasting beam description is applicable and we outline some general features of a viable momentum cooling system for RHIC.

  13. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  14. Liquid Cooling/Warming Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient. A shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG) has been developed based on physiological principles comparing the efficacy of heat transfer of different body zones; the capability of blood to deliver heat; individual muscle and fat body composition as a basis for individual thermal profiles to customize the zonal sections of the garment; and the development of shunts to minimize or redirect the cooling/warming loop for different environmental conditions, physical activity levels, and emergency situations. The SLCWG has been designed and completed, based on extensive testing in rest, exercise, and antiorthostatic conditions. It is more energy efficient than the LCVG currently used by NASA. The total length of tubing in the SLCWG is approximately 35 percent less and the weight decreased by 20 percent compared to the LCVG. The novel features of the innovation are: 1. The efficiency of the SLCWG to maintain thermal status under extreme changes in body surface temperatures while using significantly less tubing than the LCVG. 2. The construction of the garment based on physiological principles of heat transfer. 3. The identification of the body areas that are most efficient in heat transfer. 4. The inclusion of a hood as part of the garment. 5. The lesser consumption of energy.

  15. Research on cooling effectiveness in stepped slot film cooling vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yulong; Wu, Hong; Zhou, Feng; Rong, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    As one of the most important developments in air cooling technology for hot parts of the aero-engine, film cooling technology has been widely used. Film cooling hole structure exists mainly in areas that have high temperature, uneven cooling effectiveness issues when in actual use. The first stage turbine vanes of the aero-engine consume the largest portion of cooling air, thereby the research on reducing the amount of cooling air has the greatest potential. A new stepped slot film cooling vane with a high cooling effectiveness and a high cooling uniformity was researched initially. Through numerical methods, the affecting factors of the cooling effectiveness of a vane with the stepped slot film cooling structure were researched. This paper focuses on the cooling effectiveness and the pressure loss in different blowing ratio conditions, then the most reasonable and scientific structure parameter can be obtained by analyzing the results. The results show that 1.0 mm is the optimum slot width and 10.0 is the most reasonable blowing ratio. Under this condition, the vane achieved the best cooling result and the highest cooling effectiveness, and also retained a low pressure loss.

  16. Combustor liner cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

    2013-08-06

    A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

  17. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  18. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2004-11-02

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  19. Cyclic cooling algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Rempp, Florian; Mahler, Guenter; Michel, Mathias

    2007-09-15

    We introduce a scheme to perform the cooling algorithm, first presented by Boykin et al. in 2002, for an arbitrary number of times on the same set of qbits. We achieve this goal by adding an additional SWAP gate and a bath contact to the algorithm. This way one qbit may repeatedly be cooled without adding additional qbits to the system. By using a product Liouville space to model the bath contact we calculate the density matrix of the system after a given number of applications of the algorithm.

  20. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  1. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  2. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  3. Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies AO2, AO3 and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters AO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Raymond E., III

    1998-01-01

    This final report uses ROSAT observations to analyze two different studies. These studies are: Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies; and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters.

  4. Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-06-07

    Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been

  5. Helical Muon Beam Cooling Channel Engineering Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, M.L.; Romanov, G.V.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Yonehara, K.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Marhauser, F.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2012-05-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), a novel technique for six-dimensional (6D) ionization cooling of muon beams, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. However, the implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires new techniques for the integration of hydrogen-pressurized, high-power RF cavities into the low-temperature superconducting magnets of the HCC. We present the progress toward a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn based HCC test section. We include discussions on the pressure and thermal barriers needed within the cryostat to maintain operation of the magnet at 4.2 K while operating the RF and energy absorber at a higher temperature. Additionally, we include progress on the Nb{sub 3}Sn helical solenoid design.

  6. The design of an improved endwall film-cooling configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, S.; Hodson, H.P.; Dawes, W.N.

