SUPG Finite Element Simulations of Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirk, Brnjamin, S.
2006-01-01
The Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) finite element simulations of compressible flows is presented. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) SUPG Galerkin Finite Element Methods; 3) Applications; and 4) Bibliography.
Finite element simulation of pipe dynamic response
Slagis, G.C.; Litton, R.W.
1996-12-01
Nonlinear finite element dynamic analyses of the response of a pipe span to controlled-displacement, sinusoidal vibration have been performed. The objective of this preliminary study is to compare strain and acceleration response data to those generated by Beaney in the Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories experiments. Results for an unpressurized, 5 Hz, carbon steel pipe are in good agreement with the experiments. Hence, it appears that analytical simulation will be useful to assess seismic margins. Recommendations for additional studies are provided. The analyses confirm the test results--dynamic response is greatly attenuated by material plasticity. Analytical strains and accelerations are about 30% higher than test data. There are several possible explanations for the differences. To assess the effect of frequency on response, the length of the pipe span was increased. Analysis of the longer, 2 Hz, pipe span shows significantly greater cyclic strains than the 5 Hz span at the same input excitation levels.
Simulation of two-dimensional waterflooding using mixed finite elements
Chavent, G.; Jaffre, J.; Cohen, G.; Dupuy, M.; Dieste, I.
1982-01-01
A new method for the simulation of incompressible diphasic flows in two dimensions is presented, the distinctive features of which are: (1) reformation of the basic equation and specific choices of the finite element approximation of the same; (11) use of a mixed finite elements method, approximating both scalar and vector functions. Several test examples are shown, including gravity and capillary effects. The use of discontinuous basis functions proved successful for an accurate representation of sharp fronts. 16 refs.
Finite element methods for enhanced oil recovery Simulation
Cohen, M.F.
1985-02-01
A general, finite element procedure for reservoir simulation is presented. This effort is directed toward improving the numerical behavior of standard upstream, or upwind, finite difference techniques, without significantly increasing the computational costs. Two methods from previous authors' work are modified and developed: upwind finite elements and the Petrov-Galerkin method. These techniques are applied in a one- and two-dimensional, surfactant/ polymer simulator. The paper sets forth the mathematical formulation and several details concerning the implementation. The results indicate that the PetrovGalerkin method does significantly reduce numericaldiffusion errors, while it retains the stability of the first-order, upwind methods. It is also relatively simple to implement. Both the upwind, and PetrovGalerkin, finite element methods demonstrate little sensitivity to grid orientation.
SUPG Finite Element Simulations of Compressible Flows for Aerothermodynamic Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirk, Benjamin S.
2007-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) Finite Element Simulation. It covers the background, governing equations, weak formulation, shock capturing, inviscid flux discretization, time discretization, linearization, and implicit solution strategies. It also reviews some applications such as Type IV Shock Interaction, Forward-Facing Cavity and AEDC Sharp Double Cone.
Diffusive mesh relaxation in ALE finite element numerical simulations
Dube, E.I.
1996-06-01
The theory for a diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is developed for use in three-dimensional Arbitary Lagrange/Eulerian (ALE) finite element simulation techniques. This mesh relaxer is derived by a variational principle for an unstructured 3D grid using finite elements, and incorporates hourglass controls in the numerical implementation. The diffusive coefficients are based on the geometric properties of the existing mesh, and are chosen so as to allow for a smooth grid that retains the general shape of the original mesh. The diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is then applied to an ALE code system, and results from several test cases are discussed.
Crystal level simulations using Eulerian finite element methods
Becker, R; Barton, N R; Benson, D J
2004-02-06
Over the last several years, significant progress has been made in the use of crystal level material models in simulations of forming operations. However, in Lagrangian finite element approaches simulation capabilities are limited in many cases by mesh distortion associated with deformation heterogeneity. Contexts in which such large distortions arise include: bulk deformation to strains approaching or exceeding unity, especially in highly anisotropic or multiphase materials; shear band formation and intersection of shear bands; and indentation with sharp indenters. Investigators have in the past used Eulerian finite element methods with material response determined from crystal aggregates to study steady state forming processes. However, Eulerian and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element methods have not been widely utilized for simulation of transient deformation processes at the crystal level. The advection schemes used in Eulerian and ALE codes control mesh distortion and allow for simulation of much larger total deformations. We will discuss material state representation issues related to advection and will present results from ALE simulations.
Parallel finite element simulation of large ram-air parachutes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalro, V.; Aliabadi, S.; Garrard, W.; Tezduyar, T.; Mittal, S.; Stein, K.
1997-06-01
In the near future, large ram-air parachutes are expected to provide the capability of delivering 21 ton payloads from altitudes as high as 25,000 ft. In development and test and evaluation of these parachutes the size of the parachute needed and the deployment stages involved make high-performance computing (HPC) simulations a desirable alternative to costly airdrop tests. Although computational simulations based on realistic, 3D, time-dependent models will continue to be a major computational challenge, advanced finite element simulation techniques recently developed for this purpose and the execution of these techniques on HPC platforms are significant steps in the direction to meet this challenge. In this paper, two approaches for analysis of the inflation and gliding of ram-air parachutes are presented. In one of the approaches the point mass flight mechanics equations are solved with the time-varying drag and lift areas obtained from empirical data. This approach is limited to parachutes with similar configurations to those for which data are available. The other approach is 3D finite element computations based on the Navier-Stokes equations governing the airflow around the parachute canopy and Newtons law of motion governing the 3D dynamics of the canopy, with the forces acting on the canopy calculated from the simulated flow field. At the earlier stages of canopy inflation the parachute is modelled as an expanding box, whereas at the later stages, as it expands, the box transforms to a parafoil and glides. These finite element computations are carried out on the massively parallel supercomputers CRAY T3D and Thinking Machines CM-5, typically with millions of coupled, non-linear finite element equations solved simultaneously at every time step or pseudo-time step of the simulation.
Tube Bulge Process : Theoretical Analysis And Finite Element Simulations
Velasco, Raphaeel; Boudeau, Nathalie
2007-04-07
This paper is focused on the determination of mechanics characteristics for tubular materials, using tube bulge process. A comparative study is made between two different models: theoretical model and finite element analysis. The theoretical model is completely developed, based first on a geometrical analysis of the tube profile during bulging, which is assumed to strain in arc of circles. Strain and stress analysis complete the theoretical model, which allows to evaluate tube thickness and state of stress, at any point of the free bulge region. Free bulging of a 304L stainless steel is simulated using Ls-Dyna 970. To validate FE simulations approach, a comparison between theoretical and finite elements models is led on several parameters such as: thickness variation at the free bulge region pole with bulge height, tube thickness variation with z axial coordinate, and von Mises stress variation with plastic strain.
Galerkin finite-element simulation of a geothermal reservoir
Mercer, J.W.; Pinder, G.F.
1973-01-01
The equations describing fluid flow and energy transport in a porous medium can be used to formulate a mathematical model capable of simulating the transient response of a hot-water geothermal reservoir. The resulting equations can be solved accurately and efficiently using a numerical scheme which combines the finite element approach with the Galerkin method of approximation. Application of this numerical model to the Wairakei geothermal field demonstrates that hot-water geothermal fields can be simulated using numerical techniques currently available and under development. ?? 1973.
Large-eddy simulation using the finite element method
McCallen, R.C.; Gresho, P.M.; Leone, J.M. Jr.; Kollmann, W.
1993-10-01
In a large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows, the large-scale motion is calculated explicitly (i.e., approximated with semi-empirical relations). Typically, finite difference or spectral numerical schemes are used to generate an LES; the use of finite element methods (FEM) has been far less prominent. In this study, we demonstrate that FEM in combination with LES provides a viable tool for the study of turbulent, separating channel flows, specifically the flow over a two-dimensional backward-facing step. The combination of these methodologies brings together the advantages of each: LES provides a high degree of accuracy with a minimum of empiricism for turbulence modeling and FEM provides a robust way to simulate flow in very complex domains of practical interest. Such a combination should prove very valuable to the engineering community.
Applications of finite element simulation in orthopedic and trauma surgery
Herrera, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Cegoñino, José; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Puértolas, Sergio; López, Enrique; Mateo, Jesús; Gracia, Luis
2012-01-01
Research in different areas of orthopedic and trauma surgery requires a methodology that allows both a more economic approach and the ability to reproduce different situations in an easy way. Simulation models have been introduced recently in bioengineering and could become an essential tool in the study of any physiological unity, regardless of its complexity. The main problem in modeling with finite elements simulation is to achieve an accurate reproduction of the anatomy and a perfect correlation of the different structures, in any region of the human body. Authors have developed a mixed technique, joining the use of a three-dimensional laser scanner Roland Picza captured together with computed tomography (CT) and 3D CT images, to achieve a perfect reproduction of the anatomy. Finite element (FE) simulation lets us know the biomechanical changes that take place after hip prostheses or osteosynthesis implantation and biological responses of bone to biomechanical changes. The simulation models are able to predict changes in bone stress distribution around the implant, so allowing preventing future pathologies. The development of a FE model of lumbar spine is another interesting application of the simulation. The model allows research on the lumbar spine, not only in physiological conditions but also simulating different load conditions, to assess the impact on biomechanics. Different degrees of disc degeneration can also be simulated to determine the impact on adjacent anatomical elements. Finally, FE models may be useful to test different fixation systems, i.e., pedicular screws, interbody devices or rigid fixations compared with the dynamic ones. We have also developed models of lumbar spine and hip joint to predict the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures, based on densitometric determinations and specific biomechanical models, including approaches from damage and fracture mechanics. FE simulations also allow us to predict the behavior of orthopedic splints
Applications of finite element simulation in orthopedic and trauma surgery.
Herrera, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Cegoñino, José; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Puértolas, Sergio; López, Enrique; Mateo, Jesús; Gracia, Luis
2012-04-18
Research in different areas of orthopedic and trauma surgery requires a methodology that allows both a more economic approach and the ability to reproduce different situations in an easy way. Simulation models have been introduced recently in bioengineering and could become an essential tool in the study of any physiological unity, regardless of its complexity. The main problem in modeling with finite elements simulation is to achieve an accurate reproduction of the anatomy and a perfect correlation of the different structures, in any region of the human body. Authors have developed a mixed technique, joining the use of a three-dimensional laser scanner Roland Picza captured together with computed tomography (CT) and 3D CT images, to achieve a perfect reproduction of the anatomy. Finite element (FE) simulation lets us know the biomechanical changes that take place after hip prostheses or osteosynthesis implantation and biological responses of bone to biomechanical changes. The simulation models are able to predict changes in bone stress distribution around the implant, so allowing preventing future pathologies. The development of a FE model of lumbar spine is another interesting application of the simulation. The model allows research on the lumbar spine, not only in physiological conditions but also simulating different load conditions, to assess the impact on biomechanics. Different degrees of disc degeneration can also be simulated to determine the impact on adjacent anatomical elements. Finally, FE models may be useful to test different fixation systems, i.e., pedicular screws, interbody devices or rigid fixations compared with the dynamic ones. We have also developed models of lumbar spine and hip joint to predict the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures, based on densitometric determinations and specific biomechanical models, including approaches from damage and fracture mechanics. FE simulations also allow us to predict the behavior of orthopedic splints
Simulating Space Capsule Water Landing with Explicit Finite Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, John T.; Lyle, Karen H.
2007-01-01
A study of using an explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element code for simulating the water landing of a space capsule was performed. The finite element model contains Lagrangian shell elements for the space capsule and Eulerian solid elements for the water and air. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) solver and a penalty coupling method were used for predicting the fluid and structure interaction forces. The space capsule was first assumed to be rigid, so the numerical results could be correlated with closed form solutions. The water and air meshes were continuously refined until the solution was converged. The converged maximum deceleration predicted is bounded by the classical von Karman and Wagner solutions and is considered to be an adequate solution. The refined water and air meshes were then used in the models for simulating the water landing of a capsule model that has a flexible bottom. For small pitch angle cases, the maximum deceleration from the flexible capsule model was found to be significantly greater than the maximum deceleration obtained from the corresponding rigid model. For large pitch angle cases, the difference between the maximum deceleration of the flexible model and that of its corresponding rigid model is smaller. Test data of Apollo space capsules with a flexible heat shield qualitatively support the findings presented in this paper.
Finite element simulation of adaptive aerospace structures with SMA actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frautschi, Jason; Seelecke, Stefan
2003-07-01
The particular demands of aerospace engineering have spawned many of the developments in the field of adaptive structures. Shape memory alloys are particularly attractive as actuators in these types of structures due to their large strains, high specific work output and potential for structural integration. However, the requisite extensive physical testing has slowed development of potential applications and highlighted the need for a simulation tool for feasibility studies. In this paper we present an implementation of an extended version of the M'ller-Achenbach SMA model into a commercial finite element code suitable for such studies. Interaction between the SMA model and the solution algorithm for the global FE equations is thoroughly investigated with respect to the effect of tolerances and time step size on convergence, computational cost and accuracy. Finally, a simulation of a SMA-actuated flexible trailing edge of an aircraft wing modeled with beam elements is presented.
Assessing performance and validating finite element simulations using probabilistic knowledge
Dolin, Ronald M.; Rodriguez, E. A.
2002-01-01
Two probabilistic approaches for assessing performance are presented. The first approach assesses probability of failure by simultaneously modeling all likely events. The probability each event causes failure along with the event's likelihood of occurrence contribute to the overall probability of failure. The second assessment method is based on stochastic sampling using an influence diagram. Latin-hypercube sampling is used to stochastically assess events. The overall probability of failure is taken as the maximum probability of failure of all the events. The Likelihood of Occurrence simulation suggests failure does not occur while the Stochastic Sampling approach predicts failure. The Likelihood of Occurrence results are used to validate finite element predictions.
Multiphase control volume finite element simulations of fractured reservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Yao
With rapid evolution of hardware and software techniques in energy sector, reservoir simulation has become a powerful tool for field development planning and reservoir management. Many of the widely used commercial simulators were originally designed for structured grids and implemented with finite difference method (FDM). In recent years, technical advances in griding, fluid modeling, linear solver, reservoir and geological modeling, etc. have created new opportunities. At the same time, new reservoir simulation technology is required for solving large-scale heterogeneous problems. A three-dimensional, three-phase black-oil reservoir simulator has been developed using the control volume finite element (CVFE) formulation. Flux-based upstream weighting is employed to ensure flux continuity. The CVFE method is embedded in a fully-implicit formulation. State-of-the-art parallel, linear solvers are used. The implementation takes the advantages of object-oriented programming capabilities of C++ to provide maximum reuse and extensibility for future students. The results from the simulator have excellent agreement with those from commercial simulators. The convergence properties of the new simulator are verified using the method of manufactured solutions. The pressure and saturation solutions are verified to be first-order convergent as expected. The efficiency of the simulators and their capability to handle real large-scale field models are improved by implementing the models in parallel. Another aspect of the work dealt with multiphase flow of fractured reservoirs was performed. The discrete-fracture model is implemented in the simulator. Fractures and faults are represented by lines and planes in two- and three-dimensional spaces, respectively. The difficult task of generating an unstructured mesh for complex domains with fractures and faults is accomplished in this study. Applications of this model for two-phase and three-phase simulations in a variety of fractured
Finite element based simulation of dry sliding wear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hegadekatte, V.; Huber, N.; Kraft, O.
2005-01-01
In order to predict wear and eventually the life-span of complex mechanical systems, several hundred thousand operating cycles have to be simulated. Therefore, a finite element (FE) post-processor is the optimum choice, considering the computational expense. A wear simulation approach based on Archard's wear law is implemented in an FE post-processor that works in association with a commercial FE package, ABAQUS, for solving the general deformable-deformable contact problem. Local wear is computed and then integrated over the sliding distance using the Euler integration scheme. The wear simulation tool works in a loop and performs a series of static FE-simulations with updated surface geometries to get a realistic contact pressure distribution on the contacting surfaces. It will be demonstrated that this efficient approach can simulate wear on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional surface topologies. The wear on both the interacting surfaces is computed using the contact pressure distribution from a two-dimensional or three-dimensional simulation, depending on the case. After every wear step the geometry is re-meshed to correct the deformed mesh due to wear, thus ensuring a fairly uniform mesh for further processing. The importance and suitability of such a wear simulation tool will be enunciated in this paper.
High-order finite element methods for cardiac monodomain simulations.
Vincent, Kevin P; Gonzales, Matthew J; Gillette, Andrew K; Villongco, Christopher T; Pezzuto, Simone; Omens, Jeffrey H; Holst, Michael J; McCulloch, Andrew D
2015-01-01
Computational modeling of tissue-scale cardiac electrophysiology requires numerically converged solutions to avoid spurious artifacts. The steep gradients inherent to cardiac action potential propagation necessitate fine spatial scales and therefore a substantial computational burden. The use of high-order interpolation methods has previously been proposed for these simulations due to their theoretical convergence advantage. In this study, we compare the convergence behavior of linear Lagrange, cubic Hermite, and the newly proposed cubic Hermite-style serendipity interpolation methods for finite element simulations of the cardiac monodomain equation. The high-order methods reach converged solutions with fewer degrees of freedom and longer element edge lengths than traditional linear elements. Additionally, we propose a dimensionless number, the cell Thiele modulus, as a more useful metric for determining solution convergence than element size alone. Finally, we use the cell Thiele modulus to examine convergence criteria for obtaining clinically useful activation patterns for applications such as patient-specific modeling where the total activation time is known a priori. PMID:26300783
High-order finite element methods for cardiac monodomain simulations
Vincent, Kevin P.; Gonzales, Matthew J.; Gillette, Andrew K.; Villongco, Christopher T.; Pezzuto, Simone; Omens, Jeffrey H.; Holst, Michael J.; McCulloch, Andrew D.
2015-01-01
Computational modeling of tissue-scale cardiac electrophysiology requires numerically converged solutions to avoid spurious artifacts. The steep gradients inherent to cardiac action potential propagation necessitate fine spatial scales and therefore a substantial computational burden. The use of high-order interpolation methods has previously been proposed for these simulations due to their theoretical convergence advantage. In this study, we compare the convergence behavior of linear Lagrange, cubic Hermite, and the newly proposed cubic Hermite-style serendipity interpolation methods for finite element simulations of the cardiac monodomain equation. The high-order methods reach converged solutions with fewer degrees of freedom and longer element edge lengths than traditional linear elements. Additionally, we propose a dimensionless number, the cell Thiele modulus, as a more useful metric for determining solution convergence than element size alone. Finally, we use the cell Thiele modulus to examine convergence criteria for obtaining clinically useful activation patterns for applications such as patient-specific modeling where the total activation time is known a priori. PMID:26300783
Single Grit Grinding Simulation by Using Finite Element Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Öpöz, Tahsin Tecelli; Chen, Xun
2011-01-01
In this research, basic material removal characteristics in a single grit grinding have been investigated by using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). ABAQUS/Standard is used as a computational environment. The influences of both friction and undeformed chip thickness are considered in the analyses of the grit ploughing, stress distribution and total force variation. Remeshing strategy is performed in the simulation to produce very fine meshes in the contact area to mitigate the material distortion due to large plastic deformation. The results show that the increase of undeformed chip thickness and frictional coefficient would increase ploughing action and grinding stress magnitude. Moreover, friction would cause the stress distribution circle on grit inclined backwards. Finally, FEM analysis can be considered as a strong tool for the single grit simulation of grinding process.
Simulation of extrudate swell using an extended finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Young Joon; Hulsen, Martien A.
2011-09-01
An extended finite element method (XFEM) is presented for the simulation of extrudate swell. A temporary arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) scheme is incorporated to cope with the movement of the free surface. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the movement of the free surface can be simulated on a fixed Eulerian mesh without any need of re-meshing. The swell ratio of an upper-convected Maxwell fluid is compared with those of the moving boundary-fitted mesh problems of the conventional ALE technique, and those of Crochet & Keunings (1980). The proposed XFEM combined with the temporary ALE scheme can provide similar accuracy to the boundary-fitted mesh problems for low Deborah numbers. For high Deborah numbers, the method seems to be more stable for the extrusion problem.
Parallel finite element simulation of mooring forces on floating objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aliabadi, S.; Abedi, J.; Zellars, B.
2003-03-01
The coupling between the equations governing the free-surface flows, the six degrees of freedom non-linear rigid body dynamics, the linear elasticity equations for mesh-moving and the cables has resulted in a fluid-structure interaction technology capable of simulating mooring forces on floating objects. The finite element solution strategy is based on a combination approach derived from fixed-mesh and moving-mesh techniques. Here, the free-surface flow simulations are based on the Navier-Stokes equations written for two incompressible fluids where the impact of one fluid on the other one is extremely small. An interface function with two distinct values is used to locate the position of the free-surface. The stabilized finite element formulations are written and integrated in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian domain. This allows us to handle the motion of the time dependent geometries. Forces and momentums exerted on the floating object by both water and hawsers are calculated and used to update the position of the floating object in time. In the mesh moving scheme, we assume that the computational domain is made of elastic materials. The linear elasticity equations are solved to obtain the displacements for each computational node. The non-linear rigid body dynamics equations are coupled with the governing equations of fluid flow and are solved simultaneously to update the position of the floating object. The numerical examples includes a 3D simulation of water waves impacting on a moored floating box and a model boat and simulation of floating object under water constrained with a cable.
Accelerated finite element elastodynamic simulations using the GPU
Huthwaite, Peter
2014-01-15
An approach is developed to perform explicit time domain finite element simulations of elastodynamic problems on the graphical processing unit, using Nvidia's CUDA. Of critical importance for this problem is the arrangement of nodes in memory, allowing data to be loaded efficiently and minimising communication between the independently executed blocks of threads. The initial stage of memory arrangement is partitioning the mesh; both a well established ‘greedy’ partitioner and a new, more efficient ‘aligned’ partitioner are investigated. A method is then developed to efficiently arrange the memory within each partition. The software is applied to three models from the fields of non-destructive testing, vibrations and geophysics, demonstrating a memory bandwidth of very close to the card's maximum, reflecting the bandwidth-limited nature of the algorithm. Comparison with Abaqus, a widely used commercial CPU equivalent, validated the accuracy of the results and demonstrated a speed improvement of around two orders of magnitude. A software package, Pogo, incorporating these developments, is released open source, downloadable from (http://www.pogo-fea.com/) to benefit the community. -- Highlights: •A novel memory arrangement approach is discussed for finite elements on the GPU. •The mesh is partitioned then nodes are arranged efficiently within each partition. •Models from ultrasonics, vibrations and geophysics are run. •The code is significantly faster than an equivalent commercial CPU package. •Pogo, the new software package, is released open source.
High speed finite element simulations on the graphics card
Huthwaite, P.; Lowe, M. J. S.
2014-02-18
A software package is developed to perform explicit time domain finite element simulations of ultrasonic propagation on the graphical processing unit, using Nvidia’s CUDA. Of critical importance for this problem is the arrangement of nodes in memory, allowing data to be loaded efficiently and minimising communication between the independently executed blocks of threads. The initial stage of memory arrangement is partitioning the mesh; both a well established ‘greedy’ partitioner and a new, more efficient ‘aligned’ partitioner are investigated. A method is then developed to efficiently arrange the memory within each partition. The technique is compared to a commercial CPU equivalent, demonstrating an overall speedup of at least 100 for a non-destructive testing weld model.
High speed finite element simulations on the graphics card
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huthwaite, P.; Lowe, M. J. S.
2014-02-01
A software package is developed to perform explicit time domain finite element simulations of ultrasonic propagation on the graphical processing unit, using Nvidia's CUDA. Of critical importance for this problem is the arrangement of nodes in memory, allowing data to be loaded efficiently and minimising communication between the independently executed blocks of threads. The initial stage of memory arrangement is partitioning the mesh; both a well established `greedy' partitioner and a new, more efficient `aligned' partitioner are investigated. A method is then developed to efficiently arrange the memory within each partition. The technique is compared to a commercial CPU equivalent, demonstrating an overall speedup of at least 100 for a non-destructive testing weld model.
Finite element analysis simulations for ultrasonic array NDE inspections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobson, Jeff; Tweedie, Andrew; Harvey, Gerald; O'Leary, Richard; Mulholland, Anthony; Tant, Katherine; Gachagan, Anthony
2016-02-01
Advances in manufacturing techniques and materials have led to an increase in the demand for reliable and robust inspection techniques to maintain safety critical features. The application of modelling methods to develop and evaluate inspections is becoming an essential tool for the NDE community. Current analytical methods are inadequate for simulation of arbitrary components and heterogeneous materials, such as anisotropic welds or composite structures. Finite element analysis software (FEA), such as PZFlex, can provide the ability to simulate the inspection of these arrangements, providing the ability to economically prototype and evaluate improved NDE methods. FEA is often seen as computationally expensive for ultrasound problems however, advances in computing power have made it a more viable tool. This paper aims to illustrate the capability of appropriate FEA to produce accurate simulations of ultrasonic array inspections - minimizing the requirement for expensive test-piece fabrication. Validation is afforded via corroboration of the FE derived and experimentally generated data sets for a test-block comprising 1D and 2D defects. The modelling approach is extended to consider the more troublesome aspects of heterogeneous materials where defect dimensions can be of the same length scale as the grain structure. The model is used to facilitate the implementation of new ultrasonic array inspection methods for such materials. This is exemplified by considering the simulation of ultrasonic NDE in a weld structure in order to assess new approaches to imaging such structures.
A finite element simulation of biological conversion processes in landfills
Robeck, M.; Ricken, T.
2011-04-15
Landfills are the most common way of waste disposal worldwide. Biological processes convert the organic material into an environmentally harmful landfill gas, which has an impact on the greenhouse effect. After the depositing of waste has been stopped, current conversion processes continue and emissions last for several decades and even up to 100 years and longer. A good prediction of these processes is of high importance for landfill operators as well as for authorities, but suitable models for a realistic description of landfill processes are rather poor. In order to take the strong coupled conversion processes into account, a constitutive three-dimensional model based on the multiphase Theory of Porous Media (TPM) has been developed at the University of Duisburg-Essen. The theoretical formulations are implemented in the finite element code FEAP. With the presented calculation concept we are able to simulate the coupled processes that occur in an actual landfill. The model's theoretical background and the results of the simulations as well as the meantime successfully performed simulation of a real landfill body will be shown in the following.
Finite element simulation of arcuates for astigmatism correction.
Lanchares, Elena; Calvo, Begoña; Cristóbal, José A; Doblaré, Manuel
2008-01-01
In order to simulate the corneal incisions used to correct astigmatism, a three-dimensional finite element model was generated from a simplified geometry of the anterior half of the ocular globe. A hyperelastic constitutive behavior was assumed for cornea, limbus and sclera, which are collagenous materials with a fiber structure. Due to the preferred orientations of the collagen fibrils, corneal and limbal tissues were considered anisotropic, whereas the sclera was simplified to an isotropic one assuming that fibrils are randomly disposed. The reference configuration, which includes the initial strain distribution that balances the intraocular pressure, is obtained by an iterative process. Then the incisions are simulated. The final positions of the nodes belonging to the incised meridian and to the perpendicular one are fitted by both radii of curvature, which are used to calculate the optical power. The simulated incisions were those specified by Lindstrom's nomogram [Chu, Y., Hardten, D., Lindquist, T., Lindstrom, R., 2005. Astigmatic keratotomy. Duane's Ophthalmology. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia] to achieve 1.5, 2.25, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0D of astigmatic change, using the next values for the parameters: length of 45 degrees , 60 degrees and 90 degrees , an optical zone of 6mm, single or paired incisions. The model gives results similar to those in Lindstrom's nomogram [Chu et al., 2005] and can be considered a useful tool to plan and simulate refractive surgery by predicting the outcomes of different sorts of incisions and to optimize the values for the parameters involved: depth, length, position. PMID:18177656
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbatani, Siamak; Callejo, Alfonso; Kövecses, József; Kalantari, Masoud; Marchand, Nick R.; Dargahi, Javad
2016-06-01
Directional drilling is a popular technique for oil well drilling. Accurate prediction of the directional performance is critical in order to achieve the desired well profile. Simplified geometry methods are, to date, the industry standard for predicting directional performance. A comprehensive, high-fidelity method for the simulation of directional drilling is presented here. It consists of a detailed discretization of the actual geometry and a rigorous application of two modeling techniques: the finite element and the finite segment methods. By doing so, the dynamic problem is addressed from two different yet complementary perspectives: structural mechanics and rigid-body motion. Collision detection and contact dynamics algorithms are also presented. Results show that both methods agree in terms of the dynamic response, and that the build rate estimations are consistent with available experimental data. Owing to the framework efficiency and physics-based nature, the presented tools are very well-suited for design engineering and real-time simulation.
Miles, Brad; Kolos, Elizabeth; Walter, William L; Appleyard, Richard; Shi, Angela; Li, Qing; Ruys, Andrew J
2015-06-01
Subject-specific finite element (FE) modeling methodology could predict peri-prosthetic femoral fracture (PFF) for cementless hip arthoplasty in the early postoperative period. This study develops methodology for subject-specific finite element modeling by using the element deactivation technique to simulate bone failure and validate with experimental testing, thereby predicting peri-prosthetic femoral fracture in the early postoperative period. Material assignments for biphasic and triphasic models were undertaken. Failure modeling with the element deactivation feature available in ABAQUS 6.9 was used to simulate a crack initiation and propagation in the bony tissue based upon a threshold of fracture strain. The crack mode for the biphasic models was very similar to the experimental testing crack mode, with a similar shape and path of the crack. The fracture load is sensitive to the friction coefficient at the implant-bony interface. The development of a novel technique to simulate bone failure by element deactivation of subject-specific finite element models could aid prediction of fracture load in addition to fracture risk characterization for PFF. PMID:25937546
Finite element simulation of articular contact mechanics with quadratic tetrahedral elements.
Maas, Steve A; Ellis, Benjamin J; Rawlins, David S; Weiss, Jeffrey A
2016-03-21
Although it is easier to generate finite element discretizations with tetrahedral elements, trilinear hexahedral (HEX8) elements are more often used in simulations of articular contact mechanics. This is due to numerical shortcomings of linear tetrahedral (TET4) elements, limited availability of quadratic tetrahedron elements in combination with effective contact algorithms, and the perceived increased computational expense of quadratic finite elements. In this study we implemented both ten-node (TET10) and fifteen-node (TET15) quadratic tetrahedral elements in FEBio (www.febio.org) and compared their accuracy, robustness in terms of convergence behavior and computational cost for simulations relevant to articular contact mechanics. Suitable volume integration and surface integration rules were determined by comparing the results of several benchmark contact problems. The results demonstrated that the surface integration rule used to evaluate the contact integrals for quadratic elements affected both convergence behavior and accuracy of predicted stresses. The computational expense and robustness of both quadratic tetrahedral formulations compared favorably to the HEX8 models. Of note, the TET15 element demonstrated superior convergence behavior and lower computational cost than both the TET10 and HEX8 elements for meshes with similar numbers of degrees of freedom in the contact problems that we examined. Finally, the excellent accuracy and relative efficiency of these quadratic tetrahedral elements was illustrated by comparing their predictions with those for a HEX8 mesh for simulation of articular contact in a fully validated model of the hip. These results demonstrate that TET10 and TET15 elements provide viable alternatives to HEX8 elements for simulation of articular contact mechanics.
Accelerated finite element elastodynamic simulations using the GPU
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huthwaite, Peter
2014-01-01
An approach is developed to perform explicit time domain finite element simulations of elastodynamic problems on the graphical processing unit, using Nvidia's CUDA. Of critical importance for this problem is the arrangement of nodes in memory, allowing data to be loaded efficiently and minimising communication between the independently executed blocks of threads. The initial stage of memory arrangement is partitioning the mesh; both a well established ‘greedy' partitioner and a new, more efficient ‘aligned' partitioner are investigated. A method is then developed to efficiently arrange the memory within each partition. The software is applied to three models from the fields of non-destructive testing, vibrations and geophysics, demonstrating a memory bandwidth of very close to the card's maximum, reflecting the bandwidth-limited nature of the algorithm. Comparison with Abaqus, a widely used commercial CPU equivalent, validated the accuracy of the results and demonstrated a speed improvement of around two orders of magnitude. A software package, Pogo, incorporating these developments, is released open source, downloadable from http://www.pogo-fea.com/ to benefit the community.
Lower extremity finite element model for crash simulation
Schauer, D.A.; Perfect, S.A.
1996-03-01
A lower extremity model has been developed to study occupant injury mechanisms of the major bones and ligamentous soft tissues resulting from vehicle collisions. The model is based on anatomically correct digitized bone surfaces of the pelvis, femur, patella and the tibia. Many muscles, tendons and ligaments were incrementally added to the basic bone model. We have simulated two types of occupant loading that occur in a crash environment using a non-linear large deformation finite element code. The modeling approach assumed that the leg was passive during its response to the excitation, that is, no active muscular contraction and therefore no active change in limb stiffness. The approach recognized that the most important contributions of the muscles to the lower extremity response are their ability to define and modify the impedance of the limb. When nonlinear material behavior in a component of the leg model was deemed important to response, a nonlinear constitutive model was incorporated. The accuracy of these assumptions can be verified only through a review of analysis results and careful comparison with test data. As currently defined, the model meets the objective for which it was created. Much work remains to be done, both from modeling and analysis perspectives, before the model can be considered complete. The model implements a modeling philosophy that can accurately capture both kinematic and kinetic response of the lower limb. We have demonstrated that the lower extremity model is a valuable tool for understanding the injury processes and mechanisms. We are now in a position to extend the computer simulation to investigate the clinical fracture patterns observed in actual crashes. Additional experience with this model will enable us to make a statement on what measures are needed to significantly reduce lower extremity injuries in vehicle crashes. 6 refs.
An 8-node tetrahedral finite element suitable for explicit transient dynamic simulations
Key, S.W.; Heinstein, M.W.; Stone, C.M.
1997-12-31
Considerable effort has been expended in perfecting the algorithmic properties of 8-node hexahedral finite elements. Today the element is well understood and performs exceptionally well when used in modeling three-dimensional explicit transient dynamic events. However, the automatic generation of all-hexahedral meshes remains an elusive achievement. The alternative of automatic generation for all-tetrahedral finite element is a notoriously poor performer, and the 10-node quadratic tetrahedral finite element while a better performer numerically is computationally expensive. To use the all-tetrahedral mesh generation extant today, the authors have explored the creation of a quality 8-node tetrahedral finite element (a four-node tetrahedral finite element enriched with four midface nodal points). The derivation of the element`s gradient operator, studies in obtaining a suitable mass lumping and the element`s performance in applications are presented. In particular, they examine the 80node tetrahedral finite element`s behavior in longitudinal plane wave propagation, in transverse cylindrical wave propagation, and in simulating Taylor bar impacts. The element only samples constant strain states and, therefore, has 12 hourglass modes. In this regard, it bears similarities to the 8-node, mean-quadrature hexahedral finite element. Given automatic all-tetrahedral meshing, the 8-node, constant-strain tetrahedral finite element is a suitable replacement for the 8-node hexahedral finite element and handbuilt meshes.
Efficient finite element simulation of slot spirals, slot radomes and microwave structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gong, J.; Volakis, J. L.
1995-01-01
This progress report contains the following two documents: (1) 'Efficient Finite Element Simulation of Slot Antennas using Prismatic Elements' - A hybrid finite element-boundary integral (FE-BI) simulation technique is discussed to treat narrow slot antennas etched on a planar platform. Specifically, the prismatic elements are used to reduce the redundant sampling rates and ease the mesh generation process. Numerical results for an antenna slot and frequency selective surfaces are presented to demonstrate the validity and capability of the technique; and (2) 'Application and Design Guidelines of the PML Absorber for Finite Element Simulations of Microwave Packages' - The recently introduced perfectly matched layer (PML) uniaxial absorber for frequency domain finite element simulations has several advantages. In this paper we present the application of PML for microwave circuit simulations along with design guidelines to obtain a desired level of absorption. Different feeding techniques are also investigated for improved accuracy.
Finite-element simulation of myocardial electrical excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasserman, I. N.; Matveenko, V. P.; Shardakov, I. N.; Shestakov, A. P.
2014-01-01
Based on a single-domain model of myocardial conduction, isotropic and anisotropic finite element models of the myocardium are developed allowing excitation wave propagation to be studied. The Aliev-Panfilov phenomenological equations were used as the relations between the transmembrane current and the transmembrane potential. Interaction of an additional source of initial excitation with an excitation wave that passed and the spread of the excitation wave are studied using heart tomograms. A numerical solution is obtained using a splitting algorithm that allows the nonlinear boundary-value problem to be reduced to a sequence of simpler problems: ordinary differential equations and linear boundary-value problems in partial derivatives.
