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Sample records for find biological factors

  1. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  2. Happiness & Health: The Biological Factors- Systematic Review Article

    PubMed Central

    DFARHUD, Dariush; MALMIR, Maryam; KHANAHMADI, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Happiness underlying factors are considerable from two dimensions: endogenic factors (biological, cognitive, personality and ethical sub-factors) and exogenic factors (behavioral, socialcultural, economical, geographical, life events and aesthetics sub-factors). Among all endogenic factors, biological sub-factors are the significant predictors of happiness. Existence of significant differences in temperament and happiness of infants is an indicator of biological influences. Therefore, this study aimed to consider biological factors that underlie happiness. At the first, all of the biological factors in relation with happiness were searched from following websites: PubMed, Wiley& Sons, Science direct (1990–2014). Then, the articles divided into five sub-groups (genetic, brain and neurotransmitters, endocrinology and hormones, physical health, morphology and physical attractiveness). Finally, a systematic review performed based on existing information. Results of studies on genetic factors indicated an average effectiveness of genetic about 35 -50 percent on happiness. In spite of difficulties in finding special genes, several genes distributed to emotion and mood. Neuroscience studies showed that some part of brain (e.g. amygdala, hipocamp and limbic system) and neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamine, serotonin, norepinefrine and endorphin) play a role in control of happiness. A few studies pointed to the role of cortisol and adrenaline (adrenal gland) and oxitocin (pituitary gland) in controlling happiness. Physical health and typology also concluded in most related studies to have a significant role in happiness. Therefore, according to previous research, it can be said that biological and health factors are critical in underlying happiness and its role in happiness is undeniable. PMID:26060713

  3. Happiness & Health: The Biological Factors- Systematic Review Article.

    PubMed

    Dfarhud, Dariush; Malmir, Maryam; Khanahmadi, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Happiness underlying factors are considerable from two dimensions: endogenic factors (biological, cognitive, personality and ethical sub-factors) and exogenic factors (behavioral, socialcultural, economical, geographical, life events and aesthetics sub-factors). Among all endogenic factors, biological sub-factors are the significant predictors of happiness. Existence of significant differences in temperament and happiness of infants is an indicator of biological influences. Therefore, this study aimed to consider biological factors that underlie happiness. At the first, all of the biological factors in relation with happiness were searched from following websites: PubMed, Wiley& Sons, Science direct (1990-2014). Then, the articles divided into five sub-groups (genetic, brain and neurotransmitters, endocrinology and hormones, physical health, morphology and physical attractiveness). Finally, a systematic review performed based on existing information. Results of studies on genetic factors indicated an average effectiveness of genetic about 35 -50 percent on happiness. In spite of difficulties in finding special genes, several genes distributed to emotion and mood. Neuroscience studies showed that some part of brain (e.g. amygdala, hipocamp and limbic system) and neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamine, serotonin, norepinefrine and endorphin) play a role in control of happiness. A few studies pointed to the role of cortisol and adrenaline (adrenal gland) and oxitocin (pituitary gland) in controlling happiness. Physical health and typology also concluded in most related studies to have a significant role in happiness. Therefore, according to previous research, it can be said that biological and health factors are critical in underlying happiness and its role in happiness is undeniable. PMID:26060713

  4. Happiness & Health: The Biological Factors- Systematic Review Article.

    PubMed

    Dfarhud, Dariush; Malmir, Maryam; Khanahmadi, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Happiness underlying factors are considerable from two dimensions: endogenic factors (biological, cognitive, personality and ethical sub-factors) and exogenic factors (behavioral, socialcultural, economical, geographical, life events and aesthetics sub-factors). Among all endogenic factors, biological sub-factors are the significant predictors of happiness. Existence of significant differences in temperament and happiness of infants is an indicator of biological influences. Therefore, this study aimed to consider biological factors that underlie happiness. At the first, all of the biological factors in relation with happiness were searched from following websites: PubMed, Wiley& Sons, Science direct (1990-2014). Then, the articles divided into five sub-groups (genetic, brain and neurotransmitters, endocrinology and hormones, physical health, morphology and physical attractiveness). Finally, a systematic review performed based on existing information. Results of studies on genetic factors indicated an average effectiveness of genetic about 35 -50 percent on happiness. In spite of difficulties in finding special genes, several genes distributed to emotion and mood. Neuroscience studies showed that some part of brain (e.g. amygdala, hipocamp and limbic system) and neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamine, serotonin, norepinefrine and endorphin) play a role in control of happiness. A few studies pointed to the role of cortisol and adrenaline (adrenal gland) and oxitocin (pituitary gland) in controlling happiness. Physical health and typology also concluded in most related studies to have a significant role in happiness. Therefore, according to previous research, it can be said that biological and health factors are critical in underlying happiness and its role in happiness is undeniable.

  5. Finding the key - cell biology and science education.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth R

    2010-12-01

    No international research community, cell biology included, can exist without an educational community to renew and replenish it. Unfortunately, cell biology researchers frequently regard their work as independent of the process of education and see little reason to reach out to science teachers. For cell biology to continue to prosper, I argue that researchers must support education in at least three ways. First, we must view education and research as part of a single scientific community. Second, we should take advantage of new technologies to connect the research laboratory to the classroom. Finally, we must take the initiative in defending the integrity of science teaching, particularly when education is under attack for political or religious reasons.

  6. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  7. Biological Factors Associated with Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickarby, Geoff; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews Asperger Syndrome, a form of developing autism with average intelligence, in 12 boys (ages 5 to late teens). Examination of family histories, medical history and findings, obstetric, and neonatal data found no common environmental factors and supports a brain damage hypothesis. (DB)

  8. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p<0.05). After this continuous variables were dichotomized according to our reference values, the percentage of cases with cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p<0.01; 43% vs 27%; p<0.05; 36% vs 23%; p<0.05, respectively. The percentage of cases with PAI-1 values >30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a

  9. Structural Biology Of Factor VIIa/Tissue Factor Initiated Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Vadivel, Kanagasabai; Paul Bajaj, S.

    2012-01-01

    Factor VII (FVII) consists of an N-terminal gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain followed by two epidermal growth factor-like (EGF1 and EGF2) domains and the C-terminal protease domain. Activation of FVII results in a two-chain FVIIa molecule consisting of a light chain (Gla-EGF1-EGF2 domains) and a heavy chain (protease domain) held together by a single disulfide bond. During coagulation, the complex of tissue factor (TF, a transmembrane glycoprotein) and FVIIa activates factor IX (FIX) and factor X (FX). FVIIa is structurally “zymogen-like” and when bound to TF, it is more “active enzyme-like.” FIX and FX share structural homology with FVII. Three structural biology aspects of FVIIa/TF are presented in this review. One, regions in soluble TF (sTF) that interact with FVIIa as well as mapping of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and Zn2+ sites in FVIIa and their functions; two, modeled interactive regions of Gla and EGF1 domains of FXa and FIXa with FVIIa/sTF; and three, incompletely formed oxyanion hole in FVIIa/sTF and its induction by substrate/inhibitor. Finally, an overview of the recognition elements in TF pathway inhibitor is provided. PMID:22652793

  10. Factorization of Polynomials and GCD Computations for Finding Universal Denominators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, S. A.; Gheffar, A.; Khmelnov, D. E.

    We discuss the algorithms which, given a linear difference equation with rational function coefficients over a field k of characteristic 0, compute a polynomial U(x) ∈ k[x] (a universal denominator) such that the denominator of each of rational solutions (if exist) of the given equation divides U(x). We consider two types of such algorithms. One of them is based on constructing a set of irreducible polynomials that are candidates for divisors of denominators of rational solutions, and on finding a bound for the exponent of each of these candidates (the full factorization of polynomials is used). The second one is related to earlier algorithms for finding universal denominators, where the computation of gcd was used instead of the full factorization. The algorithms are applicable to scalar equations of arbitrary orders as well as to systems of first-order equations.

  11. Improving gene expression data interpretation by finding latent factors that co-regulate gene modules with clinical factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the analysis of high-throughput data with a clinical outcome, researchers mostly focus on genes/proteins that show first-order relations with the clinical outcome. While this approach yields biomarkers and biological mechanisms that are easily interpretable, it may miss information that is important to the understanding of disease mechanism and/or treatment response. Here we test the hypothesis that unobserved factors can be mobilized by the living system to coordinate the response to the clinical factors. Results We developed a computational method named Guided Latent Factor Discovery (GLFD) to identify hidden factors that act in combination with the observed clinical factors to control gene modules. In simulation studies, the method recovered masked factors effectively. Using real microarray data, we demonstrate that the method identifies latent factors that are biologically relevant, and extracts more information than analyzing only the first-order response to the clinical outcome. Conclusions Finding latent factors using GLFD brings extra insight into the mechanisms of the disease/drug response. The R code of the method is available at http://userwww.service.emory.edu/~tyu8/GLFD. PMID:22087761

  12. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09-1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13-1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias-cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40-5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01-1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors. PMID:27622931

  13. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09-1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13-1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias-cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40-5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01-1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors.

  14. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09–1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13–1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias—cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40–5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01–1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors. PMID:27622931

  15. Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Factors in Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Fatima, Farah; Vallabhaneni, Krishna C.; Penfornis, Patrice; Valadi, Hadi; Ekström, Karin; Kholia, Sharad; Whitt, Jason D.; Fernandes, Joseph D.; Pochampally, Radhika; Squire, Jeremy A.; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are proposed to continuously secrete trophic factors that potentially serve as mediators of autocrine and paracrine activities, associated with reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment, tissue regeneration, and repair. Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions. Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate. Exchange of genetic information utilizing persistent bidirectional communication mediated by stem cell-EVs could regulate stemness, self-renewal, and differentiation in stem cells and their subpopulations. This review therefore discusses stem cell-EVs as evolving communication factors in stem cell biology, focusing on how they regulate cell fates by inducing persistent and prolonged genetic reprogramming of resident cells in a paracrine fashion. In addition, we address the role of stem cell-secreted vesicles in shaping the tumor microenvironment and immunomodulation and in their ability to stimulate endogenous repair processes during tissue damage. Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies. PMID:26649044

  16. Systems Biology of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2009-01-01

    Several cytokine families have roles in development, maintenance and remodeling of the microcirculation. Of these, the VEGF family is one of the best studied and one of the most complex. Five VEGF ligand genes and five cell surface receptor genes are known in the human, and each of these may be transcribed as multiple splice isoforms to generate an extensive family of proteins, many of which are subject to further proteolytic processing. Using the VEGF family as an example, we describe the current knowledge of growth factor expression, processing and transport in vivo. Experimental studies and computational simulations are being used to measure and predict the activity of these molecules, and we describe avenues of research that seek to fill the remaining gaps in our understanding of VEGF family behavior. PMID:18608994

  17. Factors affecting response to biologic treatment in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Karczewski, Jacek; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Rzymski, Piotr; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease, affecting approximately 2-4% of the population in western countries. Patients with a more severe form of the disease are typically considered for systemic therapy, including biologics. In spite of the overall superiority of biologic agents, the treatment response may differ substantially among individual patients. As with other medical conditions, a range of factors contribute to response heterogeneity observed in psoriasis. Proper identification of these factors can significantly improve the therapeutic decisions. This review focuses on potential genetic and nongenetic factors that may affect the treatment response and outcomes in patients with psoriasis.

  18. A Bayesian Dose-finding Design for Oncology Clinical Trials of Combinational Biological Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chunyan; Yuan, Ying; Ji, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Treating patients with novel biological agents is becoming a leading trend in oncology. Unlike cytotoxic agents, for which efficacy and toxicity monotonically increase with dose, biological agents may exhibit non-monotonic patterns in their dose-response relationships. Using a trial with two biological agents as an example, we propose a dose-finding design to identify the biologically optimal dose combination (BODC), which is defined as the dose combination of the two agents with the highest efficacy and tolerable toxicity. A change-point model is used to reflect the fact that the dose-toxicity surface of the combinational agents may plateau at higher dose levels, and a flexible logistic model is proposed to accommodate the possible non-monotonic pattern for the dose-efficacy relationship. During the trial, we continuously update the posterior estimates of toxicity and efficacy and assign patients to the most appropriate dose combination. We propose a novel dose-finding algorithm to encourage sufficient exploration of untried dose combinations in the two-dimensional space. Extensive simulation studies show that the proposed design has desirable operating characteristics in identifying the BODC under various patterns of dose-toxicity and dose-efficacy relationships. PMID:24511160

  19. A Bayesian Dose-finding Design for Oncology Clinical Trials of Combinational Biological Agents.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chunyan; Yuan, Ying; Ji, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Treating patients with novel biological agents is becoming a leading trend in oncology. Unlike cytotoxic agents, for which efficacy and toxicity monotonically increase with dose, biological agents may exhibit non-monotonic patterns in their dose-response relationships. Using a trial with two biological agents as an example, we propose a dose-finding design to identify the biologically optimal dose combination (BODC), which is defined as the dose combination of the two agents with the highest efficacy and tolerable toxicity. A change-point model is used to reflect the fact that the dose-toxicity surface of the combinational agents may plateau at higher dose levels, and a flexible logistic model is proposed to accommodate the possible non-monotonic pattern for the dose-efficacy relationship. During the trial, we continuously update the posterior estimates of toxicity and efficacy and assign patients to the most appropriate dose combination. We propose a novel dose-finding algorithm to encourage sufficient exploration of untried dose combinations in the two-dimensional space. Extensive simulation studies show that the proposed design has desirable operating characteristics in identifying the BODC under various patterns of dose-toxicity and dose-efficacy relationships. PMID:24511160

  20. Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Coles, Adrienne D.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on race-based admissions, sports and sex, and religion and drugs suggest that: affirmative action policies were successful regarding college admissions; boys who play sports are more likely to be sexually active than their peers, with the opposite true for girls; and religion is a major factor in whether teens use cigarettes, alcohol, and…

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factors: Biology, Function, and Application for Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ye-Rang; Won, Jong Eun; Jeon, Eunyi; Lee, Sujin; Kang, Wonmo; Jo, Hyejin; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Shin, Ueon Sang; Kim, Hae-Won

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that signal through FGF receptors (FGFRs) regulate a broad spectrum of biological functions, including cellular proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation. The FGF signal pathways are the RAS/MAP kinase pathway, PI3 kinase/AKT pathway, and PLCγ pathway, among which the RAS/MAP kinase pathway is known to be predominant. Several studies have recently implicated the in vitro biological functions of FGFs for tissue regeneration. However, to obtain optimal outcomes in vivo, it is important to enhance the half-life of FGFs and their biological stability. Future applications of FGFs are expected when the biological functions of FGFs are potentiated through the appropriate use of delivery systems and scaffolds. This review will introduce the biology and cellular functions of FGFs and deal with the biomaterials based delivery systems and their current applications for the regeneration of tissues, including skin, blood vessel, muscle, adipose, tendon/ligament, cartilage, bone, tooth, and nerve tissues. PMID:21350642

  2. Major biological actions of CCK--a critical evaluation of research findings.

    PubMed

    Fink, H; Rex, A; Voits, M; Voigt, J P

    1998-11-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the first discovered gastrointestinal hormones and one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the brain. Two types of CCK receptors have been identified: (1) CCK-A receptors are mainly located in the periphery, but are also found in some areas of the CNS; and (2) CCK-B receptors are widely distributed in the brain. Major biological actions of CCK are the reduction of food intake and the induction of anxiety-related behavior. Inhibition of feeding is mainly mediated by the A-type receptors, whereas anxiety-like behavior is induced by stimulating B-type receptors. This paper presents new findings on the effects of the biologically active CCK agonists, CCK-8S, CCK-4, and A71378. The results reviewed suggest that the hypophagic effects of CCK are strongly dependent on the experimental design, sex, and age of the rats. For example, food intake measured during the night or after food deprivation is reduced by CCK-8S in young adult and aged rats, whereas, under fixed feeding conditions, CCK-8S does not inhibit food intake in young adult rats. The sensitivity to the hypophagic CCK effect increases with age in male and female rats; however, female rats are less sensitive to the CCK action. Further, using a nongenetic and non-stressful model of obesity due to unspecific postnatal overfeeding, the satiating effect of moderate CCK-8S doses is weaker in obese than in normal rats. Again, the hypophagic effect is more pronounced in male than in female obese and normal rats. Considering that aversive reactions in rats are markedly influenced by strain and breeding-line variations, research results in this area are critically reviewed. It is shown that anxiety-like symptoms can only be induced by a selectively acting CCK-B agonist, whereas mixed CCK-A and -B agonists and selective CCK-A agonists fail to change behavior in anxiety tests. CCK-4 induces stable and reproducible anxiogenic-like behavior only in certain rat strains. Moreover, CCK-4 effects

  3. Finding off-targets, biological pathways, and target diseases for chymase inhibitors via structure-based systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    Arooj, Mahreen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Cao, Guang Ping; Kim, Songmi; Arulalapperumal, Venkatesh; Lee, Keun Woo

    2015-07-01

    Off-target binding connotes the binding of a small molecule of therapeutic significance to a protein target in addition to the primary target for which it was proposed. Progressively such off-targeting is emerging to be regular practice to reveal side effects. Chymase is an enzyme of hydrolase class that catalyzes hydrolysis of peptide bonds. A link between heart failure and chymase is ascribed, and a chymase inhibitor is in clinical phase II for treatment of heart failure. However, the underlying mechanisms of the off-target effects of human chymase inhibitors are still unclear. Here, we develop a robust computational strategy that is applicable to any enzyme system and that allows the prediction of drug effects on biological processes. Putative off-targets for chymase inhibitors were identified through various structural and functional similarity analyses along with molecular docking studies. Finally, literature survey was performed to incorporate these off-targets into biological pathways and to establish links between pathways and particular adverse effects. Off-targets of chymase inhibitors are linked to various biological pathways such as classical and lectin pathways of complement system, intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of coagulation cascade, and fibrinolytic system. Tissue kallikreins, granzyme M, neutrophil elastase, and mesotrypsin are also identified as off-targets. These off-targets and their associated pathways are elucidated for the effects of inflammation, cancer, hemorrhage, thrombosis, and central nervous system diseases (Alzheimer's disease). Prospectively, our approach is helpful not only to better understand the mechanisms of chymase inhibitors but also for drug repurposing exercises to find novel uses for these inhibitors.

  4. Network expansion and pathway enrichment analysis towards biologically significant findings from microarrays.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaogang; Huang, Hui; Wei, Tao; Pandey, Ragini; Reinhard, Christoph; Li, Shuyu D; Chen, Jake Y

    2012-01-01

    In many cases, crucial genes show relatively slight changes between groups of samples (e.g. normal vs. disease), and many genes selected from microarray differential analysis by measuring the expression level statistically are also poorly annotated and lack of biological significance. In this paper, we present an innovative approach - network expansion and pathway enrichment analysis (NEPEA) for integrative microarray analysis. We assume that organized knowledge will help microarray data analysis in significant ways, and the organized knowledge could be represented as molecular interaction networks or biological pathways. Based on this hypothesis, we develop the NEPEA framework based on network expansion from the human annotated and predicted protein interaction (HAPPI) database, and pathway enrichment from the human pathway database (HPD). We use a recently-published microarray dataset (GSE24215) related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) as case study, since this study provided a thorough experimental validation for both genes and pathways identified computationally from classical microarray analysis and pathway analysis. We perform our NEPEA analysis for this dataset based on the results from the classical microarray analysis to identify biologically significant genes and pathways. Our findings are not only consistent with the original findings mostly, but also obtained more supports from other literatures.

  5. [Rheumatoid factor or antinuclear antibodies as incidental finding].

    PubMed

    Biesen, R; Burmester, G-R; Hiepe, F

    2014-10-01

    Rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies are detectable in many different conditions and are ordered by various specialities. The interpretation of results, however, is quite complex.The objective of this article is to help apply these tests correctly and enable an accurate interpretation of the test results. Furthermore, we describe the steps in the differential diagnostics for selecting those patients who need to be referred to a rheumatologist.

  6. Associations Between Elastography Findings and Clinicopathological Factors in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Mitsuhiro; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Sueta, Aiko; Tomiguchi, Mai; Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Kawasoe, Teru; Hamada, Akinobu; Iwase, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to explore the clinical significance of breast tumor tissue stiffness based on ultrasound elastographic evaluation in clinical breast cancer. Tumor tissue stiffness is mainly regulated by interactions among tumor cells, stromal cells, and extracellular matrix and was recently regarded as a representative feature of tumor microenvironment. Basic research has already revealed that the tumor stiffness can lead to tumor progression; however, little is known about its clinical significance because thus far, no useful modality is available in the clinical setting. We investigated the tumor stiffness by strain elastography in 503 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer. Correlations between stiffness and clinicopathological factors, including tumor size, lymph node involvement, tumor subtypes, and stromal-related genes’ expressions in primary breast tumor, were statistically examined. We identified that clinical tumor stiffness significantly correlated with lymph node involvement and invasive tumor size but not with hormonal receptor expressions, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 status, and ki67 labeling index by analyses of both categorical and continuous variables of stiffness. On multivariate analyses, axillary lymph node metastasis was an independent factor that influenced the stiffness of primary breast tumor. In the gene expression analyses, relatively hard tumors had a significantly high gene expression of lysyl oxidase compared with soft tumors. Our study showed a close relationship between primary tumor stiffness by elastographic evaluation and lymph node involvement in clinical breast cancer. Further investigations on tumor-related tissue stiffness are required. PMID:26683963

  7. Biological factors in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Berton, Alessandra; Loppini, Mattia; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2011-09-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common, and lead to shoulder pain and functional impairment. Despite their frequency and related disability, etiology and pathogenesis are still debated. Multiple factors contribute to tears of the rotator cuff. Extrinsic factors are anatomic variables, such as acromial morphologic characteristics, os acromiale, and acromial spurs that compress the rotator cuff by bony impingement or direct pressure from the surrounding soft tissue. Intrinsic factors arise from the tendon itself, because of tensile overload, aging, microvascular supply, traumatisms, or degeneration. Little information is available from a cellular and molecular point of view. We reviewed the biological factors involved in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tears. Understanding the mechanism of rotator cuff pathology would facilitate the rationale for therapeutic interventions, by guiding the design, selection, and implementation of treatment strategies such as biologic modulation and preventive measures.

  8. Conduct, Biological Factors and Adult Delinquency in a Longitudinal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, David

    In the course of a longitudinal research program conducted in Sweden, data were being collected on biological and psychological aspects of individual functioning and on environmental factors for a fairly large representative sample (approximately 1,000) of Swedish males and females between 10 and 27 years of age. Based on data from the…

  9. Muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: update on causes and biological findings

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Sergi; Casadevall, Carme; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Barreiro, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory and/or limb muscle dysfunction, which are frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, contribute to their disease prognosis irrespective of the lung function. Muscle dysfunction is caused by the interaction of local and systemic factors. The key deleterious etiologic factors are pulmonary hyperinflation for the respiratory muscles and deconditioning secondary to reduced physical activity for limb muscles. Nonetheless, cigarette smoke, systemic inflammation, nutritional abnormalities, exercise, exacerbations, anabolic insufficiency, drugs and comorbidities also seem to play a relevant role. All these factors modify the phenotype of the muscles, through the induction of several biological phenomena in patients with COPD. While respiratory muscles improve their aerobic phenotype (percentage of oxidative fibers, capillarization, mitochondrial density, enzyme activity in the aerobic pathways, etc.), limb muscles exhibit the opposite phenotype. In addition, both muscle groups show oxidative stress, signs of damage and epigenetic changes. However, fiber atrophy, increased number of inflammatory cells, altered regenerative capacity; signs of apoptosis and autophagy, and an imbalance between protein synthesis and breakdown are rather characteristic features of the limb muscles, mostly in patients with reduced body weight. Despite that significant progress has been achieved in the last decades, full elucidation of the specific roles of the target biological mechanisms involved in COPD muscle dysfunction is still required. Such an achievement will be crucial to adequately tackle with this relevant clinical problem of COPD patients in the near-future. PMID:26623119

  10. Muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: update on causes and biological findings.

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Pascual, Sergi; Casadevall, Carme; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Barreiro, Esther

    2015-10-01

    Respiratory and/or limb muscle dysfunction, which are frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, contribute to their disease prognosis irrespective of the lung function. Muscle dysfunction is caused by the interaction of local and systemic factors. The key deleterious etiologic factors are pulmonary hyperinflation for the respiratory muscles and deconditioning secondary to reduced physical activity for limb muscles. Nonetheless, cigarette smoke, systemic inflammation, nutritional abnormalities, exercise, exacerbations, anabolic insufficiency, drugs and comorbidities also seem to play a relevant role. All these factors modify the phenotype of the muscles, through the induction of several biological phenomena in patients with COPD. While respiratory muscles improve their aerobic phenotype (percentage of oxidative fibers, capillarization, mitochondrial density, enzyme activity in the aerobic pathways, etc.), limb muscles exhibit the opposite phenotype. In addition, both muscle groups show oxidative stress, signs of damage and epigenetic changes. However, fiber atrophy, increased number of inflammatory cells, altered regenerative capacity; signs of apoptosis and autophagy, and an imbalance between protein synthesis and breakdown are rather characteristic features of the limb muscles, mostly in patients with reduced body weight. Despite that significant progress has been achieved in the last decades, full elucidation of the specific roles of the target biological mechanisms involved in COPD muscle dysfunction is still required. Such an achievement will be crucial to adequately tackle with this relevant clinical problem of COPD patients in the near-future.

  11. Assessing empathy in antisocial youth: factor analytic and validation findings.

    PubMed

    Whitt, Ahmed; Howard, Matthew O

    2013-02-01

    Relatively few researchers have examined empathy among antisocial youth, although adolescents may differ greatly in the nature and frequency of their offending behavior. In this investigation, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used (1) to derive a brief empathy scale from the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Version; (2) to assess the construct validity, internal consistency, and potential clinical utility of the derived empathy subscale; and (3) to identify key sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral correlates of empathy in delinquent youth. The 707 adolescent residents of 27 Missouri Division of Youth Services rehabilitation facilities had a mean age of 15.5 yr. (SD = 1.2) and most (87%) were boys. Analysis suggested that the new measure possesses adequate psychometric properties and may be a useful addition to clinical assessments of antisocial youth. PMID:23654045

  12. Assessing empathy in antisocial youth: factor analytic and validation findings.

    PubMed

    Whitt, Ahmed; Howard, Matthew O

    2013-02-01

    Relatively few researchers have examined empathy among antisocial youth, although adolescents may differ greatly in the nature and frequency of their offending behavior. In this investigation, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used (1) to derive a brief empathy scale from the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Version; (2) to assess the construct validity, internal consistency, and potential clinical utility of the derived empathy subscale; and (3) to identify key sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral correlates of empathy in delinquent youth. The 707 adolescent residents of 27 Missouri Division of Youth Services rehabilitation facilities had a mean age of 15.5 yr. (SD = 1.2) and most (87%) were boys. Analysis suggested that the new measure possesses adequate psychometric properties and may be a useful addition to clinical assessments of antisocial youth.

  13. Systems biology via redescription and ontologies (I): finding phase changes with applications to malaria temporal data

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Kevin; Mishra, Bud

    2008-01-01

    Biological systems are complex and often composed of many subtly interacting components. Furthermore, such systems evolve through time and, as the underlying biology executes its genetic program, the relationships between components change and undergo dynamic reorganization. Characterizing these relationships precisely is a challenging task, but one that must be undertaken if we are to understand these systems in sufficient detail. One set of tools that may prove useful are the formal principles of model building and checking, which could allow the biologist to frame these inherently temporal questions in a sufficiently rigorous framework. In response to these challenges, GOALIE (Gene ontology algorithmic logic and information extractor) was developed and has been successfully employed in the analysis of high throughput biological data (e.g. time-course gene-expression microarray data and neural spike train recordings). The method has applications to a wide variety of temporal data, indeed any data for which there exist ontological descriptions. This paper describes the algorithms behind GOALIE and its use in the study of the Intraerythrocytic Developmental Cycle (IDC) of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for a deadly form of chloroquine resistant malaria. We focus in particular on the problem of finding phase changes, times of reorganization of transcriptional control. PMID:19003444

  14. Conceptual Modeling in Systems Biology Fosters Empirical Findings: The mRNA Lifecycle

    PubMed Central

    Dori, Dov; Choder, Mordechai

    2007-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to understanding complex biological systems is the extent and rapid evolution of information, way beyond the capacity individuals to manage and comprehend. Current modeling approaches and tools lack adequate capacity to model concurrently structure and behavior of biological systems. Here we propose Object-Process Methodology (OPM), a holistic conceptual modeling paradigm, as a means to model both diagrammatically and textually biological systems formally and intuitively at any desired number of levels of detail. OPM combines objects, e.g., proteins, and processes, e.g., transcription, in a way that is simple and easily comprehensible to researchers and scholars. As a case in point, we modeled the yeast mRNA lifecycle. The mRNA lifecycle involves mRNA synthesis in the nucleus, mRNA transport to the cytoplasm, and its subsequent translation and degradation therein. Recent studies have identified specific cytoplasmic foci, termed processing bodies that contain large complexes of mRNAs and decay factors. Our OPM model of this cellular subsystem, presented here, led to the discovery of a new constituent of these complexes, the translation termination factor eRF3. Association of eRF3 with processing bodies is observed after a long-term starvation period. We suggest that OPM can eventually serve as a comprehensive evolvable model of the entire living cell system. The model would serve as a research and communication platform, highlighting unknown and uncertain aspects that can be addressed empirically and updated consequently while maintaining consistency. PMID:17849002

  15. Performance of transdermal therapeutic systems: Effects of biological factors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Inderjeet; Morris, Andrew Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is a technique that is used to deliver a drug into the systemic circulation across the skin. This mechanism of drug delivery route has many advantages, including steady drug plasma concentrations, improved patient compliance, elimination of hepatic first pass, and degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. Over the last 30 years, many transdermal products have been launched in the market. Despite the inherent advantages of TDD and the growing list of transdermal products, one of the major drawbacks to TDD is the occurrence of inter- and intraindividual variation in the absorption of the drug across the skin. A majority of these variations are caused by biological factors, such as gender, age, ethnicity, and skin hydration and metabolism. These factors affect the integrity and the barrier qualities of the skin, which subsequently result in the variation in the amount of drug absorbed. The main objective of this review article is to provide a concise commentary on the biological factors that contribute to the variation in transdermal permeation of drugs across human skin and the available transdermal therapeutic systems that may reduce the variations caused by biological factors. PMID:23071913

  16. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Best, Lyle G; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B; Roman, Mary J; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-08-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians.

  17. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Best, Lyle G; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B; Roman, Mary J; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-08-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians. PMID:27540694

  18. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A.; Best, Lyle G.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B.; Roman, Mary J.; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians. PMID:27540694

  19. Chance as an explanatory factor in evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, T

    1991-01-01

    Darwinian evolutionary biology has often been criticized for appealing to the notion of 'chance' in its explanations. According to some critics, such appeals exhibit the explanatory poverty of evolutionary theory. In response, defenders of Darwinism sometimes downplay the importance of 'chance' in evolution. I believe that both of these approaches are mistaken. The main thesis of this paper is that the term 'chance' encompasses a number of distinct concepts, and that at least some of these concepts serve essential explanatory functions in evolutionary biology. This claim is defended by way of an historical survey of the major concepts of 'chance' in the history of evolutionary biology, especially the concepts used by Jean Baptiste Lamarck, Charles Darwin, and Sewall Wright. An examination of their biologies shows how the concepts of 'chance' used cohere with their major scientific objectives and methods. These concepts survive and continue to function as important explanatory factors in contemporary evolutionary biology. Examples of such usage are given, and the explanatory status of 'chance' assessed.

  20. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Prest, Emmanuelle I; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  1. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  2. CAMPO, SCR_FIND and CHC_FIND: a suite of web tools for computational structural biology.

    PubMed

    Paiardini, Alessandro; Bossa, Francesco; Pascarella, Stefano

    2005-07-01

    The identification of evolutionarily conserved features of protein structures can provide insights into their functional and structural properties. Three methods have been developed and implemented as WWW tools, CAMPO, SCR_FIND and CHC_FIND, to analyze evolutionarily conserved residues (ECRs), structurally conserved regions (SCRs) and conserved hydrophobic contacts (CHCs) in protein families and superfamilies, on the basis of their 3D structures and the homologous sequences available. The programs identify protein segments that conserve a similar main-chain conformation, compute residue-to-residue hydrophobic contacts involving only apolar atoms common to all the 3D structures analyzed and allow the identification of conserved amino-acid sites among protein structures and their homologous sequences. The programs also allow the visualization of SCRs, CHCs and ECRs directly on the superposed structures and their multiple structural and sequence alignments. Tools and tutorials explaining their usage are available at http://schubert.bio.uniroma1.it/SCR_FIND, http://schubert.bio.uniroma1.it/CHC_FIND and http://schubert.bio.uniroma1.it/CAMPO.

  3. CytoKavosh: a cytoscape plug-in for finding network motifs in large biological networks.

    PubMed

    Masoudi-Nejad, Ali; Ansariola, Mitra; Kashani, Zahra Razaghi Moghadam; Salehzadeh-Yazdi, Ali; Khakabimamaghani, Sahand

    2012-01-01

    Network motifs are small connected sub-graphs that have recently gathered much attention to discover structural behaviors of large and complex networks. Finding motifs with any size is one of the most important problems in complex and large networks. It needs fast and reliable algorithms and tools for achieving this purpose. CytoKavosh is one of the best choices for finding motifs with any given size in any complex network. It relies on a fast algorithm, Kavosh, which makes it faster than other existing tools. Kavosh algorithm applies some well known algorithmic features and includes tricky aspects, which make it an efficient algorithm in this field. CytoKavosh is a Cytoscape plug-in which supports us in finding motifs of given size in a network that is formerly loaded into the Cytoscape work-space (directed or undirected). High performance of CytoKavosh is achieved by dynamically linking highly optimized functions of Kavosh's C++ to the Cytoscape Java program, which makes this plug-in suitable for analyzing large biological networks. Some significant attributes of CytoKavosh is efficiency in time usage and memory and having no limitation related to the implementation in motif size. CytoKavosh is implemented in a visual environment Cytoscape that is convenient for the users to interact and create visual options to analyze the structural behavior of a network. This plug-in can work on any given network and is very simple to use and generates graphical results of discovered motifs with any required details. There is no specific Cytoscape plug-in, specific for finding the network motifs, based on original concept. So, we have introduced for the first time, CytoKavosh as the first plug-in, and we hope that this plug-in can be improved to cover other options to make it the best motif-analyzing tool.

  4. Correlation analyses of clinical and molecular findings identify candidate biological pathways in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinicians have long appreciated the distinct phenotype of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) compared to polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (POLY). We hypothesized that gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from children with each disease would reveal distinct biological pathways when analyzed for significant associations with elevations in two markers of JIA activity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and number of affected joints (joint count, JC). Methods PBMC RNA from SJIA and POLY patients was profiled by kinetic PCR to analyze expression of 181 genes, selected for relevance to immune response pathways. Pearson correlation and Student's t-test analyses were performed to identify transcripts significantly associated with clinical parameters (ESR and JC) in SJIA or POLY samples. These transcripts were used to find related biological pathways. Results Combining Pearson and t-test analyses, we found 91 ESR-related and 92 JC-related genes in SJIA. For POLY, 20 ESR-related and 0 JC-related genes were found. Using Ingenuity Systems Pathways Analysis, we identified SJIA ESR-related and JC-related pathways. The two sets of pathways are strongly correlated. In contrast, there is a weaker correlation between SJIA and POLY ESR-related pathways. Notably, distinct biological processes were found to correlate with JC in samples from the earlier systemic plus arthritic phase (SAF) of SJIA compared to samples from the later arthritis-predominant phase (AF). Within the SJIA SAF group, IL-10 expression was related to JC, whereas lack of IL-4 appeared to characterize the chronic arthritis (AF) subgroup. Conclusions The strong correlation between pathways implicated in elevations of both ESR and JC in SJIA argues that the systemic and arthritic components of the disease are related mechanistically. Inflammatory pathways in SJIA are distinct from those in POLY course JIA, consistent with differences in clinically

  5. Physical and biological factors determining the effective proton range

    SciTech Connect

    Grün, Rebecca; Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael; Zink, Klemens; Durante, Marco; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Proton radiotherapy is rapidly becoming a standard treatment option for cancer. However, even though experimental data show an increase of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with depth, particularly at the distal end of the treatment field, a generic RBE of 1.1 is currently used in proton radiotherapy. This discrepancy might affect the effective penetration depth of the proton beam and thus the dose to the surrounding tissue and organs at risk. The purpose of this study was thus to analyze the impact of a tissue and dose dependent RBE of protons on the effective range of the proton beam in comparison to the range based on a generic RBE of 1.1.Methods: Factors influencing the biologically effective proton range were systematically analyzed by means of treatment planning studies using the Local Effect Model (LEM IV) and the treatment planning software TRiP98. Special emphasis was put on the comparison of passive and active range modulation techniques.Results: Beam energy, tissue type, and dose level significantly affected the biological extension of the treatment field at the distal edge. Up to 4 mm increased penetration depth as compared to the depth based on a constant RBE of 1.1. The extension of the biologically effective range strongly depends on the initial proton energy used for the most distal layer of the field and correlates with the width of the distal penumbra. Thus, the range extension, in general, was more pronounced for passive as compared to active range modulation systems, whereas the maximum RBE was higher for active systems.Conclusions: The analysis showed that the physical characteristics of the proton beam in terms of the width of the distal penumbra have a great impact on the RBE gradient and thus also the biologically effective penetration depth of the beam.

  6. PCSK9 inhibition to reduce cardiovascular disease risk: recent findings from the biology of PCSK9

    PubMed Central

    Tavori, Hagai; Giunzioni, Ilaria; Fazio, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Review novel insights into the biology of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) that may explain the extreme efficiency of PCSK9 inhibition and the unexpected metabolic effects resulting from PCSK9 monoclonal antibody therapy, and may identify additional patients as target of therapy. Recent findings For over 20 years, the practical knowledge of cholesterol metabolism has centered around cellular mechanisms, and around the idea that statin therapy is the essential step to control metabolic abnormalities for cardiovascular risk management. This view has been embraced by the recent AHA/ACC guidelines, but is being challenged by recent studies including nonstatin medications and by the development of a new class of cholesterol-lowering agents that seems destined to early US Food and Drug Administration approval. The discovery of PCSK9 – a circulating protein that regulates hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and serum LDL cholesterol levels – has led to a race for its therapeutic inhibition. Recent findings on PCSK9 regulation and pleiotropic effects will help identify additional patient groups likely to benefit from the inhibitory therapy and unravel the full potential of PCSK9 inhibition therapy. Summary Injectable human monoclonal antibodies to block the interaction between PCSK9 and LDL receptor are demonstrating extraordinary efficacy (LDL reductions of up to 70%) and almost the absence of any side-effects. A more moderate effect is seen on other lipoprotein parameters, with the exception of lipoprotein(a) levels. We describe mechanisms that can explain the effect on lipoprotein(a), predict a potential effect on postprandial triglyderides, and suggest a new category of patients for anti-PCSK9 therapy. PMID:25692926

  7. An algorithm for finding biologically significant features in microarray data based on a priori manifold learning.

    PubMed

    Hira, Zena M; Trigeorgis, George; Gillies, Duncan F

    2014-01-01

    Microarray databases are a large source of genetic data, which, upon proper analysis, could enhance our understanding of biology and medicine. Many microarray experiments have been designed to investigate the genetic mechanisms of cancer, and analytical approaches have been applied in order to classify different types of cancer or distinguish between cancerous and non-cancerous tissue. However, microarrays are high-dimensional datasets with high levels of noise and this causes problems when using machine learning methods. A popular approach to this problem is to search for a set of features that will simplify the structure and to some degree remove the noise from the data. The most widely used approach to feature extraction is principal component analysis (PCA) which assumes a multivariate Gaussian model of the data. More recently, non-linear methods have been investigated. Among these, manifold learning algorithms, for example Isomap, aim to project the data from a higher dimensional space onto a lower dimension one. We have proposed a priori manifold learning for finding a manifold in which a representative set of microarray data is fused with relevant data taken from the KEGG pathway database. Once the manifold has been constructed the raw microarray data is projected onto it and clustering and classification can take place. In contrast to earlier fusion based methods, the prior knowledge from the KEGG databases is not used in, and does not bias the classification process--it merely acts as an aid to find the best space in which to search the data. In our experiments we have found that using our new manifold method gives better classification results than using either PCA or conventional Isomap. PMID:24595155

  8. "The role of oxytocin in psychiatric disorders: A review of biological and therapeutic research findings"

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, David; Fallon, Daniel; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is a peptide hormone integral in parturition, milk let-down, and maternal behaviors that has been demonstrated in animal studies to be important in the formation of pair bonds and in social behaviors. This hormone is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of human social behaviors, including social decision making, evaluating and responding to social stimuli, mediating social interactions, and forming social memories. In addition, oxytocin is intricately involved in a broad array of neuropsychiatric functions, and may be a common factor important in multiple psychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. This review article examines the extant literature on the evidence for oxytocin dysfunction in a variety of psychiatric disorders and highlights the need for further research to understand the complex role of the oxytocin system in psychiatric disease to pave the way for developing new therapeutic modalities. Articles were selected that involved human participants with various psychiatric disorders, either comparing oxytocin biology to healthy controls or examining the effects of exogenous oxytocin administration. PMID:24651556

  9. Human milk and formulae: neurotrophic and new biological factors.

    PubMed

    Serpero, Laura D; Frigiola, Alessandro; Gazzolo, Diego

    2012-03-01

    Mother milk is widely accepted to be a unique product believed to contain biological factors involved in the regulation of newborn optimal growth including brain when compared to milk-formula milks. In this setting, there is growing evidence that in milk-formula neuro-oxidative stress biomarkers, neurotrophic proteins and calcium binding proteins, known to be involved in a cascade of events leading to brain, cardiac and vascular development/damage, are to date lacking or at a lower concentration than breast milk. Therefore, this review is aimed at offering additional insights to the role in human milk of some selected biomarkers such as: i) neurotrophic factors such as Activin A; ii) Calcium binding protein such as S100B and, iii) heat shock protein known to be involved in oxidative stress response (namely hemeoxygenase-1, HO-1 or Heat shock Protein 32, HSP32).

  10. Finding Clarity by Fostering Confusion: Reflections on Teaching an Undergraduate Integrated Biological Systems Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kirsten H.

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate biology programs in smaller liberal arts colleges are increasingly becoming focused on health science fields. This narrowing of focus potentially decreases opportunities for these students to explore other sub-fields of biology. This perspectives article highlights how one small university in Connecticut decided to institute a…

  11. The contribution of recent NSABP clinical trials of primary breast cancer therapy to an understanding of tumor biology--an overview of findings.

    PubMed

    Fisher, B; Redmond, C; Fisher, E R

    1980-08-15

    Disagreement about local-regional management of primary breast cancer is related to differences in perception of the biology of the disease. Other factors are secondary and obscure the reality that all treatment must be related to biological considerations; otherwise, the basis for therapy is relegated to speculation and to personal experience. As a result of extensive laboratory and clinical studies during the past two decades, there has arisen an altered concept of cancer biology. The National Surgical Adjuvant Project for Breast and Bowel Cancers (NSABP) has made a major contribution to the change through findings from a series of prospective randomized clinical trials. That group of American and Canadian investigators has implemented a series of trials aimed at answering biological as well as clinical questions. Those studies have not only been concerned with defining proper local-regional treatment but have also pointed out the need for, and value of, systemic therapy when used in conjunction with operation. This report will provide an overview of past and present NSABP contributions and will consider those findings in relation to observations from other clinical trials of pertinence. It will emphasize that controversies concerning breast cancer management are related to biological issues that cannot be resolved by "populism" or appeals to emotion. PMID:6994873

  12. 76 FR 15935 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... 19, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 3076-3077, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0115) a notice... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... relative to the control of air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera). Based on its finding of no significant...

  13. Clinical and Biological Risk Factors for Neuropsychological Impairment in Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Ludivine; Coulbault, Laurent; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Segobin, Shailendra; Eustache, Francis; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alcoholism on cognitive and motor functioning are heterogeneous. While the role of some factors (patterns of alcohol consumption, eating habits or associated liver disease) has been hypothesized, the origins of this heterogeneity remain difficult to establish. The goals of the present study were thus to identify the clinical and biological risk factors for alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments and to determine the threshold beyond which these risk factors can be considered significant. Thirty alcoholic patients and 15 healthy controls had a blood test and underwent a neuropsychological examination. Alcohol severity measures, and liver, thiamine and malnutrition variables, were included in logistic regression models to determine the risk factors for cognitive and motor impairments (executive functions, visuospatial abilities, verbal episodic memory, ataxia), as well as those related to the severity of patients’ overall neuropsychological profile (moderate or severe impairments). Liver fibrosis was found to be a risk factor for executive impairments and also for ataxia, when it was associated with long-term alcohol misuse and symptoms of withdrawal. Altered thiamine metabolism was solely predictive of verbal episodic memory impairments. This combination of biological abnormalities was associated with a profile of moderate neuropsychological impairments. Malnutrition was associated with a profile of more severe impairments. Malnutrition, altered liver function and thiamine metabolism explain, at least partially, the heterogeneity of alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments. Our findings could allow clinicians to identify patients at particular risk of severe neuropsychological impairments before the onset of irreversible and debilitating neurological complications. PMID:27617840

  14. Clinical and Biological Risk Factors for Neuropsychological Impairment in Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Ludivine; Coulbault, Laurent; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Segobin, Shailendra; Eustache, Francis; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alcoholism on cognitive and motor functioning are heterogeneous. While the role of some factors (patterns of alcohol consumption, eating habits or associated liver disease) has been hypothesized, the origins of this heterogeneity remain difficult to establish. The goals of the present study were thus to identify the clinical and biological risk factors for alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments and to determine the threshold beyond which these risk factors can be considered significant. Thirty alcoholic patients and 15 healthy controls had a blood test and underwent a neuropsychological examination. Alcohol severity measures, and liver, thiamine and malnutrition variables, were included in logistic regression models to determine the risk factors for cognitive and motor impairments (executive functions, visuospatial abilities, verbal episodic memory, ataxia), as well as those related to the severity of patients' overall neuropsychological profile (moderate or severe impairments). Liver fibrosis was found to be a risk factor for executive impairments and also for ataxia, when it was associated with long-term alcohol misuse and symptoms of withdrawal. Altered thiamine metabolism was solely predictive of verbal episodic memory impairments. This combination of biological abnormalities was associated with a profile of moderate neuropsychological impairments. Malnutrition was associated with a profile of more severe impairments. Malnutrition, altered liver function and thiamine metabolism explain, at least partially, the heterogeneity of alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments. Our findings could allow clinicians to identify patients at particular risk of severe neuropsychological impairments before the onset of irreversible and debilitating neurological complications. PMID:27617840

  15. Finding electromagnetic and chemical enhancement factors of surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Dvoynenko, Mykhaylo M; Wang, Juen-Kai

    2007-12-15

    The authors report two methods to determine electromagnetic and chemical enhancement factors in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), which are based on saturation property and decay dynamics of photoluminescence and concurrent measurements of photoluminescence and resonance Raman scattering intensities. Considerations for experimental implementation are discussed. This study is expected to facilitate the understanding of SERS mechanisms and the advancement of the usage of SERS in chemical and biological sensor applications.

  16. Finding complex biological relationships in recent PubMed articles using Bio-LDA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijun; Ding, Ying; Tang, Jie; Dong, Xiao; He, Bing; Qiu, Judy; Wild, David J

    2011-03-23

    The overwhelming amount of available scholarly literature in the life sciences poses significant challenges to scientists wishing to keep up with important developments related to their research, but also provides a useful resource for the discovery of recent information concerning genes, diseases, compounds and the interactions between them. In this paper, we describe an algorithm called Bio-LDA that uses extracted biological terminology to automatically identify latent topics, and provides a variety of measures to uncover putative relations among topics and bio-terms. Relationships identified using those approaches are combined with existing data in life science datasets to provide additional insight. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the Bio-LDA model, including association predication, association search and connectivity map generation. This combined approach offers new opportunities for knowledge discovery in many areas of biology including target identification, lead hopping and drug repurposing.

  17. Finding Complex Biological Relationships in Recent PubMed Articles Using Bio-LDA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huijun; Ding, Ying; Tang, Jie; Dong, Xiao; He, Bing; Qiu, Judy; Wild, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The overwhelming amount of available scholarly literature in the life sciences poses significant challenges to scientists wishing to keep up with important developments related to their research, but also provides a useful resource for the discovery of recent information concerning genes, diseases, compounds and the interactions between them. In this paper, we describe an algorithm called Bio-LDA that uses extracted biological terminology to automatically identify latent topics, and provides a variety of measures to uncover putative relations among topics and bio-terms. Relationships identified using those approaches are combined with existing data in life science datasets to provide additional insight. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the Bio-LDA model, including association predication, association search and connectivity map generation. This combined approach offers new opportunities for knowledge discovery in many areas of biology including target identification, lead hopping and drug repurposing. PMID:21448266

  18. Finding New Order in Biological Functions from the Network Structure of Gene Annotations

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Kimberly; Girvan, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) provides biologists with a controlled terminology that describes how genes are associated with functions and how functional terms are related to one another. These term-term relationships encode how scientists conceive the organization of biological functions, and they take the form of a directed acyclic graph (DAG). Here, we propose that the network structure of gene-term annotations made using GO can be employed to establish an alternative approach for grouping functional terms that captures intrinsic functional relationships that are not evident in the hierarchical structure established in the GO DAG. Instead of relying on an externally defined organization for biological functions, our approach connects biological functions together if they are performed by the same genes, as indicated in a compendium of gene annotation data from numerous different sources. We show that grouping terms by this alternate scheme provides a new framework with which to describe and predict the functions of experimentally identified sets of genes. PMID:26588252

  19. Comparison of workplace protection factors for different biological contaminants.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyungmin Jacob; Reponen, Tiina; McKay, Roy; Dwivedi, Alok; Adhikari, Atin; Singh, Umesh; Shukla, Rakesh; Jones, Susan; Jones, Gordon; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2011-07-01

    This study compared workplace protection factors (WPFs) for five different contaminants (endotoxin, fungal spores, (1→3)-β-D-glucan, total particle mass, and total particle number) provided by an N95 elastomeric respirator (ER) and an N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR). We previously reported size-selective WPFs for total particle numbers for the ER and FFR, whereas the current article is focused on WPFs for bioaerosols and total particle mass. Farm workers (n = 25) wore the ER and FFR while performing activities at eight locations representing horse farms, pig barns, and grain handling facilities. For the determination of WPFs, particles were collected on filters simultaneously inside and outside the respirator during the first and last 15 min of a 60-min experiment. One field blank per subject was collected without actual sampling. A reporting limit (RL) was established for each contaminant based on geometric means (GMs) of the field blanks as the lowest possible measurable values. Depending on the contaminant type, 38-48% of data points were below the RL. Therefore, a censored regression model was used to estimate WPFs (WPF(censored)). The WPF(censored) provided by the two types of respirators were not significantly different. In contrast, significant differences were found in the WPF(censored) for different types of contaminants. GMs WPFs(censored) for the two types of respirators combined were 154, 29, 18, 19, and 176 for endotoxin, fungal spore count, (1→3)-β-D-glucan, total particle mass, and total particle number, respectively. The WPF(censored) was more strongly associated with concentrations measured outside the respirator for endotoxin, fungal spores, and total particle mass except for total particle number. However, when only data points with outside concentrations higher than 176×RL were included, the WPFs increased, and the association between the outside concentrations and the WPFs became weaker. Results indicate that difference in WPFs

  20. 50 CFR 23.61 - What factors are considered in making a non-detriment finding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... non-detriment finding? 23.61 Section 23.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... trade. (c) General factors. The applicant must provide sufficient information for us to make a...

  1. 50 CFR 23.61 - What factors are considered in making a non-detriment finding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... non-detriment finding? 23.61 Section 23.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... trade. (c) General factors. The applicant must provide sufficient information for us to make a...

  2. 50 CFR 23.61 - What factors are considered in making a non-detriment finding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... non-detriment finding? 23.61 Section 23.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... trade. (c) General factors. The applicant must provide sufficient information for us to make a...

  3. Spent nuclear fuel project, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility human factors engineering (HFE) analysis: Results and findings

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1998-07-17

    This report presents the background, methodology, and findings of a human factors engineering (HFE) analysis performed in May, 1998, of the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), to support its Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), in responding to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE 1992a) and drafted to DOE-STD-3009-94 format. This HFE analysis focused on general environment, physical and computer workstations, and handling devices involved in or directly supporting the technical operations of the facility. This report makes no attempt to interpret or evaluate the safety significance of the HFE analysis findings. The HFE findings presented in this report, along with the results of the CVDF PSAR Chapter 3, Hazards and Accident Analyses, provide the technical basis for preparing the CVDF PSAR Chapter 13, Human Factors Engineering, including interpretation and disposition of findings. The findings presented in this report allow the PSAR Chapter 13 to fully respond to HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23. DOE 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, Section 8b(3)(n) and Attachment 1, Section-M, require that HFE be analyzed in the PSAR for the adequacy of the current design and planned construction for internal and external communications, operational aids, instrumentation and controls, environmental factors such as heat, light, and noise and that an assessment of human performance under abnormal and emergency conditions be performed (DOE 1992a).

  4. Finding mouse models of human lymphomas and leukemia's using the Jackson laboratory mouse tumor biology database.

    PubMed

    Begley, Dale A; Sundberg, John P; Krupke, Debra M; Neuhauser, Steven B; Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Morse, Herbert C; Ward, Jerrold M

    2015-12-01

    Many mouse models have been created to study hematopoietic cancer types. There are over thirty hematopoietic tumor types and subtypes, both human and mouse, with various origins, characteristics and clinical prognoses. Determining the specific type of hematopoietic lesion produced in a mouse model and identifying mouse models that correspond to the human subtypes of these lesions has been a continuing challenge for the scientific community. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB; http://tumor.informatics.jax.org) is designed to facilitate use of mouse models of human cancer by providing detailed histopathologic and molecular information on lymphoma subtypes, including expertly annotated, on line, whole slide scans, and providing a repository for storing information on and querying these data for specific lymphoma models. PMID:26302176

  5. Gender differences in extreme mathematical achievement: an international perspective on biological and social factors.

    PubMed

    Penner, Andrew M

    2008-01-01

    Genetic and other biological explanations have reemerged in recent scholarship on the underrepresentation of women in mathematics and the sciences. This study engages this debate by using international data-including math achievement scores from the Third International Mathematics and Sciences Study and country-level data from the World Bank, the United Nations, the International Labour Organization, the World Values Survey, and the International Social Survey Programme-to demonstrate the importance of social factors and to estimate an upper bound for the impact of genetic factors. The author argues that international variation provides a valuable opportunity to present simple and powerful arguments for the continued importance of social factors. In addition, where previous research has, by and large, focused on differences in population means, this work examines gender differences throughout the distribution. The article shows that there is considerable variation in gender differences internationally, a finding not easily explained by strictly biological theories. Modeling the cross-national variation in gender differences with country-level predictors reveals that differences among high achievers are related to gender inequality in the labor market and differences in the overall status of men and women.

  6. Coagulation factor Xa inhibition: biological background and rationale.

    PubMed

    Leadley, R J

    2001-06-01

    Ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease are the leading causes of death in the world. Surprisingly, these diseases are treated by relatively antiquated drugs. However, due to our improved understanding of the underlying pathology of these diseases, and a number of technological advances in tools for drug discovery and chemical optimization, an exciting new wave of antithrombotic compounds is beginning to emerge in clinical trials. These agents, referred to as direct coagulation factor Xa inhibitors, appear to provide an enhanced risk-benefit margin compared to conventional therapy. Preclinical and early clinical data gathered over the past few years suggests that direct fXa inhibitors will provide the necessary advancements in efficacy, safety, and ease of use required to displace conventional therapy. Whether or not these agents will succeed will be determined as this class of agents advances through clinical trials in the near future. This review describes some of the key studies that sparked an interest in fXa as a therapeutic target, highlighting the findings that provided important rationale for continuing the development of potent and selective direct fXa inhibitors.

  7. Finding simplicity in complexity: general principles of biological and nonbiological organization.

    PubMed

    Perez Velazquez, Jose L

    2009-08-01

    What differentiates the living from the nonliving? What is life? These are perennial questions that have occupied minds since the beginning of cultures. The search for a clear demarcation between animate and inanimate is a reflection of the human tendency to create borders, not only physical but also conceptual. It is obvious that what we call a living creature, either bacteria or organism, has distinct properties from those of the normally called nonliving. However, searching beyond dichotomies and from a global, more abstract, perspective on natural laws, a clear partition of matter into animate and inanimate becomes fuzzy. Based on concepts from a variety of fields of research, the emerging notion is that common principles of biological and nonbiological organization indicate that natural phenomena arise and evolve from a central theme captured by the process of information exchange. Thus, a relatively simple universal logic that rules the evolution of natural phenomena can be unveiled from the apparent complexity of the natural world. PMID:19669573

  8. An unsupervised learning approach to find ovarian cancer genes through integration of biological data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a disease characterized largely by the accumulation of out-of-control somatic mutations during the lifetime of a patient. Distinguishing driver mutations from passenger mutations has posed a challenge in modern cancer research. With the advanced development of microarray experiments and clinical studies, a large numbers of candidate cancer genes have been extracted and distinguishing informative genes out of them is essential. As a matter of fact, we proposed to find the informative genes for cancer by using mutation data from ovarian cancers in our framework. In our model we utilized the patient gene mutation profile, gene expression data and gene gene interactions network to construct a graphical representation of genes and patients. Markov processes for mutation and patients are triggered separately. After this process, cancer genes are prioritized automatically by examining their scores at their stationary distributions in the eigenvector. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the integration of heterogeneous sources of information is essential in finding important cancer genes. PMID:26328548

  9. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Results and Findings

    SciTech Connect

    GARVIN, L.J.

    1999-09-20

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553. Annex A, Chaptex A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  10. Mars - is it a habitable planet? - A biological approach to find answers to this question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, J. P.; Lorek, A.; Koncz, A.; Khan, A.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Möhlmann, D.; Spohn, T.

    2012-12-01

    An overview on different experiments with photosynthetic organisms such as extremophilic microorganisms like lichens and cyanobacteria and even higher plants shows the different degrees of adaptation. The most resistant organisms can be found in tropic deserts and in polar and alpine habitats. The reason for their resistance can be explained by their occurrence in intensely irradiated, very dry and/or cold environments which are supposed to be as close as possible to Martian surface conditions. A systematically approach comparing measurements on photosynthetic activity of a variety of organisms in relation to measured environmental parameters obtained in Mars analog field sites with data collected from space exposed samples or during Mars simulation experiments will show differences and common results after analyzing the investigated organisms. Some of the investigated species were exposed during different experiments either directly to real space conditions on space exposure platforms like BIOPAN and EXPOSE-E on the International Space Station or to Mars simulation conditions in a Mars simulation chamber. Some of these species were also exposed to both of the extreme environmental conditions. In parallel environmental parameters were monitored in space and in the simulation chambers to get an impression about the influence of each of the tested parameters on metabolic activity. The outcome of this work might be relevant to classify e.g. Mars as a habitable planet by a new experimental and biological approach and to evaluate how bio-regenerative life supporting systems might be feasible and discuss the likelihood of terra forming Mars in the far future.

  11. Factors on polygamy in sub-Saharan Africa: findings based on the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Hayase, Y; Liaw, K L

    1997-09-01

    This study presents a brief review of the historical and cultural context of polygamy in sub-Saharan Africa and examines the sociodemographic factors that influence polygamous union formation. Data were obtained from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana (1988), Senegal (1986), Kenya (1989), and Zimbabwe (1988-89). The sample was restricted to currently married or cohabitating women. The proportion of women in a polygamous union was 48% in Senegal, 31% in Ghana, 23% in Kenya, and 16% in Zimbabwe. The authors state that rates may have been higher in Senegal and Ghana due to the higher involvement of women in the cultivation of root crops and trading at local markets. Rate differences indicated a greater proportion of men and women with no education and Muslim affiliation in the high polygamy countries of Senegal and Ghana in West Africa compared to Kenya and Zimbabwe. Single factor analysis was performed for the effects of women's formal education, men's formal education, religion, urbanization, current age, age at first marriage, and ethnicity. Multivariate analysis by country indicated the importance of rising husbands' education and the lack of significance of women's education. As husband's education rose to the secondary level, polygamy declined. Other significant factors were religion, ethnicity, and current age, which was the most important factor. In Ghana, the effect of husbands' education overwhelmed the effect of women's education. Current age was the most important explanatory factor, followed by religion. In Kenya, both women's and men's education, ethnicity, urbanization, and age were significant factors. Ethnicity was the most important factor. In Zimbabwe, every factor was significant. Women's education was the most important factor. Findings reveal different prevalence of polygamy and different effects of sociodemographic factors.

  12. A prospective study on MRI findings and prognostic factors in athletes with MTSS.

    PubMed

    Moen, M H; Schmikli, S L; Weir, A; Steeneken, V; Stapper, G; de Slegte, R; Tol, J L; Backx, F J G

    2014-02-01

    In medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) bone marrow and periosteal edema of the tibia on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently reported. The relationship between these MRI findings and recovery has not been previously studied. This prospective study describes MRI findings of 52 athletes with MTSS. Baseline characteristics were recorded and recovery was related to these parameters and MRI findings to examine for prognostic factors. Results showed that 43.5% of the symptomatic legs showed bone marrow or periosteal edema. Absence of periosteal and bone marrow edema on MRI was associated with longer recovery (P = 0.033 and P = 0.013). A clinical scoring system for sports activity (SARS score) was significantly higher in the presence of bone marrow edema (P = 0.027). When clinical scoring systems (SARS score and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale) were combined in a model, time to recovery could be predicted substantially (explaining 54% of variance, P = 0.006). In conclusion, in athletes with MTSS, bone marrow or periosteal edema is seen on MRI in 43,5% of the symptomatic legs. Furthermore, periosteal and bone marrow edema on MRI and clinical scoring systems are prognostic factors. Future studies should focus on MRI findings in symptomatic MTSS and compare these with a matched control group.