    1999-10-01

    The endwall film-cooling cooling configuration investigated by Friedrichs et al. (1196, 1997) had in principle sufficient cooling flow for the endwall, but in practice, the redistribution of this coolant by secondary flows left large endwall areas uncooled. This paper describes the attempt to improve upon this datum cooling configuration by redistributing the available coolant to provide a better coolant coverage on the endwall surface, while keeping the associated aerodynamic losses small. The design of the new, improved cooling configuration was based on the understanding of endwall film-cooling described by Friedrichs et al. (1996, 1997). Computational fluid dynamics were used to predict the basic flow and pressure field without coolant ejection. Using this as a basis, the above-described understanding was used to place cooling holes so that they would provide the necessary cooling coverage at minimal aerodynamic penalty. The simple analytical modeling developed by Friedrichs et al. (1997) was then used to check that the coolant consumption and the increase in aerodynamic loss lay within the limits of the design goal. The improved cooling configuration was tested experimentally in a large-scale, low-speed linear cascade. An analysis of the results shows that the redesign of the cooling configuration has been successful in achieving an improved coolant coverage with lower aerodynamic losses, while using the same amount of coolant as in the datum cooling configuration. The improved cooling configuration has reconfirmed conclusions from Friedrichs et al. (1996, 1997): First, coolant ejection downstream of the three-dimensional separation lines on the endwall does not change the secondary flow structures: second, placement of holes in regions of high static pressure helps reduce the aerodynamic penalties of platform coolant ejection: finally, taking account of secondary flow can improve the design of endwall film-cooling configurations.

  7. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project 2001-001, Westinghouse Electric Co. Grant Number: DE-FG07-02SF22533, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% versus about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors [LWRs]) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus, the need for a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators, and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies: LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which are also in use around the world. The reference SCWR design for the U.S. program is a direct cycle system operating at 25.0 MPa, with core inlet and outlet temperatures of 280 and 500 C, respectively. The coolant density decreases from about 760 kg/m3 at the core inlet to about 90 kg/m3 at the core outlet. The inlet flow splits with about 10% of the inlet flow going down the space between the core barrel and the reactor pressure vessel (the downcomer) and about 90% of the inlet flow going to the plenum at the top of the rector pressure vessel, to then flow down through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. Here it mixes with the feedwater from the downcomer and flows upward to remove the heat in the fuel channels. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core. The coolant is heated to about 500 C and delivered to the turbine. The purpose of this NERI project was to assess the reference U.S. Generation IV SCWR design and explore alternatives to determine feasibility. The project was

  8. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, Kent Goran; McLaurin, Leroy Dixon; Bertsch, Oran Leroy; Lowe, Perry Eugene

    1998-01-01

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

  9. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

    1998-05-26

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

  10. Measurements of top quark pair production cross section in proton anti-proton collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV in the τ + jets final state using 1 fb-1 of data

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Sohrab

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents a new measurement of p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$X production at √s = 1.96 TeV using 974.2 pb-1of data collected with the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006. We focus on the final state where the W boson from one of the top quarks decays into a τ lepton and its associated neutrino, while the other W boson decays into a quark-antiquark pair. We aim to select those events in which the τ lepton subsequently decays hadronically, meaning to one or three charged hadrons, zero or more neutral hadrons and a tau neutrino (the charge conjugate processes are implied in all of the above). The observable signature thus consists of a narrow calorimeter shower with associated track(s) characteristic of a hadronic tau decay, four or more jets, of which two are initiated by b quarks accompanying the W's in the top quark decays, and a large net missing momentum in the transverse plane due to the energetic neutrino-antineutrino pair that leave no trace in the detector media. The preliminary result for the measured cross section is: σ(t$\\bar{t}$) = 6.9-1.2 +1.2(stat)-0.7+0.8(syst) ± 0.4 (lumi) pb. This indicates that our finding is consistent with the Standard Model prediction.

  11. Measurement of top quark pair production cross section in proton antiproton collisions at center of mass energy 1.96TeV in the tau+ jets final state using 1fb-1 of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Sohrab

    This dissertation presents a new measurement of pp¯ → tt¯X production at s = 1.96 TeV using 974.2 pb-1 of data collected with the DO detector between 2002 and 2006. We focus on the final state where the W boson from one of the top quarks decays into a tau lepton and its associated neutrino, while the other W boson decays into a quark-antiquark pair. We aim to select those events in which the tau lepton subsequently decays hadronically, meaning to one or three charged hadrons, zero or more neutral hadrons and a tau neutrino (the charge conjugate processes are implied in all of the above). The observable signature thus consists of a narrow calorimeter shower with associated track(s) characteristic of a hadronic tau decay, four or more jets, of which two are initiated by b quarks accompanying the W's in the top quark decays, and a large net missing momentum in the transverse plane due to the energetic neutrino-antineutrino pair that leave no trace in the detector media. The preliminary result for the measured cross section is: stt= 6.9+1.2-1.2 stat +0.8-0.7 syst +/-0.4lumi pb. This indicates that our finding is consistent with the Standard Model prediction.

  12. Transpiration Cooling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyo D.; Ries, Heidi R.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Choi, Sang H.