A Finite Element Model for Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration
Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin
2015-07-23
We present a hydro-mechanical model, followed by stress, deformation, and shear-slip failure analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account of the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process. Analytical solutions for pressure and deformation fields were derived for a typical geological sequestration scenario in our previous work. A finite element approach is introduced here for numerically solving the hydro-mechanical model with arbitrary boundary conditions. The numerical approach was built on an open-source finite element code Elmer, and results were compared to the analytical solutions. The shear-slip failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where the potential failure zone is identified. Information is relevant to the prediction of the maximum sustainable injection rate or pressure. The effects of caprock permeability on the fluid pressure, deformation, stress, and the shear-slip failure zone were also quantitatively studied. It was shown that a larger permeability in caprock and base rock leads to a larger uplift but a smaller shear-slip failure zone.
System and Method for Finite Element Simulation of Helicopter Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McFarland, R. E. (Inventor); Dulsenberg, Ken (Inventor)
1999-01-01
The present invention provides a turbulence model that has been developed for blade-element helicopter simulation. This model uses an innovative temporal and geometrical distribution algorithm that preserves the statistical characteristics of the turbulence spectra over the rotor disc, while providing velocity components in real time to each of five blade-element stations along each of four blades. for a total of twenty blade-element stations. The simulator system includes a software implementation of flight dynamics that adheres to the guidelines for turbulence set forth in military specifications. One of the features of the present simulator system is that it applies simulated turbulence to the rotor blades of the helicopter, rather than to its center of gravity. The simulator system accurately models the rotor penetration into a gust field. It includes time correlation between the front and rear of the main rotor, as well as between the side forces felt at the center of gravity and at the tail rotor. It also includes features for added realism, such as patchy turbulence and vertical gusts in to which the rotor disc penetrates. These features are realized by a unique real time implementation of the turbulence filters. The new simulator system uses two arrays one on either side of the main rotor to record the turbulence field and to produce time-correlation from the front to the rear of the rotor disc. The use of Gaussian Interpolation between the two arrays maintains the statistical properties of the turbulence across the rotor disc. The present simulator system and method may be used in future and existing real-time helicopter simulations with minimal increase in computational workload.
Large-eddy simulation in complex domains using the finite element method
McCallen, R.C.; Kornblum, B.T.; Kollman, W.
1996-11-12
Finite element methods (FEM) are demonstrated in combination with large-eddy simulations (LES) as a valuable tool for the study of turbulent, separating channel flows, specifically the flow over a backward facing step.
Finite Element Simulations to Explore Assumptions in Kolsky Bar Experiments.
Crum, Justin
2015-08-05
The chief purpose of this project has been to develop a set of finite element models that attempt to explore some of the assumptions in the experimental set-up and data reduction of the Kolsky bar experiment. In brief, the Kolsky bar, sometimes referred to as the split Hopkinson pressure bar, is an experimental apparatus used to study the mechanical properties of materials at high strain rates. Kolsky bars can be constructed to conduct experiments in tension or compression, both of which are studied in this paper. The basic operation of the tension Kolsky bar is as follows: compressed air is inserted into the barrel that contains the striker; the striker accelerates towards the left and strikes the left end of the barrel producing a tensile stress wave that propogates first through the barrel and then down the incident bar, into the specimen, and finally the transmission bar. In the compression case, the striker instead travels to the right and impacts the incident bar directly. As the stress wave travels through an interface (e.g., the incident bar to specimen connection), a portion of the pulse is transmitted and the rest reflected. The incident pulse, as well as the transmitted and reflected pulses are picked up by two strain gauges installed on the incident and transmitted bars as shown. By interpreting the data acquired by these strain gauges, the stress/strain behavior of the specimen can be determined.
Taylor, Z A; Cheng, M; Ourselin, S
2008-05-01
The use of biomechanical modelling, especially in conjunction with finite element analysis, has become common in many areas of medical image analysis and surgical simulation. Clinical employment of such techniques is hindered by conflicting requirements for high fidelity in the modelling approach, and fast solution speeds. We report the development of techniques for high-speed nonlinear finite element analysis for surgical simulation. We use a fully nonlinear total Lagrangian explicit finite element formulation which offers significant computational advantages for soft tissue simulation. However, the key contribution of the work is the presentation of a fast graphics processing unit (GPU) solution scheme for the finite element equations. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first GPU implementation of a nonlinear finite element solver. We show that the present explicit finite element scheme is well suited to solution via highly parallel graphics hardware, and that even a midrange GPU allows significant solution speed gains (up to 16.8 x) compared with equivalent CPU implementations. For the models tested the scheme allows real-time solution of models with up to 16,000 tetrahedral elements. The use of GPUs for such purposes offers a cost-effective high-performance alternative to expensive multi-CPU machines, and may have important applications in medical image analysis and surgical simulation. PMID:18450538
A finite element simulation of sound attenuation in a finite duct with a peripherally variable liner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, W. R.
1977-01-01
Using multimodal analysis, a variational finite element method is presented for analyzing sound attenuation in a three-dimensional finite duct with a peripherally variable liner in the absence of flow. A rectangular element, with cubic shaped functions, is employed. Once a small portion of a peripheral liner is removed, the attenuation rate near the frequency where maximum attenuation occurs drops significantly. The positioning of the liner segments affects the attenuation characteristics of the liner. Effects of the duct termination are important in the low frequency ranges. The main effect of peripheral variation of the liner is a broadening of the attenuation characteristics in the midfrequency range. Because of matrix size limitations of the presently available computer program, the eigenvalue equations should be solved out of core in order to handle realistic sources.
On using moving windows in finite element time domain simulation for long accelerator structures
Lee, L.-Q.; Candel, Arno; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok
2010-12-10
A finite element moving window technique is developed to simulate the propagation of electromagnetic waves induced by the transit of a charged particle beam inside large and long structures. The window moving along with the beam in the computational domain adopts high-order finite element basis functions through p refinement and/or a high-resolution mesh through h refinement so that a sufficient accuracy is attained with substantially reduced computational costs. Algorithms to transfer discretized fields from one mesh to another, which are the keys to implementing a moving window in a finite element unstructured mesh, are presented. Numerical experiments are carried out using the moving window technique to compute short-range wakefields in long accelerator structures. The results are compared with those obtained from the normal finite element time domain (FETD) method and the advantages of using the moving window technique are discussed.
A finite element simulation system in reservoir engineering
Gu, Xiaozhong
1996-03-01
Reservoir engineering is performed to predict the future performance of a reservoir based on its current state and past performance and to explore other methods for increasing the recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir. Reservoir simulations are routinely used for these purposes. A reservoir simulator is a sophisticated computer program which solves a system of partial differential equations describing multiphase fluid flow (oil, water, and gas) in a porous reservoir rock. This document describes the use of a reservoir simulator version of BOAST which was developed by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research in July, 1991.
Finite element simulation of flow in twin screw extruder mixing elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bravo (Sananes), Victor
1998-12-01
In the plastics industry, twin screw extruders are widely used for melting, dispersing and homogenizing polymers. There are a diversity of designs employed throughout the polymer industry, each one having different operating principles and applications. Among the different arrangements of twin screw systems, the intermeshing co-rotating configuration has been found to be one of the most efficient mixers and it is one of the most commonly used pieces of equipment among the continuous mixers due to its self wiping properties. The problem of mixing of polymers involves aspects of fluid dynamics and rheology. Mixing is usually obtained through a combination of mechanical motion of the mixing device and the resulting deformation induced in the flowing material. The quantitative description of the flow patterns is now feasible even in the most complicated geometries through the development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools and the continuous increase in computer resources at lower costs. Intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruders (ICRTSE) are usually built in a modular fashion to meet the diversity of tasks performed by this type of machine. There are two main types of elements: full flight conveying elements and kneading block mixing elements. The kneading blocks have been the focus of attention for the theoretical analysis of flow due to their significant contribution to the mixing performance of the extruder and the fact that kneading blocks normally work under a fully filled channel condition, which is one of the fundamental assumptions in CFD simulations. The objective of this thesis is to understand the flow mechanisms in the kneading disc section of co-rotating twin screw extruders. This is done by means of the 3D numerical simulation of the flow process within the complex geometry involving intricate passages and continuously moving surfaces. A quasi-steady state finite element model was developed assuming isothermal, non-Newtonian flow. The
Finite element simulation of flow in twin screw extruder mixing elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bravo, Victor Sananes
In the plastics industry, twin screw extruders are widely used for melting, dispersing and homogenizing polymers. There are a diversity of designs employed throughout the polymer industry, each one having different operating principles and applications. Among the different arrangements of twin screw systems, the intermeshing co- rotating configuration has been found to be one of the most efficient mixers and it is one of the most commonly used pieces of equipment among the continuous mixers due to its self wiping properties. The problem of mixing of polymers involves aspects of fluid dynamics and rheology. Mixing is usually obtained through a combination of mechanical motion of the mixing device and the resulting deformation induced in the flowing material. The quantitative description of the flow patterns is now feasible even in the most complicated geometries through the development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools and the continuous increase in computer resources at lower costs. Intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruders (ICRTSE) are usually built in a modular fashion to meet the diversity of tasks performed by this type of machine. There are two main types of elements: full flight conveying elements and kneading block mixing elements. The kneading blocks have been the focus of attention for the theoretical analysis of flow due to their significant contribution to the mixing performance of the extruder and the fact that kneading blocks normally work under a fully filled channel condition, which is one of the fundamental assumptions in CFD simulations. The objective of this thesis is to understand the flow mechanisms in the kneading disc section of co-rotating twin screw extruders. This is done by means of the 3D numerical simulation of the flow process within the complex geometry involving intricate passages and continuously moving surfaces. A quasi-steady state finite element model was developed assuming isothermal, non- Newtonian flow. The
Multi-scale simulation method with coupled finite/discrete element model and its application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Xiwu; Liu, Zhenyu; Tan, Jianrong; Qiu, Chan; Chen, Fengbei
2013-07-01
The existing research on continuous structure is usually analyzed with finite element method (FEM) and granular medium with discrete element method (DEM), but there are few researches on the coupling interaction between continuous structure and discrete medium. To the issue of this coupling interaction, a multi-scale simulation method with coupled finite/discrete element model is put forward, in their respective domains of discrete and finite elements, the nodes follow force law and motion law of their own method, and on the their interaction interface, the touch type between discrete and finite elements is distinguished as two types: full touch and partial touch, the interaction force between them is calculated with linear elastic model. For full touch, the contact force is proportional to the overlap distance between discrete element and finite element patch. For partial touch, first the finite element patch is extended on all sides indefinitely to be a complete plane, the full contact force can be obtained with the touch type between discrete element and plane being viewed as full touch, then the full overlap area between them and the actual overlap area between discrete element and finite element patch are computed, the actual contact force is obtained by scaling the full contact force with a factor η which is determined by the ratio of the actual overlap area to the full overlap area. The contact force is equivalent to the finite element nodes and the force and displacement on the nodes can be computed, so the ideal simulation results can be got. This method has been used to simulate the cutter disk of the earth pressure balance shield machine (EPBSM) made in North Heavy Industry (NHI) with its excavation diameter of 6.28 m cutting and digging the sandy clay layer. The simulation results show that as the gradual increase of excavating depth of the cutter head, the maximum stress occurs at the roots of cutters on the cutter head, while for the soil, the
Aro, C J; Dube, E I; Futral, W S
1999-02-24
This report describes the implementation of a coupled mechanical /heat transfer simulation using a Finite Element Interface (FEI). The FE1 is an abstraction layer, which lies between the application code and its linear solver libraries, controlling the set-up and solution of the linear system arising in the finite element simulation. The performance and scalability of the ISIS++ FE1 is examined on the ASCI Red and Blue machines in the context of the ALE3D finite element simulation code.
Simulation of 3D tumor cell growth using nonlinear finite element method.
Dong, Shoubing; Yan, Yannan; Tang, Liqun; Meng, Junping; Jiang, Yi
2016-01-01
We propose a novel parallel computing framework for a nonlinear finite element method (FEM)-based cell model and apply it to simulate avascular tumor growth. We derive computation formulas to simplify the simulation and design the basic algorithms. With the increment of the proliferation generations of tumor cells, the FEM elements may become larger and more distorted. Then, we describe a remesh and refinement processing of the distorted or over large finite elements and the parallel implementation based on Message Passing Interface to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the simulation. We demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the FEM model and the parallelization methods in simulations of early tumor growth. PMID:26213205
A parallel finite element simulator for ion transport through three-dimensional ion channel systems.
Tu, Bin; Chen, Minxin; Xie, Yan; Zhang, Linbo; Eisenberg, Bob; Lu, Benzhuo
2013-09-15
A parallel finite element simulator, ichannel, is developed for ion transport through three-dimensional ion channel systems that consist of protein and membrane. The coordinates of heavy atoms of the protein are taken from the Protein Data Bank and the membrane is represented as a slab. The simulator contains two components: a parallel adaptive finite element solver for a set of Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations that describe the electrodiffusion process of ion transport, and a mesh generation tool chain for ion channel systems, which is an essential component for the finite element computations. The finite element method has advantages in modeling irregular geometries and complex boundary conditions. We have built a tool chain to get the surface and volume mesh for ion channel systems, which consists of a set of mesh generation tools. The adaptive finite element solver in our simulator is implemented using the parallel adaptive finite element package Parallel Hierarchical Grid (PHG) developed by one of the authors, which provides the capability of doing large scale parallel computations with high parallel efficiency and the flexibility of choosing high order elements to achieve high order accuracy. The simulator is applied to a real transmembrane protein, the gramicidin A (gA) channel protein, to calculate the electrostatic potential, ion concentrations and I - V curve, with which both primitive and transformed PNP equations are studied and their numerical performances are compared. To further validate the method, we also apply the simulator to two other ion channel systems, the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) and α-Hemolysin (α-HL). The simulation results agree well with Brownian dynamics (BD) simulation results and experimental results. Moreover, because ionic finite size effects can be included in PNP model now, we also perform simulations using a size-modified PNP (SMPNP) model on VDAC and α-HL. It is shown that the size effects in SMPNP can
Mixed-finite element and finite volume discretization for heavy brine simulations in groundwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzia, A.; Putti, M.
2002-10-01
Recently, a new theory of high-concentration brine transport in groundwater has been developed. This approach is based on two nonlinear mass conservation equations, one for the fluid (flow equation) and one for the salt (transport equation), both having nonlinear diffusion terms. In this paper, we present and analyze a numerical technique for the solution of such a model. The approach is based on the mixed hybrid finite element method for the discretization of the diffusion terms in both the flow and transport equations, and a high-resolution TVD finite volume scheme for the convective term. This latter technique is coupled to the discretized diffusive flux by means of a time-splitting approach. A commonly used benchmark test (Elder problem) is used to verify the robustness and nonoscillatory behavior of the proposed scheme and to test the validity of two different formulations, one based on using pressure head [psi] and concentration c as dependent variables, and one using pressure p and mass fraction [omega] as dependent variables. It is found that the latter formulation gives more accurate and reliable results, in particular, at large times. The numerical model is then compared against a semi-analytical solution and the results of a laboratory test. These tests are used to verify numerically the performance and robustness of the proposed numerical scheme when high-concentration gradients (i.e., the double nonlinearity) are present.
Finite-element simulation of flanging in the deform 3D software package
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vostrov, V. N.; Kononov, P. V.
2016-05-01
The results of a finite element simulation of the rolling of cylindrical workpieces using the DEFORM 3D software package are presented. The curve of the limiting plasticity of L63 brass that corresponds to various schemes of the state of stress in a workpiece is plotted. The deformation paths of the characteristic regions in a rolled part are calculated.
Finite element simulations involving simultaneous multiple interface fronts in phase change problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ouyang, Tianhong; Tamma, Kumar K.
1992-01-01
The present paper describes the simulation of phase change problems involving simultaneous multiple interface fronts employing the finite element method. Much of the past investigations employing finite elements have been restricted to primarily a single phase change situation. The existence of more than one phase, that is, the presence of multiple phase fronts poses certain challenges and further complications. However, the results provide a very interesting thermal behavior for this class of problems. In this paper, attention is focused on fixed grid methods and the trapezoidal family of one-step methods using the enthalpy formulations. Illustrative examples which handle simultaneous multiple fronts in phase change problems are presented.
Metamodel based optimization of material parameters in a finite element simulation of tensile tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Justin; McKay, Cavendish
2010-04-01
We determine the optimum set of parameters for simulating a tensile test of a sample of Zytelnylon resin in a finite element model. Using manufacturer supplied data and initial tensile measurements as starting data, we use a metamodel based optimization scheme to iteratively improve the choice of parameters. The commercial finite element solver LS-DYNA and optimization package LS-Opt are used to assess the quality of the material parameter choice. A map of the response surface is presented to illustrate some challenges with the metamodel based approach.
Finite element simulation of rate-dependent magneto-active polymer response
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haldar, K.; Kiefer, B.; Menzel, A.
2016-10-01
This contribution is concerned with the embedding of constitutive relations for magneto-active polymers (MAP) into finite element simulations. To this end, a recently suggested, calibrated, and validated material model for magneto-mechanically coupled and rate-dependent MAP response is briefly summarized in its continuous and algorithmic settings. Moreover, the strongly coupled field equations of finite deformation magneto-mechanics are reviewed. For the purpose of numerical simulation, a finite element model is then established based on the usual steps of weak form representation, discretization and consistent linearization. Two verifying inhomogeneous numerical examples are presented in which a classical ‘plate with a hole’ geometry is equipped with MAP properties and subjected to different types of time-varying mechanical and magnetic loading.
A Moving Window Technique in Parallel Finite Element Time Domain Electromagnetic Simulation
Lee, Lie-Quan; Candel, Arno; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok; /SLAC
2010-06-07
A moving window technique for the finite element time domain (FETD) method is developed to simulate the propagation of electromagnetic waves induced by the transit of a charged particle beam inside large and long structures. The window moving along with the beam in the computational domain adopts high-order finite-element basis functions through p refinement and/or a high-resolution mesh through h refinement so that a sufficient accuracy is attained with substantially reduced computational costs. Algorithms to transfer discretized fields from one mesh to another, which are the key to implementing a moving window in a finite-element unstructured mesh, are presented. Numerical experiments are carried out using the moving window technique to compute short-range wakefields in long accelerator structures. The results are compared with those obtained from the normal FETD method and the advantages of using the moving window technique are discussed.
Gen Purpose 1-D Finite Element Network Fluid Flow Heat Transfer System Simulator
1993-08-02
SAFSIM (System Analysis Flow Simulator) is a FORTRAN computer program to simulate the integrated performance of systems involving fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and reactor dynamics. SAFSIM provides sufficient versatility to allow the engineering simulation of almost any system, from a backyard sprinkler system to a clustered nuclear reactor propulsion system. In addition to versatility, speed and robustness are primary SAFSIM development goals. SAFSIM contains three basic physics modules: (1) a one-dimensional finite element fluid mechanicsmore » module with multiple flow network capability; (2) a one-dimensional finite element structure heat transfer module with multiple convection and radiation exchange capability; and (3) a point reactor dynamics module with reactivity feedback and decay heat capability. SAFSIM can be used for compressible and incompressible, single-phase, multicomponent flow systems.« less
A Finite-Element Model for Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration
Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin
2014-09-01
Herein, we present a coupled thermal-hydro-mechanical model for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide followed by the stress, deformation, and shear-slip failure analysis. This fully coupled model considers the geomechanical response, fluid flow, and thermal transport relevant to geological sequestration. Both analytical solutions and numerical approach via finite element model are introduced for solving the thermal-hydro-mechanical model. Analytical solutions for pressure, temperature, deformation, and stress field were obtained for a simplified typical geological sequestration scenario. The finite element model is more general and can be used for arbitrary geometry. It was built on an open-source finite element code, Elmer, and was designed to simulate the entire period of CO2 injection (up to decades) both stably and accurately—even for large time steps. The shear-slip failure analysis was implemented based on the numerical results from the finite element model. The analysis reveals the potential failure zone caused by the fluid injection and thermal effect. From the simulation results, the thermal effect is shown to enhance well injectivity, especially at the early time of the injection. However, it also causes some side effects, such as the appearance of a small failure zone in the caprock. The coupled thermal-hydro-mechanical model improves prediction of displacement, stress distribution, and potential failure zone compared to the model that neglects non-isothermal effects, especially in an area with high geothermal gradient.
Felice, Maria V.; Velichko, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul D.; Barden, Tim J.; Dunhill, Tony K.
2014-02-18
A hybrid model to simulate the ultrasonic array response from stress corrosion cracks is presented. These cracks are branched and difficult to detect so the model is required to enable optimization of an array design. An efficient frequency-domain finite element method is described and selected to simulate the ultrasonic scattering. Experimental validation results are presented, followed by an example of the simulated ultrasonic array response from a real stress corrosion crack whose geometry is obtained from an X-ray Computed Tomography image. A simulation-assisted array design methodology, which includes the model and use of real crack geometries, is proposed.
Neurosurgery Simulation Using Non-linear Finite Element Modeling and Haptic Interaction.
Lee, Huai-Ping; Audette, Michel; Joldes, Grand Roman; Enquobahrie, Andinet
2012-02-23
Real-time surgical simulation is becoming an important component of surgical training. To meet the real-time requirement, however, the accuracy of the biomechancial modeling of soft tissue is often compromised due to computing resource constraints. Furthermore, haptic integration presents an additional challenge with its requirement for a high update rate. As a result, most real-time surgical simulation systems employ a linear elasticity model, simplified numerical methods such as the boundary element method or spring-particle systems, and coarse volumetric meshes. However, these systems are not clinically realistic. We present here an ongoing work aimed at developing an efficient and physically realistic neurosurgery simulator using a non-linear finite element method (FEM) with haptic interaction. Real-time finite element analysis is achieved by utilizing the total Lagrangian explicit dynamic (TLED) formulation and GPU acceleration of per-node and per-element operations. We employ a virtual coupling method for separating deformable body simulation and collision detection from haptic rendering, which needs to be updated at a much higher rate than the visual simulation. The system provides accurate biomechancial modeling of soft tissue while retaining a real-time performance with haptic interaction. However, our experiments showed that the stability of the simulator depends heavily on the material property of the tissue and the speed of colliding objects. Hence, additional efforts including dynamic relaxation are required to improve the stability of the system.
A 3D finite element simulation model for TBM tunnelling in soft ground
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasper, Thomas; Meschke, Günther
2004-12-01
A three-dimensional finite element simulation model for shield-driven tunnel excavation is presented. The model takes into account all relevant components of the construction process (the soil and the ground water, the tunnel boring machine with frictional contact to the soil, the hydraulic jacks, the tunnel lining and the tail void grouting). The paper gives a detailed description of the model components and the stepwise procedure to simulate the construction process. The soil and the grout material are modelled as saturated porous media using a two-field finite element formulation. This allows to take into account the groundwater, the grouting pressure and the fluid interaction between the soil and slurry at the cutting face and between the soil and grout around the tail void. A Cam-Clay plasticity model is used to describe the material behaviour of cohesive soils. The cementitious grouting material in the tail void is modelled as an ageing elastic material with time-dependent stiffness and permeability. To allow for an automated computation of arbitrarily long and also curvilinear driving paths with suitable finite element meshes, the simulation procedure has been fully automated. The simulation of a tunnel advance in soft cohesive soil below the ground water table is presented and the results are compared with measurements taken from the literature. Copyright
Simulation of surface mine hydrology with the finite element storm hydrograph model
Smolen, M.D.; Younos, T.M.
1980-12-01
Use of a spatially responsive finite element model is demonstrated for simulating the hydrologic response of a reclaimed mountaintop removal operation near Beckley, West Virginia. The use of the Finite Element Storm Hydrograph Model (FESHM), developed at Virginia Tech, provides a means of incorporating spatially distributed characteristics of the watershed, thus preserving the natural configuration of overland and channel flow. The research consisted of a series of calibration studies using runoff plot data to estimate values for model parameters and reclaimed mine surface. The model verification consisted of a comparison of simulated and observed runoff characteristics using an ungaged concept. The model was found to predict runoff volume with acceptable accuracy. Peak runoff rate was generally under predicted. Poor performance of the model was noted for long duration, low intensity storm events. Use of the model to evaluate the effect of cover management for modification of hydrologic response was demonstrated.
Three-Dimensional Simulation of Scalp Soft Tissue Expansion Using Finite Element Method
Guan, Qiu; Du, Xiaochen; Shao, Yan; Lin, Lili; Chen, Shengyong
2014-01-01
Scalp soft tissue expansion is one of the key medical techniques to generate new skin tissue for correcting various abnormalities and defects of skin in plastic surgery. Therefore, it is very important to work out the appropriate approach to evaluate the increase of expanded scalp area and to predict the shape, size, number, and placement of the expander. A novel method using finite element model is proposed to solve large deformation of scalp expansion in this paper. And the procedure to implement the scalp tissue expansion with finite element method is also described in detail. The three-dimensional simulation results show that the proposed method is effective, and the analysis of simulation experiment shows that the volume and area of the expansion scalp can be accurately calculated and the quantity, location, and size of the expander can also be predicted successfully with the proposed model. PMID:25110514
Simulation of micromechanical behavior of polycrystals: finite elements vs. fast Fourier transforms
Lebensohn, Ricardo A; Prakash, Arun
2009-01-01
In this work, we compare finite element and fast Fourier transform approaches for the prediction of micromechanical behavior of polycrystals. Both approaches are full-field approaches and use the same visco-plastic single crystal constitutive law. We investigate the texture and the heterogeneity of the inter- and intragranular, stress and strain fields obtained from the two models. Additionally, we also look into their computational performance. Two cases - rolling of aluminium and wire drawing of tungsten - are used to evaluate the predictions of the two mode1s. Results from both the models are similar, when large grain distortions do not occur in the polycrystal. The finite element simulations were found to be highly computationally intensive, in comparison to the fast Fourier transform simulations.
Simulation of two-dimensional waterflooding by using mixed finite elements
Chavent, G.; Cohen, G.; Dieste, I.; Dupuy, M.; Jaffre, J.
1984-08-01
A new method to simulate incompressible diphasic flow in two dimensions (2D) is presented. Its distinctive features include (1) a reformulation of the basic equation using the premise of a global pressure and (2) approximation of convective terms by an upwind scheme for discontinuous finite elements. A mixed finite-element method approximates both the scalar functions (pressure and saturation) and the vector functions (total velocity field and capillary diffusion vector). The pressure (resp. the saturation) is approximated by a discontinuous function piecewise constant (resp. linear) on the elements of the mesh. A basis of divergence-free vectors is used in the pressure equation, which accelerates computation. Several test examples, which include gravity and capillary effects, are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, B. K.; Casasent, D. P.
1989-01-01
The use of simplified error models to accurately simulate and evaluate the performance of an optical linear-algebra processor is described. The optical architecture used to perform banded matrix-vector products is reviewed, along with a linear dynamic finite-element case study. The laboratory hardware and ac-modulation technique used are presented. The individual processor error-source models and their simulator implementation are detailed. Several significant simplifications are introduced to ease the computational requirements and complexity of the simulations. The error models are verified with a laboratory implementation of the processor, and are used to evaluate its potential performance.
Simulation of Aircraft Landing Gears with a Nonlinear Dynamic Finite Element Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lyle, Karen H.; Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.
2000-01-01
Recent advances in computational speed have made aircraft and spacecraft crash simulations using an explicit, nonlinear, transient-dynamic, finite element analysis code more feasible. This paper describes the development of a simple landing gear model, which accurately simulates the energy absorbed by the gear without adding substantial complexity to the model. For a crash model, the landing gear response is approximated with a spring where the force applied to the fuselage is computed in a user-written subroutine. Helicopter crash simulations using this approach are compared with previously acquired experimental data from a full-scale crash test of a composite helicopter.
Finite element model-simulation-based characterization of a magnetostrictive gyrosensor
Marschner, U.; Graham, F.; Yoo, J.-H.; Flatau, A. B.; Mudivarthi, C.; Neubert, H.
2010-05-15
This paper analyzes a prototype microgyrosensor that employs the magnetostrictive alloy Galfenol for transduction of Coriolis-induced forces into an electrical output for quantifying a given angular velocity. The magnetic induction distribution in the Galfenol sensor patch depends on its bending shape and magnetoelastic properties and is investigated using a finite element model. Fluctuations in magnetic induction caused by a sinusoidal rotation of the sensor produce an amplitude modulated voltage in a surrounding coil which is simulated and measured.
Finite-Element Methods for Real-Time Simulation of Surgery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Basdogan, Cagatay
2003-01-01
Two finite-element methods have been developed for mathematical modeling of the time-dependent behaviors of deformable objects and, more specifically, the mechanical responses of soft tissues and organs in contact with surgical tools. These methods may afford the computational efficiency needed to satisfy the requirement to obtain computational results in real time for simulating surgical procedures as described in Simulation System for Training in Laparoscopic Surgery (NPO-21192) on page 31 in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. Simulation of the behavior of soft tissue in real time is a challenging problem because of the complexity of soft-tissue mechanics. The responses of soft tissues are characterized by nonlinearities and by spatial inhomogeneities and rate and time dependences of material properties. Finite-element methods seem promising for integrating these characteristics of tissues into computational models of organs, but they demand much central-processing-unit (CPU) time and memory, and the demand increases with the number of nodes and degrees of freedom in a given finite-element model. Hence, as finite-element models become more realistic, it becomes more difficult to compute solutions in real time. In both of the present methods, one uses approximate mathematical models trading some accuracy for computational efficiency and thereby increasing the feasibility of attaining real-time up36 NASA Tech Briefs, October 2003 date rates. The first of these methods is based on modal analysis. In this method, one reduces the number of differential equations by selecting only the most significant vibration modes of an object (typically, a suitable number of the lowest-frequency modes) for computing deformations of the object in response to applied forces.
Akagi, T; Hashizume, H; Inoue, H; Ogura, T; Nagayama, N
1994-10-01
Stress is a proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint model was analyzed by the two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element methods (FEM) to study the onset mechanisms of the middle phalangeal base fracture. The structural shapes were obtained from sagittally sectioned specimens of the PIP joint for making FEM models. In those models, four different material properties were given corresponding to cortical bone, subchondral bone, cancellous bone and cartilage. Loading conditions were determined by estimating the amount and position of axial pressure added to the middle phalanx. A general finite element program (MARC) was used for computer simulation analysis. The results of the fracture experiments compared with the clinical manifestation of the fractures justify the applicability of the computer simulation models using FEM analysis. The stress distribution changed as the angle of the PIP joint changed. Concentrated stress was found on the volar side of the middle phalangeal base in the hyperextension position, and was found on the dorsal side in the flexion position. In the neutral position, the stress was found on both sides. Axial stress on the middle phalanx causes three different types of fractures (volar, dorsal and both) depending upon the angle of the PIP joint. These results demonstrate that the type of PIP joint fracture dislocation depends on the angle of the joint at the time of injury. The finite element method is one of the most useful methods for analyzing the onset mechanism of fractures.
Foil Blanking Mechanism Research Using Rubber Tool by Finite Element Simulation and Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yang-Kai; Li, Xiao-Xing; Lang, Li-Hui; Xiao, Rui; Ge, Yu-Long
2016-08-01
For foil blanking process, the usage of flexible tool can effectively reduce the requirement of the manufacturing and assembling precision, compared with using conventional tool. However, the blanking mechanism using rubber tool is not clear. To investigate this question, the Finite Element (FE) model of rubber and process is established using ABAQUS package. The result of FE simulation affirm that the fracture emerges as a result of shear, not tensile. Then, for titanium foil with 0.08mm thickness, the cutting experiment is executed to verify the validity of blanking mechanism and FE simulation.
A Kernel-Free Particle-Finite Element Method for Hypervelocity Impact Simulation. Chapter 4
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Young-Keun; Fahrenthold, Eric P.
2004-01-01
An improved hybrid particle-finite element method has been developed for the simulation of hypervelocity impact problems. Unlike alternative methods, the revised formulation computes the density without reference to any kernel or interpolation functions, for either the density or the rate of dilatation. This simplifies the state space model and leads to a significant reduction in computational cost. The improved method introduces internal energy variables as generalized coordinates in a new formulation of the thermomechanical Lagrange equations. Example problems show good agreement with exact solutions in one dimension and good agreement with experimental data in a three dimensional simulation.
Three dimensional finite element simulations of room and pillar mines in rock salt
Hoffman, E.L.; Ehgartner, B.L.
1996-05-01
3-D quasistatic finite element codes are being used at Sandia to simulate large room and pillar mines in rock salt. The two examples presented in this paper are of mines supported by US DOE, under the auspices of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve program. One of the mines is presently used as an oil storage facility. These simulations, validated by field measurements and observations, have provided valuable insight into the failure mechanisms of room and pillar mines in rock salt. The calculations provided the basis for further investigation and the ultimate decision to decommission the DOE oil storage facility.
Real-Time Nonlinear Finite Element Computations on GPU - Application to Neurosurgical Simulation
Joldes, Grand Roman; Wittek, Adam; Miller, Karol
2010-01-01
Application of biomechanical modeling techniques in the area of medical image analysis and surgical simulation implies two conflicting requirements: accurate results and high solution speeds. Accurate results can be obtained only by using appropriate models and solution algorithms. In our previous papers we have presented algorithms and solution methods for performing accurate nonlinear finite element analysis of brain shift (which includes mixed mesh, different non-linear material models, finite deformations and brain-skull contacts) in less than a minute on a personal computer for models having up to 50.000 degrees of freedom. In this paper we present an implementation of our algorithms on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) using the new NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) which leads to more than 20 times increase in the computation speed. This makes possible the use of meshes with more elements, which better represent the geometry, are easier to generate, and provide more accurate results. PMID:21179562
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Weiqin; Li, Dayong; Zhang, Shaorui; Peng, Yinghong
2013-12-01
As a light-weight structural material, magnesium alloys show good potential in improving the fuel efficiency of vehicles and reducing CO2 emissions. However, it is well known that polycrystalline Mg alloys develop pronounced crystallographic texture and plastic anisotropy during rolling, which leads to earing phenomenon during deep drawing of the rolled sheets. It is vital to predict this phenomenon accurately for application of magnesium sheet metals. In the present study, a crystal plasticity model for AZ31 magnesium alloy that incorporates both slip and twinning is established. Then the crystal plasticity model is implemented in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS/Explicit through secondary development interface (VUMAT). Finally, the stamping process of a cylindrical cup is simulated using the developed crystal plasticity finite element model, and the predicting method is verified by comparing with experimental results from both earing profile and deformation texture.
Finite element-integral acoustic simulation of JT15D turbofan engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumeister, K. J.; Horowitz, S. J.
1984-07-01
An iterative finite element integral technique is used to predict the sound field radiated from the JT15D turbofan inlet. The sound field is divided into two regions: the sound field within and near the inlet which is computed using the finite element method and the radiation field beyond the inlet which is calculated using an integral solution technique. The velocity potential formulation of the acoustic wave equation was employed in the program. For some single mode JT15D data, the theory and experiment are in good agreement for the far field radiation pattern as well as suppressor attenuation. Also, the computer program is used to simulate flight effects that cannot be performed on a ground static test stand.
A comparison between block and smooth modeling in finite element simulations of tDCS.
Indahlastari, Aprinda; Sadleir, Rosalind J
2015-01-01
Current density distributions in five selected structures, namely, anterior superior temporal gyrus (ASTG), hippocampus (HIP), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), occipital lobe (OCC) and pre-central gyrus (PRC) were investigated as part of a comparison between electrostatic finite element models constructed directly from MRI-resolution data (block models), and smoothed tetrahedral finite element models (smooth models). Three electrode configurations were applied, mimicking different tDCS therapies. Smooth model simulations were found to require three times longer to complete. The percentage differences between mean and median current densities of each model type in arbitrarily chosen brain structures ranged from -33.33-48.08%. No clear relationship was found between structure volumes and current density differences between the two model types. Tissue regions nearby the electrodes demonstrated the least percentage differences between block and smooth models. Therefore, block models may be adequate to predict current density values in cortical regions presumed targeted by tDCS.
Mixed-RKDG Finite Element Methods for the 2-D Hydrodynamic Model for Semiconductor Device Simulation
Chen, Zhangxin; Cockburn, Bernardo; Jerome, Joseph W.; Shu, Chi-Wang
1995-01-01
In this paper we introduce a new method for numerically solving the equations of the hydrodynamic model for semiconductor devices in two space dimensions. The method combines a standard mixed finite element method, used to obtain directly an approximation to the electric field, with the so-called Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method, originally devised for numerically solving multi-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, which is applied here to the convective part of the equations. Numerical simulations showing the performance of the new method are displayed, and the results compared with those obtained by using Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) finite difference schemes. Frommore » the perspective of device modeling, these methods are robust, since they are capable of encompassing broad parameter ranges, including those for which shock formation is possible. The simulations presented here are for Gallium Arsenide at room temperature, but we have tested them much more generally with considerable success.« less
Finite Element Simulation Code for Computing Thermal Radiation from a Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, C. N.; Rappaport, H. L.