  13. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in Brazilian Samples of Different Age Groups: Findings from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Brietzke, Elisa; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Kristensen, Christian Haag; Arteche, Adriane Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is internationally accepted as a key tool for the assessment of childhood abuse and neglect experiences. However, there are relative few psychometric studies available and some authors have proposed two different factor solutions. We examined the dimensional structure and internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the CTQ. A total of 1,925 participants from eight different clinical and non-clinical samples including adolescents, adults and elders were considered in this study. First, we performed Confirmatory Factor Analysis to investigate the goodness of fit of the two proposed competitive factor structure models for the CTQ. We also investigated the internal consistency of all factors. Second, multi-group analyses were used to investigate measurement invariance and population heterogeneity across age groups and sex. Our findings revealed that the alternative factor structure as opposed to the original factor structure was the most appropriate model within adolescents and adults Brazilian samples. We provide further evidence for the validity and reliability of the CTQ within the Brazilian samples and report that the alternative model showed an improvement in fit indexes and may be a better alternative over the original model. PMID:24475237

  14. Bioprospecting Finds the Toughest Biological Material: Extraordinary Silk from a Giant Riverine Orb Spider

    PubMed Central

    Agnarsson, Ingi; Kuntner, Matjaž; Blackledge, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    . This hypothesis predicts that rapid change in material properties of silk co-occurred with ecological shifts within the genus, and can thus be tested by combining material science, behavioral observations, and phylogenetics. Our findings highlight the potential benefits of natural history–informed bioprospecting to discover silks, as well as other materials, with novel and exceptional properties to serve as models in biomimicry. PMID:20856804

  15. Merging Worlds of Nanomaterials and Biological Environment: Factors Governing Protein Corona Formation on Nanoparticles and Its Biological Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroozandeh, Parisa; Aziz, Azlan Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Protein corona has became a prevalent subject in the field of nanomedicine owing to its diverse role in determining the efficiency, efficacy, and the ultimate biological fate of the nanomaterials used as a tool to treat and diagnose various diseases. For instance, protein corona formation on the surface of nanoparticles can modify its physicochemical properties and interfere with its intended functionalities in the biological microenvironments. As such, much emphasis should be placed in understanding these complex phenomena that occur at the bio-nano interface. The main aim of this review is to present different factors that are influencing protein-nanoparticle interaction such as physicochemical properties of nanoparticle ( i.e., size and size distribution, shape, composition, surface chemistry, and coatings) and the effect of biological microenvironments. Apart from that, the effect of ignored factors at the bio-nano interface such as temperature, plasma concentration, plasma gradient effect, administration route, and cell observer were also addressed.

  16. Fact-finding survey of actual garbage discharged from dormitory and its biological anaerobic-aerobic treatment.

    PubMed

    Imai, T; Ukita, M; Sekine, M; Fukagawa, M; Nakanishi, H

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find a possibility of complete treatment of garbage and resource recovery (production of methane from available utility of carbon resource in garbage) by biological treatment process. As the first step, a fact-finding survey of actual garbage discharged from the dormitory of the Ube National College of Technology (equivalent to 300 population) was carried out. Second, the combined biological anaerobic-aerobic treatment, i.e. combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process and aerobic membrane bioreactor (AMB) process, was applied to the garbage treatment. The applicability and efficiency of this system were investigated in this study. The survey results showed that the composition and quantity of garbage from a student dormitory changed slightly during a week due to the change of the menu, however, they remained almost unchanged during the entire experimental period. The experimental results showed high biodegradability of the garbage, and demonstrated its suitability for methane production. The soluble nitrogen removal was high: over 97%. No excess sludge was wasted from the system. A high treatment efficiency of simultaneous organic carbon and nitrogen was obtained. The possibility of complete treatment of garbage with this process has been positively demonstrated by this study.

  17. Human telomere biology: A contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue

    2015-12-01

    Telomeres are the protective end-complexes at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere attrition can lead to potentially maladaptive cellular changes, block cell division, and interfere with tissue replenishment. Recent advances in the understanding of human disease processes have clarified the roles of telomere biology, especially in diseases of human aging and in some aging-related processes. Greater overall telomere attrition predicts mortality and aging-related diseases in inherited telomere syndrome patients, and also in general human cohorts. However, genetically caused variations in telomere maintenance either raise or lower risks and progression of cancers, in a highly cancer type-specific fashion. Telomere maintenance is determined by genetic factors and is also cumulatively shaped by nongenetic influences throughout human life; both can interact. These and other recent findings highlight both causal and potentiating roles for telomere attrition in human diseases.

  18. Method for Finding Metabolic Properties Based on the General Growth Law. Liver Examples. A General Framework for Biological Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Shestopaloff, Yuri K.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for finding metabolic parameters of cells, organs and whole organisms, which is based on the earlier discovered general growth law. Based on the obtained results and analysis of available biological models, we propose a general framework for modeling biological phenomena and discuss how it can be used in Virtual Liver Network project. The foundational idea of the study is that growth of cells, organs, systems and whole organisms, besides biomolecular machinery, is influenced by biophysical mechanisms acting at different scale levels. In particular, the general growth law uniquely defines distribution of nutritional resources between maintenance needs and biomass synthesis at each phase of growth and at each scale level. We exemplify the approach considering metabolic properties of growing human and dog livers and liver transplants. A procedure for verification of obtained results has been introduced too. We found that two examined dogs have high metabolic rates consuming about 0.62 and 1 gram of nutrients per cubic centimeter of liver per day, and verified this using the proposed verification procedure. We also evaluated consumption rate of nutrients in human livers, determining it to be about 0.088 gram of nutrients per cubic centimeter of liver per day for males, and about 0.098 for females. This noticeable difference can be explained by evolutionary development, which required females to have greater liver processing capacity to support pregnancy. We also found how much nutrients go to biomass synthesis and maintenance at each phase of liver and liver transplant growth. Obtained results demonstrate that the proposed approach can be used for finding metabolic characteristics of cells, organs, and whole organisms, which can further serve as important inputs and constraints for many applications in biology (such as protein expression), biotechnology (synthesis of substances), and medicine. PMID:24940740

  19. Toward finding a universally applicable parameterization of the β factor for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Teresa; Hrdina, Amy; Thomas, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The traditional eddy covariance (EC) technique requires the use of fast responding sensors (≥ 10 Hz) that do not exist for many chemical species found in the atmosphere. In this case, the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) method offers a means to calculate fluxes of trace gases and other scalar quantities (Businger and Oncley, 1990) and was originally derived from the eddy accumulation method (EA) first proposed by Desjardins (1972). While REA lessens the requirements for sensors and sampling and thus offers practical appeal, it introduces a dependence of the computed flux from a proportionality factor β. The accuracy of the REA fluxes hinges upon the correct determination of β, which was found to vary between 0.40 and 0.63 (Milne et al., 1999, Ammann and Meixner, 2002, Ruppert et al., 2006). However, formulating a universally valid parameterization for β instead of empirical evaluation has remained a conundrum and has been a main limitation for REA. In this study we take a fresh look at the dependencies and mathematical models of β by analyzing eddy covariance (EC) data and REA simulations for two field experiments in drastically contrasting environments: an exclusively physically driven environment in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, and a biologically active system in a grassland in Germany. The main objective is to work toward a model parameterization for β that can be applied over wide range of surface conditions and forcings without the need for empirical evaluation, which is not possible for most REA applications. Our study discusses two different models to define β: (i) based upon scalar-scalar similarity, in which a different scalar is measured with fast-response sensors as a proxy for the scalar of interest, here referred to as β0; and (ii) computed solely from the vertical wind statistics, assuming a linear relationship between the scalar of interest and the vertical wind speed, referred to as βw. Results are presented for the carbon

  20. Toward finding a universally applicable parameterization of the β factor for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Teresa; Hrdina, Amy; Thomas, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The traditional eddy covariance (EC) technique requires the use of fast responding sensors (≥ 10 Hz) that do not exist for many chemical species found in the atmosphere. In this case, the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) method offers a means to calculate fluxes of trace gases and other scalar quantities (Businger and Oncley, 1990) and was originally derived from the eddy accumulation method (EA) first proposed by Desjardins (1972). While REA lessens the requirements for sensors and sampling and thus offers practical appeal, it introduces a dependence of the computed flux from a proportionality factor β. The accuracy of the REA fluxes hinges upon the correct determination of β, which was found to vary between 0.40 and 0.63 (Milne et al., 1999, Ammann and Meixner, 2002, Ruppert et al., 2006). However, formulating a universally valid parameterization for β instead of empirical evaluation has remained a conundrum and has been a main limitation for REA. In this study we take a fresh look at the dependencies and mathematical models of β by analyzing eddy covariance (EC) data and REA simulations for two field experiments in drastically contrasting environments: an exclusively physically driven environment in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, and a biologically active system in a grassland in Germany. The main objective is to work toward a model parameterization for β that can be applied over wide range of surface conditions and forcings without the need for empirical evaluation, which is not possible for most REA applications. Our study discusses two different models to define β: (i) based upon scalar-scalar similarity, in which a different scalar is measured with fast-response sensors as a proxy for the scalar of interest, here referred to as β0; and (ii) computed solely from the vertical wind statistics, assuming a linear relationship between the scalar of interest and the vertical wind speed, referred to as βw. Results are presented for the carbon

  1. Ecological, Social and Biological Risk Factors for Continued Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission by Triatoma dimidiata in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Dulce M.; De Urioste-Stone, Sandra M.; Juárez, José G.; Pennington, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chagas disease transmission by Triatoma dimidiata persists in Guatemala and elsewhere in Central America under undefined ecological, biological and social (eco-bio-social) conditions. Methodology Eco-bio-social risk factors associated with persistent domiciliary infestation were identified by a cross-sectional survey and qualitative participatory methods. Quantitative and qualitative data were generated regarding Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs and triatomine hosts. Blood meal analysis and infection of insects, dogs and rodents were determined. Based on these data, multimodel inference was used to identify risk factors for domestic infestation with the greatest relative importance (>0.75). Principal Findings Blood meal analysis showed that 64% of 36 bugs fed on chickens, 50% on humans, 17% on dogs; 24% of 34 bugs fed on Rattus rattus and 21% on Mus musculus. Seroprevalence among 80 dogs was 37%. Eight (17%) of 46 M. musculus and three (43%) of seven R. rattus from households with infected triatomines were infected with T. cruzi Distinct Typing Unit I. Results from interviews and participatory meetings indicated that vector control personnel and some householders perceived chickens roosting and laying eggs in the house as bug infestation risk factors. House construction practices were seen as a risk factor for bug and rodent infestation, with rodents being perceived as a pest by study participants. Multimodel inference showed that house infestation risk factors of high relative importance are dog density, mouse presence, interior wall plaster condition, dirt floor, tile roofing and coffee tree presence. Conclusions/Significance Persistent house infestation is closely related to eco-bio-social factors that maintain productive T. dimidiata habitats associated with dogs, chickens and rodents. Triatomine, dog and rodent infections indicate active T. cruzi transmission. Integrated vector control methods should include actions that consider the role of

  2. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  3. Identification of biological and environmental risk factors for language delay: The Let's Talk STEPS study.

    PubMed

    Korpilahti, Pirjo; Kaljonen, Anne; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to identify demographic factors for language delays at an early age. The risk analysis covered 11 biological and 8 environmental factors. The mothers' concerns regarding language development were also examined. A total of 226 children from a Finnish cohort study were invited to participate in language assessments at 36 months. The test results for word finding and language comprehension were compared with parental questionnaires about children's vocabulary at 13 and 24 months. Regression analysis revealed that the father's social class (t=-2.79, p=0.006) and working full time (t=-2.86, p=0.005) significantly predicted children's language delay. In addition, language comprehension was significantly predicted by the mother's social class (t=-2.06, p=0.041) and by gender, with an advantage to girls (t=-2.71, p=0.008). Vocabulary at 24 months was a powerful predictor for lexical development (t=4.58, p<0.0001) and language comprehension (t=4.85, p<0.0001) at 36 months. Mothers' concerns were correlated with children's limited lexicons as early as 24 months (r=0.31, p<0.0001) and poor language comprehension (r=-0.35, p<0.0001) at 36 months. Mothers were especially concerned if the parents needed special education during school years. At the population-level, gender was the most powerful biological factor in predicting language delays. Similarly, both parents' social status had predictive value for the child's language development. In addition, it was found that the mother's concern about her child's slow language acquisition should be taken into account when making decisions regarding special support. PMID:26700576

  4. Factors Influencing Agreement between Self-Reports and Biological Measures of Smoking among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolcini, M. Margaret; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews 28 studies comparing adolescent self-report of smoking with biological indicators. Identifies four factors limiting agreement: biases in self-report due to limitations of biological measures; limitations of self-report measures; social desirability; and analytic and statistical issues. Concludes that, with optimal measurement, self-report…

  5. Does spinal stenosis correlate with MRI findings and pain, psychologic factor and quality of life?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Young; Jung, Sung Won; Lee, Su Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate and analyze MRI findings in relation to visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), psychological-factor, sleep-quality, and Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores among patients with central lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) for the purpose of elucidating a correlation. Methods From July 2013 to May 2014, 117 consecutive patients with central LSS were included in this study. All of the MRIs were evaluated by one of the authors, and the evaluated items were the dural sac cross-sectional area (DSCSA), the number of stenotic levels, and the presence and levels of spondylolisthesis. The ODI, VAS, 36-item SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires were used to evaluate the participants. Results There are no correlations between the ODI, VAS, BDI, BAI, PSQI, and SF-36 scores and the minimum DSCSA; however, a significant correlation was found between the ODI scores and multilevel LSS. The BDI, BAI, and PSQI scores are higher for multilevel LSS compared with single-level LSS, but the difference of this mean value is not statistically significant. Conclusions A significant correlation was shown between those patients with multilevel LSS and the ODI scores; however, significant correlations were not found between the MRI findings and the psychological factors pertaining to sleep and life qualities. PMID:26495059

  6. [Hygienic assessment of a biological factor at a garbage-processing enterprise].

    PubMed

    Figurovskiĭ, A P; Mozzhukhina, N A; Topanov, I O; Khomulo, D P

    2010-01-01

    The study of a biological factor at solid domestic waste-processing enterprises has established that air and the surface of technological equipment are highly contaminated with bacteria and molds. PMID:21341490

  7. Total Chemical Synthesis of Biologically Active Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Kent, Stephen B.H.

    2011-09-15

    The 204-residue covalent-dimer vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, see picture) with full mitogenic activity was prepared from three unprotected peptide segments by one-pot native chemical ligations. The covalent structure of the synthetic VEGF was confirmed by precise mass measurement, and the three-dimensional structure of the synthetic protein was determined by high-resolution X-ray crystallography.

  8. Learner, Text, and Context Factors on Conceptual Change in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevors, Gregory

    This thesis investigated how instructional environments might be optimally designed for all students to restructure prior knowledge and learn counter-intuitive science concepts, referred to as conceptual change. Three independent variables were examined in relation to real-time cognitive processes and subsequent learning outcomes: a learner characteristic (students' beliefs about knowledge and knowing, or epistemic beliefs), a property of instructional texts (refutational text structures), and a variable of instructional contexts (reading goals). Fifty-one university students with misconceptions in biological evolution were classified as espousing either absolutistic or evaluativist epistemic beliefs. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a refutational or expository texts and a global comprehension or elaborative interrogation reading goal in a 2x2 nested design. Data on think aloud responses while reading and open-ended essays post-reading were collected. Results reveal that refutations enriched conceptual evolutionary knowledge but failed to foster restructuring of misconceptions. Epistemic beliefs were related to cognitive processing, with evaluativists adapting their processes according to instructional texts. Reading goals likewise enriched conceptual knowledge and did not revise misconceptions, but no interaction between assigned goals and epistemic beliefs was observed. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  9. [The role of the biological damaging factor in the explosive injury].

    PubMed

    Popov, V L; Kadochnikov, D S; Minaeva, P V

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the specific features of the action of the biological damaging factors on the human organism associated with the explosive injury. Both the direct action of the damaging agents contained in the biological weapons and their secondary effects in the form of systemic and local infectious complications of the inflicted wounds are considered. The criteria for the evaluation of the degree of harm to the health of the victims of explosion attributable to the action of the biological damaging factor are proposed.

  10. [The role of the biological damaging factor in the explosive injury].

    PubMed

    Popov, V L; Kadochnikov, D S; Minaeva, P V

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the specific features of the action of the biological damaging factors on the human organism associated with the explosive injury. Both the direct action of the damaging agents contained in the biological weapons and their secondary effects in the form of systemic and local infectious complications of the inflicted wounds are considered. The criteria for the evaluation of the degree of harm to the health of the victims of explosion attributable to the action of the biological damaging factor are proposed. PMID:26856054

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Human Serum for Finding Pathogenic Factors and Potential Biomarkers in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chongdong; Zhang, Nawei; Yu, Haiqiang; Chen, Yuxuan; Liang, Yong; Deng, Haiteng; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2010-01-01

    Objective(s) To apply a novel proteomic method to discover potential pathogenic factors and biomarkers of preeclampsia. Study design Sera from five patients complicated with preeclampsia and five healthy pregnant controls were separately pooled. Each pool was treated with peptide ligand library beads (PLLBs) to remove high abundance proteins by affinity and thus enrich low abundance proteins. The proteins from the eluate were analyzed by a combination of 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. Protein expression levels were quantified using spectral counts and the extracted ion current. Results 1172 unique proteins in preeclampsia and 1149 in healthy controls were identified in the present study. 51 proteins were differentially expressed between preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women including chorionic somatommammptropin hormone (CSH) and fibulin-1. 31 proteins identified were up-regulated and 20 were down-regulated. Conclusions The results demonstrate that peptide ligand library combining with 1D gel-LC-MS/MS analysis is an efficient method to identify differentially expressed proteins in sera and two biological processes of complement and coagulation activations and lipid metabolism were involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PMID:21145106

  12. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity).

  13. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity). PMID:27163368

  14. How motif environment influences transcription factor search dynamics: Finding a needle in a haystack.

    PubMed

    Dror, Iris; Rohs, Remo; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2016-07-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) have to find their binding sites, which are distributed throughout the genome. Facilitated diffusion is currently the most widely accepted model for this search process. Based on this model the TF alternates between one-dimensional sliding along the DNA, and three-dimensional bulk diffusion. In this view, the non-specific associations between the proteins and the DNA play a major role in the search dynamics. However, little is known about how the DNA properties around the motif contribute to the search. Accumulating evidence showing that TF binding sites are embedded within a unique environment, specific to each TF, leads to the hypothesis that the search process is facilitated by favorable DNA features that help to improve the search efficiency. Here, we review the field and present the hypothesis that TF-DNA recognition is dictated not only by the motif, but is also influenced by the environment in which the motif resides. PMID:27192961

  15. How motif environment influences transcription factor search dynamics: Finding a needle in a haystack.

    PubMed

    Dror, Iris; Rohs, Remo; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2016-07-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) have to find their binding sites, which are distributed throughout the genome. Facilitated diffusion is currently the most widely accepted model for this search process. Based on this model the TF alternates between one-dimensional sliding along the DNA, and three-dimensional bulk diffusion. In this view, the non-specific associations between the proteins and the DNA play a major role in the search dynamics. However, little is known about how the DNA properties around the motif contribute to the search. Accumulating evidence showing that TF binding sites are embedded within a unique environment, specific to each TF, leads to the hypothesis that the search process is facilitated by favorable DNA features that help to improve the search efficiency. Here, we review the field and present the hypothesis that TF-DNA recognition is dictated not only by the motif, but is also influenced by the environment in which the motif resides.

  16. Structural Biology of Replication Initiation Factor Mcm10

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenyue; Stauffer, Melissa E.; Eichman, Brandt F.

    2016-01-01

    Minichromosome maintenance protein 10 (Mcm10) is a non-enzymatic replication factor required for proper assembly of the eukaryotic replication fork. Mcm10 interacts with single-stranded and double-stranded DNA, polymerase α, and Mcm2-7, and is important for activation of the pre-replicative complex and recruitment of subsequent proteins to the origin at the onset of S-phase. In addition, Mcm10 has recently been implicated in coordination of helicase and polymerase activities during replication fork progression. The nature of Mcm10's involvement in these activities, whether direct or indirect, remains unknown. However, recent biochemical and structural characterization of Mcm10 from multiple organisms has provided insights into how Mcm10 utilizes a modular architecture to act as a replisome scaffold, which helps to define possible roles in origin DNA melting, pol α recruitment and coordination of enzymatic activities during elongation. PMID:22918587

  17. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Manassantin Analogues for Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To cope with hypoxia, tumor cells have developed a number of adaptive mechanisms mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) to promote angiogenesis and cell survival. Due to significant roles of HIF-1 in the initiation, progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment of most solid tumors, a considerable amount of effort has been made to identify HIF-1 inhibitors for treatment of cancer. Isolated from Saururus cernuus, manassantins A (1) and B (2) are potent inhibitors of HIF-1 activity. To define the structural requirements of manassantins for HIF-1 inhibition, we prepared and evaluated a series of manassantin analogues. Our SAR studies examined key regions of manassantin’s structure in order to understand the impact of these regions on biological activity and to define modifications that can lead to improved performance and drug-like properties. Our efforts identified several manassantin analogues with reduced structural complexity as potential lead compounds for further development. Analogues MA04, MA07, and MA11 down-regulated hypoxia-induced expression of the HIF-1α protein and reduced the levels of HIF-1 target genes, including cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These findings provide an important framework to design potent and selective HIF-1α inhibitors, which is necessary to aid translation of manassantin-derived natural products to the clinic as novel therapeutics for cancers. PMID:26394152

  18. Biological repair of the degenerated intervertebral disc by the injection of growth factors

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The homeostasis of intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues is accomplished through a complex and precise coordination of a variety of substances, including cytokines, growth factors, enzymes and enzyme inhibitors. Recent biological therapeutic strategies for disc degeneration have included attempts to up-regulate the production of key matrix proteins or to down-regulate the catabolic events induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several approaches to deliver these therapeutic biologic agents have been proposed and tested in a preclinical setting. One of the most advanced biological therapeutic approaches to regenerate or repair a degenerated disc is the injection of a recombinant growth factor. Abundant evidence for the efficacy of growth factor injection therapy for the treatment of IVD degeneration can be found in preclinical animal studies. Recent data obtained from animal studies on changes in cytokine expression following growth factor injection illustrate the great potential for patients with chronic discogenic low back pain. The first clinical trial for growth factor injection has been initiated and the results of that study may prove the usefulness of growth factor injection for treating the symptoms of patients with degenerative disc diseases. The focus of this review article is the effects of an in vivo injection of growth factors on the biological repair of the degenerated intervertebral disc in animal models. The effects of growth factor injection on the symptoms of patients with low back pain, the therapeutic target of growth factor injection and the limitations of the efficacy of growth factor therapy are also reviewed. Further quantitative studies on the effect of growth factor injection on pain generation and the long term effects on the endplate and cell survival after an injection using large animals are needed. An international academic-industrial consortium addressing these aims, such as was achieved for osteoarthritis (The Osteoarthritis Initiative

  19. Biochemical and biological properties of the nerve growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Taniuchi, M.

    1988-01-01

    We have utilized a monoclonal antibody (192-IgG) to study the rat nerve growth factor receptor. After intraocular injection, {sup 125}I-192-IgG was retrogradely transported in sympathetic neuronal axons to the superior cervical ganglion. When the sciatic nerve was ligated to induce the accumulation of axonally transported materials, 192-IgG immunostaining was observed on both sides of the ligature, indicating that NGF receptors are transported in both orthograde and retrograde directions. By using {sup 125}I-NGF crosslinking and 192-IgG immunoprecipitation, we detected receptor molecules throughout the rat brain, thereby supporting the hypothesis that NGF is active in the central nervous system. We also discovered that sciatic nerve transection leads to a dramatic increase in the amount of NGF receptor found in the distal portion of the nerve. Immunostaining revealed that all Schwann cells in the distal axotomized nerve were expressing NGF receptors. We examined phosphorylation of NGF receptor in cultured sympathetic neurons and PC12 cells. We also examined pharmacological effects of 192-IgG. Systemic injection of 192-IgG into neonatal rats caused a permanent partial sympathectomy in a dose-dependent manner; a maximum of 50% of the cells were killed.

  20. Biological factors underlying sex differences in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Loke, Hannah; Harley, Vincent; Lee, Joohyung

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence, age of onset, pathophysiology, and symptomatology of many neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions differ significantly between males and females. Females suffer more from mood disorders such as depression and anxiety, whereas males are more susceptible to deficits in the dopamine system including Parkinson's disease (PD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Until recently, these sex differences have been explained solely by the neuroprotective actions of sex hormones in females. Emerging evidence however indicates that the sex chromosome genes (i.e. X- and Y-linked genes) also contribute to brain sex differences. In particular, the Y-chromosome gene, SRY (Sex-determining Region on the Y chromosome) is an interesting candidate as it is expressed in dopamine-abundant brain regions, where it regulates dopamine biosynthesis and dopamine-mediated functions such as voluntary movement in males. Furthermore, SRY expression is dysregulated in a toxin-induced model of PD, suggesting a role for SRY in the pathogenesis of dopamine cells. Taken together, these studies highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between sex-specific hormones and sex-specific genes in healthy and diseased brain. In particular, better understanding of regulation and function of SRY in the male brain could provide entirely novel and important insights into genetic factors involved in the susceptibility of men to neurological disorders, as well as development of novel sex-specific therapies.

  1. Biological factors underlying sex differences in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Loke, Hannah; Harley, Vincent; Lee, Joohyung

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence, age of onset, pathophysiology, and symptomatology of many neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions differ significantly between males and females. Females suffer more from mood disorders such as depression and anxiety, whereas males are more susceptible to deficits in the dopamine system including Parkinson's disease (PD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Until recently, these sex differences have been explained solely by the neuroprotective actions of sex hormones in females. Emerging evidence however indicates that the sex chromosome genes (i.e. X- and Y-linked genes) also contribute to brain sex differences. In particular, the Y-chromosome gene, SRY (Sex-determining Region on the Y chromosome) is an interesting candidate as it is expressed in dopamine-abundant brain regions, where it regulates dopamine biosynthesis and dopamine-mediated functions such as voluntary movement in males. Furthermore, SRY expression is dysregulated in a toxin-induced model of PD, suggesting a role for SRY in the pathogenesis of dopamine cells. Taken together, these studies highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between sex-specific hormones and sex-specific genes in healthy and diseased brain. In particular, better understanding of regulation and function of SRY in the male brain could provide entirely novel and important insights into genetic factors involved in the susceptibility of men to neurological disorders, as well as development of novel sex-specific therapies. PMID:26028290

  2. Effects of biological and environmental factors on activity rhythms of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Tester, J R; Figala, J

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews information on the effects of biological and environmental factors on activity rhythms of wild animals monitored by radio telemetry. Variations in radio signals received from free-ranging animals are used to determine the pattern of activity and rest. Telemetry is especially effective for obtaining activity data from wild animals at night and from those living in dense vegetation or underground. Biological factors such as breeding behavior, care of young, time of last eating, and food storage cause changes in daily activity patterns. Similarly, environmental factors such as temperature, snow cover, food supply and disturbance caused by humans in an urban setting also cause changes in daily activity patterns. The observed modifications of activity rhythms show that controlling mechanisms allow wild animals to quickly respond to changing biological and environmental factors.

  3. Biology of insulin-like factor 3 in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ivell, Richard; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) is a neohormone that has evolved to address specific mammalian traits, in particular, the first phase of testicular descent towards the scrotum during mid-gestation. METHODS A thorough literature search was made in PubMed using the terms INSL3, as well as the older synonyms RLF and Ley-IL. RESULTS INSL3 is a major secretory product of the testicular Leydig cells in the fetus and in adult men, and in rodent models, reduction in fetal INSL3 expression is an early marker of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. In women, it is produced in lower amounts by ovarian theca and luteal cells, and circulating levels are increased in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. During pregnancy, there is evidence for an interaction regulating the feto-placental unit. The presence of INSL3 in amniocentesis samples taken at 12-14 weeks gestation is absolutely specific for male gender, and levels are predictive of subsequent pre-eclampsia and/or birthweight. INSL3 is also involved in adult traits, such as spermatogenesis and bone metabolism. In adult men, INSL3 is constitutively expressed and secreted into the bloodstream at a constant level, reflecting the number and/or functional capacity of the Leydig cells. In complete contrast, testosterone is highly variable within individuals, is acutely responsive to fluctuations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and appears to have marginal diagnostic value. INSL3 declines consistently with age in adult men. CONCLUSIONS INSL3 promises to become an important new diagnostic tool to characterize those men with late-onset hypogonadism and to add clinical diagnostic value at amniocentesis.

  4. Physicochemical characterization and biological activity of intrinsic factor in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Monin, B; Guéant, J L; Gérard, A; Michalski, J C; Vidailhet, M; Grignon, G; Nicolas, J P

    1990-01-01

    Absorption of crystalline labeled cobalamin is strongly decreased in cases of cystic fibrosis. In order to determine if this is due to an alteration or a lack of activation of intrinsic factor by proteases, the physicochemical properties and biological activity of intrinsic factor have been studied. Intrinsic factor was purified 800-fold from stimulated gastric juice of cystic fibrosis patients with a yield of 64.2%. Cystic fibrosis intrinsic factor had an estimated Mr of 57,000 in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its carbohydrate content resembled that of normal human intrinsic factor, except that the ratio fucose/sialic acid was higher (6.1 and 1.6, respectively) and that the content in N-acetylgalactosamine was decreased. The same alterations in carbohydrate composition were observed for Hc purified from cystic fibrosis saliva. Purified intrinsic factor from cystic fibrosis gastric juice was biologically active in vitro in the presence of ileal solubilized receptor as well as in vivo (Schilling test). The fate of iodinated cystic fibrosis intrinsic factor in guinea pig ileum studied by high-resolution radioautography was similar to that of normal intrinsic factor. In conclusion, despite modifications of the carbohydrate content of the molecule, the biological activity of intrinsic factor is not altered in cases of cystic fibrosis. The malassimilation of crystalline cobalamin observed in cystic fibrosis is due to a mechanism independent from intrinsic factor secretion. PMID:2324885

  5. 76 FR 42675 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae, HWA) infestations... release of this biological control agent into the continental United States. \\1\\ To view the notice,...

  6. 75 FR 23221 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Water Hyacinth AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of water hyacinth infestations. Based on... the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of...

  7. Impact of different economic factors on biological invasions on the global scale.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

    2011-04-13

    Social-economic factors are considered as the key to understand processes contributing to biological invasions. However, there has been few quantified, statistical evidence on the relationship between economic development and biological invasion on a worldwide scale. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with biodiversity for 91 economies throughout the world. Our result indicates that the prevalence of invasive species in the economies can be well predicted by economic factors (R(2) = 0.733). The impact of economic factors on the occurrence of invasive species for low, lower-middle, upper-middle and high income economies are 0%, 34.3%, 46.3% and 80.8% respectively. Greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2), Nitrous oxide, Methane and Other greenhouse gases) and also biodiversity have positive relationships with the global occurrence of invasive species in the economies on the global scale. The major social-economic factors that are correlated to biological invasions are different for various economies, and therefore the strategies for biological invasion prevention and control should be different.

  8. How do Hox transcription factors find their target genes in the nucleus of living cells?

    PubMed

    Gehring, Walter J

    2011-01-01

    Homeotic mutations first found in Drosophila led to the identification of Hox genes in all bilateria. These genes are exceptional in that they are arranged in an ordered cluster, in which they are positioned in the same order along the chromosome as they are expressed along the antero-posterior axis to specify the corresponding body regions. They share a highly conserved DNA sequence of 180 bp, the homeobox which encodes the homeodomain, a 60 amino acid polypeptide involved in specific DNA and RNA binding and in protein-protein interactions. The discovery of the homeobox has uncovered for the first time a universal principle of specification of the body plan along the antero-posterior axis. The structure of the homeodomain has been determined by NMR spectroscopy and by X-ray crystallography. However, the mechanism by which the Hox proteins find their target genes in the nucleus of a living cell has been enigmatic. Transcriptome analysis indicates that there are hundreds of target genes to be regulated, both positively and negatively to ensure normal development. In the following, we show by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) and single molecule imaging in live salivary gland cells, that the mechanism of recognition is purely stochastic. The homeodomain associates and dissociates rapidly (in the ms range) with chromatin all along the chromosomes. If, however, it associates with a specific binding site in a puffed chromosome region, it remains bound for seconds or minutes to exert its function, by forming a complex with co-activators or co-repressors respectively. These direct measurements solve an old enigma of how Hox transcription factors find their target genes in the nucleus of live cells.

  9. Factors Associated with Variations in Population HIV Prevalence across West Africa: Findings from an Ecological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prudden, Holly J.; Beattie, Tara S.; Bobrova, Natalia; Panovska-Griffiths, Jasmina; Mukandavire, Zindoga; Gorgens, Marelize; Wilson, David; Watts, Charlotte H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Population HIV prevalence across West Africa varies substantially. We assess the national epidemiological and behavioural factors associated with this. Methods National, urban and rural data on HIV prevalence, the percentage of younger (15–24) and older (25–49) women and men reporting multiple (2+) partners in the past year, HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs), men who have bought sex in the past year (clients), and ART coverage, were compiled for 13 countries. An Ecological analysis using linear regression assessed which factors are associated with national variations in population female and male HIV prevalence, and with each other. Findings National population HIV prevalence varies between 0 4–2 9% for men and 0 4–5.6% for women. ART coverage ranges from 6–23%. National variations in HIV prevalence are not shown to be associated with variations in HIV prevalence among FSWs or clients. Instead they are associated with variations in the percentage of younger and older males and females reporting multiple partners. HIV prevalence is weakly negatively associated with ART coverage, implying it is not increased survival that is the cause of variations in HIV prevalence. FSWs and younger female HIV prevalence are associated with client population sizes, especially older men. Younger female HIV prevalence is strongly associated with older male and female HIV prevalence. Interpretation In West Africa, population HIV prevalence is not significantly higher in countries with high FSW HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests, higher prevalence occurs where more men buy sex, and where a higher percentage of younger women, and older men and women have multiple partnerships. If a sexual network between clients and young females exists, clients may potentially bridge infection to younger females. HIV prevention should focus both on commercial sex and transmission between clients and younger females with multiple partners. PMID:26698854

  10. Bone lead as a new biologic marker of lead dose: recent findings and implications for public health.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, H

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of lead in bone have recently become the focus of research because a) bone lead levels serve as a cumulative dosimeter of lead exposure over many years (because of lead's long residence time in bone), and cumulative exposure may be more predictive of chronic toxicity than recent exposure, which is what blood lead levels mostly reflect; b) there is suspicion that heightened bone turnover (e.g. during pregnancy, lactation, and aging) may liberate enough stored lead to pose a significant threat of delayed toxicity; and c) although lead exposure has largely declined in the United States over the past 10 to 15 years, decades of heavy environmental pollution have resulted in significant accumulation of lead in bone among most members of the general U.S. population. Epidemiologic research on the impact of lead stored in bone is now possible with the development of 109Cd K-X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) instruments for the in vivo measurement of lead in bone. In this paper, the KXRF method will be briefly reviewed, followed by a summary of several Superfund-supported studies (and others) of blood lead and KXRF-measured bone lead in which these measures are compared as biologic markers of lead dose. Measurement of bone lead in epidemiologic studies has proved useful in exposure assessment studies, i.e., in identifying factors that contribute most to retained body lead burden, and in investigating cumulative lead exposure as a risk factor for poor health outcomes such as hypertension, kidney impairment, cognitive impairment, behavioral disturbances, and adverse reproductive outcomes. Images Figure 1 PMID:9703479

  11. Environmental, biological, and social factors influencing fecal adrenal steroid concentrations in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Rafaela S C; Bercovitch, Fred B; Huffman, Michael A; Mouri, Keiko; Garcia, Cécile; Rigaill, Lucie; Shimizu, Keiko

    2014-11-01

    The ability to determine hormonal profiles of primate populations using non-invasive techniques can help to monitor physical fitness, stress, and physiological responses to environmental changes. We investigated fecal glucocorticoids (fGC) and DHEAS concentrations in captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in relation to environmental, biological, and social factors. The subjects were female Japanese monkeys from 4 months to 31 years old housed in captivity (27 in social groups and 12 in single cages). Fecal samples were collected from all females, and behavioral data from the social groups during the mating season and the following birth season. Hormonal concentrations were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Our results revealed that both fGC and fecal DHEAS concentrations are higher in females housed indoors in single cages than in those living outdoors in social groups. We also found that fGC concentrations were higher in the cycling females during the mating (winter) season than the lactating females in the birth (spring) season. Age was negatively associated to both fGC and fecal DHEAS levels, but the relationship between age and fecal DHEAS was more evident in females housed indoors in single cages than in females housed in outdoor social groups. We did not observe any association of dominance rank with either fecal DHEAS or fGC. This study showed that measurement of fecal DHEAS and fGC can be a good method to assess stress in Japanese macaques. These findings provide insights about the physiology of these two adrenal hormones in female Japanese macaques, which can be applied to wild populations and is fundamental for captive management and conservation biology.

  12. Is perceived racial privilege associated with health? Findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Kaori

    2009-03-01

    While racial discrimination has gained increasing attention in public health research, little is known about perceived racial privilege and health. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, this study explored the relationship of both perceived racial discrimination and privilege with well-being in the USA. Data were extracted from the BRFSS 2004 data set, in which 22,412 respondents in seven states and one major city provided data on perceived racial discrimination and privilege at work. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationships of differential racial treatment to self-rated general health status and the number of physically and mentally unhealthy days. Racially stratified analyses found that perceived racial privilege was significantly associated with more days of poor physical and mental health. This relationship was consistent for Whites, but for racial minorities it appeared on only some outcome measures. Reports of being treated worse than other races in the workplace were associated with poor health for all racial groups, as had been reported in previous studies on racial discrimination. Because racial discrimination and racial privilege are both products of racism, this study's findings suggest that racism may harm all involved. Impacts of perceived racial privilege deserve more attention in the literature on racism and health.

  13. Analysis of environmental factors determining development and succession in biological soil crusts.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shubin; Wu, Li; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2015-12-15

    Biological soil crusts play important ecological functions in arid and semi-arid regions, while different crust successional patterns appeared in different regions. Therefore in this study, the environmental conditions between Shapotou (with cyanobacterial, lichen and moss crusts) and Dalate Banner (with only cyanobacterial and moss crusts) regions of China were compared to investigate why lichen crusts only appeared in Shapotou; at the same time, artificial moss inoculation was conducted to find out the environmental factors promoting crust succession to moss stage. The results showed lichen crusts always developed from cyanobacterial crusts, which provide not only the stable soil surface, but also the biomass basis for lichen formation; furthermore, addition of crust physicochemical characteristics (primarily silt content) play a facilitating effect on lichen emergence (R(2)=0.53). The inoculation experiment demonstrated early crust soil surface and enough water holding content (>4%) provided the essential guarantee for moss germination. Our results show that there is heterogeneity in crust succession in different regions, which may be mainly affected by the ambient soil microenvironments. It is concluded that a positive feedback mechanism is expected between crust succession and ambient soil microenvironments; while a negative feedback mechanism forms between crust succession and free living cyanobacteria and algae.

  14. Socio-biological factors in underfive deaths in a rural area.

    PubMed

    Reddaiah, V P; Kapoor, S K

    1992-01-01

    In 1985-86, 286 underfive deaths occurred among a population of 30,000 in a rural area of Haryana. Two hundred and eighty one were analysed for socio-biological factors related to under five mortality. Females had a higher mortality. About 2/3 of the deaths were in infants, and 90% in first 3 years. Most of the deaths (94%) occurred in the village itself, 58.4% did not seek any medical care during the terminal illness, 80-90% did not receive even a single dose of BCG, DPT or O.P.V., and 36.7% died in the first attack of illness. Though 68% had at least one episode earlier, 31.0% had been admitted in hospitals for an earlier episode of illness. In 42.8% of deaths, the birth order was IV or above. Deaths in socially and economically disadvantaged cases constituted 77.6%. The triad of diarrhea, ARI and malnutrition claimed 56% deaths. In 93% of the deaths, the mothers were illiterate and 96.4% were house wives. There was a sibling death earlier in the family in 78.3%, and 60.1% deaths were of those living in poor housing conditions. About 50% had radio for communication, 85.8% had bicycle for conveyance, and in 66.9% the family had piped water supply. All these findings have been discussed in the study. PMID:1459678

  15. Analysis of environmental factors determining development and succession in biological soil crusts.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shubin; Wu, Li; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2015-12-15

    Biological soil crusts play important ecological functions in arid and semi-arid regions, while different crust successional patterns appeared in different regions. Therefore in this study, the environmental conditions between Shapotou (with cyanobacterial, lichen and moss crusts) and Dalate Banner (with only cyanobacterial and moss crusts) regions of China were compared to investigate why lichen crusts only appeared in Shapotou; at the same time, artificial moss inoculation was conducted to find out the environmental factors promoting crust succession to moss stage. The results showed lichen crusts always developed from cyanobacterial crusts, which provide not only the stable soil surface, but also the biomass basis for lichen formation; furthermore, addition of crust physicochemical characteristics (primarily silt content) play a facilitating effect on lichen emergence (R(2)=0.53). The inoculation experiment demonstrated early crust soil surface and enough water holding content (>4%) provided the essential guarantee for moss germination. Our results show that there is heterogeneity in crust succession in different regions, which may be mainly affected by the ambient soil microenvironments. It is concluded that a positive feedback mechanism is expected between crust succession and ambient soil microenvironments; while a negative feedback mechanism forms between crust succession and free living cyanobacteria and algae. PMID:26318686

  16. Effects of biological drug adalimumab on tumour necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme activation.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Sabrina; Sisto, Margherita

    2010-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-converting enzyme (TACE) is a membrane-bound metalloprotease and disintegrin. It is produced by a number of host cells and is known to shed and release cell-bound cytokines, particularly members of the TNF family. No investigations into the regulation of this enzyme by autoantibodies have been reported. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that anti-Ro/SSA autoantibodies, purified from IgG fractions of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, are capable to regulate TACE expression and activation in human salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC). We also evaluated the potential physiological and therapeutic consequences of TNF-alpha blocking by the biological agent adalimumab, the first fully human (100% human peptide sequences) therapeutic anti-TNF-alpha antibody, on post-translational regulation of TACE. Taken together, our results show a dose-dependent increase in TACE expression in anti-Ro/SSA Abs-treated SGEC, followed by internalization, pro-domain shedding and activation of TACE protein. Adalimumab treatment brought TACE expression to levels than those observed in untreated SGEC. These findings, showing the presence of autoantibodies-dependent mechanisms by which TACE levels are regulated in human SGECs, may have implications in the context of current investigations on the pathological role of autoantibodies.

  17. An analysis of the structure of the compound biological effectiveness factor

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Koji

    2016-01-01

    This report is an analysis of the structure of the compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factor. The value of the CBE factor previously reported was revalued for the central nervous system, skin and lung. To describe the structure, the following terms are introduced: the vascular CBE (v-CBE), intraluminal CBE (il-CBE), extraluminal CBE (el-CBE) and non-vascular CBE (nv-CBE) factors and the geometric biological factor (GBF), i.e. the contributions that are derived from the total dose to the vasculature, each dose to vasculature from the intraluminal side and the extraluminal side, the dose to the non-vascular tissue and the factor to calculate el-CBE from il-CBE, respectively. The el-CBE factor element was also introduced to relate il-CBE to el-CBE factors. A CBE factor of 0.36 for disodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate (BSH) for the CNS was independent of the 10B level in the blood; however, that for p-Boron-L-phenylalanine (BPA) increased with the 10B level ratio of the normal tissue to the blood (N/B). The CBE factor was expressed as follows: factor = 0.32 + N/B × 1.65. The factor of 0.32 at 0 of N/B was close to the CBE factor for BSH. GBFs had similar values, between BSH and BPA, 1.39 and 1.52, respectively. The structure of the CBE factor for BPA to the lung was also elucidated based on this idea. The factor is described as follows: CBE factor = 0.32 + N/B × 1.80. By this elucidation of the structure of the CBE factor, it is expected that basic and clinical research into boron neutron capture therapy will progress. PMID:27021218

  18. On finding and using identifiable parameter combinations in nonlinear dynamic systems biology models and COMBOS: a novel web implementation.

    PubMed

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Kuo, Christine Er-zhen; DiStefano, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Parameter identifiability problems can plague biomodelers when they reach the quantification stage of development, even for relatively simple models. Structural identifiability (SI) is the primary question, usually understood as knowing which of P unknown biomodel parameters p1,…, pi,…, pP are-and which are not-quantifiable in principle from particular input-output (I-O) biodata. It is not widely appreciated that the same database also can provide quantitative information about the structurally unidentifiable (not quantifiable) subset, in the form of explicit algebraic relationships among unidentifiable pi. Importantly, this is a first step toward finding what else is needed to quantify particular unidentifiable parameters of interest from new I-O experiments. We further develop, implement and exemplify novel algorithms that address and solve the SI problem for a practical class of ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems biology models, as a user-friendly and universally-accessible web application (app)-COMBOS. Users provide the structural ODE and output measurement models in one of two standard forms to a remote server via their web browser. COMBOS provides a list of uniquely and non-uniquely SI model parameters, and-importantly-the combinations of parameters not individually SI. If non-uniquely SI, it also provides the maximum number of different solutions, with important practical implications. The behind-the-scenes symbolic differential algebra algorithms are based on computing Gröbner bases of model attributes established after some algebraic transformations, using the computer-algebra system Maxima. COMBOS was developed for facile instructional and research use as well as modeling. We use it in the classroom to illustrate SI analysis; and have simplified complex models of tumor suppressor p53 and hormone regulation, based on explicit computation of parameter combinations. It's illustrated and validated here for models of moderate complexity, with

  19. [The character of heredity and biological function of insulin-like growth factor 2].

    PubMed

    Liu, Gui-Lan; Jiang, Si-Wen; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu; Qu, Yan-Chun

    2002-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is multiple proliferation controlling factor of cells, and it gets this name according to its similarity to insulin. IGF2 is a single chain protein of 67 amino acids, which is probably required for normal fetal growth and development. In this article, we discussed the gene structure, ways of its heredity, and biological effects concerning imprinting, tumor development,muscle forming and individual growing of IGF2.

  20. Principles of biological adaptation of microorganisms to the change of environmental factors in artificial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somova, L. A.; Pisman, T. I.

    Studying the matter transformations and biotic cycling in artificial ecosystems (AES), we need to know the principles of biological adaptation of active organisms to the change of environment. Microorganisms in AES of water purification are the most active transform and consumers of organic substances of wastes. Utilization of organic substances is directly connected with the energy fluxes used by AES. According to energy criteria, the energy fluxes used by biological system have trends to maximum values under stable conditions. Nonutilized substrate concentration decreases in result of biological adaptations. After sharp change of environmental factors, for example, after sharp increase of flow rate of organic substances, the biological system is not able to react quickly. The concentration of nonutilized substrate increases and the energy flux used by biological system decreases. The structure of microbial community also changes, having the decrease of biological diversity. Later, as a result of biological adaptation, the ecological and evolution processes bring to decreasing the concentration of nonutilized substrate and to energy fluxes increasing. To compare with natural ecosystems, AES allow to follow and to study these processes quickly and quantitatively.

  1. Psoriasis in the U.S. Medicare population: prevalence, treatment, and factors associated with biologic use

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Junko; Gelfand, Joel M.; Li, Penxiang; Pinto, Lionel; Yu, Xinyan; Rao, Preethi; Viswanathan, Hema N.; Doshi, Jalpa A.

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disorder, primarily of the skin. Despite an aging population, knowledge of the epidemiology of psoriasis and its treatments among the elderly is limited. We examined the prevalence of psoriasis and its treatments, with a focus on biologics and identification of factors associated with biologic use, using a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries in 2011. Based on several psoriasis identification algorithms, the claims-based prevalence for psoriasis in the United States ranged from 0.51% to 1.23%. Treatments employed for moderate to severe psoriasis (phototherapy, oral systemic, or biologic therapies) were received by 27.3% of the total psoriasis sample, of whom 37.2% used biologics. Patients without Medicare Part D low-income subsidies had 70% lower odds of having received biologics than those with low-income subsidies (odds ratio 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.19– 0.46). Similarly, the odds of having received biologics was 69% lower among black patients than white patients (0.31; 0.16–0.60). This analysis identified potential financial and racial barriers to receipt of biologic therapies and underscores the need for additional studies to further define the epidemiology and treatment of psoriasis among the elderly. PMID:26214380

  2. Psoriasis in the US Medicare Population: Prevalence, Treatment, and Factors Associated with Biologic Use.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Junko; Gelfand, Joel M; Li, Penxiang; Pinto, Lionel; Yu, Xinyan; Rao, Preethi; Viswanathan, Hema N; Doshi, Jalpa A

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disorder, primarily of the skin. Despite an aging population, knowledge of the epidemiology of psoriasis and its treatments among the elderly is limited. We examined the prevalence of psoriasis and its treatments, with a focus on biologics and identification of factors associated with biologic use, using a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries in 2011. On the basis of several psoriasis identification algorithms, the claims-based prevalence for psoriasis in the United States ranged from 0.51 to 1.23%. Treatments used for moderate-to-severe psoriasis (phototherapy, oral systemic, or biologic therapies) were received by 27.3% of the total psoriasis sample, of whom 37.2% used biologics. Patients without a Medicare Part D low-income subsidy (LIS) had 70% lower odds of having received biologics than those with LIS (odds ratio 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.46). Similarly, the odds of having received biologics were 69% lower among black patients compared with white patients (0.31; 0.16-0.60). This analysis identified potential financial and racial barriers to receipt of biologic therapies and underscores the need for additional studies to further define the epidemiology and treatment of psoriasis among the elderly.

  3. Biophysical and biological factors determining the ability to achieve long-term cryobiological preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1997-12-01

    The BESTCapsule will maintain appropriate biological specimens for decades or centuries at cryogenic temperatures in the living state. Maintenance at temperatures below {approximately} {minus}140 C is not a problem. No ordinary chemical reactions in aqueous solutions can occur. The only source of damage will be the slow accumulation of physical damage to DNA from background ionizing radiation. But this source of damage should not become serious in less than a millennium. Rather, the main problem in cryopreservation is to devise procedures for cooling the biological specimens to {minus}196 C and returning them to normal temperatures without inflicting lethal injury. Regardless of the cell type, there are certain encompassing biophysical factors and constraints that determine whether they will survive or die during freezing and thawing. Superimposed on these may be special biological factors that apply to specific cell types. This paper will emphasize the former and give illustrative examples of the latter.

  4. Biological amplification factor for sunlight-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer at high latitudes.

    PubMed

    Moan, J; Dahlback, A; Henriksen, T; Magnus, K

    1989-09-15

    Data for the incidence of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin, registered for six regions of Norway during 10 years (1976-1985), were used to evaluate the biological amplification factor Ab for induction of these cancers by sunlight. Ab is the ratio of the increment in skin cancer production to the increment in causative sunlight exposure. Two different approximations were used for the action spectrum for carcinogenesis: an erythema action spectrum; and an action spectrum for mutagenesis of cells in the basal layer of the skin. These two fundamentally different approaches yielded Ab values that were similar to within about 10%: 2.1-2.3 for BCCs; and 1.6-1.8 for SCCs. Using a radiation amplification factor for ozone depletion of 0.8-1.1, we find that the total amplification factor for BCCs is within the range 1.6-2.1 and that that for SCCs is within the range 1.3-1.7 at northern latitudes of 60-70 degrees. Thus, an ozone depletion of 1% will result in an increase in the incidence of BCCs by 1.6-2.1% and of SCCs by 1.3-1.7%. There were no significant differences between the values for men and women. Neither was there any significant difference between Ab values found for skin commonly exposed to sunlight (face) and for skin sites normally covered by clothes and therefore receiving much lower exposures, in spite of the fact that the tumor density per unit skin area was a factor of 20 or more larger at the former sites. This observation, as well as the curves relating cancer incidence with annual exposure to carcinogenic sunlight, supports a power law relationship between cancer incidence and annual sun exposure. Sunlight appears to be the main cause of BCCs and SCCs even at the high latitudes of Northern Norway. All over, BCCs were found to be about 6 times more frequent than SCCs. The ratio of the incidence of BCCs to that of SCCs seemed to be independent of the latitude. Finally, BCCs were found to be equally frequent among

  5. Factors Which Affect Students' Attitudes towards the Use of Living Animals in Learning Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberstein, Moshe; Tamir, Pinchas

    1981-01-01

    Identifies factors which affect students' attitudes toward the use of animals in research and in learning biology. Responses of students (N=577) in grades 5, 7, 9, and 11 to questionnaires were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance by grade level and sex. Results and implications are discussed. (CS)

  6. Biological and Sociocultural Factors during the School Years Predicting Women's Lifetime Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, C. Emily; Cohen, Alison K.; Deardorff, Julianna; Cance, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lifetime educational attainment is an important predictor of health and well-being for women in the United States. In this study, we examine the roles of sociocultural factors in youth and an understudied biological life event, pubertal timing, in predicting women's lifetime educational attainment. Methods: Using data from the National…

  7. A Study on the Factors Affecting Biological Concept Learning of Junior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min-Nan Maynard; Wu, Kun-Chang; Huang, Tai-Chu Iris

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how factors such as personal traits and school locations influence junior high school students' conceptual learning of biology. The study was carried out island-wide with the whole area divided into 10 districts, from which 4,537 students were selected using stratified random sampling. A questionnaire on…

  8. Cocaine Use among the College Age Group: Biological and Psychological Effects--Clinical and Laboratory Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Knowledge about cocaine's effect on the human mind and body is limited and not clearly documented. This article discusses various biological and psychological effects of the drug based on clinical and laboratory studies of man. (Author/DF)

  9. On Finding and Using Identifiable Parameter Combinations in Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Biology Models and COMBOS: A Novel Web Implementation

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Parameter identifiability problems can plague biomodelers when they reach the quantification stage of development, even for relatively simple models. Structural identifiability (SI) is the primary question, usually understood as knowing which of P unknown biomodel parameters p1,…, pi,…, pP are-and which are not-quantifiable in principle from particular input-output (I-O) biodata. It is not widely appreciated that the same database also can provide quantitative information about the structurally unidentifiable (not quantifiable) subset, in the form of explicit algebraic relationships among unidentifiable pi. Importantly, this is a first step toward finding what else is needed to quantify particular unidentifiable parameters of interest from new I–O experiments. We further develop, implement and exemplify novel algorithms that address and solve the SI problem for a practical class of ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems biology models, as a user-friendly and universally-accessible web application (app)–COMBOS. Users provide the structural ODE and output measurement models in one of two standard forms to a remote server via their web browser. COMBOS provides a list of uniquely and non-uniquely SI model parameters, and–importantly-the combinations of parameters not individually SI. If non-uniquely SI, it also provides the maximum number of different solutions, with important practical implications. The behind-the-scenes symbolic differential algebra algorithms are based on computing Gröbner bases of model attributes established after some algebraic transformations, using the computer-algebra system Maxima. COMBOS was developed for facile instructional and research use as well as modeling. We use it in the classroom to illustrate SI analysis; and have simplified complex models of tumor suppressor p53 and hormone regulation, based on explicit computation of parameter combinations. It’s illustrated and validated here for models of moderate complexity

  10. Parathyroid nuclear scan. A focused review on the technical and biological factors affecting its outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Subramanian; Milas, Mira; Neumann, Donald; Parikh, Rikesh T.; Siperstein, Alan; Licata, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Technetium Parathyroid Scintigraphy (TS) is the most popular noninvasive localization procedure in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Awareness of various factors involved in technetium uptake helps understand the outcome of TS. Methods We utilize a case of changing TS scans in a patient to review the literature on the various biological and technical factors involved in technetium uptake by the abnormal parathyroid tissue. A 56 year female was diagnosed with PHPT and osteopenia. An initial scan using 99mTc-Tetrofosmin showed no definite areas of abnormal parathyroid tissue. Patient refused surgical exploration, was started on Bisphosponates and subsequently monitored. Five years later she suffered fracture of her right wrist. A repeat TS using 99mTc-Sestamibi revealed hypervascular parathyroid lesion in the right lower neck. She underwent successful removal of a right lower parathyroid adenoma. Results Technical factors like the type of Tc isotope used, imaging techniques and biological factors like biochemical parameters (calcium, vitamin D levels), adenoma size, content of oxyphilic cells, vascularity can affect the outcome of the scan. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of technical and biological factors that could result in negative scan in parathyroid nuclear scintigraphy. PMID:25002876

  11. Principles of biological adaptation of organisms in artificial ecosystems to changes of environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.; Pisman, T. I.

    Studying material transformations and biotic cycling in artificial ecosystems (AES), we need to know the principles of biological adaptation of active organisms to change in the environment. Microorganisms in AES for water purification are the most active transforming organisms and consumers of the organic substances contained in wastes. Utilization of organic substances is directly connected with the energy fluxes used by AES. According to energy criteria, the energy fluxes used by a biological system tend to reach maximum values under stable conditions. Unutilized substrate concentration decreases as a result of biological adaptations. After a dramatic change in environmental factors, for example, after a sharp increase in the flow rate of organic substances, the biological system is not able to react quickly. The concentration of unutilized substrate increases and the energy flux used by the biological system decreases. The structure of the microbial community also changes, with a decrease in biological diversity. The efficiency of energy use by simple terrestrial ecosystems depends on the energetic intensity and interactions between plants and rhizospheric microorganisms.

  12. Sparse factor model for co-expression networks with an application using prior biological knowledge.

    PubMed

    Blum, Yuna; Houée-Bigot, Magalie; Causeur, David

    2016-06-01

    Inference on gene regulatory networks from high-throughput expression data turns out to be one of the main current challenges in systems biology. Such networks can be very insightful for the deep understanding of interactions between genes. Because genes-gene interactions is often viewed as joint contributions to known biological mechanisms, inference on the dependence among gene expressions is expected to be consistent to some extent with the functional characterization of genes which can be derived from ontologies (GO, KEGG, …). The present paper introduces a sparse factor model as a general framework either to account for a prior knowledge on joint contributions of modules of genes to latent biological processes or to infer on the corresponding co-expression network. We propose an ℓ1 - regularized EM algorithm to fit a sparse factor model for correlation. We demonstrate how it helps extracting modules of genes and more generally improves the gene clustering performance. The method is compared to alternative estimation procedures for sparse factor models of relevance networks in a simulation study. The integration of a biological knowledge based on the gene ontology (GO) is also illustrated on a liver expression data generated to understand adiposity variability in chicken.

  13. [The role of biological and social psychological factors in the genesis of hysterical neurosis].

    PubMed

    Voloshin, P V; Vorob'eva, T M; Sukhorukov, V I

    1990-01-01

    Based on comprehensive examinations of 200 patients with hysterical neurosis, made in terms of a total systems biological approach it has been shown that closely interwoven biological and sociopsychological factors intercondition, supplement and determine both formation of the so-called "ground" and the clinical manifestations of neurosis. Hysterical neurosis is viewed as an original clinical model of the formation of the defence behavior system where a special system-forming role is played by the brain mechanisms of positive reinforcement, i. e. as resting on the mechanism of a pathological attraction to positive emotions, attained in a mediated manner via the system of negative emotions and their transformation.

  14. Neurotrophic factors and neural prostheses: potential clinical applications based upon findings in the auditory system.

    PubMed

    Pettingill, Lisa N; Richardson, Rachael T; Wise, Andrew K; O'Leary, Stephen J; Shepherd, Robert K

    2007-06-01

    Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are the target cells of the cochlear implant, a neural prosthesis designed to provide important auditory cues to severely or profoundly deaf patients. The ongoing degeneration of SGNs that occurs following a sensorineural hearing loss is, therefore, considered a limiting factor in cochlear implant efficacy. We review neurobiological techniques aimed at preventing SGN degeneration using exogenous delivery of neurotrophic factors. Application of these proteins prevents SGN degeneration and can enhance neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, chronic electrical stimulation of SGNs increases neurotrophic factor-induced survival and is correlated with functional benefits. The application of neurotrophic factors has the potential to enhance the benefits that patients can derive from cochlear implants; moreover, these techniques may be relevant for use with neural prostheses in other neurological conditions. PMID:17551571

  15. Cross-Linking and Mass Spectrometry Methodologies to Facilitate Structural Biology: Finding a Path through the Maze

    SciTech Connect

    Merkley, Eric D.; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-09-01

    Multiprotein complexes, rather than individual proteins, make up a large part of the biological macromolecular machinery of a cell. Understanding the structure and organization of these complexes is critical to understanding cellular function. Chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry is emerging as a complementary technique to traditional structural biology methods and can provide low-resolution structural information for a multitude of purposes, such as distance constraints in computational modeling of protein complexes. In this review, we discuss the experimental considerations for successful application of chemical cross-linking-mass spectrometry in biological studies and highlight three examples of such studies from the recent literature. These examples (as well as many others) illustrate the utility of a chemical cross-linking-mass spectrometry approach in facilitating structural analysis of large and challenging complexes.

  16. Teacher Related Factors Influencing Students' Enrollment in Biology Subject in Public Secondary Schools in Meru Central Sub County in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirima, Teresia Mugure; Kinyua, Susan Muthoni

    2016-01-01

    This study examined teacher related factors influencing students' enrollment in Biology subject in public secondary schools in Meru Central Sub County in Kenya. The study utilized the descriptive survey research design on a target population of 9,859 respondents consisting of 9,748 Biology students, 62 trained Biology teachers and 49 Heads of…

  17. Purification, partial characterization and biological effects of the XTC mesoderm-inducing factor.

    PubMed

    Smith, J C; Yaqoob, M; Symes, K

    1988-07-01

    The mesoderm of Xenopus laevis is formed through an inductive interaction in which a signal from the vegetal hemisphere of the blastula acts on overlying animal pole cells. We have recently reported that the Xenopus XTC cell line secretes a mesoderm-inducing factor (MIF) which may resemble the natural signal. In this paper, we describe the purification and biological effects of XTC-MIF. XTC-MIF is a hydrophobic protein with an isoelectric point of 7.8 and an apparent relative molecular mass (Mr) of 23,500. On reduction, XTC-MIF loses its biological activity and the protein dissociates into two inactive subunits with apparent Mr of about 15,000. These properties closely resemble those of transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta), and it is interesting that TGF-beta 2 has recently been shown to have mesoderm-inducing activity. The biological response to XTC-MIF is graded. After exposure to 0.2-1.0 ng ml-1 XTC-MIF, stage-8 animal pole explants form mesenchyme and mesothelium. At higher concentrations, up to about 5 ng ml-1, muscle is formed, occasionally with neural tissue. In response to concentrations of XTC-MIF greater than 5-10 ng ml-1, notochord and neural tissue are usually formed. The formation of notochord and neural tissue in response to XTC-MIF represents a qualitative difference between this inducing factor and the other known group of MIFs, the heparin-binding growth factors.

  18. In-Class Use of Laptop Computers to Enhance Engagement within an Undergraduate Biology Curriculum: Findings and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Kirsten; Smit, Julie; Higgs, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Laptop computers were provided for use in three biology classes with differing formats (a second year lecture course of 100 students, a third/fourth year lecture course of 50 students, and a second year course with greater than 250 students, in groups of 25 during the laboratory portion of the class) to assess their impact on student learning and…

  19. 76 FR 4859 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    .... On May 20, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 28233- 28234, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0028... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... relative to the control of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama). The environmental...