    1997-01-01

    The transpiration cooling method was considered for a scram-jet engine to accommodate thermally the situation where a very high heat flux (200 Btu/sq. ft sec) from hydrogen fuel combustion process is imposed to the engine walls. In a scram-jet engine, a small portion of hydrogen fuel passes through the porous walls of the engine combustor to cool the engine walls and at the same time the rest passes along combustion chamber walls and is preheated. Such a regenerative system promises simultaneously cooling of engine combustor and preheating the cryogenic fuel. In the experiment, an optical heating method was used to provide a heat flux of 200 Btu/sq. ft sec to the cylindrical surface of a porous stainless steel specimen which carried helium gas. The cooling efficiencies by transpiration were studied for specimens with various porosity. The experiments of various test specimens under high heat flux have revealed a phenomenon that chokes the medium flow when passing through a porous structure. This research includes the analysis of the system and a scaling conversion study that interprets the results from helium into the case when hydrogen medium is used.

  13. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  14. Guide to Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb sunlight, making them warm in the sun and increasing the need for air conditioning. White or special "cool color" roofs absorb less sunlight, stay cooler in the sun and transmit less heat into the building.

  15. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    I. Ben-Zvi; D.S. Barton; D.B. Beavis; M. Blaskiewicz; J.M. Brennan; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X.Y. Chang; R. Connolly; Yu.I. Eidelman; A.V. Fedotov; W. Fischer; D.M. Gassner; H. Hahn; M. Harrison; A. Hershcovitch; H.-C. Hseuh; A.K. Jain; P.D.J. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R.F. Lambiase; V. Litvinenko; W.W. MacKay; G.J. Mahler; N. Malitsky; G.T. McIntyre; W. Meng; K.A.M. Mirabella; C. Montag; T.C.N. Nehring; T. Nicoletti; B. Oerter; G. Parzen; D. Pate; J. Rank; T. Rao; T. Roser; T. Russo; J. Scaduto; K. Smith; D. Trbojevic; G. Wang; J. Wei; N.W.W. Williams; K.-C. Wu; V. Yakimenko; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; D.T. Abell; D.L. Bruhwiler; H. Bluem; A. Burger; M.D. Cole; A.J. Favale; D. Holmes; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; A.M.M. Todd; A.V. Burov; S. Nagaitsev; J.R. Delayen; Y.S. Derbenev; L. W. Funk; P. Kneisel; L. Merminga; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble; I. Koop; V.V. Parkhomchuk; Y.M. Shatunov; A.N. Skrinsky; I. Koop; V.V. Parkhomchuk; Y.M. Shatunov; A.N. Skrinsky; J.S. Sekutowicz

    2005-05-16

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eCool/.

  16. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  17. Desiccant dehumidification and cooling systems assessment and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, R.K. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a preliminary analysis of the principles, sensitivities, and potential for national energy savings of desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems. The report is divided into four sections. Section I deals with the maximum theoretical performance of ideal desiccant cooling systems. Section II looks at the performance effects of non-ideal behavior of system components. Section III examines the effects of outdoor air properties on desiccant cooling system performance. Section IV analyzes the applicability of desiccant cooling systems to reduce primary energy requirements for providing space conditioning in buildings. A basic desiccation process performs no useful work (cooling). That is, a desiccant material drying air is close to an isenthalpic process. Latent energy is merely converted to sensible energy. Only when heat exchange is applied to the desiccated air is any cooling accomplished. This characteristic is generic to all desiccant cycles and critical to understanding their operation. The analyses of Section I show that desiccant cooling cycles can theoretically achieve extremely high thermal CoP`s (>2). The general conclusion from Section II is that ventilation air processing is the most viable application for the solid desiccant equipment analyzed. The results from the seasonal simulations performed in Section III indicate that, generally, the seasonal performance of the desiccant system does not change significantly from that predicted for outdoor conditions. Results from Section IV show that all of the candidate desiccant systems can save energy relative to standard vapor-compression systems. The largest energy savings are achieved by the enthalpy exchange devise.

  18. MICE: The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment: Phase Space Cooling Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, T. L.

    2010-03-01

    MICE is an experimental demonstration of muon ionization cooling using a section of an ionization cooling channel and a muon beam. The muons are produced by the decay of pions from a target dipping into the ISIS proton beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The channel includes liquid-hydrogen absorbers providing transverse and longitudinal momentum loss and high-gradient radiofrequency (RF) cavities for longitudinal reacceleration, all packed into a solenoidal magnetic channel. MICE will reduce the beam transverse emittance by about 10% for muon momenta between 140 and 240 MeV/c. Time-of-flight (TOF) counters, threshold Cherenkov counters, and a calorimeter will identify background electrons and pions. Spectrometers before and after the cooling section will measure the beam transmission and input and output emittances with an absolute precision of 0.1%.