2004-11-01
A finite element code, ``THERMRAD,'' for computing thermal radiation from a plasma is under development. Radiation from plasma test particles is found in cylindrical geometry. Although the plasma equilibrium is assumed axisymmetric individual test particle excitation produces a non-axisymmetric electromagnetic response. Specially designed Whitney class basis functions are to be used to allow the solution to be solved on a two-dimensional grid. The basis functions enforce both a vanishing of the divergence of the electric field within grid elements where the complex index of refraction is assumed constant and continuity of tangential electric field across grid elements while allowing the normal component of the electric field to be discontinuous. An appropriate variational principle which incorporates the Sommerfeld radiation condition on the simulation boundary, as well as its discretization by the Rayleigh-Ritz technique is given. 1. ``Finte Element Method for Electromagnetics Problems,'' Volakis et al., Wiley, 1998.
Development and analysis of a finite element model to simulate pulmonary emphysema in CT imaging.
Diciotti, Stefano; Nobis, Alessandro; Ciulli, Stefano; Landini, Nicholas; Mascalchi, Mario; Sverzellati, Nicola; Innocenti, Bernardo
2015-01-01
In CT imaging, pulmonary emphysema appears as lung regions with Low-Attenuation Areas (LAA). In this study we propose a finite element (FE) model of lung parenchyma, based on a 2-D grid of beam elements, which simulates pulmonary emphysema related to smoking in CT imaging. Simulated LAA images were generated through space sampling of the model output. We employed two measurements of emphysema extent: Relative Area (RA) and the exponent D of the cumulative distribution function of LAA clusters size. The model has been used to compare RA and D computed on the simulated LAA images with those computed on the models output. Different mesh element sizes and various model parameters, simulating different physiological/pathological conditions, have been considered and analyzed. A proper mesh element size has been determined as the best trade-off between reliable results and reasonable computational cost. Both RA and D computed on simulated LAA images were underestimated with respect to those calculated on the models output. Such underestimations were larger for RA (≈ -44 ÷ -26%) as compared to those for D (≈ -16 ÷ -2%). Our FE model could be useful to generate standard test images and to design realistic physical phantoms of LAA images for the assessment of the accuracy of descriptors for quantifying emphysema in CT imaging.
2.5D Finite/infinite Element Approach for Simulating Train-Induced Ground Vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Y. B.; Hung, H. H.; Kao, J. C.
2010-05-01
The 2.5D finite/infinite element approach for simulating the ground vibrations by surface or underground moving trains will be briefly summarized in this paper. By assuming the soils to be uniform along the direction of the railway, only a two-dimensional profile of the soil perpendicular to the railway need be considered in the modeling. Besides the two in-plane degrees of freedom (DOFs) per node conventionally used for plane strain elements, an extra DOF is introduced to account for the out-of-plane wave transmission. The profile of the half-space is divided into a near field and a semi-infinite far field. The near field containing the train loads and irregular structures is simulated by the finite elements, while the far field covering the soils with infinite boundary by the infinite elements, by which due account is taken of the radiation effects for the moving loads. Enhanced by the automated mesh expansion procedure proposed previously by the writers, the far field impedances for all the lower frequencies are generated repetitively from the mesh created for the highest frequency considered. Finally, incorporated with a proposed load generation mechanism that takes the rail irregularity and dynamic properties of trains into account, an illustrative case study was performed. This paper investigates the vibration isolation effect of the elastic foundation that separates the concrete slab track from the underlying soil or tunnel structure. In addition, the advantage of the 2.5D approach was clearly demonstrated in that the three-dimensional wave propagation effect can be virtually captured using a two-dimensional finite/infinite element mesh. Compared with the conventional 3D approach, the present approach appears to be simple, efficient and generally accurate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craig, James R.; Gracie, Robert
2011-09-01
The extended finite element (XFEM) is applied to the problem of transient leakage from abandoned or free-flowing artesian wells in perforated aquifer-aquitard systems. To more accurately capture the singularities in potentiometric head at the wells, the standard linear finite element basis is locally augmented with asymptotic analytical solutions which enable more accurate calculations of leakage rates between aquifers. Highly accurate flux estimates are obtained without the need for higher mesh resolution near wells. Simulations are carried out to test both the accuracy and convergence properties of the XFEM implementation, and the XFEM results are compared to those of a high-resolution standard finite element model. It is seen that for the type of singularity-driven problem posed here, the standard FEM is unable to resolve leakage rates without very fine discretization, but that the XFEM performs robustly with fewer degrees of freedom. The impact of aquifer geometric heterogeneity on leakage rates is assessed and seen to be an important factor in determining total leakage. It is demonstrated that the XFEM may be a valuable tool in many water resources applications where small-scale effects can impact global system behavior.
Full-Scale Crash Test and Finite Element Simulation of a Composite Prototype Helicopter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Lyle, Karen H.
2003-01-01
A full-scale crash test of a prototype composite helicopter was performed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility at NASA Langley Research Center in 1999 to obtain data for validation of a finite element crash simulation. The helicopter was the flight test article built by Sikorsky Aircraft during the Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP). The composite helicopter was designed to meet the stringent Military Standard (MIL-STD-1290A) crashworthiness criteria and was outfitted with two crew and two troop seats and four anthropomorphic dummies. The test was performed at 38-ft/s vertical and 32.5-ft/s horizontal velocity onto a rigid surface. An existing modal-vibration model of the Sikorsky ACAP helicopter was converted into a model suitable for crash simulation. A two-stage modeling approach was implemented and an external user-defined subroutine was developed to represent the complex landing gear response. The crash simulation was executed with a nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Predictions of structural deformation and failure, the sequence of events, and the dynamic response of the airframe structure were generated and the numerical results were correlated with the experimental data to validate the simulation. The test results, the model development, and the test-analysis correlation are described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamasco, Cynthia M.; Rais-Rohani, Masoud; Buijk, Arjaan
2013-03-01
This article presents the development and application of a coupled finite element simulation and optimization framework that can be used for design and analysis of sheet-forming processes of varying complexity. The entire forming process from blank gripping and deep drawing to tool release and springback is modelled. The dies, holders, punch and workpiece are modelled with friction, temperature, holder force and punch speed controlled in the process simulation. Both single- and multi-stage sheet-forming processes are investigated. Process simulation is coupled with a nonlinear gradient-based optimization approach for optimizing single or multiple design objectives with imposed sheet-forming response constraints. A MATLAB program is developed and used for data-flow management between process simulation and optimization codes. Thinning, springback, damage and forming limit diagram are used to define failure in the forming process design optimization. Design sensitivity analysis and optimization results of the example problems are presented and discussed.
Mixed-Mode Decohesion Finite Elements for the Simulation of Delamination in Composite Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Camanho, Pedro P.; Davila, Carlos G.
2002-01-01
A new decohesion element with mixed-mode capability is proposed and demonstrated. The element is used at the interface between solid finite elements to model the initiation and non-self-similar growth of delaminations. A single relative displacement-based damage parameter is applied in a softening law to track the damage state of the interface and to prevent the restoration of the cohesive state during unloading. The softening law for mixed-mode delamination propagation can be applied to any mode interaction criterion such as the two-parameter power law or the three-parameter Benzeggagh-Kenane criterion. To demonstrate the accuracy of the predictions and the irreversibility capability of the constitutive law, steady-state delamination growth is simulated for quasistatic loading-unloading cycles of various single mode and mixed-mode delamination test specimens.
Nanoindentation of soft films on hard substrates: Experiments and finite element simulations
Pharr, G.M.; Tsui, T.Y.; Bolshakov, A.; Hay, J.C.
1997-12-31
Experiments and finite element simulations have been performed to examine error measurement of hardness and elastic modulus caused by pile-up when soft films deposited on hard substrates are tested by nanoindentation methods. Pile-up is exacerbated in soft-film/hard-substrate systems by the constraint imposed on plastic deformation in the film by the relatively non-deformable substrate. To experimentally examine pile-up effects, soft aluminum films with thicknesses of 240, 650, and 1700 nm were deposited on hard soda-lime glass substrates and tested by nanoindentation techniques. This system is attractive because the elastic modulus of the film and the substrate are approximately the same, but the substrate is harder than the film by a factor of about ten. Consequently, substrate influences on the indentation load-displacement behavior are manifested primarily by differences in the plastic flow characteristics alone. The elastic modulus of the film/substrate system, as measured by nanoindentation techniques, exhibits an increase with indenter penetration depth which peaks at a value approximately 30% greater than the true film modulus at a penetration depth close to the film thickness. Finite element simulation shows that this unusual behavior is caused by substrate-induced enhancement of pile-up. Finite element simulation also shows that the amount of pile-up increases with increasing penetration depth, and that the pile-up geometry depends on the work-hardening characteristics of the film. Because of these effects, nanoindentation techniques overestimate the true film hardness and elastic modulus by as much as 68% and 35%, respectively, depending on the work-hardening behavior of the film and the indenter penetration depth. The largest errors occur in non-work-hardening materials at penetration depths close to the film thickness, for which substrate-induced enhancement of pile-up is greatest.
Detached Eddy Simulations of Incompressible Turbulent Flows Using the Finite Element Method
Laskowski, G M
2001-08-01
An explicit Galerkin finite-element formulation of the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) 1 - equation turbulent transport model was implemented into the incompressible flow module of a parallel, multi-domain, Galerkin finite-element, multi-physics code, using both a RANS formulation and a DES formulation. DES is a new technique for simulating/modeling turbulence using a hybrid RANSkES formulation. The turbulent viscosity is constructed from an intermediate viscosity obtained from the transport equation which is spatially discretized using Q1 elements and integrated in time via forward Euler time integration. Three simulations of plane channel flow on a RANS-type grid, using different turbulence models, were conducted in order to validate the implementation of the SA model: SA-RANS, SA-DES and Smagorinksy (without wall correction). Very good agreement was observed between the SA-RANS results and theory, namely the Log Law of the Wall (LLW), especially in the viscous sublayer region and, to a lesser extent, in the log-layer region. The results obtained using the SA-DES model did not agree as well with the LLW, and it is believed that this poor agreement can be attributed to using a DES model on a RANS grid, namely using an incorrect length-scale. It was observed that near the wall, the SA-DES model acted as an RANS model, and away from the wall it acted as an LES model.
Simulation of viscous flows using a multigrid-control volume finite element method
Hookey, N.A.
1994-12-31
This paper discusses a multigrid control volume finite element method (MG CVFEM) for the simulation of viscous fluid flows. The CVFEM is an equal-order primitive variables formulation that avoids spurious solution fields by incorporating an appropriate pressure gradient in the velocity interpolation functions. The resulting set of discretized equations is solved using a coupled equation line solver (CELS) that solves the discretized momentum and continuity equations simultaneously along lines in the calculation domain. The CVFEM has been implemented in the context of both FMV- and V-cycle multigrid algorithms, and preliminary results indicate a five to ten fold reduction in execution times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massat, Jean-Pierre; Laurent, Christophe; Bianchi, Jean-Philippe; Balmès, Etienne
2014-05-01
This paper presents recent developments undertaken by SNCF Innovation & Research Department on numerical modelling of pantograph catenary interaction. It aims at describing an efficient co-simulation process between finite element (FE) and multibody (MB) modelling methods. FE catenary models are coupled with a full flexible MB representation with pneumatic actuation of pantograph. These advanced functionalities allow new kind of numerical analyses such as dynamic improvements based on innovative pneumatic suspensions or assessment of crash risks crossing areas that demonstrate the powerful capabilities of this computing approach.
Stabilized finite element methods to simulate the conductances of ion channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Bin; Xie, Yan; Zhang, Linbo; Lu, Benzhuo
2015-03-01
We have previously developed a finite element simulator, ichannel, to simulate ion transport through three-dimensional ion channel systems via solving the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (PNP) and Size-modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (SMPNP), and succeeded in simulating some ion channel systems. However, the iterative solution between the coupled Poisson equation and the Nernst-Planck equations has difficulty converging for some large systems. One reason we found is that the NP equations are advection-dominated diffusion equations, which causes troubles in the usual FE solution. The stabilized schemes have been applied to compute fluids flow in various research fields. However, they have not been studied in the simulation of ion transport through three-dimensional models based on experimentally determined ion channel structures. In this paper, two stabilized techniques, the SUPG and the Pseudo Residual-Free Bubble function (PRFB) are introduced to enhance the numerical robustness and convergence performance of the finite element algorithm in ichannel. The conductances of the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) and the anthrax toxin protective antigen pore (PA) are simulated to validate the stabilization techniques. Those two stabilized schemes give reasonable results for the two proteins, with decent agreement with both experimental data and Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations. For a variety of numerical tests, it is found that the simulator effectively avoids previous numerical instability after introducing the stabilization methods. Comparison based on our test data set between the two stabilized schemes indicates both SUPG and PRFB have similar performance (the latter is slightly more accurate and stable), while SUPG is relatively more convenient to implement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, S. L.; Covington, J. A.; Gardner, J. W.; Pearce, T. C.
The sense of smell is a powerful biological tool although it is the least understood. Attempts to mimic this feature over the last two decades have resulted in the creation of the electronic nose. In comparison to the biological system, its ability to distinguish complex odours is poor. This has mainly been attributed to the lack of sensors and their diversity compared to the human in the order of 105 and 102 respectively. In our efforts to improve the performance of the electronic nose, here we have used a different approach using a unique feature of the biological olfactory system. This technique is analogous to a multi-dimensional gas chromatography (MD-GC) technique that is capable in generating spatial and temporal signals to aid odour discrimination. As the physical realisation requires expensive and time consuming micro- nano fabrication processes, finite element method simulations have been used to validate the proposed design and aid optimisation. This paper describes the finite element modelling process and compares these simulation results to that of the well-established analytical model. Preliminary results of the optimised system are also presented; these results are in good agreement to the simulated outputs.
Finite element simulation of core inspection in helicopter rotor blades using guided waves.
Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Barnard, Daniel; Dayal, Vinay
2015-09-01
This paper extends the work presented earlier on inspection of helicopter rotor blades using guided Lamb modes by focusing on inspecting the spar-core bond. In particular, this research focuses on structures which employ high stiffness, high density core materials. Wave propagation in such structures deviate from the generic Lamb wave propagation in sandwich panels. To understand the various mode conversions, finite element models of a generalized helicopter rotor blade were created and subjected to transient analysis using a commercial finite element code; ANSYS. Numerical simulations showed that a Lamb wave excited in the spar section of the blade gets converted into Rayleigh wave which travels across the spar-core section and mode converts back into Lamb wave. Dispersion of Rayleigh waves in multi-layered half-space was also explored. Damage was modeled in the form of a notch in the core section to simulate a cracked core, and delamination was modeled between the spar and core material to simulate spar-core disbond. Mode conversions under these damaged conditions were examined numerically. The numerical models help in assessing the difficulty of using nondestructive evaluation for complex structures and also highlight the physics behind the mode conversions which occur at various discontinuities.
Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method for Simulation of Hydraulic Fracturing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Chengzeng; Zheng, Hong; Sun, Guanhua; Ge, Xiurun
2016-04-01
Hydraulic fracturing is widely used in the exploitation of unconventional gas (such as shale gas).Thus, the study of hydraulic fracturing is of particular importance for petroleum industry. The combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM) proposed by Munjiza is an innovative numerical technique to capture progressive damage and failure processes in rock. However, it cannot model the fracturing process of rock driven by hydraulic pressure. In this study, we present a coupled hydro-mechanical model based on FDEM for the simulation of hydraulic fracturing in complex fracture geometries, where an algorithm for updating hydraulic fracture network is proposed. The algorithm can carry out connectivity searches for arbitrarily complex fracture networks. Then, we develop a new combined finite-discrete element method numerical code (Y-flow) for the simulation of hydraulic fracturing. Finally, several verification examples are given, and the simulation results agree well with the analytical or experimental results, indicating that the newly developed numerical code can capture hydraulic fracturing process correctly and effectively.
Finite-Element Simulation of Conventional and High-Speed Peripheral Milling of Hardened Mold Steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, D. W.; Wang, C. Y.; Hu, Y. N.; Song, Y. X.
2009-12-01
A finite-element model (FEM) with the flow stress and typical fracture is used to simulate a hard machining process, which before this work could not adequately represent the constitutive behavior of workpiece material that is usually heat treated to hardness levels above 50 Rockwell C hardness (HRC). Thus, a flow stress equation with a variation in hardness is used in the computer simulation of hard machining. In this article, the influence of the milling speed on the cutting force, chip morphology, effective stress, and cutting temperature in the deformation zones of both conventional and high-speed peripheral milling hardened mold steel is systematically studied by finite-element analysis (FEA). By taking into consideration the importance of material characteristics during the milling process, the similar Johnson-Cook’s constitutive equation with hardened mold steel is introduced to the FEM to investigate the peripheral milling of hardened mold steel. In comparison with the experimental data of the cutting force at various cutting speeds, the simulation result is identical with the measured data. The results indicate that the model can be used to accurately predict the behavior of hardened mold steel in both conventional and high-speed milling.
2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.
2016-09-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.
Naghibi Beidokhti, Hamid; Janssen, Dennis; Khoshgoftar, Mehdi; Sprengers, Andre; Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Van den Boogaard, Ton; Verdonschot, Nico
2016-10-01
The finite element (FE) method has been widely used to investigate knee biomechanics. Time integration algorithms for dynamic problems in finite element analysis can be classified as either implicit or explicit. Although previously both static/dynamic implicit and dynamic explicit method have been used, a comparative study on the outcomes of both methods is of high interest for the knee modeling community. The aim of this study is to compare static, dynamic implicit and dynamic explicit solutions in analyses of the knee joint to assess the prediction of dynamic effects, potential convergence problems, the accuracy and stability of the calculations, the difference in computational time, and the influence of mass-scaling in the explicit formulation. The heel-strike phase of fast, normal and slow gait was simulated for two different body masses in a model of the native knee. Our results indicate that ignoring the dynamic effect can alter joint motion. Explicit analyses are suitable to simulate dynamic loading of the knee joint in high-speed simulations, as this method offers a substantial reduction of the computational time with a similar prediction of cartilage stresses and meniscus strains. Although mass-scaling can provide even more gain in computational time, it is not recommended for high-speed activities, in which inertial forces play a significant role. PMID:27349493
Adaptive finite element simulation of flow and transport applications on parallel computers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirk, Benjamin Shelton
The subject of this work is the adaptive finite element simulation of problems arising in flow and transport applications on parallel computers. Of particular interest are new contributions to adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in this parallel high-performance context, including novel work on data structures, treatment of constraints in a parallel setting, generality and extensibility via object-oriented programming, and the design/implementation of a flexible software framework. This technology and software capability then enables more robust, reliable treatment of multiscale--multiphysics problems and specific studies of fine scale interaction such as those in biological chemotaxis (Chapter 4) and high-speed shock physics for compressible flows (Chapter 5). The work begins by presenting an overview of key concepts and data structures employed in AMR simulations. Of particular interest is how these concepts are applied in the physics-independent software framework which is developed here and is the basis for all the numerical simulations performed in this work. This open-source software framework has been adopted by a number of researchers in the U.S. and abroad for use in a wide range of applications. The dynamic nature of adaptive simulations pose particular issues for efficient implementation on distributed-memory parallel architectures. Communication cost, computational load balance, and memory requirements must all be considered when developing adaptive software for this class of machines. Specific extensions to the adaptive data structures to enable implementation on parallel computers is therefore considered in detail. The libMesh framework for performing adaptive finite element simulations on parallel computers is developed to provide a concrete implementation of the above ideas. This physics-independent framework is applied to two distinct flow and transport applications classes in the subsequent application studies to illustrate the flexibility of the
Hillerich, B; Nagler, O
2001-11-01
Thermal finite element method (FEM) calculations and SPICE-based dynamic thermal models are used to simulate and optimize the static and dynamic performance of miniaturized oven-controlled crystal oscillators (OCXOs). FEM can be used to generate the values of the SPICE circuit elements. Good agreement is achieved between simulation and measurement. Several application examples, including directly heated OCXOs, are discussed.
Wei, Fei; Westerdale, John; McMahon, Eileen M.; Belohlavek, Marek; Heys, Jeffrey J.
2012-01-01
As both fluid flow measurement techniques and computer simulation methods continue to improve, there is a growing need for numerical simulation approaches that can assimilate experimental data into the simulation in a flexible and mathematically consistent manner. The problem of interest here is the simulation of blood flow in the left ventricle with the assimilation of experimental data provided by ultrasound imaging of microbubbles in the blood. The weighted least-squares finite element method is used because it allows data to be assimilated in a very flexible manner so that accurate measurements are more closely matched with the numerical solution than less accurate data. This approach is applied to two different test problems: a flexible flap that is displaced by a jet of fluid and blood flow in the porcine left ventricle. By adjusting how closely the simulation matches the experimental data, one can observe potential inaccuracies in the model because the simulation without experimental data differs significantly from the simulation with the data. Additionally, the assimilation of experimental data can help the simulation capture certain small effects that are present in the experiment, but not modeled directly in the simulation. PMID:22312412
Fiber pushout test: A three-dimensional finite element computational simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mital, Subodh K.; Chamis, Christos C.
1990-01-01
A fiber pushthrough process was computationally simulated using three-dimensional finite element method. The interface material is replaced by an anisotropic material with greatly reduced shear modulus in order to simulate the fiber pushthrough process using a linear analysis. Such a procedure is easily implemented and is computationally very effective. It can be used to predict fiber pushthrough load for a composite system at any temperature. The average interface shear strength obtained from pushthrough load can easily be separated into its two components: one that comes from frictional stresses and the other that comes from chemical adhesion between fiber and the matrix and mechanical interlocking that develops due to shrinkage of the composite because of phase change during the processing. Step-by-step procedures are described to perform the computational simulation, to establish bounds on interfacial bond strength and to interpret interfacial bond quality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solar, Mathieu; Meyer, Hendrik; Gauthier, Christian; Fond, Christophe; Benzerara, Olivier; Schirrer, Robert; Baschnagel, Jörg
2012-02-01
This paper studies the rheology of weakly entangled polymer melts and films in the glassy domain and near the rubbery domain using two different methods: molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element (FE) simulations. In a first step, the uniaxial mechanical behavior of a bulk polymer sample is studied by means of particle-based MD simulations. The results are in good agreement with experimental data, and mechanical properties may be computed from the simulations. This uniaxial mechanical behavior is then implemented in FE simulations using an elasto-viscoelasto-viscoplastic constitutive law in a continuum mechanics (CM) approach. In a second step, the mechanical response of a polymer film during an indentation test is modeled with the MD method and with the FE simulations using the same constitutive law. Good agreement is found between the MD and CM results. This work provides evidence in favor of using MD simulations to investigate the local physics of contact mechanics, since the volume elements studied are representative and thus contain enough information about the microstructure of the polymer model, while surface phenomena (adhesion and surface tension) are naturally included in the MD approach.
Solar, Mathieu; Meyer, Hendrik; Gauthier, Christian; Fond, Christophe; Benzerara, Olivier; Schirrer, Robert; Baschnagel, Jörg
2012-02-01
This paper studies the rheology of weakly entangled polymer melts and films in the glassy domain and near the rubbery domain using two different methods: molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element (FE) simulations. In a first step, the uniaxial mechanical behavior of a bulk polymer sample is studied by means of particle-based MD simulations. The results are in good agreement with experimental data, and mechanical properties may be computed from the simulations. This uniaxial mechanical behavior is then implemented in FE simulations using an elasto-viscoelasto-viscoplastic constitutive law in a continuum mechanics (CM) approach. In a second step, the mechanical response of a polymer film during an indentation test is modeled with the MD method and with the FE simulations using the same constitutive law. Good agreement is found between the MD and CM results. This work provides evidence in favor of using MD simulations to investigate the local physics of contact mechanics, since the volume elements studied are representative and thus contain enough information about the microstructure of the polymer model, while surface phenomena (adhesion and surface tension) are naturally included in the MD approach. PMID:22463237
Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kang, Dong-Won; Kim, Ju-Young; Yang, Seung-Tae; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Choi, Jin-Seung; Tack, Gye-Rae
2014-01-01
In this study, the accuracy of the inputs required for finite element analysis, which is mainly used for the biomechanical analysis of bones, was improved. To ensure a muscle force and joint contact force similar to the actual values, a musculoskeletal model that was based on the actual gait experiment was used. Gait data were obtained from a healthy male adult aged 29 who had no history of musculoskeletal disease and walked normally (171 cm height and 72 kg weight), and were used as inputs for the musculoskeletal model simulation to determine the muscle force and joint contact force. Among the phases of gait, which is the most common activity in daily life, the stance phase is the most affected by the load. The results data were extracted from five events in the stance phase: heel contact (ST1), loading response (ST2), early mid-stance (ST2), late mid-stance (ST4), and terminal stance (ST5). The results were used as the inputs for the finite element model that was formed using 1.5mm intervals computed tomography (CT) images and the maximum Von-Mises stress and the maximum Von-Mises strain of the right femur were examined. The maximum stress and strain were lowest at the ST4. The maximum values for the femur occurred in the medial part and then in the lateral part after the mid-stance. In this study, the results of the musculoskeletal model simulation using the inverse-dynamic analysis were utilized to improve the accuracy of the inputs, which affected the finite element analysis results, and the possibility of the bone-specific analysis according to the lapse of time was examined.
Finite element simulations of hydrodynamic trapping in microfluidic particle-trap array systems
Xu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Zhenyu; Nehorai, Arye
2013-01-01
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation is a powerful tool in the design and implementation of microfluidic systems, especially for systems that involve hydrodynamic behavior of objects such as functionalized microspheres, biological cells, or biopolymers in complex structures. In this work, we investigate hydrodynamic trapping of microspheres in a novel microfluidic particle-trap array device by finite element simulations. The accuracy of the time-dependent simulation of a microsphere's motion towards the traps is validated by our experimental results. Based on the simulation, we study the fluid velocity field, pressure field, and force and stress on the microsphere in the device. We further explore the trap array's geometric parameters and critical fluid velocity, which affect the microsphere's hydrodynamic trapping. The information is valuable for designing microfluidic devices and guiding experimental operation. Besides, we provide guidelines on the simulation set-up and release an openly available implementation of our simulation in one of the popular FEM softwares, COMSOL Multiphysics. Researchers may tailor the model to simulate similar microfluidic systems that may accommodate a variety of structured particles. Therefore, the simulation will be of particular interest to biomedical research involving cell or bead transport and migration, blood flow within microvessels, and drug delivery. PMID:24404071
Evaluation of finite-element-based simulation model of photoacoustics in biological tissues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhaohui; Ha, Seunghan; Kim, Kang
2012-03-01
A finite element (FE)-based simulation model for photoacoustic (PA) has been developed incorporating light propagation, PA signal generation, and sound wave propagation in soft tissues using a commercial FE simulation package, COMSOL Multiphysics. The developed simulation model is evaluated by comparing with other known simulation models such as Monte Carlo method and heat-pressure model. In this in silico simulation, FE model is composed of three parts of 1) homogeneous background soft tissues submerged in water, 2) target tissue inclusion (or PA contrast agents), and 3) short pulsed laser source (pulse length of 5-10 ns). The laser point source is placed right above the tissues submerged in water. This laser source light propagation through the multi-layer tissues using the diffusion equation is compared with Monte Carlo solution. Photoacoustic signal generation by the target tissue inclusion is simulated using bioheat equation for temperature change, and resultant stress and strain. With stress-strain model, the process of the PA signal generation can be simulated further in details step by step to understand and analyze the photothermal properties of the target tissues or PA contrast agents. The created wide-band acoustic pressure (band width > 150 MHz) propagates through the background tissues to the ultrasound detector located at the tissue surface, governed by sound wave equation. Acoustic scattering and absorption in soft tissues also have been considered. Accuracy and computational time of the developed FE-based simulation model of photoacoustics have been quantitatively analyzed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krueger, Ronald
2008-01-01
An approach for assessing the delamination propagation simulation capabilities in commercial finite element codes is presented and demonstrated. For this investigation, the Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen and the Single Leg Bending (SLB) specimen were chosen for full three-dimensional finite element simulations. First, benchmark results were created for both specimens. Second, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to propagate. The load-displacement relationship and the total strain energy obtained from the propagation analysis results and the benchmark results were compared and good agreements could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. Selecting the appropriate input parameters, however, was not straightforward and often required an iterative procedure. Qualitatively, the delamination front computed for the DCB specimen did not take the shape of a curved front as expected. However, the analysis of the SLB specimen yielded a curved front as was expected from the distribution of the energy release rate and the failure index across the width of the specimen. Overall, the results are encouraging but further assessment on a structural level is required.
Analytical and finite element simulation of a three-bar torsion spring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rădoi, M.; Cicone, T.
2016-08-01
The present study is dedicated to the innovative 3-bar torsion spring used as suspension solution for the first time at Lunokhod-1, the first autonomous vehicle sent for the exploration of the Moon in the early 70-ies by the former USSR. The paper describes a simple analytical model for calculation of spring static characteristics, taking into account both torsion and bending effects. Closed form solutions of this model allows quick and elegant parametric analysis. A comparison with a single torsion bar with the same stiffness reveal an increase of the maximum stress with more than 50%. A 3D finite element (FE) simulation is proposed to evaluate the accuracy of the analytical model. The model was meshed in an automated pattern (sweep for hubs and tetrahedrons for bars) with mesh morphing. Very close results between analytical and numerical solutions have been found, concluding that the analytical model is accurate. The 3-D finite element simulation was used to evaluate the effects of design details like fillet radius of the bars or contact stresses in the hex hub.
Finite-element simulation of firearm injury to the human cranium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mota, A.; Klug, W. S.; Ortiz, M.; Pandolfi, A.
An advanced physics-based simulation of firearms injury to the human cranium is presented, modeling by finite elements the collision of a firearm projectile into a human parietal bone. The space-discretized equations of motion are explicitly integrated in time with Newmark's time-stepping algorithm. The impact of the projectile on the skull, as well as the collisions between flying fragments, are controlled through a nonsmooth contact algorithm. Cohesive theories of fracture, in conjunction with adaptive remeshing, control the nucleation and the propagation of fractures. The progressive opening of fracture surfaces is governed by a thermodynamically irreversible cohesive law embedded into cohesive-interface elements. Numerical results compare well with forensic data of actual firearm wounds to human crania.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Besson, François; Ferraris, Guy; Guingand, Michèle; Vaujany, Jean-Pierre De
During the last decade, many new technical solutions dedicated to the comfort of automotive vehicle's drivers have raised, like Electrical Power Steering (EPS). To fulfill the more and more demanding requirements in terms of vibration and acoustics, the dynamic behavior of the whole steering is studied. The system is divided into dedicated finite elements (FE) describing the whole steering. The stress was first put on the gears models (worm gear and rack-and-pinion) and their anti-backlash systems as they have been identified as potential vibration sources. Mechanical non-linearities (clearances, non-linear stiffness) of the mechanical system are taken into account in these models. Then, this model allows simulating the transient response of the system to an input excitation. Each developed element is validated using a fitted experimental test bench. Then, the general model is correlated the same way. Hence models can be used to study the dynamic behavior of EPS systems or sub-systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Yu; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qiang; Guan, Yanzhi
2016-03-01
Flexible roll forming is a promising manufacturing method for the production of variable cross section products. Considering the large plastic strain in this forming process which is much larger than that of uniform deformation phase of uniaxial tensile test, the widely adopted method of simulating the forming processes with non-supplemented material data from uniaxial tensile test will certainly lead to large error. To reduce this error, the material data is supplemented based on three constitutive models. Then a finite element model of a six passes flexible roll forming process is established based on the supplemented material data and the original material data from the uniaxial tensile test. The flexible roll forming experiment of a B pillar reinforcing plate is carried out to verify the proposed method. Final cross section shapes of the experimental and the simulated results are compared. It is shown that the simulation calculated with supplemented material data based on Swift model agrees well with the experimental results, while the simulation based on original material data could not predict the actual deformation accurately. The results indicate that this material supplement method is reliable and indispensible, and the simulation model can well reflect the real metal forming process. Detailed analysis of the distribution and history of plastic strain at different positions are performed. A new material data supplement method is proposed to tackle the problem which is ignored in other roll forming simulations, and thus the forming process simulation accuracy can be greatly improved.
Immersed smoothed finite element method for fluid-structure interaction simulation of aortic valves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Jianyao; Liu, G. R.; Narmoneva, Daria A.; Hinton, Robert B.; Zhang, Zhi-Qian
2012-12-01
This paper presents a novel numerical method for simulating the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems when blood flows over aortic valves. The method uses the immersed boundary/element method and the smoothed finite element method and hence it is termed as IS-FEM. The IS-FEM is a partitioned approach and does not need a body-fitted mesh for FSI simulations. It consists of three main modules: the fluid solver, the solid solver and the FSI force solver. In this work, the blood is modeled as incompressible viscous flow and solved using the characteristic-based-split scheme with FEM for spacial discretization. The leaflets of the aortic valve are modeled as Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic materials and solved using smoothed finite element method (or S-FEM). The FSI force is calculated on the Lagrangian fictitious fluid mesh that is identical to the moving solid mesh. The octree search and neighbor-to-neighbor schemes are used to detect efficiently the FSI pairs of fluid and solid cells. As an example, a 3D idealized model of aortic valve is modeled, and the opening process of the valve is simulated using the proposed IS-FEM. Numerical results indicate that the IS-FEM can serve as an efficient tool in the study of aortic valve dynamics to reveal the details of stresses in the aortic valves, the flow velocities in the blood, and the shear forces on the interfaces. This tool can also be applied to animal models studying disease processes and may ultimately translate to a new adaptive methods working with magnetic resonance images, leading to improvements on diagnostic and prognostic paradigms, as well as surgical planning, in the care of patients.
Dynamic simulation of free surfaces in capillaries with the finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trutschel, R.; Schellenberger, U.
1998-02-01
The mathematical formulation of the dynamics of free liquid surfaces including the effects of surface tension is governed by a non-linear system of elliptic differential equations. The major difficulty of getting unique closed solutions only in trivial cases is overcome by numerical methods. This paper considers transient simulations of liquid-gas menisci in vertical capillary tubes and gaps in the presence of gravity. Therefore the CFD code FIDAP 7.52 based on the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) is used. Calculations using the free surface model are presented for a variety of contact angles and cross-sections with experimental and theoretical verification. The liquid column oscillations are compared for numerical accuracy with a mechanical mathematical model, and the sensitivity with respect to the node density is investigated. The efficiency of the numerical treatment of geometric non-trivial problems is demonstrated by a prismatic capillary. Present restrictions limiting efficient transient simulations with irregularly shaped calculational domains are stated.
Laser Additive Melting and Solidification of Inconel 718: Finite Element Simulation and Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, John; Ladani, Leila; Sadowski, Magda
2016-03-01
The field of powdered metal additive manufacturing is experiencing a surge in public interest finding uses in aerospace, defense, and biomedical industries. The relative youth of the technology coupled with public interest makes the field a vibrant research topic. The authors have expanded upon previously published finite element models used to analyze the processing of novel engineering materials through the use of laser- and electron beam-based additive manufacturing. In this work, the authors present a model for simulating fabrication of Inconel 718 using laser melting processes. Thermal transport phenomena and melt pool geometries are discussed and validation against experimental findings is presented. After comparing experimental and simulation results, the authors present two correction correlations to transform the modeling results into meaningful predictions of actual laser melting melt pool geometries in Inconel 718.
Fan, Rong; Sacks, Michael S
2014-06-27
Computational implementation of physical and physiologically realistic constitutive models is critical for numerical simulation of soft biological tissues in a variety of biomedical applications. It is well established that the highly nonlinear and anisotropic mechanical behaviors of soft tissues are an emergent behavior of the underlying tissue microstructure. In the present study, we have implemented a structural constitutive model into a finite element framework specialized for membrane tissues. We noted that starting with a single element subjected to uniaxial tension, the non-fibrous tissue matrix must be present to prevent unrealistic tissue deformations. Flexural simulations were used to set the non-fibrous matrix modulus because fibers have little effects on tissue deformation under three-point bending. Multiple deformation modes were simulated, including strip biaxial, planar biaxial with two attachment methods, and membrane inflation. Detailed comparisons with experimental data were undertaken to insure faithful simulations of both the macro-level stress-strain insights into adaptations of the fiber architecture under stress, such as fiber reorientation and fiber recruitment. Results indicated a high degree of fidelity and demonstrated interesting microstructural adaptions to stress and the important role of the underlying tissue matrix. Moreover, we apparently resolve a discrepancy in our 1997 study (Billiar and Sacks, 1997. J. Biomech. 30 (7), 753-756) where we observed that under strip biaxial stretch the simulated fiber splay responses were not in good agreement with the experimental results, suggesting non-affine deformations may have occurred. However, by correctly accounting for the isotropic phase of the measured fiber splay, good agreement was obtained. While not the final word, these simulations suggest that affine fiber kinematics for planar collagenous tissues is a reasonable assumption at the macro level. Simulation tools such as these are
Real-time nonlinear finite element analysis for surgical simulation using graphics processing units.