  20. Finding an emotional face in a crowd: emotional and perceptual stimulus factors influence visual search efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Daniel; Bruce, Neil; Öhman, Arne

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine how emotional and perceptual stimulus factors influence visual search efficiency. In an initial task, we run a visual search task, using a large number of target/distractor emotion combinations. In two subsequent tasks, we then assess measures of perceptual (rated and computational distances) and emotional (rated valence, arousal and potency) stimulus properties. In a series of regression analyses, we then explore the degree to which target salience (the size of target/distractor dissimilarities) on these emotional and perceptual measures predict the outcome on search efficiency measures (response times and accuracy) from the visual search task. The results show that both emotional and perceptual stimulus salience contribute to visual search efficiency. The results show that among the emotional measures, salience on arousal measures was more influential than valence salience. The importance of the arousal factor may be a contributing factor to contradictory history of results within this field.

  1. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  2. Applying Effective Instruction Research Findings in Teacher Education: Six Influencing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Elsie W.

    This preliminary report provides an overview of the Applying Research to Teacher Education (ARTE) Research Utilization in Elementary Teacher Education (RUETE) study which began in 1982 and will continue through 1985. ARTE: RUETE explores specific processes for incorporating recent research findings of effective instruction into preservice…

  3. 50 CFR 23.60 - What factors are considered in making a legal acquisition finding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... legal acquisition finding? 23.60 Section 23.60 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... cumulative risks, recognizing that each aspect of the international trade has a continuum of risk from...

  4. 50 CFR 23.60 - What factors are considered in making a legal acquisition finding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... legal acquisition finding? 23.60 Section 23.60 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... cumulative risks, recognizing that each aspect of the international trade has a continuum of risk from...

  5. 50 CFR 23.60 - What factors are considered in making a legal acquisition finding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... legal acquisition finding? 23.60 Section 23.60 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... cumulative risks, recognizing that each aspect of the international trade has a continuum of risk from...

  6. 50 CFR 23.60 - What factors are considered in making a legal acquisition finding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... legal acquisition finding? 23.60 Section 23.60 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... cumulative risks, recognizing that each aspect of the international trade has a continuum of risk from...

  7. 50 CFR 23.60 - What factors are considered in making a legal acquisition finding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... legal acquisition finding? 23.60 Section 23.60 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... cumulative risks, recognizing that each aspect of the international trade has a continuum of risk from...

  8. Psychological risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in patients with coronary heart disease: Findings from the Heart and Soul Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Beth E.; Panguluri, Praveen; Na, Beeya; Whooley, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Psychological factors, such as depression and anxiety, are independently associated with an increased risk of both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, but the reasons for these associations are unknown. We sought to determine whether psychological factors were associated with a greater prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with coronary heart disease, and the extent to which such an association may be explained by socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and biological mediators. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1024 outpatients with stable coronary heart disease. Psychological factors, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, hostility, anger, and optimism–pessimism, were assessed using validated standardized questionnaires. The presence or absence of the metabolic syndrome was determined using the criteria outlined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Higher levels of depression, anger expression, hostility, and pessimism were significantly associated with increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. These associations were explained by differences in socioeconomic status and health behaviors. Additional adjustment for potential biological mediators had little impact. Further research is needed to determine whether addressing socioeconomic and behavioral factors in people with depression or high levels of anger or hostility could reduce the burden of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19969373

  9. Radon awareness and testing behavior: Findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1989-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, E.S.; Eheman, C.R.; Garbe, P.L.

    1996-03-01

    Radon is considered an important environmental risk factor for lung cancer. Previous studies have shown that relatively few homes have been tested for radon. Results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1989-1992 show significant interstate and demographic variation in levels of radon awareness and home testing. There was evidence that levels of radon awareness and testing homes for radon have increased from 1989 through 1992. Although these trends in the data are encouraging, the data also suggest that continued education and other interventions may be necessary to reach the Public Health Service`s testing and mitigating objectives for residential radon. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Finding Color in Conformity: A Commentary on Culturally Specific Risk Factors for Violence in Australia.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Stephane M

    2015-11-01

    This article outlines the current utility of Indigenous culturally specific risk factors for violence and the ramifications for cross-cultural risk prediction. The Indigenous culturally specific violence risk factor literature has provided a rich body of contextual information outlining Indigenous patterns of criminal behaviour. This information has the capacity to facilitate offender responsivity and treatment targets in addition to assisting clinicians identify the presence of risk markers among Indigenous clients. However, if intended for inclusion in risk prediction models, culturally specific risk items then require further quantitative analysis to establish robust associations and probability estimates for recidivistic outcome.

  11. Estimating Escherichia coli loads in streams based on various physical, chemical, and biological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Dipankar; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2013-05-01

    Microbes have been identified as a major contaminant of water resources. Escherichia coli is a commonly used indicator organism. It is well recognized that the fate of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by multiple physical, chemical, and biological factors. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the physical, chemical, and biological factors along with their interactions that are critical in the estimation of E. coli loads in surface streams. There are various models to predict E. coli loads in streams, but they tend to be system- or site-specific or overly complex without enhancing our understanding of these factors. Hence, based on available data, a Bayesian neural network (BNN) is presented for estimating E. coli loads based on physical, chemical, and biological factors in streams. The BNN has the dual advantage of overcoming the absence of quality data (with regard to consistency in data) and determination of mechanistic model parameters by employing a probabilistic framework. This study evaluates whether the BNN model can be an effective alternative tool to mechanistic models for E. coli load estimation in streams. For this purpose, a comparison with a traditional model (load estimator (LOADEST), U.S. Geological Survey) is conducted. The models are compared for estimated E. coli loads based on available water quality data in Plum Creek, Texas. All the model efficiency measures suggest that overall E. coli load estimations by the BNN model are better than the E. coli load estimations by the LOADEST model on all the three occasions (threefold cross validation). Thirteen factors were used for estimating E. coli loads with the exhaustive feature selection technique, which indicated that 6 of 13 factors are important for estimating E. coli loads. Physical factors included temperature and dissolved oxygen; chemical factors include phosphate and ammonia; and biological factors include suspended solids and chlorophyll. The results highlight that

  12. Estimating Escherichia coli loads in streams based on various physical, chemical, and biological factors.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Dipankar; Mohanty, Binayak P; Lesikar, Bruce J

    2013-05-01

    Microbes have been identified as a major contaminant of water resources. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commonly used indicator organism. It is well recognized that the fate of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by multiple physical, chemical, and biological factors. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the physical, chemical, and biological factors along with their interactions that are critical in the estimation of E. coli loads in surface streams. There are various models to predict E. coli loads in streams, but they tend to be system or site specific or overly complex without enhancing our understanding of these factors. Hence, based on available data, a Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) is presented for estimating E. coli loads based on physical, chemical, and biological factors in streams. The BNN has the dual advantage of overcoming the absence of quality data (with regards to consistency in data) and determination of mechanistic model parameters by employing a probabilistic framework. This study evaluates whether the BNN model can be an effective alternative tool to mechanistic models for E. coli loads estimation in streams. For this purpose, a comparison with a traditional model (LOADEST, USGS) is conducted. The models are compared for estimated E. coli loads based on available water quality data in Plum Creek, Texas. All the model efficiency measures suggest that overall E. coli loads estimations by the BNN model are better than the E. coli loads estimations by the LOADEST model on all the three occasions (three-fold cross validation). Thirteen factors were used for estimating E. coli loads with the exhaustive feature selection technique, which indicated that six of thirteen factors are important for estimating E. coli loads. Physical factors included temperature and dissolved oxygen; chemical factors include phosphate and ammonia; biological factors include suspended solids and chlorophyll. The results highlight that the LOADEST model

  13. Estimating Escherichia coli loads in streams based on various physical, chemical, and biological factors

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Dipankar; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    Microbes have been identified as a major contaminant of water resources. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commonly used indicator organism. It is well recognized that the fate of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by multiple physical, chemical, and biological factors. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the physical, chemical, and biological factors along with their interactions that are critical in the estimation of E. coli loads in surface streams. There are various models to predict E. coli loads in streams, but they tend to be system or site specific or overly complex without enhancing our understanding of these factors. Hence, based on available data, a Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) is presented for estimating E. coli loads based on physical, chemical, and biological factors in streams. The BNN has the dual advantage of overcoming the absence of quality data (with regards to consistency in data) and determination of mechanistic model parameters by employing a probabilistic framework. This study evaluates whether the BNN model can be an effective alternative tool to mechanistic models for E. coli loads estimation in streams. For this purpose, a comparison with a traditional model (LOADEST, USGS) is conducted. The models are compared for estimated E. coli loads based on available water quality data in Plum Creek, Texas. All the model efficiency measures suggest that overall E. coli loads estimations by the BNN model are better than the E. coli loads estimations by the LOADEST model on all the three occasions (three-fold cross validation). Thirteen factors were used for estimating E. coli loads with the exhaustive feature selection technique, which indicated that six of thirteen factors are important for estimating E. coli loads. Physical factors included temperature and dissolved oxygen; chemical factors include phosphate and ammonia; biological factors include suspended solids and chlorophyll. The results highlight that the LOADEST model

  14. Soluble Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (sEGFRs) in Cancer: Biological Aspects and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Maramotti, Sally; Paci, Massimiliano; Manzotti, Gloria; Rapicetta, Cristian; Gugnoni, Mila; Galeone, Carla; Cesario, Alfredo; Lococo, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The identification of molecules that can reliably detect the presence of a tumor or predict its behavior is one of the biggest challenges of research in cancer biology. Biological fluids are intriguing mediums, containing many molecules that express the individual health status and, accordingly, may be useful in establishing the potential risk of cancer, defining differential diagnosis and prognosis, predicting the response to treatment, and monitoring the disease progression. The existence of circulating soluble growth factor receptors (sGFRs) deriving from their membrane counterparts has stimulated the interest of researchers to investigate the use of such molecules as potential cancer biomarkers. But what are the origins of circulating sGFRs? Are they naturally occurring molecules or tumor-derived products? Among these, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a cell-surface molecule significantly involved in cancer development and progression; it can be processed into biological active soluble isoforms (sEGFR). We have carried out an extensive review of the currently available literature on the sEGFRs and their mechanisms of regulation and biological function, with the intent to clarify the role of these molecules in cancer (and other pathological conditions) and, on the basis of the retrieved evidences, speculate about their potential use in the clinical setting. PMID:27104520

  15. Factors Associated with Use of Automated Smoking Cessation Interventions: Findings from the eQuit Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmford, James; Borland, Ron; Benda, Peter; Howard, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to better understand structural factors associated with uptake of automated tailored interventions for smoking cessation. In a prospective randomized controlled trial with interventions only offered, not mandated, participants were randomized based on the following: web-based expert system (QuitCoach); text messaging program (onQ);…

  16. Finding of Correction Factor and Dimensional Error in Bio-AM Model by FDM Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manmadhachary, Aiamunoori; Ravi Kumar, Yennam; Krishnanand, Lanka

    2016-06-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the swift manufacturing process, in which input data can be provided from various sources like 3-Dimensional (3D) Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 3D scanner data. From the CT/MRI data can be manufacture Biomedical Additive Manufacturing (Bio-AM) models. The Bio-AM model gives a better lead on preplanning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. However manufacturing of the accurate Bio-AM model is one of the unsolved problems. The current paper demonstrates error between the Standard Triangle Language (STL) model to Bio-AM model of dry mandible and found correction factor in Bio-AM model with Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique. In the present work dry mandible CT images are acquired by CT scanner and supplied into a 3D CAD model in the form of STL model. Further the data is sent to FDM machine for fabrication of Bio-AM model. The difference between Bio-AM to STL model dimensions is considered as dimensional error and the ratio of STL to Bio-AM model dimensions considered as a correction factor. This correction factor helps to fabricate the AM model with accurate dimensions of the patient anatomy. These true dimensional Bio-AM models increasing the safety and accuracy in pre-planning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The correction factor for Dimension SST 768 FDM AM machine is 1.003 and dimensional error is limited to 0.3 %.

  17. Enhancing Coping and Supporting Protective Factors after a Disaster: Findings From a Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Tara; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the Journey of Hope (JoH), a school-based intervention for children who have experienced a collective trauma such as a natural disaster. Through the use of group work, the JoH focuses on building coping skills and enhancing protective factors to help children recover. Method: This quasi-experimental research…

  18. Factors Associated with Clothing Habits and Attitudes among Older Persons. The Findings from Extension Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFatter, Bobbie L.

    To determine some of the factors associated with clothing habits and attitudes and their relationship to social participation among persons 65 years of age and older, personal interviews were conducted with 100 white people, 65 and older. The possible association between the extent of participation and other variables such as attitudes, habits,…

  19. Gene-Environment Interplay in Internalizing Disorders: Consistent Findings across Six Environmental Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Brian M.; Dirago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Background: Behavior genetic methods can help to elucidate gene-environment (G-E) interplay in the development of internalizing (INT) disorders (i.e., major depression and anxiety disorders). To date, however, no study has conducted a comprehensive analysis examining multiple environmental risk factors with the purpose of delineating general…

  20. Perceptions of Factors Influencing Healthful Food Consumption Behavior in the Lower Mississippi Delta: Focus Group Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Bernestine B.; Richardson, Valerie; Johnson, Glenda S.; Thornton, Alma; Johnson, Crystal; Yadrick, Kathleen; Ndirangu, Murugi; Goolsby, Susan; Watkins, Debra; Simpson, Pippa M.; Hyman, Edith; Stigger, Flavelia; Bogle, Margaret L.; Kramer, Tim R.; Strickland, Earline; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify perceptions of Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) residents regarding factors that influence a change in healthful food consumption behavior to assist in planning sustainable nutrition interventions in the LMD. Design: Nine focus groups were conducted with LMD residents in 9 counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. One…

  1. Characterization of depolarizing optical media by means of the entropy factor: application to biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereda Cubián, David; Arce Diego, José Luis; Rentmeesters, Raf

    2005-01-01

    Polarized light imaging is a potential tool to obtain an adequate description of the properties of depolarizing media such as biological tissues. In many biomedical applications, for instance, dermatology, ophthalmology, or urology, imaging polarimetry provides a noninvasive diagnosis of a wide range of disease states, and, likewise, it could be applied to the study of internal tissues though the use of endoscopes that use optical fibers. We introduce an algebraic method, based on the Mueller-coherence matrix, for a clearer analysis of the polarization characteristics of depolarizing media via the entropy factor. First-order errors introduced by the measurement system are corrected. Entropy defines three kinds of media according to their depolarizing behavior, and several examples corresponding to each region are shown. The calculation of this factor provides clearer information than that provided by the traditional Mueller matrix in the analysis of biological tissue properties by polarization measurement techniques.

  2. Metadiscourse markers in biological research articles and journal impact factor: Non-native writers vs. native writers.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Javad; Ilghami, Roghayeh

    2016-07-01

    Metadiscourse markers (MDMs) are lexical resources that writers employ to organize their discourse and state their stance towards the content or the reader. This study investigated the frequency with which interactive and interactional MDMs were employed in biological research articles (RAs). It also explored the possible relationship between the frequency of these markers and Impact Factor (IF) of journals as an index of quality. Moreover, it aimed at finding out the difference(s) between two groups of authors (Iranian and American) in their use of these markers. Forty biological RAs published in years 2008-2011 written by Iranian non-native authors and published in four ISI journals with different IFs and 40 articles with the same characteristics published by American native authors were selected and examined for the use of the markers. The results showed that there was a strong positive correlation between the frequency of MDMs and IF of the journals. Regarding the frequency of MDMs, it was observed that Iranian authors employed interactive and interactional markers slightly more than their American counterparts. These results may provisionally confirm the considerable role of MDMs in enhancing the coherence and organization of articles for possible publication in high-impact journals. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):349-360, 2016.

  3. Interpersonal violence on college campuses: understanding risk factors and working to find solutions.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Heather

    2014-10-01

    This commentary discusses the contributions of Drs. Antonia Abbey and Catherine Kaukinen to our understanding of risk factors for sexual and physical aggression among college students. Major contributions of their work are outlined. These include Abbey's contributions to our understanding of trajectories of sexually aggressive behavior among college men, risk factors for engaging in sexual aggression among men, and the role of alcohol in sexual aggression. In addition, Kaukinen's work has increased our understanding of the frequency of violence in college dating relationships as well as the association of violent relationships with health risk behaviors. Directions for future research are also outlined including a need to identify trajectories of violence risk as well as a need to understand the complex interrelationships among health risk behaviors and interpersonal violence. Finally, implications for practice and university policy are discussed, including a focus on the development of effective preventive strategies and proactive responses to violence.

  4. Causal factors of corporate crime in Taiwan: qualitative and quantitative findings.

    PubMed

    Mon, Wei-Teh

    2002-04-01

    Street crimes are a primary concern of most criminologists in Taiwan. In recent years, however, crimes committed by corporations have increased greatly in this country. Employing the empirical approach to collect data about causal factors of corporate crime, the research presented in this article is the first systematic empirical study concerning corporate crime in Taiwan. The research sample was selected from a corporation with a criminal record of pollution caused by the release of toxic chemicals into the environment and a corporation with no criminal record. Questionnaire survey and interviews of corporate employees and managers were conducted, and secondary data were collected from official agencies. This research indicated the causal factors of corporate crime as follows: the failure of government regulation, lack of corporate self-regulation, lack of public concern about corporate crime, corporate mechanistic structure, and the low self-control tendency of corporate managers.

  5. Social Factors and Healthy Aging: Findings from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS)

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Kim, Sangkyu; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviors are associated with health outcomes in later life. The authors examined relationships among social and physical activities and health in a lifespan sample of adults (N = 771) drawn from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Four age groups were compared: younger (21-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years), older (65-84 years), and oldest-old adults (85 to 101 years). Linear regression analyses indicated that physical activity, hours spent outside of the house, and social support were significantly associated with self-reported health, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Number of clubs was significantly associated with objective health status, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. These data indicate that social and physical activities remain an important determinant of self-perceived health into very late adulthood. Implications of these data for current views on successful aging are discussed. PMID:27034910

  6. Socioeconomic factors and incidence of erectile dysfunction: findings of the longitudinal Massachussetts Male Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Aytaç, I A; Araujo, A B; Johannes, C B; Kleinman, K P; McKinlay, J B

    2000-09-01

    Despite the well-documented relationship of socioeconomic factors (SEF) to various health problems, the relationship of SEF to erectile dysfunction (ED) is not well understood. As such, the goals of this paper are: (1) to determine whether incident ED is more likely to occur among men with low SEF; and (2) to determine whether incident ED varies by SEF after taking into consideration other well-established ED risk factors that are also associated with SEF such as smoking, diabetes, and high blood pressure. We used data from 797 participants in the longitudinal population-based Massachusetts Male Aging Study (baseline 1987-1989, follow-up 1995-1997) who were free of ED at baseline and had complete data on ED and all risk factors. ED was determined by a self-administered questionnaire and its relationship to SEF was assessed using logistic regression. We first analyzed the age-adjusted relationship of education, income, and occupation to incidence of ED. The results show that men with low education (O.R. = 1.46, 95% C.I. = 1.02-2.08) or men in blue-collar occupations (O.R. = 1.68, 95% C.I. = 1.16-2.43) are significantly more likely to develop ED. For the multivariate model, due to multicollinearity among education, income, and occupation, we ran three separate models. After taking into consideration all the other risk factors--age, lifestyle and medical conditions--the effect of occupation remained significant. Men who worked in blue-collar occupations were one and a half times more likely to develop ED compared to men in white-collar occupations (O.R. = 1.55, 95% C.I. = 1.06-2.28).

  7. Human Factors and ISS Medical Systems: Highlights of Procedures and Equipment Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, V. E.; Hudy, C.; Smith, D.; Whitmore, M.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering Critical Questions Roadmap, a three year Technology Development Project (TDP) was funded by NASA Headquarters to examine emergency medical procedures on ISS. The overall aim of the emergency medical procedures project was to determine the human factors issues in the procedures, training, communications and equipment, and to recommend solutions that will improve the survival rate of crewmembers in the event of a medical emergency. Currently, each ISS crew remains on orbit for six month intervals. As there is not standing requirement for a physician crewmember, during such time, the maintenance of crew health is dependant on individual crewmembers. Further, in the event of an emergency, crew will need to provide prolonged maintenance care, as well as emergency treatment, to an injured crewmember while awaiting transport to Earth. In addition to the isolation of the crew, medical procedures must be carried out within the further limitations imposed by the physical environment of the space station. For example, in order to administer care on ISS without the benefit of gravity, the Crew Medical Officers (CMOs) must restrain the equipment required to perform the task, restrain the injured crewmember, and finally, restrain themselves. Both the physical environment and the physical space available further limit the technology that can be used onboard. Equipment must be compact, yet able to withstand high levels of radiation and function without gravity. The focus here is to highlight the human factors impacts from our three year project involving the procedures and equipment areas that have been investigated and provided valuable to ISS and provide groundwork for human factors requirements for medical applications for exploration missions.

  8. Biomechanical Factors Associated With Jump Height: A Comparison of Cross-Sectional and Pre-to-Posttraining Change Findings.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brendan M; Moran, Kieran A

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies investigating the biomechanical factors associated with maximal countermovement jump height have typically used cross-sectional data. An alternative but less common approach is to use pre-to-posttraining change data, where the relationship between an improvement in jump height and a change in a factor is examined more directly. Our study compared the findings of these approaches. Such an evaluation is necessary because cross-sectional studies are currently a primary source of information for coaches when examining what factors to train to enhance performance. The countermovement jump of 44 males was analyzed before and after an 8-week training intervention. Correlations with jump height were calculated using both cross-sectional (pretraining data only) and pre-to-posttraining change data. Eight factors identified in the cross-sectional analysis were not significantly correlated with a change in jump height in the pre-to-post analysis. Additionally, only 6 of 11 factors identified in the pre-to-post analysis were identified in the cross-sectional analysis. These findings imply that (a) not all factors identified in a cross-sectional analysis may be critical to jump height improvement and (b) cross-sectional analyses alone may not provide an insight into all of the potential factors to train to enhance jump height. Coaches must be aware of these limitations when examining cross-sectional studies to identify factors to train to enhance jump ability. Additional findings highlight that although exercises prescribed to improve jump height should aim to enhance concentric power production at all joints, a particular emphasis on enhancing hip joint peak power may be warranted.

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH NORMAL AND ABNORMAL ANGIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Malay; Dhavale, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Chest pain is one of the most common symptoms in psychiatric and primary care practice and a frequent reason for extensive diagnostic work-up. Despite extensive investigations no recognizable medical cause to account for these symptoms is detected in many patients with chest pain. Studies of patients with non-cardiac chest pain have revealed that many continue to report symptoms and disability despite medical reassurances. The aims of the study were to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, personality profile and stressors along with functional impairment in patients with chest pain and normal angiographic findings and compare the same with patients who have chest pain but abnormal angiographic findings and a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. The study included 30 consecutive patients in each group. The scales used were SCID-I of DSM-III-R, 16-PF, semi structured questionnaire for assessment of type A behaviour, PSLES and GAF scale of DSM-III-R. Panic disorder and depression were highly prevalent in patients with atypical chest pain. These patients had lower prevalence of type A behaviour, a unique 16-PF profile, experienced more stresses at any given point in time and significant impairment in day-day and in socio-occupational functioning. PMID:21430803

  10. Factors influencing African-American mothers' concerns about immunization safety: a summary of focus group findings.

    PubMed Central

    Shui, Irene; Kennedy, Allison; Wooten, Karen; Schwartz, Benjamin; Gust, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the vaccine safety concerns of African-American mothers who, despite concerns, have their children immunized. METHODS: Six focus groups of Atlanta-area African-American mothers who were very concerned about vaccine safety but whose children were fully vaccinated were conducted. RESULTS: Major factors influencing participants' concerns about immunizations included: lack of information and mistrust of the medical community and government. Factors that convinced parents to have their child immunized despite their concerns included social norms and/or laws supporting immunization and fear of the consequences of not immunizing. Suggestions given to reduce concerns included improving available information that addressed their concerns and provider-patient communication. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing mothers' concerns about immunization is important both from an ethical perspective, in assuring that they are fully informed of the risks and benefits of immunizations, as well as from a practical one, in reducing the possibility that they will decide not to immunize their child. Changes in the childhood immunization process should be made to reduce parental concern about vaccine safety. Some changes that may be considered include improved provider communication about immunizations and additional tailored information about the necessity and safety of vaccines. PMID:15926642

  11. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in man induce aberrant crypt foci in rats: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Fard, Sara; Furrer, Rudolf; Archer, Michael C; Bruce, W Robert; Lip, HoYin; Mehta, Rhea; O'Brien, Peter J; Giacca, Adria; Ward, Wendy E; Femia, A Pietro; Caderni, Giovanna; Medline, Alan; Banks, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated clear associations between specific dietary and environmental risk factors and incidence of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms responsible for these associations are not known. An animal model could facilitate such an understanding. Both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colons of F344 rats. F344 rats were provided with diets that contained putative risk factors for CRC: low calcium and low vitamin D, high iron, high fructose, and decreased light (UV) exposure or a control diet for 14 wk. The rats were then assessed with biochemical measures and by topological examination for evidence of colon abnormalities. Circulating ionized calcium was decreased from 2.85 to 1.69 mmol/L, and ACF were increased from 0.7 to 13.6 lesions/colon (both P < 0.001). Rats exposed to the multiple environmental conditions associated with colon cancer, developed ACF similar to the heterogeneous or ill-defined ACF in the human colon. Heterogeneous ACF are the most frequently seen in humans and are also seen in rats shortly after exposure to the non-genotoxic colon carcinogen, dextransulfate sodium. The rodent model could be used to assess the pathways from diet and environment to colon cancer and to provide guidance for clinical studies. PMID:26709971

  12. Cooperative layered sensing: a factor analysis on finding elusive mobile targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Christopher K.; Colombi, John M.

    2012-06-01

    Irregular asymmetric conflicts with non-traditional targets and shorter timelines are spawning new mission requirements for situation awareness. As a result, the increasing demands for timely decision-quality information across the battle space have presented tough challenges for stretched operational resources. The Layered Sensing construct developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory provides a unified vision for research to address the situational awareness challenges posed by the complex and dynamic environments seen in recent conflicts. Determining how to maximize available resources across the battle space with the best efficiency and effectiveness is a critical research thread in the Layered Sensing construct. Leveraging different capabilities across networked cooperative sensors to provide timely situational awareness is critical in accomplishing mission objectives with limited resources. This paper evaluates cooperative sensing using a constructive simulation environment by examining mission performance in various scenarios where Remotely Piloted Aircraft are seeking elusive mobile targets. Measured performance parameters include enemy targets killed and suppression of enemy missile attacks. Cooperative and non-cooperative conditions were simulated using variable factors: sensor capabilities, target densities and false target densities. Results demonstrate statistically significant mission performance improvements of over 200% for less capable, but cooperatively networked, sensors increasing their effectiveness to that of more capable sensors working alone. Key factors regarding when and how to leverage cooperation for improved mission performance are also identified and examined through sensitivity analysis.

  13. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in man induce aberrant crypt foci in rats: Preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Fard, Sara; Furrer, Rudolf; Archer, Michael C.; Bruce, W. Robert; Lip, HoYin; Mehta, Rhea; O'Brien, Peter J.; Giacca, Adria; Ward, Wendy E.; Femia, A. Pietro; Caderni, Giovanna; Medline, Alan; Banks, Kate

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have demonstrated clear associations between specific dietary and environmental risk factors and incidence of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms responsible for these associations are not known. An animal model could facilitate such an understanding. Both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colons of F344 rats. F344 rats were provided with diets that contained putative risk factors for CRC: low calcium and low vitamin D, high iron, high fructose, and decreased light (UV) exposure or a control diet for 14 wk. The rats were then assessed with biochemical measures and by topological examination for evidence of colon abnormalities. Circulating ionized calcium was decreased from 2.85 to 1.69 mmol/L, and ACF were increased from 0.7 to 13.6 lesions/colon (both P < 0.001). Rats exposed to the multiple environmental conditions associated with colon cancer, developed ACF similar to the heterogeneous or ill-defined ACF in the human colon. Heterogeneous ACF are the most frequently seen in humans and are also seen in rats shortly after exposure to the non-genotoxic colon carcinogen, dextransulfate sodium. The rodent model could be used to assess the pathways from diet and environment to colon cancer and to provide guidance for clinical studies. PMID:26709971

  14. 3CPET: finding co-factor complexes from ChIA-PET data using a hierarchical Dirichlet process.

    PubMed

    Djekidel, Mohamed Nadhir; Liang, Zhengyu; Wang, Qi; Hu, Zhirui; Li, Guipeng; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Michael Q

    2015-01-01

    Various efforts have been made to elucidate the cooperating proteins involved in maintaining chromatin interactions; however, many are still unknown. Here, we present 3CPET, a tool based on a non-parametric Bayesian approach, to infer the set of the most probable protein complexes involved in maintaining chromatin interactions and the regions that they may control, making it a valuable downstream analysis tool in chromatin conformation studies. 3CPET does so by combining data from ChIA-PET, transcription factor binding sites, and protein interactions. 3CPET results show biologically significant and accurate predictions when validated against experimental and simulation data. PMID:26694485

  15. On finding bicliques in bipartite graphs: a novel algorithm and its application to the integration of diverse biological data types

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrating and analyzing heterogeneous genome-scale data is a huge algorithmic challenge for modern systems biology. Bipartite graphs can be useful for representing relationships across pairs of disparate data types, with the interpretation of these relationships accomplished through an enumeration of maximal bicliques. Most previously-known techniques are generally ill-suited to this foundational task, because they are relatively inefficient and without effective scaling. In this paper, a powerful new algorithm is described that produces all maximal bicliques in a bipartite graph. Unlike most previous approaches, the new method neither places undue restrictions on its input nor inflates the problem size. Efficiency is achieved through an innovative exploitation of bipartite graph structure, and through computational reductions that rapidly eliminate non-maximal candidates from the search space. An iterative selection of vertices for consideration based on non-decreasing common neighborhood sizes boosts efficiency and leads to more balanced recursion trees. Results The new technique is implemented and compared to previously published approaches from graph theory and data mining. Formal time and space bounds are derived. Experiments are performed on both random graphs and graphs constructed from functional genomics data. It is shown that the new method substantially outperforms the best previous alternatives. Conclusions The new method is streamlined, efficient, and particularly well-suited to the study of huge and diverse biological data. A robust implementation has been incorporated into GeneWeaver, an online tool for integrating and analyzing functional genomics experiments, available at http://geneweaver.org. The enormous increase in scalability it provides empowers users to study complex and previously unassailable gene-set associations between genes and their biological functions in a hierarchical fashion and on a genome-wide scale. This practical

  16. Multiple impacts of epilepsy and contributing factors: findings from an ethnographic study in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Nuran; Vu Trung, Dang; Snape, Dee; Baker, Gus A; Jacoby, Ann

    2009-01-01

    We investigated issues related to treatment, impact of epilepsy, attitudes toward epilepsy and disclosure in Vietnam by using in depth interviews with people with epilepsy (PWE) and their family members. We found that although participants prefer Western treatment methods more than traditional ones, they experience problems in accessing different kinds of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and higher-level treatment facilities and with respect to treatment expenses. The impact of epilepsy can be observed in a wide range of daily living activities which include working, education, marriage prospects and family formation. Although both families and society at large do not hold negative attitudes toward epilepsy, most PWE reported a sense of burden to others. Both PWE and family members generally prefer disclosing epilepsy rather than concealing it from others. Our findings strongly suggest a need for different types of AEDs, and supporting information for PWE, family members and general public about epilepsy. PMID:19800851

  17. A systems biology perspective on the role of WRKY transcription factors in drought responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Rushton, Paul J

    2014-02-01

    Drought is one of the major challenges affecting crop productivity and yield. However, water stress responses are notoriously multigenic and quantitative with strong environmental effects on phenotypes. It is also clear that water stress often does not occur alone under field conditions but rather in conjunction with other abiotic stresses such as high temperature and high light intensities. A multidisciplinary approach with successful integration of a whole range of -omics technologies will not only define the system, but also provide new gene targets for both transgenic approaches and marker-assisted selection. Transcription factors are major players in water stress signaling and some constitute major hubs in the signaling webs. The main transcription factors in this network include MYB, bHLH, bZIP, ERF, NAC, and WRKY transcription factors. The role of WRKY transcription factors in abiotic stress signaling networks is just becoming apparent and systems biology approaches are starting to define their places in the signaling network. Using systems biology approaches, there are now many transcriptomic analyses and promoter analyses that concern WRKY transcription factors. In addition, reports on nuclear proteomics have identified WRKY proteins that are up-regulated at the protein level by water stress. Interactomics has started to identify different classes of WRKY-interacting proteins. What are often lacking are connections between metabolomics, WRKY transcription factors, promoters, biosynthetic pathways, fluxes and downstream responses. As more levels of the system are characterized, a more detailed understanding of the roles of WRKY transcription factors in drought responses in crops will be obtained.

  18. Using biologic predictive factors to direct therapy of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Cliona; Wilson, Wyndham H.

    2013-01-01

    While diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was once considered to be a single disease entity, recent biological insights have demonstrated that it can be divided up into at least three molecular subtypes. Gene expression profiling has revealed that DLBCL consists of a germinal center B-cell like subtype (GCB), an activated B-cell like subtype (ABC) and a primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma subtype (PMBL). These three entities arise from different stages of B-cell differentiation and are characterized by distinct mechanisms of oncogenic activation. In GCB DLBCL, the BCL6 transcription factor may play an important role in tumor survival and treatment resistance and strategies that target this are under investigation. ABC DLBCL is characterized by high expression of target genes of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/Rel family of transcription factors and strategies that target NF-κB are in clinical trials. PMBL is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that shares many molecular features with nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and may benefit from dose intensity approaches and inhibition of the Janus kinases. Other biologic predictive factors such as MYC and BCL2 may be overexpressed in both the GCB and ABC subtypes and strategies that target these complexes are also being tested. PMID:23610613

  19. Using biologic predictive factors to direct therapy of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Dunleavy, Kieron; Grant, Cliona; Wilson, Wyndham H

    2013-02-01

    While diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was once considered to be a single disease entity, recent biological insights have demonstrated that it can be divided up into at least three molecular subtypes. Gene expression profiling has revealed that DLBCL consists of a germinal center B-cell like subtype (GCB), an activated B-cell like subtype (ABC) and a primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma subtype (PMBL). These three entities arise from different stages of B-cell differentiation and are characterized by distinct mechanisms of oncogenic activation. In GCB DLBCL, the BCL6 transcription factor may play an important role in tumor survival and treatment resistance and strategies that target this are under investigation. ABC DLBCL is characterized by high expression of target genes of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/Rel family of transcription factors and strategies that target NF-κB are in clinical trials. PMBL is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that shares many molecular features with nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and may benefit from dose intensity approaches and inhibition of the Janus kinases. Other biologic predictive factors such as MYC and BCL2 may be overexpressed in both the GCB and ABC subtypes and strategies that target these complexes are also being tested. PMID:23610613

  20. Can social factors explain sex differences in insomnia? Findings from a national survey in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y.; Kawachi, I.; Subramanian, S; Acevedo-Garcia, D.; Lee, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To examine sociological explanations for the higher level of insomnia in women, including social roles and socioeconomic status (SES). Design: Cross sectional survey research Setting: Taiwanese 2001 "social trend survey" Participants: A nationally representative sample of 39 588 citizens aged 15 years or older living in Taiwan. Main results: On average, women scored 1.25 points higher than men on the insomnia inventory (p<0.001) but after controlling for social roles, the sex discrepancy in insomnia decreased slightly. SES did not, however, explain women's higher levels of insomnia. Subscale analysis showed an association between the role of homemaker and increased night time sleep disturbance and decreased daytime sequelae of poor sleep while higher educational attainment was related only to more severe daytime sequelae. Conclusion: The sex discrepancy in insomnia narrowed slightly after taking social role factors into consideration but was not explained by SES. The persistent sex gap in insomnia warrants further investigation. PMID:15911645

  1. Finding Imaging Patterns of Structural Covariance via Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

    PubMed Central

    Sotiras, Aristeidis; Resnick, Susan M.; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NNMF) for the analysis of structural neuroimaging data. The goal is to identify the brain regions that co-vary across individuals in a consistent way, hence potentially being part of underlying brain networks or otherwise influenced by underlying common mechanisms such as genetics and pathologies. NNMF offers a directly data-driven way of extracting relatively localized co-varying structural regions, thereby transcending limitations of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and other related methods that tend to produce dispersed components of positive and negative loadings. In particular, leveraging upon the well known ability of NNMF to produce parts-based representations of image data, we derive decompositions that partition the brain into regions that vary in consistent ways across individuals. Importantly, these decompositions achieve dimensionality reduction via highly interpretable ways and generalize well to new data as shown via split-sample experiments. We empirically validate NNMF in two data sets: i) a Diffusion Tensor (DT) mouse brain development study, and ii) a structural Magnetic Resonance (sMR) study of human brain aging. We demonstrate the ability of NNMF to produce sparse parts-based representations of the data at various resolutions. These representations seem to follow what we know about the underlying functional organization of the brain and also capture some pathological processes. Moreover, we show that these low dimensional representations favorably compare to descriptions obtained with more commonly used matrix factorization methods like PCA and ICA. PMID:25497684

  2. Finding imaging patterns of structural covariance via Non-Negative Matrix Factorization.

    PubMed

    Sotiras, Aristeidis; Resnick, Susan M; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NNMF) for the analysis of structural neuroimaging data. The goal is to identify the brain regions that co-vary across individuals in a consistent way, hence potentially being part of underlying brain networks or otherwise influenced by underlying common mechanisms such as genetics and pathologies. NNMF offers a directly data-driven way of extracting relatively localized co-varying structural regions, thereby transcending limitations of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and other related methods that tend to produce dispersed components of positive and negative loadings. In particular, leveraging upon the well known ability of NNMF to produce parts-based representations of image data, we derive decompositions that partition the brain into regions that vary in consistent ways across individuals. Importantly, these decompositions achieve dimensionality reduction via highly interpretable ways and generalize well to new data as shown via split-sample experiments. We empirically validate NNMF in two data sets: i) a Diffusion Tensor (DT) mouse brain development study, and ii) a structural Magnetic Resonance (sMR) study of human brain aging. We demonstrate the ability of NNMF to produce sparse parts-based representations of the data at various resolutions. These representations seem to follow what we know about the underlying functional organization of the brain and also capture some pathological processes. Moreover, we show that these low dimensional representations favorably compare to descriptions obtained with more commonly used matrix factorization methods like PCA and ICA.

  3. Development as a Factor in the Evolution of Modularity in Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, Jessica

    Biological networks and other systems tend to be modular in structure, with reuse of motifs and the ability to be separated into semi-independent units. The evolutionary forces that produce this modularity are a topic of active research, as modular solutions rarely emerge from models of biological evolution. Through simulations combining evolution and development, I investigate the role that development plays in the emergence of modularity, using a popular metric for network modularity and representing non-network structures as networks in which building blocks are nodes and connections between them are arcs. Preliminary results show that the modularities of structures evolved by an L-systems-based evolutionary developmental algorithm are higher than those evolved by a non-developmental evolutionary algorithm that models evolution in the same way. To ensure that these results are not specific to a single algorithm, I am conducting evolutionary developmental simulations using other methods for simulating development, evolving both networks and building-block structures. This study sheds light on the role of development as a factor in the origin of modularity in biological networks and other biological systems.

  4. Stability and biological activity evaluations of PEGylated human basic fibroblast growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Hadadian, Shahin; Shamassebi, Dariush Norouzian; Mirzahoseini, Hasan; Shokrgozar, Mohamad Ali; Bouzari, Saeid; Sepahi, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human basic fibroblast growth factor (hBFGF) is a heparin-binding growth factor and stimulates the proliferation of a wide variety of cells and tissues causing survival properties and its stability and biological activity improvements have received much attention. Materials and Methods: In the present work, hBFGF produced by engineered Escherichia coli and purified by cation exchange and heparin affinity chromatography, was PEGylated under appropriate condition employing 10 kD polyethylene glycol. The PEGylated form was separated by size exclusion chromatography. Structural, biological activity, and stability evaluations were performed using Fourier transform infrared (FITR) spectroscopy, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and effect denaturing agent, respectively. Results: FITR spectroscopy revealed that both PEGylated and native forms had the same structures. MTT assay showed that PEGyalated form had a 30% reduced biological activity. Fluorescence spectrophotometry indicated that the PEGylated form denatured at higher concentrations of guanidine HCl (1.2 M) compared with native, which denatured at 0.8 M guanidine HCl. Conclusions: PEGylation of hBFGF makes it more stable against denaturing agent but reduces its bioactivity up to 30%. PMID:26605215

  5. Processing, secretion, and biological properties of a novel growth factor of the fibroblast growth factor family with oncogenic potential.

    PubMed Central

    Delli-Bovi, P; Curatola, A M; Newman, K M; Sato, Y; Moscatelli, D; Hewick, R M; Rifkin, D B; Basilico, C

    1988-01-01

    We recently reported that the protein encoded in a novel human oncogene isolated from Kaposi sarcoma DNA was a growth factor with significant homology to basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). To study the properties of this growth factor (referred to as K-FGF) and the mechanism by which the K-fgf oncogene transforms cells, we have studied the production and processing of K-FGF in COS-1 cells transfected with a plasmid encoding the K-fgf cDNA. The results show that, unlike basic and acidic FGFs, the K-FGF protein is cleaved after a signal peptide, glycosylated, and efficiently secreted as a mature protein of 176 or 175 amino acids. Inhibition of glycosylation impaired secretion, and the stability of the secreted K-FGF was greatly enhanced by the presence of heparin in the cultured medium. We have used the conditioned medium from transfected COS-1 cells to test K-FGF biological activity. Similar to basic FGF, the K-FGF protein was mitogenic for fibroblasts and endothelial cells and induced the growth of NIH 3T3 mouse cells in serum-free medium. Accordingly, K-fgf-transformed NIH 3T3 cells grew in serum-free medium, consistent with an autocrine mechanism of growth. We have also expressed the protein encoded in the K-fgf protooncogene in COS-1 cells, and it was indistinguishable in its molecular weight, glycosylation, secretion, and biological activity from K-FGF. Taken together, these results suggest that the mechanism of activation of this oncogene is due to overexpression rather than to mutations in the coding sequences. Images PMID:3043199

  6. Factors associated with choice of biologic among children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: results from two UK paediatric biologic registers

    PubMed Central

    Kearsley-Fleet, Lianne; Davies, Rebecca; Baildam, Eileen; Beresford, Michael W.; Foster, Helen E.; Southwood, Taunton R.; Thomson, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objectives of this study were to describe patients starting first-line biologics for JIA, to describe characteristics over time among patients starting etanercept, and to describe patterns of second biologic prescribing. Methods. The British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology Etanercept Cohort Study, and the Biologics for Children with Rheumatic Diseases study are ongoing prospective observational cohorts, collecting data on patients starting biologic therapy for JIA. Patients registered from 1 January 2010 starting their first biologic were compared between therapies. Patients starting etanercept before 2010 were included to analyse changes in etanercept prescribing. The pathway of patients starting a second biologic was recorded in all patients. Results. To 26 August 2014, 931 patients were recruited starting a first-line biologic (142 Biologics for Children with Rheumatic Diseases; 789 British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology Etanercept Cohort Study). From 2010, patients with systemic JIA (sJIA) were almost exclusively prescribed anakinra or tocilizumab. Choice between anti-TNF therapies was largely driven by history of chronic anterior uveitis (CAU). When investigating trends in patients starting etanercept over time, disease duration at etanercept start, patients with sJIA, a history of CAU, and those who received concomitant oral corticosteroids decreased over time. Patients who started a second biologic from 1 January 2010 showed a similar stratification. Conclusion. Although etanercept remains the most common biologic prescribed for JIA, there has been a clear shift towards the use of alternative biologics, largely driven by disease subtype and history of CAU. This channelling of children towards specific therapies should be considered carefully in future studies and in clinical guidelines and ongoing research. PMID:26732349

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences Among Hawai‘i Adults: Findings from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dailin

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among Hawai‘i adults and their impact on the health of affected individuals are unknown. Aiming to provide Hawai‘i State baseline information on ACEs and their associations with health conditions and risk behaviors, the 2010 Hawai‘i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) included the ACE module. Using 5,928 survey respondents who completed the module, demographic attributes were estimated and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between ACEs and sixteen selected health indicators. In 2010, approximately 57.8% of Hawai‘i adults reported experiencing at least one ACE. Native Hawaiians had the highest prevalence followed by Whites. Adults aged ≥ 65 years had the lowest prevalence on all ACEs. The prevalence of ACEs was inversely related to education and household income levels. Compared to those without ACEs, adults with ACEs had higher odds for a number of health conditions and risk behaviors. Moreover, as the number of ACEs increased, the odds for these health conditions and risk behaviors increased. Hawai‘i adults with ACEs were more likely to report dissatisfaction with life compared to those without ACEs. Men were more likely to report having a family member in prison, while women were more likely to report experiencing sexual abuse. Recommendations include further research on the unbiased contributions of ACEs to diseases and risk behaviors, and the development of culturally-appropriate interventions to reduce the prevalence of ACEs in Hawai‘i. PMID:24959392

  8. Identification of factors influencing the restoration of cyanobacteria-dominated biological soil crusts.

    PubMed

    Bu, Chongfeng; Wu, Shufang; Yang, Yongsheng; Zheng, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover >35% of the Earth's land area and contribute to important ecological functions in arid and semiarid ecosystems, including erosion reduction, hydrological cycling, and nutrient cycling. Artificial rapid cultivation of BSCs can provide a novel alternative to traditional biological methods for controlling soil and water loss such as the planting of trees, shrubs, and grasses. At present, little is known regarding the cultivation of BSCs in the field due to lack of knowledge regarding the influencing factors that control BSCs growth. Thus, we determined the effects of various environmental factors (shade; watering; N, P, K, and Ca concentrations) on the growth of cyanobacteria-dominated BSCs from the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States. The soil surface changes and chlorophyll a concentrations were used as proxies of BSC growth and development. After 4 months, five factors were found to impact BSC growth with the following order of importance: NH4NO3 ≈ watering frequency>shading>CaCO3 ≈ KH2PO4. The soil water content was the primary positive factor affecting BSC growth, and BSCs that were watered every 5 days harbored greater biomass than those watered every 10 days. Groups that received NH4NO3 consistently exhibited poor growth, suggesting that fixed N amendment may suppress BSC growth. The effect of shading on the BSC biomass was inconsistent and depended on many factors including the soil water content and availability of nutrients. KH2PO4 and CaCO3 had nonsignificant effects on BSC growth. Collectively, our results indicate that the rapid restoration of BSCs can be controlled and realized by artificial "broadcasting" cultivation through the optimization of environmental factors.

  9. Identification of Factors Influencing the Restoration of Cyanobacteria-Dominated Biological Soil Crusts

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Chongfeng; Wu, Shufang; Yang, Yongsheng; Zheng, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover >35% of the Earth’s land area and contribute to important ecological functions in arid and semiarid ecosystems, including erosion reduction, hydrological cycling, and nutrient cycling. Artificial rapid cultivation of BSCs can provide a novel alternative to traditional biological methods for controlling soil and water loss such as the planting of trees, shrubs, and grasses. At present, little is known regarding the cultivation of BSCs in the field due to lack of knowledge regarding the influencing factors that control BSCs growth. Thus, we determined the effects of various environmental factors (shade; watering; N, P, K, and Ca concentrations) on the growth of cyanobacteria-dominated BSCs from the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States. The soil surface changes and chlorophyll a concentrations were used as proxies of BSC growth and development. After 4 months, five factors were found to impact BSC growth with the following order of importance: NH4NO3 ≈ watering frequency>shading>CaCO3 ≈ KH2PO4. The soil water content was the primary positive factor affecting BSC growth, and BSCs that were watered every 5 days harbored greater biomass than those watered every 10 days. Groups that received NH4NO3 consistently exhibited poor growth, suggesting that fixed N amendment may suppress BSC growth. The effect of shading on the BSC biomass was inconsistent and depended on many factors including the soil water content and availability of nutrients. KH2PO4 and CaCO3 had nonsignificant effects on BSC growth. Collectively, our results indicate that the rapid restoration of BSCs can be controlled and realized by artificial “broadcasting” cultivation through the optimization of environmental factors. PMID:24625498

  10. Finding and defining the natural automata acting in living plants: Toward the synthetic biology for robotics and informatics in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Tomonori; Bouteau, François; Mancuso, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The automata theory is the mathematical study of abstract machines commonly studied in the theoretical computer science and highly interdisciplinary fields that combine the natural sciences and the theoretical computer science. In the present review article, as the chemical and biological basis for natural computing or informatics, some plants, plant cells or plant-derived molecules involved in signaling are listed and classified as natural sequential machines (namely, the Mealy machines or Moore machines) or finite state automata. By defining the actions (states and transition functions) of these natural automata, the similarity between the computational data processing and plant decision-making processes became obvious. Finally, their putative roles as the parts for plant-based computing or robotic systems are discussed. PMID:23336016

  11. Development and evaluation of a pliable biological valved conduit. Part I: Preparation, biochemical properties, and histological findings.

    PubMed

    Noishiki, Y; Hata, C; Tu, R; Shen, S H; Lin, D; Sung, H W; Witzel, T; Wang, E; Thyagarajan, K; Tomizawa, Y

    1993-04-01

    Different types of external valved conduits have been used for the repair of complex congenital cardiac anomalies that may have otherwise been inoperable. However, an ideal conduit has yet to be found due to complications such as stenosis, thrombosis, calcification of the valve and graft wall, and "peeling" of the neointima. To address those problems, a new extracardiac valved conduit made of bovine jugular vein was developed and evaluated in a preliminary animal study. Harvested bovine vein containing a naturally existing valve was initially incorporated with protamine on the inner surface and then was cross-linked in diglycidyl ether (DE). Fixation with DE allowed the vein and its leaflets to retain a tissue-like elasticity. To provide antithrombogenicity to the graft, heparin was introduced into the lumen to bind ionically to the pre-entrapped protamine. The biological valved conduit of approximately 14 mm diameter was implanted from the right ventricle to pulmonary artery as bypass graft in three dogs. After implantation, the native main pulmonary artery was ligated between the anastomotic sites of the bypass conduit. No anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs were administered after surgery. One DE-fixed valved conduit was retrieved at 3 months, and the others were removed at 5 months. Only small thrombus areas were found on the white luminal surfaces. The valves and the conduits maintained softness and pliability, similar to before implantation. Additionally, the collagen content, shrink temperature, and tanning index of this newly developed biological valved conduit before and after fixation were measured in the study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8325696

  12. Study of the biological effectiveness of a nanosilver-epidermal growth factor sustained-release carrier.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-DA; Wang, Shao-Hua; Liu, Rui; Zhou, Chun-Jiao; Cao, Ke; Liu, Jin-Yan; Chen, Yao; Chen, Feng-Hua

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the biological effectiveness and character of a nanosilver-epidermal growth factor (EGF) sustained-release carrier. This was synthesized using the self-assembly method and then characterized by transmission electron microscopy and UV spectrophotometry. The biological activity of the sustained release carrier was determined through cytological, bacteriological and wound-healing experiments. The results showed that the nanosilver-EGF sustained-release carrier was well dispersed with uniform particle size and that it had good antibacterial properties similar to those of nanosilver. The nanosilver-EGF sustained-release carrier is superior to EGFs in effectively promoting cell division and proliferation. The results of the wound-healing experiments provide evidence of its curative effects.

  13. Selected Factors Associated with Achievement of Biology Preparatory Students and their Follow-Up to Higher Level Biology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol A.; Sarinsky, Gary B.

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether a biology preparatory course given at an urban community college was helping students to develop the proper skills and background necessary to successfully complete follow-up courses in biology. Data indicated a mathematics score was the main discriminator between pass/fail groups of the preparatory…

  14. Gastroduodenal Complications After Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Endoscopic Findings and Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Chon, Young Eun; Seong, Jinsil; Kim, Beom Kyung; Cha, Jihye; Kim, Seung Up; Park, Jun Yong; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Shin, Sung Kwan; Kim, Do Young

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) is useful in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but little is known about radiation-induced gastroduodenal complications following therapy. To determine risk factors, we investigated the prevalence and patterns of gastroduodenal complications following CCRT using endoscopy. Methods and Materials: Enrolled in the study were 123 patients treated with CCRT for unresectable HCC between January 1998 and December 2005. Radiation-induced gastroduodenal complications were defined as radiation gastritis/duodenitis, radiation gastric/duodenal ulcer, or other gastroduodenal toxicity associated with radiation, based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE 3.0). Serious gastroduodenal complications were defined as events occurring within 12 months from completion of CCRT, those requiring prompt therapeutic intervention, or symptoms equivalent to Grade 3 or 4 radiation-related gastroduodenal toxicity, including nausea or vomiting, based on CTCAE 3.0. Results: A month after completion of CCRT, 65 (52.8%) patients displayed endoscopic evidence of radiation-induced gastroduodenal complications. Radiation gastric and duodenal ulcers were found in 32 (26.0%) and 20 (16.3%) patients, respectively; radiation gastritis and duodenitis were found in 50 (40.7%) and 42 (34.1%) patients, respectively. Radiation-related bleeding was observed in 13 patients (10.6%). Serious gastroduodenal complications occurred in 18 patients (14.6%) and were significantly more frequent in patients with liver cirrhosis than in those without cirrhosis (p = 0.043). There were no radiation-related deaths. Conclusions: Endoscopically detectable radiation-induced gastroduodenal complications were common in HCC following CCRT. Although serious complications were uncommon, the frequency was higher in patients with liver cirrhosis; thus, these patients should be closely monitored when receiving CCRT.

  15. Biological outcome and mapping of total factor cascades in response to HIF induction during regenerative angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khatib, Abdel-Majid; Lahlil, Rachid; Hagedorn, Martin; Delomenie, Claudine; Christophe, Olivier; Denis, Cecile; Siegfried, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) is the main transcription factor that mediates cell response to hypoxia. Howeverthe complex factor cascades induced by HIF during regenerative angiogenesis are currently incompletely mapped and the biological outcome mediated by chronic HIF induction during vessel regeneration are not well known. Here, we investigated the biological impact of HIF induction on vascular regeneration and identified the differentially regulated genes during regeneration, HIF induction and hypoxic regeneration. The use of the fin zebrafish regeneration model revealed that exposure to HIF inducer (cobalt chloride) prevents vessel differentiation by maintaining their vascular plexuses in an immature state. The regenerated fins are easily breakable, lacking completely endochondral ossification. Gene expression arrays combined to gene functional enrichment analysis revealed that regenerative process and HIF induction shared the regulation of common genes mainly involved in DNA replication and proteasome complex. HIF induction during regeneration affected the expression of exclusive genes involved in cell differentiation and communication, consistent with the observed immature vascular plexuses of the regenerated fins during HIF induction. The use of morpholino (MO) knockdown strategy revealed that the expression of some of these genes such as tubulin and col10a1 are required for fin regeneration. Taken together, this study revealed the impact of HIF induction on regenerative angiogenesis and provided a framework to develop a gene network leading to regenerative process during HIF expression. PMID:26933814

  16. Insights into the biological functions of Dock family guanine nucleotide exchange factors

    PubMed Central

    Laurin, Mélanie; Côté, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Rho GTPases play key regulatory roles in many aspects of embryonic development, regulating processes such as differentiation, proliferation, morphogenesis, and migration. Two families of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) found in metazoans, Dbl and Dock, are responsible for the spatiotemporal activation of Rac and Cdc42 proteins and their downstream signaling pathways. This review focuses on the emerging roles of the mammalian DOCK family in development and disease. We also discuss, when possible, how recent discoveries concerning the biological functions of these GEFs might be exploited for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24637113

  17. Thermal dose and time-temperature factors for biological responses to heat shock.

    PubMed

    Gerner, E W

    1987-01-01

    The application of hyperthermia in human cancer therapy, especially by radiotherapists who are accustomed to prescribing ionizing radiation treatments in physical dose units, has stimulated workers in this area to consider the possibility and utility of defining a unit of 'thermal dose'. Previous thermal dose definitions have, primarily, been based on biological isoeffect response relationships, which attempt to relate exposure times that elicit a given biological response at one temperature to exposure times at another temperature that elicit the same biological response. This 'equivalent time' method is shown to have certain limitations. For both 42.4 and 45 degrees C hyperthermia, these relationships accurately describe cell survival responses only when the heating rate is rapid (greater than 0.5 degrees C min-1 from ambient to hyperthermic temperature). Further, the form of these isoeffect relationships appears to be temperature range and cell/tissue-type dependent, and it is suggested that these relationships be referred to as a 'time-temperature factor' (TTF) to help distinguish them from possible physical thermal dose definitions. Two physical dose definitions are discussed, one being simply exposure time at some temperature and the other being a more fundamental definition, the free energy change which is a temperature-dependent driving force for chemical reactions.

  18. Familial monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma: epidemiology, risk factors, and biological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Alexandra J.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a precursor to multiple myeloma (MM), is one of the most common premalignant conditions in the general population. The cause of MGUS is largely unknown. Recent studies show that there is an increased prevalence of MGUS in blood relatives of persons with lymphoproliferative and plasma cell proliferative disorders, suggesting presence of shared underlying genetic influences. In the past few years, additional studies have examined risk factors and biologic characteristics that may contribute to the increased prevalence of MGUS among relatives of probands with MGUS, MM, and other blood malignancies. This article reviews the known epidemiology and risk factors for familial MGUS and myeloma, the risk of lymphoproliferative disorders and other malignancies among blood-relatives of patients with MGUS and MM, and discusses future directions for research. PMID:22354002

  19. Recent advances in the structural molecular biology of Ets transcription factors: interactions, interfaces and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher D O; Newman, Joseph A; Gileadi, Opher

    2014-02-01

    The Ets family of eukaryotic transcription factors is based around the conserved Ets DNA-binding domain. Although their DNA-binding selectivity is biochemically and structurally well characterized, structures of homodimeric and ternary complexes point to Ets domains functioning as versatile protein-interaction modules. In the present paper, we review the progress made over the last decade to elucidate the structural mechanisms involved in modulation of DNA binding and protein partner selection during dimerization. We see that Ets domains, although conserved around a core architecture, have evolved to utilize a variety of interaction surfaces and binding mechanisms, reflecting Ets domains as dynamic interfaces for both DNA and protein interaction. Furthermore, we discuss recent advances in drug development for inhibition of Ets factors, and the roles structural biology can play in their future.

  20. A Survey of Needs of Texas Biology Teachers Relative to Teaching Cardiovascular Diseases and Associated Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Robert C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The data show that biology teachers spend relatively little time on diseases of the cardiovascular system. Approximately one period per year is spent on each of eight given cardiovascular disease risk factors. (MP)

  1. Lineage-specific and ubiquitous biological roles of the mammalian transcription factor LSF

    PubMed Central

    Veljkovic, Jelena; Hansen, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation in mammalian cells is driven by a complex interplay of multiple transcription factors that respond to signals from either external or internal stimuli. A single transcription factor can control expression of distinct sets of target genes, dependent on its state of post-translational modifications, interacting partner proteins, and the chromatin environment of the cellular genome. Furthermore, many transcription factors can act as either transcriptional repressors or activators, depending on promoter and cellular contexts (Alvarez, et al., 2003). Even in this light, the versatility of LSF (Late SV40 Factor) is remarkable. A hallmark of LSF is its unusual DNA binding domain, as evidenced both by lack of homology to any other established DNA-binding domains and by its DNA recognition sequence. Although a dimer in solution, LSF requires additional multimerization with itself or partner proteins in order to interact with DNA. Transcriptionally, LSF can function as an activator or a repressor. It is a direct target of an increasing number of signal transduction pathways. Biologically, LSF plays roles in cell cycle progression and cell survival, as well as in cell lineage-specific functions, shown most strikingly to date in hematopoietic lineages. This review discusses how the unique aspects of LSF DNA-binding activity may make it particularly susceptible to regulation by signal transduction pathways and may relate to its distinct biological roles. We present current progress in elucidation of both tissue-specific and more universal cellular roles of LSF. Finally, we discuss suggestive data linking LSF to signaling by the amyloid precursor protein and to Alzheimer's disease, as well as to the regulation of latency of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PMID:15563829

  2. Molecular biology and immunology for clinicians 23: autoimmunity and the superfamilies of tumor necrosis factor and tumor necrosis factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Leonard H

    2003-04-01

    The parsimony of nature can be stated as "if its not broke don't fix it, just tweak it and reuse it again and again." Nature recycles: once a motif is demonstrably useful it shows up again, often in unexpected places. Tumor necrosis factor and its receptor(s) are examples of this. At least 20 molecules have now been identified as being 25% homologous or more identical with tumor necrosis factor and being involved in a variety of immune and nonimmune functions. Members of the receptor superfamily have shared structural motifs and trigger shared intracellular signaling pathways. Rather than having been implicated in arcane and rare syndromes, some of these activities are pivotal in immune function and, when perturbed, some predispose to known immunodeficiency and autoimmune disease. Not surprisingly, some of these are becoming targets for immunomodulation. New members of these 2 superfamilies are currently being described and the newcomers and the "original stock" will show up in the clinic before you know it! Part of the confusion has always been that each laboratory describing a new biologic principle names the mediating compound. Thus, multiple labs, multiple names for the same protein (recall Ro/SS-A, La/SS-B). Thus, special attention is paid below to acronyms and their synonyms.

  3. Impact of environmental factors and biological soil crust types on soil respiration in a desert ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

    2014-01-01

    The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93 ± 0.43 µmol m-2 s-1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73 ± 0.31 µmol m-2 s-1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m-3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level.