  19. MICE: The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment: Phase Space Cooling Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, T. L.

    2010-03-30

    MICE is an experimental demonstration of muon ionization cooling using a section of an ionization cooling channel and a muon beam. The muons are produced by the decay of pions from a target dipping into the ISIS proton beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The channel includes liquid-hydrogen absorbers providing transverse and longitudinal momentum loss and high-gradient radiofrequency (RF) cavities for longitudinal reacceleration, all packed into a solenoidal magnetic channel. MICE will reduce the beam transverse emittance by about 10% for muon momenta between 140 and 240 MeV/c. Time-of-flight (TOF) counters, threshold Cherenkov counters, and a calorimeter will identify background electrons and pions. Spectrometers before and after the cooling section will measure the beam transmission and input and output emittances with an absolute precision of 0.1%.

  20. Laser cooling of a high-temperature oscillator by a three-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B.

    2016-08-01

    We study the laser cooling of a mechanical oscillator through the coupling with a dissipative three-level system. Under a background temperature beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime, we extend the standard cooling analysis by separately studying the classical motion and the quantum dynamics of the oscillator. In ladder-system cooling, the cooling rate degrades by orders of magnitude at large classical motion. This phenomenon causes a critical transition of the final temperature at a hot background. In stark contrast, electromagnetic-induced-transparency (EIT) cooling with a Λ system produces significant negative cooling rate at high motional excitation. At steady state, the oscillator could exhibit both cooling and lasing behaviors. We argue that a successful EIT cooling requires either a poor quality oscillator to suppress the lasing effect, or terminating the cooling process at a transient stage.

  1. 40 CFR 463.10 - Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contact cooling and heating water subcategory. 463.10 Section 463.10 Protection of Environment... FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact Cooling and Heating Water Subcategory § 463.10 Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges...

  2. 40 CFR 463.10 - Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contact cooling and heating water subcategory. 463.10 Section 463.10 Protection of Environment... FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact Cooling and Heating Water Subcategory § 463.10 Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1045 - Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes. 23.1045 Section 23.1045 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1045 - Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes. 23.1045 Section 23.1045 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1045 - Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes. 23.1045 Section 23.1045 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1045 - Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes. 23.1045 Section 23.1045 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1045 - Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes. 23.1045 Section 23.1045 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine...

  8. 9 CFR 354.244 - Temperatures and cooling and freezing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temperatures and cooling and freezing procedures. 354.244 Section 354.244 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and cooling and freezing procedures. Temperatures and procedures which are necessary for cooling...

  9. Electron Cooling Study for MEIC

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhang; Douglas, David R.; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    Electron cooling of the ion beams is one critical R&D to achieve high luminosities in JLab's MEIC proposal. In the present MEIC design, a multi-staged cooling scheme is adapted, which includes DC electron cooling in the booster ring and bunched beam electron cooling in the collider ring at both the injection energy and the collision energy. We explored the feasibility of using both magnetized and non-magnetized electron beam for cooling, and concluded that a magnetized electron beam is necessary. Electron cooling simulation results for the newly updated MEIC design is also presented.

  10. Development and testing of the cooling coil cleaning end effector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.I.; Mullen, O.D.; Powell, M.R.; Daly, D.S.; Engel, D.W.

    1997-09-30

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement (KPD{ampersand}E) program has developed and tested an end effector to support the waste retrieval mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The end effector was developed specifically to remove a sticky waste material from the cooling coils in the High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) tank, and to vacuum up a sediment layer that has settled beneath the cooling coils. An extensive testing program was conducted in the hydraulic test bed (HTB) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to evaluate the performance of the end effector under simulated in-tank conditions. A mock up of the cooling coils was installed in the test bed tank, and simulated waste materials were included to represent the sticky waste on the tubes and the particulate waste settled beneath them. The testing program focused on assessing long-duration mining strategies for cleaning the cooling coils and removing the particulate waste forms. The report describes the results of the end effector testing program at PNNL. Section 2 describes the physical characteristics of the HLLW tanks, including the layout of the cooling coils, and it also describes what is known of the waste forms in the tanks. Section 3 describes the cleaning and retrieval strategy that was used in developing the end effector design. Section 4 describes the cooling coil mockup in the hydraulic test bed. Section 5 discusses the rationale used in selecting the simulants for the tarry waste and particulate waste forms. Section 6 describes the tests that were performed to evaluate cleaning of the cooling coils and retrieval of the particulate simulant. Section 7 summarizes the cleaning and retrieval tests, assesses the relative importance of cleaning the cooling coils and retrieving the particulate waste, and suggests modifications that would simplify the end effector design.