Taylor, Zeike A; Cheng, Mario; Ourselin, Sébastien
2007-01-01
Clinical employment of biomechanical modelling techniques in areas of medical image analysis and surgical simulation is often hindered by conflicting requirements for high fidelity in the modelling approach and high solution speeds. We report the development of techniques for high-speed nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis for surgical simulation. We employ a previously developed nonlinear total Lagrangian explicit FE formulation which offers significant computational advantages for soft tissue simulation. However, the key contribution of the work is the presentation of a fast graphics processing unit (GPU) solution scheme for the FE equations. To the best of our knowledge this represents the first GPU implementation of a nonlinear FE solver. We show that the present explicit FE scheme is well-suited to solution via highly parallel graphics hardware, and that even a midrange GPU allows significant solution speed gains (up to 16.4x) compared with equivalent CPU implementations. For the models tested the scheme allows real-time solution of models with up to 16000 tetrahedral elements. The use of GPUs for such purposes offers a cost-effective high-performance alternative to expensive multi-CPU machines, and may have important applications in medical image analysis and surgical simulation. PMID:18051120
Song, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Hao, Qun; Hu, Lanxin; Wang, Jingwen; Shang, Fuzhou
2012-10-09
Simulation based on the finite-element (FE) method plays an important role in the investigation of intra-body communication (IBC). In this paper, a finite-element model of the whole body model used for the IBC simulation is proposed and verified, while the FE simulation of the galvanic coupling IBC with different signal transmission paths has been achieved. Firstly, a novel finite-element method for modeling the whole human body is proposed, and a FE model of the whole human body used for IBC simulation was developed. Secondly, the simulations of the galvanic coupling IBC with the different signal transmission paths were implemented. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method was verified by using in vivo measurements within the frequency range of 10 kHz-5 MHz, whereby some important conclusions were deduced. Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer significant advantages in the investigation of the galvanic coupling intra-body communication.
A coupled finite-element, boundary-integral method for simulating ultrasonic flowmeters.
Bezdĕk, Michal; Landes, Hermann; Rieder, Alfred; Lerch, Reinhard
2007-03-01
Today's most popular technology of ultrasonic flow measurement is based on the transit-time principle. In this paper, a numerical simulation technique applicable to the analysis of transit-time flowmeters is presented. A flowmeter represents a large simulation problem that also requires computation of acoustic fields in moving media. For this purpose, a novel boundary integral method, the Helmholtz integral-ray tracing method (HIRM), is derived and validated. HIRM is applicable to acoustic radiation problems in arbitrary mean flows at low Mach numbers and significantly reduces the memory demands in comparison with the finite-element method (FEM). It relies on an approximate free-space Green's function which makes use of the ray tracing technique. For simulation of practical acoustic devices, a hybrid simulation scheme consisting of FEM and HIRM is proposed. The coupling of FEM and HIRM is facilitated by means of absorbing boundaries in combination with a new, reflection-free, acoustic-source formulation. Using the coupled FEM-HIRM scheme, a full three-dimensional (3-D) simulation of a complete transit-time flowmeter is performed for the first time. The obtained simulation results are in good agreement with measurements both at zero flow and under flow conditions. PMID:17375833
Okada, Nobuto; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Onuki, Yoshinori; Miura, Takahiro; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo
2016-01-01
Scored tablets can be divided into equal halves for individual treatment of patients. However, the relationships between scored shapes and tablet characteristics such as the dividing strength, halving equality, and breaking strength are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to simulate the mechanical stress distribution of scored tablets by using the finite element method (FEM). A runnel of triangle pole on the top surface of flat tablets was fabricated as the score shape. The depth and angle of the scores were selected as design variables. Elastic parameters such as a Young's modulus and a Poisson ratio for the model powder bed were measured. FEM simulation was then applied to the scored tablets, represented as a continuum elastic model. Stress distributions in the inner structure of the tablets were simulated after applying external force. The adequacy of the simulation was evaluated in experiments using scored tablets. As a result, we observed a relatively good agreement between the FEM simulation and the experiments, suggesting that FEM simulation is advantageous for designing scored tablets. PMID:27477653
Finite element thermomechanical simulation of droplets impacting on a rigid substrate
Bertagnolli, M.; Marchese, M.; Jacucci, G.; St. Doltsinis, I.; Noelting, S.
1994-12-31
The plasma spray process is a convenient way to coat a piece of material with a layer of another material, to protect the first from thermal shock or environmental degradation. Finite Element simulation techniques (FEM) for the spreading process of a ceramic liquid droplet impacting on a flat cold surface have been developed. The goal of the present investigation is (1) to predict the geometrical form of the splat as a function of process parameters, such as initial temperature and velocity, and (2) to follow the thermal field developing in the droplet up to solidification. A non-linear finite element procedure has been extended in order to model the complex physical phenomena involved in the impact process. The dynamic motion of the viscous melt in the drops as constrained by elastic surface tensions in interaction with the developing contact with the target, ultimately has been coupled to transient thermal phenomena accounting also for the solidification of the material. In a first model description, spherical particles of liquid ceramic of given temperature and velocity impact on a flat, cool rigid surface. The deformation of the splat geometry as well as the evolution of the thermal field within the splat are followed up to the final state and require adaptive discretization techniques. The authors discuss an utilization of the proposed model in correlating flattening degrees with the initial process parameters.
Finite element simulation of the mechanical impact of computer work on the carpal tunnel syndrome.
Mouzakis, Dionysios E; Rachiotis, George; Zaoutsos, Stefanos; Eleftheriou, Andreas; Malizos, Konstantinos N
2014-09-22
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a clinical disorder resulting from the compression of the median nerve. The available evidence regarding the association between computer use and CTS is controversial. There is some evidence that computer mouse or keyboard work, or both are associated with the development of CTS. Despite the availability of pressure measurements in the carpal tunnel during computer work (exposure to keyboard or mouse) there are no available data to support a direct effect of the increased intracarpal canal pressure on the median nerve. This study presents an attempt to simulate the direct effects of computer work on the whole carpal area section using finite element analysis. A finite element mesh was produced from computerized tomography scans of the carpal area, involving all tissues present in the carpal tunnel. Two loading scenarios were applied on these models based on biomechanical data measured during computer work. It was found that mouse work can produce large deformation fields on the median nerve region. Also, the high stressing effect of the carpal ligament was verified. Keyboard work produced considerable and heterogeneous elongations along the longitudinal axis of the median nerve. Our study provides evidence that increased intracarpal canal pressures caused by awkward wrist postures imposed during computer work were associated directly with deformation of the median nerve. Despite the limitations of the present study the findings could be considered as a contribution to the understanding of the development of CTS due to exposure to computer work.
Numerical simulation of premixed combustion using an enriched finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Bos, Fedderik; Gravemeier, Volker
2009-06-01
In this paper we present a novel discretization technique for the simulation of premixed combustion based on a locally enriched finite element method (FEM). Use is made of the G-function approach to premixed combustion in which the domain is divided into two parts, one part containing the burned and another containing the unburned gases. A level-set or G-function is used to define the flame interface separating burned from unburned gases. The eXtended finite element method (X-FEM) is employed, which allows for velocity and pressure fields that are discontinuous across the flame interface. Lagrange multipliers are used to enforce the correct essential interface conditions in the form of jump conditions across the embedded flame interface. A persisting problem with the use of Lagrange multipliers in X-FEM has been the discretization of the Lagrange multipliers. In this paper the distributed Lagrange multiplier technique is adopted. We will provide results from a spatial convergence analysis showing good convergence. However, a small modification of the interface is required to ensure a unique solution. Finally, results are presented from the application of the method to the problems of moving flame fronts, the Darrieus-Landau instability and a piloted Bunsen burner flame.
Finite element analysis and simulation of rheological properties of bulk molding compound (BMC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ergin, M. Fatih; Aydin, Ismail
2013-12-01
Bulk molding compound (BMC) is one of the important composite materials with various engineering applications. BMC is a thermoset plastic resin blend of various inert fillers, fiber reinforcements, catalysts, stabilizers and pigments that form a viscous, molding compound. Depending on the end-use application, bulk molding compounds are formulated to achieve close dimensional control, flame and scratch resistance, electrical insulation, corrosion and stain resistance, superior mechanical properties, low shrink and color stability. Its excellent flow characteristics, dielectric properties, and flame resistance make this thermoset material well-suited to a wide variety of applications requiring precision in detail and dimensions as well as high performance. When a BMC is used for these purposes, the rheological behavior and properties of the BMC is the main concern. In this paper, finite element analysis of rheological properties of bulk molding composite material was studied. For this purpose, standard samples of composite material were obtained by means of uniaxial hot pressing. 3 point flexural tests were then carried out by using a universal testing machine. Finite element analyses were then performed with defined material properties within a specific constitutive material behavior. Experimental and numerical results were then compared. Good correlation between the numerical simulation and the experimental results was obtained. It was expected with this study that effects of various process parameters and boundary conditions on the rheological behavior of bulk molding compounds could be determined by means of numerical analysis without detailed experimental work.
Finite element simulation of the film spallation process induced by the pulsed laser peening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, M.; Zeng, D. Y.; Kan, J. P.; Zhang, Y. K.; Cai, L.; Shen, Z. H.; Zhang, X. R.; Zhang, S. Y.
2003-09-01
The laser spallation technique for measuring the interface strength between a coating and a substrate is similar to laser shock peening, in which the stress wave induced by laser shock cause debond on the interface between a hard coating with micron thickness and a metal substrate. According to the modified experiment setup of the laser spallation technique, finite element analysis simulated the process of the film spallation by taking the laser loading as a direct input. We presented a numerical model of finite element that the laser spallation process includes two related, but uncoupled procedures. One was transient heat transfer in a two-layer medium. The other was the related transient elastic wave propagation in the same two-layer media, which was the result of the thermal misfit by transient heating. Based on the threshold of film spallation, we analyzed the process of laser shocking to study the propagation of stress wave and evaluate the spall resistance of sputtered films. The analysis result showed the dynamic adhesive strength of the interface between the TiN coating and the 304 stainless steel substrate was 193.0 MPa.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fahrenthold, Eric P.; Shivarama, Ravishankar
2004-01-01
The hybrid particle-finite element method of Fahrenthold and Horban, developed for the simulation of hypervelocity impact problems, has been extended to include new formulations of the particle-element kinematics, additional constitutive models, and an improved numerical implementation. The extended formulation has been validated in three dimensional simulations of published impact experiments. The test cases demonstrate good agreement with experiment, good parallel speedup, and numerical convergence of the simulation results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mackerle, Jaroslav
2004-09-01
This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite-element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis and simulation of rubber and rubber-like materials. It is a continuation of the author's paper 'Rubber and Rubber-Like Materials, Finite-Element Analyses and Simulations: a Bibliography (1976-1997)' published in 1998 Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 6 171-98. The added bibliography at the end of this article contains 510 references to papers and conference proceedings on the subject that were published in 1997-2003. The following topics are included: incompressible elasticity problems in general, mechanical and material properties, a finite-element library for incompressible materials, contact problems, fracture mechanics, machine elements/structures, material processing and other topics.
Gearbox bearing fault simulation using a finite element model reduction technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deshpande, L.; Sawalhi, N.; Randall, R. B.
2012-05-01
The dynamics of a mechanical system such as a gearbox assembly comprising shafts, gears and bearings can be simulated using Lumped Parameter Models (LPMs). Finite Element Method (FEM) reduction techniques based on the Craig-Bampton method of Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) are useful in creating more accurate dynamic models. These models, despite having more degrees-of-freedom for the individual components than the LPM, make very much larger FE models computationally tractable. In this paper both these approaches, namely LPM and reduced FEM, are compared to create a dynamic model of a gearbox. Earlier simulation models (both LPM and combined LPM and reduced FEM) are further improved to better match the geometry of the bearing faults used in the experimental measurements, and the experimental results from a gearbox test rig. The dynamic model is used to simulate the vibration signals in the presence of localised inner and outer race faults. The new results show better correspondence with the measured signals, in particular with respect to the detailed response to entry and exit from the fault, which can be used to determine fault size. The paper highlights the plausibility of fault simulation in Machine Condition Monitoring (MCM) where a large amount of data can be gathered without experiencing large numbers of actual failures or carrying out costly and time consuming experiments until failure with seeded faults. The simulation data can be used to train neural networks to automate the diagnostic and prognostic processes.
Simulation of plasmonic and photonic crystal structures using finite-element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Sen
In this thesis, the Finite-Element Method (FEM) was utilized to simulate and design the optimal nanostructures for better performances of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and lasing. FEM proved its effectiveness in the calculations of target physical models to optimize the model geometry or theoretically validate experimental observations. In chapter 1 and 2, the fundamental theorem of SERS and photonic crystal cavity were introduced and discussed. The most used optical structures for the two effects, metal/dielectric SPP structure and dielectric photonic crystal structure, were introduced as examples. Equations stem from Maxwell equations were derived and discussed to clarify the concepts of SERS and PCC. In chapter 3, the FEM method was carried out to simulate the SERS performance of Au nano-bowl/SiO2/Au nanoparticle structure. The electric field distributions and Raman enhancement factors of models in real experiments were calculated and analyzed theoretically. The simulation result on Raman enhancement factors showed consistency with the experimental observations. In chapter 4, the design process of silicon nitride photonic crystal cavity was introduced and the simulation results were discussed. Using L3 geometrical model, the FEM method successfully revealed the relations between key optical properties, such as quality factor and resonant wavelength, and geometrical parameter selections. The simulations were also helpful in determination of the optimal parameter selection in L3 PCC model for further experimental fabrication.
Webster, Victoria A; Nieto, Santiago G; Grosberg, Anna; Akkus, Ozan; Chiel, Hillel J; Quinn, Roger D
2016-10-01
In this study, new techniques for approximating the contractile properties of cells in biohybrid devices using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) have been investigated. Many current techniques for modeling biohybrid devices use individual cell forces to simulate the cellular contraction. However, such techniques result in long simulation runtimes. In this study we investigated the effect of the use of thermal contraction on simulation runtime. The thermal contraction model was significantly faster than models using individual cell forces, making it beneficial for rapidly designing or optimizing devices. Three techniques, Stoney׳s Approximation, a Modified Stoney׳s Approximation, and a Thermostat Model, were explored for calibrating thermal expansion/contraction parameters (TECPs) needed to simulate cellular contraction using thermal contraction. The TECP values were calibrated by using published data on the deflections of muscular thin films (MTFs). Using these techniques, TECP values that suitably approximate experimental deflections can be determined by using experimental data obtained from cardiomyocyte MTFs. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed in order to investigate the contribution of individual variables, such as elastic modulus and layer thickness, to the final calibrated TECP for each calibration technique. Additionally, the TECP values are applicable to other types of biohybrid devices. Two non-MTF models were simulated based on devices reported in the existing literature.
A Finite Element Model of the THOR-K Dummy for Aerospace and Aircraft Impact Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Putnam, Jacob; Untaroiu, Costin D.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Pellettiere, Joseph
2013-01-01
1) Update and Improve the THOR Finite Element (FE) model to specifications of the latest mod kit (THOR-K). 2) Evaluate the kinematic and kinetic response of the FE model in frontal, spinal, and lateral impact loading conditions.
Automatic finite element generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, P. S.
1984-01-01
The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.
Numerical simulation of fluid-structure interactions with stabilized finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sváček, Petr
2016-03-01
This paper is interested to the interactions of the incompressible flow with a flexibly supported airfoil. The bending and the torsion modes are considered. The problem is mathematically described. The numerical method is based on the finite element method. A combination of the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin and pressure stabilizing/Petrov-Galerkin method is used for the stabilization of the finite element method. The numerical results for a three-dimensional problem of flow over an airfoil are shown.
Fixation strength analysis of cup to bone material using finite element simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anwar, Iwan Budiwan; Saputra, Eko; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.; van der Heide, Emile
2016-04-01
Fixation of acetabular cup to bone material is an important initial stability for artificial hip joint. In general, the fixation in cement less-type acetabular cup uses press-fit and screw methods. These methods can be applied alone or together. Based on literature survey, the additional screw inside of cup is effective; however, it has little effect in whole fixation. Therefore, an acetabular cup with good fixation, easy manufacture and easy installation is required. This paper is aiming at evaluating and proposing a new cup fixation design. To prove the strength of the present cup fixation design, the finite element simulation of three dimensional cup with new fixation design was performed. The present cup design was examined with twist axial and radial rotation. Results showed that the proposed cup design was better than the general version.
Two-dimensional slope wind simulations in the finite element approximation
Tuerpe, D.R.
1980-06-01
The hydrostatic fluid dynamics model developed at LLL has been used to simulate the development of katabatic winds. This model solves the Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation by the finite element method. Preliminary results indicate that to obtain physically reasonable results one has to choose unequal diffusion parameters in the horizontal (K/sub x/) and vertical (K/sub z/). The maximum velocities obtained with K/sub z/ = 1 m/sup 2//sec and K/sub x/ = 100 m/sup 2//sec are of the order of 2.5 m/sec for a slope of .2. Profiles of the downslope velocities will be presented at different points in the flow. As expected, the magnitude of the vertical diffusion coefficient K/sub z/ controls the depth of the flow which seems to increase only slightly with downhill distance, and the magnitude of the flow increases with cooling rate and slope.
Finite element modeling of borehole heat exchanger systems. Part 2. Numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diersch, H.-J. G.; Bauer, D.; Heidemann, W.; Rühaak, W.; Schätzl, P.
2011-08-01
Single borehole heat exchanger (BHE) and arrays of BHE are modeled by using the finite element method. Applying BHE in regional discretizations optimal conditions of mesh spacing around singular BHE nodes are derived. Optimal meshes have shown superior to such discretizations which are either too fine or too coarse. The numerical methods are benchmarked against analytical and numerical reference solutions. Practical application to a borehole thermal energy store (BTES) consisting of 80 BHE is given for the real-site BTES Crailsheim, Germany. The simulations are controlled by the specifically developed FEFLOW-TRNSYS coupling module. Scenarios indicate the effect of the groundwater flow regime on efficiency and reliability of the subsurface heat storage system.
Simulation of ultrasound beam formation of baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) with a finite element model.
Wei, Chong; Zhang, Yu; Au, Whitlow W L
2014-07-01
The baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) of the Yangtze River possesses a sophisticated biosonar system. In this study, a finite element approach was used to numerically investigate the propagation of acoustic waves through the head of the Yangtze River dolphin, which possesses an inhomogeneous and complex structure. The acoustic intensity distribution predicted from models with and without the melon and/or skull showed that the emitted sound beam was narrow and formed a highly directed acoustic beam, and the skull and melon significantly enhanced the directional characteristics of the emitted sound. Finally, for a short duration impulsive source, the emitted sound pressure distributions were also simulated at different propagation times. The results provide useful information for better understanding the operation of the biosonar system in this rare and perhaps extinct animal.
An Object-Oriented Finite Element Framework for Multiphysics Phase Field Simulations
Michael R Tonks; Derek R Gaston; Paul C Millett; David Andrs; Paul Talbot
2012-01-01
The phase field approach is a powerful and popular method for modeling microstructure evolution. In this work, advanced numerical tools are used to create a phase field framework that facilitates rapid model development. This framework, called MARMOT, is based on Idaho National Laboratory's finite element Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment. In MARMOT, the system of phase field partial differential equations (PDEs) are solved simultaneously with PDEs describing additional physics, such as solid mechanics and heat conduction, using the Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov Method. An object-oriented architecture is created by taking advantage of commonalities in phase fields models to facilitate development of new models with very little written code. In addition, MARMOT provides access to mesh and time step adaptivity, reducing the cost for performing simulations with large disparities in both spatial and temporal scales. In this work, phase separation simulations are used to show the numerical performance of MARMOT. Deformation-induced grain growth and void growth simulations are included to demonstrate the muliphysics capability.
A finite-element model for simulating hydraulic interchange of surface and ground water
Glover, K.C.
1988-01-01
A model was developed to be useful for predicting changes in streamflow as a result of groundwater pumping. The stream aquifer model is especially useful for simulating streams that flow intermittently owing to leakage to the aquifer or diversion for irrigation or streams that become perched owing to declining hydraulic head in the aquifer. The model couples the equation of two-dimensional groundwater flow with the kinematic equations of one-dimensional open-channel flow. Darcy 's law for vertical flow through a semipermeable streambed is used to couple the groundwater flow and streamflow equations. The equations of flow are approximated numerically by the finite-element method. A listing of the Fortran program that solves the equations of flow , and a description of data-input formats are given in the report. The program can simulate a variety of hydrologic characteristics including perched streams, streamflow diversions , springs, recharge from irrigated acreage, and evapotranspiration from the water table and phreatophytes. Time-dependent boundary conditions can be simulated. The program can be modified easily to simulate unconfined aquifers and aquifers with variable directions of anisotropy. (USGS)
Barabash, R. I.; Agarwal, V.; Koric, S.; Jasiuk, I.; Tischler, J. Z.
2016-01-01
Tmore » he depth-dependent strain partitioning across the interfaces in the growth direction of the NiAl/Cr(Mo) nanocomposite between the Cr and NiAl lamellae was directly measured experimentally and simulated using a finite element method (FEM). Depth-resolved X-ray microdiffraction demonstrated that in the as-grown state both Cr and NiAl lamellae grow along the 111 direction with the formation of as-grown distinct residual ~0.16% compressive strains for Cr lamellae and ~0.05% tensile strains for NiAl lamellae.hree-dimensional simulations were carried out using an implicit FEM. First simulation was designed to study residual strains in the composite due to cooling resulting in formation of crystals. Strains in the growth direction were computed and compared to those obtained from the microdiffraction experiments. Second simulation was conducted to understand the combined strains resulting from cooling and mechanical indentation of the composite. Numerical results in the growth direction of crystal were compared to experimental results confirming the experimentally observed trends.« less
Towards patient-specific finite-element simulation of MitralClip procedure.
Mansi, T; Voigt, I; Assoumou Mengue, E; Ionasec, R; Georgescu, B; Noack, T; Seeburger, J; Comaniciu, D
2011-01-01
MitralClip is a novel minimally invasive procedure to treat mitral valve (MV) regurgitation. It consists in clipping the mitral leaflets together to close the regurgitant hole. A careful preoperative planning is necessary to select respondent patients and to determine the clipping sites. Although preliminary indications criteria are established, they lack prediction power with respect to complications and effectiveness of the therapy in specific patients. We propose an integrated framework for personalized simulation of MV function and apply it to simulate MitralClip procedure. A patient-specific dynamic model of the MV apparatus is computed automatically from 4D TEE images. A biomechanical model of the MV, constrained by the observed motion of the mitral annulus and papillary muscles, is employed to simulate valve closure and MitralClip intervention. The proposed integrated framework enables, for the first time, to quantitatively evaluate an MV finite-element model in-vivo, on eleven patients, and to predict the outcome of MitralClip intervention in one of these patients. The simulations are compared to ground truth and to postoperative images, resulting in promising accuracy (average point-to-mesh distance: 1.47 +/- 0.24 mm). Our framework may constitute a tool for MV therapy planning and patient management.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sirait, S. H.; Edison, R. E.; Baidillah, M. R.; Taruno, W. P.; Haryanto, F.
2016-08-01
The aim of this study is to simulate the potential distribution of 2D brain geometry based on two electrodes ECVT. ECVT (electrical capacitance tomography) is a tomography modality which produces dielectric distribution image of a subject from several capacitance electrodes measurements. This study begins by producing the geometry of 2D brain based on MRI image and then setting the boundary conditions on the boundaries of the geometry. The values of boundary conditions follow the potential values used in two electrodes brain ECVT, and for this reason the first boundary is set to 20 volt and 2.5 MHz signal and another boundary is set to ground. Poisson equation is implemented as the governing equation in the 2D brain geometry and finite element method is used to solve the equation. Simulated Hodgkin-Huxley action potential is applied as disturbance potential in the geometry. We divide this study into two which comprises simulation without disturbance potential and simulation with disturbance potential. From this study, each of time dependent potential distributions from non-disturbance and disturbance potential of the 2D brain geometry has been generated.
A metamodel-based approach to model validation for nonlinear finite element simulations
Doebling, S. W.; Hemez, F. M.; Schultze, J. F.; Cundy, A. L.
2001-01-01
Metamodeling, also known as response surface analysis, is the de facto standard for mathematical representation of complex phenomena in many fields, especially when first principles physical relationships are not well-defined, e.g. economics, climatology, and government policy. Metamodels provide a computationally efficient, low-dimension relationship for studying the behavior of a physical system. They can be used for understanding the physical system, predicting its response, optimizing its design or the parameters in a physical model, and performing verification and validation. Metamodels can be derived from simulation results or fit directly to observed test data. In structural dynamics, typical practice is to develop a first-principles-based model such as a finite element model to study the behavior of the system. However, it is common that the features of interest in a structural dynamics simulation are relatively low order (e.g. first few modal frequencies, peak acceleration at certain locations) and sensitive to relatively few model and simulation parameters. In these cases, metamodeling provides a convenient format to facilitate activities of model validation, including parameter screening, sensitivity analysis [3], uncertainty analysis, and test/analysis correlation. This paper describes the creation of metamodels, and presents some examples of how metamodels can be employed to facilitate model validation for nonlinear structural dynamic response simulation
Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Simulation for a Thermoelectric Generator Module
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Xiaokai; Takazawa, Hiroyuki; Nagase, Kazuo; Ohta, Michihiro; Yamamoto, Atsushi
2015-10-01
A three-dimensional closed-circuit numerical model of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) module has been constructed with COMSOL® Multiphysics to verify a module test system. The Seebeck, Peltier, and Thomson effects and Joule heating are included in the thermoelectric conversion model. The TEG model is employed to simulate the operation of a 16-leg TEG module based on bismuth telluride with temperature-dependent material properties. The module is mounted on a test platform, and simulated by combining the heat conduction process and thermoelectric conversion process. Simulation results are obtained for the terminal voltage, output power, heat flow, and efficiency as functions of the electric current; the results are compared with measurement data. The Joule and Thomson heats in all the thermoelectric legs, as functions of the electric current, are calculated by finite-element volume integration over the entire legs. The Peltier heat being pumped at the hot side and released at the cold side of the module are also presented in relation to the electric current. The energy balance relations between heat and electricity are verified to support the simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemanle Sanga, Roger Pierre; Garnier, Christian; Pantalé, Olivier
2016-06-01
Low velocity barely visible impact damage (BVID) in laminated carbon composite structures has a major importance for aeronautical industries. This contribution leads with the development of finite element models to simulate the initiation and the propagation of internal damage inside a carbon composite structure due by a low velocity impact. Composite plates made from liquid resin infusion process (LRI) have been subjected to low energy impacts (around 25 J) using a drop weight machine. In the experimental procedure, the internal damage is evaluated using an infrared thermographic camera while the indentation depth of the face is measured by optical measurement technique. In a first time we developed a robust model using homogenised shells based on degenerated tri-dimensional brick elements and in a second time we decided to modelize the whole stacking sequence of homogeneous layers and cohesive interlaminar interfaces in order to compare and validate the obtained results. Both layer and interface damage initiation and propagation models based on the Hashin and the Benzeggagh-Kenane criteria have been used for the numerical simulations. Comparison of numerical results and experiments has shown the accuracy of the proposed models.
Tree stability under wind: simulating uprooting with root breakage using a finite element method
Yang, Ming; Défossez, Pauline; Danjon, Frédéric; Fourcaud, Thierry
2014-01-01
Background and Aims Windstorms are the major natural hazard affecting European forests, causing tree damage and timber losses. Modelling tree anchorage mechanisms has progressed with advances in plant architectural modelling, but it is still limited in terms of estimation of anchorage strength. This paper aims to provide a new model for root anchorage, including the successive breakage of roots during uprooting. Methods The model was based on the finite element method. The breakage of individual roots was taken into account using a failure law derived from previous work carried out on fibre metal laminates. Soil mechanical plasticity was considered using the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion. The mechanical model for roots was implemented in the numerical code ABAQUS using beam elements embedded in a soil block meshed with 3-D solid elements. The model was tested by simulating tree-pulling experiments previously carried out on a tree of Pinus pinaster (maritime pine). Soil mechanical parameters were obtained from laboratory tests. Root system architecture was digitized and imported into ABAQUS while root material properties were estimated from the literature. Key Results Numerical simulations of tree-pulling tests exhibited realistic successive root breakages during uprooting, which could be seen in the resulting response curves. Broken roots could be visually located within the root system at any stage of the simulations. The model allowed estimation of anchorage strength in terms of the critical turning moment and accumulated energy, which were in good agreement with in situ measurements. Conclusions This study provides the first model of tree anchorage strength for P. pinaster derived from the mechanical strength of individual roots. The generic nature of the model permits its further application to other tree species and soil conditions. PMID:25006178
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gong, Jian; Volakis, John L.; Nurnberger, Michael W.
1995-01-01
This semi-annual report describes progress up to mid-January 1995. The report contains five sections all dealing with the modeling of spiral and patch antennas recessed in metallic platforms. Of significance is the development of decomposition schemes which separate the different regions of the antenna volume. Substantial effort was devoted to improving the feed model in the context of the finite element method (FEM). Finally, an innovative scheme for truncating finite element meshes is presented.
An electric-analog simulation of elliptic partial differential equations using finite element theory
Franke, O.L.; Pinder, G.F.; Patten, E.P.
1982-01-01
Elliptic partial differential equations can be solved using the Galerkin-finite element method to generate the approximating algebraic equations, and an electrical network to solve the resulting matrices. Some element configurations require the use of networks containing negative resistances which, while physically realizable, are more expensive and time-consuming to construct. ?? 1982.
High-speed GPU-based finite element simulations for NDT
Huthwaite, P.; Shi, F.; Van Pamel, A.; Lowe, M. J. S.
2015-03-31
The finite element method solved with explicit time increments is a general approach which can be applied to many ultrasound problems. It is widely used as a powerful tool within NDE for developing and testing inspection techniques, and can also be used in inversion processes. However, the solution technique is computationally intensive, requiring many calculations to be performed for each simulation, so traditionally speed has been an issue. For maximum speed, an implementation of the method, called Pogo [Huthwaite, J. Comp. Phys. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2013.10.017], has been developed to run on graphics cards, exploiting the highly parallelisable nature of the algorithm. Pogo typically demonstrates speed improvements of 60-90x over commercial CPU alternatives. Pogo is applied to three NDE examples, where the speed improvements are important: guided wave tomography, where a full 3D simulation must be run for each source transducer and every different defect size; scattering from rough cracks, where many simulations need to be run to build up a statistical model of the behaviour; and ultrasound propagation within coarse-grained materials where the mesh must be highly refined and many different cases run.
Finite element simulation of laser shock peening on bulk metallic glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Jie; Shi, Huigang; Zheng, Chao; Liu, Ren; Ji, Zhong
2014-08-01
Laser shock peening (LSP) can be used to induce compressive residual stresses on the surface of a material, then to improve the mechanical properties such as performance of plasticity and fatigue. However, the residual stresses and their exact spatial distribution are very difficult to measure by experiment, especially for very small workpieces. In this paper, a finite-element model has been developed to numerically simulate the LSP process of bulk metallic glass (BMG) Zr41.2 Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5, and predict the stress distribution. The constitutive equation established in this work is hydrostatic-pressure sensitive and strain-rate dependent, it is based on the free volume model and Coulomb-Mohr yield criterion, and can describe such special deformation behaviors of BMG as strain softening. The simulated results show that, for one-side peening, along depth direction, the compressive residual stress gradually reduced to zero, then change to the tensile residual stress, but for two-side peening, the residual stress is from compressive to tensile and then to compressive along depth direction. These simulation results have a great significance to study the application of LSP in strengthening brittle amorphous alloys.
A modular numerical method for implicit 0D/3D coupling in cardiovascular finite element simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moghadam, Mahdi Esmaily; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E.; Figliola, Richard; Marsden, Alison L.; Modeling Of Congenital Hearts Alliance (Mocha) Investigators
2013-07-01
Implementation of boundary conditions in cardiovascular simulations poses numerical challenges due to the complex dynamic behavior of the circulatory system. The use of elaborate closed-loop lumped parameter network (LPN) models of the heart and the circulatory system as boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can provide valuable global dynamic information, particularly for patient specific simulations. In this paper, the necessary formulation for coupling an arbitrary LPN to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver is presented. A circuit analogy closed-loop LPN is solved numerically, and pressure and flow information is iteratively passed between the 0D and 3D domains at interface boundaries, resulting in a time-implicit scheme. For Neumann boundaries, an implicit method, regardless of the LPN, is presented to achieve the desired stability and convergence properties. Numerical procedures for passing flow and pressure information between the 0D and 3D domains are described, and implicit, semi-implicit, and explicit quasi-Newton formulations are compared. The issue of divergence in the presence of backflow is addressed via a stabilized boundary formulation. The requirements for coupling Dirichlet boundary conditions are also discussed and this approach is compared in detail to that of the Neumann coupled boundaries. Having the option to select between Dirichlet and Neumann coupled boundary conditions increases the flexibility of current framework by allowing a wide range of components to be used at the 3D-0D interface.
High-speed GPU-based finite element simulations for NDT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huthwaite, P.; Shi, F.; Van Pamel, A.; Lowe, M. J. S.
2015-03-01
The finite element method solved with explicit time increments is a general approach which can be applied to many ultrasound problems. It is widely used as a powerful tool within NDE for developing and testing inspection techniques, and can also be used in inversion processes. However, the solution technique is computationally intensive, requiring many calculations to be performed for each simulation, so traditionally speed has been an issue. For maximum speed, an implementation of the method, called Pogo [Huthwaite, J. Comp. Phys. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2013.10.017], has been developed to run on graphics cards, exploiting the highly parallelisable nature of the algorithm. Pogo typically demonstrates speed improvements of 60-90x over commercial CPU alternatives. Pogo is applied to three NDE examples, where the speed improvements are important: guided wave tomography, where a full 3D simulation must be run for each source transducer and every different defect size; scattering from rough cracks, where many simulations need to be run to build up a statistical model of the behaviour; and ultrasound propagation within coarse-grained materials where the mesh must be highly refined and many different cases run.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nzodoum Fotsing, J. L.; Dietzel, D.; Chotikaprakhan, S.; Meckenstock, R.; Pelzl, J.; Cassette, S.
2005-06-01
In this contribution we report on combined investigations of hot areas in a high power high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) using a scanning thermo-elastic microscope and finite element simulations of the problem. The sample was a AlGaN/GaN-HEMT grown on sapphire substrate, with a gold coating for improved thermal management. The FE simulations were performed based on the ANSYS program version 5.7. The thermo-elastic response was detected with an Explorer AFM-head of Topometrix. To allow simultaneous detection of the topology and of the thermo-elastic expansion images, the explorer had been modified for AFM measurements in the DC mode and at the double frequency of the thermal sinus in AFM contact mode. The thermo-elastic image of the hot area of the HEMT recorded at 2f shows a bright line as the hot area which is located along the gate, between gate and drain. The absolute value of the vertical expansion has been calibrated from the measured diode signal by use of the microscope’s force-distance calibration curve. In order to obtain a reliable estimate of the maximum temperature on the hot line, the temperature image obtained by FE simulation is calibrated using the thermal expansion of the gold film of known thermal expansion coefficient.
Full wave simulation of waves in ECRIS plasmas based on the finite element method
Torrisi, G.; Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Castro, G.; Patti, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Di Donato, L.; Sorbello, G.; Isernia, T.
2014-02-12
This paper describes the modeling and the full wave numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves propagation and absorption in an anisotropic magnetized plasma filling the resonant cavity of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The model assumes inhomogeneous, dispersive and tensorial constitutive relations. Maxwell's equations are solved by the finite element method (FEM), using the COMSOL Multiphysics{sup ®} suite. All the relevant details have been considered in the model, including the non uniform external magnetostatic field used for plasma confinement, the local electron density profile resulting in the full-3D non uniform magnetized plasma complex dielectric tensor. The more accurate plasma simulations clearly show the importance of cavity effect on wave propagation and the effects of a resonant surface. These studies are the pillars for an improved ECRIS plasma modeling, that is mandatory to optimize the ion source output (beam intensity distribution and charge state, especially). Any new project concerning the advanced ECRIS design will take benefit by an adequate modeling of self-consistent wave absorption simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johanns, K. E.; Lee, J. H.; Gao, Y. F.; Pharr, G. M.
2014-01-01
A cohesive zone model is applied to a finite element (FE) scheme to simulate indentation cracking in brittle materials. Limitations of using the cohesive zone model to study indentation cracking are determined from simulations of a standard fracture toughness specimen and a two-dimensional indentation cracking problem wherein the morphology of the crack and the geometry of the indenter are simplified. It is found that the principles of linear-elastic fracture mechanics can be applied when indentation cracks are long in comparison to the size of the cohesive zone. Vickers and Berkovich pyramidal indentation crack morphologies (3D) are also investigated and found to be controlled by the ratio of elastic modulus to yield strength (E/Y), with median type cracking dominating at low ratios (e.g. E/Y = 10) and Palmqvist type cracking at higher ratios (e.g. E/Y = 100). The results show that cohesive FE simulations of indentation cracking can indeed be used to critically examine the complex relationships between crack morphology, material properties, indenter geometry, and indentation test measurements, provided the crack length is long in comparison to the cohesive zone size.
Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Tlili, Brahim; Vercher-Martínez, Ana; Hambli, Ridha
2016-10-01
Bone is a living material with a complex hierarchical structure which entails exceptional mechanical properties, including high fracture toughness, specific stiffness and strength. Bone tissue is essentially composed by two phases distributed in approximately 30-70%: an organic phase (mainly type I collagen and cells) and an inorganic phase (hydroxyapatite-HA-and water). The nanostructure of bone can be represented throughout three scale levels where different repetitive structural units or building blocks are found: at the first level, collagen molecules are arranged in a pentameric structure where mineral crystals grow in specific sites. This primary bone structure constitutes the mineralized collagen microfibril. A structural organization of inter-digitating microfibrils forms the mineralized collagen fibril which represents the second scale level. The third scale level corresponds to the mineralized collagen fibre which is composed by the binding of fibrils. The hierarchical nature of the bone tissue is largely responsible of their significant mechanical properties; consequently, this is a current outstanding research topic. Scarce works in literature correlates the elastic properties in the three scale levels at the bone nanoscale. The main goal of this work is to estimate the elastic properties of the bone tissue in a multiscale approach including a sensitivity analysis of the elastic behaviour at each length scale. This proposal is achieved by means of a novel hybrid multiscale modelling that involves neural network (NN) computations and finite elements method (FEM) analysis. The elastic properties are estimated using a neural network simulation that previously has been trained with the database results of the finite element models. In the results of this work, parametric analysis and averaged elastic constants for each length scale are provided. Likewise, the influence of the elastic constants of the tissue constituents is also depicted. Results highlight
Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Tlili, Brahim; Vercher-Martínez, Ana; Hambli, Ridha
2016-10-01
Bone is a living material with a complex hierarchical structure which entails exceptional mechanical properties, including high fracture toughness, specific stiffness and strength. Bone tissue is essentially composed by two phases distributed in approximately 30-70%: an organic phase (mainly type I collagen and cells) and an inorganic phase (hydroxyapatite-HA-and water). The nanostructure of bone can be represented throughout three scale levels where different repetitive structural units or building blocks are found: at the first level, collagen molecules are arranged in a pentameric structure where mineral crystals grow in specific sites. This primary bone structure constitutes the mineralized collagen microfibril. A structural organization of inter-digitating microfibrils forms the mineralized collagen fibril which represents the second scale level. The third scale level corresponds to the mineralized collagen fibre which is composed by the binding of fibrils. The hierarchical nature of the bone tissue is largely responsible of their significant mechanical properties; consequently, this is a current outstanding research topic. Scarce works in literature correlates the elastic properties in the three scale levels at the bone nanoscale. The main goal of this work is to estimate the elastic properties of the bone tissue in a multiscale approach including a sensitivity analysis of the elastic behaviour at each length scale. This proposal is achieved by means of a novel hybrid multiscale modelling that involves neural network (NN) computations and finite elements method (FEM) analysis. The elastic properties are estimated using a neural network simulation that previously has been trained with the database results of the finite element models. In the results of this work, parametric analysis and averaged elastic constants for each length scale are provided. Likewise, the influence of the elastic constants of the tissue constituents is also depicted. Results highlight
Finite Element Modeling to Simulate the Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Polycrystalline in 718
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonifaz, E. A.
2013-01-01
A 3D strain gradient plasticity finite element model was developed to simulate the elasto-plastic behavior of polycrystalline IN 718 alloys. The proposed model constructed in the basis of the so-called Kocks-Mecking model is used to determine the influence of microstructure attributes on the inelastic stress-strain distribution. Representative Volume Elements (RVEs) of different edge size but similar grain morphology and affordable computational meshes were tested to investigate the link between micro and macro variables of deformation and stress. The virtual specimens subjected to continuous monotonic straining loading conditions were constrained with random periodic boundary conditions. The difference in crystallographic orientation (which evolves in the process of straining) and the incompatibility of deformation between neighboring grains were accounted by the introduction of averaged Taylor factors and the evolution of geometrically necessary dislocation density. The effect of plastic deformation gradients imposed by the microstructure is clearly observed. Results demonstrate a strong dependence of flow stress and plastic strain on phase type and grain size. A main strategy for constitutive modeling of individual bulk grains is presented. The influence of the grain size on the aggregate response, in terms of local stress variations and aggregate elastic moduli was analyzed. It was observed that the elastic modulus in the bulk material is not dependent on grain size.
Interstitial fluid flow in tendons or ligaments: a porous medium finite element simulation.
Butler, S L; Kohles, S S; Thielke, R J; Chen, C; Vanderby, R
1997-11-01
The purpose of this study is to describe interstitial fluid flow in axisymmetric soft connective tissue (ligaments or tendons) when they are loaded in tension. Soft hydrated tissue was modelled as a porous medium (using Darcy's Law), and the finite element method was used to solve the resulting equations governing fluid flow. A commercially available computer program (FiDAP) was used to create an axisymmetric model of a biomechanically tested rat ligament. The unknown variables at element nodes were pressure and velocity of the interstitial fluid (Newtonian and incompressible). The effect of variations in fluid viscosity and permeability of the solid matrix was parametrically explored. A transient loading state mimicking a rat ligament mechanical experiment was used in all simulations. The magnitude and distribution of pressure, stream lines, shear (stress) rate, vorticity and velocity showed regular patterns consistent with extension flow. Parametric changes of permeability and viscosity strongly affected fluid flow behaviour. When the radial permeability was 1000 times less than the axial permeability, shear rate and vorticity increased (approximately 5-fold). These effects (especially shear stress and pressure) suggested a strong interaction with the solid matrix. Computed levels of fluid flow suggested a possible load transduction mechanism for cells in the tissue.
Finite element simulation for damage detection of surface rust in steel rebars using elastic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Qixiang; Yu, Tzuyang
2016-04-01
Steel rebar corrosion reduces the integrity and service life of reinforced concrete (RC) structures and causes their gradual and sudden failures. Early stage detection of steel rebar corrosion can improve the efficiency of routine maintenance and prevent sudden failures from happening. In this paper, detecting the presence of surface rust in steel rebars is investigated by the finite element method (FEM) using surface-generated elastic waves. Simulated wave propagation mimics the sensing scheme of a fiber optic acoustic generator mounted on the surface of steel rebars. Formation of surface rust in steel rebars is modeled by changing material's property at local elements. In this paper, various locations of a fiber optic acoustic transducer and a receiver were considered. Megahertz elastic waves were used and different sizes of surface rust were applied. Transient responses of surface displacement and pressure were studied. It is found that surface rust is most detectable when the rust location is between the transducer and the receiver. Displacement response of intact steel rebar is needed in order to obtain background-subtracted response with a better signal-to-noise ratio. When the size of surface rust increases, reduced amplitude in displacement was obtained by the receiver.
Simulation of two-phase flow through porous media using the finite-element method
Felton, G.K.
1987-01-01
A finite-element model of two-phase flow of air and water movement through porous media was developed. The formulation for radial flow used axisymmetric linear triangular elements. Due to the radial nature of the problem, a two-dimensional formulation was used to represent three-dimensional space. Governing equations were based on Darcy's equation and continuity. Air was treated as a compressible fluid by using the Ideal Gas Law. A gravity-driven saturated-flow problem was modeled and the predicted flow rate exactly matched the analytical solution. Comparisons of analytical and experimental results of one-phase radial and vertical flow were made in which capillary pressure distributions were almost exactly matched by the two-phase model (TPM). The effect of air compression on infiltration was simulated. It was concluded that the TPM modeled air compression and its inhibiting effect on infiltration even though air counter flow through the surface boundary was not permitted. The difficulty in describing the boundary conditions for air at a boundary where infiltration occurred was examined. The effect of erroneous input data for the soil moisture characteristic curve and the relative permeability curve was examined.
Finite element method for accurate 3D simulation of plasmonic waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burger, Sven; Zschiedrich, Lin; Pomplun, Jan; Schmidt, Frank
2010-02-01
Optical properties of hybrid plasmonic waveguides and of low-Q cavities, formed by waveguides of finite length are investigated numerically. These structures are of interest as building-blocks of plasmon lasers. We use a time-harmonic finite-element package including a propagation-mode solver, a resonance-mode solver and a scattering solver for studying various properties of the system. Numerical convergence of all used methods is demonstrated.
Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza
2014-09-01
There have been intensive efforts to find a suitable kinetic energy absorbing material for helmet and bulletproof vest design. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge is currently in extensive use as scaffolding material for tissue engineering applications. PVA can also be employed instead of commonly use kinetic energy absorbing materials to increase the kinetic energy absorption capacity of current helmet and bulletproof vest materials owing to its excellent mechanical properties. In this study, a combined hexahedral finite element (FE) model is established to determine the potential protection ability of PVA sponge in controlling the level of injury for gunshot wounds to the human mandible. Digital computed tomography data for the human mandible are used to establish a three-dimensional FE model of the human mandible. The mechanism by which a gunshot injures the protected mandible by PVA sponge is dynamically simulated using the LS-DYNA code under two different shot angles. The stress distributions in different parts of the mandible and sponge after injury are also simulated. The modeling results regardless of shot angle reveal that the substantial amount of kinetic energy of the steel ball (67%) is absorbed by the PVA sponge and, consequently, injury severity of the mandible is significantly decreased. The highest energy loss (170 J) is observed for the impact at entry angle of 70°. The results suggest the application of the PVA sponge as an alternative reinforcement material in helmet and bulletproof vest design to absorb most of the impact energy and reduce the transmitted load.
Valero, C; Navarro, B; Navajas, D; García-Aznar, J M
2016-09-01
The characterization of the mechanical properties of soft materials has been traditionally performed through uniaxial tensile tests. Nevertheless, this method cannot be applied to certain extremely soft materials, such as biological tissues or cells that cannot be properly subjected to these tests. Alternative non-destructive tests have been designed in recent years to determine the mechanical properties of soft biological tissues. One of these techniques is based on the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to perform nanoindentation tests. In this work, we investigated the mechanical response of soft biological materials to nanoindentation with spherical indenters using finite element simulations. We studied the responses of three different material constitutive laws (elastic, isotropic hyperelastic and anisotropic hyperelastic) under the same process and analyzed the differences thereof. Whereas linear elastic and isotropic hyperelastic materials can be studied using an axisymmetric simplification, anisotropic hyperelastic materials require three-dimensional analyses. Moreover, we established the limiting sample size required to determine the mechanical properties of soft materials while avoiding boundary effects. Finally, we compared the results obtained by simulation with an estimate obtained from Hertz theory. Hertz theory does not distinguish between the different material constitutive laws, and thus, we proposed corrections to improve the quantitative measurement of specific material properties by nanoindentation experiments. PMID:27214690
Validation of composite finite elements efficiently simulating elasticity of trabecular bone.
Schwen, Lars Ole; Wolfram, Uwe
2014-01-01
Patient-specific analyses of the mechanical properties of bones become increasingly important for the management of patients with osteoporosis. The potential of composite finite elements (CFEs), a novel FE technique, to assess the apparent stiffness of vertebral trabecular bone is investigated in this study. Segmented volumes of cylindrical specimens of trabecular bone are compared to measured volumes. Elasticity under uniaxial loading conditions is simulated; apparent stiffnesses are compared to experimentally determined values. Computational efficiency is assessed and recommendations for simulation parameters are given. Validating apparent uniaxial stiffnesses results in concordance correlation coefficients 0.69 ≤ r(c) ≤ 0.92 for resolutions finer than 168 μm, and an average error of 5.8% between experimental and numerical results at 24 μm resolution. As an application, the code was used to compute local, macroscopic stiffness tensors for the trabecular structure of a lumbar vertebra. The presented technique allows for computing stiffness using smooth FE meshes at resolutions that are well achievable in peripheral high resolution quantitative CT. Therefore, CFEs could be a valuable tool for the patient-specific assessment of bone stiffness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Rui; Wen, Lihua; Naboulsi, Sam; Eason, Thomas; Vasudevan, Vijay K.; Qian, Dong
2016-08-01
A multiscale space-time finite element method based on time-discontinuous Galerkin and enrichment approach is presented in this work with a focus on improving the computational efficiencies for high cycle fatigue simulations. While the robustness of the TDG-based space-time method has been extensively demonstrated, a critical barrier for the extensive application is the large computational cost due to the additional temporal dimension and enrichment that are introduced. The present implementation focuses on two aspects: firstly, a preconditioned iterative solver is developed along with techniques for optimizing the matrix storage and operations. Secondly, parallel algorithms based on multi-core graphics processing unit are established to accelerate the progressive damage model implementation. It is shown that the computing time and memory from the accelerated space-time implementation scale with the number of degree of freedom N through ˜ O(N^{1.6}) and ˜ O(N), respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the accelerated space-time FEM simulation through benchmark problems.
Influence of lips on the production of vowels based on finite element simulations and experiments.
Arnela, Marc; Blandin, Rémi; Dabbaghchian, Saeed; Guasch, Oriol; Alías, Francesc; Pelorson, Xavier; Van Hirtum, Annemie; Engwall, Olov
2016-05-01
Three-dimensional (3-D) numerical approaches for voice production are currently being investigated and developed. Radiation losses produced when sound waves emanate from the mouth aperture are one of the key aspects to be modeled. When doing so, the lips are usually removed from the vocal tract geometry in order to impose a radiation impedance on a closed cross-section, which speeds up the numerical simulations compared to free-field radiation solutions. However, lips may play a significant role. In this work, the lips' effects on vowel sounds are investigated by using 3-D vocal tract geometries generated from magnetic resonance imaging. To this aim, two configurations for the vocal tract exit are considered: with lips and without lips. The acoustic behavior of each is analyzed and compared by means of time-domain finite element simulations that allow free-field wave propagation and experiments performed using 3-D-printed mechanical replicas. The results show that the lips should be included in order to correctly model vocal tract acoustics not only at high frequencies, as commonly accepted, but also in the low frequency range below 4 kHz, where plane wave propagation occurs. PMID:27250177
Valero, C; Navarro, B; Navajas, D; García-Aznar, J M
2016-09-01
The characterization of the mechanical properties of soft materials has been traditionally performed through uniaxial tensile tests. Nevertheless, this method cannot be applied to certain extremely soft materials, such as biological tissues or cells that cannot be properly subjected to these tests. Alternative non-destructive tests have been designed in recent years to determine the mechanical properties of soft biological tissues. One of these techniques is based on the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to perform nanoindentation tests. In this work, we investigated the mechanical response of soft biological materials to nanoindentation with spherical indenters using finite element simulations. We studied the responses of three different material constitutive laws (elastic, isotropic hyperelastic and anisotropic hyperelastic) under the same process and analyzed the differences thereof. Whereas linear elastic and isotropic hyperelastic materials can be studied using an axisymmetric simplification, anisotropic hyperelastic materials require three-dimensional analyses. Moreover, we established the limiting sample size required to determine the mechanical properties of soft materials while avoiding boundary effects. Finally, we compared the results obtained by simulation with an estimate obtained from Hertz theory. Hertz theory does not distinguish between the different material constitutive laws, and thus, we proposed corrections to improve the quantitative measurement of specific material properties by nanoindentation experiments.
Development of Modeling and Simulation for Magnetic Particle Inspection Using Finite Elements
Jun-Youl Lee
2003-05-31
Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a widely used nondestructive inspection method for aerospace applications essentially limited to experiment-based approaches. The analysis of MPI characteristics that affect sensitivity and reliability contributes not only reductions in inspection design cost and time but also improvement of analysis of experimental data. Magnetic particles are easily attracted toward a high magnetic field gradient. Selection of a magnetic field source, which produces a magnetic field gradient large enough to detect a defect in a test sample or component, is an important factor in magnetic particle inspection. In this work a finite element method (FEM) has been employed for numerical calculation of the MPI simulation technique. The FEM method is known to be suitable for complicated geometries such as defects in samples. This thesis describes the research that is aimed at providing a quantitative scientific basis for magnetic particle inspection. A new FEM solver for MPI simulation has been developed in this research for not only nonlinear reversible permeability materials but also irreversible hysteresis materials that are described by the Jiles-Atherton model. The material is assumed to have isotropic ferromagnetic properties in this research (i.e., the magnetic properties of the material are identical in all directions in a single crystal). In the research, with a direct current field mode, an MPI situation has been simulated to measure the estimated volume of magnetic particles around defect sites before and after removing any external current fields. Currently, this new MPI simulation package is limited to solving problems with the single current source from either a solenoid or an axial directional current rod.
Three-dimensional finite element simulations of vertebral body thermal treatment (Invited Paper)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryan, Thomas P.; Patel, Samit J.; Morris, Ronit; Hoopes, P. J.; Bergeron, Jeffrey A.; Mahajan, Roop
2005-04-01
Lower back pain affects a large group of people worldwide and when in its early stages, has no viable interventional treatment. In order to avoid the eventuality of an invasive surgical procedure, which is further down the Care Pathway, an interventional treatment that is minimally invasive and arrests the patient's pain would be of tremendous clinical benefit. There is a hypothesis that if the basivertebral nerve in the vertebral body is defunctionalized, lower back pain may be lessened. To further investigate creating a means to provide localized thermal therapy, bench and animal studies were planned, but to help select the applicator configuration and placement, numerical modeling studies were undertaken. A 3D finite element model was utilized to predict the electric field pattern and power deposition pattern of radiofrequency (RF) based electrodes. Three types of tissues were modeled: 1) porcine (ex-vivo), ovine (in-vivo preclinical), and 3) human (ex-vivo, in-vivo). Two types of RF devices were simulated: 1) a pair of converging, hollow electrodes, and 2) an in-line pair of spaced-apart electrodes. Temperature distributions over time were plotted using the electric field results and the bioheat equation. Since the thermal and electrical properties of the vertebral bodies of porcine, ovine, and human tissue were not available, measurements were undertaken to capture these data to input into the model. The measurements of electrical and thermal properties of cancellous and cortical vertebral body were made over a range of temperatures. The simulation temperature results agreed with live animal and human cadaver studies. In addition, the lesion shapes predicted in the simulations matched CT and MRI studies done during the chronic ovine study, as well as histology results. In conclusion, the simulations aided in shaping and sizing the RF electrodes, as well as positioning them in the vertebral body structures to assure that the basivertebral nerve was ablated, but
A 2D finite element simulation of liquid coupled ultrasonic NDT system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilgunde, Prathamesh N.; Bond, Leonard J.
2015-03-01
The aim of this work is to improve modelling capabilities and reliability of wave propagation models using a commercial finite element package (COMSOL). The current model focusses on investigating the error and accuracy with the change in spatial and temporal discretization. To increase the reliability and inclusiveness of the finite element method, wave propagation has been modelled in solid medium with a cylindrical defect (side drilled hole), in a fluid medium and in a fluid-solid immersion model. The numerical predictions are validated through comparisons with available analytical solutions and experimental data. The model is being developed to incorporate additional complexity and ranges of properties, including operation at elevated temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xuan, Yue
Background. Soft materials such as polymers and soft tissues have diverse applications in bioengineering, medical care, and industry. Quantitative mechanical characterization of soft materials at multiscales is required to assure that appropriate mechanical properties are presented to support the normal material function. Indentation test has been widely used to characterize soft material. However, the measurement of in situ contact area is always difficult. Method of Approach. A transparent indenter method was introduced to characterize the nonlinear behaviors of soft materials under large deformation. This approach made the direct measurement of contact area and local deformation possible. A microscope was used to capture the contact area evolution as well as the surface deformation. Based on this transparent indenter method, a novel transparent indentation measurement systems has been built and multiple soft materials including polymers and pericardial tissue have been characterized. Seven different indenters have been used to study the strain distribution on the contact surface, inner layer and vertical layer. Finite element models have been built to simulate the hyperelastic and anisotropic material behaviors. Proper material constants were obtained by fitting the experimental results. Results.Homogeneous and anisotropic silicone rubber and porcine pericardial tissue have been examined. Contact area and local deformation were measured by real time imaging the contact interface. The experimental results were compared with the predictions from the Hertzian equations. The accurate measurement of contact area results in more reliable Young's modulus, which is critical for soft materials. For the fiber reinforced anisotropic silicone rubber, the projected contact area under a hemispherical indenter exhibited elliptical shape. The local surface deformation under indenter was mapped using digital image correlation program. Punch test has been applied to thin films of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wendling, A.; Daniel, J. L.; Hivet, G.; Vidal-Sallé, E.; Boisse, P.
2015-12-01
Numerical simulation is a powerful tool to predict the mechanical behavior and the feasibility of composite parts. Among the available numerical approaches, as far as woven reinforced composites are concerned, 3D finite element simulation at the mesoscopic scale leads to a good compromise between realism and complexity. At this scale, the fibrous reinforcement is modeled by an interlacement of yarns assumed to be homogeneous that have to be accurately represented. Among the numerous issues induced by these simulations, the first one consists in providing a representative meshed geometrical model of the unit cell at the mesoscopic scale. The second one consists in enabling a fast data input in the finite element software (contacts definition, boundary conditions, elements reorientation, etc.) so as to obtain results within reasonable time. Based on parameterized 3D CAD modeling tool of unit-cells of dry fabrics already developed, this paper presents an efficient strategy which permits an automated meshing of the models with 3D hexahedral elements and to accelerate of several orders of magnitude the simulation data input. Finally, the overall modeling strategy is illustrated by examples of finite element simulation of the mechanical behavior of fabrics.
Simulation of wind effects on tall structures by finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahimi, Masood
2016-06-01
In the present study finite element method is used to predict the wind forces on a tall structure. The governing equations of mass and momentum with boundary conditions are solved. The κ- ɛ turbulence model is utilized to calculate the turbulence viscosity. The results are independent from the generated mesh. The numerical results are validated with American Society of Civil Engineering standards.
Canfield, T.R.; Murray, M.J.
1992-05-01
Finite element methods (FEM) employing the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation may be used to model soil in contact with the wheels or the tracks of vehicles in off-road mobility simulations. Coupling ALE finite element methods with recursive multi-body dynamics may allow real-time simulation of vehicles off-road provided sufficient computational resources are available. The requirements of these approach will be discussed with emphasis on parallel implementation. Estimates of expected performance are calculated based on the current trend in the development of advanced computer architectures. Factors important in estimating the feasibility of using finite element methodology in real time will be considered. Among these factors are the element size, the number of elements and the rate of computation, as well as the physical requirements of the simulations.
Canfield, T.R. ); Murray, M.J. )
1992-05-01
Finite element methods (FEM) employing the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation may be used to model soil in contact with the wheels or the tracks of vehicles in off-road mobility simulations. Coupling ALE finite element methods with recursive multi-body dynamics may allow real-time simulation of vehicles off-road provided sufficient computational resources are available. The requirements of these approach will be discussed with emphasis on parallel implementation. Estimates of expected performance are calculated based on the current trend in the development of advanced computer architectures. Factors important in estimating the feasibility of using finite element methodology in real time will be considered. Among these factors are the element size, the number of elements and the rate of computation, as well as the physical requirements of the simulations.
3D finite element simulation of non-crimp fabric composites ultrasonic testing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Z.; Saffari, N.; Fromme, P.
2012-05-01
Composite materials offer many advantages for aerospace applications, e.g., good strength to weight ratio. Different types of composites, such as non-crimp fabrics (NCF), are currently being investigated as they offer reduced manufacturing costs and improved damage tolerance as compared to traditional pre-impregnated composite materials. NCF composites are made from stitched fiber bundles (tows), which typically have a width and thickness of less than a millimeter. This results in strongly inhomogeneous and anisotropic material properties. Different types of manufacturing imperfections, such as porosity, resin pockets, tow crimp and misalignment can lead to reduced material strength and thus to defects following excessive loads or impact, e.g., fracture and delaminations. The ultrasonic non-destructive testing of NCF composites is difficult, as the tow size is comparable to the wavelength, leading to multiple scattering in this inherently three-dimensional structure. For typical material properties and geometry of an NCF composite, a full three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) model has been developed in ABAQUS. The propagation of longitudinal ultrasonic waves has been simulated and the effect of multiple scattering at the fiber tows investigated. The influence of porosity in the epoxy matrix as a typical manufacturing defect on the ultrasonic wave propagation and attenuation has been studied.
Simulation of ultrasonic NCF composites testing using 3D finite element model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Z.; Saffari, N.; Fromme, P.
2012-04-01
Composite materials offer many advantages for aerospace applications, e.g., good strength to weight ratio. Different types of composites, such as non-crimp fabrics (NCF), are currently being investigated as they offer reduced manufacturing costs and improved damage tolerance as compared to traditional pre-impregnated composite materials. NCF composites are made from stitched fiber bundles (tows), which typically have a width and thickness in the order of millimeter. This results in strongly inhomogeneous and anisotropic material properties. Different types of manufacturing imperfections, such as porosity, resin pockets, tow crimp and misalignment can lead to reduced material strength and thus to defects following excessive loads or impact, e.g. fracture and delaminations. The ultrasonic non-destructive testing of NCF composites is difficult, as the tow size is comparable to the wavelength, leading to multiple scattering in this inherently three-dimensional structure. For typical material properties and geometry of an NCF composite, a full three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) model has been developed in ABAQUS. The propagation of longitudinal ultrasonic waves has been simulated and the effect of multiple scattering at the fiber tows investigated. The effect of porosity as a typical manufacturing imperfection has been considered. The potential for the detection and quantification of such defects is discussed based on the observed influence on the ultrasonic wave propagation and attenuation.
MRI-based finite element simulation on radiofrequency ablation of thyroid cancer.
Jin, Chao; He, Zhizhu; Liu, Jing
2014-02-01
In order to provide a quantitative disclosure on the RFA (radiofrequency ablation)-induced thermal ablation effects within thyroid tissues, this paper has developed a three-dimensional finite element simulation strategy based on a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)-reconstructed model. The thermal lesion's growth was predicted and interpreted under two treatment conditions, i.e. single-cooled-electrode modality and two-cooled-electrode system. The results show that the thermal lesion's growth is significantly affected by two factors including the position of RF electrode and thermal-physiological behavior of the breathing airflow. Additional parametric studies revealed several valuable phenomena, e.g. with the electrode's movement, thermal injury with varying severity would happen to the trachea wall. Besides, the changes in airflow mass produced evident effects on the total heat flux of thyroid surface, while the changes in breathing frequency only generated minor effects that can be ignored. The present study provided a better understanding on the thermal lesions of RFA within thyroid domain, which will help guide future treatment of the thyroid cancer. PMID:24411316
3D finite element simulation of effects of deflection rate on energy absorption for TRIP steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Asuka; Pham, Hang; Iwamoto, Takeshi
2015-09-01
Recently, with the requirement of lighter weight and more safety for a design of automobile, energy absorption capability of structural materials has become important. TRIP (Transformation-induced Plasticity) steel is expected to apply to safety members because of excellent energy absorption capability and ductility. Past studies proved that such excellent characteristics in TRIP steel are dominated by strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) during plastic deformation. Because SIMT strongly depends on deformation rate and temperature, an investigation of the effects of deformation rate and temperature on energy absorption in TRIP is essential. Although energy absorption capability of material can be estimated by J-integral experimentally by using pre-cracked specimen, it is difficult to determine volume fraction of martensite and temperature rise during the crack extension. In addition, their effects on J-integral, especially at high deformation rate in experiment might be quite hard. Thus, a computational prediction needs to be performed. In this study, bending deformation behavior of pre-cracked specimen until the onset point of crack extension are predicted by 3D finite element simulation based on the transformation kinetics model proposed by Iwamoto et al. (1998). It is challenged to take effects of temperature, volume fraction of martensite and deformation rate into account. Then, the mechanism for higher energy absorption characteristic will be discussed.
Candel, A.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Limborg, C.; Ng, C.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Ko, K.; /SLAC
2009-06-19
Over the past years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD), under SciDAC sponsorship, has developed a suite of 3D (2D) parallel higher-order finite element (FE) codes, T3P (T2P) and Pic3P (Pic2P), aimed at accurate, large-scale simulation of wakefields and particle-field interactions in radio-frequency (RF) cavities of complex shape. The codes are built on the FE infrastructure that supports SLAC's frequency domain codes, Omega3P and S3P, to utilize conformal tetrahedral (triangular)meshes, higher-order basis functions and quadratic geometry approximation. For time integration, they adopt an unconditionally stable implicit scheme. Pic3P (Pic2P) extends T3P (T2P) to treat charged-particle dynamics self-consistently using the PIC (particle-in-cell) approach, the first such implementation on a conformal, unstructured grid using Whitney basis functions. Examples from applications to the International Linear Collider (ILC), Positron Electron Project-II (PEP-II), Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and other accelerators will be presented to compare the accuracy and computational efficiency of these codes versus their counterparts using structured grids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pettit, J. R.; Walker, A.; Lowe, M. J. S.
2015-01-01
A common goal when using Finite Element (FE) modelling in time domain wave scattering problems is to minimise model size by only considering a region immediately surrounding a scatterer or feature of interest. The model boundaries must simulate infinite space by minimising the reflection of incident waves. This is a significant and long-standing challenge that has only achieved partial success. Industrial companies wishing to perform such modelling are keen to use established commercial FE packages that offer a thorough history of validation and testing. Unfortunately, this limits the flexibility available to modellers preventing the use of popular research tools such as Perfectly Matched Layers (PML). Unlike PML, Absorbing Layers by Increasing Damping (ALID) have proven successful offering practical implementation into any solver that has representation of material damping. Despite good performance further improvements are desirable. Here, a Stiffness Reduction Method (SRM) has been developed and optimised to operate within a significantly reduced spatial domain. The technique is applied by altering damping and stiffness matrices, inducing decay of incident waves. Variables are expressed as a function of known model constants, easing implementation for generic problems. Analytical and numerical solutions have shown that SRM out performs ALID, with results approaching those of PML.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow using the finite element method
McCallen, R.C.
1995-02-15
The equations of motion describing turbulent flows (in both the low and high Reynolds-number regimes) are well established. However, present day computers cannot meet the enormous computational requirement for numerically solving the governing equations for common engineering flows in the high Reynolds number turbulent regime. The characteristics that make turbulent, high Reynolds number flows difficult to simulate is the extreme range of time and space scales of motion. Most current engineering calculations are performed using semi-empirical equations, developed in terms of the flow mean (average) properties. These turbulence{open_quote} models{close_quote} (semi-empirical/analytical approximations) do not explicitly account for the eddy structures and thus, the temporal and spatial flow fluctuations are not resolved. In these averaging approaches, it is necessary to approximate all the turbulent structures using semi-empirical relations, and as a result, the turbulence models must be tailored for specific flow conditions and geometries with parameters obtained (usually) from physical experiments. The motivation for this research is the development of a finite element turbulence modeling approach which will ultimately be used to predict the wind flow around buildings. Accurate turbulence models of building flow are needed to predict the dispersion of airborne pollutants. The building flow turbulence models used today are not capable of predicting the three-dimensional separating and reattaching flows without the manipulation of many empirical parameters. These empirical parameters must be set by experimental data and they may vary unpredictably with building geometry, building orientation, and upstream flow conditions.
Valero, C; Javierre, E; García-Aznar, J M; Gómez-Benito, M J
2014-06-01
Wound healing is a process driven by biochemical and mechanical variables in which a new tissue is synthesised to recover original tissue functionality. Wound morphology plays a crucial role in this process, as the skin behaviour is not uniform along different directions. In this work, we simulate the contraction of surgical wounds, which can be characterised as elongated and deep wounds. Because of the regularity of this morphology, we approximate the evolution of the wound through its cross section, adopting a plane strain hypothesis. This simplification reduces the complexity of the computational problem; while allows for a thorough analysis of the role of wound depth in the healing process, an aspect of medical and computational relevance that has not yet been addressed. To reproduce wound contraction, we consider the role of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, collagen and a generic growth factor. The contraction phenomenon is driven by cell-generated forces. We postulate that these forces are adjusted to the mechanical environment of the tissue where cells are embedded through a mechanosensing and mechanotransduction mechanism. To solve the nonlinear problem, we use the finite element method (FEM) and an updated Lagrangian approach to represent the change in the geometry. To elucidate the role of wound depth and width on the contraction pattern and evolution of the involved species, we analyse different wound geometries with the same wound area. We find that deeper wounds contract less and reach a maximum contraction rate earlier than superficial wounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, JianGuo; Chen, Wei; Xie, HuiMin
2015-03-01
Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems are widely used in industrial gas-turbine engines. However, premature failures have impaired the use of TBCs and cut down their lifetime, which requires a better understanding of their failure mechanisms. In the present study, experimental studies of isothermal cycling are firstly carried out with the observation and estimation of microstructures. According to the experimental results, a finite element model is established for the analysis of stress perpendicular to the TBC/BC interface. Detailed residual stress distributions in TBC are obtained to reflect the influence of mechanical properties, oxidation, and interfacial roughness. The calculated results show that the maximum tensile stress concentration appears at the peak of TBC and continues to increase with thermal cycles. Because of the microstructural characteristics of plasma-sprayed TBCs, cracks initialize in tensile stress concentration (TSC) regions at the peaks of TBC and propagate along the TBC/BC interface resulting in the spallation of TBC. Also, the inclusion of creep is crucial to failure prediction and is more important than the inclusion of sintering in the simulation.
2006-03-08
MAPVAR-KD is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR-KD draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR-KD are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operationmore » of the code and the effects of various input options. MAPVAR-KD is a modification of MAPVAR in which the search algorithm was replaced by a kd-tree-based search for better performance on large problems.« less
Sjaardema, G.; Wellman, G.; Gartling, D.
2006-03-08
MAPVAR-KD is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR-KD draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR-KD are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operation of the code and the effects of various input options. MAPVAR-KD is a modification of MAPVAR in which the search algorithm was replaced by a kd-tree-based search for better performance on large problems.
Forsythe, C.; Smith, M.; Sjaardema, G.
2005-06-26
Exotxt is an analysis code that reads finite element results data stored in an exodusII file and generates a file in a structured text format. The text file can be edited or modified via a number of text formatting tools. Exotxt is used by analysis to translate data from the binary exodusII format into a structured text format which can then be edited or modified and then either translated back to exodusII format or to another format.
Stress Recovery Based h-Adaptive Finite Element Simulation of Sheet Forming Operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Mohd.; Singh, Devinder
2016-07-01
In the present work, stress recovery techniques based adaptive finite element analysis of sheet forming operations is presented. An adaptive two dimensional finite element computer code allows the analysis of sheet forming operations and results in distribution of adaptively refined mesh, effective strain, and punch load, stress and strain rate tensor in the domain that has been developed. The recovery scheme for determining more accurate stress field is based on the least squares fitting of the computed stresses in an element patch surrounding and including a particular node. The solution error is estimated on the basis of an energy norm. It is shown with the help of an illustrative example of axi-symmetric stretching of a metal blank by a hemispherical punch that the adaptive analysis may be usefully employed to predict accurately deformation process, the seats of large deformations and locations of possible instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramanian, Swetha; Mast, T. Douglas
2015-09-01
Computational finite element models are commonly used for the simulation of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatments. However, the accuracy of these simulations is limited by the lack of precise knowledge of tissue parameters. In this technical note, an inverse solver based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed to optimize values for specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity resulting in accurately simulated temperature elevations. A total of 15 RFA treatments were performed on ex vivo bovine liver tissue. For each RFA treatment, 15 finite-element simulations were performed using a set of deterministically chosen tissue parameters to estimate the mean and variance of the resulting tissue ablation. The UKF was implemented as an inverse solver to recover the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity corresponding to the measured area of the ablated tissue region, as determined from gross tissue histology. These tissue parameters were then employed in the finite element model to simulate the position- and time-dependent tissue temperature. Results show good agreement between simulated and measured temperature.