  4. Impact of environmental factors and biological soil crust types on soil respiration in a desert ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

    2014-01-01

    The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93 ± 0.43 µmol m-2 s-1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73 ± 0.31 µmol m-2 s-1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m-3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level. PMID:25050837

  5. Impact of Environmental Factors and Biological Soil Crust Types on Soil Respiration in a Desert Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

    2014-01-01

    The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93±0.43 µmol m−2 s−1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73±0.31 µmol m−2 s−1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m−3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level. PMID:25050837

  6. The Population Biology of Bacterial Plasmids: A PRIORI Conditions for the Existence of Conjugationally Transmitted Factors

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Frank M.; Levin, Bruce R.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model for the population dynamics of conjugationally transmitted plasmids in bacterial populations is presented and its properties analyzed. Consideration is given to nonbacteriocinogenic factors that are incapable of incorporation into the chromosome of their host cells, and to bacterial populations maintained in either continuous (chemostat) or discrete (serial transfer) culture. The conditions for the establishment and maintenance of these infectious extrachromosomal elements and equilibrium frequencies of cells carrying them are presented for different values of the biological parameters: population growth functions, conjugational transfer and segregation rate constants. With these parameters in a biologically realistic range, the theory predicts a broad set of physical conditions, resource concentrations and dilution rates, where conjugationally transmitted plasmids can become established and where cells carrying them will maintain high frequencies in bacterial populations. This can occur even when plasmid-bearing cells are much less fit (i.e., have substantially lower growth rates) than cells free of these factors. The implications of these results and the reality and limitations of the model are discussed and the values of its parameters in natural populations speculated upon. PMID:17248761

  7. Production of feline leukemia inhibitory factor with biological activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kanegi, R; Hatoya, S; Tsujimoto, Y; Takenaka, S; Nishimura, T; Wijewardana, V; Sugiura, K; Takahashi, M; Kawate, N; Tamada, H; Inaba, T

    2016-07-15

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a cytokine which is essential for oocyte and embryo development, embryonic stem cell, and induced pluripotent stem cell maintenance. Leukemia inhibitory factor improves the maturation of oocytes in the human and the mouse. However, feline LIF (fLIF) cloning and effects on oocytes during IVM have not been reported. Thus, we cloned complete cDNA of fLIF and examined its biological activity and effects on oocytes during IVM in the domestic cat. The aminoacid sequence of fLIF revealed a homology of 81% or 92% with that of mouse or human. The fLIF produced by pCold TF DNA in Escherichia coli was readily soluble and after purification showed bioactivity in maintaining the undifferentiated state of mouse embryonic stem cells and enhancing the proliferation of human erythrocyte leukemia cells. Furthermore, 10- and 100-ng/mL fLIF induced cumulus expansion with or without FSH and EGF (P < 0.05). The rate of metaphase II oocytes was also improved with 100-ng/mL fLIF (P < 0.05). We therefore confirmed the successful production for the first time of biologically active fLIF and revealed its effects on oocytes during IVM in the domestic cat. Feline LIF will further improve reproduction and stem cell research in the feline family. PMID:27020881

  8. Biological dust exposure in the workplace is a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, M; Benke, G; Raven, J; Sim, M; Kromhout, H; Vermeulen, R; Johns, D; Walters, E; Abramson, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Although the main risk factor is smoking, 15–19% of COPD even in smokers has been attributed to occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between occupational exposure and risk of COPD. Methods: Participants were part of a cross sectional study of risk factors for COPD. A total of 1232 completed a detailed respiratory questionnaire, spirometric testsing and measurement of gas transfer. Job histories were coded according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations. These codes were then used to establish occupational exposures using the ALOHA job exposure matrix. Results: The prevalence of emphysema was 2.4%, chronic obstructive bronchitis 1.8%, and COPD 3.4%. Subjects ever exposed to biological dusts had an increased risk of chronic obstructive bronchitis (OR 3.19; 95% CI 1.27 to 7.97), emphysema (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.41 to 7.13), and COPD (OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.39 to 5.23). These risks were higher in women than in men. For biological dust, the risk of emphysema and COPD was also significantly increased in both the duration of exposure categories, again in women but not in men. No significant increased risks for COPD were found for mineral dust (OR 1.13; 95% CI 0.57 to 2.27) or gases/fumes (OR 1.63; 95% CI 0.83 to 3.22). Conclusion: In this general population sample of adults, occupational exposures to biological dusts were associated with an increased risk of COPD which was higher in women. Preventive strategies should be aimed at reducing exposure to these agents in the workplace. PMID:16061705

  9. An integrated systems biology approach identifies positive cofactor 4 as a factor that increases reprogramming efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Junghyun; Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Hyung Joon; Hong, Soomin; Lee, Jeoung Eun; Lee, Sung-Geum; Baek, Ahmi; Han, Heonjong; Lee, Jin Il; Lee, Insuk; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can spontaneously dedifferentiate into embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells, which are designated as multipotent SSCs (mSSCs), without ectopic expression of reprogramming factors. Interestingly, SSCs express key pluripotency genes such as Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Myc. Therefore, molecular dissection of mSSC reprogramming may provide clues about novel endogenous reprogramming or pluripotency regulatory factors. Our comparative transcriptome analysis of mSSCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) suggests that they have similar pluripotency states but are reprogrammed via different transcriptional pathways. We identified 53 genes as putative pluripotency regulatory factors using an integrated systems biology approach. We demonstrated a selected candidate, Positive cofactor 4 (Pc4), can enhance the efficiency of somatic cell reprogramming by promoting and maintaining transcriptional activity of the key reprograming factors. These results suggest that Pc4 has an important role in inducing spontaneous somatic cell reprogramming via up-regulation of key pluripotency genes. PMID:26740582

  10. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells

    PubMed Central

    Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Sasso-Cerri, Estela; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that influence bone remodeling. PMID:26247020

  11. Cloning and biological activity of epigen, a novel member of the epidermal growth factor superfamily.

    PubMed

    Strachan, L; Murison, J G; Prestidge, R L; Sleeman, M A; Watson, J D; Kumble, K D

    2001-05-25

    High throughput sequencing of a mouse keratinocyte library was used to identify an expressed sequence tag with homology to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of growth factors. We have named the protein encoded by this expressed sequence tag Epigen, for epithelial mitogen. Epigen encodes a protein of 152 amino acids that contains features characteristic of the EGF superfamily. Two hydrophobic regions, corresponding to a putative signal sequence and transmembrane domain, flank a core of amino acids encompassing six cysteine residues and two putative N-linked glycosylation sites. Epigen shows 24-37% identity to members of the EGF superfamily including EGF, transforming growth factor alpha, and Epiregulin. Northern blotting of several adult mouse tissues indicated that Epigen was present in testis, heart, and liver. Recombinant Epigen was synthesized in Escherichia coli and refolded, and its biological activity was compared with that of EGF and transforming growth factor alpha in several assays. In epithelial cells, Epigen stimulated the phosphorylation of c-erbB-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinases and also activated a reporter gene containing enhancer sequences present in the c-fos promoter. Epigen also stimulated the proliferation of HaCaT cells, and this proliferation was blocked by an antibody to the extracellular domain of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-erbB-1. Thus, Epigen is the newest member of the EGF superfamily and, with its ability to promote the growth of epithelial cells, may constitute a novel molecular target for wound-healing therapy. PMID:11278323

  12. Biological and genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens (Gallus domesticus) from São Paulo, Brazil: unexpected findings.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Graham, D H; Blackston, C R; Lehmann, T; Gennari, S M; Ragozo, A M A; Nishi, S M; Shen, S K; Kwok, O C H; Hill, D E; Thulliez, P

    2002-01-01

    In spite of a wide host range and a world wide distribution, Toxoplasma gondii has a low genetic diversity. Most isolates of T. gondii can be grouped into two to three lineages. Type I strains are considered highly virulent in outbred laboratory mice, and have been isolated predominantly from clinical cases of human toxoplasmosis whereas types II and III strains are considered avirulent for mice. In the present study, 17 of 25 of the T. gondii isolates obtained from asymptomatic chickens from rural areas surrounding São Paulo, Brazil were type I. Antibodies to T. gondii were measured in 82 chicken sera by the modified agglutination test using whole formalin-preserved tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol and titres of 1:10 or more were found in 32 chickens. Twenty-two isolates of T. gondii were obtained by bioassay in mice inoculated with brains and hearts of 29 seropositive (> or =1:40) chickens and three isolates were obtained from the faeces of cats fed tissues from 52 chickens with no or low levels (<1:40) of antibodies. In total, 25 isolates of T. gondii were obtained by bioassay of 82 chicken tissues into mice and cats. All type I isolates killed all infected mice within 4 weeks whereas type III isolates were less virulent to mice. There were no type II strains. Tissue cysts were found in mice infected with all 25 isolates and all nine type I isolates produced oocysts. Infected chickens were from localities that were 18-200 km apart, indicating no common source for T. gondii isolates. This is the first report of isolation of predominantly type I strains of T. gondii from a food animal. Epidemiological implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Predictable factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer analysis of clinicopathologic factors and biological markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Wei; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Wang, Rui-Fen; Xue, Wen-Ji; Zhu, Xue-Ru; Wang, Li-Feng; Zheng, Lei-Zhen

    2016-07-01

    Predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM) accurately is very important to decide treatment strategies preoperatively. The aim of this study was to explore risk factors that predict the presence of LNM in early gastric cancer (EGC). A total of 230 patients with EGC who underwent curative gastrectomy with lymph adenectomy at Xinhua Hospital from January 2006 to July 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. We studied the relationship between clinicopathological factors, biological markers (p53, ki67, nm23, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), E-cadherin (E-cad), beta-catenin (b-catenin), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and topoisomerase II (Topo II)), and LNM of EGC patients by chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Meta-analyses were further conducted to review the effects of the proteins (P53, ki67, E-cad, and b-catenin) on LNM in ECG patients. LNM was detected in 42 (18.3 %) of 230 patients. Incidences of LNM was distinct in different tumor size (p = 0.044), depth of submucosal invasion (p < 0.0001), and P53 overexpression (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis further indentified that large tumor size (≥20 mm, odds ratio (OR) = 2.168, p = 0.041), submucosa (OR = 4.000, p = 0.0005), and P53 overexpression (OR = 3.010, p = 0.022) were independent risk factors of LNM in EGC patients. The meta-analysis revealed a significantly statistical association of P53, ki67, and b-catenin with an increased risk of LNM in EGC patients (P53, OR = 1.81, p = 0.017; ki67, OR = 2.53, p = 0.0003; b-catenin, OR = 0.53, p = 0.01). Tumor size (≥20 mm), the depth of invasion (submucosa), and P53 overexpression may be helpful predictors of LNM in EGC patients. Furthermore, the results of meta-analysis revealed that P53, ki67 overexpression, and abnormal expression of b-catenin may be associated with LNM in EGC. The results need further validation in single large studies.

  14. Technique sensitivity: biological factors contributing to clinical success with various restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Cox, C F; Tarim, B; Kopel, H; Gürel, G; Hafez, A

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1950s, clinicians have relied on various formulations of Ca(OH)2 to stimulate dentin bridge formation. Various studies (Kozlov and Massler, 1966; Massler, 1967; Brännström, 1978; Cox et al., 1987; Snuggs et al., 1993) have demonstrated that pulp healing and dentin bridging can occur against a pH spectrum of materials. Recent studies (Akimoto et al., 1998; Cox et al., 1998, 1999; Tarim et al., 1998; Kitasako et al., 1999; Hafez et al., 2000) have reported successful pulp healing and dentin bridging using adhesives for direct capping of exposed pulps. However, others (Costa et al., 1997; Stanley and Pameijer, 1997; Pameijer, 1998; Hebling et al., 1999; Carvalho et al., 2000) have reported unsatisfactory results when exposures were direct-capped with adhesives. Biological and technical factors, or a combination of both, might be postulated to explain these differences. Recent studies have demonstrated that biological success is dependent upon proper hemorrhage control at the exposure site. This review explores the differences and common factors influencing successful dentin bridging, focusing on data derived from animal studies conducted according to ISO usage guidelines for cavity preparation and material placement. In the past, there has been concern that etching of vital dentin leads to immediate pulp death due to low pH. Recent studies have reported that acidic cements cause breakdown of only the smear layer and fail to seal the restoration interface, leading to inflammation and necrosis. A properly hybridized dentinadhesive interface provides a "bacteriometic" seal to both dentin and pulp tissues. Recent ISO usage studies have shown a high incidence of dentin bridging with adhesives following proper hemorrhage control and removal of both operative debris and biofilm at the dentin-pulp interface by agents such as NaOCl. These are important technique-sensitivity factors to be considered for pulp healing and dentin bridge formation.

  15. The investigation of relationship between joint findings and serum angiogenic and inflammatory factor levels in severe hemophilia A patients.

    PubMed

    Karapnar, Tuba H; Karadaş, Nihal; Özek, Gülcihan; Tüfekçi, Özlem; Atabay, Berna; Türker, Meral; Yüksel, Faize; Karapınar, Deniz Y; Vergin, Canan; İrken, Gülersu; Ören, Hale

    2014-10-01

    Despite the use of primary prophylactic Factor VIII replacement in severe hemophilia A patients, bleeding into joints cannot be prevented completely and early diagnosis and treatment of the joint bleedings are important for prevention of permanent joint damage. Recent studies have shown that neoangiogenesis plays important role in development of synovitis after recurrent joint bleedings. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between joint findings and levels of serum angiogenic and inflammatory factors in severe hemophilia A patients.The patient groups consisted of 10 severe hemophilia A patients with acute joint bleeding and 25 severe hemophilia A patients without acute joint bleeding. They were all inhibitor negative. The control group consisted of 22 healthy male children. Complete blood cell count analysis, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin, lactic acid, and ELISA-based detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, thrombomodulin, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and endostatin were performed from peripheral blood of patient and the control groups. CRP and MIF levels were detected significantly higher in hemophilia patients with acute joint bleeding than patients without acute joint bleeding. There was a positive correlation between serum thrombomodulin, VEGF, and MIF levels. In this study, we demonstrated that serum CRP and MIF levels increases in acute bleeding period regardless of the presence of previous joint damage in children with severe hemophilia. CRP elevation may be a useful and rapid marker for acute bleeding in these patients.

  16. Biological activity of recombinant human growth factors released from biocompatible bone implants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Joerg; Anger, Dominique; Krummenauer, Frank; Breitig, Dieter; Fickert, Stefan; Guenther, Klaus-Peter

    2008-07-01

    The present investigation was performed to study the bioactivity of osteoinductive and osteoproliferative growth factors after release from biocompatible bone implants. Three types of porous carriers were used in this study: hydroxyapatite, alpha tricalcium phosphate, and a neutralized glass ceramic. Implants were loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rh-BMP-2) and recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rh-bFGF) in a concentration of 2 microg/150 microL PBS each. The released growth factors were then applicated into SAOS-2-cell cultures. After 3, 5, and 7 days cell differentiation was measured by the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cell proliferation by using a MTT assay as well as a cell counter. Rh-BMP-2 released during the first hour from the scaffolds led to a significant increase of the activity of ALP in the incubated SAOS-2-cell culture after 3, 5, and 7 days. However, the incubation with rh-BMP-2 released after 24 h was not found to increase the expression of ALP. The incubation of cell cultures with rh-bFGF released during the first hour led to a significant increase of cell number and of extinction in the MTT assay, whereas this increase was not observed after incubation with rh-bFGF released after 24 h. The in vitro measured biological activity of released growth factors from the surface of synthetic implants is time-depending. If prolonged osteoinductive and osteoproliferative potency of growth factors is desired, a modified application technique should be chosen to stabilize those proteins.

  17. Affects as central organising and integrating factors. A new psychosocial/biological model of the psyche.

    PubMed

    Ciompi, L

    1991-07-01

    A new psychosocial/biological model of the psyche is proposed, in which the affects play a central role in organising and integrating cognition. The psyche is understood here as a complex hierarchical structure of affective/cognitive systems of reference (or 'programmes for feeling, thinking, and behaviour'), generated by repetitive concrete action. These systems store past experience in their structure, and provide the functional basis for further cognition and communication. Affects endow these programmes with a specific qualitative value (such as motivation), connect cognitive elements synchronically and diachronically, and contribute to their storage and mobilisation according to context. They also participate in differentiating cognitive systems at higher levels of abstraction. These assumptions are supported by recent findings on the role of the limbic and hypothalamic system for the regulation of emotion, on neuronal plasticity, and on the phenomenon of state-dependent learning and memory. Refutable hypotheses are formulated for further research on the interaction of emotion and cognition.

  18. Electrical injuries. Biological values measurements as a prediction factor of local evolution in electrocutions lesions

    PubMed Central

    Teodoreanu, R; Popescu, SA; Lascar, I

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rationale. Taking into account the incidence and the severity of electrocutions, we consider it extremely necessary to find effective, appropriate and particularized therapeutic solutions aimed at improving the survival, decreasing the mortality, ensuring a superior functional and aesthetic effect and facilitating the social reintegration. Given the severity of the general condition of the electrically injured patient and the fact that any worsening of the lesions has a systemic echo, the selection of the timing for re-excision is very important. The postponement of the surgical timing can break the precarious metabolic equilibrium and can hasten the installation of the multisystem organ failure (MSOF). Objective. The study is intended to establish a possible connection between the clinical evolution of the electrically injured patient and the dynamics of three important biological parameters, able to provide data concerning the therapeutic attitude to be followed. The patients with a diagnostic of high-voltage electrocution, who will be admitted to the Clinic, will be followed for a period of 2 years. The parameters to be followed daily will be: - Creatin-kinase, as a marker of muscular damage - Hemoglobin, as a marker of tissue oxygenation - Leukocytes, as an indicator of a possible septic evolution. The therapeutic alternatives, including the administration of antiplatelet drugs will be studied. Methods and Results. In the period October 2010-June 2013 a total of 12 cases of high-voltage electrocution were admitted in our clinic. Among these, some could be placed in the study of 7 cases, as the remaining patients died within the first 24 hours of hospitalization due to the endured lesions. All the patients were admitted to the ICU ward that supported the treatment and monitoring until their stabilization, at which time they were transferred to the ward. All the patients received anti-thromboxane treatment from their admission (injectable NSAIDs

  19. Effects of an Educational Experience Incorporating an Inventory of Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Jason R.; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This investigation provides an extensive review of scientific, religious, and otherwise non-scientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution. We also measure the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following an educational experience designed to address an inclusive inventory of factors identified…

  20. Recombinant human epidermal growth factor precursor is a glycosylated membrane protein with biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Mroczkowski, B; Reich, M; Chen, K; Bell, G I; Cohen, S

    1989-01-01

    NIH 3T3 cells were transfected with cDNA corresponding to human kidney prepro-epidermal growth factor (preproEGF) under control of the inducible mouse metallothionein promoter. The synthesis of recombinant human EGF precursor by these cells has provided us with a model system for analysis of the structure and activity of this precursor. In transfected cells, the precursor was present as an intrinsic 170-kilodalton membrane protein as well as a soluble protein in the extracellular medium; both forms were N glycosylated. Glycosylation of the EGF precursor was determined by (i) the direct incorporation of [3H]mannose and [3H]glucosamine, (ii) metabolic labeling in the presence or absence of glycosylation inhibitors, (iii) enzymatic cleavage of the precursor by N-glycanase or endoglycosidase II, and (iv) lectin chromatography. Recombinant human preproEGF was purified by affinity chromatography, using wheat germ lectin and antibodies to human EGF. The intact precursor was biologically active. Purified preparations of preproEGF (i) competed with 125I-labeled EGF for binding to the EGF receptor in intact fibroblast cells, (ii) activated the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the EGF receptor in membrane preparations, and (iii) sustained the growth of a mouse keratinocyte cell line that is dependent on EGF for growth. These results suggest that proteolytic processing of the precursor may not be essential for its biological function. Images PMID:2789334

  1. Cordyceps fungi as natural killers, new hopes for medicine and biological control factors.

    PubMed

    Dworecka-Kaszak, Bożena

    2014-01-01

    The Cordyceps genus includes many species of fungi, most of which are endoparasitoids on arthropods.The distribution of these fungi is cosmopolitan, but many occur in regions such as Asia with a hot, humid climate. These pathogens of insect pests are promising candidates for use as biological control factors. Entomopathogenic fungi including the famous Cordyceps sinensis produce bioactive compounds. Lately Cordyceps sinensis was renamed Ophiocordyceps sinensis. This fungus has a long history as a medicinal fungus. It germinates in a living host, kills and mummifies the larva, and then grows from the body of the host. Is known in Tibet as the “winter worm, summer grass”,or “Caterpillar fungus” (Yartsa gunbu). Collecting Ophiocordyceps has become an important source of money for local households in Nepal. Ophiocordyceps sinensis is cultivated as an anamorph for its medicinal and pharmaceutical properties in an artificial medium on an industrial scale. Ophiocordyceps compounds have immunostimulating properties and antitumor activity. PMID:25281812

  2. Climatic, tectonic, and biological factors affecting the oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans: Implications for Phanerozoic O2 evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, K.; Tajika, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's atmosphere and oceans have seen fundamental changes in its oxidation state in response to the climatic, tectonic and geochemical variations. Over the past decade, several geochemical proxies have led to significant progress in understanding the paleredox states of ancient oceans. However, a quantitative interpretation of these data for atmospheric O2 levels remain unclear because the relationship between atmospheric O2 levels (pO2) and oceanic redox state depends on several environmental factors, such as terrestrial weathering rate, sea-level stands, and sinking rate of particulate organic matter (POM) in the water column and so on. It is widely thought that the redox-dependent P cycling also plays a crucial role in regulating pO2 because it acts as a negative feedback on a geological timescale. It is important that strength of this feedback for a given pO2 is also modulated by environmental factors, affecting not only O2 levels at steady state but also its susceptibility to environmental changes. In this study, a quantitative role of environmental factors in the oxidation state of Earth's surface environment is evaluated with an oceanic biogeochemical cycle model (CANOPS) coupled with global C cycle model, which enables us to understand the ancient CO2 and O2 evolution. Our results demonstrate that atmospheric O2 level at steady state is affected by CO2 input flux from Earth's interior via changes in biogeochemical cycles, but its response is modulated by several internal factors such as shelf area and POM sinking rate. We also found that early Paleozoic atmospheric O2 levels before the advent of land plant would be determined so that oceans may locate at the "edge of anoxia (EoA)" where the redox-dependency of marine P cycle plays a crucial role in regulating O2 cycle, and that POM sinking rate has a great impact on the EoA. Our findings provide insights into the O2 cycle over the Phanerozoic in response to the climatic and tectonic variations and

  3. Biological characterization of human fibroblast-derived mitogenic factors for human melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Imokawa, G; Yada, Y; Morisaki, N; Kimura, M

    1998-01-01

    To clarify the paracrine linkage between human fibroblasts and melanocytes in cutaneous pigmentation, we studied the effects of human fibroblast-derived factors on the proliferation of human melanocytes. In medium conditioned for 4 days with human fibroblast culture, factors were produced that markedly stimulated DNA synthesis of human melanocytes. The stimulatory effect was higher in medium conditioned with fibroblasts from aged skin than in medium conditioned with fibroblasts from young skin, and was interrupted by inhibitors of tyrosine kinase, such as tyrphostin, genistein and herbimycin, but not by inhibitors of protein kinases C and A, such as H-7 and phloretin. The conditioned medium was also capable of activating mitogen-activated protein kinase of human melanocytes, with old fibroblasts being more effective than young ones. Analysis of factors released into the conditioned medium revealed that levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) were increased in old-fibroblast-conditioned medium compared with young-fibroblast-conditioned medium. In contrast, levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were similar in both media. When the conditioned medium was treated with HGF antibody with or without SCF antibody, the increase in DNA synthesis by human melanocytes was decreased to 20% of the elevated level, whereas antibodies to bFGF had no effect. Analysis of the medium conditioned for 4 days after cytokine application demonstrated that, of the cytokines tested, interleukin 1alpha and tumour necrosis factor alpha are highly effective in stimulating HGF secretion by old fibroblasts. HGF and SCF, but not bFGF, were markedly increased in culture medium in the presence of IL-1alpha, and this stimulatory effect was confined to young human fibroblasts. These findings suggest that SCF and HGF derived from human fibroblasts may play a part in regulating cutaneous pigmentation during inflammation and aging. PMID:9494091

  4. Factors in seventh grade academics associated with performance levels on the tenth grade biology end of course test in selected middle and high schools in northwest Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jennifer Henry

    This study attempted to identify factors in seventh grade academics that are associated with overall success in tenth grade biology. The study addressed the following research questions: Are there significant differences in performance levels in seventh grade Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores in science, math, reading, and language arts associated with performance categories in tenth grade biology End of Course Test (EOCT) and the following demographic variables : gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability category, and English language proficiency level? Is there a relationship among the categorical variables on the tenth grade biology EOCT and the same five demographic variables? Retrospective causal comparative research was used on a representative sample from the middle schools in three North Georgia counties who took the four CRCTs in the 2006-2007 school year, and took the biology EOCT in the 2009-2010 school year. Chi square was used to determine the relationships of the various demographic variables on three biology EOCT performance categories. Twoway ANOVA determined relationships between the seventh grade CRCT scores of students in the various demographic groups and their performance levels on the biology EOCT. Students' performance levels on the biology EOCT matched their performance levels on the seventh grade CRCTs consistently. Females performed better than males on all seventh grade CRCTs. Black and Hispanic students did worse than White and Asian/Asian Indian students on the math CRCT. Students living in poverty did worse on reading and language arts CRCTs than students who were better off. Special education students did worse on science, reading, and language arts CRCTs than students not receiving special education services. English language learners did worse than native English speakers on all seventh grade CRCTs. These findings suggest that remedial measures may be taken in the seventh grade that could impact

  5. Prediction of Small Bowel Obstruction Caused by Bezoars Using Risk Factor Categories on Multidetector Computed Tomographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Lian-qin; Cheng, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to detect factors associated with small bowel obstruction (SBO) caused by bezoars on multidetector computed tomographic findings. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 61 patients who had bezoars in the small bowels on MDCT. The patients were divided into SBO patients group and non-SBO patients group. The mean values of the diameter, volume, and CT attenuation as well as location and characteristics of the bezoars were compared between the two groups. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors associated with SBO. Results. There were 32 patients (52.5%) in the SBO group and 29 patients (47.5%) in the non-SBO group. The bezoars in the SBO group had greater values of each mean diameter and mean volume than those in the non-SBO group (3.2 ± 0.5 cm versus 1.6 ± 0.7 cm, P < 0.0001, 14.9 ± 6.4 cm3 versus 2.5 ± 2.7 cm3, P < 0.0001, resp.) and had a lower CT attenuation than the non-SBO group (55.5 ± 23.4 versus 173.0 ± 68.0, P < 0.0001). The SBO group had higher prevalence of phytobezoar appearance (75.0% versus 10.3%, P < 0.0001). Major diameters of bezoar and phytobezoar were significant independent risk factors associated with SBO (odds ratio = 36.09, 8.26, resp., and P = 0.0004, 0.044, resp.). Conclusions. Major diameter of bezoar or phytobezoar is a potential risk factor associated with SBO. PMID:27403434

  6. Influence of Biological Factors on Connectivity Patterns for Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Garavelli, Lysel; Colas, François; Verley, Philippe; Kaplan, David Michael; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Lett, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    In marine benthic ecosystems, larval connectivity is a major process influencing the maintenance and distribution of invertebrate populations. Larval connectivity is a complex process to study as it is determined by several interacting factors. Here we use an individual-based, biophysical model, to disentangle the effects of such factors, namely larval vertical migration, larval growth, larval mortality, adults fecundity, and habitat availability, for the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile. Lower transport success and higher dispersal distances are observed including larval vertical migration in the model. We find an overall decrease in larval transport success to settlement areas from northern to southern Chile. This spatial gradient results from the combination of current direction and intensity, seawater temperature, and available habitat. From our simulated connectivity patterns we then identify subpopulations of loco along the Chilean coast, which could serve as a basis for spatial management of this resource in the future. PMID:26751574

  7. Cosmetics alter biologically-based factors of beauty: evidence from facial contrast.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Russell, Richard; Ward, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The use of cosmetics by women seems to consistently increase their attractiveness. What factors of attractiveness do cosmetics alter to achieve this? Facial contrast is a known cue to sexual dimorphism and youth, and cosmetics exaggerate sexual dimorphisms in facial contrast. Here, we demonstrate that the luminance contrast pattern of the eyes and eyebrows is consistently sexually dimorphic across a large sample of faces, with females possessing lower brow contrasts than males, and greater eye contrast than males. Red-green and yellow-blue color contrasts were not found to differ consistently between the sexes. We also show that women use cosmetics not only to exaggerate sexual dimorphisms of brow and eye contrasts, but also to increase contrasts that decline with age. These findings refine the notion of facial contrast, and demonstrate how cosmetics can increase attractiveness by manipulating factors of beauty associated with facial contrast. PMID:25725411

  8. Cosmetics alter biologically-based factors of beauty: evidence from facial contrast.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Russell, Richard; Ward, Robert

    2015-02-28

    The use of cosmetics by women seems to consistently increase their attractiveness. What factors of attractiveness do cosmetics alter to achieve this? Facial contrast is a known cue to sexual dimorphism and youth, and cosmetics exaggerate sexual dimorphisms in facial contrast. Here, we demonstrate that the luminance contrast pattern of the eyes and eyebrows is consistently sexually dimorphic across a large sample of faces, with females possessing lower brow contrasts than males, and greater eye contrast than males. Red-green and yellow-blue color contrasts were not found to differ consistently between the sexes. We also show that women use cosmetics not only to exaggerate sexual dimorphisms of brow and eye contrasts, but also to increase contrasts that decline with age. These findings refine the notion of facial contrast, and demonstrate how cosmetics can increase attractiveness by manipulating factors of beauty associated with facial contrast.

  9. Influence of Biological Factors on Connectivity Patterns for Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Garavelli, Lysel; Colas, François; Verley, Philippe; Kaplan, David Michael; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Lett, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    In marine benthic ecosystems, larval connectivity is a major process influencing the maintenance and distribution of invertebrate populations. Larval connectivity is a complex process to study as it is determined by several interacting factors. Here we use an individual-based, biophysical model, to disentangle the effects of such factors, namely larval vertical migration, larval growth, larval mortality, adults fecundity, and habitat availability, for the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile. Lower transport success and higher dispersal distances are observed including larval vertical migration in the model. We find an overall decrease in larval transport success to settlement areas from northern to southern Chile. This spatial gradient results from the combination of current direction and intensity, seawater temperature, and available habitat. From our simulated connectivity patterns we then identify subpopulations of loco along the Chilean coast, which could serve as a basis for spatial management of this resource in the future.

  10. Association of biological, psychological and lifestyle risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Teresa; Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Mora, Marisol; González, Marcela L; Rosés, Rocío; Raich, Rosa M

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association of several risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents. Participants were 448 girls and boys aged 12-15 years. Being female, higher body mass index, internalisation of standard of appearance, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, number of lifetime addictive behaviours and lower self-esteem were associated with higher eating disturbance scores, whereas frequency of sedentary behaviours and physical activity were not (R(2) ⩾ 41%). Findings suggest the need to guide prevention efforts towards the broad spectrum of individual potentially modifiable factors. A non-specific comprehensive perspective may be adequate to prevent problems related to weight, body image and drug use. PMID:26032800

  11. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities. The incidence with neuromuscular block (NMB) was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without, it was ~1:135,900 (1:78,600-299,000). The cases of AAGA reported to NAP5 were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during NMB. The incidence of accidental awareness during Caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two-thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental, rapid sequence induction, obesity, difficult airway management, NMB, and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One-third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, mostly due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex, age (younger adults, but not children), obesity, anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees), previous awareness, out-of-hours operating, emergencies, type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic), and use of NMB. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status, race, and use or omission

  12. Elevated Blood Ammonia Level Is a Potential Biological Risk Factor of Behavioral Disorders in Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yunfeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Liang, Shan; Jin, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothion (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) can be toxic for the human central nervous system and cause psychological disturbances and behavioral disorders. In order to evaluate the association between the two potential toxicants and mental health, in this study, we compare a male prisoner and control population. Forty-nine male prisoners and 52 control volunteers took part in the study. An aggressive behavior assessment, the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used to characterize the participants' mental health status. Venous blood was collected for detection of H2S and NH3. The results indicated that blood NH3 was significantly higher in male prisoners than in controls. However, blood H2S was significantly lower. Blood NH3 was also significantly and positively correlated with prisoners. In the multivariate adjusted models, after controlling for age, education, marital status, and BMI, we found a positive association between NH3 and prisoners, but not blood H2S. While the functions of the two toxicants were quite different, blood NH3 may be a potential biological risk factor for behavioral disorders and blood H2S showed neuroprotection. Additionally, the impact of other factors such as diet and gut bacteria should be considered when evaluating risk for behavioral disorders. PMID:26457003

  13. C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ transcription factors: Basic biology and roles in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Salgado, Marta; Vidal-Taboada, Jose M; Saura, Josep

    2015-09-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) β and C/EBPδ are transcription factors of the basic-leucine zipper class which share phylogenetic, structural and functional features. In this review we first describe in depth their basic molecular biology which includes fascinating aspects such as the regulated use of alternative initiation codons in the C/EBPβ mRNA. The physical interactions with multiple transcription factors which greatly opens the number of potentially regulated genes or the presence of at least five different types of post-translational modifications are also remarkable molecular mechanisms that modulate C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ function. In the second part, we review the present knowledge on the localization, expression changes and physiological roles of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ in neurons, astrocytes and microglia. We conclude that C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ share two unique features related to their role in the CNS: whereas in neurons they participate in memory formation and synaptic plasticity, in glial cells they regulate the pro-inflammatory program. Because of their role in neuroinflammation, C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ in microglia are potential targets for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Any strategy to reduce C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ activity in neuroinflammation needs to take into account its potential side-effects in neurons. Therefore, cell-specific treatments will be required for the successful application of this strategy.

  14. C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ transcription factors: Basic biology and roles in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Salgado, Marta; Vidal-Taboada, Jose M; Saura, Josep

    2015-09-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) β and C/EBPδ are transcription factors of the basic-leucine zipper class which share phylogenetic, structural and functional features. In this review we first describe in depth their basic molecular biology which includes fascinating aspects such as the regulated use of alternative initiation codons in the C/EBPβ mRNA. The physical interactions with multiple transcription factors which greatly opens the number of potentially regulated genes or the presence of at least five different types of post-translational modifications are also remarkable molecular mechanisms that modulate C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ function. In the second part, we review the present knowledge on the localization, expression changes and physiological roles of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ in neurons, astrocytes and microglia. We conclude that C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ share two unique features related to their role in the CNS: whereas in neurons they participate in memory formation and synaptic plasticity, in glial cells they regulate the pro-inflammatory program. Because of their role in neuroinflammation, C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ in microglia are potential targets for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Any strategy to reduce C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ activity in neuroinflammation needs to take into account its potential side-effects in neurons. Therefore, cell-specific treatments will be required for the successful application of this strategy. PMID:26143335

  15. Modeling post-fledging survival of lark buntings in response to ecological and biological factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yackel Adams, A.A.; Skagen, S.K.; Savidge, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the influences of several ecological, biological, and methodological factors on post-fledging survival of a shortgrass prairie bird, the Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys). We estimated daily post-fledging survival (n = 206, 82 broods) using radiotelemetry and color bands to track fledglings. Daily survival probabilities were best explained by drought intensity, time in season (quadratic trend), ages a??3 d post-fledging, and rank given drought intensity. Drought intensity had a strong negative effect on survival. Rank was an important predictor of fledgling survival only during the severe drought of 2002 when the smallest fledglings had lower survival. Recently fledged young (ages a??3 d post-fledging) undergoing the transition from nest to surrounding habitat experienced markedly lower survival, demonstrating the vulnerable nature of this time period. Survival was greater in mid and late season than early season, corresponding to our assumptions of food availability. Neither mark type nor sex of attending parent influenced survival. The model-averaged product of the 22-d survival calculated using mean rank and median value of time in season was 0.360 A? 0.08 in 2001 and 0.276 A? 0.08 in 2002. Survival estimates that account for age, condition of young, ecological conditions, and other factors are important for parameterization of realistic population models. Biologists using population growth models to elucidate mechanisms of population declines should attempt to estimate species-specific of post-fledging survival rather than use generalized estimates.

  16. Physiological and biological factors associated with a 24 h treadmill ultra-marathon performance.

    PubMed

    Millet, G Y; Banfi, J C; Kerherve, H; Morin, J B; Vincent, L; Estrade, C; Geyssant, A; Feasson, L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and biological factors associated with ultra-endurance performance. Fourteen male runners volunteered to run on a treadmill as many kilometers as possible over a 24-h period (24TR). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), velocity associated with VO(2max)(VO(2max)) and running economy (RE) at 8 km/h were measured. A muscle biopsy was also performed in the vastus lateralis muscle. The subjects ran 149.2 ± 15.7 km in 18 h 39 ± 41 min of effective attendance on the treadmill, corresponding to 39.4 ± 4.2% of . Standard multiple-regression analysis showed that performance was significantly (R(2) = 0.82; P = 0.005) related to VO(2max) and specific endurance, i.e. the average speed sustained over the 24TR expressed in . VO(2max) was associated with a high capillary tortuosity (R(2) = 0.66; P = 0.01). Specific endurance was significantly related to RE and citrate synthase activity. It is concluded that a high VO(2max) and an associated developed capillary network are essential for ultra-endurance running performance. The ability to maintain a high %VO(2max) over a 24TR is another factor associated with performance and is mainly related to RE and high mitochondrial oxidative capacity in the vastus lateralis. PMID:19883385

  17. Anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment in cherubism--clinical, radiological and histological findings in two children.

    PubMed

    Hero, M; Suomalainen, A; Hagström, J; Stoor, P; Kontio, R; Alapulli, H; Arte, S; Toiviainen-Salo, S; Lahdenne, P; Mäkitie, O

    2013-01-01

    Cherubism is a rare and disfiguring genetic disorder with excessive bone resorption and multilocular lesions in the mandible and/or maxilla. The disease-causing gain-of-function mutations in the SH3-binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) gene result in increased myeloid cell responses to macrophage colony stimulating factor and RANK ligand, formation of hyperactive osteoclasts (giant cells), and hyper-reactive macrophages that produce excessive amounts of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Recent findings in the cherubism mouse model suggest that TNF-α plays a major role in disease pathogenesis and that removal of TNF-α prevents development of the bone phenotype. We treated two children with cherubism with the TNF-α antagonist adalimumab for approximately 2.5 years and collected extensive clinical, radiological and histological follow-up data during the treatment. Histologically the treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the number of multinucleated giant cells and TNF-α staining positivity in both patients. As evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the lesions in Patient 1 showed either moderate enlargement (mandibular symphysis) or remained stable (mandibular rami and body, the maxilla). In Patient 2, the lesions in mandibular symphysis showed enlargement during the first 8 months of treatment, and thereafter the lesions remained unchanged. Bone formation and resorption markers remained unaffected. The treatment was well tolerated. Based on our findings, TNF-α antagonist may decrease the formation of pathogenic giant cells, but does not result in lesion regression or prevent lesion expansion in active cherubism. TNF-α modulator treatment thus does not appear to provide sufficient amelioration for patients suffering from cherubism. PMID:23069372

  18. Anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment in cherubism--clinical, radiological and histological findings in two children.

    PubMed

    Hero, M; Suomalainen, A; Hagström, J; Stoor, P; Kontio, R; Alapulli, H; Arte, S; Toiviainen-Salo, S; Lahdenne, P; Mäkitie, O

    2013-01-01

    Cherubism is a rare and disfiguring genetic disorder with excessive bone resorption and multilocular lesions in the mandible and/or maxilla. The disease-causing gain-of-function mutations in the SH3-binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) gene result in increased myeloid cell responses to macrophage colony stimulating factor and RANK ligand, formation of hyperactive osteoclasts (giant cells), and hyper-reactive macrophages that produce excessive amounts of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Recent findings in the cherubism mouse model suggest that TNF-α plays a major role in disease pathogenesis and that removal of TNF-α prevents development of the bone phenotype. We treated two children with cherubism with the TNF-α antagonist adalimumab for approximately 2.5 years and collected extensive clinical, radiological and histological follow-up data during the treatment. Histologically the treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the number of multinucleated giant cells and TNF-α staining positivity in both patients. As evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the lesions in Patient 1 showed either moderate enlargement (mandibular symphysis) or remained stable (mandibular rami and body, the maxilla). In Patient 2, the lesions in mandibular symphysis showed enlargement during the first 8 months of treatment, and thereafter the lesions remained unchanged. Bone formation and resorption markers remained unaffected. The treatment was well tolerated. Based on our findings, TNF-α antagonist may decrease the formation of pathogenic giant cells, but does not result in lesion regression or prevent lesion expansion in active cherubism. TNF-α modulator treatment thus does not appear to provide sufficient amelioration for patients suffering from cherubism.

  19. Factoring genetic determinism: An analysis of sociobiological discourse and debate and their presentations in biology textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schifellite, Carmen James

    This thesis is about Sociobiology, especially human sociobiological discourse, and its emergence as a paradigm especially through the formulations of E. O. Wilson. It asks two distinct and related questions. The first question asks why and how has the general project of Wilsonian or determinist human sociobiology has maintained its appeal and continued to garner popularity and support despite the many cogent and detailed critiques. The second question, covered in part two of this thesis, asks how the sociobiological controversy is presented in three Biology textbooks. Part one of this work examines the development of human sociobiology and its related disciplines and the debates that have arisen around this paradigm. It chronicles how this Wilsonian human sociobiological discourse constructs its legitimacy, the major issues critics have raised and recent developments in human sociobiology and related fields. It also suggests modified epistemological positions and avenues of critique. As such, this work utilizes theory developed within utilizes theory developed within science studies, hegemony studies, discourse theory, textual analysis, and science education. Part Two examines three textbooks used in Ontario Academic Courses (OAC's) in Biology in high school in grade thirteen in Ontario. These texts are similar if not identical to textbooks used in introductory biology courses in universities in North America. This textual analysis, examines how the textbooks portray sociobiology and the related fields of Genetics, Evolutionary theory and the Nature of Science itself. This analysis provides a way both to gauge the influence of Wilsonian human and non-human sociobiological discourse and to gauge the ways in which this controversial issue is handled by the texts. This analysis finds that all three textbooks fail to use sociobiology as an example of a scientific controversy to engage students in a discussion of this topic. They also fail to engage students in any of

  20. A systematic review of qualitative findings on factors enabling and deterring uptake of HIV testing in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) being the epicenter of the HIV epidemic, uptake of HIV testing is not optimal. While qualitative studies have been undertaken to investigate factors influencing uptake of HIV testing, systematic reviews to provide a more comprehensive understanding are lacking. Methods Using Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnography method, we synthesised published qualitative research to understand factors enabling and deterring uptake of HIV testing in SSA. We identified 5,686 citations out of which 56 were selected for full text review and synthesised 42 papers from 13 countries using Malpass’ notion of first-, second-, and third-order constructs. Results The predominant factors enabling uptake of HIV testing are deterioration of physical health and/or death of sexual partner or child. The roll-out of various HIV testing initiatives such as ‘opt-out’ provider-initiated HIV testing and mobile HIV testing has improved uptake of HIV testing by being conveniently available and attenuating fear of HIV-related stigma and financial costs. Other enabling factors are availability of treatment and social network influence and support. Major barriers to uptake of HIV testing comprise perceived low risk of HIV infection, perceived health workers’ inability to maintain confidentiality and fear of HIV-related stigma. While the increasingly wider availability of life-saving treatment in SSA is an incentive to test, the perceived psychological burden of living with HIV inhibits uptake of HIV testing. Other barriers are direct and indirect financial costs of accessing HIV testing, and gender inequality which undermines women’s decision making autonomy about HIV testing. Despite differences across SSA, the findings suggest comparable factors influencing HIV testing. Conclusions Improving uptake of HIV testing requires addressing perception of low risk of HIV infection and perceived inability to live with HIV. There is also a need to continue

  1. Biological activity in Technosols as a key factor of their structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watteau, Françoise; Villemin, Geneviève; Bouchard, Adeline; Monserié, Marie-France; Séré, Geoffroy; Schwartz, Christophe; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2010-05-01

    )availability. HAP also contributed to the aggregation of technogenic constituents in Technosol 1. The biological activity generated by the presence of exogenous organic matter is thus in short (0-2 years) and mean (30 years) terms, a key factor of the structuration and by there of the pedogenesis of Technosols.

  2. Biological and physical factors controlling aggregate stability under different climatic conditions in Southern Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel Gabarrón-Galeote, Miguel; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, Jose; Francisco Martinez-Murillo, Juan; Lavee, Hanoch

    2013-04-01

    Soil aggregation is a key factor determining the soil structure. The presence of stable aggregates is essential to maintain a good soil structure, that in turn plays an important role in sustaining agricultural productivity and preserving environmental quality. A wide range of physical and biological soil components are involved in the aggregate formation and stabilization, namely clay mineral content; the quantity and quality of organic matter, that can be derived from plants, fungal hyphae, microorganism and soil animals; and the soil water content. Climatic conditions, through their effect on soil water content, vegetation cover and organic matter content, are supposed to affect soil aggregation. Thus the main objective of this research is to analyse the effect of organic matter, clay content and soil water content on aggregate stability along a climatic transect in Southern Spain. This study was conducted in four catchments along a pluviometric gradient in the South of Spain (rainfall depth decreases from west to east from more than 1000 mm year-1 to less than 300 mm year-1) and was based on a methodology approximating the climatic gradient in Mediterranean conditions. The selected sites shared similar conditions of geology, topography and soil use, which allowed making comparisons among them and relating the differences to the pluviometric conditions. In February 2007, 250 disturbed and undisturbed samples from the first 5cm of the soil were collected along the transect. We measured the aggregate stability, organic matter, clay content and bulk density of every sample. In the field we measured rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration, soil water content, vegetation cover and presence of litter. Our results suggest that aggregate stability is a property determined by a great number of highly variable factors, which can make extremely difficult to predict its behavior taking in

  3. The influence of biological factors on students' sexual behaviour at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutinta, Given; Govender, Kaymarlin; George, Gavin; Gow, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Studies in South African universities reveal that the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour is very high, putting many students at high risk of HIV infection. This study explored the biological influences on students' sexual taking behaviour at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A qualitative approach was used, comprising a total of 80 in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions. These were conducted between late 2008 and early 2010. The research had equal representation of male and female students, different races, two campuses and different levels of study. Factors associated with students' sexual behaviour were identified. The data were analysed using thematic analysis, and the themes identified form the basis for discussion in this paper. Students' sexual behaviour was positively associated with the influence of a range of biological factors. Factors such as age, judgement of the health of the partner by looking at appearances, pursuit of physical beauty, sexual debut, sexual fit, and search for sexual pleasure encouraged students to engage in sexual behaviour. Most students are young and lack experience in assessing the influence of biological factors on their sexual behaviours, and need education on biological factors. This poses a big challenge to controlling students' sexual behaviour, especially if HIV and sexually transmitted diseases prevention interventions are to be successful.

  4. Factors influencing legacy pollutant accumulation in alpine osprey: biology, topography, or melting glaciers?

    PubMed

    Elliott, John E; Levac, Joshua; Guigueno, Mélanie F; Shaw, D Patrick; Wayland, Mark; Morrissey, Christy A; Muir, Derek C G; Elliott, Kyle H

    2012-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can be transported long distances and deposited into alpine environments via cold trapping and snow scavenging processes. Here we examined biotic and abiotic factors determining contaminant variability of wildlife in alpine ecosystems. We measured POPs in eggs and plasma of an apex predator, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) breeding in 15 mountainous watersheds across a broad latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal range in western Canada. After accounting for proximate biotic factors such as trophic level (δ(15)N) and carbon source (δ(13)C), variability in contaminant concentrations, including ΣDDT (sum of trichlorodiphenylethane-related compounds), toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), total chlordane, and ΣPCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in osprey tissues was explained by interactions among relative size of watersheds, water bodies, elevation, and glacial input. ΣDDT in nestling plasma, for example, decreased with lake elevation, probably as a result of local past inputs from agricultural or public health usage at lower altitude sites. In contrast, toxaphene, never used as an insecticide in western Canada, increased with elevation and year-round snow and ice cover in both plasma and eggs, indicating long-range atmospheric sources as dominant for toxaphene. Lower chlorinated PCBs in plasma tended to decrease with elevation and ice cover consistent with published data and model outcomes. Temporal trends of POPs in osprey eggs are coincident with some modeled predictions of release from melting glaciers due to climate change. Currently we suggest that contaminants largely are released through annual snowpack melt and deposited in large lower elevation lakes, or some smaller lakes with poor drainage. Our study highlights the importance of understanding how biological processes integrate physical when studying the environmental chemistry of wildlife.

  5. Circumventing furin enhances factor VIII biological activity and ameliorates bleeding phenotypes in hemophilia models

    PubMed Central

    Siner, Joshua I.; Samelson-Jones, Benjamin J.; Crudele, Julie M.; French, Robert A.; Lee, Benjamin J.; Zhou, Shanzhen; Merricks, Elizabeth; Raymer, Robin; Camire, Rodney M.; Arruda, Valder R.

    2016-01-01

    Processing by the proprotein convertase furin is believed to be critical for the biological activity of multiple proteins involved in hemostasis, including coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). This belief prompted the retention of the furin recognition motif (amino acids 1645–1648) in the design of B-domain–deleted FVIII (FVIII-BDD) products in current clinical use and in the drug development pipeline, as well as in experimental FVIII gene therapy strategies. Here, we report that processing by furin is in fact deleterious to FVIII-BDD secretion and procoagulant activity. Inhibition of furin increases the secretion and decreases the intracellular retention of FVIII-BDD protein in mammalian cells. Our new variant (FVIII-ΔF), in which this recognition motif is removed, efficiently circumvents furin. FVIII-ΔF demonstrates increased recombinant protein yields, enhanced clotting activity, and higher circulating FVIII levels after adeno-associated viral vector–based liver gene therapy in a murine model of severe hemophilia A (HA) compared with FVIII-BDD. Moreover, we observed an amelioration of the bleeding phenotype in severe HA dogs with sustained therapeutic FVIII levels after FVIII-ΔF gene therapy at a lower vector dose than previously employed in this model. The immunogenicity of FVIII-ΔF did not differ from that of FVIII-BDD as a protein or a gene therapeutic. Thus, contrary to previous suppositions, FVIII variants that can avoid furin processing are likely to have enhanced translational potential for HA therapy. PMID:27734034

  6. Phytochrome-Interacting Factors Have Both Shared and Distinct Biological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jinkil; Choi, Giltsu

    2013-01-01

    Phytochromes are plant photoreceptors that perceive red and far-red light. Upon the perception of light in Arabidopsis, light-activated phytochromes enter the nucleus and act on a set of interacting proteins, modulating their activities and thereby altering the expression levels of ∼10% of the organism’s entire gene complement. Phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) belonging to Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) subgroup 15 are key interacting proteins that play negative roles in light responses. Their activities are post-translationally countered by light-activated phytochromes, which promote the degradation of PIFs and directly or indirectly inhibit their binding to DNA. The PIFs share a high degree of similarity, but examinations of pif single and multiple mutants have indicated that they have shared and distinct functions in various developmental and physiological processes. These are believed to stem from differences in both intrinsic protein properties and their gene expression patterns. In an effort to clarify the basis of these shared and distinct functions, we compared recently published genome-wide ChIP data, developmental gene expression maps, and responses to various stimuli for the various PIFs. Based on our observations, we propose that the biological roles of PIFs stem from their shared and distinct DNA binding targets and specific gene expression patterns. PMID:23708772

  7. Role of transforming growth factor Beta in corneal function, biology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Tandon, A; Tovey, J C K; Sharma, A; Gupta, R; Mohan, R R

    2010-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) is a pleiotropic multifunctional cytokine that regulates several essential cellular processes in many parts of the body including the cornea. Three isoforms of TGFbeta are known in mammals and the human cornea expresses all of them. TGFbeta1 has been shown to play a central role in scar formation in adult corneas whereas TGFbeta2 and TGFbeta3 have been implicated to play a critical role in corneal development and scarless wound healing during embryogenesis. The biological effects of TGFbeta in the cornea have been shown to follow Smad dependent as well as Smad-independent signaling pathways depending upon cellular responses and microenvironment. Corneal TGFbeta expression is necessary for maintaining corneal integrity and corneal wound healing. On the other hand, TGFbeta is perhaps the most important cytokine in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disease in the cornea. Although the transformation of keratocytes to myofibroblasts induced by TGFbeta is largely believed to cause corneal fibrosis or scarring, the precise molecular mechanism(s) involved in this process is still unknown. Currently no drugs are available to treat corneal scarring effectively without causing significant side effects. Many approaches to treat TGFbeta-mediated corneal scarring are under investigation. These include blocking of TGFbeta, TGFbeta receptor, TGFbeta function and/or TGFbeta maturation. Other strategies such as modulating keratocyte proliferation, apoptosis, transcription and DNA condensation are also being investigated. The potential of gene therapy to neutralize the pathologic effects of TGFbeta has also been demonstrated recently.

  8. Some biological and physical factors in dry heat sterilization: a general review.

    PubMed

    Bruch, C W

    1964-01-01

    There is a surprising lack of quantitative data on sterilization by dry heat so that microbiologists have little knowledge of the role played by various biological and physical factors in this sterilizing process. A recent investigation by the author has shown that the aerobic mesophilic bacterial sporeformers, such as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans, are the most resistant among several species of sporeforming bacteria to dry heat sterilization. The type of carrier on which the spores are exposed to dry heat markedly affects their thermal resistance. An analysis of four carriers showed that spores on sand or vermiculite are more difficult to destroy than spores on paper or glass. Spores under low vacuums are more susceptible to dry heat sterilization than spores in helium, which are more susceptible than spores in air. Spores trapped in solids have thermal resistance levels two or three times greater than those found for spores exposed to dry heat in air. Preliminary results on the combination of dry heat and ionizing radiation sterilization indicate no synergistic effects, i.e., the destruction obtained with each agent is additive. Another important variable that governs the interpretation of the effectiveness of dry heat sterilization tests is the recovery medium for heat-damaged spores. The kinetics of dry heat sterilization cannot be fully interpreted from the available data. Death follows a logarithmic pattern thereby implying a monomolecular reaction. The mechanism of death is thought to be due to an oxidative process. PMID:11883444

  9. Dairy food intake is positively associated with cardiovascular health: findings from Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported about dairy food consumption and risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, few studies have examined dairy food intake in relation to cardiovascular health and the incorporation of lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. This study examined whether dairy food consumption was associated with cardiovascular health, recently defined by the American Heart Association. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of milk, yogurt, cheese, dairy desserts, ice cream, and butter. Seven cardiovascular health metrics were assessed: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. A total cardiovascular health score (CHS) was determined by summing the total number of health metrics at ideal levels. It was hypothesized that greater dairy food consumption (both low fat and whole fat) would be associated with better global cardiovascular health, as indicated by a higher CHS. Total dairy food intake was positively associated with the CHS. Higher intakes of whole fat milk, yogurt, and cheese were associated with better cardiovascular health. Even when controlling for demographic and dietary variables, those who consumed at least 5 servings per week of these dairy products had a significantly higher CHS than those who consumed these products less frequently. Higher total whole fat dairy food intake was also associated with other positive health behaviors, including being a nonsmoker, consuming the suggested dietary intakes of recommended foods, and having a normal body mass index. Increased dairy food consumption was associated with better cardiovascular health.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection in Mongolian children: Findings from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nymadawa, Pagvajav; Uehara, Ritei; Watanabe, Makoto; Oki, Izumi; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2006-04-01

    Although the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Mongolia, its prevalence among children and routes of transmission are largely unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies and the possible risk factors for transmission among school children using representative national data. A nationwide cross-sectional survey among elementary school children was conducted in four main geographical regions and the metropolitan area of Mongolia, through multistage, stratified, random cluster sampling. Serum samples from 1,145 children (response rate, 93%; 592 boys and 553 girls; age range, 7-12 years), which represented nearly 2% of the second grade population in Mongolia, were tested for HCV antibodies with a third-generation immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Positive samples were further evaluated by a third-generation immunoblot assay (RIBA). A standardized questionnaire concerning the socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors was used. Overall, seven subjects were confirmed to be anti-HCV seropositive, giving a prevalence of 0.6% (95% CI: 0.15-1.0%). The prevalence of anti-HCV increased with age. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, and residence, the history of dental manipulation (odds ratio [OR] = 15.4; 95% CI: 1.4-164.8) and surgery (OR = 8.3; 95% CI: 1.5-45.6) were associated independently with the presence of anti-HCV. These findings suggest that contaminated equipment used in the dental and surgical manipulations probably played a predominant role in HCV transmission among Mongolian children. Strict guidelines on disinfection and sterilization procedures of medical instruments have to be introduced and should be followed to improve the control of HCV infection in Mongolia.

  11. Risk factors associated with smoking behaviour in recreational venues: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey

    PubMed Central

    Li, X; Li, Q; Dong, L; Sun, B; Chen, J; Jiang, Y; Yang, Y; Fong, G T

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the determinants of smoking behaviour in recreational venues and to provide scientific bases for establishing smoke-free measures applying to these locations. Methods The International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey—a face-to-face cross-sectional survey of representative adult smokers from six cities (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Changsha and Yinchuan) was conducted between April and August 2006. A total of 4815 smokers were selected using multistage sampling methods, and final analyses were conducted on 2875 smokers who reported patronising recreational venues at least once in the last six months. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors influencing the smoking behaviour within recreational settings. Outcome measure Whether a smoker reported smoking in recreational venues during the last 6 months. Results 84% subjects reported smoking in recreational venues. Analyses showed that smoke-free laws had been exempted, 32.0% of the patrons reporting bans on smoking in these locations. The following factors were significant predictors of smoking in recreational venues: absence of bans on smoking, support for non-bans, being aged 18–24 years, positive smoking-related attitudes, low number of health effects reported and not living in Beijing. Conclusions The findings point to the importance of informing Chinese smokers about the active smoking and passive smoking harmfulness in both building support for smoke-free laws and in reducing smokers’ desire to smoke within recreational venues. They also point to the importance of good enforcement of smoke-free laws when implemented. Such strategies could also serve to de-normalise smoking in China, a key strategy for reducing smoking in general. PMID:19671537

  12. Toxicological and pathological findings in a series of buprenorphine related deaths. Possible risk factors for fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Seldén, Tor; Ahlner, Johan; Druid, Henrik; Kronstrand, Robert

    2012-07-10

    Buprenorphine is considered to have little respiratory side effects at therapeutic doses and the partial agonistic properties should produce a "ceiling effect" for respiratory depression at higher doses. Still, there are several reports on buprenorphine related deaths. Most deaths involve drug users and the co-administration of other CNS depressant drugs as well as reduced tolerance have been suggested to be risk factors. The primary aims were to investigate if lack of tolerance and/or co-ingestion of other psychotropic drugs are significant risk factors in buprenorphine fatalities. From July 2005 to September 2009, all autopsy cases where buprenorphine or norbuprenorphine had been detected in femoral blood and where analysis of buprenorphine had been performed in urine were selected. Results from the postmortem examination and toxicology were compiled. Postmortem toxicology was performed using the routine methodology at the laboratory. In total, 97 subjects were included in the study. These were divided into four groups; Intoxication with buprenorphine (N=41), Possible intoxication with buprenorphine (N=24), Control cases where buprenorphine was not the cause of death (N=14), and Unclear (N=18). The metabolite to parent compound ratios in both blood and urine in the Intoxication group were significantly different from those in the Control and Unclear groups. An extensive poly-drug use was seen in all groups with several additional opioids in the Possible group (54%) and in the Unclear group (78%) and hypnotics or sedatives in more than 75% of the Intoxication, Possible, and Unclear cases. Illicit drugs were present in all groups but not to a great extent with amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol as the main findings. Interestingly, 4 cases in the Intoxication group presented with no other significant drugs in blood other than buprenorphine. We conclude that a lethal concentration of buprenorphine in blood cannot be defined. Instead the analysis of blood as well as

  13. The Burden and Determinants of Non Communicable Diseases Risk Factors in Nepal: Findings from a Nationwide STEPS Survey

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Sushhama; Vaidya, Abhinav; Dhimal, Meghnath; Dhakal, Purushottam; Rana, Sangeeta; Bhusal, Chop Lal; Lohani, Guna Raj; Paulin, Frank Herbert; Garg, Renu Madanlal; Guthold, Regina; Cowan, Melanie; Riley, Leanne Margaret; Karki, Khem Bahadur

    2015-01-01

    Background World Health Organization (WHO) estimates for deaths attributed to Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in Nepal have risen from 51% in 2010 to 60% in 2014. This study assessed the distribution and determinants of NCD risk factors among the Nepalese adult population. Methods and Findings A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted from Jan to June 2013 on the prevalence of NCD risk factors using the WHO NCD STEPS instrument. A multistage cluster sampling method was used to randomly select the 4,200 respondents. The adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) was used to assess the determinants of NCD risk factors using a Poisson regression model. The prevalence of current smoking (last 30 days) was 19% (95%CI:16.6-20.6), and harmful alcohol consumption (≥60 g of pure alcohol for men and ≥40 g of pure alcohol for women on an average day) was 2% (95%CI:1.4-2.9). Almost all (99%, 95%CI:98.3-99.3) of the respondents consumed less than five servings of fruits and vegetables combined on an average day and 3% (95%CI:2.7-4.3) had low physical activity. Around 21% (95%CI:19.3-23.7) were overweight or obese (BMI≥25). The prevalence of raised blood pressure (SBP≥140 mm of Hg or DBP≥90 mm of Hg) and raised blood glucose (fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dl), including those on medication were 26% (95%CI:23.6-28.0) and 4% (95%CI:2.9-4.5) respectively. Almost one quarter of respondents, 23% (95%CI:20.5-24.9), had raised total cholesterol (total cholesterol ≥190 mg/dl or under current medication for raised cholesterol). he study revealed a lower prevalence of smoking among women than men (APR:0.30; 95%CI:0.25-0.36), and in those who had higher education levels compared to those with no formal education (APR:0.39; 95%CI:0.26-0.58). Harmful alcohol use was also lower in women than men (APR:0.26; 95%CI:0.14-0.48), and in Terai residents compared to hill residents (APR:0.16; 95%CI:0.07-0.36). Physical inactivity was lower among women than men (APR:0.55; 95

  14. Evaluation of the biological differences of canine and human factor VIII in gene delivery: Implications in human hemophilia treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The canine is the most important large animal model for testing novel hemophilia A(HA) treatment. It is often necessary to use canine factor VIII (cFIII) gene or protein for the evaluation of HA treatment in the canine model. However, the different biological properties between cFVIII and human FVII...

  15. A Study of Motivation and Other Factors as Relating to Course Achievement in Introductory College Biology, Chemistry, and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, Brooke M.; Halyard, Rebecca A.