  11. STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.

    2005-05-16

    Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

  12. Industrial and biomedical use of aerospace personal cooling garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Montgomery, L. D.; Elkins, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid-cooled garments (LCG) have been developed which utilize liquid-cooled modules rather than the network of tygon tubing typical of Apollo LCG's. The ultra-thin, heat-sealed, polyurethane modules are situated over the body to cover 50 percent of the body surface area with special emphasis on the 'working' muscles and the head-neck area. These garments are being designed specifically for industrial and biomedical uses, such as: a head-neck cooling system which is being tested for race-car drivers, tractor drivers, truck drivers, or a head-neck cooling system tested for the reduction of the scalp hair loss which normally accompanies cancer treatments. A combined head-neck and thorax unit is being developed for use during mine distaster rescue operations, and for other hazardous hot applications. Finally applications for head-neck and partitional cooling are anticipated for military pilots, tank drivers, and heavy equipment operations.

  13. Cooled particle accelerator target

    DOEpatents

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2005-06-14

    A novel particle beam target comprising: a rotating target disc mounted on a retainer and thermally coupled to a first array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially inwardly from the retainer and mesh without physical contact with a second array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially outwardly from and are thermally coupled to a cooling mechanism capable of removing heat from said second array of spaced-apart fins and located within the first array of spaced-apart parallel fins. Radiant thermal exchange between the two arrays of parallel plate fins provides removal of heat from the rotating disc. A method of cooling the rotating target is also described.

  14. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is limited to a value commensurate with the material strength limitations and life requirements of uncooled metal rotors. To take advantage of all the benefits that higher temperatures offer, such as increased turbine specific power output or higher cycle thermal efficiency, requires improved high temperature materials and/or blade cooling. Extensive research is on-going to advance the material properties of high temperature superalloys as well as composite materials including ceramics. The use of ceramics with their high temperature potential and low cost is particularly appealing for radial turbines. However until these programs reach fruition the only way to make significant step increases beyond the present material temperature barriers is to cool the radial blading.

  15. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  16. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Pulliam, Elias Noel

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  17. Startup of air-cooled condensers and dry cooling towers at low temperatures of the cooling air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milman, O. O.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Kondratev, A. V.; Shifrin, B. A.; Yankov, G. G.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of startup and performance of air-cooled condensers (ACC) and dry cooling towers (DCT) at low cooling air temperatures are considered. Effects of the startup of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures are described. Different options of the ACC heating up are analyzed, and examples of existing technologies are presented (electric heating, heating up with hot air or steam, and internal and external heating). The use of additional heat exchanging sections, steam tracers, in the DCT design is described. The need for high power in cases of electric heating and heating up with hot air is noted. An experimental stand for research and testing of the ACC startup at low temperatures is described. The design of the three-pass ACC unit is given, and its advantages over classical single-pass design at low temperatures are listed. The formation of ice plugs inside the heat exchanging tubes during the start-up of ACC and DCT at low cooling air temperatures is analyzed. Experimental data on the effect of the steam flow rate, steam nozzle distance from the heat-exchange surface, and their orientation in space on the metal temperature were collected, and test results are analyzed. It is noted that the surface temperature at the end of the heat up is almost independent from its initial temperature. Recommendations for the safe start-up of ACCs and DCTs are given. The heating flow necessary to sufficiently heat up heat-exchange surfaces of ACCs and DCTs for the safe startup is estimated. The technology and the process of the heat up of the ACC with the heating steam external supply are described by the example of the startup of the full-scale section of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures of the cooling air, and the advantages of the proposed start-up technology are confirmed.

  18. Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

  19. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOEpatents

    Worley, Arthur C.; Becht, IV, Charles

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  20. Utility avoids cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    After more than four years of often rancorous debate, New Jersey late last month approved a plan that permits the state`s largest utility to reclaim and restore Delaware Bay marshland instead of constructing a costly cooling tower for two nuclear power units. Environmental interests say they`ll appeal the wetlands proposal, calling it an {open_quotes}unproven experiment{close_quotes} that violates Clean Water Act provisions.