Subramanian, Swetha; Mast, T Douglas
2015-10-01
Computational finite element models are commonly used for the simulation of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatments. However, the accuracy of these simulations is limited by the lack of precise knowledge of tissue parameters. In this technical note, an inverse solver based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed to optimize values for specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity resulting in accurately simulated temperature elevations. A total of 15 RFA treatments were performed on ex vivo bovine liver tissue. For each RFA treatment, 15 finite-element simulations were performed using a set of deterministically chosen tissue parameters to estimate the mean and variance of the resulting tissue ablation. The UKF was implemented as an inverse solver to recover the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity corresponding to the measured area of the ablated tissue region, as determined from gross tissue histology. These tissue parameters were then employed in the finite element model to simulate the position- and time-dependent tissue temperature. Results show good agreement between simulated and measured temperature. PMID:26352462
Simulating hydroplaning of submarine landslides by quasi 3D depth averaged finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Blasio, Fabio; Battista Crosta, Giovanni
2014-05-01
G.B. Crosta, H. J. Chen, and F.V. De Blasio Dept. Of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy Klohn Crippen Berger, Calgary, Canada Subaqueous debris flows/submarine landslides, both in the open ocean as well as in fresh waters, exhibit extremely high mobility, quantified by a ratio between vertical to horizontal displacement of the order 0.01 or even much less. It is possible to simulate subaqueous debris flows with small-scale experiments along a flume or a pool using a cohesive mixture of clay and sand. The results have shown a strong enhancement of runout and velocity compared to the case in which the same debris flow travels without water, and have indicated hydroplaning as a possible explanation (Mohrig et al. 1998). Hydroplaning is started when the snout of the debris flow travels sufficiently fast. This generates lift forces on the front of the debris flow exceeding the self-weight of the sediment, which so begins to travel detached from the bed, literally hovering instead of flowing. Clearly, the resistance to flow plummets because drag stress against water is much smaller than the shear strength of the material. The consequence is a dramatic increase of the debris flow speed and runout. Does the process occur also for subaqueous landslides and debris flows in the ocean, something twelve orders of magnitude larger than the experimental ones? Obviously, no experiment will ever be capable to replicate this size, one needs to rely on numerical simulations. Results extending a depth-integrated numerical model for debris flows (Imran et al., 2001) indicate that hydroplaning is possible (De Blasio et al., 2004), but more should be done especially with alternative numerical methodologies. In this work, finite element methods are used to simulate hydroplaning using the code MADflow (Chen, 2014) adopting a depth averaged solution. We ran some simulations on the small scale of the laboratory experiments, and secondly
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rehfield, Lawrence W.; Pickings, Richard D.; Chang, Stephen; Holl, Michael
1991-01-01
Structural tailoring concepts were developed to create wings with elastically produced camber for the purpose of increasing lift during takeoff conditions. Simple models based upon enhancements to the thin walled composite beam theory of Rehfield were developed to investigate prospects for elastic tailoring of the chordwise deformation of wing structures. The purpose here is to provide a comparison of the theoretical results with a finite element model for the bending method of producing camber. Finite element correlation studies were completed for two cases: a bonded unstiffened structural box, and a bolted unstiffened structural box. Results from these studies show an error of less than one percent for the bonded case and less than six percent for the bolted case in predicting camber curvature for the structural box. Examination of the results shows that the theory is very accurate for the cases studied and will provide an excellent basis for conducting further tailoring studies.
Simulation of natural convection in a rectangular loop using finite elements
Pepper, D W; Hamm, L L; Kehoe, A B
1984-01-01
A two-dimensional finite-element analysis of natural convection in a rectangular loop is presented. A psi-omega formulation of the Boussinesque approximation to the Navier-Stokes equation is solved by the false transient technique. Streamlines and isotherms at Ra = 10/sup 4/ are shown for three different modes of heating. The results indicate that corner effects should be considered when modeling flow patterns in thermosyphons.
Three-dimensional finite element simulation of viscoelastic fluid flow using the EVSS-G
Benard, A.; Lovalenti, P.M.; Tullock, D.L.; Montalbano, E.D.; Guell, D.C.
1996-10-01
An implementation of the EVSS-G method in a finite element framework is presented for modeling three-dimensional viscoelastic flows. The extension from two to three dimensions is discussed, along with the use of the Picard and Newton-Raphson iterative techniques. A selection of benchmark problems, with known analytical solutions are presented as validation of the implementation as well as results for secondary flows in rectangular ducts. 7 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, L. X.; Guo, Y.
A modeling of the turbulent flow in a complex passage with dynamical fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is established on the generalized variational principle. A monolithic coupling method on the finite element formulations (FEM) is used to realize numerical computation of the flow with dynamical FSI. The comparisons with LES show that the results on the FEM formulations suggested in this paper are favorable, and the computing effort is economical.
A finite element beam propagation method for simulation of liquid crystal devices.
Vanbrabant, Pieter J M; Beeckman, Jeroen; Neyts, Kristiaan; James, Richard; Fernandez, F Anibal
2009-06-22
An efficient full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method is presented that uses higher order vector elements to calculate the wide angle propagation of an optical field through inhomogeneous, anisotropic optical materials such as liquid crystals. The full dielectric permittivity tensor is considered in solving Maxwell's equations. The wide applicability of the method is illustrated with different examples: the propagation of a laser beam in a uniaxial medium, the tunability of a directional coupler based on liquid crystals and the near-field diffraction of a plane wave in a structure containing micrometer scale variations in the transverse refractive index, similar to the pixels of a spatial light modulator.
Shrinkage and splitting of microcracks under pressure simulated by the finite-element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Peizhen; Li, Zhonghua; Sun, Jun
2002-04-01
The two-dimensional finite-element method is applied to analyze the shrinkage and splitting of microcracks regularly arranged on or perpendicular to a grain boundary under pressure. Grain-boundary and surface diffusions are coupled by the boundary conditions at the triple point of the microcrack surface and the grain boundary. The shrinkage and splitting processes for the two kinds of microcracks are revealed by detailed finite-element analyses. For the microcrack lying on a grain boundary, it first shrinks to a small void shape, then the void is split by the grain boundary and the two split voids assume a cylindrical shape under the capillary force of the surface. For the microcrack perpendicular to the grain boundary, it is split into two segments by the grain boundary during the early stage of shrinkage. Then, the split microcracks stop shrinking and evolve into two cylindrical channels with a circular section by the capillary force of the surface. These evolution processes are controlled by the applied pressure, microcrack spacing, ratio of grain-boundary diffusion to surface diffusion, and equilibrium dihedral angle, defined by surface and grain-boundary tensions. The influences of these controlled parameters on the evolution processes are numerically clarified based on a great number of finite-element analyses.
Tan, L B; Webb, D C; Kormi, K; Al-Hassani, S T
2001-03-01
The proliferation of stent designs poses difficult problems to clinicians, who have to learn the relative merits of all stents to ensure optimal selection for each lesion, and also to regulatory authorities who have the dilemma of preventing the inappropriate marketing of substandard stents while not denying patients the benefits of advanced technology. Of the major factors influencing long-term results, those of patency and restenosis are being actively studied whereas the mechanical characteristics of devices influencing the technical results of stenting remain under-investigated. Each different stent design has its own particular features. A robust method for the independent objective comparison of the mechanical performance of each design is required. To do this by experimental measurement alone may be prohibitively expensive. A less costly option is to combine computer analysis, employing the standard numerical technique of the finite element method (FEM), with targeted experimental measurements of the specific mechanical behaviour of stents. In this paper the FEM technique is used to investigate the structural behaviour of two different stent geometries: Freedom stent geometry and Palmaz-Schatz (P-S) stent geometry. The effects of altering the stent geometry, the stent wire diameter and contact with (and material properties of) a hard eccentric intravascular lesion (simulating a calcified plaque) on stent mechanical performance were investigated. Increasing the wire diameter and the arterial elastic modulus by 150% results in the need to increase the balloon pressure to expand the stent by 10-fold. Increasing the number of circumferential convolutions increases the pressure required to initiate radial expansion of mounted stents. An incompressible plaque impinging on the mid portion of a stent causes a gross distortion of the Freedom stent and an hour-glass deformity in the P-S stent. These findings are of relevance for future comparative studies of the
2005-06-26
Exotxt is an analysis code that reads finite element results data stored in an exodusII file and generates a file in a structured text format. The text file can be edited or modified via a number of text formatting tools. Exotxt is used by analysis to translate data from the binary exodusII format into a structured text format which can then be edited or modified and then either translated back to exodusII format or tomore » another format.« less
Sjaardema, G.; Forsythe, C.
2005-05-07
CONEX is a code for joining sequentially in time multiple exodusll database files which all represent the same base mesh topology and geometry. It is used to create a single results or restart file from multiple results or restart files which typically arise as the result of multiple restarted analyses. CONEX is used to postprocess the results from a series of finite element analyses. It can join sequentially the data from multiple results databases into a single database which makes it easier to postprocess the results data.
2005-05-07
CONEX is a code for joining sequentially in time multiple exodusll database files which all represent the same base mesh topology and geometry. It is used to create a single results or restart file from multiple results or restart files which typically arise as the result of multiple restarted analyses. CONEX is used to postprocess the results from a series of finite element analyses. It can join sequentially the data from multiple results databases intomore » a single database which makes it easier to postprocess the results data.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, T.; Sun, W.
2012-12-01
Microcomputed tomography can be used to characterize the geometry of the pore space of a sedimentary rock, with resolution that is sufficiently refined for the realistic simulation of physical properties based on the 3D image. Significant advances have been made on the characterization of pore size distribution and connectivity, development of techniques such as lattice Boltzmann method to simulate permeability, and its upscaling. Sun, Andrade and Rudnicki (2011) recently introduced a multiscale method that dynamically links these three aspects, which were often treated separately in previous computational schemes. In this study, we improve the efficiency of this multiscale method by introducing a flood-fill algorithm to determine connectivity of the pores, followed by a multiscale lattice Boltzmann/finite element calculation to obtain homogenized effective anisotropic permeability. The improved multiscale method also includes new capacity to consistently determine electrical conductivity and formation factor from CT images. Furthermore, we also introduce a level set based method that transforms pore geometry to finite element mesh and thus enables direct simulation of pore-scale flow with finite element method. When applied to the microCT data acquired by Lindquist et al. (2000) for four Fontainebleau sandstone samples with porosities ranging from 7.5% to 22%, this multiscale method has proved to be computationally efficient and our simulations has provided new insights into the relation among permeability, pore geometry and connectivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pantale, O.; Caperaa, S.; Rakotomalala, R.
2004-07-01
During the last 50 years, the development of better numerical methods and more powerful computers has been a major enterprise for the scientific community. In the same time, the finite element method has become a widely used tool for researchers and engineers. Recent advances in computational software have made possible to solve more physical and complex problems such as coupled problems, nonlinearities, high strain and high-strain rate problems. In this field, an accurate analysis of large deformation inelastic problems occurring in metal-forming or impact simulations is extremely important as a consequence of high amount of plastic flow. In this presentation, the object-oriented implementation, using the C++ language, of an explicit finite element code called DynELA is presented. The object-oriented programming (OOP) leads to better-structured codes for the finite element method and facilitates the development, the maintainability and the expandability of such codes. The most significant advantage of OOP is in the modeling of complex physical systems such as deformation processing where the overall complex problem is partitioned in individual sub-problems based on physical, mathematical or geometric reasoning. We first focus on the advantages of OOP for the development of scientific programs. Specific aspects of OOP, such as the inheritance mechanism, the operators overload procedure or the use of template classes are detailed. Then we present the approach used for the development of our finite element code through the presentation of the kinematics, conservative and constitutive laws and their respective implementation in C++. Finally, the efficiency and accuracy of our finite element program are investigated using a number of benchmark tests relative to metal forming and impact simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tabiei, Al; Lawrence, Charles; Fasanella, Edwin L.
2009-01-01
A series of crash tests were conducted with dummies during simulated Orion crew module landings at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. These tests consisted of several crew configurations with and without astronaut suits. Some test results were collected and are presented. In addition, finite element models of the tests were developed and are presented. The finite element models were validated using the experimental data, and the test responses were compared with the computed results. Occupant crash data, such as forces, moments, and accelerations, were collected from the simulations and compared with injury criteria to assess occupant survivability and injury. Some of the injury criteria published in the literature is summarized for completeness. These criteria were used to determine potential injury during crew impact events.
Finite-element analyses and fracture simulation in thin-sheet aluminum alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Dawicke, D. S.; Bigelow, C. A.
1992-01-01
A two-dimensional, elastic-plastic finite-element analysis was used with a critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion to model stable crack growth in thin-sheet 2024-T3 aluminum alloy under monotonic loading after precracking at different cyclic stress levels. Tests were conducted on three types of specimens: middle-crack, three-hole-crack and blunt-notch tensile specimens. An experiment technique was developed to measure CTOA during crack growth initiation and stable tearing using a high-resolution video camera and recorder. Crack front shapes were also measured during initiation and stable tearing using a fatigue marker-load technique. Three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite-element analyses of these crack shapes for stationary cracks were conducted to study the crack-front opening displacements. Predicted load against crack extension on middle-crack tension specimens agreed well with test results even for large-scale plastic deformations. The analyses were able to predict the effects of specimen size and precracking stress history on stable tearing. Predicted load against load-line displacements agreed well with test results up to maximum load bu the analyses tended to overpredict displacements as crack grew beyond the maximum load under displacement-controlled conditions. During the initiation phase, the measured CTOA values were high but decreased and remained nearly constant after a small amount of stable tearing. The constant value of CTOA agree well with the calculated value from the finite-element analysis. The larger CTOA values measured at the sheet surface during the initiation phase may be associated with the crack tunneling observed in the tests. Three-dimensional analyses for nonstraight crack fronts predicted much higher displacements near the free surface than in the interior.
Simulation of Sonic IR Imaging of Cracks in Metals with Finite Element Models
Han Xiaoyan; Islam, Md. Sarwar; Favro, L. D.; Newaz, G. M.; Thomas, R. L.
2006-03-06
It has been previously shown experimentally that the use of chaotic sound, instead of a pure frequency, greatly enhances the heating, and hence the detectability of cracks using sonic infrared imaging (SIR). In this paper we show an example of the enhancement of crack heating through the use of chaotic sound. We also present the results of a finite element calculation, in which chaotic sound occurs spontaneously. This modeling confirms the experimental result that chaotic sound is more efficient than non-chaotic sound excitation for heating the cracks.
Finite element simulation of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows using a low Reynolds number k- model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazemzadeh Hannani, Siamak; Stanislas, Michel
1999-05-01
Developing Couette-Poiseuille flows at Re=5000 are studied using a low Reynolds number k- two-equation model and a finite element formulation. Mesh-independent solutions are obtained using a standard Galerkin formulation and a Galerkin/least-squares stabilized method. The predictions for the velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are compared with available experimental results and to the DNS data. Second moment closure's solutions are also compared with those of the k- model. The deficiency of eddy viscosity models to predict dissymmetric low Reynolds number channel flows has been demonstrated. Copyright
Method and apparatus for connecting finite element meshes and performing simulations therewith
Dohrmann, Clark R.; Key, Samuel W.; Heinstein, Martin W.
2003-05-06
The present invention provides a method of connecting dissimilar finite element meshes. A first mesh, designated the master mesh, and a second mesh, designated the slave mesh, each have interface surfaces proximal the other. Each interface surface has a corresponding interface mesh comprising a plurality of interface nodes. Each slave interface node is assigned new coordinates locating the interface node on the interface surface of the master mesh. The slave interface surface is further redefined to be the projection of the slave interface mesh onto the master interface surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unverzagt, Carsten; Henning, Bernd
2012-05-01
For many applications like level measurement and industry robotics it is of advantage if the directional characteristic of an ultrasonic transducer is changeable or adaptable for the improvement of spatial resolution. Often this goal is reached with the use of ultrasonic transducer arrays, which elements are driven with phase shifted excitation signals. One disadvantage of these solutions is the great effort for building such an array and the multi-channel sensor electronics. In this contribution the directional characteristic of a single air transducer with segmented electrodes is analyzed. Therefore a variable script based finite element model is used to discover the influence of different electrode configurations on the directional characteristic of a single piezoceramic transducer. Especially the influence on the angle of beam and the near field length are evaluated. The used variable model permits an optimization of the configuration with regards to the mentioned criteria. The findings will be used for the development of a level measurement system for bulk solids.
Shiomi, Masanori; Mori, Kenichiro; Osakada, Kozo
1995-12-31
Non-steady-state metal flow and temperature distribution in twin roll strip casting are simulated by the finite element method. In the present simulation, the viscoplastic finite element method is combined with that for heat conduction to calculate the metal flow and the temperature distribution during the casting process. The solid, mushy and liquid phases are assumed to be viscoplastic materials with individual flow stresses. In the temperature analysis, the latent heat due to solidification of the molten metal is taken into account by using the temperature recovery method. Since the metal flow and temperature distribution do not often attain to steady states, they are simulated by the stepwise calculation. To examine the accuracy of the calculated results, physical simulation of plane-strain twin roll strip casting is carried out by use of paraffin wax as a model material. The calculated profiles of the solid region agree qualitatively well with the experimental ones. Twin roll strip casting processes for stainless steel are also simulated. An optimum roll speed for obtaining a strip without a liquid zone under a minimum rolling load is obtained from the results of the simulation.
Three-axis magnetic flux leakage in-line inspection simulation based on finite-element analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Jian; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Lu, Sen-Xiang; Wang, Hong-Yang; Ma, Rui-Ze
2013-01-01
With the increase of pipelines, corrosion leakage accidents happen frequently. Therefore, nondestructive testing technology is important for ensuring the safe operation of the pipelines and energy mining. In this paper, the structure and principle of magnetic flux leakage (MFL) in-line inspection system is introduced first. Besides, a mathematic model of the system according to the ampere circuit rule, flux continuity theorem, and column coordinate transform is built, and the magnetic flux density in every point of space is calculated based on the theory of finite element analysis. Then we analyze and design the disposition of measurement section probes and sensors combining both three-axis MFL in-line inspection and multi-sensor fusion technology. Its advantage is that the three-axis changes of magnetic flux leakage field are measured by the multi-probes at the same time, so we can determine various defects accurately. Finally, the theory of finite element analysis is used to build a finite element simulation model, and the relationship between defects and MFL inspection signals is studied. Simulation and experiment results verify that the method not only enhances the detection ability to different types of defects but also improves the precision and reliability of the inspection system.
Ma, J; Wittek, A; Singh, S; Joldes, G; Washio, T; Chinzei, K; Miller, K
2010-12-01
In this paper, the accuracy of non-linear finite element computations in application to surgical simulation was evaluated by comparing the experiment and modelling of indentation of the human brain phantom. The evaluation was realised by comparing forces acting on the indenter and the deformation of the brain phantom. The deformation of the brain phantom was measured by tracking 3D motions of X-ray opaque markers, placed within the brain phantom using a custom-built bi-plane X-ray image intensifier system. The model was implemented using the ABAQUS(TM) finite element solver. Realistic geometry obtained from magnetic resonance images and specific constitutive properties determined through compression tests were used in the model. The model accurately predicted the indentation force-displacement relations and marker displacements. Good agreement between modelling and experimental results verifies the reliability of the finite element modelling techniques used in this study and confirms the predictive power of these techniques in surgical simulation. PMID:21153973
Driscoll, Mark; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Hubert; Parent, Stefan
2013-01-01
A large spectrum of medical devices exists; it aims to correct deformities associated with spinal disorders. The development of a detailed volumetric finite element model of the osteoligamentous spine would serve as a valuable tool to assess, compare, and optimize spinal devices. Thus the purpose of the study was to develop and initiate validation of a detailed osteoligamentous finite element model of the spine with simulated correction from spinal instrumentation. A finite element of the spine from T1 to L5 was developed using properties and geometry from the published literature and patient data. Spinal instrumentation, consisting of segmental translation of a scoliotic spine, was emulated. Postoperative patient and relevant published data of intervertebral disc stress, screw/vertebra pullout forces, and spinal profiles was used to evaluate the models validity. Intervertebral disc and vertebral reaction stresses respected published in vivo, ex vivo, and in silico values. Screw/vertebra reaction forces agreed with accepted pullout threshold values. Cobb angle measurements of spinal deformity following simulated surgical instrumentation corroborated with patient data. This computational biomechanical analysis validated a detailed volumetric spine model. Future studies seek to exploit the model to explore the performance of corrective spinal devices. PMID:23991426
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumeister, K. J.; Horowitz, S. J.
An iterative finite element integral technique is used to predict the sound field radiated from the JT15D turbofan inlet. The sound field is divided into two regions: the sound field within and near the inlet which is computed using the finite element method and the radiation field beyond the inlet which is calculated using an integral solution technique. The velocity potential formulation of the acoustic wave equation was employed in the program. For some single mode JT15D data, the theory and experiment are in good agreement for the far field radiation pattern as well as suppressor attenuation. Also, the computer program is used to simulate flight effects that cannot be performed on a ground static test stand.
Ng, K. C. Geoffrey; Lamontagne, Mario; Labrosse, Michel R.; Beaulé, Paul E.
2016-01-01
Background The cam deformity causes the anterosuperior femoral head to obstruct with the acetabulum, resulting in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and elevated risks of early osteoarthritis. Several finite element models have simulated adverse loading conditions due to cam FAI, to better understand the relationship between mechanical stresses and cartilage degeneration. Our purpose was to conduct a systematic review and examine the previous finite element models and simulations that examined hip joint stresses due to cam FAI. Methods The systematic review was conducted to identify those finite element studies of cam-type FAI. The review conformed to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and studies that reported hip joint contact pressures or stresses were included in the quantitative synthesis. Results Nine articles studied FAI morphologies using finite element methods and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Four articles specifically examined contact pressures and stresses due to cam FAI and were included in the quantitative synthesis. The studies demonstrated that cam FAI resulted in substantially elevated contact pressures (median = 10.4 MPa, range = 8.5–12.2 MPa) and von Mises stresses (median 15.5 MPa, range = 15.0–16.0 MPa) at the acetabular cartilage; and elevated maximum-shear stress on the bone (median = 15.2 MPa, range = 14.3–16.0 MPa), in comparison with control hips, during large amplitudes of hip motions. Many studies implemented or adapted idealized, ball-and-cup, parametric models to predict stresses, along with homogeneous bone material properties and in vivo instrumented prostheses loading data. Conclusion The formulation of a robust subject-specific FE model, to delineate the pathomechanisms of FAI, remains an ongoing challenge. The available literature provides clear insight into the estimated stresses due to the cam deformity and provides an assessment of its risks leading to early
Investigation of Finite Element-Abc Methods for Electromagnetic Field Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Arindam
The demand for accurate characterization and design of complex, composite structures has necessitated the use of numerical techniques for their analysis. Since these structures are often not amenable to closed-form analytical expressions, numerical methods are the only recourse for analyzing these structures. However, a viable numerical method needs to be as efficient and economical as possible such that increasingly complex and large problems can be modeled with minimal computational resources. To this end, the method of finite elements in conjunction with absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs) is proposed in this thesis for solving large and complex three-dimensional problems in unbounded domains. The problem is first formulated using the variational as well as the weighted residual approach. The field variable is expanded in terms of edge-based finite elements on tetrahedra, for the sake of accurate modeling of field continuity and ease of imposing boundary conditions. Initially, the closed problem is solved by determining the eigenvalues of arbitrary, inhomogeneous metallic cavities. For the open problem, ABCs are used as boundary conditions on spherical mesh termination boundaries. The resulting matrix system is sparse symmetric and is found to converge rapidly when solved iteratively. Remarkably accurate results are obtained by placing the truncation boundary only 0.3 lambda from the farthest edge of the target. In order to solve very large problems, the code is optimized on vector as well as parallel architectures like the KSR1 and the Intel iPSC/860. Near-linear speedup is obtained on the KSR1 for the computationally intensive portions of the finite element code, allowing extremely rapid solution for problems involving about half a million unknowns. Since existing ABCs were applicable on spherical mesh termination boundaries, long, thin geometries could be solved only at enormous computational cost. New ABCs enforceable on mesh termination boundaries
Vafaeian, B; Le, L H; Tran, T N H T; El-Rich, M; El-Bialy, T; Adeeb, S
2016-05-01
The present study investigated the accuracy of micro-scale finite element modeling for simulating broadband ultrasound propagation in water-saturated trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms. To this end, five commercially manufactured aluminum foam samples as trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms were utilized for ultrasonic immersion through-transmission experiments. Based on micro-computed tomography images of the same physical samples, three-dimensional high-resolution computational samples were generated to be implemented in the micro-scale finite element models. The finite element models employed the standard Galerkin finite element method (FEM) in time domain to simulate the ultrasonic experiments. The numerical simulations did not include energy dissipative mechanisms of ultrasonic attenuation; however, they expectedly simulated reflection, refraction, scattering, and wave mode conversion. The accuracy of the finite element simulations were evaluated by comparing the simulated ultrasonic attenuation and velocity with the experimental data. The maximum and the average relative errors between the experimental and simulated attenuation coefficients in the frequency range of 0.6-1.4 MHz were 17% and 6% respectively. Moreover, the simulations closely predicted the time-of-flight based velocities and the phase velocities of ultrasound with maximum relative errors of 20 m/s and 11 m/s respectively. The results of this study strongly suggest that micro-scale finite element modeling can effectively simulate broadband ultrasound propagation in water-saturated trabecular bone-mimicking structures.
Vafaeian, B; Le, L H; Tran, T N H T; El-Rich, M; El-Bialy, T; Adeeb, S
2016-05-01
The present study investigated the accuracy of micro-scale finite element modeling for simulating broadband ultrasound propagation in water-saturated trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms. To this end, five commercially manufactured aluminum foam samples as trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms were utilized for ultrasonic immersion through-transmission experiments. Based on micro-computed tomography images of the same physical samples, three-dimensional high-resolution computational samples were generated to be implemented in the micro-scale finite element models. The finite element models employed the standard Galerkin finite element method (FEM) in time domain to simulate the ultrasonic experiments. The numerical simulations did not include energy dissipative mechanisms of ultrasonic attenuation; however, they expectedly simulated reflection, refraction, scattering, and wave mode conversion. The accuracy of the finite element simulations were evaluated by comparing the simulated ultrasonic attenuation and velocity with the experimental data. The maximum and the average relative errors between the experimental and simulated attenuation coefficients in the frequency range of 0.6-1.4 MHz were 17% and 6% respectively. Moreover, the simulations closely predicted the time-of-flight based velocities and the phase velocities of ultrasound with maximum relative errors of 20 m/s and 11 m/s respectively. The results of this study strongly suggest that micro-scale finite element modeling can effectively simulate broadband ultrasound propagation in water-saturated trabecular bone-mimicking structures. PMID:26894840
A NURBS-based generalized finite element scheme for 3D simulation of heterogeneous materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safdari, Masoud; Najafi, Ahmad R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Geubelle, Philippe H.
2016-08-01
A 3D NURBS-based interface-enriched generalized finite element method (NIGFEM) is introduced to solve problems with complex discontinuous gradient fields observed in the analysis of heterogeneous materials. The method utilizes simple structured meshes of hexahedral elements that do not necessarily conform to the material interfaces in heterogeneous materials. By avoiding the creation of conforming meshes used in conventional FEM, the NIGFEM leads to significant simplification of the mesh generation process. To achieve an accurate solution in elements that are crossed by material interfaces, the NIGFEM utilizes Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) to enrich the solution field locally. The accuracy and convergence of the NIGFEM are tested by solving a benchmark problem. We observe that the NIGFEM preserves an optimal rate of convergence, and provides additional advantages including the accurate capture of the solution fields in the vicinity of material interfaces and the built-in capability for hierarchical mesh refinement. Finally, the use of the NIGFEM in the computational analysis of heterogeneous materials is discussed.
A finite element beam-model for efficient simulation of large-scale porous structures.
Stauber, Martin; Huber, Martin; Van Lenthe, G Harry; Boyd, Steven K; Müller, Ralph
2004-02-01
This paper presents a new method for the generation of a beam finite element (FE) model from a three-dimensional (3D) data set acquired by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). This method differs from classical modeling of trabecular bone because it models a specific sample only and differs from conventional solid hexahedron element-based FE approaches in its computational efficiency. The stress-strain curve, characterizing global mechanical properties of a porous structure, could be well predicted (R(2)=0.92). Furthermore, validation of the method was achieved by comparing local displacements of element nodes with the displacements directly measured by time-lapsed imaging methods of failure, and these measures were in good agreement. The presented model is a first step in modeling specific samples for efficient strength analysis by FE modeling. We believe that with upcoming high-resolution in-vivo imaging methods, this approach could lead to a novel and accurate tool in the risk assessment for osteoporotic fractures.
An Ellipsoidal Particle-Finite Element Method for Hypervelocity Impact Simulation. Chapter 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivarama, Ravishankar; Fahrenthold, Eric P.
2004-01-01
A number of coupled particle-element and hybrid particle-element methods have been developed for the simulation of hypervelocity impact problems, to avoid certain disadvantages associated with the use of pure continuum based or pure particle based methods. To date these methods have employed spherical particles. In recent work a hybrid formulation has been extended to the ellipsoidal particle case. A model formulation approach based on Lagrange's equations, with particles entropies serving as generalized coordinates, avoids the angular momentum conservation problems which have been reported with ellipsoidal smooth particle hydrodynamics models.
Vayron, Romain; Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Bosc, Romain; Naili, Salah; Haïat, Guillaume
2015-10-01
Dental implant stability, which is an important parameter for the surgical outcome, can now be assessed using quantitative ultrasound. However, the acoustical propagation in dental implants remains poorly understood. The objective of this numerical study was to understand the propagation phenomena of ultrasonic waves in cylindrically shaped prototype dental implants and to investigate the sensitivity of the ultrasonic response to the surrounding bone quantity and quality. The 10-MHz ultrasonic response of the implant was calculated using an axisymetric 3D finite element model, which was validated by comparison with results obtained experimentally and using a 2D finite difference numerical model. The results show that the implant ultrasonic response changes significantly when a liquid layer is located at the implant interface compared to the case of an interface fully bounded with bone tissue. A dedicated model based on experimental measurements was developed in order to account for the evolution of the bone biomechanical properties at the implant interface. The effect of a gradient of material properties on the implant ultrasonic response is determined. Based on the reproducibility of the measurement, the results indicate that the device should be sensitive to the effects of a healing duration of less than one week. In all cases, the amplitude of the implant response is shown to decrease when the dental implant primary and secondary stability increase, which is consistent with the experimental results. This study paves the way for the development of a quantitative ultrasound method to evaluate dental implant stability.
Vayron, Romain; Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Bosc, Romain; Naili, Salah; Haïat, Guillaume
2015-10-01
Dental implant stability, which is an important parameter for the surgical outcome, can now be assessed using quantitative ultrasound. However, the acoustical propagation in dental implants remains poorly understood. The objective of this numerical study was to understand the propagation phenomena of ultrasonic waves in cylindrically shaped prototype dental implants and to investigate the sensitivity of the ultrasonic response to the surrounding bone quantity and quality. The 10-MHz ultrasonic response of the implant was calculated using an axisymetric 3D finite element model, which was validated by comparison with results obtained experimentally and using a 2D finite difference numerical model. The results show that the implant ultrasonic response changes significantly when a liquid layer is located at the implant interface compared to the case of an interface fully bounded with bone tissue. A dedicated model based on experimental measurements was developed in order to account for the evolution of the bone biomechanical properties at the implant interface. The effect of a gradient of material properties on the implant ultrasonic response is determined. Based on the reproducibility of the measurement, the results indicate that the device should be sensitive to the effects of a healing duration of less than one week. In all cases, the amplitude of the implant response is shown to decrease when the dental implant primary and secondary stability increase, which is consistent with the experimental results. This study paves the way for the development of a quantitative ultrasound method to evaluate dental implant stability. PMID:25619479
Justification for a 2D versus 3D fingertip finite element model during static contact simulations.
Harih, Gregor; Tada, Mitsunori; Dolšak, Bojan
2016-10-01
The biomechanical response of a human hand during contact with various products has not been investigated in details yet. It has been shown that excessive contact pressure on the soft tissue can result in discomfort, pain and also cumulative traumatic disorders. This manuscript explores the benefits and limitations of a simplified two-dimensional vs. an anatomically correct three-dimensional finite element model of a human fingertip. Most authors still use 2D FE fingertip models due to their simplicity and reduced computational costs. However we show that an anatomically correct 3D FE fingertip model can provide additional insight into the biomechanical behaviour. The use of 2D fingertip FE models is justified when observing peak contact pressure values as well as displacement during the contact for the given studied cross-section. On the other hand, an anatomically correct 3D FE fingertip model provides a contact pressure distribution, which reflects the fingertip's anatomy.
A Simulation of crustal deformation around sourthwest Japan using 3D Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oma, T.; Ito, T.; Sasajima, R.
2015-12-01
In southwest Japan, the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the Amurian plate at the Nankai Trough. Megathrust earthquakes have been occurred with recurrence intervals of about 100-150 years. Previous studies have estimated co-seismic slip distribution at the 1944 Tokankai and the 1946 Nankai earthquakes and interplate plate coupling along the Nankai Trough. Many of previous studies employed a homogeneous elastic half space or elastic and viscoelastic layers structure. However, these assumptions as mentioned above are inadequate, since inhomogeneous structure is exceled in the real earth result from subducting plate. Therefore, in order to estimate the effect of inhomogeneous structure on the crustal deformation, we calculate crustal deformation due to Megathrust earthquake using 3-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM). We use FEM software PyLith v2.1. In this study, we construct a finite element mesh with the region of 3000km(SW) × 2300km(NS) × 400km(depth) cover Japanese Islands, using Cubit 13.0. This mesh is considered topography, the Philippine Sea plate, the Pacific plate, Moho discontinuity, and curvature of the earth. In order to examine differences of surface displacement between inhomogeneous and homogeneous structures, we use co-seismic slip distribution of the 1944 and 1946 earthquakes estimated by Sagiya and Thatcher (1999). In result, surface elastic response under inhomogeneous structure becomes 30% larger than it's homogeneous structure at the Muroto cape. This difference indicates that co-seismic slip or plate coupling distribution estimated from Green's function under an assumption of homogeneous structure is overestimated. Then, we calculate viscoelastic response assuming Maxwell rheology model and viscosity as 1×1019. As a result, predicted horizontal velocity of viscoelastic response due to the events corresponds to 10 % of observed present deformation. It suggest that spatial pattern of plate coupling might be change when we
Souza, W.R.
1987-01-01
This report documents a graphical display program for the U. S. Geological Survey finite-element groundwater flow and solute transport model. Graphic features of the program, SUTRA-PLOT (SUTRA-PLOT = saturated/unsaturated transport), include: (1) plots of the finite-element mesh, (2) velocity vector plots, (3) contour plots of pressure, solute concentration, temperature, or saturation, and (4) a finite-element interpolator for gridding data prior to contouring. SUTRA-PLOT is written in FORTRAN 77 on a PRIME 750 computer system, and requires Version 9.0 or higher of the DISSPLA graphics library. The program requires two input files: the SUTRA input data list and the SUTRA simulation output listing. The program is menu driven and specifications for individual types of plots are entered and may be edited interactively. Installation instruction, a source code listing, and a description of the computer code are given. Six examples of plotting applications are used to demonstrate various features of the plotting program. (Author 's abstract)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Shrikrishna Nandkishor; Bolar, Gururaj
2016-06-01
Control of part deflection and deformation during machining of low rigidity thin-wall components is an important aspect in the manufacture of desired quality products. This paper presents a comparative study on the effect of geometry constraints on the product quality during machining of thin-wall components made of an aerospace alloy aluminum 2024-T351. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (FE) based simulations of machining of thin-wall parts were carried out by considering three variations in the wall constraint viz. free wall, wall constrained at one end, and wall with constraints at both the ends. Lagrangian formulation based transient FE model has been developed to simulate the interaction between the workpiece and helical milling cutter. Johnson-Cook material and damage model were adopted to account for material behavior during machining process; damage initiation and chip separation. A modified Coulomb friction model was employed to define the contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece. The numerical model was validated with experimental results and found to be in good agreement. Based on the simulation results it was noted that deflection and deformation were maximum in the thin-wall constrained at one end in comparison with those obtained in other cases. It was noted that three dimensional finite element simulations help in a better way to predict the product quality during precision manufacturing of thin-wall components.
Nakamachi, Eiji; Yoshida, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Toshihiko; Morita, Yusuke; Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Hideo
2014-10-06
We developed two-scale FE analysis procedure based on the crystallographic homogenization method by considering the hierarchical structure of poly-crystal aluminium alloy metal. It can be characterized as the combination of two-scale structure, such as the microscopic polycrystal structure and the macroscopic elastic plastic continuum. Micro polycrystal structure can be modeled as a three dimensional representative volume element (RVE). RVE is featured as by 3×3×3 eight-nodes solid finite elements, which has 216 crystal orientations. This FE analysis code can predict the deformation, strain and stress evolutions in the wire drawing processes in the macro- scales, and further the crystal texture and hardening evolutions in the micro-scale. In this study, we analyzed the texture evolution in the wire drawing processes by our two-scale FE analysis code under conditions of various drawing angles of dice. We evaluates the texture evolution in the surface and center regions of the wire cross section, and to clarify the effects of processing conditions on the texture evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Günay, E.
2016-04-01
In this study, the modulus of elasticity and shear modulus values of single-walled carbon nanotubes SWCNTs were modelled by using both finite element method and the Matlab code. Initially, cylindrical armchair and zigzag single walled 3D space frames were demonstrated as carbon nanostructures. Thereafter, macro programs were written by the Matlab code producing the space truss for zigzag and armchair models. 3D space frames were introduced to the ANSYS software and then tension, compression and additionally torsion tests were performed on zigzag and armchair carbon nanotubes with BEAM4 element in obtaining the exact values of elastic and shear modulus values. In this study, two different boundary conditions were tested and especially used in torsion loading. The equivalent shear modulus data was found by averaging the corresponding values obtained from ten different nodal points on the nanotube path. Finally, in this study it was determined that the elastic constant values showed proportional changes by increasing the carbon nanotube diameters up to a certain level but beyond this level these values remained stable.