    Results of a preliminary study that examined various factors relating to achievement in introductory level biology, chemistry, and physics classes at a public junior college are presented. Background variables, including age, sex, college major, grade point average, SAT-Verbal and SAT-Quantitative, and the sixteen-part scores of Academic…

  16. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) Study: Biological and Psychological Factors Associated with Learning Performance in Adult Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Groot, Renate H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these associations for adult distance students is lacking…

  17. Critical-Thinking Grudge Match: Biology vs. Chemistry--Examining Factors That Affect Thinking Skill in Nonmajors Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quitadamo, Ian J.; Kurtz, Martha J.; Cornell, Caitlyn Nicole; Griffith, Lindsay; Hancock, Julie; Egbert, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry students appear to bring significantly higher critical-thinking skill to their nonmajors course than do biology students. Knowing student preconceptions and thinking ability is essential to learning growth and effective teaching. Of the factors investigated, ethnicity and high school physics had the largest impact on critical-thinking…

  18. Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

  19. [Mechanisms underlying physiological functions of food factors via non-specific interactions with biological proteins].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Akira

    2015-01-01

      We previously reported that zerumbone, a sesquiterpene found in Zingiber zerumbet SMITH, showed notable cancer preventive effects in various organs of experimental rodents. This agent up-regulated nuclear factor-E2-related factor (Nrf2)-dependent expressions of anti-oxidative and xenobiotics-metabolizing enzymes, leading to an increased self-defense capacity. On the other hand, zerumbone markedly suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, an inducible pro-inflammatory enzyme, by disrupting mRNA stabilizing processes. Binding experiments using a biotin derivative of zerumbone demonstrated that Keap1, an Nrf2 repressive protein, is one of its major binding proteins that promotes their dissociation for inducing Nrf2 transactivation. We then generated a specific antibody against zerumbone-modified proteins and found that zerumbone modified numerous cellular proteins in a non-specific manner, with global distribution of the modified proteins seen not only in cytoplasm but also the nucleus. Based on those observations, zerumbone was speculated to cause proteo-stress, a notion supported by previous findings that it increased the C-terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein-dependent protein ubiquitination and also promoted aggresome formation. Interestingly, zerumbone counteracted proteo-stress and heat stress via up-regulation of the protein quality control systems (PQCs), e.g., heat shock proteins (HSPs), ubiquitin-proteasome, and autophagy. Meanwhile, several phytochemicals, including ursolic acid and curcumin, were identified as marked HSP70 inducers, whereas most nutrients tested were scarcely active. Recent studies have revealed that PQCs play important roles in the prevention of many lifestyle related diseases, such as cancer, thus non-specific binding of phytochemicals to cellular proteins may be a novel and unique mechanism underlying their physiological activities.

  20. Biological and analytical variations of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests and the activity of coagulation factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Shou, Weiling; Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Zhang, Yujuan; Huang, Chunmei; Cui, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To accurately estimate longitudinal changes in individuals, it is important to take into consideration the biological variability of the measurement. The few studies available on the biological variations of coagulation parameters are mostly outdated. We confirmed the published results using modern, fully automated methods. Furthermore, we added data for additional coagulation parameters. At 8:00 am, 12:00 pm, and 4:00 pm on days 1, 3, and 5, venous blood was collected from 31 healthy volunteers. A total of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests as well as the activity of coagulation factors were analyzed; these included prothrombin time, fibrinogen (Fbg), activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time activity, activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, fibrin(-ogen) degradation products, as well as the activity of factor II, factor V, factor VII, factor VIII, factor IX, and factor X. All intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVI) values for the parameters of the screening tests (except Fbg) were less than 5%. Conversely, the CVI values for the activity of coagulation factors were all greater than 5%. In addition, we calculated the reference change value to determine whether a significant difference exists between two test results from the same individual.

  1. Find a Cancer Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care Tumor Biology/Molecular Biology/Growth Factors/Cytokines Urology/Urological Oncology Filter by Specialty Sort by Distance ... Interventional) Surgery (including Surgical Oncology and Surgical Specialties) Urology/Urological Oncology Gender - Any - Male Female Language - Any - ...

  2. Model-based analysis of the role of biological, hydrological and geochemical factors affecting uranium bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiao; Scheibe, Timothy D; Mahadevan, R

    2011-07-01

    Uranium contamination is a serious concern at several sites motivating the development of novel treatment strategies such as the Geobacter-mediated reductive immobilization of uranium. However, this bioremediation strategy has not yet been optimized for the sustained uranium removal. While several reactive-transport models have been developed to represent Geobacter-mediated bioremediation of uranium, these models often lack the detailed quantitative description of the microbial process (e.g., biomass build-up in both groundwater and sediments, electron transport system, etc.) and the interaction between biogeochemical and hydrological process. In this study, a novel multi-scale model was developed by integrating our recent model on electron capacitance of Geobacter (Zhao et al., 2010) with a comprehensive simulator of coupled fluid flow, hydrologic transport, heat transfer, and biogeochemical reactions. This mechanistic reactive-transport model accurately reproduces the experimental data for the bioremediation of uranium with acetate amendment. We subsequently performed global sensitivity analysis with the reactive-transport model in order to identify the main sources of prediction uncertainty caused by synergistic effects of biological, geochemical, and hydrological processes. The proposed approach successfully captured significant contributing factors across time and space, thereby improving the structure and parameterization of the comprehensive reactive-transport model. The global sensitivity analysis also provides a potentially useful tool to evaluate uranium bioremediation strategy. The simulations suggest that under difficult environments (e.g., highly contaminated with U(VI) at a high migration rate of solutes), the efficiency of uranium removal can be improved by adding Geobacter species to the contaminated site (bioaugmentation) in conjunction with the addition of electron donor (biostimulation). The simulations also highlight the interactive effect of

  3. Model-Based Analysis of the Role of Biological, Hydrological and Geochemical Factors Affecting Uranium Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jiao; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2011-01-24

    Uranium contamination is a serious concern at several sites motivating the development of novel treatment strategies such as the Geobacter-mediated reductive immobilization of uranium. However, this bioremediation strategy has not yet been optimized for the sustained uranium removal. While several reactive-transport models have been developed to represent Geobacter-mediated bioremediation of uranium, these models often lack the detailed quantitative description of the microbial process (e.g., biomass build-up in both groundwater and sediments, electron transport system, etc.) and the interaction between biogeochemical and hydrological process. In this study, a novel multi-scale model was developed by integrating our recent model on electron capacitance of Geobacter (Zhao et al., 2010) with a comprehensive simulator of coupled fluid flow, hydrologic transport, heat transfer, and biogeochemical reactions. This mechanistic reactive-transport model accurately reproduces the experimental data for the bioremediation of uranium with acetate amendment. We subsequently performed global sensitivity analysis with the reactive-transport model in order to identify the main sources of prediction uncertainty caused by synergistic effects of biological, geochemical, and hydrological processes. The proposed approach successfully captured significant contributing factors across time and space, thereby improving the structure and parameterization of the comprehensive reactive-transport model. The global sensitivity analysis also provides a potentially useful tool to evaluate uranium bioremediation strategy. The simulations suggest that under difficult environments (e.g., highly contaminated with U(VI) at a high migration rate of solutes), the efficiency of uranium removal can be improved by adding Geobacter species to the contaminated site (bioaugmentation) in conjunction with the addition of electron donor (biostimulation). The simulations also highlight the interactive effect of

  4. Global regulation of expression of antifungal factors by a Pseudomonas fluorescens biological control strain.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, T D; Lam, S T; Ligon, J; Gates, K; Frazelle, A; Di Maio, J; Hill, S; Goodwin, S; Torkewitz, N; Allshouse, A M

    1994-01-01

    The root-colonizing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BL915 protects a variety of seedlings from damping-off disease caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Spontaneous pleiotropic mutants of P. fluorescens strain BL915 which fail to synthesize antifungal factors such as chitinase, cyanide, and pyrrolnitrin and exhibit altered colony morphology were isolated. Such mutants fail to inhibit the growth of R. solani in vitro, and their biological control capability is sharply reduced. We characterized a genomic DNA fragment from strain BL915 which, when introduced into these pleiotropic mutants, restored the lost functions, the wild-type colony morphology, and bio-control activity. DNA sequence analysis of the genomic fragment revealed the presence of genes homologous to those of numerous bacterial global regulatory systems and identified a cluster of genes identical in organization to the Escherichia coli gene cluster consisting of uvrY, uvrC, pgsA, and glyW. Coordinate biosynthesis of multiple antifungal products in some heterologous Pseudomonas strains in response to the introduction of the strain BL915 genomic fragment confirmed the regulatory nature of sequences contained on this fragment. Further genetic analysis indicated a gene homologous to response regulators of bacterial two-component systems was sufficient to complement the pleiotropic mutants and to activate antifungal genes in heterologous strains. Marker exchange of a truncated version of this gene into the P. fluorescens BL915 chromosome generated pleiotropic mutants indistinguishable from the original spontaneous mutants. Cloning and sequencing of the response regulator gene from several spontaneous mutants allowed identification of various nucleotide changes associated with the gene in such mutants.

  5. [Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification of Heavy Metals in Three Gorges Reservoir and Effect of Biological Factors].

    PubMed

    Wei, Li-li; Zhou, Qiong; Xie, Cong-xin; Wang, Jun; Li, Jun

    2016-01-15

    Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) reached the maximum water level (175 m) of impoundment in Oct. 2010. In order to reveal the potential influence of the greatest water-level impoundment on the heavy metal pollution in the typical waters of TGR, the content level of trace metals ( Hg, Cd and Pb) in biota and potential biomagnification along the aquatic food chain were investigated in the main stem of TGR from July 2011 to August 2012, as well as the relationship between the trace metal concentrations of aquatic consumers (fish and aquatic invertebrate) and biological factors. Our study showed that no individual data of the three trace metals in biota exceeded the edible safety criteria of aquatic products in China and FAO. In contrast with those before the impoundment of TGR, Hg showed a little higher, while Cd and Pb exhibited a little lower level after the impoundment. Trace metals in TGR exhibited relatively lower concentrations compared with those in reservoirs in other countries. Significant correlations were found between the Cd concentration and body size (body length and body weight) of Cyprinus carpio, as well as the Hg concentration and body size (body length and body weight) of Erythroculter ilishaeformis. As for feeding habits, there was statistically significant difference between trace metal concentrations in herbivorous, planktonic, omnivorous and carnivorous fish. However, no significant difference was found between the metal concentrations in fish with different habitats (pelagic, mesopelagic and benthic). Even so, the overall trend was that fish living in benthic layer had higher heavy metal concentrations than those in pelagic and mesopelagic zones. The regression slopes of log-Hg concentration versus delta(15)N, served as an indicator of trophic magnification factor (TMF). Significant correlations (P < 0.05) were observed for Hg in the food web of TGR. TMF of Hg in TGR indicated lower level (0.046-0.066) in contrast with those in the reservoirs of

  6. [Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification of Heavy Metals in Three Gorges Reservoir and Effect of Biological Factors].

    PubMed

    Wei, Li-li; Zhou, Qiong; Xie, Cong-xin; Wang, Jun; Li, Jun

    2016-01-15

    Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) reached the maximum water level (175 m) of impoundment in Oct. 2010. In order to reveal the potential influence of the greatest water-level impoundment on the heavy metal pollution in the typical waters of TGR, the content level of trace metals ( Hg, Cd and Pb) in biota and potential biomagnification along the aquatic food chain were investigated in the main stem of TGR from July 2011 to August 2012, as well as the relationship between the trace metal concentrations of aquatic consumers (fish and aquatic invertebrate) and biological factors. Our study showed that no individual data of the three trace metals in biota exceeded the edible safety criteria of aquatic products in China and FAO. In contrast with those before the impoundment of TGR, Hg showed a little higher, while Cd and Pb exhibited a little lower level after the impoundment. Trace metals in TGR exhibited relatively lower concentrations compared with those in reservoirs in other countries. Significant correlations were found between the Cd concentration and body size (body length and body weight) of Cyprinus carpio, as well as the Hg concentration and body size (body length and body weight) of Erythroculter ilishaeformis. As for feeding habits, there was statistically significant difference between trace metal concentrations in herbivorous, planktonic, omnivorous and carnivorous fish. However, no significant difference was found between the metal concentrations in fish with different habitats (pelagic, mesopelagic and benthic). Even so, the overall trend was that fish living in benthic layer had higher heavy metal concentrations than those in pelagic and mesopelagic zones. The regression slopes of log-Hg concentration versus delta(15)N, served as an indicator of trophic magnification factor (TMF). Significant correlations (P < 0.05) were observed for Hg in the food web of TGR. TMF of Hg in TGR indicated lower level (0.046-0.066) in contrast with those in the reservoirs of

  7. New Findings in eNOS gene and Thalidomide Embryopathy Suggest pre-transcriptional effect variants as susceptibility factors.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Hutz, Mara Helena; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (-786C > T) and rs1799983 (894T > G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p = 0.007). Alleles -786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p = 0.018; OR = 2.57; IC = 1.2-5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T > G (p = 0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue. PMID:27004986

  8. New Findings in eNOS gene and Thalidomide Embryopathy Suggest pre-transcriptional effect variants as susceptibility factors

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Hutz, Mara Helena; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (−786C > T) and rs1799983 (894T > G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p = 0.007). Alleles −786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p = 0.018; OR = 2.57; IC = 1.2–5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T > G (p = 0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue. PMID:27004986

  9. Fission Yeast CSL Transcription Factors: Mapping Their Target Genes and Biological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Převorovský, Martin; Oravcová, Martina; Tvarůžková, Jarmila; Zach, Róbert; Folk, Petr; Půta, František; Bähler, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Background Cbf11 and Cbf12, the fission yeast CSL transcription factors, have been implicated in the regulation of cell-cycle progression, but no specific roles have been described and their target genes have been only partially mapped. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a combination of transcriptome profiling under various conditions and genome-wide analysis of CSL-DNA interactions, we identify genes regulated directly and indirectly by CSL proteins in fission yeast. We show that the expression of stress-response genes and genes that are expressed periodically during the cell cycle is deregulated upon genetic manipulation of cbf11 and/or cbf12. Accordingly, the coordination of mitosis and cytokinesis is perturbed in cells with genetically manipulated CSL protein levels, together with other specific defects in cell-cycle progression. Cbf11 activity is nutrient-dependent and Δcbf11-associated defects are mitigated by inactivation of the protein kinase A (Pka1) and stress-activated MAP kinase (Sty1p38) pathways. Furthermore, Cbf11 directly regulates a set of lipid metabolism genes and Δcbf11 cells feature a stark decrease in the number of storage lipid droplets. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide a framework for a more detailed understanding of the role of CSL proteins in the regulation of cell-cycle progression in fission yeast. PMID:26366556

  10. Study of the biological function and penetration pathways of the mouse epidermal growth factor ethosomal delivery system.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Lang; You, Yi; Zhong, Bai-Yu; Song, Qiu-He; Deng, Jun; Hao, Fei

    2011-11-01

    Biological agents are becoming increasingly popular for therapeutic applications in epidermal diseases. Ethosomes facilitate the transdermal/topical delivery of biological macromolecules. The mouse epidermal growth factor (mEGF) was selected as the model biological agent. The aim of this experiment was to determine the penetration pathways and biological functions of the mEGF ethosomal delivery system after its topical application. The mEGF ethosomal delivery system was topically applied on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice at different time points. Freshly excised skin samples were obtained by skin biopsies and shock-frozen, and immunofluorescence was performed. The results showed that penetration of mEGF ethosomes was mainly through the pilosebaceous unit and partly through the intercellular domain. Biological agents encapsulated in the ethosomal delivery system could reach each site of the pilosebaceous unit. We also found that mEGF ethosomes had caused successful transition of the hair follicles from the telogen to the anagen phase of the hair cycle. PMID:21801235

  11. Familiality in a five-factor model of schizophrenia psychopathology: findings from a 16-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ritsner, Michael; Ratner, Yael; Gibel, Anatoly; Weizman, Ronit

    2005-09-15

    We sought to examine stability associations between family history and variability of schizophrenia symptoms repeatedly examined during a naturalistic follow-up study. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale were administered to 69 patients with familial and 79 patients with sporadic schizophrenia, at hospital admission and at stabilization stage (about 16 months later). Analysis of covariance was applied to identify the association of symptom factors with familiality of schizophrenia. We found that schizophrenia patients with positive family histories had significantly higher dysphoric, activation and negative factors. However, familiality of activation and negative factors were dependent on additional variables such as age of onset (both factors), baseline ratings, insight, and side effects (negative factor). No significant association of family history with intensity of positive and autistic preoccupation factors was found. Familial schizophrenia is characterized by higher severity of dysphoric mood factors that may represent impaired emotional reactivity. It is suggested that dysphoric mood may be a useful phenotype for molecular genetic studies of schizophrenia with positive family history. PMID:16098602

  12. Biological, physical factors in clinical assessment of outcome of cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Perez, Carlos A

    2005-01-01

    Complex molecular and cellular biological phenomena influence the response of tumor and normal cell to cytotoxic agents, including irradiation. Innovative 3-D treatment planning and IGRT techniques allow more quantitative optmization of irradiation dose distribution in target volumes and OAR. More detailed reporting on radiation doses is required with incorporation of biological parameters in treatment planning and dose specification. TCP and NTCP models should be validate with actual clinical data. Quality assurance in radiation oncology is mandatory. Because of increasing concerns with health care costs, technology assessment and cost benefit studies should be an integral component of clinical outcome reporting. PMID:16294900

  13. An integrated model of transcription factor diffusion shows the importance of intersegmental transfer and quaternary protein structure for target site finding.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hugo G; Sewitz, Sven; Andrews, Steven S; Lipkow, Karen

    2014-01-01

    We present a computational model of transcription factor motion that explains both the observed rapid target finding of transcription factors, and how this motion influences protein and genome structure. Using the Smoldyn software, we modelled transcription factor motion arising from a combination of unrestricted 3D diffusion in the nucleoplasm, sliding along the DNA filament, and transferring directly between filament sections by intersegmental transfer. This presents a fine-grain picture of the way in which transcription factors find their targets two orders of magnitude faster than 3D diffusion alone allows. Eukaryotic genomes contain sections of nucleosome free regions (NFRs) around the promoters; our model shows that the presence and size of these NFRs can be explained as their acting as antennas on which transcription factors slide to reach their targets. Additionally, our model shows that intersegmental transfer may have shaped the quaternary structure of transcription factors: sequence specific DNA binding proteins are unusually enriched in dimers and tetramers, perhaps because these allow intersegmental transfer, which accelerates target site finding. Finally, our model shows that a 'hopping' motion can emerge from 3D diffusion on small scales. This explains the apparently long sliding lengths that have been observed for some DNA binding proteins observed in vitro. Together, these results suggest that transcription factor diffusion dynamics help drive the evolution of protein and genome structure.

  14. An Integrated Model of Transcription Factor Diffusion Shows the Importance of Intersegmental Transfer and Quaternary Protein Structure for Target Site Finding

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Hugo G.; Sewitz, Sven; Andrews, Steven S.; Lipkow, Karen

    2014-01-01

    We present a computational model of transcription factor motion that explains both the observed rapid target finding of transcription factors, and how this motion influences protein and genome structure. Using the Smoldyn software, we modelled transcription factor motion arising from a combination of unrestricted 3D diffusion in the nucleoplasm, sliding along the DNA filament, and transferring directly between filament sections by intersegmental transfer. This presents a fine-grain picture of the way in which transcription factors find their targets two orders of magnitude faster than 3D diffusion alone allows. Eukaryotic genomes contain sections of nucleosome free regions (NFRs) around the promoters; our model shows that the presence and size of these NFRs can be explained as their acting as antennas on which transcription factors slide to reach their targets. Additionally, our model shows that intersegmental transfer may have shaped the quaternary structure of transcription factors: sequence specific DNA binding proteins are unusually enriched in dimers and tetramers, perhaps because these allow intersegmental transfer, which accelerates target site finding. Finally, our model shows that a ‘hopping’ motion can emerge from 3D diffusion on small scales. This explains the apparently long sliding lengths that have been observed for some DNA binding proteins observed in vitro. Together, these results suggest that transcription factor diffusion dynamics help drive the evolution of protein and genome structure. PMID:25333780

  15. Using ANN to predict E. coli accumulation in coves based on interaction amongst various physical, chemical and biological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, D.; Mohanty, B. P.; Lesikar, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    The accumulation of Escherichia Coli (E. coli) in canals, coves and streams is the result of a number of interacting processes operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Fate and transport of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by different physical, chemical, and biological processes. Various models developed to quantify each of these processes occurring at different scales are not so far pooled into a single predictive model. At present, very little is known about the fate and transport of E. coli in the environment. We hypothesize that E. coli population heterogeneity in canals and coves is affected by physical factors (average stream width and/ depth, secchi depth, flow and flow severity, day since precipitation, aquatic vegetation, solar radiation, dissolved and total suspended solids etc.); chemical factors (basic water quality, nutrients, organic compounds, pH, and toxicity etc.); and biological factors (type of bacterial strain, predation, and antagonism etc.). The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) examine the interactions between E. coli and various coupled physical, chemical and biological factors; (2) examine the interactions between E. coli and toxic organic pollutants and other pathogens (viruses); and (3) evaluate qualitatively the removal efficiency of E. coli. We suggest that artificial neural networks (ANN) may be used to provide a possible solution to this problem. To demonstrate the application of the approach, we develop an ANN representing E. coli accumulation in two polluted sites at Lake Granbury in the upper part of the Brazos River in North Central Texas. The graphical structure of ANN explicitly represents cause- and-effect relationship between system variables. Each of these relationships can then be quantified independently using an approach suitable for the type and scale of information available. Preliminary results revealed that E. coli concentrations in canals show seasonal variations regardless of change

  16. Summary of Effects of Biological Factors on Sex-Related Differences in Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Julia

    Critically reviewed evidence relevant to hypotheses of biological sources of sex-related cognitive differences as they relate to mathematics achievement include the following: explanations based on the assumption of greater variability in male cognitive performance; sex-related differences in serum urate; effects of estrogens compared to androgens…

  17. Factors Influencing Academic Performance of Students Enrolled in a Lower Division Cell Biology Core Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Julio G.; Anand, Sulekha

    2009-01-01

    Students' performance in two semesters of our Cell Biology course was examined for this study. Teaching strategies, behaviors, and pre-course variables were analyzed with respect to students' performance. Pre-semester and post-semester surveys were administered to ascertain students' perceptions about class difficulty, amount of study and effort…

  18. Ethno-Specific Risk Factors for Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Findings from the Born in Bradford Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Tomasina; Prady, Stephanie; Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Downe, Soo; Simpson, Nigel; Pickett, Kate

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA) are major causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Previous studies indicated a range of risk factors associated with these poor outcomes, including maternal psychosocial and economic wellbeing. This paper will explore a range of psycho-social and economic factors in an ethnically diverse population. Methods The UK's Born in Bradford cohort study recruited pregnant women attending a routine antenatal appointment at 26-28 weeks' gestation at the Bradford Royal Infirmary (2007-2010). This analysis includes 9680 women with singleton live births who completed the baseline questionnaire. Data regarding maternal socio-demographic and mental health were recorded. Outcome data were collected prospectively, and analysed using multivariate regression models. The primary outcomes measured were: PTB (<37 weeks' gestation) and SGA (<10th customised centile). Results After adjustment for socio-demographic and medical factors, financial strain was associated with a 45 % increase in PTB (OR 1.45: 95 % CI 1.06-1.98). Contrary to expectation, maternal distress in Pakistani women was negatively associated with SGA (OR 0.65: CI 0.48-0.88). Obesity in White British women was protective for PTB (OR 0.67: CI 0.45-0.98). Previously recognized risk factors, such as smoking in pregnancy and hypertension, were confirmed. Conclusions This study confirms known risk factors for PTB and SGA, along with a new variable of interest, financial strain. It also reveals a difference in the risk factors between ethnicities. In order to develop appropriate targeted preventative strategies to improve perinatal outcome in disadvantaged groups, a greater understanding of ethno-specific risk factors is required.

  19. Ethno-Specific Risk Factors for Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Findings from the Born in Bradford Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Tomasina; Prady, Stephanie; Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Downe, Soo; Simpson, Nigel; Pickett, Kate

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA) are major causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Previous studies indicated a range of risk factors associated with these poor outcomes, including maternal psychosocial and economic wellbeing. This paper will explore a range of psycho-social and economic factors in an ethnically diverse population. Methods The UK's Born in Bradford cohort study recruited pregnant women attending a routine antenatal appointment at 26-28 weeks' gestation at the Bradford Royal Infirmary (2007-2010). This analysis includes 9680 women with singleton live births who completed the baseline questionnaire. Data regarding maternal socio-demographic and mental health were recorded. Outcome data were collected prospectively, and analysed using multivariate regression models. The primary outcomes measured were: PTB (<37 weeks' gestation) and SGA (<10th customised centile). Results After adjustment for socio-demographic and medical factors, financial strain was associated with a 45 % increase in PTB (OR 1.45: 95 % CI 1.06-1.98). Contrary to expectation, maternal distress in Pakistani women was negatively associated with SGA (OR 0.65: CI 0.48-0.88). Obesity in White British women was protective for PTB (OR 0.67: CI 0.45-0.98). Previously recognized risk factors, such as smoking in pregnancy and hypertension, were confirmed. Conclusions This study confirms known risk factors for PTB and SGA, along with a new variable of interest, financial strain. It also reveals a difference in the risk factors between ethnicities. In order to develop appropriate targeted preventative strategies to improve perinatal outcome in disadvantaged groups, a greater understanding of ethno-specific risk factors is required. PMID:26983444

  20. Factors Predicting the Use of Technology: Findings From the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE)

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J.; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D.; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sharit, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18–91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption. PMID:16768579

  1. Factors predicting the use of technology: findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE).

    PubMed

    Czaja, Sara J; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N; Rogers, Wendy A; Sharit, Joseph

    2006-06-01

    The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18-91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption.

  2. Protection and treatment of sensorineural hearing disorders caused by exogenous factors: experimental findings and potential clinical application.

    PubMed

    Duan, Mao Li; Ulfendahl, Mats; Laurell, Göran; Counter, S A; Counter, Allen S; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Borg, Erik; Rosenhall, Ulf

    2002-07-01

    During the last decade, there have been numerous interesting findings regarding the roles of neurotrophins, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, glutamate receptors, and shock protein in the auditory system. These findings have provided a scientific basis for the development of techniques to protect the auditory system against trauma as well as for the treatment of peripheral hearing disorders. This review focuses on recent advances in experimental prevention and treatment of hearing impairment which are expected to be of clinical value in the near future. Viral vector and non-viral vector gene therapy and transplantation of stem cells are discussed as potential treatments of irreversible sensorineural inner ear damage.

  3. [Diagnosis of liver diseases by classification of laboratory signal factor pattern findings with the Mahalanobis·Taguchi Adjoint method].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hisato; Yano, Kouya; Uetake, Shinichirou; Takagi, Ichiro

    2012-02-01

    There are many autoimmune liver diseases in which diagnosis is difficult so that overlap is accepted, and this negatively affects treatment. The initial diagnosis is therefore important for later treatment and convalescence. We distinguished autoimmune cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis by the Mahalanobis·Taguchi Adjoint (MTA) method in the Mahalanobis·Taguchi system and analyzed the pattern of factor effects by the MTA method. As a result, the characteristic factor effect pattern of each disease was classified, enabling the qualitative evaluation of cases including overlapping cases which were difficult to diagnose.

  4. Modulation of the Bioactive Conformation of Transforming Growth Factor β: Possible Implications of Cation Binding for Biological Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocharov, Eduard V.; Pavlov, Konstantin V.; Blommers, Marcel J. J.; Arvinte, Tudor; Arseniev, Alexander S.

    In any organism, very precisely adjusted interaction and exchange of information between cells is continuously required. These cooperative interactions involve numerous cytokines, acting through corresponding sets of cell-surface receptors. The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily includes a variety of structurally related multifunctional cytokines that play critical roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and controlling cell fate. Response of a cell to a specific signal it receives should depend upon the current state of the environment, including concentrations of biologically relevant ions. One of the most biologically active ions, calcium, acts upon a specific calcium signaling system that operates over a wide temporal range and regulates many cellular processes in continuous “cross-talk” with the TGF-β signaling system. In addition to that, the structural and dynamical properties of TGF-β molecules, along with detected direct interaction of them with the biologically relevant cations suggest another level of fine regulation of TGF-β activity. The fact that both mono- and divalent cations bind in the same low-affinity sites implies that some competition of cations for interaction with TGF-β can also occur in vivo, contributing to the diversity of TGF-β biological functions.

  5. [Biological, chemical, and radiation factors in the classification of medical waste].

    PubMed

    Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Kadyrov, D E

    2011-01-01

    The current classification of medical waste does not consider the sanitary-and-chemical hazard of epidemiologically dangerous and extremely dangerous medical waste (classes B and C). According to the results of the studies performed, the authors propose the improved classification of medical waste, which makes it possible to take into account not only infectious, radiation, and toxicological, but also sanitary-and-chemical hazards (toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and biological activity) of medical waste. PMID:21901883

  6. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong: Key Findings from a Large-Scale Survey Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Wong, Ping Man

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper was to examine key hindering and facilitating factors in schools during the first stage of the curriculum reform (2001-2006) in Hong Kong and to identify key strategies to address these challenges. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 150 primary and 120 secondary schools with 7,869 key stakeholders…

  7. Test Anxiety and the Validity of Cognitive Tests: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Perspective and Some Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Scholten, Annemarie Zand

    2010-01-01

    The validity of cognitive ability tests is often interpreted solely as a function of the cognitive abilities that these tests are supposed to measure, but other factors may be at play. The effects of test anxiety on the criterion related validity (CRV) of tests was the topic of a recent study by Reeve, Heggestad, and Lievens (2009) (Reeve, C. L.,…

  8. Is Low Self-Esteem a Risk Factor for Depression? Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Mexican-Origin Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relation between low self-esteem and depression using longitudinal data from a sample of 674 Mexican-origin early adolescents who were assessed at age 10 and 12 years. Results supported the vulnerability model, which states that low self-esteem is a prospective risk factor for depression. Moreover, results suggested that the…

  9. Incidences of obesity and extreme obesity among US adults: findings from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background No recent national studies have provided incidence data for obesity, nor have they examined the association between incidence and selected risk factors. The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m2) among US adults and to determine variations across socio-demographic characteristics and behavioral factors. Methods We used a weighted sample of 401,587 US adults from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Incidence calculations were based on respondent's height and current and previous weights. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between incidence and selected socio-demographic characteristics and behavioral factors. Results The overall crude incidences of obesity and extreme obesity in 2009 were 4% and 0.7% per year, respectively. In our multivariable analyses that controlled for baseline body mass index, the incidences of obesity and extreme obesity decreased significantly with increasing levels of education. Incidences were significantly higher among young adults, women, and adults who did not participate in any leisure-time physical activity. Incidence was lowest among non-Hispanic whites. Conclusions The high incidence of obesity underscores the importance of implementing effective policy and environmental strategies in the general population. Given the significant variations in incidence within the subgroups, public health officials should prioritize younger adults, women, minorities, and adults with lower education as the targets for these efforts. PMID:22004984

  10. 50 CFR 23.62 - What factors are considered in making a finding of not for primarily commercial purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Factors Considered in Making Certain... satisfied that the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes. Trade in Appendix-I...

  11. 50 CFR 23.64 - What factors are considered in making a finding that a plant is artificially propagated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Factors Considered in Making Certain... survival of the species in the wild, and allowing trade in such specimens has a positive effect on...

  12. 50 CFR 23.62 - What factors are considered in making a finding of not for primarily commercial purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Factors Considered in Making Certain... satisfied that the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes. Trade in Appendix-I...

  13. 50 CFR 23.62 - What factors are considered in making a finding of not for primarily commercial purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Factors Considered in Making Certain... satisfied that the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes. Trade in Appendix-I...

  14. 50 CFR 23.64 - What factors are considered in making a finding that a plant is artificially propagated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Factors Considered in Making Certain... survival of the species in the wild, and allowing trade in such specimens has a positive effect on...

  15. 50 CFR 23.62 - What factors are considered in making a finding of not for primarily commercial purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Factors Considered in Making Certain... satisfied that the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes. Trade in Appendix-I...

  16. 50 CFR 23.64 - What factors are considered in making a finding that a plant is artificially propagated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Factors Considered in Making Certain... survival of the species in the wild, and allowing trade in such specimens has a positive effect on...

  17. 50 CFR 23.64 - What factors are considered in making a finding that a plant is artificially propagated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Factors Considered in Making Certain... survival of the species in the wild, and allowing trade in such specimens has a positive effect on...

  18. 50 CFR 23.64 - What factors are considered in making a finding that a plant is artificially propagated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Factors Considered in Making Certain... survival of the species in the wild, and allowing trade in such specimens has a positive effect on...

  19. Critical factors of the vacuum-oven technique which influence the estimation of moisture in veterinary biologics.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, J R

    1976-10-01

    When striving toward standardization of lyophilized products, it is often difficult to correlate biological characteristics and residual-moisture content because of the great variety of assay procedures being used to estimate residual moisture. Even when moisture assays are performed according to the same general assay procedure, there are often subtle differences that cause large variations in results. Critical factors of the vacuum-oven technique such as: homogeneity and number of samples, size of samples, moisture adsorption of dry weighing dishes, efficacy of disiccator jars, influence of ambient conditions, controlling time-sequence of the test, tolerances of the test, etc. are discussed and data presented to demonstrate how some of these factors can strongly influence the results of the assay. The validity of the assay and the subsequent judgement about the quality of the final product are greatly dependent upon how well these factors are controlled. PMID:198320

  20. Factors considered by medical students when formulating their specialty preferences in Japan: findings from a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Saigal, Priya; Takemura, Yousuke; Nishiue, Takashi; Fetters, Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Background Little research addresses how medical students develop their choice of specialty training in Japan. The purpose of this research was to elucidate factors considered by Japanese medical students when formulating their specialty choice. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with 25 Japanese medical students regarding factors influencing specialty preference and their views on roles of primary versus specialty care. We qualitatively analyzed the data to identify factors students consider when developing specialty preferences, to understand their views about primary and subspecialty care, and to construct models depicting the pathways to specialization. Results Students mention factors such as illness in self or close others, respect for family member in the profession, preclinical experiences in the curriculum such as labs and dissection, and aspects of patient care such as the clinical atmosphere, charismatic role models, and doctor-patient communication as influential on their specialty preferences. Participating students could generally distinguish between subspecialty care and primary care, but not primary care and family medicine. Our analysis yields a "Two Career" model depicting how medical graduates can first train for hospital-based specialty practice, and then switch to mixed primary/specialty care outpatient practice years later without any requirement for systematic training in principles of primary care practice. Conclusion Preclinical and clinical experiences as well as role models are reported by Japanese students as influential factors when formulating their specialty preferences. Student understanding of family medicine as a discipline is low in Japan. Students with ultimate aspirations to practice outpatient primary care medicine do not need to commit to systematic primary care training after graduation. The Two Career model of specialization leaves the door open for medical graduates to enter primary care practice at anytime

  1. Biological factors in plasma from diabetes mellitus patients enhance hyperglycaemia and pulsatile shear stress-induced endothelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, X F; Yu, J Q; Dalan, R; Liu, A Q; Luo, K Q

    2014-05-01

    People suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM) are prone to an array of vascular complications leading to end organ damage. The hallmark of these vascular complications is endothelium dysfunction, which is caused by endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. Although the endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction induced by hyperglycaemia and fluid shear stress has been studied, the effects of biological factors in the blood of DM patients on EC integrity have not been reported in the in vitro models that mimic the physiological pulsatile nature of the vascular system. This study reports the development of a hemodynamic lab-on-a-chip system to investigate this issue. The pulsatile flow was applied to a monolayer of endothelial cells expressing a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor that changes colour from green to blue in response to caspase-3 activation during apoptosis. Plasma samples from healthy volunteers and DM patients were compared to identify biological factors that are critical to endothelial disruption. Three types of microchannels were designed to simulate the blood vessels under healthy and partially blocked pathological conditions. The results showed that EC apoptosis rates increased with increasing glucose concentration and levels of shear stress. The rates of apoptosis further increased by a factor of 1.4-2.3 for hyperglycaemic plasma under all dynamic conditions. Under static conditions, little difference was detected in the rate of EC apoptosis between experiments using plasma from DM patients and glucose medium, suggesting that the effects of hyperglycaemia and biological factors on the induction of EC apoptosis are all shear flow-dependent. A proteomics study was then conducted to identify biological factors, demonstrating that the levels of eight proteins, including haptoglobin and clusterin, were significantly down-regulated, while six proteins, including apolipoprotein C-III, were significantly up-regulated in the plasma of DM patients

  2. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970: Description of individual studies, data files, codes, and summaries of significant findings

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Fox, C.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance. Also retained were the survival data from studies performed in the period 1943-1953 at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. The card-image data files have been corrected where necessary and refiled on hard disks for long-term storage and ease of accessibility. In this report, the individual studies and data files are described, and pertinent factors regarding caging, husbandry, radiation procedures, choice of animals, and other logistical details are summarized. Some of the findings are also presented. Descriptions of the different mouse stocks and hybrids are included in an appendix; more than three dozen stocks were involved in these studies. Two other appendices detail the data files in their original card-image format and the numerical codes used to describe the animal`s exit from an experiment and, for some studies, any associated pathologic findings. Tabular summaries of sample sizes, dose levels, and other variables are also given to assist investigators in their selection of data for analysis. The archive is open to any investigator with legitimate interests and a willingness to collaborate and acknowledge the source of the data and to recognize appropriate conditions or caveats.

  3. Rates of, and risk factors for, severe infections in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases receiving biological agents off-label

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this observational study was to analyze the rates, characteristics and associated risk factors of severe infections in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD) who were treated off-label with biological agents in daily practice. Methods The BIOGEAS registry is an ongoing Spanish prospective cohort study investigating the long-term safety and efficacy of the off-label use of biological agents in adult patients with severe, refractory SAD. Severe infections were defined according to previous studies as those that required intravenous treatment or that led to hospitalization or death. Patients contributed person-years of follow-up for the period in which they were treated with biological agents. Results A total of 344 patients with SAD treated with biological agents off-label were included in the Registry until July 2010. The first biological therapies included rituximab in 264 (77%) patients, infliximab in 37 (11%), etanercept in 21 (6%), adalimumab in 19 (5%), and 'other' agents in 3 (1%). Forty-five severe infections occurred in 37 patients after a mean follow-up of 26.76 months. These infections resulted in four deaths. The crude rate of severe infections was 90.9 events/1000 person-years (112.5 for rituximab, 76.9 for infliximab, 66.9 for adalimumab and 30.5 for etanercept respectively). In patients treated with more than two courses of rituximab, the crude rate of severe infection was 226.4 events/1000 person-years. A pathogen was identified in 24 (53%) severe infections. The most common sites of severe infection were the lower respiratory tract (39%), bacteremia/sepsis (20%) and the urinary tract (16%). There were no significant differences relating to gender, SAD, agent, other previous therapies, number of previous immunosuppressive agents received or other therapies administered concomitantly. Cox regression analysis showed that age (P = 0.015) was independently associated with an increased risk of severe infection

  4. Clinical factors associated with statins prescription in acute ischemic stroke patients: findings from the Lombardia Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Statins, due to their well-established pleiotropic effects, have noteworthy benefits in stroke prevention. Despite this, a significant proportion of high-risk patients still do not receive the recommended therapeutic regimens, and many others discontinue treatment after being started on them. The causes of non-adherence to current guidelines are multifactorial, and depend on both physicians and patients. The aim of this study is to identify the factors influencing statin prescription at Stroke Unit (SU) discharge. Methods This study included 12,750 patients enrolled on the web-based Lombardia Stroke Registry (LRS) from July 2009 to April 2012 and discharged alive, with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and without contra-indication to statin therapy. By logistic regression analysis and classification trees, we evaluated the impact of demographic data, risk factors, tPA treatment, in-hospital procedures and complications on statin prescription rate at discharge. Results We observed a slight increase in statins prescription during the study period (from 39.1 to 43.9%). Lower age, lower stroke severity and prestroke disability, the presence of atherothrombotic/lacunar risk factors, a diagnosis of non-cardioembolic stroke, tPA treatment, the absence of in-hospital complications, with the sole exception of hypertensive fits and hyperglycemia, were the patient-related predictors of adherence to guidelines by physicians. Overall, dyslipidemia appears as the leading factor, while TOAST classification does not reach statistical significance. Conclusions In our region, Lombardia, adherence to guidelines in statin prescription at Stroke Unit discharge is very different from international goals. The presence of dyslipidemia remains the main factor influencing statin prescription, while the presence of well-defined atherosclerotic etiopathogenesis of stroke does not enhance statin prescription. Some uncertainties about the risk

  5. The Epidemiology of Hypertension in Uganda: Findings from the National Non-Communicable Diseases Risk Factor Survey

    PubMed Central

    Guwatudde, David; Mutungi, Gerald; Wesonga, Ronald; Kajjura, Richard; Kasule, Hafisa; Muwonge, James; Ssenono, Vincent; Bahendeka, Silver K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is an important contributor to global burden of disease and mortality, and is a growing public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. However, most sub-Saharan African countries lack detailed countrywide data on hypertension and other non-communicable diseases (NCD) risk factors that would provide benchmark information for design of appropriate interventions. We analyzed blood pressure data from Uganda’s nationwide NCD risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to describe the prevalence and distribution of hypertension in the Ugandan population, and to identify the associated factors. Methods The NCD risk factor survey drew a countrywide sample stratified by the four regions of the country, and with separate estimates for rural and urban areas. The World Health Organization’s STEPs tool was used to collect data on demographic and behavioral characteristics, and physical and biochemical measurements. Prevalence rate ratios (PRR) using modified Poison regression modelling was used to identify factors associated with hypertension. Results Of the 3906 participants, 1033 were classified as hypertensive, giving an overall prevalence of 26.4%. Prevalence was highest in the central region at 28.5%, followed by the eastern region at 26.4%, western region at 26.3%, and northern region at 23.3%. Prevalence in urban areas was 28.9%, and 25.8% in rural areas. The differences between regions, and between rural-urban areas were not statistically significant. Only 7.7% of participants with hypertension were aware of their high blood pressure. The prevalence of pre-hypertension was also high at 36.9%. The only modifiable factor found to be associated with hypertension was higher body mass index (BMI). Compared to participants with BMI less than 25 kg/m2, prevalence was significantly higher among participants with BMI between 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 with an adjusted PRR = 1.46 [95% CI = 1.25–1.71], and even higher among obese participants (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) with an

  6. Mechanistic and biological significance of DNA methyltransferase 1 upregulated by growth factors in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qin-Liang; Yin, Yi-Rui; Xie, Cheng-Rong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Wen-Xiu; Pan, Chao; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yin, Zhen-Yu

    2015-02-01

    Dysregulation of growth factor signaling plays a pivotal role in controlling the malignancy phenotype and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the precise oncogenic mechanisms underlying transcription regulation of certain tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) by growth factors are poorly understood. In the present study, we report a novel insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) pathway that mediates de novo DNA methylation and TSG (such as DLC1 and CHD5) silencing by upregulation of the DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) via an AKT/β-transducin repeat-containing protein (βTrCP)-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in HCC. Analysis of DNA methylation in CpG islands of target genes revealed high co-localization of DNMT1 and DNMT3B on the promoters of TSGs associated with enhanced CpG hypermethylation. Our results point to a novel epigenetic mechanism for growth factor-mediated repression of TSG transcription that involves DNA methylation. PMID:25420499

  7. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk factor for skin cancer is exposure to sunlight (UV radiation), but there are also other risk ... the three most common types of skin cancer: Sunlight: Sunlight is a source of UV radiation. It's ...

  8. Factors confusing the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux: the role of allergic rhinitis and inter-rater variability of laryngeal findings.

    PubMed

    Eren, Erdem; Arslanoğlu, Seçil; Aktaş, Ayşe; Kopar, Aylin; Ciğer, Ejder; Önal, Kazım; Katılmiş, Hüseyin

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the inter-rater variability in assessment of laryngeal findings and whether diagnosing laryngopharyngeal reflux based on the laryngeal findings and history alone without considering allergic rhinitis leads to the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of laryngopharyngeal reflux. Patients with positive and negative skin prick tests were recruited from an allergy clinic in a tertiary teaching university hospital. All subjects completed the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) and underwent laryngeal examinations by three physicians blinded to the skin prick test results and the Reflux Finding Score (RFS) was determined. RFS >7 or RSI >13 was considered reflux positive. Fleiss' kappa (κ) was used to measure inter-rater agreement. The inter-rater agreement was low for pseudosulcus vocalis (κ = 0.078), ventricular obliteration (κ = 0.206), diffuse laryngeal edema (κ = 0.204), and posterior laryngeal hypertrophy (κ = 0.27), intermediate for laryngeal erythema/hyperemia (κ = 0.42) and vocal fold edema (κ = 0.42), and high for thick endolaryngeal mucus (κ = 0.61). Although the frequency of allergy was high, there was no significant difference between allergy-positive and laryngopharyngeal reflux-positive patients. On logistic regression analysis, thick endolaryngeal mucus was a significant predictor of allergy (p = 0.012, odds ratio 0.264, 95 % confidence interval 0.093-0.74). The laryngeal examination for reflux is subject to marked inter-rater variability and allergic laryngitis was not misdiagnosed as laryngopharyngeal reflux. The presence of thick endolaryngeal mucus should alert physicians to the possibility of allergic rhinitis/laryngitis.

  9. Humic substances biological activity at the plant-soil interface: from environmental aspects to molecular factors.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Sara; Francioso, Ornella; Quaggiotti, Silvia; Nardi, Serenella

    2010-06-01

    Humic substances (HS) represent the organic material mainly widespread in nature. HS have positive effects on plant physiology by improving soil structure and fertility and by influencing nutrient uptake and root architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these events are only partially known. HS have been shown to contain auxin and an "auxin-like" activity of humic substances has been proposed, but support to this hypothesis is fragmentary. In this review article, we are giving an overview of available data concerning molecular structures and biological activities of humic substances, with special emphasis on their hormone-like activities. PMID:20495384

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with irritable bowel syndrome among university students in Lebanon: Findings from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Costanian, Christy; Tamim, Hala; Assaad, Shafika

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe the bowel habits and the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to investigate the influence of health behavior and social factors on IBS prevalence in university students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at five major universities in Greater Beirut and its suburbs, between February and June 2014. Using a convenience sample, a total of 813 students aged 18 years old and above participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete a comprehensive anonymous questionnaire which detailed characteristics on socio-demographic, health-related, and lifestyle factors, as well as IBS. The ROME III criteria were used as a tool to ascertain IBS. A χ2 test was used to determine differences between categorical variables; stepwise logistic regression was used to measure the association between IBS and its risk factors. RESULTS: An overall prevalence of IBS of 20% was recorded among university students. The bivariate analysis showed that females were significantly more likely to report having IBS than males (29.1% vs 18.2%, P < 0.01). Those living at the school dormitory or in a private residence (39.5%) were more likely to have IBS than those living with their families (16.3%) (P < 0.01). The multivariate analysis showed that those who had a relatively high family income level (US$ > 2000) were almost 6 times more likely to report having IBS than their counterparts. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to describe the nature of IBS among young adults in Lebanon. The prevalence of IBS among university students in our sample was higher than that reported in the West. PMID:25834330

  11. Predictive power of individual factors and clinical learning experience on academic success: findings from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dante, Angelo; Fabris, Stefano; Palese, Alvisa

    2015-01-01

    Academic failure is the inability of a nursing student to graduate or to complete the nursing degree on time. This longitudinal cohort study, involving 2 Italian universities, documents the effects of selected individual variables and the quality of the clinical learning experience as perceived by students on academic success. Factors related to the clinical learning experience were the quality of the supervisory relationship, pedagogical atmosphere, and commitment of the ward related to the level of personalized nursing care delivered and clarity of nursing documentation. PMID:25643319

  12. The epidermal growth factor receptors as biological targets in penile cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Ferro, Matteo; Calderoni, Giuseppe; Bozza, Giovanni; Federico, Piera; Tedesco, Beatrice; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Aieta, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Penile cancer is a rare disease, with an incidence that is higher in less developed countries and is in the range of 1 - 10 per 100000 men worldwide. Early diagnosis is essential for cure, as 5 year cancer-specific survival is 90 - 100 % in patients with intraepithelial neoplasms and in those with low-grade superficial tumors without lymphovascular invasion, but it drops to 30% in men with multiple mobile or bilateral inguinal lymph nodes. The EGFR family plays a major role in penile cancer biology, with distinct receptors being involved in HPV-positive and -negative tumors. A number of anti-EGFR agents were used in penile cancer patients outside the context of a clinical trial, mainly as a salvage treatment after failure of first-line chemotherapy. A total of 28 patients received anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, with 50% of them showing a response to treatment, and a median PFS of ∼ 3 months. The rarity of the disease poses great challenge in terms of education and awareness of the general population, planning of preventive measures on a large scale, as well as conduction of prospective trials and approval of high-cost biological therapy. PMID:25496291

  13. In Between or in the Middle of Everything — How to Find the Pathway for a Small Department Library During Multiple Internal and External Change Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerholt, L. N.; Christensen, A.

    2010-10-01

    The Astrophysics Library is one of the smallest libraries at the University of Oslo, serving 10 masters students and approximately 50 academic employees at the Department of Theoretical Astrophysics. But the small size does not reduce the pressure on the institution when it comes to internal and external change factors. Change factors are understood as circumstances which influence the department library, but are outside the control of normal library routines.In this paper we explore these change factors and try to establish a strategy to find our "path" for the future. We find that internal change factors are quite easily handled, given enough time and proper funding, while the nature of external change factors makes it harder to decide on a future course.To illustrate the pressure exerted on the department library we give a brief summation of the challenges we have met regarding internal and external change factors. Our experiences indicate that we should establish closer cooperation with the academic staff and students, and also call for an improved communication strategy towards other institutions such as the Museum of University History as well as the National Library of Norway. We explore new forms of communication and suggest developing these in collaboration with the academic staff.

  14. Interleukin-6 Is a Risk Factor for Atrial Fibrillation in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Amdur, Richard L.; Mukherjee, Monica; Go, Alan; Barrows, Ian R.; Ramezani, Ali; Shoji, Jun; Reilly, Muredach P.; Gnanaraj, Joseph; Deo, Raj; Roas, Sylvia; Keane, Martin; Master, Steve; Teal, Valerie; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Yang, Peter; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W.; Tracy, Cynthia M.; Raj, Dominic S.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we examined the association between inflammation and AF in 3,762 adults with CKD, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. AF was determined at baseline by self-report and electrocardiogram (ECG). Plasma concentrations of interleukin(IL)-1, IL-1 Receptor antagonist, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor-β, high sensitivity C-Reactive protein, and fibrinogen, measured at baseline. At baseline, 642 subjects had history of AF, but only 44 had AF in ECG recording. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, 108 subjects developed new-onset AF. There was no significant association between inflammatory biomarkers and past history of AF. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, laboratory values, echocardiographic variables, and medication use, plasma IL-6 level was significantly associated with presence of AF at baseline (Odds ratio [OR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 2.14; P = 0.001) and new-onset AF (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.53; P = 0.03). To summarize, plasma IL-6 level is an independent and consistent predictor of AF in patients with CKD. PMID:26840403

  15. Interleukin-6 Is a Risk Factor for Atrial Fibrillation in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the CRIC Study.

    PubMed

    Amdur, Richard L; Mukherjee, Monica; Go, Alan; Barrows, Ian R; Ramezani, Ali; Shoji, Jun; Reilly, Muredach P; Gnanaraj, Joseph; Deo, Raj; Roas, Sylvia; Keane, Martin; Master, Steve; Teal, Valerie; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Yang, Peter; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W; Tracy, Cynthia M; Raj, Dominic S

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we examined the association between inflammation and AF in 3,762 adults with CKD, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. AF was determined at baseline by self-report and electrocardiogram (ECG). Plasma concentrations of interleukin(IL)-1, IL-1 Receptor antagonist, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor-β, high sensitivity C-Reactive protein, and fibrinogen, measured at baseline. At baseline, 642 subjects had history of AF, but only 44 had AF in ECG recording. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, 108 subjects developed new-onset AF. There was no significant association between inflammatory biomarkers and past history of AF. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, laboratory values, echocardiographic variables, and medication use, plasma IL-6 level was significantly associated with presence of AF at baseline (Odds ratio [OR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 2.14; P = 0.001) and new-onset AF (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.53; P = 0.03). To summarize, plasma IL-6 level is an independent and consistent predictor of AF in patients with CKD.

  16. Risk Factors for Long-Term Homelessness: Findings From a Longitudinal Study of First-Time Homeless Single Adults

    PubMed Central

    Caton, Carol L. M.; Dominguez, Boanerges; Schanzer, Bella; Hasin, Deborah S.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Felix, Alan; McQuistion, Hunter; Opler, Lewis A.; Hsu, Eustace

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined risk factors for long-term homelessness among newly homeless men and women who were admitted to New York City shelters in 2001 and 2002. Methods. Interviews were conducted with 377 study participants upon entry into the shelter and at 6-month intervals for 18 months. Standardized assessments of psychiatric diagnosis, symptoms, and coping skills; social and family history; and service use were analyzed. Kaplan—Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were used to examine the association between baseline assessments and duration of homelessness. Results. Eighty-one percent of participants returned to community housing during the follow-up period; the median duration of homelessness was 190 days. Kaplan—Meier survival analysis showed that a shorter duration of homelessness was associated with younger age, current or recent employment, earned income, good coping skills, adequate family support, absence of a substance abuse treatment history, and absence of an arrest history. Cox regression showed that older age group P<.05) and arrest history (P<.01) were the strongest predictors of a longer duration of homelessness. Conclusions. Identification of risk factors for long-term homelessness can guide efforts to reduce lengths of stay in homeless shelters and to develop new preventive interventions. PMID:16131638

  17. Common Virulence Factors and Tissue Targets of Entomopathogenic Bacteria for Biological Control of Lepidopteran Pests

    PubMed Central

    Castagnola, Anaïs; Stock, S. Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on common insecticidal virulence factors from entomopathogenic bacteria with special emphasis on two insect pathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus (Proteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae) and Bacillus (Firmicutes: Bacillaceae). Insect pathogenic bacteria of diverse taxonomic groups and phylogenetic origin have been shown to have striking similarities in the virulence factors they produce. It has been suggested that the detection of phage elements surrounding toxin genes, horizontal and lateral gene transfer events, and plasmid shuffling occurrences may be some of the reasons that virulence factor genes have so many analogs throughout the bacterial kingdom. Comparison of virulence factors of Photorhabdus, and Bacillus, two bacteria with dissimilar life styles opens the possibility of re-examining newly discovered toxins for novel tissue targets. For example, nematodes residing in the hemolymph may release bacteria with virulence factors targeting neurons or neuromuscular junctions. The first section of this review focuses on toxins and their context in agriculture. The second describes the mode of action of toxins from common entomopathogens and the third draws comparisons between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The fourth section reviews the implications of the nervous system in biocontrol. PMID:24634779

  18. [Effect of occupation on health behavior and biological cardiovascular risk factors].

    PubMed

    Hinnen, U; Dai, S; Marti, B; Hotz, P; Barazzoni, F

    1993-01-01

    Within the framework of the second survey of MONICA-Switzerland (cantons of Vaud and Fribourg; canton of Tessin), the data of 683 working men were analysed to examine the relation between occupation and cardiovascular risk factors. For this purpose, lifestyle factors (smoking, nutritional habits, physical activity, alcohol intake) as well as blood pressure and serum lipoprotein concentrations were compared among 17 different occupational groups. Furthermore, every occupational group was ranked, based on the medians of the mentioned dependent variables. A strong relationship between socioeconomic status (recorded as number of years of schooling completed) and an index for healthy lifestyle was found. However, in some occupational groups a major discrepancy between socioeconomic status respectively lifestyle and measured cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, lipoprotein concentrations) was observed. It is therefore hypothesized that unknown occupational factors adversely affect blood pressure and serum lipoproteins for example in physicians, managers and executives whereas the contrary--beneficial effect of unknown occupational factors--is true for example for drivers and bricklayers.

  19. Factors affecting the flight capacity of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a classical biological control agent of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Fahrner, Samuel J; Lelito, Jonathan P; Blaedow, Karen; Heimpel, George E; Aukema, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    The dispersal characteristics of a biological control agent can have direct implications on the ability of that agent to control populations of a target host. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a parasitic wasp native to eastern Asia that has been introduced into the United States as part of a classical biological control program against the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). We used computer-monitored flight mills to investigate the role of age, feeding status, mating status, and size on the flight capacity of female T. planipennisi over a 24-h period. We also compared flight capacity between sexes. Flight distance of female T. planipennisi representative of populations released in the biological control program averaged 1.26 km in 24 h with a maximum flight of just over 7 km. Median flight distance, however, was 422 m. The flight capacity of females fed a honey-water solution was 41× that of females provided only water, who flew very little. Larger females were capable of flying farther distances, but age did not affect the flight capacity of females up to 70 d posteclosion. Females dispersed 6× farther than did their smaller, male counterparts. The implications of our findings to host-parasitoid interactions and release protocols for distributing T. planipennisi are discussed. PMID:25479199

  20. Factors affecting the flight capacity of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a classical biological control agent of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Fahrner, Samuel J; Lelito, Jonathan P; Blaedow, Karen; Heimpel, George E; Aukema, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    The dispersal characteristics of a biological control agent can have direct implications on the ability of that agent to control populations of a target host. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a parasitic wasp native to eastern Asia that has been introduced into the United States as part of a classical biological control program against the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). We used computer-monitored flight mills to investigate the role of age, feeding status, mating status, and size on the flight capacity of female T. planipennisi over a 24-h period. We also compared flight capacity between sexes. Flight distance of female T. planipennisi representative of populations released in the biological control program averaged 1.26 km in 24 h with a maximum flight of just over 7 km. Median flight distance, however, was 422 m. The flight capacity of females fed a honey-water solution was 41× that of females provided only water, who flew very little. Larger females were capable of flying farther distances, but age did not affect the flight capacity of females up to 70 d posteclosion. Females dispersed 6× farther than did their smaller, male counterparts. The implications of our findings to host-parasitoid interactions and release protocols for distributing T. planipennisi are discussed.

  1. Alcohol use among adults in Uganda: findings from the countrywide non-communicable diseases risk factor cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Mutungi, Gerald; Wesonga, Ronald; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Guwatudde, David

    2016-01-01

    Background There are limited data on levels of alcohol use in most sub-Saharan African countries. Objective We analyzed data from Uganda's non-communicable diseases risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to identify alcohol use prevalence and associated factors. Design The survey used the World Health Organization STEPS tool to collect data, including the history of alcohol use. Alcohol users were categorized into low-, medium-, and high-end users. Participants were also classified as having an alcohol-use-related disorder if, over the past 12 months, they were unable to stop drinking alcohol once they had started drinking, and/or failed to do what was normally expected of them because of drinking alcohol, and/or needed an alcoholic drink first in the morning to get going after a heavy drinking session the night before. Weighted logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with medium- to high-end alcohol use. Results Of the 3,956 participants, 1,062 (26.8%) were current alcohol users, including 314 (7.9%) low-end, 246 (6.2%) medium-end, and 502 (12.7%) high-end users. A total of 386 (9.8%) were classified as having an alcohol-use-related disorder. Male participants were more likely to be medium- to high-end alcohol users compared to females; adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.34 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.88–2.91]. Compared to residents in eastern Uganda, participants in central and western Uganda were more likely to be medium- to high-end users; AOR=1.47 (95% CI=1.01–2.12) and AOR=1.89 (95% CI=1.31–2.72), respectively. Participants aged 30–49 years and those aged 50–69 years were more likely to be medium- to high-end alcohol users, compared to those aged 18–29 years, AOR=1.49 (95% CI=1.16–1.91) and AOR=2.08 (95% CI=1.52–2.84), respectively. Conclusions The level of alcohol use among adults in Uganda is high, and 9.8% of the adult population has an alcohol-use-related disorder. PMID:27491961

  2. High HIV Burden in Men Who Have Sex with Men across Colombia’s Largest Cities: Findings from an Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Mendoza, Martha Lucía; Jacobson, Jerry Owen; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Sierra Alarcón, Clara Ángela; Luque Núñez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Among Latin America’s concentrated HIV epidemics, little is known about men who have sex with men (MSM) in Colombia, the region’s third largest country. To date, surveillance studies have been limited to Bogota, while 80% of HIV cases and deaths originate from Colombia’s other cities and departments. The extent to which interventions should prioritize MSM outside of Bogota is unknown. Methods We recruited 2603 MSM using respondent-driven sampling from seven of Colombia’s largest cities. HIV prevalence was estimated by site from dried blood spot samples. Behavioral data were collected through face-to-face interviews and risk factors for HIV infection analyzed using weighted, multi-level logistical regression models accounting for recruitment patterns. Results Across cities, HIV prevalence averaged 15%, varied from 6% to 24% and was highest in Cali, Bogota, and Barranquilla. In the past 12 months, 65% of MSM had ≥ 5 casual male partners and 23% had a female partner. Across partnerships (i.e., casual, stable, and commercial), the proportion of MSM engaging in unprotected sex was ≥ 52% with male partners and ≥ 66% with female partners. Self-reported history of STI (24%) and past-year illicit drug use (38%) were also common. In multivariate analysis, age ≥ 35 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 19.2) and 25–39 (AOR, 5.6) relative to ≤ 18–24 years, identifying as homosexual relative to heterosexual (AOR 0.1), meeting casual partners on the Internet (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1) and age of sexual debut of ≤ 13 years (AOR, 3.1) predicted HIV infection. HIV testing and prevention messaging reached just 24% of MSM in the past year. Conclusions Findings support consistently elevated HIV burden among MSM throughout Colombia’s largest cities and a need for enhanced behavioral prevention and HIV testing, emphasizing men who use the Internet as well as physical venues to meet sex partners. PMID:26252496

  3. Clinical findings and risk factors to oral squamous cell carcinoma in young patients: A 12-year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Hellen-Bandeira-de-Pontes; dos Santos, Thayana-Karla-Guerra; Paz, Alexandre-Rolim; Cavalcanti, Yuri-Wanderley; Nonaka, Cassiano-Francisco-Weege; Godoy, Gustavo-Pina

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years have been observed an increased incidence of OSCC in young individuals. Based on this, the aim this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of all cases of OSCC in younger patients, diagnosed in two oncology referral hospitals, at the northeast region of Brazil within a 12-year period. Material and Methods Data regarding general characteristics of patients (age, gender and tobacco and/or alcohol habits) and information about the lesions (tumor location, size, regional lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and clinical stage) were submitted to descriptive and inferential analysis. Statistical analysis included Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests (P<0.05). Results Out of 2311 registered cases of OSCC, 76 (3.3%) corresponded to OSCC in patients under 45 years old. Most of them were male (n=62, 81.6%) and tobacco and/or alcohol users (n=40, 52.8%). The most frequent site was the tongue (n=31, 40.8%), with predominance of cases classified at advanced clinical stage (III and IV, n = 46, 60.5%). The advanced stage of OSCC (III and IV) was statistically associated with male gender (P=0.035), lower education level (P=0.007), intraoral site(P<0.001), presence of pain symptomatology (P=0.006), and consumption of tobacco and/or alcohol (P=0.001). Conclusions The profile of OSCC in young patients resembles to the commonly characteristics reported for overall population. The late diagnosis in young patients usually results in poor prognosis, associated with gender, harmful habits and tumor location. Although prevalence is low, stimulus to prevention and to early diagnosis should be addressed to young individuals exposed to risk factors. Key words:Squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck neoplasms, risk factors, young patients, prognosis. PMID:26827057

  4. Microarrays--new possibilities for detecting biological factors hazardous for humans and animals, and for use in environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Gryko, Romuald; Kocik, Janusz; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Chomiczewski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Both the known biological agents that cause infectious diseases, as well as modified (ABF-Advanced Biological Factors) or new, emerging agents pose a significant diagnostic problem using previously applied methods, both classical, as well as based on molecular biology methods. The latter, such as PCR and real-time PCR, have significant limitations, both quantitative (low capacity), and qualitative (limited number of targets). The article discusses the results of studies on using the microarray method for the identification of viruses (e.g. Orthopoxvirus group, noroviruses, influenza A and B viruses, rhino- and enteroviruses responsible for the FRI (Febrile Respiratory Illness), European bunyaviruses, and SARS-causing viruses), and bacteria (Mycobacterium spp., Yersinia spp., Campylobacter spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria meningitidis, Clostridium difficile , Helicobacter pylori), including multiple antibiotic-resistant strains. The method allows for the serotyping and genotyping of bacteria, and is useful in the diagnosis of genetically modified agents. It allows the testing of thousands of genes in one experiment. In addition to diagnosis, it is applicable for gene expression studies, analysis of the function of genes, microorganisms virulence, and allows the detection of even single mutations. The possibility of its operational application in epidemiological surveillance, and in the detection of disease outbreak agents is demonstrated.