Spanos, P; Elsbernd, P; Ward, B; Koenck, T
2013-06-28
This paper reviews and enhances numerical models for determining thermal, elastic and electrical properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites. For the determination of the effective stress-strain curve and thermal conductivity of the composite material, finite-element analysis (FEA), in conjunction with the embedded fibre method (EFM), is used. Variable nanotube geometry, alignment and waviness are taken into account. First, a random morphology of a user-defined volume fraction of nanotubes is generated, and their properties are incorporated into the polymer matrix using the EFM. Next, incremental and iterative FEA approaches are used for the determination of the nonlinear properties of the nanocomposite. For the determination of the electrical properties, a spanning network identification algorithm is used. First, a realistic nanotube morphology is generated from input parameters defined by the user. The spanning network algorithm then determines the connectivity between nanotubes in a representative volume element. Then, interconnected nanotube networks are converted to equivalent resistor circuits. Finally, Kirchhoff's current law is used in conjunction with FEA to solve for the voltages and currents in the system and thus calculate the effective electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite. The model accounts for electrical transport mechanisms such as electron hopping and simultaneously calculates percolation probability, identifies the backbone and determines the effective conductivity. Monte Carlo analysis of 500 random microstructures is performed to capture the stochastic nature of the fibre generation and to derive statistically reliable results. The models are validated by comparison with various experimental datasets reported in the recent literature. PMID:23690646
A finite element model of the lower limb for simulating automotive impacts.
Untaroiu, Costin D; Yue, Neng; Shin, Jaeho
2013-03-01
A finite element (FE) model of a vehicle occupant's lower limb was developed in this study to improve understanding of injury mechanisms during traffic crashes. The reconstructed geometry of a male volunteer close to the anthropometry of a 50th percentile male was meshed using mostly hexahedral and quadrilateral elements to enhance the computational efficiency of the model. The material and structural properties were selected based on a synthesis of current knowledge of the constitutive models for each tissue. The models of the femur, tibia, and leg were validated against Post-Mortem Human Surrogate (PMHS) data in various loading conditions which generates the bone fractures observed in traffic accidents. The model was then used to investigate the tolerances of femur and tibia under axial compression and bending. It was shown that the bending moment induced by the axial force reduced the bone tolerance significantly more under posterior-anterior (PA) loading than under anterior-posterior (AP) loading. It is believed that the current lower limb models could be used in defining advanced injury criteria of the lower limb and in various applications as an alternative to physical testing, which may require complex setups and high cost.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Nan
The utilization of more non-ferrous materials is one of the key factors to succeed out of the constantly increasing demand for lightweight vehicles in automotive sector. Aluminum-magnesium alloys have been identified as the most promising substitutions to the conventional steel without significant compromise in structural stiffness and strength. However, the conventional forming methods to deform the aluminum alloy sheets are either costly or insufficient in formability which limit the wide applications of aluminum alloy sheets. A recently proposed non-isothermal hot stamping approach, which is also referred as Hot Blank - Cold Die (HB-CD) stamping, aims at fitting the commercial grade aluminum alloy sheets, such as AA5XXX and AA7XXX, into high-volume and cost-effective production for automotive sector. In essence, HB-CD is a mutation of the conventional hot stamping approach for boron steel (22MnB5) which deforms the hot blank within the cold tool set. By elevating the operation temperature, the formability of aluminum alloy sheets can be significantly improved. Meanwhile, heating the blank only and deforming within the cold tool sets allow to reduce the energy and time consumed. This research work aims at conducting a comprehensive investigation of HB-CD with particular focuses on material characterization, constitutive modeling and coupled thermo-mechanical finite element simulations with validation. The material properties of AA5182-O, a popular commercial grade of aluminum alloy sheet in automotive sector, are obtained through isothermal tensile testing at temperatures from 25° to 300°, covering a quasi-static strain-rate range (0.001--0.1s-1). As the state-of-the-art non-contact strain measurement technique, digital image correlation (DIC) system is utilized to evaluate the stress-strain curves as well as to reveal the details of material deformation with full-field and multi-axis strain measurement. Material anisotropy is characterized by extracting the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yong; Chu, Yingfang; Zhang, Kai; Kang, Bangzhi; Hao, Qun
2010-11-01
The simulation based on the finite-element (FE) method plays an important role in the investigation of the intra-body communication (IBC). In this paper, the method for modeling the whole human body based on the finite-element method is proposed, while a finite-element model of the whole human body used for the simulations of the waveguide intra-body communication has been developed. Finally, the simulations of the waveguide IBC with different signal transmission paths have been achieved by using the developed finite-element model. Moreover, both the potential distributions and the signal attenuations of the simulation results are discussed in detail, which indicate that the proposed method and model offer the significant advantages in the theoretical analysis and the system design of the waveguide intra-body communication.
Assignment Of Finite Elements To Parallel Processors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salama, Moktar A.; Flower, Jon W.; Otto, Steve W.
1990-01-01
Elements assigned approximately optimally to subdomains. Mapping algorithm based on simulated-annealing concept used to minimize approximate time required to perform finite-element computation on hypercube computer or other network of parallel data processors. Mapping algorithm needed when shape of domain complicated or otherwise not obvious what allocation of elements to subdomains minimizes cost of computation.
Swanson, G.D.
1981-03-01
As part of an encapsulant evaluation for a high voltage electronic assembly, the linear elastic finite element method computer code SASL was used to calculate the stress distribution in an axisymmetric solder joint under load. A simulated electronic component in the form of a thumb tack was used as a physical model to calculate lead wire loads when encapsulated in 0.6 g/cm/sup 3/ polystyrene bead form. The calculated lead wire loads disagreed with previous experimental data. Reanalysis of those data revealed nonlinear effects which were not adequately modeled in the SASL calculation.
Kheloufi, Karim; Amara, El Hachemi
2008-09-23
We analyze the deformation induced by focusing a CW high power laser beam on stainless steel plate. A non-linear 3D finite element approach is used to simulate the thermo-elastoplastic deformation, the heat conduction, and stresses. Material properties including density, yield stress, Young modulus, specific heat, and thermal expansion coefficient are considered as temperature-dependent. The effect of heating time on transient temperatures, stresses, strains and bending angles during the process is studied, and the process parameters affecting the bending angles were also investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez, J. M.; Jonsén, P.; Svoboda, A.
2016-08-01
Metal cutting is one of the most common metal-shaping processes. In this process, specified geometrical and surface properties are obtained through the break-up of material and removal by a cutting edge into a chip. The chip formation is associated with large strains, high strain rates and locally high temperatures due to adiabatic heating. These phenomena together with numerical complications make modeling of metal cutting difficult. Material models, which are crucial in metal-cutting simulations, are usually calibrated based on data from material testing. Nevertheless, the magnitudes of strains and strain rates involved in metal cutting are several orders of magnitude higher than those generated from conventional material testing. Therefore, a highly desirable feature is a material model that can be extrapolated outside the calibration range. In this study, a physically based plasticity model based on dislocation density and vacancy concentration is used to simulate orthogonal metal cutting of AISI 316L. The material model is implemented into an in-house particle finite-element method software. Numerical simulations are in agreement with experimental results, but also with previous results obtained with the finite-element method.
Finite element simulation of conventional and prestressed cutting of Ti6Al4V
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Ruitao; Tang, Xinzi; Tan, Yuanqiang; Liu, Xiongwei
2013-05-01
Titanium alloys are known as difficult-to-machine materials, chip morphology plays a predominant role in determining machinability and tool wear during the machining of titanium alloys. Based on the finite element analysis and experimental validation, the cutting processes in conventional cutting and prestressed cutting of titanium alloy ring parts were explored respectively. The Johnson-Cook model expressed by equivalent plastic strain flow stress is utilized to describe the constitutive properties. A ductile fracture criterion based on the strain energy is applied to model the crack initiation and evolution during the chip segmentation. Cutting force as well as distributions of stress, temperature and equivalent plastic strain along cutting time were numerically compared. The results indicate that in conventional cutting and prestressed cutting, chips show the similar characteristic of continuous and regular serrated shape. Initial stress distribution of workpiece was changed by prestress, which correspondingly leads to the alteration of stress distribution in the subsurface layer. Prestress hardly influences the distributions of temperature and equivalent plastic strain on workpiece. The cutting force curves share the same average amplitude and analogous undulating rhythm.
Lim, Hojun; Dingreville, Rémi; Deibler, Lisa A.; Buchheit, Thomas E.; Battaile, Corbett C.
2016-02-27
In this research, a crystal plasticity-finite element (CP-FE) model is used to investigate the effects of microstructural variability at a notch tip in tantalum single crystals and polycrystals. It is shown that at the macroscopic scale, the mechanical response of single crystals is sensitive to the crystallographic orientation while the response of polycrystals shows relatively small susceptibility to it. However, at the microscopic scale, the local stress and strain fields in the vicinity of the crack tip are completely determined by the local crystallographic orientation at the crack tip for both single and polycrystalline specimens with similar mechanical field distributions.more » Variability in the local metrics used (maximum von Mises stress and equivalent plastic strain at 3% deformation) for 100 different realizations of polycrystals fluctuates by up to a factor of 2–7 depending on the local crystallographic texture. Comparison with experimental data shows that the CP model captures variability in stress–strain response of polycrystals that can be attributed to the grain-scale microstructural variability. In conclusion, this work provides a convenient approach to investigate fluctuations in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline materials induced by grain morphology and crystallographic orientations.« less
Development of a finite element model for the simulation of parabolic impact of sandwich panels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ram Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Guérard, Sandra; Mahéo, Laurent; Shankar, Krishna; Viot, Philippe
2015-09-01
Sandwich panels are lightweight structures of two thin high strength facesheets bonded to either side of a thick low density core such as foams and honeycombs. It is necessary to study the impact response of sandwich structures in order to ensure the reliability and safety of these structures. The response of sandwich panels to impact loading is usually studied for impact at normal angle of incidence. In real engineering situations, the structures are more frequently loaded at some oblique angle or with a complex trajectory. It is easy to carry out normal impact tests using devices like the drop tower, but impacts at oblique angles are difficult to characterise experimentally. A tri-dimensional impact device called Hexapod has been developed to experimentally study the impact loading of sandwich plates with a parabolic trajectory. The Hexapod is a modified Gough-Stewart platform that can be moved independently in the six degrees of freedom, corresponding to three translation axes and three rotation axes. In this paper, an approach for modelling the parabolic impact of sandwich structures with thin metallic facesheets and polymer foam core using commercial finite element code LS-DYNA software is presented. The results of the FE model of sandwich panels are compared with experimental data in terms of the time history of vertical and horizontal components of force. A comparison of the strain history obtained from Digital Image Correlation and LS-Dyna model are also presented.
Individual-specific multi-scale finite element simulation of cortical bone of human proximal femur
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Kawas, Neal P.; Lutz, Andre; Kardas, Dieter; Nackenhorst, Udo; Keyak, Joyce H.
2013-07-01
We present an innovative method to perform multi-scale finite element analyses of the cortical component of the femur using the individual's (1) computed tomography scan; and (2) a bone specimen obtained in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. The method enables study of micro-structural characteristics regulating strains and stresses under physiological loading conditions. The analysis of the micro-structural scenarios that cause variation of strain and stress is the first step in understanding the elevated strains and stresses in bone tissue, which are indicative of higher likelihood of micro-crack formation in bone, implicated in consequent remodeling or macroscopic bone fracture. Evidence that micro-structure varies with clinical history and contributes in significant, but poorly understood, ways to bone function, motivates the method's development, as does need for software tools to investigate relationships between macroscopic loading and micro-structure. Three applications - varying region of interest, bone mineral density, and orientation of collagen type I, illustrate the method. We show, in comparison between physiological loading and simple compression of a patient's femur, that strains computed at the multi-scale model's micro-level: (i) differ; and (ii) depend on local collagen-apatite orientation and degree of calcification. Our findings confirm the strain concentration role of osteocyte lacunae, important for mechano-transduction. We hypothesize occurrence of micro-crack formation, leading either to remodeling or macroscopic fracture, when the computed strains exceed the elastic range observed in micro-structural testing.
Finite Element Simulation of Solid Rocket Booster Separation Motors During Motor Firing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu. Weiping; Crane, Debora J.
2007-01-01
One of the toughest challenges facing Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) engineers is to ensure that any design changes made to the Shuttle-Derived Booster Separation Motors (BSM) for future space exploration vehicles is able to withstand the increasingly hostile motor firing environment without cracking its critical component - the graphite throat. This paper presents a critical analysis methodology and techniques for assessing effects of BSM design changes with great accuracy and precision. For current Space Shuttle operation, the motor firing occurs at SRB separation - approximately 125 seconds after Shuttle launch at an altitude of about 28 miles. The motor operation event lasts about two seconds, however, the surface temperature of the graphite throat increases approximately 3400 F in less than one second with a corresponding increase in surface pressure of approximately 2200 pounds per square inch (psi) in less than one-tenth of a second. To capture this process fully and accurately, a two-phase sequentially coupled thermal-mechanical finite element approach was developed. This method allows the time- and location-dependent pressure fields to interact with the spatial-temporal thermal fields throughout the operation. The material properties of graphite throat are orthotropic and temperature-dependent. The analysis involves preload and multiple body contacts.
Finite Element Simulation of Machining of Ti6Al4V Alloy
Rizzuti, S.; Umbrello, D.
2011-05-04
Titanium and its alloys are an important class of materials, especially for aerospace applications, due to their excellent combination of strength and fracture toughness as well as low density. However, these materials are generally regarded as difficult to machine because of their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. Moreover, the low thermal conductivity of Titanium inhibits dissipation of heat within the workpiece causing an higher temperature at the cutting edge and generating for higher cutting speed a rapid chipping at the cutting edge which leads to catastrophic failure. In addition, chip morphology significantly influences the thermo-mechanical behaviour at the workpiece/tool interface, which also affects the tool life.In this paper a finite element analysis of machining of TiAl6V4 is presented. In particular, cutting force, chip morphology and segmentation are taken into account due to their predominant roles to determine machinability and tool wear during the machining of these alloys. Results in terms of residual stresses are also presented. Moreover, the numerical results are compared with experimental ones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivera, Christian A.; Heniche, Mourad; Glowinski, Roland; Tanguy, Philippe A.
2010-07-01
A parallel approach to solve three-dimensional viscous incompressible fluid flow problems using discontinuous pressure finite elements and a Lagrange multiplier technique is presented. The strategy is based on non-overlapping domain decomposition methods, and Lagrange multipliers are used to enforce continuity at the boundaries between subdomains. The novelty of the work is the coupled approach for solving the velocity-pressure-Lagrange multiplier algebraic system of the discrete Navier-Stokes equations by a distributed memory parallel ILU (0) preconditioned Krylov method. A penalty function on the interface constraints equations is introduced to avoid the failure of the ILU factorization algorithm. To ensure portability of the code, a message based memory distributed model with MPI is employed. The method has been tested over different benchmark cases such as the lid-driven cavity and pipe flow with unstructured tetrahedral grids. It is found that the partition algorithm and the order of the physical variables are central to parallelization performance. A speed-up in the range of 5-13 is obtained with 16 processors. Finally, the algorithm is tested over an industrial case using up to 128 processors. In considering the literature, the obtained speed-ups on distributed and shared memory computers are found very competitive.
Shahmohammadi, Mehrdad; Asgharzadeh Shirazi, Hadi; Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi
2014-10-01
Degeneration of intervertebral disk (IVD) has been increased in recent years. The lumbar herniation can be cured using conservative and surgical procedures. Surgery is considered after failure of conservative treatment. Partial discectomy, fusion, and total disk replacement (TDR) are also common surgical treatments for degenerative disk disease. However, due to limitations and disadvantages of the current treatments, many studies have been carried out to approach the best design of mimicking natural disk. Recently, a new method of TDRs has been introduced using nature deformation of IVD by reinforced fibers of annulus fibrosis. Nonetheless, owing to limitations of experimental works on the human body, numerical studies of IVD may help to understand load transfer and biomechanical properties within the disks with reinforced fibers. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the L2-L3 disk vertebrae unit with 12 vertical fibers embedded into annulus fibrosis was constructed. The IVD was subjected to compressive force, bending moment, and axial torsion. The most important parameters of disk failures were compared to that of experimental data. The results showed that the addition of reinforced fibers into the disk invokes a significant decrease of stress in the nucleus and annulus. The findings of this study may have implications not only for developing IVDs with reinforced fibers but also for the application of fiber reinforced IVD in orthopedics surgeries as a suitable implant. PMID:24981720
Finite element simulation of the gating mechanism of mechanosensitive ion channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bavi, Navid; Qin, Qinghua; Martinac, Boris
2013-08-01
In order to eliminate limitations of existing experimental or computational methods (such as patch-clamp technique or molecular dynamic analysis) a finite element (FE) model for multi length-scale and time-scale investigation on the gating mechanism of mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels has been established. Gating force value (from typical patch clamping values) needed to activate Prokaryotic MS ion channels was applied as tensional force to the FE model of the lipid bilayer. Making use of the FE results, we have discussed the effects of the geometrical and the material properties of the Escherichia coli MscL mechanosensitive ion channel opening in relation to the membrane's Young's modulus (which will vary depending on the cell type or cholesterol density in an artificial membrane surrounding the MscL ion channel). The FE model has shown that when the cell membrane stiffens the required channel activation force increases considerably. This is in agreement with experimental results taken from the literature. In addition, the present study quantifies the relationship between the membrane stress distribution around a `hole' for modeling purposes and the stress concentration in the place transmembrane proteins attached to the hole by applying an appropriate mesh refinement as well as well defining contact condition in these areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singla, M.; Chatterji, S.; Müller, W. F. J.; Kleipa, V.; Heuser, J. M.
2014-01-01
The first three-dimensional simulation study of thin multi-line readout cables using finite element simulation tool RAPHAEL is being reported. The application is the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the fixed-target heavy-ion experiment Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM), under design at the forthcoming accelerator center FAIR in Germany. RAPHAEL has been used to design low-mass analog readout cables with minimum possible Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC). Various trace geometries and trace materials have been explored in detail for this optimization study. These cables will bridge the distance between the microstrip detectors and the signal processing electronics placed at the periphery of the silicon tracking stations. SPICE modeling has been implemented in Sentaurus Device to study the transmission loss (dB loss) in cables and simulation has been validated with measurements. An optimized design having minimum possible ENC, material budget and transmission loss for the readout cables has been proposed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, M. L.; Padovan, J.; Fertis, D. G.
1980-01-01
A general purpose squeeze-film damper interactive force element was developed, coded into a software package (module) and debugged. This software package was applied to nonliner dynamic analyses of some simple rotor systems. Results for pressure distributions show that the long bearing (end sealed) is a stronger bearing as compared to the short bearing as expected. Results of the nonlinear dynamic analysis, using a four degree of freedom simulation model, showed that the orbit of the rotating shaft increases nonlinearity to fill the bearing clearance as the unbalanced weight increases.
García, José Jaime
2008-06-01
Analyses with a finite element fibril-reinforced hyperelastic model were undertaken in this study to simulate high tensile Poisson's ratios that have been consistently documented in experimental studies of articular cartilage. The solid phase was represented by an isotropic matrix reinforced with four sets of fibrils, two of them aligned in orthogonal directions and two oblique fibrils in a symmetric configuration respect to the orthogonal axes. Two distinct hyperelastic functions were used to represent the matrix and the fibrils. Results of the analyses showed that only by considering non-orthogonal fibrils was it possible to represent Poisson's ratios higher than one. Constrains in the grips and finite deformations played a minor role in the calculated Poisson's ratio. This study also showed that the model with oblique fibrils at 45 degrees was able to represent significant differences in Poisson's ratios near 1 documented in experimental studies. However, even considering constrains in the grips, this model was not capable to simulate Poisson's ratios near 2 that have been reported in other studies. The study also confirmed that only with a high relation between the stiffness of the fibers and that of the matrix was it possible to obtain high Poisson's ratios for the tissue. Results suggest that analytical models with a finite number of fibrils are appropriate to represent main mechanical effects of articular cartilage.
García, José Jaime
2008-06-01
Analyses with a finite element fibril-reinforced hyperelastic model were undertaken in this study to simulate high tensile Poisson's ratios that have been consistently documented in experimental studies of articular cartilage. The solid phase was represented by an isotropic matrix reinforced with four sets of fibrils, two of them aligned in orthogonal directions and two oblique fibrils in a symmetric configuration respect to the orthogonal axes. Two distinct hyperelastic functions were used to represent the matrix and the fibrils. Results of the analyses showed that only by considering non-orthogonal fibrils was it possible to represent Poisson's ratios higher than one. Constrains in the grips and finite deformations played a minor role in the calculated Poisson's ratio. This study also showed that the model with oblique fibrils at 45 degrees was able to represent significant differences in Poisson's ratios near 1 documented in experimental studies. However, even considering constrains in the grips, this model was not capable to simulate Poisson's ratios near 2 that have been reported in other studies. The study also confirmed that only with a high relation between the stiffness of the fibers and that of the matrix was it possible to obtain high Poisson's ratios for the tissue. Results suggest that analytical models with a finite number of fibrils are appropriate to represent main mechanical effects of articular cartilage. PMID:17690001
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Jay; Lyzenga, Gregory; Norton, Charles; Zuffada, Cinzia; Glasscoe, Margaret; Lou, John; Donnellan, Andrea
2008-04-01
GeoFEST (Geophysical Finite Element Simulation Tool) is a two- and three-dimensional finite element software package for the modeling of solid stress and strain in geophysical and other continuum domain applications. It is one of the featured high-performance applications of the NASA QuakeSim project. The program is targeted to be compiled and run on UNIX systems, and is running on diverse systems including sequential and message-passing parallel systems. Solution to the elliptical partial differential equations is obtained by finite element basis sampling, resulting in a sparse linear system primarily solved by conjugate gradient iteration to a tolerance level; on sequential systems a Crout factorization for the direct inversion of the linear system is also supported. The physics models supported include isotropic linear elasticity and both Newtonian and power-law viscoelasticity, via implicit quasi-static time stepping. In addition to triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral and hexahedral continuum elements, GeoFEST supports split-node faulting, body forces, and surface tractions. This software and related mesh refinement strategies have been validated on a variety of test cases with rigorous comparison to analytical solutions. These include a box-shaped domain with imposed motion on one surface, a pair of strike slip faults in stepover arrangement, and two community-agreed benchmark cases: a strike slip fault in an enclosing box, and a quarter-domain circular fault problem. Scientific applications of the code include the modeling of static and transient co- and post-seismic earth deformation, Earth response to glacial, atmospheric and hydrological loading, and other scenarios involving the bulk deformation of geologic media.
Peridynamic Multiscale Finite Element Methods
Costa, Timothy; Bond, Stephen D.; Littlewood, David John; Moore, Stan Gerald
2015-12-01
art of local models with the flexibility and accuracy of the nonlocal peridynamic model. In the mixed locality method this coupling occurs across scales, so that the nonlocal model can be used to communicate material heterogeneity at scales inappropriate to local partial differential equation models. Additionally, the computational burden of the weak form of the peridynamic model is reduced dramatically by only requiring that the model be solved on local patches of the simulation domain which may be computed in parallel, taking advantage of the heterogeneous nature of next generation computing platforms. Addition- ally, we present a novel Galerkin framework, the 'Ambulant Galerkin Method', which represents a first step towards a unified mathematical analysis of local and nonlocal multiscale finite element methods, and whose future extension will allow the analysis of multiscale finite element methods that mix models across scales under certain assumptions of the consistency of those models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kvíčala, M.; Frydrýšek, K.; Štamborská, M.
2015-03-01
This paper deals with the comparison of experimentally measured temperature gradients and finite-element-method (FEM) simulations of two heating strategies that were used for continuously cast bloom soaking. The temperature gradient between the bloom surface and center was measured by two thermocouples incorporated directly into the bloom. Scanning electron microscopy equipped by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, hot tensile tests, and interdendritic solidification software was used for modeling of steel thermophysical properties with respect to the alloying-elements macrosegregation. The model of the bloom was programmed in the Fortran language. The FEM software MARC/MENTAT 2012 was used for simulation of two heating strategies (plane strain formulation). The first heating model was fitted to the commonly used heating strategy when internal defects grew above the critical limit. The second heating model was a newly proposed strategy that consisted of slower heating up to 1073 K when the first warming-through period occurred. The FEM simulations included determinations of the temperature gradient, the equivalent of stress, the equivalent of elastic strain, the equivalent of plastic strain, and the equivalent of total strain. The simulation results were in good agreement with experimental observations. The new heating strategy based on the FEM simulations led to significantly lower occurrence of internal defects in hot-rolled billets that are used for cylinder production.
Finite element modeling of the human pelvis
Carlson, B.
1995-11-01
A finite element model of the human pelvis was created using a commercial wire frame image as a template. To test the final mesh, the model`s mechanical behavior was analyzed through finite element analysis and the results were displayed graphically as stress concentrations. In the future, this grid of the pelvis will be integrated with a full leg model and used in side-impact car collision simulations.
Individual-specific multi-scale finite element simulation of cortical bone of human proximal femur
Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Kardas, Dieter; Nackenhorst, Udo; Keyak, Joyce H.
2013-07-01
We present an innovative method to perform multi-scale finite element analyses of the cortical component of the femur using the individual’s (1) computed tomography scan; and (2) a bone specimen obtained in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. The method enables study of micro-structural characteristics regulating strains and stresses under physiological loading conditions. The analysis of the micro-structural scenarios that cause variation of strain and stress is the first step in understanding the elevated strains and stresses in bone tissue, which are indicative of higher likelihood of micro-crack formation in bone, implicated in consequent remodeling or macroscopic bone fracture. Evidence that micro-structure varies with clinical history and contributes in significant, but poorly understood, ways to bone function, motivates the method’s development, as does need for software tools to investigate relationships between macroscopic loading and micro-structure. Three applications – varying region of interest, bone mineral density, and orientation of collagen type I, illustrate the method. We show, in comparison between physiological loading and simple compression of a patient’s femur, that strains computed at the multi-scale model’s micro-level: (i) differ; and (ii) depend on local collagen-apatite orientation and degree of calcification. Our findings confirm the strain concentration role of osteocyte lacunae, important for mechano-transduction. We hypothesize occurrence of micro-crack formation, leading either to remodeling or macroscopic fracture, when the computed strains exceed the elastic range observed in micro-structural testing.
Finite element computational fluid mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.
1983-01-01
Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.
Toward automatic finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert
1987-01-01
Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.
Chazot, Jean-Daniel; Perrey-Debain, Emmanuel; Nennig, Benoit
2014-02-01
Recently Chazot et al. [J. Sound Vib. 332, 1918-1929 (2013)] applied the Partition of Unity Finite Element Method for the analysis of interior sound fields with absorbing materials. The method was shown to allow a substantial reduction of the number of degrees of freedom compared to the standard Finite Element Method. The work is however restricted to a certain class of absorbing materials that react like an equivalent fluid. This paper presents an extension of the method to the numerical simulation of Biot's waves in poroelastic materials. The technique relies mainly on expanding the elastic displacement as well as the fluid phase pressure using sets of plane waves which are solutions to the governing partial differential equations. To show the interest of the method for tackling problems of practical interests, poroelastic-acoustic coupling conditions as well as fixed or sliding edge conditions are presented and numerically tested. It is shown that the technique is a good candidate for solving noise control problems at medium and high frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleusberg, E.; Sarmast, S.; Schlatter, P.; Ivanell, S.; Henningson, D. S.
2016-09-01
The wake structure behind a wind turbine, generated by the spectral element code Nek5000, is compared with that from the finite volume code EllipSys3D. The wind turbine blades are modeled using the actuator line method. We conduct the comparison on two different setups. One is based on an idealized rotor approximation with constant circulation imposed along the blades corresponding to Glauert's optimal operating condition, and the other is the Tjffireborg wind turbine. The focus lies on analyzing the differences in the wake structures entailed by the different codes and corresponding setups. The comparisons show good agreement for the defining parameters of the wake such as the wake expansion, helix pitch and circulation of the helical vortices. Differences can be related to the lower numerical dissipation in Nek5000 and to the domain differences at the rotor center. At comparable resolution Nek5000 yields more accurate results. It is observed that in the spectral element method the helical vortices, both at the tip and root of the actuator lines, retain their initial swirl velocity distribution for a longer distance in the near wake. This results in a lower vortex core growth and larger maximum vorticity along the wake. Additionally, it is observed that the break down process of the spiral tip vortices is significantly different between the two methods, with vortex merging occurring immediately after the onset of instability in the finite volume code, while Nek5000 simulations exhibit a 2-3 radii period of vortex pairing before merging.
Finite Element Simulations of Micro Turning of Ti-6Al-4V using PCD and Coated Carbide tools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jagadesh, Thangavel; Samuel, G. L.
2016-07-01
The demand for manufacturing axi-symmetric Ti-6Al-4V implants is increasing in biomedical applications and it involves micro turning process. To understand the micro turning process, in this work, a 3D finite element model has been developed for predicting the tool chip interface temperature, cutting, thrust and axial forces. Strain gradient effect has been included in the Johnson-Cook material model to represent the flow stress of the work material. To verify the simulation results, experiments have been conducted at four different feed rates and at three different cutting speeds. Since titanium alloy has low Young's modulus, spring back effect is predominant for higher edge radius coated carbide tool which leads to the increase in the forces. Whereas, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tool has smaller edge radius that leads to lesser forces and decrease in tool chip interface temperature due to high thermal conductivity. Tool chip interface temperature increases by increasing the cutting speed, however the increase is less for PCD tool as compared to the coated carbide tool. When uncut chip thickness decreases, there is an increase in specific cutting energy due to material strengthening effects. Surface roughness is higher for coated carbide tool due to ploughing effect when compared with PCD tool. The average prediction error of finite element model for cutting and thrust forces are 11.45 and 14.87 % respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Ying; Bevans, W. J.; Xiao, Hai; Zhou, Zhi; Chen, Genda
2012-04-01
During or after an earthquake event, building system often experiences large strains due to shaking effects as observed during recent earthquakes, causing permanent inelastic deformation. In addition to the inelastic deformation induced by the earthquake effect, the post-earthquake fires associated with short fuse of electrical systems and leakage of gas devices can further strain the already damaged structures during the earthquakes, potentially leading to a progressive collapse of buildings. Under these harsh environments, measurements on the involved building by various sensors could only provide limited structural health information. Finite element model analysis, on the other hand, if validated by predesigned experiments, can provide detail structural behavior information of the entire structures. In this paper, a temperature dependent nonlinear 3-D finite element model (FEM) of a one-story steel frame is set up by ABAQUS based on the cited material property of steel from EN 1993-1.2 and AISC manuals. The FEM is validated by testing the modeled steel frame in simulated post-earthquake environments. Comparisons between the FEM analysis and the experimental results show that the FEM predicts the structural behavior of the steel frame in post-earthquake fire conditions reasonably. With experimental validations, the FEM analysis of critical structures could be continuously predicted for structures in these harsh environments for a better assistant to fire fighters in their rescue efforts and save fire victims.
Second order tensor finite element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oden, J. Tinsley; Fly, J.; Berry, C.; Tworzydlo, W.; Vadaketh, S.; Bass, J.
1990-01-01
The results of a research and software development effort are presented for the finite element modeling of the static and dynamic behavior of anisotropic materials, with emphasis on single crystal alloys. Various versions of two dimensional and three dimensional hybrid finite elements were implemented and compared with displacement-based elements. Both static and dynamic cases are considered. The hybrid elements developed in the project were incorporated into the SPAR finite element code. In an extension of the first phase of the project, optimization of experimental tests for anisotropic materials was addressed. In particular, the problem of calculating material properties from tensile tests and of calculating stresses from strain measurements were considered. For both cases, numerical procedures and software for the optimization of strain gauge and material axes orientation were developed.
Mohammadyari, Parvin; Faghihi, Reza; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Hematiyan, Mohammad Rahim; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S
2015-12-01
Compression is a technique to immobilize the target or improve the dose distribution within the treatment volume during different irradiation techniques such as AccuBoost(®) brachytherapy. However, there is no systematic method for determination of dose distribution for uncompressed tissue after irradiation under compression. In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast tissue between compressed and uncompressed states was investigated. With that, a novel method was developed to determine the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue after irradiation of compressed breast tissue. Dosimetry was performed using two different methods, namely, Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 code and measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The displacement of the breast elements was simulated using a finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software. From these results, the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of six different women volunteers. The mechanical properties were modeled by using the Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material model. Experimental dosimetry was performed by placing the TLD chips into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom. The results determined that the nodal displacements, due to the gravitational force and the 60 Newton compression forces (with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in the orthogonal direction) were determined. Finally, a comparison of the experimental data and the simulated data showed agreement within 11.5% ± 5.9%.
Mohammadyari, Parvin; Faghihi, Reza; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Hematiyan, Mohammad Rahim; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S
2015-12-01
Compression is a technique to immobilize the target or improve the dose distribution within the treatment volume during different irradiation techniques such as AccuBoost(®) brachytherapy. However, there is no systematic method for determination of dose distribution for uncompressed tissue after irradiation under compression. In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast tissue between compressed and uncompressed states was investigated. With that, a novel method was developed to determine the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue after irradiation of compressed breast tissue. Dosimetry was performed using two different methods, namely, Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 code and measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The displacement of the breast elements was simulated using a finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software. From these results, the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of six different women volunteers. The mechanical properties were modeled by using the Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material model. Experimental dosimetry was performed by placing the TLD chips into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom. The results determined that the nodal displacements, due to the gravitational force and the 60 Newton compression forces (with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in the orthogonal direction) were determined. Finally, a comparison of the experimental data and the simulated data showed agreement within 11.5% ± 5.9%. PMID:26572554
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadyari, Parvin; Faghihi, Reza; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Rahim Hematiyan, Mohammad; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S.
2015-12-01
Compression is a technique to immobilize the target or improve the dose distribution within the treatment volume during different irradiation techniques such as AccuBoost® brachytherapy. However, there is no systematic method for determination of dose distribution for uncompressed tissue after irradiation under compression. In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast tissue between compressed and uncompressed states was investigated. With that, a novel method was developed to determine the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue after irradiation of compressed breast tissue. Dosimetry was performed using two different methods, namely, Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 code and measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The displacement of the breast elements was simulated using a finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software. From these results, the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of six different women volunteers. The mechanical properties were modeled by using the Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material model. Experimental dosimetry was performed by placing the TLD chips into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom. The results determined that the nodal displacements, due to the gravitational force and the 60 Newton compression forces (with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in the orthogonal direction) were determined. Finally, a comparison of the experimental data and the simulated data showed agreement within 11.5% ± 5.9%.
Finite element shell instability analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
Formulation procedures and the associated computer program for finite element thin shell instability analysis are discussed. Data cover: (1) formulation of basic element relationships, (2) construction of solution algorithms on both the conceptual and algorithmic levels, and (3) conduction of numerical analyses to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the theory and related programs therein are described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, You; Kim, Namkeun; Stenfelt, Stefan
2015-12-01
Bone conduction (BC) is the transmission of sound to the inner ear through the bones of the skull. This type of transmission is used in humans fitted with BC hearing aids as well as to classify between conductive and sensorineural hearing losses. The objective of the present study is to develop a finite-element (FE) model of the human skull based on cryosectional images of a female cadaver head in order to gain better understanding of the sound transmission. Further, the BC behavior was validated in terms of sound transmission against experimental data published in the literature. Results showed the responses of the simulated skull FE model were consistent with the experimentally reported data.
Documentation of a finite-element two-layer model for simulation of ground-water flow
Mallory, Michael J.
1979-01-01
This report documents a finite-element model for simulation of ground-water flow in a two-aquifer system where the two aquifers are coupled by a leakage term that represents flow through a confining layer separating the two aquifers. The model was developed by Timothy J. Durbin (U.S. Geological Survey) for use in ground-water investigations in southern California. The documentation assumes that the reader is familiar with the physics of ground-water flow, numerical methods of solving partial-differential equations, and the FORTRAN IV computer language. It was prepared as part of the investigations made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District. (Kosco-USGS)
Rabahallah, M.; Bouvier, S.; Bacroix, B.; Teodosiu, C.; Balan, T.
2007-04-07
In this work, an implicit, backward Euler time integration scheme is developed for an anisotropic, elastic-plastic model based on strain-rate potentials. The constitutive algorithm includes a sub-stepping procedure to deal with the strong nonlinearity of the plastic potentials when applied to FCC materials. The algorithm is implemented in the static implicit version of the Abaqus finite element code. Several recent plastic potentials have been implemented in this framework. The most accurate potentials require the identification of about twenty material parameters. Both mechanical tests and micromechanical simulations have been used for their identification, for a number of BCC and FCC materials. The impact of the identification procedure on the prediction of ears in cup drawing is investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabahallah, M.; Bouvier, S.; Balan, T.; Bacroix, B.; Teodosiu, C.