  5. Microarrays--new possibilities for detecting biological factors hazardous for humans and animals, and for use in environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Gryko, Romuald; Kocik, Janusz; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Chomiczewski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Both the known biological agents that cause infectious diseases, as well as modified (ABF-Advanced Biological Factors) or new, emerging agents pose a significant diagnostic problem using previously applied methods, both classical, as well as based on molecular biology methods. The latter, such as PCR and real-time PCR, have significant limitations, both quantitative (low capacity), and qualitative (limited number of targets). The article discusses the results of studies on using the microarray method for the identification of viruses (e.g. Orthopoxvirus group, noroviruses, influenza A and B viruses, rhino- and enteroviruses responsible for the FRI (Febrile Respiratory Illness), European bunyaviruses, and SARS-causing viruses), and bacteria (Mycobacterium spp., Yersinia spp., Campylobacter spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria meningitidis, Clostridium difficile , Helicobacter pylori), including multiple antibiotic-resistant strains. The method allows for the serotyping and genotyping of bacteria, and is useful in the diagnosis of genetically modified agents. It allows the testing of thousands of genes in one experiment. In addition to diagnosis, it is applicable for gene expression studies, analysis of the function of genes, microorganisms virulence, and allows the detection of even single mutations. The possibility of its operational application in epidemiological surveillance, and in the detection of disease outbreak agents is demonstrated. PMID:27007515

  6. Chemical biology approach for the development of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) inhibitor LW6 as a potential anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Naik, Ravi; Han, Seunghyeon; Lee, Kyeong

    2015-09-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia has long been considered to be a driving force in tumor progression as well as a negative prognostic factor in human cancers. The discovery of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs), which mediate transcriptional responses to changes in oxygen levels, has renewed enthusiasm for drug discovery and the development of targeted therapies in this field. LW6 represents an important new class of small molecules that inhibit HIF-1; it has been major source for diverse lead compounds including HIF-1α inhibitors. Through a chemical biology approach, LW6-derived chemical probes were successfully utilized for the identification of the direct targeting of a protein in cancer. LW6 provides a valuable platform for the discovery and development of small molecule inhibitors of HIF-1α-dependent tumor progression, metabolic reprogramming, and angiogenesis.

  7. Multiple biological activities for two peptides derived from the nerve growth factor precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Dicou, Eleni . E-mail: dicou@ipmc.cnrs.fr

    2006-09-01

    ProNGF can be cleaved proteolytically at dibasic residues and liberates two other peptides beside NGF, LIP1 a 29 amino acid (aa) peptide and LIP2 a 38 aa peptide. These peptides were found present in the rat intestine and shown to induce rapid phosphorylation of the Trk receptor in cell lines. The present study describes several novel biological properties for these peptides. They exert an anti-proliferative effect on the mitogenic activity of estrogen and IGF in MCF-7 cells. They protect against in vivo induction of excitotoxic lesions by the glutamatergic analogue ibotenate injected into the developing mouse brain and against in vitro NMDA-induced cell death in primary neuronal cultures. They bind to murine microglial cells and induce phosphorylation of Akt. These results suggest a role for LIP1 and LIP2 in cell survival.

  8. Posttranscriptional Regulation of Splicing Factor SRSF1 and Its Role in Cancer Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Vânia; Jordan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, alternative splicing has been progressively recognized as a major mechanism regulating gene expression patterns in different tissues and disease states through the generation of multiple mRNAs from the same gene transcript. This process requires the joining of selected exons or usage of different pairs of splice sites and is regulated by gene-specific combinations of RNA-binding proteins. One archetypical splicing regulator is SRSF1, for which we review the molecular mechanisms and posttranscriptional modifications involved in its life cycle. These include alternative splicing of SRSF1 itself, regulatory protein phosphorylation events, and the role of nuclear versus cytoplasmic SRSF1 localization. In addition, we resume current knowledge on deregulated SRSF1 expression in tumors and describe SRSF1-regulated alternative transcripts with functional consequences for cancer cell biology at different stages of tumor development. PMID:26273603

  9. Time-series estimation of biological factors in optical diffusion tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, Simon; Kolehmainen, Ville; Kaipio, Jari P.; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Boas, David; Arridge, Simon R.

    2003-06-01

    We apply state space estimation techniques to the time-varying reconstruction problem in optical tomography. We develop a stochastic model for describing the evolution of quasi-sinusoidal medical signals such as the heartbeat, assuming these are represented as a known frequency with randomly varying amplitude and phase. We use the extended Kalman filter in combination with spatial regularization techniques to reconstruct images from highly under-determined time-series data. This system also naturally segments activity belonging to different biological processes. We present reconstructions of simulated data and of real data recorded from the human motor cortex (Franceschini et al 2000 Optics Express 6 49-57). It is argued that the application of these time-series techniques improves both the fidelity and temporal resolution of reconstruction in optical tomography.

  10. Mixing regime as a key factor to determine DON formation in drinking water biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Lu, Changqing; Li, Shuai; Gong, Song; Yuan, Shoujun; Yu, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) can act as precursor of nitrogenous disinfection by-products formed during chlorination disinfection. The performances of biological fluidized bed (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) and bio-ceramic filters (plug flow reactor, PFR) were compared in this study to investigate the influence of mixing regime on DON formation in drinking water treatment. In the shared influent, DON ranged from 0.71mgL(-1) to 1.20mgL(-1). The two biological fluidized bed reactors, named BFB1 (mechanical stirring) and BFB2 (air agitation), contained 0.12 and 0.19mgL(-1) DON in their effluents, respectively. Meanwhile, the bio-ceramic reactors, labeled as BCF1 (no aeration) and BCF2 (with aeration), had 1.02 and 0.81mgL(-1) DON in their effluents, respectively. Comparative results showed that the CSTR mixing regime significantly reduced DON formation. This particular reduction was further investigated in this study. The viable/total microbial biomass was determined with propidium monoazide quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) and qPCR, respectively. The results of the investigation demonstrated that the microbes in BFB2 had higher viability than those in BCF2. The viable bacteria decreased more sharply than the total bacteria along the media depth in BCF2, and DON in BCF2 accumulated in the deeper media. These phenomena suggested that mixing regime determined DON formation by influencing the distribution of viable, total biomass, and ratio of viable biomass to total biomass.

  11. Mixing regime as a key factor to determine DON formation in drinking water biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Lu, Changqing; Li, Shuai; Gong, Song; Yuan, Shoujun; Yu, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) can act as precursor of nitrogenous disinfection by-products formed during chlorination disinfection. The performances of biological fluidized bed (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) and bio-ceramic filters (plug flow reactor, PFR) were compared in this study to investigate the influence of mixing regime on DON formation in drinking water treatment. In the shared influent, DON ranged from 0.71mgL(-1) to 1.20mgL(-1). The two biological fluidized bed reactors, named BFB1 (mechanical stirring) and BFB2 (air agitation), contained 0.12 and 0.19mgL(-1) DON in their effluents, respectively. Meanwhile, the bio-ceramic reactors, labeled as BCF1 (no aeration) and BCF2 (with aeration), had 1.02 and 0.81mgL(-1) DON in their effluents, respectively. Comparative results showed that the CSTR mixing regime significantly reduced DON formation. This particular reduction was further investigated in this study. The viable/total microbial biomass was determined with propidium monoazide quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) and qPCR, respectively. The results of the investigation demonstrated that the microbes in BFB2 had higher viability than those in BCF2. The viable bacteria decreased more sharply than the total bacteria along the media depth in BCF2, and DON in BCF2 accumulated in the deeper media. These phenomena suggested that mixing regime determined DON formation by influencing the distribution of viable, total biomass, and ratio of viable biomass to total biomass. PMID:25585870

  12. Structural Biology of Tumor Necrosis Factor Demonstrated for Undergraduates Instruction by Computer Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Urmi

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a three-dimensional (3D) modeling exercise for undergraduate students in chemistry and health sciences disciplines, focusing on a protein-group linked to immune system regulation. Specifically, the exercise involves molecular modeling and structural analysis of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) proteins, both wild type and mutant. The…

  13. Who Should Mark What? A Study of Factors Affecting Marking Accuracy in a Biology Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suto, Irenka; Nadas, Rita; Bell, John

    2011-01-01

    Accurate marking is crucial to the reliability and validity of public examinations, in England and internationally. Factors contributing to accuracy have been conceptualised as affecting either marking task demands or markers' personal expertise. The aim of this empirical study was to develop this conceptualisation through investigating the…

  14. Biological factors and age-dependence of primary motor cortex experimental plasticity.

    PubMed

    Polimanti, Renato; Simonelli, Ilaria; Zappasodi, Filippo; Ventriglia, Mariacarla; Pellicciari, Maria Concetta; Benussi, Luisa; Squitti, Rosanna; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Tecchio, Franca

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate whether the age-dependence of brain plasticity correlates with the levels of proteins involved in hormone and brain functions we executed a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol and blood tests. We measured the PAS-induced plasticity in the primary motor cortex. Blood levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), estradiol, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3, progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, and the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) were determined in 15 healthy men and 20 healthy women. We observed an age-related reduction of PAS-induced plasticity in females that it is not present in males. In females, PAS-induced plasticity displayed a correlation with testosterone (p = 0.006) that became a trend after the adjustment for the age effect (p = 0.078). In males, IGF-1 showed a nominally significant correlation with the PAS-induced plasticity (p = 0.043). In conclusion, we observed that hormone blood levels (testosterone in females and IGF-1 in males) may be involved in the age-dependence of brain plasticity.

  15. Peptic ulcer at the end of the 20th century: biological and psychological risk factors.

    PubMed

    Levenstein, S

    1999-11-01

    The prevailing concept of peptic ulcer etiology has swung over entirely in just a few years from the psychological to the infectious, yet the rich literature documenting an association between psychosocial factors and ulcer is not invalidated by the discovery of Helicobacter pylori. Physical and psychological stressors interact to induce ulcers in animal models, concrete life difficulties and subjective distress predict the development of ulcers in prospective cohorts, shared catastrophes such as war and earthquakes lead to surges in hospitalizations for complicated ulcers, and stress or anxiety can worsen ulcer course. Many known ulcer risk factors, including smoking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, heavy drinking, loss of sleep and skipping breakfast, can increase under stress; the association of low socioeconomic status with ulcer is also accounted for in part by psychosocial factors. Among possible physiological mechanisms, stress may induce gastric hypersecretion, reduce acid buffering in the stomach and the duodenum, impair gastroduodenal blood flow, and affect healing or inflammation through psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms. Psychosocial factors seem to be particularly prominent among idiopathic or complicated ulcers, but they are probably operative in run of the mill H pylori disease as well, either through additive effects or by facilitating the spread of the organism across the pylorus, while gastrointestinal damage by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can also be potentiated by stress. Although the clinical importance of peptic ulcer is fading along with the millennium, due to secular trends and new therapies, it remains worthy of study as a splendid example of the biopsychosocial model.

  16. Physical and biological factors influencing environmental sources of fecal indicator bacteria in surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the environmental populations of faecal indicator bacteria, and the processes by which these populations become nonpoint sources and influence nearshore water quality. The different possible sources of these indicator bacteria are presented. These include groundwater, springs and seeps, aquatic sediments, beach sand, birds, Cladophora and plant wrack. Also discussed are the environmental factors (moisture, sunlight, temperature and salinity) influencing their survival.

  17. Indoor Thermal Factors and Symptoms in Office Workers: Findings from the U.S. EPA BASE Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, Mark; Mirer, Anna

    2008-06-01

    Some prior research in office buildings has associated higher indoor temperatures even within the recommended thermal comfort range with increased worker symptoms. We reexamined this relationship in data from 95 office buildings in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study. We investigated relationships between building-related symptoms and thermal metrics constructed from real-time measurements. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95percent confidence intervals in adjusted logistic regression models with general estimating equations, overall and by season. Winter indoor temperatures spanned the recommended winter comfort range; summer temperatures were mostly colder than the recommended summer range. Increasing indoor temperatures, overall, were associated with increases in few symptoms. Higher winter indoor temperatures, however, were associated with increases in all symptoms analyzed. Higher summer temperatures, above 23oC, were associated with decreases in most symptoms. Humidity ratio, a metric of absolute humidity, showed few clear associations. Thus, increased symptoms with higher temperatures within the thermal comfort range were found only in winter. In summer, buildings were overcooled, and only the higher observed temperatures were within the comfort range; these were associated with decreased symptoms. Confirmation of these findings would suggest that thermal management guidelines consider health effects as well as comfort.

  18. Microbiological study of bacteriophage induction in the presence of chemical stress factors in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR).

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Bhattacharjee, Ananda S; Goel, Ramesh

    2015-09-15

    Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are responsible for carrying the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Although the EBPR process is well studied, the failure of EBPR performance at both laboratory and full-scale plants has revealed a lack of knowledge about the ecological and microbiological aspects of EBPR processes. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria as their sole host. Bacteriophage infection of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) has not been considered as a main contributor to biological phosphorus removal upsets. This study examined the effects of different stress factors on the dynamics of bacteriophages and the corresponding effects on the phosphorus removal performance in a lab-scale EBPR system. The results showed that copper (heavy metal), cyanide (toxic chemical), and ciprofloxacin (antibiotic), as three different anthropogenic stress factors, can induce phages integrated onto bacterial genomes (i.e. prophages) in an enriched EBPR sequencing batch reactor, resulting in a decrease in the polyphosphate kinase gene ppk1 clades copy number, phosphorus accumulation capacity, and phosphorus removal performance. This study opens opportunities for further research on the effects of bacteriophages in nutrient cycles both in controlled systems such as wastewater treatment plants and natural ecosystems.

  19. Microbiological study of bacteriophage induction in the presence of chemical stress factors in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR).

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Bhattacharjee, Ananda S; Goel, Ramesh

    2015-09-15

    Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are responsible for carrying the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Although the EBPR process is well studied, the failure of EBPR performance at both laboratory and full-scale plants has revealed a lack of knowledge about the ecological and microbiological aspects of EBPR processes. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria as their sole host. Bacteriophage infection of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) has not been considered as a main contributor to biological phosphorus removal upsets. This study examined the effects of different stress factors on the dynamics of bacteriophages and the corresponding effects on the phosphorus removal performance in a lab-scale EBPR system. The results showed that copper (heavy metal), cyanide (toxic chemical), and ciprofloxacin (antibiotic), as three different anthropogenic stress factors, can induce phages integrated onto bacterial genomes (i.e. prophages) in an enriched EBPR sequencing batch reactor, resulting in a decrease in the polyphosphate kinase gene ppk1 clades copy number, phosphorus accumulation capacity, and phosphorus removal performance. This study opens opportunities for further research on the effects of bacteriophages in nutrient cycles both in controlled systems such as wastewater treatment plants and natural ecosystems. PMID:26024959

  20. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Timor-Leste: findings from Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Vishnu; da Cruz, Jonia Lourenca Nunes Brites; Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2014-04-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 975 infants included in the study, overall 49% (95% confidence interval 45.4% to 52.7%) were exclusively breastfed. The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence declined with increasing infant age, from 68.0% at less than one month to 24.9% at five months. Increasing infant age, mothers with a paid occupation, who perceived their newborn as non-average size, and residence in the capital city Dili, were associated with a lower likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, women who could decide health-related matters tended to breastfeed exclusively, which was not the case for others whose decisions were made by someone else. The results suggested the need of breastfeeding promotion programs to improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Antenatal counseling, peer support network, and home visits by health workers could be feasible options to promote exclusive breastfeeding given that the majority of births occur at home. PMID:24756151

  1. Is Low Self-Esteem a Risk Factor for Depression? Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Mexican-Origin Youth

    PubMed Central

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relation between low self-esteem and depression using longitudinal data from a sample of 674 Mexican-origin early adolescents who were assessed at age 10 and 12 years. Results supported the vulnerability model, which states that low self-esteem is a prospective risk factor for depression. Moreover, results suggested that the vulnerability effect of low self-esteem is driven, for the most part, by general evaluations of worth (i.e., global self-esteem), rather than by domain-specific evaluations of academic competence, physical appearance, and competence in peer relationships. The only domain-specific self-evaluation that showed a prospective effect on depression was honesty–trustworthiness. The vulnerability effect of low self-esteem held for male and female adolescents, for adolescents born in the United States vs. Mexico, and across different levels of pubertal status. Finally, the vulnerability effect held when we controlled for several theoretically relevant third variables (i.e., social support, maternal depression, stressful events, and relational victimization), and for interactive effects between self-esteem and the third variables. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and depression and provides much needed data on the antecedents of depression in ethnic minority populations. PMID:23895172

  2. Sociodemographic differentials of selected noncommunicable diseases risk factors among adults in Matlab, Bangladesh: findings from a WHO STEPS survey.

    PubMed

    Razzaque, Abdur; Nahar, Lutfun; Abu Haider Mohammad Golam Mustafa; Karar Zunaid Ahsan; Mohammad Shafiqul Islam; Yunus, Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    The study examined noncommunicable diseases risk factors among adults 25 to 64 years old of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System using World Health Organization STEP-wise methodology. The prevalence of smoking was found to be very high for males (53.9%) and it increased initially with age, whereas smoking was almost nil for females (0.8%). About 30% each of males and females used smokeless tobacco and its consumption increased with age. Consumption of vegetable/fruit is very low in this population (90% below recommended level), whereas one third of males and two thirds of female have low levels of physical activities. The raised blood pressure was more prevalent among females than in males (21.0% vs 12.5%, respectively) and the same was true for being overweight (13.9% vs 10.3%, respectively). Raised blood pressure increased with age but overweight did not vary by age for males, whereas it increased initially for females. Smoking (males) and use of smokeless tobacco decreased with increase in education, but both blood pressure and overweight increased.

  3. Factors Associated with Exclusive Breastfeeding in Timor-Leste: Findings from Demographic and Health Survey 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Vishnu; da Cruz, Jonia Lourenca Nunes Brites; Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H.

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009–2010 were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 975 infants included in the study, overall 49% (95% confidence interval 45.4% to 52.7%) were exclusively breastfed. The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence declined with increasing infant age, from 68.0% at less than one month to 24.9% at five months. Increasing infant age, mothers with a paid occupation, who perceived their newborn as non-average size, and residence in the capital city Dili, were associated with a lower likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, women who could decide health-related matters tended to breastfeed exclusively, which was not the case for others whose decisions were made by someone else. The results suggested the need of breastfeeding promotion programs to improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Antenatal counseling, peer support network, and home visits by health workers could be feasible options to promote exclusive breastfeeding given that the majority of births occur at home. PMID:24756151

  4. Is low self-esteem a risk factor for depression? Findings from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F; Conger, Rand D

    2014-02-01

    We examined the relation between low self-esteem and depression using longitudinal data from a sample of 674 Mexican-origin early adolescents who were assessed at age 10 and 12 years. Results supported the vulnerability model, which states that low self-esteem is a prospective risk factor for depression. Moreover, results suggested that the vulnerability effect of low self-esteem is driven, for the most part, by general evaluations of worth (i.e., global self-esteem), rather than by domain-specific evaluations of academic competence, physical appearance, and competence in peer relationships. The only domain-specific self-evaluation that showed a prospective effect on depression was honesty-trustworthiness. The vulnerability effect of low self-esteem held for male and female adolescents, for adolescents born in the United States versus Mexico, and across different levels of pubertal status. Finally, the vulnerability effect held when we controlled for several theoretically relevant 3rd variables (i.e., social support, maternal depression, stressful events, and relational victimization) and for interactive effects between self-esteem and the 3rd variables. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and depression and provides much needed data on the antecedents of depression in ethnic minority populations. PMID:23895172

  5. Factors that predict financial sustainability of community coalitions: five years of findings from the PROSPER partnership project.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Johnson, Lesley E; Perkins, Daniel F; Welsh, Janet A; Spoth, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    This study is a longitudinal investigation of the Promoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) partnership model designed to evaluate the level of sustainability funding by community prevention teams, including which factors impact teams' generation of sustainable funding. Community teams were responsible for choosing, implementing with quality, and sustaining evidence-based programs (EBPs) intended to reduce substance misuse and promote positive youth and family development. Fourteen US rural communities and small towns were studied. Data were collected from PROSPER community team members (N = 164) and prevention coordinators (N = 10) over a 5-year period. Global and specific aspects of team functioning were assessed over six waves. Outcome measures were the total funds (cash and in-kind) raised to implement prevention programs. All 14 community teams were sustained for the first 5 years. However, there was substantial variability in the amount of funds raised, and these differences were predicted by earlier and concurrent team functioning and by team sustainability planning. Given the sufficient infrastructure and ongoing technical assistance provided by the PROSPER partnership model, local sustainability of EBPs is achievable.

  6. Tubal ligation regret and related risk factors: findings from a case-control study in Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Machado, Kátia Maria de Melo; Costa, Aurélio Molina da; Alves, Sandra Valongueiro; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de

    2009-06-01

    A case-control study was carried out at a public teaching hospital in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil in 1997 to investigate risk factors among women who feel regret after undergoing sterilization through tubal ligation. The study compared sterilized women who had requested or undergone a tubal reversal with women who were also sterilized but had not undergone this surgery, nor had requested to do so. Women showing a significantly greater probability of regret were those sterilized at a young age, those who had not themselves made the decision to undergo surgery , those for whom the sterilization was carried out up to the 45th day after childbirth and those who had acquired knowledge about contraceptive methods after the tubal ligation procedure. Having had a deceased child, a partner with no children prior to the current union or a change of partner after the tubal sterilization procedure were also associated to the request for or submission to tubal sterilization reversal. It is necessary to assess women's psycho-socio-demographic profiles, their reasons for requesting tubal ligation and to advise the patient about family planning in order to reduce rates of post-sterilization regret.

  7. Is low self-esteem a risk factor for depression? Findings from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F; Conger, Rand D

    2014-02-01

    We examined the relation between low self-esteem and depression using longitudinal data from a sample of 674 Mexican-origin early adolescents who were assessed at age 10 and 12 years. Results supported the vulnerability model, which states that low self-esteem is a prospective risk factor for depression. Moreover, results suggested that the vulnerability effect of low self-esteem is driven, for the most part, by general evaluations of worth (i.e., global self-esteem), rather than by domain-specific evaluations of academic competence, physical appearance, and competence in peer relationships. The only domain-specific self-evaluation that showed a prospective effect on depression was honesty-trustworthiness. The vulnerability effect of low self-esteem held for male and female adolescents, for adolescents born in the United States versus Mexico, and across different levels of pubertal status. Finally, the vulnerability effect held when we controlled for several theoretically relevant 3rd variables (i.e., social support, maternal depression, stressful events, and relational victimization) and for interactive effects between self-esteem and the 3rd variables. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and depression and provides much needed data on the antecedents of depression in ethnic minority populations.

  8. Clinical and biologic factors related to oral implant failure: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Moheng, Patrick; Feryn, Jean-Marc

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate urinary biomarkers of bone formation and resorption as predictive factors for oral implant failure, and to contribute to the knowledge of factors related to oral implant failure. A total of 93 patients between 18 and 85 years old, with an indication of oral implant, were eligible in this 2-year prospective, open, and nonrandomized study. Patients who had bone graft before implantation or presented with prosthetic difficulties (implant-to-crown ratio < 1, and/or unfavorable intermaxillary space) were excluded. All patients received either Frialit-2 (Friadent, Mannheim, Germany), cylinder, or screwed implants or IMZ Twin Plus (Friadent), cylinder implants, with FRIOS (Friadent) titanium coating. Serum osteocalcin, and urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline were measured, together with bone density at implant location. The primary endpoint (implant failure) was the implant removal (radiographic evidence of peri-implant bone loss and/or pockets). Factors related to implant failure were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression models to consider within-patient effects. Of the 93 patients included, 61% were female, and 16% were current smokers. A total of 266 oral implants were placed and analyzed, with a mean number of 3.1 implants by patient. Eleven and 15% of bone locations scored at D1 and D4, respectively, for the Misch bone density scoring. The majority of implants (72%) were placed more than 3 months after tooth extraction, using a Frialit-2 system in 73% of cases. The mean of osteocalcin was 17.3 (+/-9.4) ng/L; those of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline were 33.2 (+/-15.8) and 10.2 (+/-11.9) mmol per creatinine mmol, respectively. At one-year, 95.5% (95% confidence interval 92.5-97.5) of implants have not been removed. One year later, no further implant failed. In both univariate and multivariate analysis, osteocalcin, pyridinoline, and deoxypyridinoline were not significant predictive factors of oral implant

  9. Low Omega-3 Index in Pregnancy Is a Possible Biological Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Markhus, Maria Wik; Skotheim, Siv; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Frøyland, Livar; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Malde, Marian Kjellevold

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a common disorder affecting 10–15% women in the postpartum period. Postpartum depression can disrupt early mother-infant interaction, and constitutes a risk factor for early child development. Recently, attention has been drawn to the hypothesis that a low intake of seafood in pregnancy can be a risk factor for postpartum depression. Seafood is a unique dietary source of the marine omega-3 fatty acids and is a natural part of a healthy balanced diet that is especially important during pregnancy. Methods In a community based prospective cohort in a municipality in Western Norway, we investigated both nutritional and psychological risk factors for postpartum depression. The source population was all women who were pregnant within the period November 2009 - June 2011. The fatty acid status in red blood cells was assessed in the 28th gestation week and participants were screened for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) three months after delivery. The aim of the present study was to investigate if a low omega-3 index in pregnancy is a possible risk factor for postpartum depression. Results In a simple regression model, the omega-3 index was associated with the EPDS score in a nonlinear inverse manner with an R square of 19. Thus, the low omega-3 index explained 19% of the variance in the EPDS score. The DPA content, DHA content, omega-3 index, omega-3/omega-6 ratio, total HUFA score, and the omega-3 HUFA score were all inversely correlated with the EPDS score. The EPDS scores of participants in the lowest omega-3 index quartile were significantly different to the three other omega-3 index quartiles. Conclusion In this study population, a low omega-3 index in late pregnancy was associated with higher depression score three months postpartum. PMID:23844041

  10. Sex/Gender differences in tooth loss and edentulism: historical perspectives, biological factors, and sociologic reasons.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stefanie L; Gordon, Sara; Lukacs, John R; Kaste, Linda M

    2013-04-01

    This review highlights what is known regarding differences in tooth loss by sex/gender, and describes: gender-related tooth ablation (the deliberate removal of anterior teeth during life) found in skulls from history and prehistory; potential mediators of the relationship between sex/gender and tooth loss; the current epidemiology of gender differences in tooth loss (limited to North America); and risk factors for tooth loss in the general population and in women.

  11. Affinity of Drugs and Small Biologically Active Molecules to Carbon Nanotubes: A Pharmacodynamics and Nanotoxicity Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, John; Yang, Liu; Hopfinger, Anton J.

    2009-01-01

    The MM-PBSA MD method was used to estimate the affinity, as represented by log kb, of each of a variety of biologically active molecules to a carbon nanotube in an aqueous environment. These ligand-receptor binding simulations were calibrated by first estimating the log kb values for eight ligands to human serum albumin, HSA, whose log kb values have been observed. A validation linear correlation equation was established [R2 = 0.888 Q2 = 0.603] between the observed and estimated log kb values to HSA. This correlation equation was then used to re-scale all MM-PBSA MD log kb values using a carbon nanotube as the receptor. The log kb of the eight HSA ligands, nine polar and/or rigid ligands and six nonpolar and/or flexible ligands to a carbon nanotube were estimated. The range in re-scaled log kb values across this set of 23 ligands is 0.25 to 7.14, essentially seven orders of magnitude. Some ligands, like PGI2, bind in the log kb = 7 range which corresponds to the lower limits of known drugs. Thus, such significant levels of binding of biologically relevant compounds to carbon nanotubes might lead to alterations in the normal pharmacodynamic profiles of these compounds and be a source of toxicity. Ligand binding potency to a carbon nanotube is largely controlled by the shape, polarity/nonpolarity distribution and flexibility of the ligand. HSA ligands exhibit the most limited binding to a carbon nanotube, and they are relatively rigid and of generally spherical shape. Polar and/or rigid ligands bind less strongly to the carbon nanotube, on average, than nonpolar and/or flexible ligands even though the chosen members of both classes of ligands in this study have chain-like shapes that facilitate binding. The introduction of only a few strategically spaced single bonds in the polar and/or rigid ligands markedly increases their binding to a carbon nanotube. PMID:19281188

  12. Lack of Health Insurance Among Adults Aged 18 to 64 Years: Findings From the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guixiang; Dhingra, Satvinder S.; Xu, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of lack of health insurance among adults aged 18 to 64 years for each state and the United States and to describe populations without insurance. Methods We used 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to categorize states into 3 groups on the basis of the prevalence of lack of health insurance in each state compared with the national average (21.5%; 95% confidence interval, 21.1%–21.8%): high-insured states (states with an estimated prevalence of lack of health insurance below the national average), average-insured states (states with an estimated prevalence of lack of health insurance equivalent to the national average), and low-insured states (states with an estimated prevalence of lack of health insurance higher than the national average). We used bivariate analyses to compare the sociodemographic characteristics of these 3 groups after age adjustment to the 2000 US standard population. We examined the distribution of Medicaid expansion among the 3 groups. Results Compared with the national age-adjusted prevalence of lack of health insurance, 24 states had lower rates of uninsured residents, 12 states had equivalent rates of uninsured, and 15 states had higher rates of uninsured. Compared with adults in the high-insured and average-insured state groups, adults in the low-insured state group were more likely to be non-Hispanic black or Hispanic, to have less than a high school education, to be previously married (divorced, widowed, or separated), and to have an annual household income at or below $35,000. Seventy-one percent of high-insured states were expanding Medicaid eligibility compared with 67% of average-insured states and 40% of low-insured states. Conclusion Large variations exist among states in the estimated prevalence of health insurance. Many uninsured Americans reside in states that have opted out of Medicaid expansion. PMID:26719901

  13. [Determinant factors and conduct in post-accident with biological material among pre-hospital professionals].

    PubMed

    Paiva, Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira; Oliveira, Adriana Cristina

    2011-01-01

    This transversal study was carried out with a multiprofessional team in the pre-hospital care in Minas Gerais, Brazil. It aimed to estimate the incidence of occupational accidents by exposure to biological material and post-accidents conductsta. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used. Incidence of accidents was 19.8%: 39,1% perforating-cutting materials and 56.5% body fluids. Doctors (33.3%) and drivers (24.0%) were most involved. Inadequate subsequent measures were highly prevalent: no medical assessment (69.6%), no work accident communication issued (91.3%), no measures (52.2%) and no serological follow-up (52.2%). Variables associated with accidents were: age >31 years old (OR = 3,02; IC95%: 1,25 - 7,33; p = 0,014) and working in basic support units (OR = 5,36; IC95%: 1,51 19,08; p = 0,010). The implementation of post-accidents protocols is suggested in order to reduce accidents and under-notification, and increase post-accident follow-up.

  14. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

    2007-01-01

    Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions

  15. Health risk factors and the incidence of hypertension: 4-year prospective findings from a national cohort of 60 569 Thai Open University students

    PubMed Central

    Thawornchaisit, Prasutr; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Reid, Christopher M; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study evaluates the impact of a number of demographic, biological, behavioural and lifestyle health risk factors on the incidence of hypertension in Thailand over a 4-year period. Design A 4-year prospective study of health risk factors and their effects on the incidence of hypertension in a national Thai Cohort Study from 2005 to 2009. Setting As Thailand is transitioning from a developing to a middle-income developed country, chronic diseases (particularly cardiovascular disease) have emerged as major health issues. Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart attack and stroke and cross-sectional studies have indicated that the prevalence is increasing. Study participants A total of 57 558 Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University students who participated in both the 2005 and 2009 questionnaire surveys and who were normotensive in 2005 were included in the analysis. Measures Adjusted relative risks associating each risk factor and incidence of hypertension by sex, after controlling for confounders such as age, socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI) and underlying diseases. Results The overall 4-year incidence of hypertension was 3.5%, with the rate in men being remarkably higher than that in women (5.2% vs 2.1%). In both sexes, hypertension was associated with age, higher BMI and comorbidities but not with income and education. In men, hypertension was associated with physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and fast food intake. In women, hypertension was related to having a partner. Conclusions In both men and women, hypertension was strongly associated with age, obesity and comorbidities while it had no association with socioeconomic factors. The cohort patterns of socioeconomy and hypertension reflect that the health risk transition in Thais is likely to be at the middle stage. Diet and lifestyle factors associate with incidence of hypertension in Thais and may be amenable targets for hypertension control programmes. PMID:23801711

  16. Influence of Space-Flight Factors on the Properties of Microorganisms, Producers of Biologically Active Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikova, T. K.; Kanaeva, E. N.; Ukraintsev, A. D.; Smolyanaya, G. L.; Kuznetsov, N. V.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Shcherbakov, G. Ya.

    2001-07-01

    The following substances were isolated under the influence of space-flight factors in cosmic experiments aboard the Mirorbital station: an MIB-90 monoisolant, which is distinguished by its morphological and biochemical properties and enhanced productivity, was isolated from the Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Kurstaki var. Z-52culture, which is a producer of the plant protection agent Lepidocide; and MIA-74 and MIP-89 monoisolants, which are highly active toward heavy petroleum fractions (C23 C33), were isolated from the Arthrobacter OC-1culture, which is a producer of biodegradants for petroleum.

  17. Systems Biology Model of Interactions Between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFbeta and ATM Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, Peter; Anderson, Jennifer

    2014-10-02

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low and high LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to cross- talk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  18. Two Peptides Derived from the Nerve Growth Factor Precursor Are Biologically Active

    PubMed Central

    Dicou, Eleni; Pflug, Beth; Magazin, Marilyn; Lehy, Thérèse; Djakiew, Daniel; Ferrara, Pascual; Nerrière, Véronique; Harvie, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    This report provides evidence that the proregion of the NGF precursor protein contains two novel bioactive peptides. The presence of pairs of basic amino acid (aa) residues in the NGF proregion suggests that two or three peptides other than NGF may be generated by proteolytic cleavage. Synthetic peptides of 29 aa (LIP1) and 38aa (LIP2) corresponding to the sequences −71 to −43 and −40 to −3 of the proNGF, respectively, were used in this study. ELISA specific for these two peptides revealed their presence in the rat intestine. LIP1 was localized by immunohistochemistry in endocrine cells of the intestinal epithelium, and LIP2 was immunoprecipitated from an intestinal extract. We also provide evidence for the presence of specific receptors for LIP2 in several cell lines. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of a low affinity binding site with a Kd of ∼10−7 M and a high affinity binding site of 10−9 M. Cross-linking studies revealed receptor forms of about 140 kD and 93 kD in a prostatic adenocarcinoma cell line. LIP1 and LIP2 induced rapid F-actin redistribution in PC12 cells within 2 min of incubation, which suggests a role of LIP1 and LIP2 in the process of neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, both propeptides induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the Trk protein in both prostatic adenocarcinoma cells and PC12 cells, thus implicating trk in their mechanism of action. These results support our hypothesis that two peptides within the NGF precursor protein are biologically active. PMID:9015309

  19. Challenge of investigating biologically relevant functions of virulence factors in bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Moxon, R; Tang, C

    2000-01-01

    Recent innovations have increased enormously the opportunities for investigating the molecular basis of bacterial pathogenicity, including the availability of whole-genome sequences, techniques for identifying key virulence genes, and the use of microarrays and proteomics. These methods should provide powerful tools for analysing the patterns of gene expression and function required for investigating host-microbe interactions in vivo. But, the challenge is exacting. Pathogenicity is a complex phenotype and the reductionist approach does not adequately address the eclectic and variable outcomes of host-microbe interactions, including evolutionary dynamics and ecological factors. There are difficulties in distinguishing bacterial 'virulence' factors from the many determinants that are permissive for pathogenicity, for example those promoting general fitness. A further practical problem for some of the major bacterial pathogens is that there are no satisfactory animal models or experimental assays that adequately reflect the infection under investigation. In this review, we give a personal perspective on the challenge of characterizing how bacterial pathogens behave in vivo and discuss some of the methods that might be most relevant for understanding the molecular basis of the diseases for which they are responsible. Despite the powerful genomic, molecular, cellular and structural technologies available to us, we are still struggling to come to grips with the question of 'What is a pathogen?' PMID:10874737

  20. New biological potential of abietane diterpenoids isolated from Salvia austriaca against microbial virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Beata; Kuźma, Łukasz; Micota, Bartłomiej; Budzyńska, Aleksandra; Wysokińska, Halina; Kłys, Arkadiusz; Więckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Różalska, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    The increasing importance of multi-resistant strains and microbial biofilms in the development of chronic infections has driven the search for more effective alternative therapy including plant-origin preparations. The present study evaluates the broadly-defined antimicrobial activity of two abietane diterpenoids isolated from Salvia austriaca transformed roots: taxodone and 15-deoxy-fuerstione. The direct biostatic/biocidal effect of these phytocompounds and their influence on Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans virulence factors/mechanisms (adhesion, biofilm formation, agglutination in human plasma, survival in the blood, germ tube and mycelium formation) were tested using in vitro assays. Both phytocompounds significantly inhibited microbial adhesion and biofilm formation when used at ½ and ¼ MIC. Additionally, taxodone was able to limit staphylococcal survival in human blood, as well as C. albicans germ tube formation and hyphal growth. The tested diterpenoids express significant anti-biofilm activity against both staphylococci and yeast, and adversely affect their virulence factors/mechanisms, which are relevant in the course of the infection in vivo. Therefore, they demonstrate considerable biomedical potential as complements for classic therapy with antibiotics. PMID:27417191

  1. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein enhances the biologic response to IGF-I

    SciTech Connect

    Elgin, R.G.; Busby, H.W. Jr.; Clemmons, D.R.

    1987-05-01

    The insulin-like growth factors IGF-I and IGF-II circulate in blood bound to carrier proteins. The higher molecular mass IGF-binding protein complex (150 kDa) is composed of subunits, and one subunits that forms this complex is growth hormone dependent. In addition, many cell types and tissues secrete another form of IGF binding protein that is not growth hormone dependent. Both forms of the IGF binding protein are believed to inactivate the IGFs and to function as delivery systems to tissues. This conclusion was based on studies that determined the effects of impure preparations of these binding proteins or that examined the effect of these proteins only on the insulin-like actions of the IGFs. The authors report here that a pure preparation of the extracellular form of the IGF binding protein (purified from human amniotic fluid) markedly potentiated replication of several cell types in response to human IGF-I. Secondary cultures of human, mouse, and chicken embryo fibroblasts as well as porcine aortic smooth muscle cells showed marked enhancement of their DNA synthesis response to IGF-I in the presence of this protein. The binding protein not only potentiated the DNA synthesis response but also enhanced the increase in cell number in response to IGF-I. This stimulation is specific for growth factors that bind to the binding protein since incubation with insulin, which binds to the type I IGF receptor but not to the binding protein, did not result in potentiation of this response. They conclude that a form of IGF binding protein that is present in extracellular fluids and is secreted by many types of cells can markedly potentiate the cellular response to IGF-I.

  2. Role of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in gastric cancer: Biological and pharmacological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst

    2014-01-01

    Amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene and overexpression of the HER2 protein is found in 15%-20% of patients with gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer. The degree of HER2 overexpression and amplification varies with the location of the carcinoma, with higher expression in the gastroesophageal and proximal parts compared to the distal parts of the stomach. Further, HER2 overexpression and amplification also seems to be related to the Lauren histological classification, with higher levels found in the intestinal phenotype compared to the diffuse and mixed types. The prognostic properties of HER2 overexpression and amplification are still under debate, but a large number of studies seem to indicate that HER2 is a negative prognostic factor. The usefulness of HER2 targeted therapy in gastric cancer was demonstrated in the ToGA trial, where HER2-positive patients with advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma were randomized to receive 5-FU/capecitabine and cisplatin, either alone or in combination with trastuzumab. A statically significant gain in overall survival was seen in patients who received the combined treatment of trastuzumab and chemotherapy. Patients with a strong overexpression of the HER2 protein (IHC3+) specifically benefited from the treatment, with a median overall survival of 17.9 mo. As a consequence of the positive results of the ToGA trial, patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma are now routinely tested for HER2. The ToGA trial must be characterized as a landmark in the treatment of gastric cancer and it has paved the way for a number of new HER2 targeted compounds such as pertuzumab, ado-trastuzumab emtansine, lapatinib, afatinib, and dacomitinib, which are currently undergoing phase II and III clinical testing. Overall, this review will discuss the current status of HER2 in gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer and the future direction in

  3. Physicochemical characterisation of diesel exhaust particles: Factors for assessing biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérubé, K. A.; Jones, T. P.; Williamson, B. J.; Winters, C.; Morgan, A. J.; Richards, R. J.

    A range of microscopy and analytical techniques have been used to investigate the physicochemical properties of diluted DEP that may be important in determining its biological activity. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated four basic categories of particle morphology: (1) "spherulites" [individual particles]; (2) "chains" or "clusters" of spherulites; (3) "spherules", [large bodies of spherulites]; (4) "flake-like bodies". Image analysis of TEM photomicrographs determined empirical morphological parameters (30 nm mean spherulite diameter, aspect ratio 1.5, mean particle area 0.078 μm, equivalent spherical diameter 0.23 μm, roundness 2.76) and derived parameters (0.313 μm 2 surface area, 3.7 μm 2 pg surface area per mass and 0.042 μm 3 volume) of DEP. Distributions of the particle sizes by number showed 10.1% were ultrafine (<0.1 μm), 89.5% fine (0.1-2.0 μm), 0.4% coarse (>2.5 μm), but distributions based on a mass value were different (0.01% ultrafine; 52.6% fine, 47.4% coarse). In contrast, impacted DEP contained 60.87% ultrafine, 39.13% fine and 0% coarse particles by number. Field emission scanning electron microscopy of spherulites revealed smooth surfaces and flocculated spherules with large surface areas. Electron probe X-ray micro-analysis demonstrated the presence of C, O, Na, Mg, K, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ca along with a range of metals (Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr), that were heterogeneous in distribution. Inductively coupled plasma mass and atomic emission spectrometry identified Mg, P, Ca, Cr, Mn, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ba, Na, Fe, S, and Si as the mobile sorbed metals readily removed during sonication in water from DEP suspensions. X-ray Diffraction confirmed previous observations of the presence of nanometer sized crystallites of disordered graphite. Comparison of microscopy and analytical results between sonicated and impacted DEP revealed a physicochemical difference that must be taken into account in any toxicological investigations.

  4. Effects of an Educational Experience Incorporating an Inventory of Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Jason R.; Alters, Brian

    2011-12-01

    This investigation provides an extensive review of scientific, religious, and otherwise non-scientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution. We also measure the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following an educational experience designed to address an inclusive inventory of factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution (n = 81, pre-test/post-test) n = 37, one-year longitudinal). Acceptance of evolution was measured using the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic programme during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than initial levels both immediately following and over one year after the educational experience. Results reported herein carry implications for future quantitative and qualitative research as well as for cross-disciplinary instruction plans related to evolutionary science and non-scientific factors which may influence student understanding of evolution.

  5. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or “plate-sized” fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen’s revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (−3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen’s revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations. PMID:23865225

  6. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sheila M W; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M

    2013-06-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or "plate-sized" fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen's revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (-3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen's revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations.

  7. Polymorphisms in human heat shock factor-1 and analysis of potential biological consequences.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Tiffany M; Scheraga, Rachel G; Tulapurkar, Mohan E; Suffredini, Dante; Liggett, Stephen B; Ramarathnam, Aparna; Potla, Ratnakar; Singh, Ishwar S; Hasday, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    The stress-activated transcription factor, heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), regulates many genes including cytoprotective heat shock proteins (HSPs). We hypothesized that polymorphisms in HSF1 may alter the level or function of HSF1 protein accounting for interindividual viability in disease susceptibility or prognosis. We searched for exomic variants in HSF1 by querying human genome databases and directly sequencing DNA from 80 anonymous genomic DNA samples. Overall, HSF1 sequence was highly conserved, with no common variations. We found 31 validated deviations from a reference sequence in the dbSNP database and an additional 5 novel variants by sequencing, with allele frequencies that were 0.06 or less. Of these 36, 2 were in 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR), 10 in 3'UTR, and 24 in the coding region. The potential effects of 5'UTR on secondary structure, protein structure/function, and 3'UTR targets of microRNAs were analyzed using RNAFold, PolyPhen-2, SIFT, and MicroSNiper. One of the 5'UTR variants was predicted to strengthen secondary structure. Eight of 3'UTR variants were predicted to modify microRNA target sequences. Eight of the coding region variants were predicted to modify HSF1 structure/function. Reducing HSF1 levels in A549 cells using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) increased sensitivity to heat-induced killing demonstrating the impact that genetic variants that reduce HSF1 levels might have. Using the pmirGLO expression system, we found that the wild-type HSF1 3'UTR suppressed translation of a firefly luciferase reporter plasmid by 65 %. Introducing two of four 3'UTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) increased HSF1 3'UTR translational suppression by 27-44 % compared with the wild-type HSF1 3'UTR sequence while a third SNP reduced suppression by 25 %. HSF1 variants may alter HSF1 protein levels or function with potential effects on cell functions, including sensitivity to stress. PMID:25023647

  8. The activation of fibroblast growth factors by heparin: synthesis, structure, and biological activity of heparin-like oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    de Paz, J L; Angulo, J; Lassaletta, J M; Nieto, P M; Redondo-Horcajo, M; Lozano, R M; Giménez-Gallego, G; Martín-Lomas, M

    2001-09-01

    An effective strategy has been designed for the synthesis of oligosaccharides of different sizes structurally related to the regular region of heparin; this is illustrated by the preparation of hexasaccharide 1 and octasaccharide 2. This synthetic strategy provides the oligosaccharide sequence containing a D-glucosamine unit at the nonreducing end that is not available either by enzymatic or chemical degradation of heparin. It may permit, after slight modifications, the preparation of oligosaccharide fragments with different charge distribution as well. NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations have shown that the overall structure of 1 in solution is a stable right-hand helix with four residues per turn. Hexasaccharide 1 and, most likely, octasaccharide 2 are, therefore, chemically well-defined structural models of naturally occurring heparin-like oligosaccharides for use in binding and biological activity studies. Both compounds 1 and 2 induce the mitogenic activity of acid fibroblast growth factor (FGF1), with the half-maximum activating concentration of 2 being equivalent to that of heparin. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis with compound 2 suggests that heparin-induced FGF1 dimerization is not an absolute requirement for biological activity. PMID:11828504

  9. Parameterizing ice-edge biological productivity in a changing Arctic: Growth factors associated with specific ice provenances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambrotto, R.

    2015-12-01

    Sea ice plays a significant role in the ecology of polar seas and a significant portion of the biological production in the Arctic occurs at ice edges. These environments are inherently variable in space and time and subject to climate variation as the summer ice extent changes. Recent field results from the northern Bering Sea suggest that the parameterization of ice edge production in coupled physical-biological models that ignore processes specific to the ice-melt environment will be insufficient to describe the variability and intensity of Arctic production. In addition to the stabilizing the surface layer, ice may contribute phytoplankton growth factors such as trace metals that have been derived from the regions of ice formation as well as aeolian deposition. Results of an analysis of sea ice formation, flow and melt suggests regions that are likely to receive trace metals from ice and has been validated with regions of known ice edge productivity in the Bering Sea. A similar analysis for the Chukchi Sea compared the likely ice-edge productivity regions between pre-2000 ice conditions and those in the more recent period of reduced summer ice cover. Changes are predicted in both the timing and distribution of these regions in proportion to the variations in the dominant ice flow patterns. Ways in which the non-local processes important to elevated ice edge productivity can be incorporated into couple arctic models will be discussed.

  10. Determination of the scattering coefficient of biological tissue considering the wavelength and absorption dependence of the anisotropy factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukutomi, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-04-01

    The anisotropy factor g, one of the optical properties of biological tissues, has a strong influence on the calculation of the scattering coefficient μ s in inverse Monte Carlo (iMC) simulations. It has been reported that g has the wavelength and absorption dependence; however, few attempts have been made to calculate μ s using g values by taking the wavelength and absorption dependence into account. In this study, the angular distributions of scattered light for biological tissue phantoms containing hemoglobin as a light absorber were measured by a goniometric optical setup at strongly (405 nm) and weakly (664 nm) absorbing wavelengths to obtain g. Subsequently, the optical properties were calculated with the measured values of g by integrating sphere measurements and an iMC simulation, and compared with the results obtained with a conventional g value of 0.9. The μ s values with measured g were overestimated at the strongly absorbing wavelength, but underestimated at the weakly absorbing wavelength if 0.9 was used in the iMC simulation.

  11. Accelerated tissue integration into porous materials by immobilizing basic fibroblast growth factor using a biologically safe three-step reaction.

    PubMed

    Kakinoki, Sachiro; Sakai, Yusuke; Fujisato, Toshia; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2015-12-01

    Soft tissue integration into a porous structure is important to prevent bacterial infection of percutaneous devices and improve tissue regeneration using porous scaffolds. Here, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was immobilized on porous polymer materials using a mild and biologically safe three-step reaction: (1) modification with a novel surface-modification peptide (penta-lysine-mussel adhesive sequence, which reacts with various matrices), (2) electrostatic binding of heparin with introduced penta-lysine, and (3) biologically specific binding of bFGF to heparin. Porous polyethylene specimens (PPSs) (D = 6.0 mm, H = 2.0 mm) with a good size for tissue integration were selected as a base material, immobilized with bFGF, and subcutaneously implanted into mice. Half of the unmodified PPSs extruded out of the body on day 112 postimplantation; however, the three-step reaction completely prevented sample rejection. Tissue integration was greatly accelerated by immobilizing bFGF. Direct physical coating of bFGF on PPS resulted in greater immobilization but lesser tissue integration than that after the three-step bFGF immobilization, indicating that heparin binds and enhances bFGF efficacy. This three-step bFGF immobilization reaction will be applicable to various polymeric, metallic, and ceramic materials and is a simple strategy to integrate tissue on porous medical devices or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. PMID:26034014

  12. [Biological control of Lymnaea truncatula Müller in Haute-Vienne, France. Apropos of several factors limiting its application].

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D

    1981-01-01

    The author analyzes the positive and negative results of a year of biological control by predation on 49 stations of Lymnaea truncatula in Haute-Vienne, France. The negative results can be explained by the effects of 6 natural factors: 1--the rainfall over the habitats during the first 10 days of the experimentation. The rate of natural mortality and predation of L. truncatula is reduced at values above 8 mm rainfall. The predatory snails leave the sodden soil and do not consume L. truncatula; 2--the presence of stone blocks on the habitat. These blocks constitute shelters for L. truncatula; 3--the quality of the plant cover. Rushes and graminaceae preferentially must be used; 4--the previous treatment of the habitat by a molluscicide (copper sulphate) just before the application of biological control. The predators preferentially consume the more poisoned L. truncatula and forsake the more healthy snails; 5--the presence of phoretic acaridae on the predators which die; 6--the behaviour of sheep on the habitats situated on pastures with steep slopes. Their repeated passages cause the squashing of the predators. The proposed solutions are discussed in the limits of the region of experimentation.

  13. Accelerated tissue integration into porous materials by immobilizing basic fibroblast growth factor using a biologically safe three-step reaction.

    PubMed

    Kakinoki, Sachiro; Sakai, Yusuke; Fujisato, Toshia; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2015-12-01

    Soft tissue integration into a porous structure is important to prevent bacterial infection of percutaneous devices and improve tissue regeneration using porous scaffolds. Here, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was immobilized on porous polymer materials using a mild and biologically safe three-step reaction: (1) modification with a novel surface-modification peptide (penta-lysine-mussel adhesive sequence, which reacts with various matrices), (2) electrostatic binding of heparin with introduced penta-lysine, and (3) biologically specific binding of bFGF to heparin. Porous polyethylene specimens (PPSs) (D = 6.0 mm, H = 2.0 mm) with a good size for tissue integration were selected as a base material, immobilized with bFGF, and subcutaneously implanted into mice. Half of the unmodified PPSs extruded out of the body on day 112 postimplantation; however, the three-step reaction completely prevented sample rejection. Tissue integration was greatly accelerated by immobilizing bFGF. Direct physical coating of bFGF on PPS resulted in greater immobilization but lesser tissue integration than that after the three-step bFGF immobilization, indicating that heparin binds and enhances bFGF efficacy. This three-step bFGF immobilization reaction will be applicable to various polymeric, metallic, and ceramic materials and is a simple strategy to integrate tissue on porous medical devices or scaffolds for tissue regeneration.

  14. The activation of fibroblast growth factors by heparin: synthesis, structure, and biological activity of heparin-like oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    de Paz, J L; Angulo, J; Lassaletta, J M; Nieto, P M; Redondo-Horcajo, M; Lozano, R M; Giménez-Gallego, G; Martín-Lomas, M

    2001-09-01

    An effective strategy has been designed for the synthesis of oligosaccharides of different sizes structurally related to the regular region of heparin; this is illustrated by the preparation of hexasaccharide 1 and octasaccharide 2. This synthetic strategy provides the oligosaccharide sequence containing a D-glucosamine unit at the nonreducing end that is not available either by enzymatic or chemical degradation of heparin. It may permit, after slight modifications, the preparation of oligosaccharide fragments with different charge distribution as well. NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations have shown that the overall structure of 1 in solution is a stable right-hand helix with four residues per turn. Hexasaccharide 1 and, most likely, octasaccharide 2 are, therefore, chemically well-defined structural models of naturally occurring heparin-like oligosaccharides for use in binding and biological activity studies. Both compounds 1 and 2 induce the mitogenic activity of acid fibroblast growth factor (FGF1), with the half-maximum activating concentration of 2 being equivalent to that of heparin. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis with compound 2 suggests that heparin-induced FGF1 dimerization is not an absolute requirement for biological activity.

  15. The biological factors influence on the conversion of mineral components of Extremely Arid Desert Soils (Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutovaya, Olga; Vasilenko, Elena; Lebedeva, Marina; Tkhakakhova, Azida

    2013-04-01

    Extremely arid soils of stony deserts (hamadas) along the southern periphery of the Ili Depression are considered to be analogous to extremely arid soils of Mongolia, also named as "ultra-arid primitive gray-brown soils." In general, the morphology of extremely arid soils of hamadas in the Ili Depression is similar to that of the soils of stony deserts in other parts of the world, including the Gobi, Atacama, and Tarim deserts. The diagnostics of the active communities of microorganisms were performed according to the method of Rybalkina-Kononenko. The exact identification of the living forms of microorganisms to the species level is not always possible with the use of this method. However, it allows us to study the physiological role of the microorganisms and their ecological functions, including the relationships with the soil matrix and other organisms. In particular, it is possible to estimate the contribution of the microorganisms to the transformation of mineral soil components. The obtained materials allow us to conclude that the extremely arid desert soils are characterized by the very high biological activity during short periods of the increased soil moistening after rare and strong rains. The diversity of living forms is very considerable; both prokaryotes (cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, and iron bacteria) and protists (green algae, diatoms, and dinoflagellates) are developed in the soil. Thus, during a short period after the rains, these microorganisms pass from the stage of anabiosis to the stage of active growth and reproduction. Then, upon drying of the soil, the biotic activity of the soil slows down and, finally, terminates. The organisms remain in the state of anabiosis until the next rain. During the period of active growth, the microorganisms compose a specific consortium of different species and exert a profound impact on the soil properties. They participate in the transformation of the soil minerals with the formation of amorphous substances

  16. Chemical studies on tobacco smoke. XXXIII. N' -nitrosonornicotine in tobacco: analysis of possible contributing factors and biologic implications.

    PubMed

    Hecht, S S; Ornaf, R M; Hoffmann, D

    1975-05-01

    A chemical analytic method to determine N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and N' -nitrosoanabasine (NAB) in tobacco was developed. NNN was found in the unburned tobacco of commercial products at concentrations betweeen 0.3 and 88.6 mug/g. The highest levels were observed in highly fermented snuff (29.1 mug/g) and fine-cut chewing tobacco (88.6 mug/g). NAB was not detected (smaller than 0.5 ng/g) in any tobacco examined. Two new tobacco components, N' -carbomethoxynornicotine and N' -carbomethoxyanabasine,were found. Possible origins of NNN in tobacco were discussed, especially in relation to concentrations of nitrite, nitate, and alkaloids, and in relation to pH and curing. Biologic implications, including the possible function of NNN (the first organic carcinogen isolated from unburned tobacco) as a causative factor in cancer of the oral cavity in tobacco chewers and betel quid chewers, were also discussed.

  17. Biological effects of targeted inactivation of hepatocyte growth factor-like protein in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, J A; Carrick, T L; Degen, J L; Witte, D; Degen, S J

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFL) is a liver-derived serum glycoprotein involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, and is proposed to have a fundamental role in embryogenesis, fertility, hematopoiesis, macrophage activation, and tissue repair. To assess the in vivo effects of total loss of HGFL, we generated mice with targeted disruption of the gene resulting in loss of the protein. Disruption of the HGFL gene allowed for normal embryogenesis, and followed a Mendelian pattern of genetic transmission. Mice homozygous for the targeted allele (HGFL-/- mice) are fertile, and grow to adulthood without obvious phenotypic abnormalities in unchallenged animals, except for development of lipid-containing cytoplasmic vacuoles in hepatocytes throughout the liver lobules. These histologic changes are not accompanied by discernible changes in synthetic or excretory hepatic functions. Hematopoiesis appears unaltered, and although macrophage activation is delayed in the absence of HGFL, migration to the peritoneal cavity upon challenge with thioglycollate was similar in HGFL-/- and wild-type mice. Challenged with incision to skin, HGFL-/- mice display normal wound healing. These data demonstrate that HGFL is not essential for embryogenesis, fertility, or wound healing. HGFL-deficient mice will provide a valuable means to assess the role of HGFL in hepatic and systemic responses to inflammatory and infectious stimuli in vivo. PMID:9486989

  18. Chronic hypoxia as a factor of enhanced autofluorescence of endogenous porphyrins in soft biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, K. S.; Rogatkin, D. A.; Bychenkov, O. A.; Shumskiy, V. I.

    2009-10-01

    This report, as a continuation of 8-years research on the problem of noninvasive clinical fluorescence diagnostics efficiency, discusses a hypothesis of influence of a chronic hypoxia state in soft alive tissues on the intensity of a laser-induced endogenous porphyrins' autofluorescence in a red region of optical spectra. Earlier this hypothesis was proposed on the basis of analysis of fluorescence activity for erosive-ulcerative impairments of the upper part of a gastrointestinal tract (SPIE Proc., vol. 4613, 2002. - p.286-294). Today the hypothesis additionally is confirmed by means of observation after patients with another illness and by means of analysis of some well-known literature data. An authors' methodology of clinical trails to verify the hypothesis using an up-to-date noninvasive fluorescence diagnostic technique is presented as well. Both theoretical reasons and all new clinical data show that the chronic hypoxia state can be one of the major factors of appearance of a large and abnormal laser-induced autofluorescent signal from biotissues in the spectrum range 600-800 nm, which is associated with abnormally high accumulation of endogenous porphyrins in the tissues. So, the noninvasive autofluorescent diagnostic technique could be a powerful tool to estimate in vivo a chronic hypoxia condition in soft biotissues. For that purpose a classification of chronic hypoxia levels versus in vivo autofluorescence contrast coefficients in tissues is proposed as well.

  19. Chronic hypoxia as a factor of enhanced autofluorescence of endogenous porphyrins in soft biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, K. S.; Rogatkin, D. A.; Bychenkov, O. A.; Shumskiy, V. I.

    2010-02-01

    This report, as a continuation of 8-years research on the problem of noninvasive clinical fluorescence diagnostics efficiency, discusses a hypothesis of influence of a chronic hypoxia state in soft alive tissues on the intensity of a laser-induced endogenous porphyrins' autofluorescence in a red region of optical spectra. Earlier this hypothesis was proposed on the basis of analysis of fluorescence activity for erosive-ulcerative impairments of the upper part of a gastrointestinal tract (SPIE Proc., vol. 4613, 2002. - p.286-294). Today the hypothesis additionally is confirmed by means of observation after patients with another illness and by means of analysis of some well-known literature data. An authors' methodology of clinical trails to verify the hypothesis using an up-to-date noninvasive fluorescence diagnostic technique is presented as well. Both theoretical reasons and all new clinical data show that the chronic hypoxia state can be one of the major factors of appearance of a large and abnormal laser-induced autofluorescent signal from biotissues in the spectrum range 600-800 nm, which is associated with abnormally high accumulation of endogenous porphyrins in the tissues. So, the noninvasive autofluorescent diagnostic technique could be a powerful tool to estimate in vivo a chronic hypoxia condition in soft biotissues. For that purpose a classification of chronic hypoxia levels versus in vivo autofluorescence contrast coefficients in tissues is proposed as well.

  20. Design and biological activity of epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted peptide doxorubicin conjugate.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingliang; Yang, Danbo; Liang, Xiaofei; Ao, Junping; Li, Zonghai; Wang, Hongyang; Shi, Bizhi

    2015-03-01

    The nonspecific toxicity of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) toward both tumor and normal cells can result in serious side effects, thereby limiting its clinical applications. In this wok, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonist peptide GE11 was introduced into DOX structure via a disulfide bond which can be cleaved by reduced glutathione (GSH). We have investigated the intracellular delivery and in vitro cytotoxicity of GE11-DOX conjugate and free DOX in high (SMMC-7721) and low (MCF-7) EGFR expressing cancer cell models. GE11-DOX accumulated at higher levels in SMMC-7721 cells than in MCF-7 cells, while the cellular uptake of free DOX was almost the same in both cells. Furthermore, pretreating with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody reduced intracellular accumulation of GE11-DOX in SMMC-7721, indicating the involvement of EGFR pathway in the transport of conjugate. Our results suggest that GE11-DOX conjugate has the potential to be a therapeutic agent for treating EGFR overexpressing tumor.

  1. Bacterial invasion factors: tools for crossing biological barriers and drug delivery?

    PubMed

    Kochut, Annika; Dersch, Petra

    2013-06-01

    The oral route is the preferential route of drug delivery in humans. However, effective delivery through the gastrointestinal tract is often hampered by the low permeability of the intestinal epithelium. One possibility to overcome this problem is the encapsulation of drugs inside nanoparticulate systems, containing targeting moieties with cell invasive properties. The bioinvasive features of the delivery system could be provided by the attachment of bacterial invasion factors, which promote efficient uptake into host cells and mediate rapid transcytosis of the pathogen through the intestinal epithelium. This review gives an overview of bacterial invasion systems. The molecular structure and function of suitable bacterial invasins, their relative values as targeting agents and possible pitfalls of their use are described. The potential of bioinvasive drug delivery systems is mainly presented on the basis of the well-characterized Yersinia invasin protein, which enters M cells to gain access to subepithelial layers of the gastrointestinal tract, but alternative approaches and future prospects for oral drug delivery are also discussed.

  2. Factors influencing the movement biology of migrant songbirds confronted with an ecological barrier

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smolinsky, J. A.; Diehl, Robert H.; Radzio, T. A.; Delaney, D. K.; Moore, F. R

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not a migratory songbird embarks on a long-distance flight across an ecological barrier is likely a response to a number of endogenous and exogenous factors. During autumn 2008 and 2009, we used automated radio tracking to investigate how energetic condition, age, and weather influenced the departure timing and direction of Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) during migratory stopover along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Most birds left within 1 h after sunset on the evening following capture. Those birds that departed later on the first night or remained longer than 1 day were lean. Birds that carried fat loads sufficient to cross the Gulf of Mexico generally departed in a seasonally appropriate southerly direction, whereas lean birds nearly always flew inland in a northerly direction. We did not detect an effect of age or weather on departures. The decision by lean birds to reorient movement inland may reflect the suitability of the coastal stopover site for deposition of fuel stores and the motivation to seek food among more extensive forested habitat away from the barrier.

  3. [Physicochemical and biological factors affecting atmospheric methane oxidation in gray forest soils].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, I K; Semenov, V M; Kuznetsova, T V; Bykova, S A; Dulov, L E; Pardini, G; Gispert, M; Boeckx, P; Van Cleemput, O; Gal'chenko, V F

    2005-01-01

    The decline of methane oxidizing activities in gray forest soil upon its conversion into arable land was shown to be caused by major changes in biotic and physicochemical properties of soil. Using the method of immune serums, methane-oxidizing bacteria were detected in both forest and agricultural soils, but their populations differed significantly in both abundance and composition. In the forest soil, the number of methanotrophs was an order of magnitude higher than in arable soil, amounting to 3.5 x 10(8) and 0.24 x 10(8) cells/g soil, respectively. All methane-oxidizing bacteria identified in the forest soil belonged to the genus Methylocystis, and 94% of these were represented by a single species, M. parvus. The arable soil was dominated by type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter and Methylomonas, 67.6%), occurring along with bacteria of the genus Methylocystis. In addition, arable soil is characterized by a low content of microbial biomass, lower porosity and water permeability of soil aggregates, and the predominance of nitrogen mineralization processes over those of nitrogen immobilization. These factors can also contribute to lower rates of methane oxidation in arable soil as compared to forest soil.

  4. Sources and biology of regulatory factors active on mouse myeloid leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, D.

    1982-01-01

    The action of serum or cells in enforcing differentiation in mouse myelomonocytic leukemic cells was monitored in agar cultures of WEHI-3B leukemic cells. The repeated intravenous injection of 5 ..mu..g endotoxin initially increased serum differentiating activity but after the third injection responses to further injections decreased markedly. Congenitally athymic (nude) mice exhibited normal rises in serum differentiating activity when injected with endotoxin but C3H HeJ mice failed to respond to challenge with purified lipid A. Whole body irradiation up to 1,200 rads did not increase serum differentiating activity but did not suppress responses to challenge injection of endotoxin. Coculture of WEHI-3B cells with peritoneal cells from normal or irradiated BALB/c mice caused marked granulocytic differentiation in WEHI-3B colonies. This effect was not seen if leukemic cells were cultured with thymus, spleen, or bone marrow cells. The serum halflife of the factor in postendotoxin serum enforcing differentiation of WEHI-3B cells was shown to be 1.5-2.3 hr.

  5. Environmental and biological factors influencing the UV-C resistance of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Gayán, E; Serrano, M J; Pagán, R; Álvarez, I; Condón, S

    2015-04-01

    In this investigation, the effect of microbiological factors (strain, growth phase, exposition to sublethal stresses, and photorepair ability), treatment medium characteristics (pH, water activity, and absorption coefficient), and processing parameters (dose and temperature) on the UV resistance of Listeria monocytogenes was studied. The dose to inactivate 99.99% of the initial population of the five strains tested ranged from 21.84 J/mL (STCC 5672) to 14.66 J/mL (STCC 4031). The UV inactivation of the most resistant strain did not change in different growth phases and after exposure to sublethal heat, acid, basic, and oxidative shocks. The pH and water activity of the treatment medium did not affect the UV resistance of L. monocytogenes, whereas the inactivation rate decreased exponentially with the absorption coefficient. The lethal effect of UV radiation increased synergistically with temperature between 50 and 60 °C (UV-H treatment). A UV-H treatment of 27.10 J/mL at 55 °C reached 2.99 and 3.69 Log10 inactivation cycles of L. monocytogenes in orange juice and vegetable broth, and more than 5 Log10 cycles in apple juice and chicken broth. This synergistic effect opens the possibility to design UV combined processes for the pasteurization of liquid foods with high absorptivity.

  6. Identification of anthranilamide derivatives as potential factor Xa inhibitors: drug design, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Junhao; Yang, Lingyun; Li, Hui; Li, Qing; Zhao, Leilei; Wang, Xinning; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Muxing; Zhou, Jinpei; Zhang, Huibin

    2015-05-01

    The coagulation enzyme factor Xa (fXa) plays a crucial role in the blood coagulation cascade. In this study, three-dimensional fragment based drug design (FBDD) combined with structure-based pharmacophore (SBP) model and structural consensus docking were employed to identify novel fXa inhibitors. After a multi-stage virtual screening (VS) workflow, two hit compounds 3780 and 319 having persistent high performance were identified. Then, these two hit compounds and several analogs were synthesized and screened for in-vitro inhibition of fXa. The experimental data showed that most of the designed compounds displayed significant in vitro potency against fXa. Among them, compound 9b displayed the greatest in vitro potency against fXa with the IC50 value of 23 nM and excellent selectivity versus thrombin (IC50 = 40 μM). Moreover, the prolongation of the prothrombin time (PT) was measured for compound 9b to evaluate its in vitro anticoagulant activity. As a result, compound 9b exhibited pronounced anticoagulant activity with the 2 × PT value of 8.7 μM. PMID:25839438

  7. Coronary heart disease risk factors and outcomes in the twenty-first century: findings from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Hemal; Safford, Monika; Glasser, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) is a longitudinal study supported by the National Institutes of Health to determine the disparities in stroke-related mortality across USA. REGARDS has published a body of work designed to understand the disparities in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its risk factors in a biracial national cohort. REGARDS has focused on racial and geographical disparities in the quality and access to health care, the influence of lack of medical insurance, and has attempted to contrast current guidelines in lipid lowering for secondary prevention in a nationwide cohort. It has described CHD risk from nontraditional risk factors such as chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, and inflammation (i.e., high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and has also assessed the role of depression, psychosocial, environmental, and lifestyle factors in CHD risk with emphasis on risk factor modification and ideal lifestyle factors. REGARDS has examined the utility of various methodologies, e.g., the process of medical record adjudication, proxy-based cause of death, and use of claim-based algorithms to determine CHD risk. Some valuable insight into less well-studied concepts such as the reliability of current troponin assays to identify "microsize infarcts," caregiving stress, and CHD, heart failure, and cognitive decline have also emerged. In this review, we discuss some of the most important findings from REGARDS in the context of the existing literature in an effort to identify gaps and directions for further research.

  8. Sediment studies of the biological factors controlling the reduction of U(VI).

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, derek, R.

    2004-08-04

    Studies were conducted primarily with sediments, both in laboratory incubations and in a field experiment, with supporting studies with pure cultures. To our knowledge the sediment studies were the first on microbial U(VI) reduction in actual uranium-contaminated subsurface sediments, under conditions that mimic those found in situ. Important findings included: (1) U(VI) reduction is a biotic process in subsurface sediments. (2) U(VI) reduction can be stimulated most effectively with the addition of acetate. Although it had been speculated that microbial U(VI) reduction might be capable of this type of environmental remediation ever since the discovery of microbial U(VI) reduction, this had not been previously demonstrated under environmentally relevant conditions. (3) U(VI) is reduced concurrently with Fe(III) and prior to sulfate reduction. U(VI) and Fe(III) reduction proceeded concurrently, accompanied by a dramatic enrichment in organisms in the Geobacteraceae. Sulfate-reducing microorganisms do not appear to be important components of the microbial community reducing U(VI) in these subsurface sediments. (4) Nitrate has important influences on U(VI) reduction. Nitrate inhibits the reduction of metals until nitrate is depleted. Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms such as Geobacter metallireducens and Desulfitobacterium species can oxidize Fe(II) with the reduction of nitrate which is an important consideration because our previous studies have demonstrated that freshly precipitated Fe(III) oxides can reoxidize U(IV) to U(VI). The discovery that G. metallireducens can ''run backwards'' and oxidize U(IV) when nitrate is present reveals another mechanism preventing precipitation of U(IV) in the presence of nitrate as well as potential novel strategy for removing uranium from the subsurface after a site has been remediated. (5) Importance of understanding Fe(III) forms available for microbial reduction. Fe(III) is orders of magnitude more abundant than U(VI) as an

  9. Biologic Roles of Estrogen Receptor-β and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-2 in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Elshimali, Yahya; Garbán, Hermes; Elashoff, David; Vadgama, Jaydutt; Goodglick, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) occurs in 10–15% of patients yet accounts for almost half of all breast cancer deaths. TNBCs lack expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER-2 overexpression and cannot be treated with current targeted therapies. TNBCs often occur in African American and younger women. Although initially responsive to some chemotherapies, TNBCs tend to relapse and metastasize. Thus, it is critical to find new therapeutic targets. A second ER gene product, termed ERβ, in the absence of ERα may be such a target. Using human TNBC specimens with known clinical outcomes to assess ERβ expression, we find that ERβ1 associates with significantly worse 5-year overall survival. Further, a panel of TNBC cell lines exhibit significant levels of ERβ protein. To assess ERβ effects on proliferation, ERβ expression in TNBC cells was silenced using shRNA, resulting in a significant reduction in TNBC proliferation. ERβ-specific antagonists similarly suppressed TNBC growth. Growth-stimulating effects of ERβ may be due in part to downstream actions that promote VEGF, amphiregulin, and Wnt-10b secretion, other factors associated with tumor promotion. In vivo, insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2), along with ERβ1, is significantly expressed in TNBC and stimulates high ERβ mRNA in TNBC cells. This work may help elucidate the interplay of metabolic and growth factors in TNBC. PMID:25874233

  10. Modulation of telomerase activity in fish muscle by biological and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Drew Ryan; Mok, Helen Oi Lam; Au, Doris Wai Ting

    2015-12-01

    Telomerase expression has long been linked to promotion of tumor growth and cell proliferation in mammals. Interestingly, telomerase activity (TA) has been detected in skeletal muscle for a variety of fish species. Despite this being a unique feature in fish, very few studies have investigated the potential role of TA in muscle. The present study was set to prove the concepts that muscle telomerase in fish is related to body growth, and more specifically, to muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis in vivo. Moreover, muscle TA can be influenced by biotic factors and modulated by environmental stress. Using three fish species, mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), and marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), the present work reports for the first time that fish muscle TA was sensitive to the environmental stresses of starvation, foodborne exposure to benzo[a]pyrene, and hypoxia. In marine medaka, muscle TA was coupled with fish growth during early life stages. Upon sexual maturation, muscle TA was confounded by sex (female>male). Muscle TA was significantly correlated with telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein expression (Pearson correlation r=0.892; p≤0.05), which was coupled with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) cell proliferation, but not associated with apoptosis (omBax/omBcl2 ratio) in muscle tissue. The results reported here have bridged the knowledge gap between the existence and function of telomerase in fish muscle. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of muscle TA in fish warrant further exploration for comparison with telomerase regulation in mammals. PMID:26400776

  11. Modulation of telomerase activity in fish muscle by biological and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Drew Ryan; Mok, Helen Oi Lam; Au, Doris Wai Ting

    2015-12-01

    Telomerase expression has long been linked to promotion of tumor growth and cell proliferation in mammals. Interestingly, telomerase activity (TA) has been detected in skeletal muscle for a variety of fish species. Despite this being a unique feature in fish, very few studies have investigated the potential role of TA in muscle. The present study was set to prove the concepts that muscle telomerase in fish is related to body growth, and more specifically, to muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis in vivo. Moreover, muscle TA can be influenced by biotic factors and modulated by environmental stress. Using three fish species, mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), and marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), the present work reports for the first time that fish muscle TA was sensitive to the environmental stresses of starvation, foodborne exposure to benzo[a]pyrene, and hypoxia. In marine medaka, muscle TA was coupled with fish growth during early life stages. Upon sexual maturation, muscle TA was confounded by sex (female>male). Muscle TA was significantly correlated with telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein expression (Pearson correlation r=0.892; p≤0.05), which was coupled with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) cell proliferation, but not associated with apoptosis (omBax/omBcl2 ratio) in muscle tissue. The results reported here have bridged the knowledge gap between the existence and function of telomerase in fish muscle. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of muscle TA in fish warrant further exploration for comparison with telomerase regulation in mammals.

  12. Network motif-based identification of transcription factor-target gene relationships by integrating multi-source biological data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuji; Xuan, Jianhua; de los Reyes, Benildo G; Clarke, Robert; Ressom, Habtom W

    2008-01-01

    Background Integrating data from multiple global assays and curated databases is essential to understand the spatio-temporal interactions within cells. Different experiments measure cellular processes at various widths and depths, while databases contain biological information based on established facts or published data. Integrating these complementary datasets helps infer a mutually consistent transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) with strong similarity to the structure of the underlying genetic regulatory modules. Decomposing the TRN into a small set of recurring regulatory patterns, called network motifs (NM), facilitates the inference. Identifying NMs defined by specific transcription factors (TF) establishes the framework structure of a TRN and allows the inference of TF-target gene relationship. This paper introduces a computational framework for utilizing data from multiple sources to infer TF-target gene relationships on the basis of NMs. The data include time course gene expression profiles, genome-wide location analysis data, binding sequence data, and gene ontology (GO) information. Results The proposed computational framework was tested using gene expression data associated with cell cycle progression in yeast. Among 800 cell cycle related genes, 85 were identified as candidate TFs and classified into four previously defined NMs. The NMs for a subset of TFs are obtained from literature. Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers were used to estimate NMs for the remaining TFs. The potential downstream target genes for the TFs were clustered into 34 biologically significant groups. The relationships between TFs and potential target gene clusters were examined by training recurrent neural networks whose topologies mimic the NMs to which the TFs are classified. The identified relationships between TFs and gene clusters were evaluated using the following biological validation and statistical analyses: (1) Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to evaluate

  13. First Evaluation of the Biologic Effectiveness Factors of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in a Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line

    SciTech Connect

    Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Crivello, Martin; Perona, Marina; Thorp, Silvia; Santa Cruz, Gustavo Alberto; Pozzi, Emiliano; Casal, Mariana; Thomasz, Lisa; Cabrini, Romulo; Kahl, Steven; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan; Pisarev, Mario Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: DNA lesions produced by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and those produced by gamma radiation in a colon carcinoma cell line were analyzed. We have also derived the relative biologic effectiveness factor (RBE) of the neutron beam of the RA-3- Argentine nuclear reactor, and the compound biologic effectiveness (CBE) values for p-boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) and for 2,4-bis ({alpha},{beta}-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ({sup 10}BOPP). Methods and Materials: Exponentially growing human colon carcinoma cells (ARO81-1) were distributed into the following groups: (1) BPA (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (2) BOPP (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (3) neutrons alone, and (4) gamma rays ({sup 60}Co source at 1 Gy/min dose-rate). Different irradiation times were used to obtain total absorbed doses between 0.3 and 5 Gy ({+-}10%) (thermal neutrons flux = 7.5 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} sec). Results: The frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells and the number of micronuclei per micronucleated binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase until approximately 2 Gy. The response to gamma rays was significantly lower than the response to the other treatments (p < 0.05). The irradiations with neutrons alone and neutrons + BOPP showed curves that did not differ significantly from, and showed less DNA damage than, irradiation with neutrons + BPA. A decrease in the surviving fraction measured by 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as a function of the absorbed dose was observed for all the treatments. The RBE and CBE factors calculated from cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and MTT assays were, respectively, the following: beam RBE: 4.4 {+-} 1.1 and 2.4 {+-} 0.6; CBE for BOPP: 8.0 {+-} 2.2 and 2.0 {+-} 1; CBE for BPA: 19.6 {+-} 3.7 and 3.5 {+-} 1.3. Conclusions: BNCT and gamma irradiations showed different genotoxic patterns. To our knowledge, these values represent the first experimental ones obtained for the RA-3 in a

  14. Preservation of biological activity of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) after microencapsulation and sterilization by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Checa-Casalengua, P; Jiang, C; Bravo-Osuna, I; Tucker, B A; Molina-Martínez, I T; Young, M J; Herrero-Vanrell, R

    2012-10-15

    A main issue in controlled delivery of biotechnological products from injectable biodegradable microspheres is to preserve their integrity and functional activity after the microencapsulation process and final sterilization. The present experimental work tested different technological approaches to maintain the biological activity of an encapsulated biotechnological product within PLGA [poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)] microspheres (MS) after their sterilization by gamma irradiation. GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), useful in the treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases, was chosen as a labile model protein. In the particular case of optic nerve degeneration, GDNF has been demonstrated to improve the damaged retinal ganglion cells (RGC) survival. GDNF was encapsulated in its molecular state by the water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) technique or as solid according to the solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) method. Based on the S/O/W technique, GDNF was included in the PLGA microspheres alone (S/O/W 1) or in combination with an antioxidant (vitamin E, Vit E) (S/O/W 2). Microspheres were sterilized by gamma-irradiation (dose of 25 kGy) at room and low (-78 °C) temperatures. Functional activity of GDNF released from the different microspheres was evaluated both before and after sterilization in their potential target cells (retinal cells). Although none of the systems proposed achieved with the goal of totally retain the structural stability of the GDNF-dimer, the protein released from the S/O/W 2 microspheres was clearly the most biologically active, showing significantly less retinal cell death than that released from either W/O/W or S/O/W 1 particles, even in low amounts of the neurotrophic factor. According to the results presented in this work, the biological activity of biotechnological products after microencapsulation and sterilization can be further preserved by the inclusion of the active molecule in its solid state in combination with

  15. Key Factors Controlling the Growth of Biological Soil Crusts: Towards a Protocol to Produce Biocrusts in Greenhouse Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Ayuso, Sergio; María Giraldo Silva, Ana; Nelson, Corey; Barger, Nichole; Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (= biocrusts) are topsoil communities comprise of, but not limited to, cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, and mosses that grow intimately associated with soil particles in drylands. Biocrusts have central ecological roles in these areas as sources of carbon and nutrients, and efficiently retain water and prevent soil erosion, which improves soil structure and promotes soil fertility. However, human activities, such as cattle grazing, hiking or military training, are rapidly striking biocrusts. Although it is well known that the inoculation with cyanobacteria or lichens can enhance the recovery of biocrusts in degraded soils, little is known about the factors that control their growth rates. Using soil and inocula from four different sites located in one cold desert (Utah) and in one hot desert (New Mexico), we performed a fractional factorial experiment involving seven factors (water, light, P, N, calcium carbonate, trace metals and type of inoculum) to screen their effects on the growth of biocrusts. After four months, we measured the concentration of chlorophyll a, and we discovered that water, light and P, N or P+N were the most important factors controlling the growth of biocrusts. In the experimental treatments involving these three factors we measured a similar concentration of chlorophyll a (or even higher) to this found in the field locations. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene segment using universal bacteria primers revealed a microbial community composition in the biocrusts grown that closely corresponds to initial measurements made on inocula. In summary, based on our success in obtaining biocrust biomass from natural communities in greenhouse facilities, without significantly changing its community composition at the phylum and cyanobacterial level, we are paving the road to propose a protocol to produce a high quality-nursed inoculum aiming to assist restoration of arid and semi-arid ecosystems affected by large-scale disturbances.

  16. [TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS AS A RISK FACTOR DURING PREGNANCY; BIOLOGICAL MODELING; SYSTEMATIC REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, María José; Baena García, Laura; Sánchez López, Antonio Manuel; Guisado Barrilao, Rafael; Hermoso Rodríguez, Enrique; Mur Villar, Norma; Capel Tuñón, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: algunas de las patologías que se pueden presentar en el embarazo (diabetes gestacional, hipertensión y preeclampsia) se están relacionando con un aumento del riesgo de padecer enfermedades cardiovasculares a lo largo de la vida. Esto se debe tener en cuenta en las futuras valoraciones de la salud de las mujeres. Uno de los biomarcadores más importantes en las enfermedades cardiovasculares es el nivel de triglicéridos, que experimenta un importante cambio durante la gestación. Objetivo: el objetivo de esta revisión es analizar los estudios que han investigado los niveles de triglicéridos durante el embarazo como factor de riesgo cardiovascular en las últimas semanas de gestación y en el parto. Métodos: se ha efectuado una búsqueda sistemática y se seleccionaron 14 artículos específicos sobre el tema, siguiendo las directrices PRISMA. Resultados: en el embarazo normal tiene lugar un descenso del nivel de lípidos en las primeras semanas, seguido de un aumento progresivo, especialmente notable a partir de la semana 12 de gestación. Este incremento de las concentraciones plasmáticas de lípidos circulantes se produce de forma lineal, hasta alcanzar un pico máximo unos días antes del parto. Esta subida se debe al aumento de los niveles de estrógenos y a la resistencia a la insulina. También se ha relacionado con los niveles de prolactina. Conclusiones: a través de la presente revisión se ha podido constatar la relación del aumento de los triglicéridos en algunas de las patologías o alteraciones más frecuentes en los embarazos de riesgo, en las que se produce una elevación significativamente mayor que en los embarazos normales. Es en este contexto en el que el modelado biológico puede cobrar una relevancia especial, facilitando la creación de modelos y curvas de percentiles aplicables a la población, y que permitan un seguimiento de los cambios en la trigliceridemia, que acaben señalando aquellas situaciones que pasan a ser

  17. Physicochemical and biological factors controlling water column metabolism in Sundarbans estuary, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sundarbans is the single largest deltaic mangrove forest in the world, formed at estuarine phase of the Ganges - Brahmaputra river system. Primary productivity of marine and coastal phytoplankton contributes to 15% of global oceanic production. But unfortunately estuarine dynamics of tropical and subtropical estuaries have not yet received proper attention in spite of the fact that they experience considerable anthropogenic interventions and a baseline data is required for any future comparison. This study is an endeavor to this end to estimate the primary productivity (gross and net), community respiration and nitrification rates in different rivers and tidal creeks around Jharkhali island, a part of Sundarbans estuary surrounded by the mangrove forest during a period of three years starting from November’08 to October’11. Results Various physical and chemical parameters of water column like pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, suspended particulate matter, secchi disc index, tidal fluctuation and tidal current velocity, standing crop and nutrients were measured along with water column productivity. Relationship of net water column productivity with algal biomass (standing crop), nutrient loading and turbidity were determined experimentally. Correlations of bacterial abundance with community respiration and nitrification rates were also explored. Annual integrated phytoplankton production rate of this tidal estuary was estimated to be 151.07 gC m-2 y-1. Gross primary productivity showed marked inter annual variation being lowest in monsoon and highest in postmonsoon period. Conclusion Average primary production was a function of nutrient loading and light penetration in the water column. High aquatic turbidity, conductivity and suspended particulate matter were the limiting factors to attenuate light penetration with negative influence on primary production. Community respiration and nitrification rates of the estuary were

  18. Alcohol consumption and risk-factors for ischemic heart disease in Chuckchi inhabitants: clinical, biological and population studies.

    PubMed

    Chernobrovkina, T V; Arkavy, J V; Astakhova, T I

    1991-01-01

    Clinical, biochemical and epidemiological research has shown variations of serum enzymatic constellations (relatively high level of GGT in Chuckchi natives compared to nonnative newcomers). This difference leads to different unspecific body resistance to exogenous factors, particularly to histamine-liberators. The GGT system has also been linked to alcohol-induced clinical IHD. Based on these findings patients will be screened for GGT activity, which may serve as a marker for population phenotypes representative of high-risk groups. This deficiency in GGT may indicate a high risk for alcohol-related heart disease.

  19. Bright versus dim ambient light affects subjective well-being but not serotonin-related biological factors.

    PubMed

    Stemer, Bettina; Melmer, Andreas; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Kemmler, Georg; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A

    2015-10-30

    Light falling on the retina is converted into an electrical signal which stimulates serotonin synthesis. Previous studies described an increase of plasma and CNS serotonin levels after bright light exposure. Ghrelin and leptin are peptide hormones which are involved in the regulation of hunger/satiety and are related to serotonin. Neopterin and kynurenine are immunological markers which are also linked to serotonin biosynthesis. In this study, 29 healthy male volunteers were exposed to bright (5000lx) and dim (50lx) light conditions for 120min in a cross-over manner. Subjective well-being and hunger as well as various serotonin associated plasma factors were assessed before and after light exposure. Subjective well-being showed a small increase under bright light and a small decrease under dim light, resulting in a significant interaction between light condition and time. Ghrelin concentrations increased significantly under both light conditions, but there was no interaction between light and time. Correspondingly, leptin decreased significantly under both light conditions. Hunger increased significantly with no light-time interaction. We also found a significant decrease of neopterin, tryptophan and tyrosine levels, but no interaction between light and time. In conclusion, ambient light was affecting subjective well-being rather than serotonin associated biological factors.

  20. BiP and its Nucleotide Exchange Factors Grp170 and Sil1: Mechanisms of Action and Biological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Julia; Feige, Matthias J.; Hendershot, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    BiP is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) orthologue of the Hsp70 family of molecular chaperones and is intricately involved in most functions of this organelle through its interactions with a variety of substrates and regulatory proteins. Like all Hsp70 family members, the ability of BiP to bind and release unfolded proteins is tightly regulated by a cycle of ATP binding, hydrolysis, and nucleotide exchange. As a characteristic of the Hsp70 family, multiple DnaJ-like co-factors exist that can target substrates to BiP and stimulate its ATPase activity to stabilize the binding of BiP to substrates. However, only in the past decade have nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) for BiP been identified, which has shed light not only on the mechanism of BiP assisted folding in the ER but also on Hsp70 family members that reside throughout the cell. We will review the current understanding of the ATPase cycle of BiP in the unique environment of the ER and how it is regulated by the NEFs, Grp170 and Sil1, both of which perform unanticipated roles in various biological functions and disease states. PMID:25698114

  1. Cadmium contamination of tissues and organs of delphinids species (Stenella attenuata)--influence of biological and ecological factors

    SciTech Connect

    Andre, J.M.; Amiard, J.C.; Amiard-Triquet, C.; Boudou, A.; Ribeyre, F. )

    1990-12-01

    Based on a sample of 27 dolphins (Stenella attenuata) captured in the Eastern tropical zone of the Pacific Ocean, this study was carried out to analyze the cadmium accumulation levels and distribution in 12 organs or tissue samples. The average cadmium concentrations were between 0.2 mg Cd.kg-1 in the brain and muscle and 48 mg Cd.kg-1 in the kidneys. For most of organs and tissues the average values were between 1 and 5 mg Cd.kg-1. Kidneys, liver, muscle, and intestine contained almost 85% of the total cadmium burden of all tissues considered in this study. Most of the biological and ecological factors taken into account (age, sex, total weight, and length of the dolphins, weight of the organs, place and date of capture) interacted with the cadmium concentrations and burdens in the collected organs or tissues. Three factors appear to be of prime importance: age, body weight, and geographical location of the area of capture.

  2. Biological findings from the PheWAS catalog: focus on connective tissue-related disorders (pelvic floor dysfunction, abdominal hernia, varicose veins and hemorrhoids).

    PubMed

    Salnikova, Lyubov E; Khadzhieva, Maryam B; Kolobkov, Dmitry S

    2016-07-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction, specifically genital prolapse (GP) and stress urinary inconsistency (SUI) presumably co-occur with other connective tissue disorders such as hernia, hemorrhoids, and varicose veins. Observations on non-random coexistence of these disorders have never been summarized in a meta-analysis. The performed meta-analysis demonstrated that varicose veins and hernia are associated with GP. Disease connections on the molecular level may be partially based on shared genetic susceptibility. A unique opportunity to estimate shared genetic susceptibility to disorders is provided by a PheWAS (phenome-wide association study) designed to utilize GWAS data concurrently to many phenotypes. We searched the PheWAS Catalog, which includes the results of the PheWAS study with P value < 0.05, for genes associated with GP, SUI, abdominal hernia, varicose veins and hemorrhoids. We found pronounced signals for the associations of the SLC2A9 gene with SUI (P = 6.0e-05) and the MYH9 gene with varicose veins of lower extremity (P = 0.0001) and hemorrhoids (P = 0.0007). The comparison of the PheWAS Catalog and the NHGRI Catalog data revealed enrichment of genes associated with bone mineral density in GP and with activated partial thromboplastin time in varicose veins of lower extremity. In cross-phenotype associations, genes responsible for peripheral nerve functions seem to predominate. This study not only established novel biologically plausible associations that may warrant further studies but also exemplified an effective use of the PheWAS Catalog data.

  3. The Impact of Personality Factors and Preceding User Comments on the Processing of Research Findings on Deep Brain Stimulation: A Randomized Controlled Experiment in a Simulated Online Forum

    PubMed Central

    Feinkohl, Insa; Flemming, Danny; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Background Laypeople frequently discuss medical research findings on Web-based platforms, but little is known about whether they grasp the tentativeness that is inherent in these findings. Potential influential factors involved in understanding medical tentativeness have hardly been assessed to date. Objective The research presented here aimed to examine the effects of personality factors and of other users’ previous contributions in a Web-based forum on laypeople’s understanding of the tentativeness of medical research findings, using the example of research on deep brain stimulation. Methods We presented 70 university students with an online news article that reported findings on applying deep brain stimulation as a novel therapeutic method for depression, which participants were unfamiliar with. In a randomized controlled experiment, we manipulated the forum such that the article was either accompanied by user comments that addressed the issue of tentativeness, by comments that did not address this issue, or the article was accompanied by no comments at all. Participants were instructed to write their own individual user comments. Their scientific literacy, epistemological beliefs, and academic self-efficacy were measured. The outcomes measured were perceived tentativeness and tentativeness addressed in the participants’ own comments. Results More sophisticated epistemological beliefs enhanced the perception of tentativeness (standardized β=.26, P=.034). Greater scientific literacy (stand. β=.25, P=.025) and greater academic self-efficacy (stand. β=.31, P=.007) were both predictors of a more extensive discussion of tentativeness in participants’ comments. When forum posts presented in the experiment addressed the issue of tentativeness, participants’ subsequent behavior tended to be consistent with what they had read in the forum, F 2,63=3.66; P=.049, ηp 2=.092. Conclusions Students’ understanding of the tentativeness of research findings on deep

  4. Modulation of Circulating Angiogenic Factors and Tumor Biology by Aerobic Training in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lee W.; Fels, Diane R.; West, Miranda; Allen, Jason D.; Broadwater, Gloria; Barry, William T.; Wilke, Lee G.; Masko, Elisabeth; Douglas, Pamela S.; Dash, Rajesh C.; Povsic, Thomas J.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Marcom, P. Kelly; Blackwell, Kimberly L.; Kimmick, Gretchen; Turkington, Timothy G.; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training (AET) is an effective adjunct therapy to attenuate the adverse side-effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with early breast cancer. Whether AET interacts with the antitumor efficacy of chemotherapy has received scant attention. We carried out a pilot study to explore the effects of AET in combination with neoadjuvant doxorubicin–cyclophosphamide (AC+AET), relative to AC alone, on: (i) host physiology [exercise capacity (VO2 peak), brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (BA-FMD)], (ii) host-related circulating factors [circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEP) cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAF)], and (iii) tumor phenotype [tumor blood flow (15O–water PET), tissue markers (hypoxia and proliferation), and gene expression] in 20 women with operable breast cancer. AET consisted of three supervised cycle ergometry sessions/week at 60% to 100% of VO2 peak, 30 to 45 min/session, for 12 weeks. There was significant time × group interactions for VO2 peak and BA-FMD, favoring the AC+AET group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.07, respectively). These changes were accompanied by significant time × group interactions in CEPs and select CAFs [placenta growth factor, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-2], also favoring the AC+AET group (P < 0.05). 15O–water positron emission tomography (PET) imaging revealed a 38%decrease in tumor blood flow in the AC+AET group. There were no differences in any tumor tissue markers (P > 0.05). Whole-genome microarray tumor analysis revealed significant differential modulation of 57 pathways (P < 0.01), including many that converge on NF-κB. Data from this exploratory study provide initial evidence that AET can modulate several host- and tumor-related pathways during standard chemotherapy. The biologic and clinical implications remain to be determined. PMID:23842792

  5. Evaluation of the biological differences of canine and human factor VIII in gene delivery: implications in human hemophilia treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Dong, B; Firrman, J; Wu, W; Roberts, S; Moore, A R; Liu, L S; Chin, M P S; Diao, Y; Kost, J; Xiao, W

    2016-07-01

    The canine is the most important large animal model for testing novel hemophilia A (HA) treatment. It is often necessary to use canine factor VIII (cFIII) gene or protein for the evaluation of HA treatment in the canine model. However, different biological properties between cFVIII and human FVIII (hFVIII) indicated that the development of novel HA treatment may require careful characterization of non-human FVIII. To investigate whether the data obtained using cFVIII can translate to HA treatment in human, we analyzed the differential biological properties of canine heavy chain (cHC) and light chain (cLC) by comparing with human heavy chain (hHC) and light chain (hLC). The secretion of cHC was 5-30-fold higher than hHC, with or without light chains (LCs). cHC+hLC group exhibited ~18-fold increase in coagulation activity compared with hHC+hLC delivery by recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors. Unlike hHC, the secretion of cHC was independent of LCs. cLC improves the specific activity of FVIII by two- to threefold compared with hLC. Moreover, the cLC, but not cHC, contributes to the higher stability of cFVIII. Our results suggested that the cFVIII expression results in the canine model should be interpreted with caution as the cHC secreted more efficiently than hHC and cLC exhibited a more active and stable phenotype than hLC. PMID:27064790

  6. Evaluation of the biological differences of canine and human factor VIII in gene delivery: implications in human hemophilia treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qizhao; Dong, Biao; Firrman, Jenni; Wu, Wenman; Roberts, Sean; Moore, Andrea Rossi; Liu, LinShu; Chin, Mario P.S.; Diao, Yong; Kost, Joseph; Xiao, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    The canine is the most important large animal model for testing novel hemophilia A(HA) treatment. It is often necessary to use canine factor VIII (cFIII) gene or protein for the evaluation of HA treatment in the canine model. However, the different biological properties between cFVIII and human FVIII(hFVIII) indicated that the development of novel HA treatment may require careful characterization of non-human FVIII. To investigate whether the data obtained using cFVIII can translate to HA treatment in human, we analyzed the differential biological properties of canine heavy chain (cHC) and light chain (cLC) by comparing with human HC (hHC) and LC (hLC). The secretion of cHC was 5~30 fold higher than hHC, with or without LCs. cHC+hLC group exhibited ~18-fold increase in coagulation activity compared with hHC+hLC delivery by recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors. Unlike hHC, the secretion of cHC was independent of LCs. cLC improves the specific activity of FVIII by 2~3-fold compared with hLC. Moreover, the cLC but not cHC, contributes the high stability of cFVIII. Our results suggested that the cFVIII expression results in the canine model should be interpreted with caution as the cHC secreted more efficiently than hHC and cLC exhibited a more active and stable phenotype than hLC. PMID:27064790

  7. Posttranslational regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 in normal and transformed human fibroblasts. Insulin-like growth factor dependence and biological studies.

    PubMed Central

    Conover, C A; Kiefer, M C; Zapf, J

    1993-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) is a 24-26-kD protein expressed by a variety of cell types in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of normal adult human fibroblasts with 10 nM insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) for 24 h resulted in an 85% decrease in endogenous IGFBP-4, as assessed by Western ligand blot analysis of the conditioned medium. Incubation of human fibroblast-conditioned medium (HFCM) with IGF-II under cell-free conditions led to a similar loss of IGFBP-4. This posttranslationally regulated decrease in IGFBP-4 appeared to be due to a protease in HFCM: (a) It could be prevented with specific protease inhibitors or incubation at 4 degrees C; (b) proteolysis of recombinant human (rh) IGFBP-4 required HFCM; (c) immunoblotting and radiolabeling confirmed cleavage of IGFBP-4 into 18- and 14-kD IGFBP-4 fragments. The protease was specific for IGFBP-4, and was strictly dependent on IGFs for activation. IGF-II was the most effective of the natural and mutant IGFs tested, inducing complete hydrolysis of rhIGFBP-4 at a molar ratio of 0.25:1 (IGF/IGFBP-4). Simian virus 40-transformed adult human fibroblasts also expressed IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-4 protease, as well as an inhibitor of IGFBP-4 proteolysis. In biological studies, intact rhIGFBP-4 potently inhibited IGF-I-stimulated [3H]aminoisobutyric acid uptake, whereas proteolyzed rhIGFBP-4 had no inhibitory effect. In conclusion, these data provide evidence for a novel IGF-dependent IGFBP-4-specific protease that modifies IGFBP-4 structure and function, and indicate a preferential role for IGF-II in its activation. Posttranslational regulation of IGFBP-4 may provide a means for cooperative control of local cell growth by IGF-I and IGF-II. Images PMID:7680662

  8. Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections during the First 3 Years of Life in the Tropics; Findings from a Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, Stefanie K.; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha; Sandoval, Carlos; Broncano, Nely; Guadalupe, Irene; Cooper, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infect more than 2 billion humans worldwide, causing significant morbidity in children. There are few data on the epidemiology and risk factors for infection in pre-school children. To investigate risk factors for infection in early childhood, we analysed data prospectively collected in the ECUAVIDA birth cohort in Ecuador. Methods and Findings Children were recruited at birth and followed up to 3 years of age with periodic collection of stool samples that were examined microscopically for STH parasites. Data on social, demographic, and environmental risk factors were collected from the mother at time of enrolment. Associations between exposures and detection of STH infections were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. Data were analysed from 1,697 children for whom a stool sample was obtained at 3 years. 42.3% had at least one STH infection in the first 3 years of life and the most common infections were caused by A. lumbricoides (33.2% of children) and T. trichiura (21.2%). Hookworm infection was detected in 0.9% of children. Risk of STH infection was associated with factors indicative of poverty in our study population such as Afro-Ecuadorian ethnicity and low maternal educational level. Maternal STH infections during pregnancy were strong risk factors for any childhood STH infection, infections with either A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura, and early age of first STH infection. Children of mothers with moderate to high infections intensities with A. lumbricoides were most at risk. Conclusions Our data show high rates of infection with STH parasites during the first 3 years of life in an Ecuadorian birth cohort, an observation that was strongly associated with maternal STH infections during pregnancy. The targeted treatment of women of childbearing age, in particular before pregnancy, with anthelmintic drugs could offer a novel approach to the prevention of STH infections in pre-school children. PMID:24587469

  9. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors and Outcomes in the Twenty-First Century: Findings from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Hemal; Safford, Monika

    2015-01-01

    REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) is a longitudinal study supported by the National Institutes of Health to determine the disparities in stroke-related mortality across USA. REGARDS has published a body of work designed to understand the disparities in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its risk factors in a biracial national cohort. REGARDS has focused on racial and geographical disparities in the quality and access to health care, the influence of lack of medical insurance, and has attempted to contrast current guidelines in lipid lowering for secondary prevention in a nationwide cohort. It has described CHD risk from nontraditional risk factors such as chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, and inflammation (i.e., high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and has also assessed the role of depression, psychosocial, environmental, and lifestyle factors in CHD risk with emphasis on risk factor modification and ideal lifestyle factors. REGARDS has examined the utility of various methodologies, e.g., the process of medical record adjudication, proxy-based cause of death, and use of claim-based algorithms to determine CHD risk. Some valuable insight into less well-studied concepts such as the reliability of current troponin assays to identify “microsize infarcts,” caregiving stress, and CHD, heart failure, and cognitive decline have also emerged. In this review, we discuss some of the most important findings from REGARDS in the context of the existing literature in an effort to identify gaps and directions for further research. PMID:25794955

  10. Expression and characterization of biologically active human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by insect cells infected with HGF-recombinant baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Yee, C J; DeFrances, M C; Bell, A; Bowen, W; Petersen, B; Michalopoulos, G K; Zarnegar, R

    1993-08-10

    A cDNA containing the entire coding sequence of human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) [also known as scatter factor (SF)] was inserted into the genome of Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus (baculovirus) adjacent to the polyhedrin promoter by homologous recombination. Insect cells (Spodoptera frugiperda) infected with the recombinant virus secrete relatively high levels (3-8 mg/L) of biologically active HGF into the culture medium. The recombinant HGF induces pronounced morphological changes and scattering of primary cultures of rat, mouse, and human hepatocytes within 24 h after plating and stimulates DNA synthesis in these cells with the same magnitude as native HGF derived from human placenta or rabbit serum. The human recombinant HGF produced by the insect cells is N-glycosylated, binds to heparin like native HGF, and is recognized by polyclonal antiserums raised against human or rabbit HGF as assessed by immunoblot, ELISA, and immunoneutralization experiments. Metabolic radiolabeling with L-[35S]methionine (pulse-chase experiments) as well as Western blot analysis indicates that the recombinant HGF is synthesized and secreted by the infected insect cells as the unprocessed single-chain form (pro-HGF) when the cells are cultured in serum-free medium. However, when the infected insect cells are cultured in insect culture medium (Grace's medium) containing fetal bovine serum, the secreted HGF is present mainly in the mature heterodimeric form. Addition of serum to the baculovirus-expressed single-chain [125I]HGF in a cell-free system results in conversion to the heterodimeric two-chain form, and the activation is prevented by the serine protease inhibitor PMSF. Incubation of 125I-labeled pro-HGF with rat liver or spleen extracts resulted in conversion of pro-HGF to the heterodimeric two-chain form. A truncated form of HGF containing the N-terminal portion of HGF (kringles 1-3) was also produced in the same expression system. This deleted HGF, by

  11. Biologic Activity of Autologous, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Secreting Alveolar Soft Parts Sarcoma and Clear Cell Sarcoma Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, John; Fisher, David E.; Demetri, George D.; Neuberg, Donna; Allsop, Stephen A.; Fonseca, Catia; Nakazaki, Yukoh; Nemer, David; Raut, Chandrajit P.; George, Suzanne; Morgan, Jeffrey A.; Wagner, Andrew J.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Ritz, Jerome; Lezcano, Cecilia; Mihm, Martin; Canning, Christine; Hodi, F. Stephen; Dranoff, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Alveolar soft parts sarcoma (ASPS) and clear cell sarcoma (CCS) are rare mesenchymal malignancies driven by chromosomal translocations that activate members of the microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) family. However, in contrast to malignant melanoma, little is known about their immunogenicity. To learn more about the host response to ASPS and CCS, we conducted a phase I clinical trial of vaccination with irradiated, autologous sarcoma cells engineered by adenoviral mediated gene transfer to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Experimental Design Metastatic tumors from ASPS and CCS patients were resected, processed to single cell suspensions, transduced with a replication defective adenoviral vector encoding GM-CSF, and irradiated. Immunizations were administered subcutaneously and intradermally weekly times three and then every other week. Results Vaccines were successfully manufactured for 11 of the 12 enrolled patients. Eleven subjects received from 3 to 13 immunizations. Toxicities were restricted to grade 1–2 skin reactions at inoculation sites. Vaccination elicited local dendritic cell infiltrates and stimulated T cell mediated delayed type-hypersensitivity reactions to irradiated, autologous tumor cells. Antibody responses to tissue-type plasminogen activator (tTPA) and angiopoietins-1/2 were detected. Tumor biopsies showed programmed death-1 (PD-1) positive CD8+ T cells in association with PD ligand-1 (PD-L1) expressing sarcoma cells. No tumor regressions were observed. Conclusions Vaccination with irradiated, GM-CSF secreting autologous sarcoma cell vaccines is feasible, safe, and biologically active. Concurrent targeting of angiogenic cytokines and antagonism of the PD-1 negative regulatory pathway might intensify immune-mediated tumor destruction. PMID:25805798

  12. Understanding public responses to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear incidents--driving factors, emerging themes and research gaps.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Kristian; Amlôt, Richard; Rogers, M Brooke

    2014-11-01

    This paper discusses the management of public responses to incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear materials (CBRN). Given the extraordinary technical and operational challenges of a response to a CBRN release including, but not limited to, hazard detection and identification, casualty decontamination and multi-agency co-ordination, it is not surprising that public psychological and behavioural responses to such incidents have received limited attention by scholars and practitioners alike. As a result, a lack of understanding about the role of the public in effective emergency response constitutes a major gap in research and practice. This limitation must be addressed as a CBRN release has the potential to have wide-reaching psychological and behavioural impacts which, in turn, impact upon public morbidity and mortality rates. This paper addresses a number of key issues: why public responses matter; how responses have been conceptualised by practitioners; what factors have been identified as influencing public responses to a CBRN release and similar extreme events, and what further analysis is needed in order to generate a better understanding of public responses to inform the management of public responses to a CBRN release. PMID:24856235

  13. Expression of biologically recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds via oleosin fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Guan, Lili; Guo, Yongxin; Du, Linna; Wang, Fawei; Wang, Yanfang; Zhen, Lu; Wang, Qingman; Zou, Deyi; Chen, Wei; Yu, Lei; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiaokun

    2015-07-15

    The potential of oleosins to act as carriers for recombinant foreign proteins in plant cells has been established. Using the oleosin fusion technology, the protein can be targeted to oil bodies in oilseeds by fusing it to the N- or C-terminus of oleosin. In this study, aFGF was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds via oleosin fusion technology. A plant-preferred aFGF gene was synthesized by optimizing codon usage and was fused to the C-terminus of the A. thaliana 18.5kDa oleosin gene. The fusion gene was driven by the phaseolin promoter to confer seed-specific expression of the human acidic fibroblast growth factor in A. thaliana. The T-DNA region of the recombinant plasmid pKO-aFGF was introduced into the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana by the floral dip method. The aFGF protein expression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The biological activity showed that oil bodies fused to aFGF stimulated NIH/3T3 cell proliferation activity.

  14. Biological activity, membrane-targeting modification, and crystallization of soluble human decay accelerating factor expressed in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    White, Jennifer; Lukacik, Petra; Esser, Dirk; Steward, Michael; Giddings, Naomi; Bright, Jeremy R.; Fritchley, Sarah J.; Morgan, B. Paul; Lea, Susan M.; Smith, Geoffrey P.; Smith, Richard A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) is a glycophosphatidyl inositol-anchored glycoprotein that regulates the activity of C3 and C5 convertases. In addition to understanding the mechanism of complement inhibition by DAF through structural studies, there is also an interest in the possible therapeutic potential of the molecule. In this report we describe the cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, isolation and membrane-targeting modification of the four short consensus repeat domains of soluble human DAF with an additional C-terminal cysteine residue to permit site-specific modification. The purified refolded recombinant protein was active against both classical and alternative pathway assays of complement activation and had similar biological activity to soluble human DAF expressed in Pichia pastoris. Modification with a membrane-localizing peptide restored cell binding and gave a large increase in antihemolytic potency. These data suggested that the recombinant DAF was correctly folded and suitable for structural studies as well as being the basis for a DAF-derived therapeutic. Crystals of the E. coli-derived protein were obtained and diffracted to 2.2 Å, thus permitting the first detailed X-ray crystallography studies on a functionally active human complement regulator protein with direct therapeutic potential. PMID:15322283

  15. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia. Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19 600 anaesthetics (95% CI 1:16 700-23 450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialties. The incidence with neuromuscular blockade was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without it was ~1:135 900 (1:78 600-299 000). The cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia reported to 5th National Audit Project were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during neuromuscular blockade. The incidence of accidental awareness during caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental; rapid sequence induction; obesity; difficult airway management; neuromuscular blockade; and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, most due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex; age (younger adults, but not children); obesity; anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees); previous awareness; out-of-hours operating; emergencies; type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic); and use of neuromuscular blockade. The following factors were

  16. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  17. Insecure attachment style as a vulnerability factor for depression: recent findings in a community-based study of Malay single and married mothers.

    PubMed

    Abdul Kadir, Nor Ba'yah; Bifulco, Antonia

    2013-12-30

    The role of marital breakdown in women's mental health is of key concern in Malaysia and internationally. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of married and separated/divorced and widowed women examined insecure attachment style as an associated risk factor for depression among 1002 mothers in an urban community in Malaysia. A previous report replicated a UK-based vulnerability-provoking agent model of depression involving negative evaluation of self (NES) and negative elements in close relationships (NECRs) interacting with severe life events to model depression. This article reports on the additional contribution of insecure attachment style to the model using the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ). The results showed that VASQ scores were highly correlated with NES, NECR and depression. A multiple regression analysis of depression with backward elimination found that VASQ scores had a significant additional effect. Group comparisons showed different risk patterns for single and married mothers. NES was the strongest risk factor for both groups, with the 'anxious style' subset of the VASQ being the best additional predictor for married mothers and the total VASQ score (general attachment insecurity) for single mothers. The findings indicate that attachment insecurity adds to a psychosocial vulnerability model of depression among mothers cross-culturally and is important in understanding and identifying risk.

  18. Insecure attachment style as a vulnerability factor for depression: recent findings in a community-based study of Malay single and married mothers.

    PubMed

    Abdul Kadir, Nor Ba'yah; Bifulco, Antonia

    2013-12-30

    The role of marital breakdown in women's mental health is of key concern in Malaysia and internationally. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of married and separated/divorced and widowed women examined insecure attachment style as an associated risk factor for depression among 1002 mothers in an urban community in Malaysia. A previous report replicated a UK-based vulnerability-provoking agent model of depression involving negative evaluation of self (NES) and negative elements in close relationships (NECRs) interacting with severe life events to model depression. This article reports on the additional contribution of insecure attachment style to the model using the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ). The results showed that VASQ scores were highly correlated with NES, NECR and depression. A multiple regression analysis of depression with backward elimination found that VASQ scores had a significant additional effect. Group comparisons showed different risk patterns for single and married mothers. NES was the strongest risk factor for both groups, with the 'anxious style' subset of the VASQ being the best additional predictor for married mothers and the total VASQ score (general attachment insecurity) for single mothers. The findings indicate that attachment insecurity adds to a psychosocial vulnerability model of depression among mothers cross-culturally and is important in understanding and identifying risk. PMID:24075307

  19. Radiologic Findings and Risk Factors of Adjacent Segment Degeneration after Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion : A Retrospective Matched Cohort Study with 3-Year Follow-Up Using MRI

    PubMed Central

    So, Wan-Soo; Ku, Min-Geun; Kim, Sang-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Byung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to figure out the radiologic findings and risk factors related to adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using 3-year follow-up radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance image (MRI). Methods A retrospective matched comparative study was performed for 64 patients who underwent single-level ACDF with a cage and plate. Radiologic parameters, including upper segment range of motion (USROM), lower segment range of motion (LSROM), upper segment disc height (UDH), and lower segment disc height (LDH), clinical outcomes assessed with neck and arm visual analogue scale (VAS), and risk factors were analyzed. Results Patients were categorized into the ASD (32 patients) and non-ASD (32 patients) group. The decrease of UDH was significantly greater in the ASD group at each follow-up visit. At 36 months postoperatively, the difference for USROM value from the preoperative one significantly increased in the ASD group than non-ASD group. Preoperative other segment degeneration was significantly associated with the increased incidence of ASD at 36 months. However, pain intensity for the neck and arm was not significantly different between groups at any post-operative follow-up visit. Conclusion The main factor affecting ASD is preoperative other segment degeneration out of the adjacent segment. In addition, patients over the age of 50 are at higher risk of developing ASD. Although there was definite radiologic degeneration in the ASD group, no significant difference was observed between the ASD and non-ASD groups in terms of the incidence of symptomatic disease. PMID:26962418

  20. [Monitoring of seasonal variation of vegetation cover and evaluation of biological-control factor in orchards of China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Wen-bo; Wang, Guo-yan

    2015-03-01

    Biological-control factor (B) can quantitatively reflect the effect of vegetation on soil erosion. Vertical photography method was used to monitor the seasonal changes of orchard coverage in 18 small watersheds, covering all five water erosion zones in China. The canopy coverage and ground green coverage were then calculated, and the B values were estimated. The result indicated that the orchard canopy coverage varied with season and distributed with a bell shape. The trend of ground green coverage and total coverage changed with season and was affected by the land management. For the orchard where the land surface was not treated and the weeds could grow freely, the distribution of the green coverage season change for all five soil erosion zones had a bell shape. The total coverage in the Northwest Loess Plateau area changed with season with a bell shape as well. The total coverage in the other four areas did not vary with the season and almost kept constant. For the orchard where land surface was cleaned up from time to time, the green coverage and total coverage in all five water erosion areas irregularly varied with season. The average B value of orchards in Northeast black soil area was the minimum with a value of 0.0006, while that in the Northwest Loess Plateau area was the maximum (0.1212). The average orchard B values in the Northern rocky earthy area, the Southern red soil area and the Southwest rocky earthy area were not significantly different and were 0.0548, 0.0627 and 0.0639, respectively.

  1. [Monitoring of seasonal variation of vegetation cover and evaluation of biological-control factor in orchards of China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Wen-bo; Wang, Guo-yan

    2015-03-01

    Biological-control factor (B) can quantitatively reflect the effect of vegetation on soil erosion. Vertical photography method was used to monitor the seasonal changes of orchard coverage in 18 small watersheds, covering all five water erosion zones in China. The canopy coverage and ground green coverage were then calculated, and the B values were estimated. The result indicated that the orchard canopy coverage varied with season and distributed with a bell shape. The trend of ground green coverage and total coverage changed with season and was affected by the land management. For the orchard where the land surface was not treated and the weeds could grow freely, the distribution of the green coverage season change for all five soil erosion zones had a bell shape. The total coverage in the Northwest Loess Plateau area changed with season with a bell shape as well. The total coverage in the other four areas did not vary with the season and almost kept constant. For the orchard where land surface was cleaned up from time to time, the green coverage and total coverage in all five water erosion areas irregularly varied with season. The average B value of orchards in Northeast black soil area was the minimum with a value of 0.0006, while that in the Northwest Loess Plateau area was the maximum (0.1212). The average orchard B values in the Northern rocky earthy area, the Southern red soil area and the Southwest rocky earthy area were not significantly different and were 0.0548, 0.0627 and 0.0639, respectively. PMID:26211057

  2. The effect of biological and chemical factors on the uptake and toxicity of cadmium in the duckweed Lemna trisulca L

    SciTech Connect

    Huebert, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    The duckweed Lemna trisulca L. was grown in axenic cultures in a filter-sterilized medium. A portion of the medium was replaced regularly during experiments. The amount replaced doubled every two days. metal concentrations in the medium wee measured on the last day of experiments. The only organic compound added was FeEDTA at a concentration of 9 [mu]M. The chelating capacity of the medium was therefore minimal, defined and controlled. The nutrient medium and environmental conditions supported a doubling time of 1.6 to 2.4 days over a 14 day culture period. Under the above conditions, the EC50 (concentration at which a 50% effect is observed) for Cd and 0.99 [mu]M based on multiplication rate and 0.56 [mu]M based on final yield. The NOEC (no observable effect concentration) for Cd was between 120 and 150 [mu]g Cd/g dry wt. based on internal Cd, and 0.08 [mu]M based on external Cd. Internal Cd may be a superior estimate of toxicity because it avoids the problems associated with metal speciation in the external medium and allows for a comparison with field data. Lemna trisulca responded within 2 days to the addition of 0.64 [mu]M Cd. No tolerance to Cd was induced even after 6 weeks of exposure. The calculated response of L. trisulca to Cd may have been influenced by the multiplication rate of control cultures, which varied from 1.6 to 2.4 days. Calcium had no effect on Cd uptake or toxicity. Zinc antagonized Cd toxicity but had a variable effect on Cd uptake depending on its concentration. Zinc was about fifteen times less toxic than Cd. The uptake and toxicity of Cd and Zn were almost completely prevented when the level of available EDTA was in excess of the CD or Zn concentration. These data indicate that biological and chemical factors can profoundly influence the effect of toxicants on living organisms. These factors must be considered to ensure that toxicity studies are not confounded by effects extraneous to the actual effect of the toxicant.

  3. Use of anti-tumor necrosis factor biologics in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis does not change human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 markers: a case series.

    PubMed

    Umekita, Kunihiko; Umeki, Kazumi; Miyauchi, Shunichi; Ueno, Shiro; Kubo, Kazuyoshi; Kusumoto, Norio; Takajo, Ichiro; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Okayama, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologics are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, it is still not clear whether this treatment promotes the development of malignancies such as lymphoma. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which is a causative agent of adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), is prevalent in Japan. Many HTLV-1-positive patients with RA are assumed to exist; however, there have thus far been no reports on the effect of anti-TNF biologics on HTLV-1-positive patients. We analyzed the response to treatment with anti-TNF biologics and change of HTLV-1 markers in two cases of RA. The two cases showed no response based on the European League Against of Rheumatism response criteria 60-96 weeks after administration of anti-TNF biologics (infliximab and etanercept). No signs of ATL were observed and HTLV-1 markers, such as proviral load and clonality of HTLV-1-infected cells, showed no significant change in either of two cases. Therefore, treatment with anti-TNF biologics did not induce activation of HTLV-1, although the effect on RA was not as effective as in HTLV-1-negative patients in this limited study. Further long-term study with a greater number of patients is necessary to clarify the safety and efficacy of anti-TNF biologics in HTLV-1-positive patients with RA.

  4. Clinical Findings and Pain Symptoms as Potential Risk Factors for Chronic TMD: Descriptive Data and Empirically Identified Domains from the OPPERA Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ohrbach, Richard; Fillingim, Roger B.; Mulkey, Flora; Gonzalez, Yoly; Gordon, Sharon; Gremillion, Henry; Lim, Pei-Feng; Ribeiro-Dasilva, Margarete; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Maixner, William; Slade, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Clinical characteristics might be associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) because they are antecedent risk factors that increase the likelihood of a healthy person developing the condition or because they represent signs or symptoms of either subclinical or overt TMD. In this baseline case-control study of the multisite Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) project, 1,633 controls and 185 cases with chronic, painful TMD completed questionnaires and received clinical examinations. Odds ratios measuring association between each clinical factor and TMD were computed, with adjustment for study-site as well as age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Compared to controls, TMD cases reported more trauma, greater parafunction, more headaches and other pain disorders, more functional limitation in using the jaw, more nonpain symptoms in the facial area, more temporomandibular joint noises and jaw locking, more neural or sensory medical conditions, and worse overall medical status. They also exhibited on examination reduced jaw mobility, more joint noises, and a greater number of painful masticatory, cervical, and body muscles upon palpation. The results indicated that TMD cases differ substantially from controls across almost all variables assessed. Future analyses of follow-up data will determine whether these clinical characteristics predict increased risk for developing first-onset pain-related TMD Perspective Clinical findings from OPPERA’s baseline case-control study indicate significant differences between chronic TMD cases and controls with respect to trauma history, parafunction, other pain disorders, health status, and clinical examination data. Future analyses will examine their contribution to TMD onset. PMID:22074750

  5. Factors affecting uncertainty in lung nodule volume estimation with CT: comparisons of findings from two estimation methods in a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Gavrielides, Marios A.; Zeng, Rongping; Myers, Kyle J.; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    This work aimed to compare two different types of volume estimation methods (a model-based and a segmentationbased method) in terms of identifying factors affecting measurement uncertainty. Twenty-nine synthetic nodules with varying size, radiodensity, and shape were placed in an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom and scanned with a 16- detector row CT scanner. Ten repeat scans were acquired using three exposures and two slice collimations, and were reconstructed with varying slice thicknesses. Nodule volumes were estimated from the reconstructed data using a matched-filter and a segmentation approach. Log transformed volumes were used to obtain measurement error with truth obtained through micro-CT. ANOVA and multiple linear regression were applied to measurement error to identify significant factors affecting volume estimation for each method. Root mean square of measurement errors (RMSE) for meaningful subgroups, repeatability coefficients (RC) for different imaging protocols, and reproducibility coefficients (RDC) for thin and thick collimation conditions were evaluated. Results showed that for both methods, nodule size, shape and slice thickness were significant factors. Collimation was significant for the matched-filter method. RMSEs for matched-filter measurements were in general smaller than segmentation. To achieve RMSE on the order of 15% or less for {5, 8, 9, 10mm} nodules, the corresponding maximum allowable slice thicknesses were {3, 5, 5, 5mm} for the matched-filter and {0.8, 3, 3, 3mm} for the segmentation method. RCs showed similar patterns for both methods, increasing with slice thickness. For 8-10mm nodules, the measurements were highly repeatable provided the slice thickness was ≤3mm, regardless of method and across varying acquisition conditions. RDCs were lower for thin collimation than thick collimation protocols. While RDC of matched filter volume estimation results was always lower than segmentation results, for 8-10mm nodules with thin

  6. Atypical radiological findings in achondroplasia with uncommon mutation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR-3) gene (Gly to Cys transition at codon 375)

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimuri, Gen; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Ikegawa, Shiro

    1995-11-20

    The recent discovery of mutations in the FGFR-3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor-3) gene (FGFR3) as the cause of achondroplasia has provided new insight into understanding genetic diseases. It was surprising from the viewpoint of molecular genetics that most patients with achondroplasia showed the same mutation at nucleotide 1138, leading to a single amino acid substitution from glycine to arginine at codon 380 (Gly380Arg). All 39 patients examined by two groups had the Gly380Arg; 38 patients and the other demonstrated a G to A and a G to C transition at nucleotide 1138, respectively. Subsequently another group disclosed a G to A transition at the same nucleotide 1138 in 21/23 patients of diverse ethnic origin, although mutations were not identified in two patients. To date, a total of 193 patients with the mutation of the G380Arg have been reported; a single patient with another mutation resulting in a substitution from glycine to cysteine at codon 375 (Gly375Cys) has been described. The presence of this common mutation is consistent with the clinical fact that achondroplastic individuals show less phenotypic variability than is unusual for autosomal dominant diseases. We encountered a Japanese boy with the Gly375Cys. His mother with achondroplasia has the same mutation. The molecular investigation of these patients was reported elsewhere. Here we report the clinical and radiological findings in this boy who demonstrated some atypical manifestations from those of typical achondroplasia. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Metadiscourse Markers in Biological Research Articles and Journal Impact Factor: Non-Native Writers vs. Native Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholami, Javad; Ilghami, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    Metadiscourse markers (MDMs) are lexical resources that writers employ to organize their discourse and state their stance towards the content or the reader. This study investigated the frequency with which interactive and interactional MDMs were employed in biological research articles (RAs). It also explored the possible relationship between the…

  8. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  9. Demonstration of a factor in the serum of homozygotes and heterozygotes for cystic fibrosis by a non-biological technique.

    PubMed

    Altland, K; Schmidt, S R; Kaiser, G; Knoche, W

    1975-07-23

    A factor has been isolated from serum of homozygotes and obligate heterozgotes for cystic fibrosis using isoelectric focusing and disc electrophoresis as analytical methods. The factor is focused within an IgG-fraction with an isoelectric point of pH 8 to 9 but differs from IgG in its lower molecular weight. It is thus similar to, if not identical with, the ciliary dyskinesia factor.

  10. An analysis of factors influencing the teaching of evolution and creation by Arizona high school biology teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorstad, Susan

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the amount of emphasis given by Arizona high school biology teachers to the topics of evolutionary theory and special creation, as explanations for the origin and diversity of life on earth. A questionnaire was mailed to all Arizona public high school biology teachers in March of 2000, to gather data on teachers' classroom practices and attitudes towards evolution and creation, information on teachers' educational and professional backgrounds, their religious preferences, and any perceptions of pressure regarding the teaching of evolution or creation from outside sources. Sixty-five percent (final n = 419) of the questionnaires were returned. Analysis confirmed that, while a strong majority (96%) of Arizona teachers gave some coverage to evolutionary theory, a significant proportion (33%) reported fewer than three class periods per semester in which evolution was a major topic; 10% left it out entirely. Fourteen percent of the teachers reported that they gave moderate-to-strong emphasis to religious explanations of the origins and diversity of life. It was unclear whether this was presented as an alternative scientific theory, or as religion or philosophy. Between ten and thirty percent also rejected the scientific validity of evolutionary theory, rejected the evolution of humans from ape-like ancestors, thought that religious explanations should be taught as part of high school biology classes, or agreed that creationism has a valid scientific foundation. The amount of emphasis given evolution by a teacher correlated positively with teaching experience, number of college classes in evolutionary biology taken by the teacher, the amount of in-service training a teacher had had on teaching evolutionary theory, and age. It correlated negatively with membership in Conservative Christian religious denominations and with degree of religious fervor. Interestingly, the possession of a degree in biological sciences (e.g., versus a degree in education

  11. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  12. The influence of behavioural and psychological factors on medication adherence over time in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a study in the biologics era

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Catharine; McBeth, John; Cordingley, Lis; Watson, Kath; Hyrich, Kimme L.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate levels of self-reported adherence to biologic treatment and establish the contribution of demographic, physical and psychological factors to biologic medication adherence in an RA cohort. Methods. Adalimumab-treated patients were recruited through the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for RA between May 2007 and April 2009. Demographic and baseline psychological measures including illness and medication beliefs were collected. Disease activity (28-item DAS), physical function (HAQ) and quality of life (36-item Short Form Health Survey) were also measured at baseline and at 6, 12 and 18 months. Adherence was assessed at each follow-up using the patient self-completed Compliance Questionnaire for Rheumatology (CQR). Multilevel mixed effects modelling analysis was performed to investigate predictors of adherence. Results. Of the 329 Adalimumab-treated patients included, low adherence (CQR score <65) was reported in 23%, with 41% reporting low adherence at at least one time point. After controlling for age and disease duration, factors independently predictive of increased adherence were increased belief in medication necessity, with baseline effect diminishing over time [β coefficient 1.68 (s.e. 0.19), P = 0.0001], lower medication concerns [0.50 (0.15), P = 0.001], with this effect remaining throughout follow-up, increased professional or family member support [0.81 (0.32), P = 0.01], strong views of illness being chronic [0.32 (0.14), P = 0.025] and increased treatment control [0.41 (0.19), P = 0.032]. Conclusion. Wider recognition of the importance of psychological factors, particularly medication beliefs, in driving medication adherence could have substantial clinical and health economic benefits in RA. The psychological factors we have identified are putative targets for strategies to improve adherence in RA. PMID:25972390

  13. Is chondroitin sulfate responsible for the biological effects attributed to the GC protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF)?

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Marco; Reinwald, Heinz; Pacini, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    We hypothesize that a plasma glycosaminoglycan, chondroitin sulfate, may be responsible for the biological and clinical effects attributed to the Gc protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF), a protein that is extracted from human blood. Thus, Gc protein binds chondroitin sulfate on the cell surface and such an interaction may occur also in blood, colostrum and milk. This interpretation would solve the inconsistencies encountered in explaining the effects of GcMAF in vitro and in vivo. According to our model, the Gc protein or the GcMAF bind to chondroitin sulfate both on the cell surface and in bodily fluids, and the resulting multimolecular complexes, under the form of oligomers trigger a transmembrane signal or, alternatively, are internalized and convey the signal directly to the nucleus thus eliciting the diverse biological effects observed for both GcMAF and chondroitin sulfate. PMID:27515218

  14. Genome-Wide Mapping of Binding Sites Reveals Multiple Biological Functions of the Transcription Factor Cst6p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Bergenholm, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Cst6p has been reported to play important roles in several biological processes. However, the genome-wide targets of Cst6p and its physiological functions remain unknown. Here, we mapped the genome-wide binding sites of Cst6p at high resolution. Cst6p binds to the promoter regions of 59 genes with various biological functions when cells are grown on ethanol but hardly binds to the promoter at any gene when cells are grown on glucose. The retarded growth of the CST6 deletion mutant on ethanol is attributed to the markedly decreased expression of NCE103, encoding a carbonic anhydrase, which is a direct target of Cst6p. The target genes of Cst6p have a large overlap with those of stress-responsive transcription factors, such as Sko1p and Skn7p. In addition, a CST6 deletion mutant growing on ethanol shows hypersensitivity to oxidative stress and ethanol stress, assigning Cst6p as a new member of the stress-responsive transcriptional regulatory network. These results show that mapping of genome-wide binding sites can provide new insights into the function of transcription factors and highlight the highly connected and condition-dependent nature of the transcriptional regulatory network in S. cerevisiae. PMID:27143390

  15. Transforming Growth Factor Beta Family: Insight into the Role of Growth Factors in Regulation of Fracture Healing Biology and Potential Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Poniatowski, Łukasz A.; Gasik, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family forms a group of three isoforms, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3, with their structure formed by interrelated dimeric polypeptide chains. Pleiotropic and redundant functions of the TGF-β family concern control of numerous aspects and effects of cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, in all tissues of the human body. Amongst many cytokines and growth factors, the TGF-β family is considered a group playing one of numerous key roles in control of physiological phenomena concerning maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in the bone tissue. By breaking the continuity of bone tissue, a spread-over-time and complex bone healing process is initiated, considered a recapitulation of embryonic intracartilaginous ossification. This process is a cascade of local and systemic phenomena spread over time, involving whole cell lineages and various cytokines and growth factors. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies in various models analysing cytokines and growth factors' involvement have shown that TGF-β has a leading role in the fracture healing process. This paper sums up current knowledge on the basis of available literature concerning the role of the TGF-β family in the fracture healing process. PMID:25709154

  16. Transforming growth factor Beta family: insight into the role of growth factors in regulation of fracture healing biology and potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Poniatowski, Łukasz A; Wojdasiewicz, Piotr; Gasik, Robert; Szukiewicz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family forms a group of three isoforms, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3, with their structure formed by interrelated dimeric polypeptide chains. Pleiotropic and redundant functions of the TGF-β family concern control of numerous aspects and effects of cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, in all tissues of the human body. Amongst many cytokines and growth factors, the TGF-β family is considered a group playing one of numerous key roles in control of physiological phenomena concerning maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in the bone tissue. By breaking the continuity of bone tissue, a spread-over-time and complex bone healing process is initiated, considered a recapitulation of embryonic intracartilaginous ossification. This process is a cascade of local and systemic phenomena spread over time, involving whole cell lineages and various cytokines and growth factors. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies in various models analysing cytokines and growth factors' involvement have shown that TGF-β has a leading role in the fracture healing process. This paper sums up current knowledge on the basis of available literature concerning the role of the TGF-β family in the fracture healing process.

  17. Risk Factors for Macro- and Microvascular Complications among Older Adults with Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: Findings from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Sheena M.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Buckley, Claire M.; Canavan, Ronan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore risk factors for macro- and microvascular complications in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 50 years and over with type 2 diabetes in Ireland. Methods. Data from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) (2009–2011) was used in cross-sectional analysis. The presence of doctor diagnosis of diabetes, risk factors, and macro- and microvascular complications were determined by self-report. Gender-specific differences in risk factor prevalence were assessed with the chi-squared test. Binomial regression analysis was conducted to explore independent associations between established risk factors and diabetes-related complications. Results. Among 8175 respondents, 655 were classified as having type 2 diabetes. Older age, being male, a history of smoking, a lower level of physical activity, and a diagnosis of high cholesterol were independent predictors of macrovascular complications. Diabetes diagnosis of 10 or more years, a history of smoking, and a diagnosis of hypertension were associated with an increased risk of microvascular complications. Older age, third-level education, and a high level of physical activity were protective factors (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Early intervention to target modifiable risk factors is urgently needed to reduce diabetes-related morbidity in the older population in Ireland. PMID:27294152

  18. The complex biology of autocrine motility factor/phosphoglucose isomerase (AMF/PGI) and its receptor, the gp78/AMFR E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Fairbank, Maria; St-Pierre, Pascal; Nabi, Ivan R

    2009-08-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) is a glycolytic enzyme that exhibits a dual function as an extracellular cytokine, under the name autocrine motility factor (AMF). Its cell surface receptor, gp78/AMFR, is also localized to the endoplasmic reticulum where it functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Expression of both AMF/PGI and gp78/AMFR is associated with cancer and, in this review, we will discuss various aspects of the biology of this ligand-receptor complex and its role in tumor progression.

  19. Factors influencing health care access perceptions and care-seeking behaviors of immigrant Latino sexual minority men and transgender individuals: Baseline findings from the HOLA intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, AE; Reboussin, BA; Mann, L; Ma, A; Song, E; Alonzo, J; Rhodes, SD

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about immigrant Latino sexual minorities' health seeking behaviors. This study examined factors associated with perceptions of access and actual care behaviors among this population in North Carolina. Methods A community-based participatory research partnership recruited 180 Latino sexual minority men and transgender individuals within preexisting social networks to participate in a sexual health intervention. Mixed-effects logistic regression models examined factors influencing health care access perceptions and use of services (HIV testing and routine check-ups). Results Results indicate that perceptions of access and actual care behaviors are low and affected by individual and structural factors, including: years living in NC, reported poor general health, perceptions of discrimination, micro-, meso-, and macro-level barriers, and residence in a Medically Underserved Area. Discussion To improve Latino sexual minority health, focus must be placed on multiple levels, individual characteristics (e.g., demographics), clinic factors (e.g., provider competence and clinic environment), and structural factors (e.g., discrimination). PMID:25418235

  20. The effects of different preservation processes on the total protein and growth factor content in a new biological product developed from human amniotic membrane.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Bonci, Paola; Bonci, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work is to quantify the total protein and growth factors content in a tissue-suspension obtained from processed human amniotic membrane (hAM). hAM was collected, frozen, freeze dried, powdered and sterilized by γ-irradiation. At each step of the process, samples were characterized for the total protein amounts by a Bradford protein assay and for the growth factor concentrations by ELISA test of the tissue suspensions. Frozen-hAM samples show higher release of total proteins and specific growth factors in the tissue suspension in comparison with freeze-dried hAM. We observed that even if the protein extraction is hindered once the tissue is dried, the powdering process allows a greater release in the tissue suspension of total proteins and growth factors after tissue re-solubilization in comparison with only the freeze-drying process (+91 ± 13% for EGF, +16 ± 4% for HGF, +11 ± 5% for FGF, +16 ± 9% for TGF-β1), and a greater release of EGF (85 ± 10%) in comparison with only the freezing process, because proteins become much readily solubilized in the solution. According with these results, we describe a protocol to obtain a new sterile biological product from hAM tissue, with well-known effects of thermal, mechanical and physical processes on the total protein and grow factors contents.

  1. Contaminants in Buildings and Occupied Spaces as Risk Factors forOccupant Symptoms in U.S. Office Buildings: Findings from the U.S. EPABASE Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, M.J.; Mirer, A.; Lei-Gomez, Q.

    2007-08-01

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms among occupants of modern office buildings worldwide are common and may be associated with important reductions in work performance, but their etiology remains uncertain. Most reported research into environmental risk factors for these symptoms has focused on ventilation system-related factors, dampness, and particle removal through filtration and cleaning, with relatively few studies of other potential sources of indoor contaminants. We analyzed data collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) from a representative sample of 100 large U.S. office buildings--the Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation (BASE) study--using multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between seven building-related symptom outcomes and a diverse set of potential indoor and outdoor sources for indoor pollutants. Although most of the investigated risk factors showed no apparent association with building-related symptoms, some interesting associations resulted. Increased prevalence of symptoms was associated with carpets older than one year (lower respiratory symptoms), non-carpeted floors (upper and lower respiratory symptoms), older furniture (eye and skin symptoms), infrequent vacuuming (upper respiratory, eye, and skin symptoms and headache), and masonry exterior walls (cough, eye symptoms, and fatigue/concentration difficulty). For the many potential risk factors assessed, almost none had been investigated previously, and many associations found here may have been by chance. Additional confirmatory research focused on risk factors initially identified here is needed, using more objective measures of health outcomes and risk factors or exposures.

  2. Parental obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among their offspring in mid-life: findings from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, R; Pinto Pereira, S M; Power, C; Hyppönen, E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated whether parental adiposity is associated with offspring cardiovascular health or the underlying pathways. Studying these associations may help to illuminate the paradox of increasing prevalence of obesity and declining trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, which may be partially explained by beneficial adaptations to an obesogenic environment among people exposed to such environments from younger ages. Objective: To investigate associations between parental body mass index (BMI) and risk factors for CVD among their offspring in mid-life and to test whether associations of offspring BMI with CVD risk factors were modified by parental BMI. Methods: Data from parents and offspring in the 1958 British birth cohort were used (N=9328). Parental BMI was assessed when offspring were aged 11 years; offspring BMI, waist circumference and CVD risk factors (lipid levels, blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and inflammatory and haemostatic markers) were measured at 44–45 years. Results: Higher parental BMI was associated with less favourable levels of offspring risk factors for CVD. Most associations were maintained after adjustment for offspring lifestyle and socioeconomic factors but were largely abolished or reversed after adjustment for offspring adiposity. For some CVD risk factors, there was evidence of effect modification; the association between higher BMI and an adverse lipid profile among offspring was weaker if maternal BMI had been higher. Conversely, offspring BMI was more strongly associated with HbA1c if parental BMI had been higher. Conclusions: Intergenerational influences may be important in conferring the effect of high BMI on CVD risk among offspring. PMID:23567929

  3. Two neglected biologic risk factors in bone grafting and implantology: high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low serum vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Choukroun, Joseph; Khoury, Georges; Khoury, Fouad; Russe, Philippe; Testori, Tiziano; Komiyama, Yataro; Sammartino, Gilberto; Palacci, Patrick; Tunali, Mustafa; Choukroun, Elisa

    2014-02-01

    Following a failure of a bone graft or an implant placement, the hypothesis of a biological abnormality is rarely considered as a possible cause. A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature for dyslipidemia or vitamin D deficiency may explain this lack of consideration. Excess low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (dyslipidemia) is responsible for a slower bone metabolism or lower dental implant osseointegration. In addition, vitamin D is a key factor for linking innate and adaptive immunity. Both of these factors are compromised under the conditions of vitamin D deficiency. Therefore, vitamin D deficiency slows implant osseointegration and increases the risk of graft infection. Vitamin D is also involved in immune function and therefore allergic reactions.

  4. Findings from Integrated Behavioral and Biologic Survey among Males Who Inject Drugs (MWID) — Vietnam, 2009–2010: Evidence of the Need for an Integrated Response to HIV, Hepatitis B Virus, and Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Nadol, Patrick; O’connor, Siobhan; Duong, Hao; Le, Linh-Vi N.; Thang, Pham Hong; Tram, Tran Hong; Ha, Hoang Thi Thanh; Mcconnell, Michelle S.; Partridge, Jeff; Kaldor, John; Law, Matthew; Nguyen, Tuan Anh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Given the overlapping modes of transmission of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), understanding the burden and relationship of these infections is critical for an effective response. Representative data on these infections among males who inject drugs (MWID), the key high-risk population for HIV in Vietnam, are currently lacking. Methods Data and stored specimens from Vietnam’s 2009-2010 Integrated Biologic and Behavioral Survey, a cross-sectional study among high-risk populations, were used for this analysis. Plasma samples were tested for HIV, HBV, and HCV using commercial assays. A questionnaire was administered to provide demographic, behavior, and service-uptake information. Provincial-level analyses were conducted to profile MWID enrollees and to provide estimates on the prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV infection. Results Among 3010 MWID sampled across 10 provinces, the median (range) HIV prevalence was 28.1% (1.0%-55.5%). Median prevalence for current HBV infection (HBsAg+) was 14.1% (11.7%-28.0%), for previous exposure to HBV (total anti-HBc+) was 71.4% (49.9%-83.1%), and for current or past HCV infection (HCV Ag/Ab+) was 53.8% (10.9%-80.8%). In adjusted analysis, HBsAg+ (aOR: 2.09, 1.01-4.34) and HCV Ag/Ab+ (aOR: 19.58, 13.07-29.33) status were significantly associated with HIV infection; the association with total anti-HBc+ approached significance (aOR: 1.29, 0.99-1.68). Conclusion The prevalence and association between HIV, HBV, and HCV are high among MWID in Vietnam. These findings indicate the need for integrated policies and practice that for the surveillance, prevention, screening, and treatment of both HIV and viral hepatitis among MWID in Vietnam. PMID:25692469

  5. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha as a Marker of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Development and Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Ramin M.; Xaymardan, Munira

    2015-01-01

    Three decades on, the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been intensively researched on the bench top and used clinically. However, ambiguity still exists in regard to their anatomical locations, identities, functions, and extent of their differentiative abilities. One of the major impediments in the quest of the MSC research has been lack of appropriate in vivo markers. In recent years, this obstacle has been resolved to some degree as PDGFRα emerges as an important mesenchymal stem cell marker. Accumulating lines of evidence are showing that the PDGFRα+ cells reside in the perivascular locations of many adult interstitium and fulfil the classic concepts of MSCs in vitro and in vivo. PDGFRα has long been recognised for its roles in the mesoderm formation and connective tissue development during the embryogenesis. Current review describes the lines of evidence regarding the role of PDGFRα in morphogenesis and differentiation and its implications for MSC biology. PMID:26257789

  6. Cataloguing of Potential HIV Susceptibility Factors during the Menstrual Cycle of Pig-Tailed Macaques by Using a Systems Biology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Burgener, A.; Bosinger, S. E.; Tharp, G. K.; Guenthner, P. C.; Patel, N. B.; Birse, K.; Hanson, D. L.; Westmacott, G. R.; Henning, T. R.; Radzio, J.; Garcia-Lerma, J. G.; Ball, T. B.; McNicholl, J. M.; Kersh, E. N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our earlier studies with pig-tailed macaques demonstrated various simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) susceptibilities during the menstrual cycle, likely caused by cyclic variations in immune responses in the female genital tract. There is concern that high-dose, long-lasting, injectable progestin-based contraception could mimic the high-progesterone luteal phase and predispose women to human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and transmission. In this study, we adopted a systems biology approach employing proteomics (tandem mass spectrometry), transcriptomics (RNA microarray hybridization), and other specific protein assays (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and multiplex chemokine and cytokine measurements) to characterize the effects of hormonal changes on the expression of innate factors and secreted proteins in the macaque vagina. Several antiviral factors and pathways (including acute-phase response signaling and complement system) were overexpressed in the follicular phase. Conversely, during the luteal phase there were factors overexpressed (including moesins, syndecans, and integrins, among others) that could play direct or indirect roles in enhancing HIV-1 infection. Thus, our study showed that specific pathways and proteins or genes might work in tandem to regulate innate immunity, thus fostering further investigation and future design of approaches to help counter HIV-1 acquisition in the female genital tract. IMPORTANCE HIV infection in women is poorly understood. High levels of the hormone progesterone may make women more vulnerable to infection. This could be the case during the menstrual cycle, when using hormone-based birth control, or during pregnancy. The biological basis for increased HIV vulnerability is not known. We used an animal model with high risk for infection during periods of high progesterone. Genital secretions and tissues during the menstrual cycle were studied. Our goal was to identify biological factors

  7. Evaluation of biogeographical factors in the native range to improve the success of biological control agents in the introduced range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biogeographical factors associated with Arundo donax in its native range were evaluated in reference to its key herbivore, an armored scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis. Climate modeling from location data in Spain and France accurately predicted the native range of the scale in the warmer, drier parts o...

  8. The Role of Biological and Social Factors in the Cause of Mental Retardation Associated with Parental Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovkina, A. G.; Sagdullaev, A. A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses research into parental alcoholism as the cause of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Reports that a study examined the family history of children in 18 schools in the Soviet Union. Concludes that intellectual deficiencies can be traced to various genetic and environmental factors. Calls for early intervention to prevent intellectual…

  9. The foundations of space biology and medicine. Volume 2: Ecological and physiological bases of space biology and medicine. Part 3: Effect on the organism of dynamic flight factors. Chapter 1: Principles of gravitational biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    The physical principles of gravitation are discussed, such as gravitational and intertial forces, weight and mass, weightlessness, size and scale effects, scale limits of gravitational effects, and gravity as a biogenic factor. The behavior of the accelerative force gravitation, is described. This law proposes and quantifies the mutual gravitational attraction existing between all bodies of matter, the force being proportional to the product of masses, and inversely related to the square of the distance separating them. Gravity orientation, chronic acceleration, and hematology are examined. Systematic responses, such as circulation and renal functions, are also considered, along with animal response to a decreased acceleration field and physiology of hyper- and hypodynamic fields.

  10. Synthesis of Findings from Southern Regional Cooperative Research Project S-44: Factors in the Adjustment of Families and Individuals in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Virlyn A.; Morgan, Carolyn A.

    A group of rural sociologists initiated this 1958-1965 research project for the purpose of increasing knowledge about social and economic adjustments of low-income people in the rural areas of the South. Factors found to be associated with the adjustment of low-income families and individuals were anomia, level-of-living, joint decision making,…

  11. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Design Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence. PMID:26950567

  12. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women – associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mohan B.; Walls, Melissa; Janz, Teresa; Hutchinson, Peter; Turner, Tara; Graham, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20–59 years) and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006). Study design Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Results Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals) of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively). Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. Conclusion The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation. PMID:22901287

  13. Compilation of selected marine radioecological data for the US Subseabed Program: Summaries of available radioecological concentration factors and biological half-lives

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphic summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of interstudy variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). This report updates earlier reviews and provides summaries of the tabulated data. In addition to the concentration factor/biological half-life data base, we provide an outline of other published marine radioecological works. Our goal is to present these data in a form that enables those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 555 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Relationship between a spleen-derived immunosuppressive peptide 'SDIP' and the 'Facteur thymique sérique' (FTS): biochemical and biological comparison of the two factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lenfant, M; Millerioux, L; Blazsek, I; Duchange, N

    1983-01-01

    A spleen-derived immunosuppressive peptide (SDIP) has been purified to homogeneity. Its physicochemical properties (electrophoretic mobility, u.v. spectra, absence of dansyl derivative) and its enzymatic susceptibilities (proteolytic enzymes, RNase, and DNase) were similar to those of the thymic hormone 'FTS'. SDIP and FTS were eluted with identical retention times in high performance liquid chromatography analysis in three different systems. When tested in sheep cell rosettes, and in the FTS radioimmunoassay in J.F. Bach's laboratory, SDIP presented an activity similar to FTS. In order to compare the thymic hormone to SDIP the biological activity of FTS was determined in in vivo and in in vitro humoral immunity reactions to a T-dependent antigen. As SDIP, FTS inhibited in vivo and in vitro the 19S-bearing cell formation during the last step of the differentiation of the lymphocytes, in the same range of concentration. The two factors appeared to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into the DNA of short-term cultures of thymocytes. The similarity of biological properties of SDIP and FTS together with the similarity observed in the physico-chemical and biochemical properties led to the conclusion that bovine spleen contains a factor similar to FTS. PMID:6682089

  15. Solution synthesis and biological activity of human pleiotrophin, a novel heparin-binding neurotrophic factor consisting of 136 amino acid residues with five disulfide bonds.

    PubMed

    Inui, T; Nakao, M; Nishio, H; Nishiuchi, Y; Kojima, S; Muramatsu, T; Kimura, T

    2000-05-01

    Human pleiotrophin (hPTN), a novel heparin-binding neurotrophic factor consisting of 136 amino acid residues with five intramolecular disulfide bonds, was synthesized by solution procedure in order to demonstrate the utility of our strategy using our newly developed solvent system, a mixture of trifluoroethanol (TFE) and dichloromethane (DCM) or chloroform (CHL). The final protected peptide was synthesized by coupling two larger protected intermediates, Boc-(1-64)-OH and H-(65-136)-OBzl, in CHL/TFE (3:1; v/v) using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) in the presence of 3,4-dihydro-3-hydroxy-4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazine (HOOBt). After removal of all protecting groups using the HF procedure followed by treatment with Hg(OAc)2, the fully deprotected peptide was subjected to an oxidative folding reaction. The product was confirmed as having the correct disulfide structure by examining the cystine peptides obtained by enzymatic digestions, and as possessing the same biological activities as those of the natural product. The N- and C-terminal half domains (1-64 and 65-136) were also synthesized, and measurement of their biological activities indicated that the C-terminal half domain displays almost all the activities of the full-length molecule, whereas the N-terminal half domain shows almost no activity. From these results, we were able to confirm that the C-terminal half domain is responsible for the expression of biological activities in the same manner as human midkine (hMK), another heparin-binding neurotrophic growth factor.

  16. Biological role of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) on cells of the myeloid lineage.

    PubMed

    Ushach, Irina; Zlotnik, Albert

    2016-09-01

    M-CSF and GM-CSF are 2 important cytokines that regulate macrophage numbers and function. Here, we review their known effects on cells of the macrophage-monocyte lineage. Important clues to their function come from their expression patterns. M-CSF exhibits a mostly homeostatic expression pattern, whereas GM-CSF is a product of cells activated during inflammatory or pathologic conditions. Accordingly, M-CSF regulates the numbers of various tissue macrophage and monocyte populations without altering their "activation" status. Conversely, GM-CSF induces activation of monocytes/macrophages and also mediates differentiation to other states that participate in immune responses [i.e., dendritic cells (DCs)]. Further insights into their function have come from analyses of mice deficient in either cytokine. M-CSF signals through its receptor (CSF-1R). Interestingly, mice deficient in CSF-1R expression exhibit a more significant phenotype than mice deficient in M-CSF. This observation was explained by the discovery of a novel cytokine (IL-34) that represents a second ligand of CSF-1R. Information about the function of these ligands/receptor system is still developing, but its complexity is intriguing and strongly suggests that more interesting biology remains to be elucidated. Based on our current knowledge, several therapeutic molecules targeting either the M-CSF or the GM-CSF pathways have been developed and are currently being tested in clinical trials targeting either autoimmune diseases or cancer. It is intriguing to consider how evolution has directed these pathways to develop; their complexity likely mirrors the multiple functions in which cells of the monocyte/macrophage system are involved. PMID:27354413

  17. What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite a growing body of research into risk factors for IPV, methodological differences limit the extent to which comparisons can be made between studies. We used data from ten countries included in the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence to identify factors that are consistently associated with abuse across sites, in order to inform the design of IPV prevention programs. Methods Standardised population-based household surveys were done between 2000 and 2003. One woman aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from each sampled household. Those who had ever had a male partner were asked about their experiences of physically and sexually violent acts. We performed multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of physical and/or sexual partner violence within the past 12 months. Results Despite wide variations in the prevalence of IPV, many factors affected IPV risk similarly across sites. Secondary education, high SES, and formal marriage offered protection, while alcohol abuse, cohabitation, young age, attitudes supportive of wife beating, having outside sexual partners, experiencing childhood abuse, growing up with domestic violence, and experiencing or perpetrating other forms of violence in adulthood, increased the risk of IPV. The strength of the association was greatest when both the woman and her partner had the risk factor. Conclusions IPV prevention programs should increase focus on transforming gender norms and attitudes, addressing childhood abuse, and reducing harmful drinking. Development initiatives to improve access to education for girls and boys may also have an important role in violence prevention. PMID:21324186

  18. What Factors Are Related to Success on Conditional Release/Discharge? Findings from the New Orleans Forensic Aftercare Clinic: 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Manguno-Mire, Gina M.; Coffman, Kelly L.; DeLand, Sarah M.; Thompson, John W.; Myers, Leann

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the empirically based factors that predicted success on conditional release among a sample of individuals conditionally discharged in Louisiana. Not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees and individuals on conditional release/discharge for incompetency to stand trial were included in the study. Success on conditional release was defined as maintenance of conditional release during the study period. Recidivism (arrest on new charges) and incidents were empirically evaluated. Success on conditional release was maintained in over 70% of individuals. Recidivism was low, with only five arrests on new charges. Success on conditional release was predicted by financial resources, not having a personality disorder, and having fewer total incidents in the program. After controlling for the influence of other variables, having an incident on conditional release was predicted by a substance use diagnosis and being released from jail. Individuals conditionally released from jail showed fewer number of days to first incident (67 vs. 575 days) compared with individuals discharged from the hospital. These data provide support for the successful management of forensic patients in the community via conditional release, although they highlight specific factors that should be considered when developing community-based release programming. Conditional release programs should consider empirical factors in the development of risk assessment and risk management approaches to improve successful maintenance of community-based forensic treatment alternatives. PMID:25328070

  19. Health-Risk Factors and the Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease: Cross-Sectional Findings from a National Cohort of 87 143 Thai Open University Students

    PubMed Central

    Thawornchaisit, Prasutr; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Reid, Christopher M; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Tran, Thanh Tam; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a major health challenge worldwide as its aetiology has transferred from predominantly infectious disease to emerging chronic diseases, especially diabetes and hypertension. A rapid health-risk transition driven by economic development is transforming Thailand which is now becoming an ageing country where chronic diseases are a major health burden. METHODS: This study used the 2005 baseline cross-sectional dataset of 87 143 Thai Cohort Study members to investigate risk factors associated with CKD. Using multivariate logistic regression, we looked into the relationship between CKD and demographic and socioeconomic factors, personal health status and various health-related behaviours. RESULTS: The prevalence of CKD in men was lower than that in women (2.5% vs 2.7%). In both sexes, CKD is associated with ageing, cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol, having diabetes, high lipids and hypertension. In men, CKD was associated with living in rural areas, having a low income, a higher BMI, short sleeping and having Western fast food. In women, marriage is associated with a higher risk of CKD. CONCLUSIONS: CKD is strongly associated with ageing, underlying diseases, smoking and drinking. Hypertension, elevated lipids, or diabetes are all risk factors that could be prevented or detected and treated. The Ministry of Public Health should encourage Thai people to consume healthy food, maintain a normal weight, stop smoking and drink alcohol in moderation, all of which will help prevent CKD. PMID:26156905

  20. What factors are related to success on conditional release/discharge? Findings from the New Orleans forensic aftercare clinic: 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Manguno-Mire, Gina M; Coffman, Kelly L; DeLand, Sarah M; Thompson, John W; Myers, Leann

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the empirically based factors that predicted success on conditional release among a sample of individuals conditionally discharged in Louisiana. Not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees and individuals on conditional release/discharge for incompetency to stand trial were included in the study. Success on conditional release was defined as maintenance of conditional release during the study period. Recidivism (arrest on new charges) and incidents were empirically evaluated. Success on conditional release was maintained in over 70% of individuals. Recidivism was low, with only five arrests on new charges. Success on conditional release was predicted by financial resources, not having a personality disorder, and having fewer total incidents in the program. After controlling for the influence of other variables, having an incident on conditional release was predicted by a substance use diagnosis and being released from jail. Individuals conditionally released from jail showed fewer number of days to first incident (67 vs. 575 days) compared with individuals discharged from the hospital. These data provide support for the successful management of forensic patients in the community via conditional release, although they highlight specific factors that should be considered when developing community-based release programming. Conditional release programs should consider empirical factors in the development of risk assessment and risk management approaches to improve successful maintenance of community-based forensic treatment alternatives.

  1. Vitamin D as a Resilience Factor, Helpful for Survival of Potentially Fatal Conditions: A Hypothesis Emerging from Recent Findings of the ESTHER Cohort Study and the CHANCES Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Schöttker, Ben; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    There is debate on whether vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for major chronic diseases and premature death or whether observed associations were just confounded by general health status. Here, we review recent results from the Epidemiologische Studie zu Chancen der Verhütung, Früherkennung und optimierten Therapie chronischer Erkrankungen in der älteren Bevölkerung (ESTHER) cohort study and the Consortium on Heatlh and Ageing: Network of Cohorts from Europe and the United States (CHANCES) that suggest that vitamin D deficiency may not be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases and cancer but may be a risk factor for fatal instances of these diseases. Furthermore, analyses comprehensively adjusted for the health status showed that the association of vitamin D and mortality was very likely not confounded by general health status. These results suggest that vitamin D could be a marker of resilience to fatality of potentially fatal diseases. Sufficient vitamin D serum concentrations may be needed to regulate the response of the immune system when it is challenged by severe diseases to prevent a fatal course of the disease. If this hypothesis can be verified through basic research studies and adequately designed randomized controlled trials, it could have important public health implications because vitamin D deficiency is very common worldwide, and interventions could be implemented easily. PMID:25954901

  2. What factors are related to success on conditional release/discharge? Findings from the New Orleans forensic aftercare clinic: 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Manguno-Mire, Gina M; Coffman, Kelly L; DeLand, Sarah M; Thompson, John W; Myers, Leann

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the empirically based factors that predicted success on conditional release among a sample of individuals conditionally discharged in Louisiana. Not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees and individuals on conditional release/discharge for incompetency to stand trial were included in the study. Success on conditional release was defined as maintenance of conditional release during the study period. Recidivism (arrest on new charges) and incidents were empirically evaluated. Success on conditional release was maintained in over 70% of individuals. Recidivism was low, with only five arrests on new charges. Success on conditional release was predicted by financial resources, not having a personality disorder, and having fewer total incidents in the program. After controlling for the influence of other variables, having an incident on conditional release was predicted by a substance use diagnosis and being released from jail. Individuals conditionally released from jail showed fewer number of days to first incident (67 vs. 575 days) compared with individuals discharged from the hospital. These data provide support for the successful management of forensic patients in the community via conditional release, although they highlight specific factors that should be considered when developing community-based release programming. Conditional release programs should consider empirical factors in the development of risk assessment and risk management approaches to improve successful maintenance of community-based forensic treatment alternatives. PMID:25328070

  3. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Factors Regulating RNA Biology as Dynamic Targets of Stress-induced SUMOylation in Arabidopsis *

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Marcus J.; Scalf, Mark; Rytz, Thérèse C.; Hubler, Shane L.; Smith, Lloyd M.; Vierstra, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    The stress-induced attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to a diverse collection of nuclear proteins regulating chromatin architecture, transcription, and RNA biology has been implicated in protecting plants and animals against numerous environmental challenges. In order to better understand stress-induced SUMOylation, we combined stringent purification of SUMO conjugates with isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification mass spectrometry and an advanced method to adjust for sample-to-sample variation so as to study quantitatively the SUMOylation dynamics of intact Arabidopsis seedlings subjected to stress. Inspection of 172 SUMO substrates during and after heat shock (37 °C) revealed that stress mostly increases the abundance of existing conjugates, as opposed to modifying new targets. Some of the most robustly up-regulated targets participate in RNA processing and turnover and RNA-directed DNA modification, thus implicating SUMO as a regulator of the transcriptome during stress. Many of these targets were also strongly SUMOylated during ethanol and oxidative stress, suggesting that their modification is crucial for general stress tolerance. Collectively, our quantitative data emphasize the importance of SUMO to RNA-related processes protecting plants from adverse environments. PMID:23197790

  4. Factors affecting the microbial populations at full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Carlos M; Hooijmans, Christine M; Brdjanovic, Damir; Gijzen, Huub J; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2008-05-01

    The influence of operating and environmental conditions on the microbial populations of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process at seven full-scale municipal activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in The Netherlands was studied. Data from the selected WWTPs concerning process configuration, operating and environmental conditions were compiled. The EBPR activity from each plant was determined by execution of anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic batch tests using fresh activated sludge. Fractions of Accumulibacter as potential phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAO), and Competibacter, Defluviicoccus-related microorganisms and Sphingomonas as potential glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) were quantified using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The relationships among plant process configurations, operating parameters, environmental conditions, EBPR activity and microbial populations fractions were evaluated using a statistical approach. A well-defined and operated denitrification stage and a higher mixed liquor pH value in the anaerobic stage were positively correlated with the occurrence of Accumulibacter. A well-defined denitrification stage also stimulated the development of denitrifying PAO (DPAO). A positive correlation was observed between Competibacter fractions and organic matter concentrations in the influent. Nevertheless, Competibacter did not cause a major effect on the EBPR performance. The observed Competibacter fractions were not in the range that would have led to EBPR deterioration. Likely, the low average sewerage temperature (12+/-2 degrees C) limited their proliferation. Defluviicoccus-related microorganisms were seen only in negligible fractions in a few plants (<0.1% as EUB), whereas Sphingomonas were not observed.

  5. The discovery of Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) and its significance for cell biology, life sciences and clinical medicine

    PubMed Central

    NAKAMURA, Toshikazu; MIZUNO, Shinya

    2010-01-01

    It has been more than 25 years since HGF was discovered as a mitogen of hepatocytes. HGF is produced by stromal cells, and stimulates epithelial cell proliferation, motility, morphogenesis and angiogenesis in various organs via tyrosine phosphorylation of its receptor, c-Met. In fetal stages, HGF-neutralization, or c-Met gene destruction, leads to hypoplasia of many organs, indicating that HGF signals are essential for organ development. Endogenous HGF is required for self-repair of injured livers, kidneys, lungs and so on. In addition, HGF exerts protective effects on epithelial and non-epithelial organs (including the heart and brain) via anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory signals. During organ diseases, plasma HGF levels significantly increased, while anti-HGF antibody infusion accelerated tissue destruction in rodents. Thus, endogenous HGF is required for minimization of diseases, while insufficient production of HGF leads to organ failure. This is the reason why HGF supplementation produces therapeutic outcomes under pathological conditions. Moreover, emerging studies delineated key roles of HGF during tumor metastasis, while HGF-antagonism leads to anti-tumor outcomes. Taken together, HGF-based molecules, including HGF-variants, HGF-fragments and c-Met-binders are available as regenerative or anti-tumor drugs. Molecular analysis of the HGF-c-Met system could provide bridges between basic biology and clinical medicine. PMID:20551596

  6. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    PubMed

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  7. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    PubMed

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs. PMID:24766840

  8. Family matters: Influence of biology and behavior on oral health.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Jane A

    2007-03-01

    The family influences the oral health of other family members through biologic and behavioral factors and their interactions over the lifespan. Community and environmental factors also influence oral health. These factors are described and examples are provided. Ways are suggested to translate some of the research findings and incorporate family and contextual factors beyond what the individual in the dental chair presents into dental practice.

  9. Exploring the impact of early life factors on inequalities in risk of overweight in UK children: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Massion, Samuel; Wickham, Sophie; Pearce, Anna; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity in childhood are socially patterned, with higher prevalence in more disadvantaged populations, but it is unclear to what extent early life factors attenuate the social inequalities found in childhood overweight/obesity. Methods We estimated relative risks (RRs) for being overweight (combining with obesity) at age 11 in 11 764 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) according to socio-economic circumstances (SEC). Early life risk factors were explored to assess if they attenuated associations between SECs and overweight. Results 28.84% of children were overweight at 11 years. Children of mothers with no academic qualifications were more likely to be overweight (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.01) compared to children of mothers with degrees and higher degrees. Controlling for prenatal, perinatal, and early life characteristics (particularly maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and maternal smoking during pregnancy) reduced the RR for overweight to 1.44, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.69 in the group with the lowest academic qualifications compared to the highest. Conclusions We observed a clear social gradient in overweight 11-year-old children using a representative UK sample. Moreover, we identified specific early life risk factors, including maternal smoking during pregnancy and maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, that partially account for the social inequalities found in childhood overweight. Policies to support mothers to maintain a healthy weight, breastfeed and abstain from smoking during pregnancy are important to improve maternal and child health outcomes, and our study provides some evidence that they may also help to address the continuing rise in inequalities in childhood overweight. PMID:27162002

  10. Domestic violence against women as a risk factor for depressive and anxiety disorders: findings from domestic violence household survey in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzad-Asl, Masoud; Davoudi, Farnoush; Zarei, Noushin; Mohammad-Sadeghi, Homa; Rasoulian, Maryam

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence (DV) especially intimate partner violence is a global health problem responsible for significant part of burden of diseases in women. Mental health problems such as depression and anxiety are possibly results and resulted in IPV. To investigate correlation between IPV and depression and anxiety among married women, in a household survey of married women in Tehran, Iran, at summer 2011, we recruited 615 samples with cluster sampling method and they are directly asked about experience of 23 different types of physical and non-physical IPV during marital life and last 12 months. Depression and anxiety were assessed by Beck depression inventory II (BDI) and Beck Anxiety inventory (BAI). Multinominal regression model was used to assess the independent relationship of factor on IPV. Mean (±SE) age and duration of marriage were 42.6 ± 0.9 and 22 ± 0.8, respectively. Non-physical violence and physical violence during marital life reported in 77.2 and 35.1 %. Clinically significant depression and anxiety was reported in 15.3 and 32.7 % of women, respectively. The odds ratio (95 % CI) of clinically significant depression and anxiety in DV victims were 5.8 (2.3-14.6) and 2.6 (1.6-4.3). DV as a social factor is significantly correlated factor with depression and anxiety. Comprehensive view and collaborative work to detect and address social determinants of mental illness like DV is a crucial point in mental health promotion programs.

  11. Influence of Exposure to Chronic Persistent Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on the Tumor Biology of Clear-Cell Renal-Cell Carcinoma. An Immunohistochemical and Morphometric Study of Angiogenesis and Vascular Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Saurí, Amparo; Valencia-Villa, Gerardo; Romanenko, Alina; Pérez, Jesús; García, Raúl; García, Heydi; Benavent, José; Sancho-Tello, María; Carda, Carmen; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Increased angiogenesis is related to boosted growth and malignancy in carcinomas. "Chronic Persistent Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation" (CPLDIR) exposure increases incidence and aggressive behavior of clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma (CCRCC). The aim was to study the biology of angiogenesis, including microvessel density (MVD), in human clear-cell renal-cell carcinomas (CCRCC) originating from a radio-contaminated geographical area (Ukraine) and to compare with similar tumors diagnosed in non-contaminated regions of Europe (Spain, Valencia) and Latin America (Colombia, Barranquilla). MVD was comparatively examined in 124 patients diagnosed with CCRCC from three geographical areas by means of digital micro-imaging and computerized analysis. Additionally, 50 adult normal kidneys were used for controls (autopsy kidneys from Valencia and Barranquilla). Furthermore, an immunohistochemical study of several vascular related growth factors was undertaken using a similar methodology. MVD as well as VEFG are the most discriminating factors associated with an aggressive behavior of CCRCC. Their expression increased in proportion to the level of exposure to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation in Ukrainian patients in the 25 years since the Chernobyl accident substantiated by comparison with the two control groups of renal carcinomas present in non-irradiated areas (Spain and Colombia). No major biological differences relating to angiogenesis appear to exist between the CCRCC diagnosed in two distant geographical areas of the world. HIF-1α expression was similar in all groups, with no statistical significance. Present findings demonstrate the existence of a significant relationship between MVD and VEGF in CCRCC: an increased expression of VEGF is associated with a high level of angiogenesis. PMID:27156071

  12. Micro-level economic factors and incentives in Children’s energy balance related behaviours - findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and incentives with sports activities and intake of soft drinks and fruit juice in 10-12 year-old school children across Europe, and to explore price sensitivity in children’s soft drink consumption and correlates of this price sensitivity. Methods Data for the study originate from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in seven European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain) in 2010 among 10-12 year-old school children and their parents. In total, 7234 child questionnaires and 6002 parent questionnaires were completed. The child questionnaire included questions addressing self-reported weekly intake of soft drinks and fruit juices and time spent on sports activities, perception of parental support for sports activities, use of pocket money for soft drinks and perceived price responsiveness. Parent questionnaires included questions addressing the role of budget and price considerations in decisions regarding children’s sports activities, soft drink consumption, home practices and rules and socio-demographic background variables. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression and discrete-choice (ordered probit) modelling. Results Economic factors were found to be associated with children’s sports participation and sugary drink consumption, explaining 27% of the variation in time for sports activities, and 27% and 12% of the variation in the children’s soft drink and juice consumption, respectively. Parents’ financial support was found to be an important correlate (Beta =0.419) of children’s sports activities. Children’s pocket money was a strong correlate (Beta =21.034) of soft drink consumption. The majority of the

  13. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60.0). Conclusions More

  14. A comparative analysis of the structural, functional and biological differences between Mouse and Human Nerve Growth Factor.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Francesca; Malerba, Francesca; Ercole, Bruno Bruni; Lamba, Doriano; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2015-03-01

    NGF is the prototype member of the neurotrophin family of proteins that promote the survival and growth of selected neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. As for all neurotrophins, NGF is translated as a pre-pro-protein. Over the years, NGF and proNGF of either human or mouse origin, given their high degree of homology, have been exploited for numerous applications in biomedical sciences. The mouse NGF has been considered the golden-standard for bioactivity. Indeed, due to evolutionary relatedness to human NGF and to its ready availability and by assuming identical properties to its human counterpart, the mouse NGF, isolated and purified from sub-maxillary glands, has been tested not only in laboratory practice and in preclinical models, but it has also been evaluated in several human clinical trials. Aiming to validate this assumption, widely believed, we performed a comparative study of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the mouse and human counterparts of NGF and proNGF. The mature and the precursor proteins of either species strikingly differ in their biophysical profiles and, when tested for ligand binding to their receptors, in their in vitro biological activities. We provide a structural rationale that accounts for their different functional behaviors. Despite being highly conserved during evolution, NGF and proNGF of mouse and human origins show distinct properties and therefore special care must be taken in performing experiments with cross-species systems in the laboratory practice, in developing immunoassays, in clinical trials and in pharmacological treatments. PMID:25496838

  15. Biological clocks: mechanisms and developments.

    PubMed

    Nongkynrih, P; Sharma, V K

    1992-05-15

    Almost all organisms ranging from unicellular protists to mammals were found to show biological rhythms. Many workers have performed various kinds of experiment to understand the mechanism as well as to find the origin of the clock responsible for these rhythms. However, there is no doubt about the existence of a biologically controlled clock in almost all organisms; yet its origin and mechanism still remain a mystery. Many theories have been put forward to explain the mechanism of these biological clocks and it seems that the cell membrane may play a key role. The existence of a very high electric field of the order of 10(5) V cm-1 across the cell membrane may have some role in the mechanism of the biological clock. Of all the factors which have the effects on biological rhythms, light and temperature are found to be the most common. Also, the study of these biological clocks can help to solve the sleeping problems of international travellers and shift workers as well as to improve diagnosis, cure and prevention from diseases.

  16. Quality Assessment of Panax notoginseng from Different Regions through the Analysis of Marker Chemicals, Biological Potency and Ecological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ding-kun; Wang, Yan-hui; Li, Gang; Yan, Gui-lin; Cao, Li-juan; Xiao, Xiao-he; Huang, Lu-qi; Wang, Jia-bo

    2016-01-01

    Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen, called Sanqi in China, is a perennial herb that has been used as a medicinal herb in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 400 years. Because notoginseng is included in many proprietary Chinese medicines, the quality of notoginseng directly affects its efficacy and safety. However, considering the complex and special growth environment requirements of notoginseng, it is insufficient to evaluate its quality based solely on the analysis of marker chemicals. Thus, in this study, we tried to evaluate the quality of notoginseng with integrated indicators: (1) the concentration of five marker chemicals, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rd; (2) the anticoagulant activity (ACA); and (3) twenty-one ecological factors (e.g., longitude, latitude, elevation and soil data). Using these 27 parameters, notoginseng from different regions could be distinguished effectively, indicating a remarkable divergence of quality. A correlation analysis showed that variations of the ecological factors were closely associated with the saponins content and biopotency. For instance, the total nitrogen (TN), alkali hydrolysis nitrogen (AHN) and rapidly available potassium (RAPT) were significantly correlated with ACA, and RAPT was significantly correlated with the content of ginsenoside Rd and notoginsenoside R1. The results demonstrated that the high-quality notoginseng was produced from the emerging regions such as Kunming, Qujing and Honghe, which had higher ACA and saponin content than the notoginseng produced in traditional regions such as Wenshan and Baise. PMID:27723805

  17. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of pyrazolylaminoquinazoline derivatives as highly potent pan-fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Dai, Yang; Shao, Jingwei; Peng, Xia; Wang, Chen; Cao, Sufen; Zhao, Bin; Ai, Jing; Geng, Meiyu; Duan, Wenhu

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are important oncology targets due to the dysregulation of this signaling pathway in a wide variety of human cancers. We identified a series of pyrazolylaminoquinazoline derivatives as potent FGFR inhibitors with low nanomolar potency. The representative compound 29 strongly inhibited FGFR1-3 kinase activity and suppressed FGFR signaling transduction in FGFR-addicted cancer cells; FGFRs-driven cell proliferation was also strongly inhibited regardless of mechanistic complexity implicated in FGFR activation, which further confirmed that 29 was a potent pan-FGFR inhibitor. The flexibility of our structure offered the potential to preserve good affinity for mutant FGFR, which is important for developing TKIs with long-term efficacy.

  18. Production of biologically active IgG hinge-tag soluble epidermal growth factor receptors (ErbB).

    PubMed

    Otani, Takayuki; Hashizume, Toshihiro; Nagaoka, Tadahiro; Fukuda, Tomoko; Tang, Careen K; Salomon, David S; Seno, Masaharu

    2010-03-01

    The extracellular domains (ECD) of epidermal growth factor receptors, ErbB1, 2, 3 and 4, were designed as soluble dimeric forms. Each ECD was fused to a short hinge region derived from IgG, such that the stable dimer could be formed with disulfide bridges. This hinge-tagged design minimized the molecular weight to approximately 50% of the conventional Fc-fusion design without an Fc domain of IgG. The refolded dimers could be easily analyzed and characterized by SDS-PAGE. Hinge-tagged soluble ErbBs demonstrated significant affinity for betacellulin and heregulin. The IgG hinge-tag should be a simple method to design soluble dimers that would be useful for high throughput screening of ligands, antagonists or derivatives.

  19. New approach to optimize operational conditions for the biological treatment of a high-strength thiocyanate and ammonium waste: pH as key factor.

    PubMed

    Lay-Son, Meiling; Drakides, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Biological treatment of coke and steel-processing wastewaters has to satisfy both industrial economic needs and environmental protection regulations. Nevertheless, as some of the pollutants contained in these waters or produced during the treatment are highly toxic, an effective and safe treatment has proved to be difficult to obtain. This paper reports the study of a biological method for the treatment of wastewaters containing free cyanide, thiocyanate and ammonium (NH4). Laboratory-scale activated-sludge reactors were fed with a synthetic solution reproducing a steel-processing industrial wastewater and inoculated with the same industrial bacterial seeding used on-site (Ecosynergie Inc.). The results demonstrated that free cyanide and thiocyanate were efficiently degraded. Nevertheless, thiocyanate degradation and nitrification processes were actually inhibited by the free ammonia form (NH3) in place of the ionized NH4 form (NH4+) currently dosed and often unproperly named "ammonia" [IUPAC, 1997. In: McNaught, A.D., Wilkinson, A. (compilers). Compendium of Chemical Terminology. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK]. Optimum degradation rates were obtained for very narrow ranges of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations. This result can be explained by the role of pH, which mainly controls the NH3/NH4 equilibrium. Pollutants and NH3 concentrations influenced degradation rates of main pollutants. This influence was determined and expressed through elementary equations. Although the Michaelis-Menten equation could have been used to describe thiocyanate degradation, a Haldane-inhibition model was used to satisfactorily describe cyanide degradation. On the other hand, a slightly modified Haldane model was applied to describe both NH4 oxidation using NH3-N as substrate and thiocyanate degradation using NH3-N as inhibitor. These findings emphasize the role of pH on degradation rates and allow one to optimize operational conditions in the biological treatment of

  20. Effect of Erica sp. honey against microorganisms of clinical importance: study of the factors underlying this biological activity.

    PubMed

    Feás, Xesus; Iglesias, Antonio; Rodrigues, Sandra; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2013-04-11

    This study aimed to determine the factors (phenolic compounds, flavonoids, sugars or H2O2) that contribute the most to the antimicrobial activity of heather honey samples against four yeasts and four bacteria with medical importance. To discard the effect of H2O2 in the antimicrobial activity, catalase was added. To evaluate the osmotic pressure's effect, artificial honey was also used. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined and Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to assess whether these correlated with antimicrobial activity. The amount of phenolic compounds ranged from 630.89 ± 5.21 GAE kg-1 to 718.92 ± 4.41 GAE kg-1, while the flavonoids varied between 450.72 ± 5.67 CAE kg-1 and 673.98 ± 4.33 CAE kg-1. For the bacteria, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the honey without catalase ranged from 1.01 ± 0.50% to 10.00 ± 4.72% and was between 2.00 ± 0.94% and 13.27 ± 5.23% for honey with catalase. Concerning the yeasts, the MICs was between 13.16 ± 4.08% and 20.00 ± 5.09% for honey without catalase and between 14.95 ± 4.16% and 25.67 ± 5.50% for honey with catalase. The elucidation of the antimicrobial factors and action mechanisms is essential for the correct use of honey in therapeutic applications.

  1. Assessing the influence of physical, geochemical and biological factors on anaerobic microbial primary productivity within hydrothermal vent chimneys.

    PubMed

    Olins, H C; Rogers, D R; Frank, K L; Vidoudez, C; Girguis, P R

    2013-05-01

    Chemosynthetic primary production supports hydrothermal vent ecosystems, but the extent of that productivity and its governing factors have not been well constrained. To better understand anaerobic primary production within massive vent deposits, we conducted a series of incubations at 4, 25, 50 and 90 °C using aggregates recovered from hydrothermal vent structures. We documented in situ geochemistry, measured autochthonous organic carbon stable isotope ratios and assessed microbial community composition and functional gene abundances in three hydrothermal vent chimney structures from Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Carbon fixation rates were greatest at lower temperatures and were comparable among chimneys. Stable isotope ratios of autochthonous organic carbon were consistent with the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle being the predominant mode of carbon fixation for all three chimneys. Chimneys exhibited marked differences in vent fluid geochemistry and microbial community composition, with structures being differentially dominated by gamma (γ) or epsilon (ε) proteobacteria. Similarly, qPCR analyses of functional genes representing different carbon fixation pathways showed striking differences in gene abundance among chimney structures. Carbon fixation rates showed no obvious correlation with observed in situ vent fluid geochemistry, community composition or functional gene abundance. Together, these data reveal that (i) net anaerobic carbon fixation rates among these chimneys are elevated at lower temperatures, (ii) clear differences in community composition and gene abundance exist among chimney structures, and (iii) tremendous spatial heterogeneity within these environments likely confounds efforts to relate the observed rates to in situ microbial and geochemical factors. We also posit that microbes typically thought to be mesophiles are likely active and growing at cooler temperatures, and that their activity at these temperatures comprises the

  2. Assessing the influence of physical, geochemical and biological factors on anaerobic microbial primary productivity within hydrothermal vent chimneys.

    PubMed

    Olins, H C; Rogers, D R; Frank, K L; Vidoudez, C; Girguis, P R

    2013-05-01

    Chemosynthetic primary production supports hydrothermal vent ecosystems, but the extent of that productivity and its governing factors have not been well constrained. To better understand anaerobic primary production within massive vent deposits, we conducted a series of incubations at 4, 25, 50 and 90 °C using aggregates recovered from hydrothermal vent structures. We documented in situ geochemistry, measured autochthonous organic carbon stable isotope ratios and assessed microbial community composition and functional gene abundances in three hydrothermal vent chimney structures from Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Carbon fixation rates were greatest at lower temperatures and were comparable among chimneys. Stable isotope ratios of autochthonous organic carbon were consistent with the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle being the predominant mode of carbon fixation for all three chimneys. Chimneys exhibited marked differences in vent fluid geochemistry and microbial community composition, with structures being differentially dominated by gamma (γ) or epsilon (ε) proteobacteria. Similarly, qPCR analyses of functional genes representing different carbon fixation pathways showed striking differences in gene abundance among chimney structures. Carbon fixation rates showed no obvious correlation with observed in situ vent fluid geochemistry, community composition or functional gene abundance. Together, these data reveal that (i) net anaerobic carbon fixation rates among these chimneys are elevated at lower temperatures, (ii) clear differences in community composition and gene abundance exist among chimney structures, and (iii) tremendous spatial heterogeneity within these environments likely confounds efforts to relate the observed rates to in situ microbial and geochemical factors. We also posit that microbes typically thought to be mesophiles are likely active and growing at cooler temperatures, and that their activity at these temperatures comprises the

  3. A systems biology and proteomics-based approach identifies SRC and VEGFA as biomarkers in risk factor mediated coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    V, Alexandar; Nayar, Pradeep G; Murugesan, R; S, Shajahan; Krishnan, Jayalakshmi; Ahmed, Shiek S S J

    2016-07-19

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. The burden of CHD increases with risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, obesity and diabetes. Several studies have demonstrated the association of these classical risk factors with CHD. However, the mechanisms of these associations remain largely unclear due to the complexity of disease pathophysiology and the lack of an integrative approach that fails to provide a definite understanding of molecular linkage. To overcome these problems, we propose a novel systems biology approach that relates causative genes, interactomes and pathways to elucidate the risk factors mediating the molecular mechanisms and biomarkers for feasible diagnosis. The literature was mined to retrieve the causative genes of each risk factor and CHD to construct protein interactomes. The interactomes were examined to identify 298 common molecular signatures. The common signatures were mapped to the tissue network to synthesize a sub-network consisting of 82 proteins. Further, the dissection of the sub-network provides functional modules representing a diverse range of molecular functions, including the AKT/p13k, MAPK and wnt pathways. Also, the prioritization of functional modules identifies SRC, VEGFA and HIF1A as potential candidate markers. Further, we validate these candidates with the existing markers CRP, NOS3 and VCAM1 in the serum of 63 individuals, 33 with CHD and 30 controls, using ELISA. SRC, VEGFA, H1F1A, CRP and NOS3 were significantly altered in patients compared to controls. These results support the utility of these candidate markers for the diagnosis of CHD. Overall, our molecular observations indicate the influence of risk factors in the pathophysiology of CHD and identify serum markers for diagnosis. PMID:27279347

  4. Invasion biology in non-free-living species: interactions between abiotic (climatic) and biotic (host availability) factors in geographical space in crayfish commensals (Ostracoda, Entocytheridae).

    PubMed

    Mestre, Alexandre; Aguilar-Alberola, Josep A; Baldry, David; Balkis, Husamettin; Ellis, Adam; Gil-Delgado, Jose A; Grabow, Karsten; Klobučar, Göran; Kouba, Antonín; Maguire, Ivana; Martens, Andreas; Mülayim, Ayşegül; Rueda, Juan; Scharf, Burkhard; Soes, Menno; S Monrós, Juan; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc

    2013-12-01

    In invasion processes, both abiotic and biotic factors are considered essential, but the latter are usually disregarded when modeling the potential spread of exotic species. In the framework of set theory, interactions between biotic (B), abiotic (A), and movement-related (M) factors in the geographical space can be hypothesized with BAM diagrams and tested using ecological niche models (ENMs) to estimate A and B areas. The main aim of our survey was to evaluate the interactions between abiotic (climatic) and biotic (host availability) factors in geographical space for exotic symbionts (i.e., non-free-living species), using ENM techniques combined with a BAM framework and using exotic Entocytheridae (Ostracoda) found in Europe as model organisms. We carried out an extensive survey to evaluate the distribution of entocytherids hosted by crayfish in Europe by checking 94 European localities and 12 crayfish species. Both exotic entocytherid species found, Ankylocythere sinuosa and Uncinocythere occidentalis, were widely distributed in W Europe living on the exotic crayfish species Procambarus clarkii and Pacifastacus leniusculus, respectively. No entocytherids were observed in the remaining crayfish species. The suitable area for A. sinuosa was mainly restricted by its own limitations to minimum temperatures in W and N Europe and precipitation seasonality in circum-Mediterranean areas. Uncinocythere occidentalis was mostly restricted by host availability in circum-Mediterranean regions due to limitations of P. leniusculus to higher precipitation seasonality and maximum temperatures. The combination of ENMs with set theory allows studying the invasive biology of symbionts and provides clues about biogeographic barriers due to abiotic or biotic factors limiting the expansion of the symbiont in different regions of the invasive range. The relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors on geographical space can then be assessed and applied in conservation plans. This

  5. Consumption of ready-made meals and increased risk of obesity: findings from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study.

    PubMed

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Crichton, Georgina E; Hébert, James R

    2015-01-28

    The consumption of ready-made meals, such as pre-packaged dishes, available at grocery stores and fast-food restaurants, is a habit related to our modern fast-paced lives. No study has examined the association of daily ready-made meal consumption with diet quality or health-related outcomes. The present study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported ready-made meal consumption and diet quality, as measured by compliance with dietary recommendations and with a set of adiposity measures, in a nationally representative sample of 1352 subjects, aged 18-69 years, participating in the nationwide population-based ORISCAV-LUX (Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg) survey. The daily consumption of ready-made meals was calculated as follows: frequency of consumption × portion size × number of portions consumed. The sum of the daily consumption values of the eleven pre-packaged dishes included in the FFQ represented the total daily consumption of ready-made meals (g/d) for each participant. About 97% of the participants reported daily consumption of read