2007-04-01
In this work, an implicit, backward Euler time integration scheme is developed for an anisotropic, elastic-plastic model based on strain-rate potentials. The constitutive algorithm includes a sub-stepping procedure to deal with the strong nonlinearity of the plastic potentials when applied to FCC materials. The algorithm is implemented in the static implicit version of the Abaqus finite element code. Several recent plastic potentials have been implemented in this framework. The most accurate potentials require the identification of about twenty material parameters. Both mechanical tests and micromechanical simulations have been used for their identification, for a number of BCC and FCC materials. The impact of the identification procedure on the prediction of ears in cup drawing is investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernard, C. A.; Correia, J. P. M.; Bahlouli, N.; Ahzi, S.
2015-09-01
During the last decades, the part of polymeric materials considerably increased in automotive and packaging applications. However, their mechanical behaviour is difficult to predict due to a strong sensitivity to the strain rate and the temperature. Numerous theories and models were developed in order to understand and model their complex mechanical behaviour. The one proposed by Richeton et al. [Int. J. Solids Struct. 44, 7938 (2007)] seems particularly suitable since several material parameters possess a strain rate and temperature sensitivity. The aim of this study is to implement the proposed constitutive model in a commercial finite element software by writing a user material subroutine. The implementation of the model was verified on a compressive test. Next a normal impact test was simulated in order to validate the predictive capabilities of the model. A good agreement is found between the FE predictions and the experimental results taken from the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jian; Wen, Weidong; Cui, Haitao; Zhang, Hongjian; Xu, Ying
2016-02-01
In the first part of the work, a new 2.5D woven composites finite element model (2.5D WCFEM) which took into consideration the impact of face structures and can accurately predict the main elastic performances has been established. In this part, the stress-strain behavior and the damage characteristic of this material under uniaxial tension are simulated using nonlinear progressive damage analysis based on damage mechanics. Meanwhile, experimental investigation and fracture analysis are conducted to evaluate the validity of the proposed method. Finally, the influence of woven parameters on the mechanical behavior is discussed. Compared with the test results, a good agreement between the computational and experimental results has been obtained. The progressive damage characteristic and main failure modes are also revealed.
2013-01-01
Background The resistance of the bone against damage by repairing itself and adapting to environmental conditions is its most important property. These adaptive changes are regulated by physiological process commonly called the bone remodeling. Better understanding this process requires that we apply the theory of elastic-damage under the hypothesis of small displacements to a bone structure and see its mechanical behavior. Results The purpose of the present study is to simulate a two dimensional model of a proximal femur by taking into consideration elastic-damage and mechanical stimulus. Here, we present a mathematical model based on a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations and we develop the variational formulation for the mechanical problem. Then, we implement our mathematical model into the finite element method algorithm to investigate the effect of the damage. Conclusion The results are consistent with the existing literature which shows that the bone stiffness drops in damaged bone structure under mechanical loading. PMID:23663260
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazer, D.; Schmidt, E.; Unterhinninghofen, R.; Richter, G. M.; Dillmann, R.
2009-08-01
Abnormal hemodynamics and biomechanics of blood flow and vessel wall conditions in the arteries may result in severe cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases result from complex flow pattern and fatigue of the vessel wall and are prevalent causes leading to high mortality each year. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Structure Mechanics (CSM) and Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) have become efficient tools in modeling the individual hemodynamics and biomechanics as well as their interaction in the human arteries. The computations allow non-invasively simulating patient-specific physical parameters of the blood flow and the vessel wall needed for an efficient minimally invasive treatment. The numerical simulations are based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and require exact and individual mesh models to be provided. In the present study, we developed a numerical tool to automatically generate complex patient-specific Finite Element (FE) mesh models from image-based geometries of healthy and diseased vessels. The mesh generation is optimized based on the integration of mesh control functions for curvature, boundary layers and mesh distribution inside the computational domain. The needed mesh parameters are acquired from a computational grid analysis which ensures mesh-independent and stable simulations. Further, the generated models include appropriate FE sets necessary for the definition of individual boundary conditions, required to solve the system of nonlinear partial differential equations governed by the fluid and solid domains. Based on the results, we have performed computational blood flow and vessel wall simulations in patient-specific aortic models providing a physical insight into the pathological vessel parameters. Automatic mesh generation with individual awareness in terms of geometry and conditions is a prerequisite for performing fast, accurate and realistic FEM-based computations of hemodynamics and biomechanics in the
E. Sun, P. Brindza, S. Lassiter, M. Fowler, E. Xu
2010-06-01
This paper presents coupled transient thermal and electromagnetic finite element analysis of quench in the Q2, Q3, and dipole superconducting magnets using Vector Fields Quench code. Detailed temperature distribution within coils and aluminum force collars were computed at each time step. Both normal (quench with dump resistor) and worst-case (quench without dump resistor) scenarios were simulated to investigate the maximum temperatures. Two simulation methods were utilized, and their algorithms, implementation, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. The first method simulated the coil using nonlinear transient thermal analysis directly linked with the transient circuit analysis. It was faster because only the coil was meshed and no eddy current was modeled. The second method simulated the whole magnet including the coil, the force collar, and the iron yoke. It coupled thermal analysis with transient electromagnetic field analysis which modeled electromagnetic fields including eddy currents within the force collar. Since eddy currents and temperature in the force collars were calculated in various configurations, segmentation of the force collars was optimized under the condition of fast discharge.
Hakan Ozaltun; Herman Shen; Pavel Madvedev
2010-11-01
This article presents numerical simulation of dispersion fuel mini plates via fluid–thermal–structural interaction performed by commercial finite element solver COMSOL Multiphysics to identify initial mechanical response under actual operating conditions. Since fuel particles are dispersed in Aluminum matrix, and temperatures during the fabrication process reach to the melting temperature of the Aluminum matrix, stress/strain characteristics of the domain cannot be reproduced by using simplified models and assumptions. Therefore, fabrication induced stresses were considered and simulated via image based modeling techniques with the consideration of the high temperature material data. In order to identify the residuals over the U7Mo particles and the Aluminum matrix, a representative SEM image was employed to construct a microstructure based thermo-elasto-plastic FE model. Once residuals and plastic strains were identified in micro-scale, solution was used as initial condition for subsequent multiphysics simulations at the continuum level. Furthermore, since solid, thermal and fluid properties are temperature dependent and temperature field is a function of the velocity field of the coolant, coupled multiphysics simulations were considered. First, velocity and pressure fields of the coolant were computed via fluidstructural interaction. Computed solution for velocity fields were used to identify the temperature distribution on the coolant and on the fuel plate via fluid-thermal interaction. Finally, temperature fields and residual stresses were used to obtain the stress field of the plates via fluid-thermal-structural interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
María Gómez Castro, Berta; De Simone, Silvia; Rossi, Riccardo; Larese De Tetto, Antonia; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús
2015-04-01
Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical modeling is essential for CO2 storage because of (1) large amounts of CO2 will be injected, which will cause large pressure buildups and might compromise the mechanical stability of the caprock seal, (2) the most efficient technique to inject CO2 is the cold injection, which induces thermal stress changes in the reservoir and seal. These stress variations can cause mechanical failure in the caprock and can also trigger induced earthquakes. To properly assess these effects, numerical models that take into account the short and long-term thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling are an important tool. For this purpose, there is a growing need of codes that couple these processes efficiently and accurately. This work involves the development of an open-source, finite element code written in C ++ for correctly modeling the effects of thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling in the field of CO2 storage and in others fields related to these processes (geothermal energy systems, fracking, nuclear waste disposal, etc.), and capable to simulate induced seismicity. In order to be able to simulate earthquakes, a new lower dimensional interface element will be implemented in the code to represent preexisting fractures, where pressure continuity will be imposed across the fractures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frank, Andreas O.; Twombly, I. Alexander; Barth, Timothy J.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We have applied the linear elastic finite element method to compute haptic force feedback and domain deformations of soft tissue models for use in virtual reality simulators. Our results show that, for virtual object models of high-resolution 3D data (>10,000 nodes), haptic real time computations (>500 Hz) are not currently possible using traditional methods. Current research efforts are focused in the following areas: 1) efficient implementation of fully adaptive multi-resolution methods and 2) multi-resolution methods with specialized basis functions to capture the singularity at the haptic interface (point loading). To achieve real time computations, we propose parallel processing of a Jacobi preconditioned conjugate gradient method applied to a reduced system of equations resulting from surface domain decomposition. This can effectively be achieved using reconfigurable computing systems such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), thereby providing a flexible solution that allows for new FPGA implementations as improved algorithms become available. The resulting soft tissue simulation system would meet NASA Virtual Glovebox requirements and, at the same time, provide a generalized simulation engine for any immersive environment application, such as biomedical/surgical procedures or interactive scientific applications.
Finite-element simulation of ground-water flow in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada-California
Czarnecki, J.B.; Waddell, R.K.
1984-01-01
A finite-element model of the groundwater flow system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site was developed using parameter estimation techniques. The model simulated steady-state ground-water flow occurring in tuffaceous, volcanic , and carbonate rocks, and alluvial aquifers. Hydraulic gradients in the modeled area range from 0.00001 for carbonate aquifers to 0.19 for barriers in tuffaceous rocks. Three model parameters were used in estimating transmissivity in six zones. Simulated hydraulic-head values range from about 1,200 m near Timber Mountain to about 300 m near Furnace Creek Ranch. Model residuals for simulated versus measured hydraulic heads range from -28.6 to 21.4 m; most are less than +/-7 m, indicating an acceptable representation of the hydrologic system by the model. Sensitivity analyses of the model 's flux boundary condition variables were performed to assess the effect of varying boundary fluxes on the calculation of estimated model transmissivities. Varying the flux variables representing discharge at Franklin Lake and Furnace Creek Ranch has greater effect than varying other flux variables. (Author 's abstract)
Micic, Miodrag; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Lu, H PETER.
2004-03-04
Near-field optical enhancement at metal surfaces and methods such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), fluorescent quenching and enhancement, and various near-field scanning microscopies (NSOM) all depend on a metals surface properties, mainly on its morphology and SPR resonant frequency. We report on simulations of the influence of different surface morphologies on electromagnetic field enhancements at the rough surfaces of noble metals and also evaluate the optimal conditions for the generation of a surface-enhanced Raman signal of absorbed species on a metallic substrate. All simulations were performed with a classical electrodynamics approach using the full set of Maxwells equations, which were solved with the three-dimensional finite element method (FEM). Two different classes of surfaces where modeled using fractals, representing diffusion limited aggregation growth dendritic structures, such as one on the surface of electrodes, and second one representing the sponge-like structure used to model surfaces of particles with high porosity, such as metal coated catalyst supports. The simulations depict the high inhomogeneity of an enhanced electromagnetic field as both a field enhancement and field attenuation near the surface. While the diffusion limited aggregation dendritical fractals enhanced the near-field electromagnetic field, the sponge fractals significantly reduced the local electromagnetic field intensity. Moreover, the fractal orders of the fractal objects did not significantly alter the total enhancement, and the distribution of a near-field enhancement was essentially invariant to the changes in the angle of an incoming laser beam.
Lu, Yujie; Chatziioannou, Arion F.
2009-01-01
Whole-body optical molecular imaging of mouse models in preclinical research is rapidly developing in recent years. In this context, it is essential and necessary to develop novel simulation methods of light propagation for optical imaging, especially when a priori knowledge, large-volume domain and a wide-range of optical properties need to be considered in the reconstruction algorithm. In this paper, we propose a three dimensional parallel adaptive finite element method with simplified spherical harmonics (SPN) approximation to simulate optical photon propagation in large-volumes of heterogenous tissues. The simulation speed is significantly improved by a posteriori parallel adaptive mesh refinement and dynamic mesh repartitioning. Compared with the diffusion equation and the Monte Carlo methods, the SPN method shows improved performance and the necessity of high-order approximation in heterogeneous domains. Optimal solver selection and time-costing analysis in real mouse geometry further improve the performance of the proposed algorithm and show the superiority of the proposed parallel adaptive framework for whole-body optical molecular imaging in murine models. PMID:20052300
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharda, V. N.; Singh, Sita Ram; Sastry, G.; Dhruvanarayana, V. V.
1994-07-01
The finite element model for simulation of runoff and soil erosion as developed by Sharda and Singh (this issue) is evaluated using data collected from agricultural land treated with major mechanical soil and water conservation measures, namely, contour bunding, graded bunding, bench terracing, and conservation bench terracing. The simulated and experimentally realized hydrographs and soil loss values are in reasonably good agreement for various measures. Probable reasons for discrepancies between the predicted and observed values are discussed. The model has the potential of being used on a single storm or a continuous basis provided the soil, crop, and climatic parameters are precisely known or estimated for a given location and for the period under consideration. The model logically simulates the effects of flow, topographic, soil, and crop parameters such as antecedent moisture level, roughness coefficient, saturated hydraulic conductivity, slope, depth of impoundment, size of outlet, longitudinal slope of the channel, vertical interval, and cropping management factor. The model is found to be quite sensitive to changes in roughness coefficient, rainfall excess rate, and cover management factor, and hence these parameters need to be assessed carefully in the field. The general applicability of the model as a planning tool for soil conservation measures and the scope for future development are also discussed.
Lu, Yujie; Chatziioannou, Arion F
2009-01-01
Whole-body optical molecular imaging of mouse models in preclinical research is rapidly developing in recent years. In this context, it is essential and necessary to develop novel simulation methods of light propagation for optical imaging, especially when a priori knowledge, large-volume domain and a wide-range of optical properties need to be considered in the reconstruction algorithm. In this paper, we propose a three dimensional parallel adaptive finite element method with simplified spherical harmonics (SP(N)) approximation to simulate optical photon propagation in large-volumes of heterogenous tissues. The simulation speed is significantly improved by a posteriori parallel adaptive mesh refinement and dynamic mesh repartitioning. Compared with the diffusion equation and the Monte Carlo methods, the SP(N) method shows improved performance and the necessity of high-order approximation in heterogeneous domains. Optimal solver selection and time-costing analysis in real mouse geometry further improve the performance of the proposed algorithm and show the superiority of the proposed parallel adaptive framework for whole-body optical molecular imaging in murine models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisjak, Andrea; Tatone, Bryan S. A.; Mahabadi, Omid K.; Grasselli, Giovanni; Marschall, Paul; Lanyon, George W.; Vaissière, Rémi de la; Shao, Hua; Leung, Helen; Nussbaum, Christophe
2016-05-01
The analysis and prediction of the rock mass disturbance around underground excavations are critical components of the performance and safety assessment of deep geological repositories for nuclear waste. In the short term, an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) tends to develop due to the redistribution of stresses around the underground openings. The EDZ is associated with an increase in hydraulic conductivity of several orders of magnitude. In argillaceous rocks, sealing mechanisms ultimately lead to a partial reduction in the effective hydraulic conductivity of the EDZ with time. The goal of this study is to strengthen the understanding of the phenomena involved in the EDZ formation and sealing in Opalinus Clay, an indurated claystone currently being assessed as a host rock for a geological repository in Switzerland. To achieve this goal, hybrid finite-discrete element method (FDEM) simulations are performed. With its explicit consideration of fracturing processes, FDEM modeling is applied to the HG-A experiment, an in situ test carried out at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory to investigate the hydro-mechanical response of a backfilled and sealed microtunnel. A quantitative simulation of the EDZ formation process around the microtunnel is first carried out, and the numerical results are compared with field observations. Then, the re-compression of the EDZ under the effect of a purely mechanical loading, capturing the increase of swelling pressure from the backfill onto the rock, is considered. The simulation results highlight distinctive rock failure kinematics due to the bedded structure of the rock mass. Also, fracture termination is simulated at the intersection with a pre-existing discontinuity, representing a fault plane oblique to the bedding orientation. Simulation of the EDZ re-compression indicates an overall reduction of the total fracture area as a function of the applied pressure, with locations of ineffective sealing associated with self
Carnelli, Davide; Lucchini, Riccardo; Ponzoni, Matteo; Contro, Roberto; Vena, Pasquale
2011-07-01
Anisotropy is one of the most peculiar aspects of cortical bone mechanical behaviour, and the numerical approach can be successfully used to investigate aspects of bone tissue mechanics that analytical methods solve in approximate way or do not cover. In this work, nanoindentation experimental tests and finite element simulations were employed to investigate the elastic-inelastic anisotropic mechanical properties of cortical bone. The model allows for anisotropic elastic and post-yield behaviour of the tissue. A tension-compression mismatch and direction-dependent yield stresses are allowed for. Indentation experiments along the axial and transverse directions were simulated with the purpose to predict the indentation moduli and hardnesses along multiple orientations. Results showed that the experimental transverse-to-axial ratio of indentation moduli, equal to 0.74, is predicted with a ∼3% discrepancy regardless the post-yield material behaviour; whereas, the transverse-to-axial hardness ratio, equal to 0.86, can be correctly simulated (discrepancy ∼6% w.r.t. the experimental results) only employing an anisotropic post-elastic constitutive model. Further, direct comparison between the experimental and simulated indentation tests evidenced a good agreement in the loading branch of the indentation curves and in the peak loads for a transverse-to-axial yield stress ratio comparable to the experimentally obtained transverse-to-axial hardness ratio. In perspective, the present work results strongly support the coupling between indentation experiments and FEM simulations to get a deeper knowledge of bone tissue mechanical behaviour at the microstructural level. The present model could be used to assess the effect of variations of constitutive parameters due to age, injury, and/or disease on bone mechanical performance in the context of indentation testing. PMID:21570077
Evaluation of mesoporous silicon thermal conductivity by electrothermal finite element simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siegert, Laurent; Capelle, Marie; Roqueta, Fabrice; Lysenko, Vladimir; Gautier, Gael
2012-07-01
The aim of this work is to determine the thermal conductivity of mesoporous silicon (PoSi) by fitting the experimental results with simulated ones. The electrothermal response (resistance versus applied current) of differently designed test lines integrated onto PoSi/silicon substrates and the bulk were compared to the simulations. The PoSi thermal conductivity was the single parameter used to fit the experimental results. The obtained thermal conductivity values were compared with those determined from Raman scattering measurements, and a good agreement between both methods was found. This methodology can be used to easily determine the thermal conductivity value for various porous silicon morphologies.
Evaluation of mesoporous silicon thermal conductivity by electrothermal finite element simulation.
Siegert, Laurent; Capelle, Marie; Roqueta, Fabrice; Lysenko, Vladimir; Gautier, Gael
2012-01-01
The aim of this work is to determine the thermal conductivity of mesoporous silicon (PoSi) by fitting the experimental results with simulated ones. The electrothermal response (resistance versus applied current) of differently designed test lines integrated onto PoSi/silicon substrates and the bulk were compared to the simulations. The PoSi thermal conductivity was the single parameter used to fit the experimental results. The obtained thermal conductivity values were compared with those determined from Raman scattering measurements, and a good agreement between both methods was found. This methodology can be used to easily determine the thermal conductivity value for various porous silicon morphologies.
Yeh, G.T.; Strand, R.H.
1982-08-01
This report presents the user's manual of FECWATER, a Finite-Element code for simulating WATER flow through saturated-unsaturated porous media. The code is designed for generic application. For each site-specific application, 14 cards are required to specify the size of arrays and 6 cards are used to assign the control numbers in the main program. In addition, user's supply functions must be given to specify the soil property relationships between moisture content, water capacity, and hydraulic conductivity and pressure head, if they are not given in tabular form. Input data to the code includes the program control indices, properties of the porous media, the geometry in the form of elements and nodes, boundary and initial conditions, and rainfall information. Principal output includes the spatial distribution of pressure head, total head, moisture-content, and Darcy's velocity components at any desired time. Fluxes through various types of boundaries are output. In addition, diagnostic variables, such as the number of non-convergent nodes, residuals, and rainfall-seepage nodes, may be printed, if required. This user's manual should be used in conjunction with references listed in the bibliography.
Kato, Akiko; Burger, Sven; Scholze, Frank
2012-09-20
The influence of edge roughness in angle-resolved scatterometry at periodically structured surfaces is investigated. A good description of the radiation interaction with structured surfaces is crucial for the understanding of optical imaging processes such as, e.g., in photolithography. We compared an analytical two-dimensional (2D) model and a numerical three-dimensional simulation with respect to the characterization of 2D diffraction of a line grating involving structure roughness. The results show a remarkably high agreement. The diffraction intensities of a rough structure can therefore be estimated using the numerical simulation result of an undisturbed structure and an analytically derived correction function. This work allows to improve scatterometric results for the case of practically relevant 2D structures. PMID:23033013
Finite element simulation of sheet metal forming and springback using a crystal plasticity approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertram, A.; Böhlke, T.; Krawietz, A.; Schulze, V.
2007-05-01
In this paper the application of a crystal plasticity model for body-centered cubic crystals in the simulation of a sheet metal forming process is discussed. The material model parameters are identified by a combination of a texture approximation procedure and a conventional parameter identification scheme. In the application of a cup drawing process the model shows an improvement of the strain and earing prediction as well as the qualitative springback results in comparison with a conventional phenomenological model.
Alves, S W; Noble, C R
2006-12-06
Shake table tests were performed on a full-scale 7-story slice of a reinforced concrete building at UC San Diego between October 2005 and January 2006. The tests were performed on the NEES Large High-Performance Outdoor Shake Table (LHPOST) at the Engelkirk Structural Engineering Center of UCSD. The structure was subjected to four uniaxial earthquake ground motions of increasing amplitude. The accelerations measured at the base of the structure and the measured roof displacements have been provided by UCSD. Details of the building construction have also been provided by UCSD. The measured response of this structure was used to assess the capability of the homogenized rebar model in DYNA3D/ParaDyn [1,2] to simulate the seismic response of reinforced concrete structures. The homogenized rebar model is a composite version of the Karagozian & Case concrete model [3]. Work has been done to validate this material model for use in blast simulations, but seismic simulations require longer durations. The UCSD experiment provides full-scale data that can be used to validate seismic modeling capabilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morency, C.; Tromp, J.
2008-12-01
The mathematical formulation of wave propagation in porous media developed by Biot is based upon the principle of virtual work, ignoring processes at the microscopic level, and does not explicitly incorporate gradients in porosity. Based on recent studies focusing on averaging techniques, we derive the macroscopic porous medium equations from the microscale, with a particular emphasis on the effects of gradients in porosity. In doing so, we are able to naturally determine two key terms in the momentum equations and constitutive relationships, directly translating the coupling between the solid and fluid phases, namely a drag force and an interfacial strain tensor. In both terms, gradients in porosity arise. One remarkable result is that when we rewrite this set of equations in terms of the well known Biot variables us, w), terms involving gradients in porosity are naturally accommodated by gradients involving w, the fluid motion relative to the solid, and Biot's formulation is recovered, i.e., it remains valid in the presence of porosity gradients We have developed a numerical implementation of the Biot equations for two-dimensional problems based upon the spectral-element method (SEM) in the time domain. The SEM is a high-order variational method, which has the advantage of accommodating complex geometries like a finite-element method, while keeping the exponential convergence rate of (pseudo)spectral methods. As in the elastic and acoustic cases, poroelastic wave propagation based upon the SEM involves a diagonal mass matrix, which leads to explicit time integration schemes that are well-suited to simulations on parallel computers. Effects associated with physical dispersion & attenuation and frequency-dependent viscous resistance are addressed by using a memory variable approach. Various benchmarks involving poroelastic wave propagation in the high- and low-frequency regimes, and acoustic-poroelastic and poroelastic-poroelastic discontinuities have been
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greco, A.; Maffezzoli, A.
2016-01-01
This work is aimed to study the mass transport in 3D nanocomposites, characterized by the presence of permeable lamellar stacks, by means of finite element (FE) analysis. To this purpose, a geometric model was developed, based on a random distribution of non-interpenetrating stacks, each one made of regularly spaced platelets, which are considered representative of an intercalated nanocomposite. The morphological features of the stacks are the number of lamellae and the thickness of lamellar galleries, which determine the thickness, and therefore the aspect ratio. FE simulation results showed the relevance of diffusion within stack, and therefore the unsuitableness of the assumption of stack impermeability. The diffusion behavior of nanocomposites made of permeable stacks was modeled by considering the probability of collision of diffusing particles on the stack surface. For a random orientation of stacks, the developed analytical model showed an excellent agreement with the FE simulation results. It was shown that other analytical models found in literature are not able to capture the dependence of diffusivity on the morphology of intercalated nanocomposites. The developed analytical model allowed estimating the error arising from the assumption of impermeable stacks in the estimation of nanofiller aspect ratio from experimental diffusivity data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Tom H.; Faryad, Muhammad; Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Singh, Rajendra
2016-04-01
A two-dimensional finite-element model was developed to simulate the optoelectronic performance of thin-film, p-i-n junction solar cells. One or three p-i-n junctions filled the region between the front window and back reflector; semiconductor layers were made from mixtures of two different alloys of hydrogenated amorphous silicon; empirical relationships between the complex-valued relative optical permittivity and the bandgap were used; a transparent-conducting-oxide layer was attached to the front surface of the solar cell; and a metallic reflector, either flat or periodically corrugated, was attached to the back surface. First, frequency-domain Maxwell postulates were solved to determine the spatial absorption of photons and thus the generation of electron-hole pairs. The AM1.5G solar spectrum was taken to represent the incident solar flux. Second, drift-diffusion equations were solved for the steady-state electron and hole densities. Numerical results indicate that increasing the number of p-i-n junctions from one to three may increase the solar-cell efficiency by up to 14%. In the case of single p-i-n junction solar cells, our simulations indicate that efficiency may be increased by up to 17% by incorporating a periodically corrugated back reflector (as opposed to a flat back reflector) and by tailoring the bandgap profile in the i layer.
Lapeer, R J; Gasson, P D; Karri, V
2010-12-01
In this paper, we provide a summary of a number of experiments we conducted to arrive at a prototype real-time simulator for plastic surgical interventions such as skin flap repair and inguinal herniotomy. We started our research with a series of in-vitro tensile stress tests on human skin, harvested from female patients undergoing plastic reconstructive surgery. We then used the acquired stress-strain data to fit hyperelastic models. Three models were considered: General Polynomial, Reduced Polynomial and Ogden. Only Reduced Polynomial models were found to be stable, hence they progressed to the next stage to be used in an explicit finite element model aimed at real-time performance in conjunction with a haptic feedback device. A total Lagrangian formulation with the half-step central difference method was employed to integrate the dynamic equation of motion of the mesh. The mesh was integrated into two versions of a real-time skin simulator: a single-threaded version running on a computer's main central processing unit and a multi-threaded version running on the computer's graphics card. The latter was achieved by exploiting recent advances in programmable graphics technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamanaka, A.; Ishii, Y.; Hakoyama, T.; Eyckens, P.; Kuwabara, T.
2016-08-01
The simulation of the stretch forming of A5182-O aluminum alloy sheet with a spherical punch is performed using the crystal plasticity (CP) finite element method based on the mathematical homogenization theory. In the simulation, the CP constitutive equations and their parameters calibrated by the numerical and experimental biaxial tensile tests with a cruciform specimen are used. The results demonstrate that the variation of the sheet thickness distribution simulated show a relatively good agreement with the experimental results.
Attaway, S.W.; Hendrickson, B.A.; Plimpton, S.J.; Swegle, J.W.; Gardner, D.R.; Vaughan, C.T.
1997-05-01
An efficient, scalable, parallel algorithm for treating contacts in solid mechanics has been applied to interactions between particles in smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH). The algorithm uses three different decompositions within a single timestep: (1) a static FE-decomposition of mesh elements; (2) a dynamic SPH-decomposition of SPH particles; (3) and a dynamic contact-decomposition of contact nodes and SPH particles. The overhead cost of such a scheme is the cost of moving mesh and particle data between the decompositions. This cost turns out to be small in practice, leading to a highly load-balanced decomposition in which to perform each of the three major computational states within a timestep.
Numerical simulation of evolutionary erodible bedforms using the particle finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bravo, Rafael; Becker, Pablo; Ortiz, Pablo
2016-07-01
This paper presents a numerical strategy for the simulation of flows with evolutionary erodible boundaries. The fluid equations are fully resolved in 3D, while the sediment transport is modelled using the Exner equation and solved with an explicit Lagrangian procedure based on a fixed 2D mesh. Flow and sediment are coupled in geometry by deforming the fluid mesh in the vertical direction and in velocities with the experimental sediment flux computed using the Meyer Peter Müller model. A comparison with real experiments on channels is performed, giving good agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovinazzo, G.; Ribas, N.; Cinca, J.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.
2010-04-01
Previous studies have shown that it is possible to evaluate heart graft rejection level using a bioimpedance technique by means of an intracavitary catheter. However, this technique does not present relevant advantages compared to the gold standard for the detection of a heart rejection, which is the biopsy of the endomyocardial tissue. We propose to use a less invasive technique that consists in the use of a transoesophageal catheter and two standard ECG electrodes on the thorax. The aim of this work is to evaluate different parameters affecting the impedance measurement, including: sensitivity to electrical conductivity and permittivity of different organs in the thorax, lung edema and pleural water. From these results, we deduce the best estimator for cardiac rejection detection, and we obtain the tools to identify possible cases of false positive of heart rejection due to other factors. To achieve these objectives we have created a thoracic model and we have simulated, with a FEM program, different situations at the frequencies of 13, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 kHz. Our simulation demonstrates that the phase, at 100 and 300 kHz, has the higher sensitivity to changes in the electrical parameters of the heart muscle.
Rieben, Robert N.
2004-01-01
The goal of this dissertation is two-fold. The first part concerns the development of a numerical method for solving Maxwell's equations on unstructured hexahedral grids that employs both high order spatial and high order temporal discretizations. The second part involves the use of this method as a computational tool to perform high fidelity simulations of various electromagnetic devices such as optical transmission lines and photonic crystal structures to yield a level of accuracy that has previously been computationally cost prohibitive. This work is based on the initial research of Daniel White who developed a provably stable, charge and energy conserving method for solving Maxwell's equations in the time domain that is second order accurate in both space and time. The research presented here has involved the generalization of this procedure to higher order methods. High order methods are capable of yielding far more accurate numerical results for certain problems when compared to corresponding h-refined first order methods , and often times at a significant reduction in total computational cost. The first half of this dissertation presents the method as well as the necessary mathematics required for its derivation. The second half addresses the implementation of the method in a parallel computational environment, its validation using benchmark problems, and finally its use in large scale numerical simulations of electromagnetic transmission devices.
Finite element modeling of nonisothermal polymer flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roylance, D.
1981-01-01
A finite element formulation designed to simulate polymer melt flows in which both conductive and convective heat transfer are important is described, and the numerical model is illustrated by means of computer experiments using extruder drag flow and entry flow as trial problems. Fluid incompressibility is enforced by a penalty treatment of the element pressures, and the thermal convective transport is modeled by conventional Galerkin and optimal upwind treatments.
Probabilistic finite element analysis of a craniofacial finite element model.
Berthaume, Michael A; Dechow, Paul C; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Ross, Callum F; Strait, David S; Wang, Qian; Grosse, Ian R
2012-05-01
We employed a probabilistic finite element analysis (FEA) method to determine how variability in material property values affects stress and strain values in a finite model of a Macaca fascicularis cranium. The material behavior of cortical bone varied in three ways: isotropic homogeneous, isotropic non-homogeneous, and orthotropic non-homogeneous. The material behavior of the trabecular bone and teeth was always treated as isotropic and homogeneous. All material property values for the cranium were randomized with a Gaussian distribution with either coefficients of variation (CVs) of 0.2 or with CVs calculated from empirical data. Latin hypercube sampling was used to determine the values of the material properties used in the finite element models. In total, four hundred and twenty six separate deterministic FE simulations were executed. We tested four hypotheses in this study: (1) uncertainty in material property values will have an insignificant effect on high stresses and a significant effect on high strains for homogeneous isotropic models; (2) the effect of variability in material property values on the stress state will increase as non-homogeneity and anisotropy increase; (3) variation in the in vivo shear strain values reported by Strait et al. (2005) and Ross et al. (2011) is not only due to variations in muscle forces and cranial morphology, but also due to variation in material property values; (4) the assumption of a uniform coefficient of variation for the material property values will result in the same trend in how moderate-to-high stresses and moderate-to-high strains vary with respect to the degree of non-homogeneity and anisotropy as the trend found when the coefficients of variation for material property values are calculated from empirical data. Our results supported the first three hypotheses and falsified the fourth. When material properties were varied with a constant CV, as non-homogeneity and anisotropy increased the level of variability in
Finite Element Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Using Anisotropic Strain-Rate Potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabahallah, Meziane; Balan, Tudor; Bouvier, Salima; Bacroix, Brigitte; Teodosiu, Cristian
2007-05-01
In continuum mechanics, plastic anisotropy is described using anisotropic stress potentials or, alternatively, strain-rate potentials. In this work, a stress update algorithm is developed for this later case. The implicit, backward Euler method is adopted. A specific numerical treatment is required to deal with the plasticity criterion, which is not defined explicitly. Also, a sub-stepping procedure is adopted in order to deal with the strong nonlinearity of the yield surfaces when applied to FCC materials. The resulting algorithm is implemented in the static implicit version of the Abaqus FE code. Several recent plastic potentials have been implemented in this framework and their parameters identified for a number of BCC and FCC materials. Numerical simulations of a cup drawing process are performed in order to address the robustness of the implementation and the ability of these potentials to predict e.g. earing for materials with different anisotropy.
Finite element based simulation on friction stud welding of metal matrix composites to steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Tharmaraj, R.; Velu, P. Shenbaga; Kumar, R.
2016-05-01
Friction welding is a solid state joining technique used for joining similar and dissimilar materials with high integrity. This new technique is being successfully applied to the aerospace, automobile, and ship building industries, and is attracting more and more research interest. The quality of Friction Stud Welded joints depends on the frictional heat generated at the interface. Hence, thermal analysis on friction stud welding of stainless steel (AISI 304) and aluminium silicon carbide (AlSiC) combination is carried out in the present work. In this study, numerical simulation is carried out using ANSYS software and the temperature profiles are predicted at various increments of time. The developed numerical model is found to be adequate to predict temperature distribution of friction stud weld aluminium silicon carbide/stainless steel joints.
Finite Element Simulation of Tensile Tests for α-Iron in the Presence of Hydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Premono, Agung; Liu, Lijun; Miresmaeili, Reza; Kanayama, Hiroshi
In ductile fracture, the cup and cone fracture that occurs at the neck of a specimen is produced by the coalescence of internal voids which in turn grow by plastic deformation under the influence of a prevailing stress triaxiality. In this work, our concern is with regard to hydrogen embrittlement phenomena, where the presence of hydrogen influences the ductile fracture. We correlate the micro-scale void growth to the macro-scale deformation at the center part of the tensile test model of α-Iron to simulate the hydrogen effects on macro- and micro-scale model simultaneously. The tensile test model is used to determine the hydrogen effects at the macro-scale while the internal void model is used to determine the influence of hydrogen on the void growth. Loads in micro-scale are imported from the displacement results at the center part of the macro-scale tensile model. Our findings show that the proposed approach is feasible and can be implemented to correlate the micro-scale void growth to the macro-scale deformation at the center part of the tensile test model of α-Iron in the presence of hydrogen. Due to limitations of experimental data for hydrogen-material interaction, only α-Iron is considered in this study.
SIMULATIONS OF 2D AND 3D THERMOCAPILLARY FLOWS BY A LEAST-SQUARES FINITE ELEMENT METHOD. (R825200)
Numerical results for time-dependent 2D and 3D thermocapillary flows are presented in this work. The numerical algorithm is based on the Crank-Nicolson scheme for time integration, Newton's method for linearization, and a least-squares finite element method, together with a matri...
Pierce, David M; Fastl, Thomas E; Rodriguez-Vila, Borja; Verbrugghe, Peter; Fourneau, Inge; Maleux, Geert; Herijgers, Paul; Gomez, Enrique J; Holzapfel, Gerhard A
2015-07-01
The existence of residual stresses in human arteries has long been shown experimentally. Researchers have also demonstrated that residual stresses have a significant effect on the distribution of physiological stresses within arterial tissues, and hence on their development, e.g., stress-modulated remodeling. Through progress in medical imaging, image analysis and finite element (FE) meshing tools it is now possible to construct in vivo patient-specific geometries and thus to study specific, clinically relevant problems in arterial mechanics via FE simulations. Classical continuum mechanics and FE methods assume that constitutive models and the corresponding simulations start from unloaded, stress-free reference configurations while the boundary-value problem of interest represents a loaded geometry and includes residual stresses. We present a pragmatic methodology to simultaneously account for both (i) the three-dimensional (3-D) residual stress distributions in the arterial tissue layers, and (ii) the equilibrium of the in vivo patient-specific geometry with the known boundary conditions. We base our methodology on analytically determined residual stress distributions (Holzapfel and Ogden, 2010, J. R. Soc. Interface 7, 787-799) and calibrate it using data on residual deformations (Holzapfel et al., 2007, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 35, 530-545). We demonstrate our methodology on three patient-specific FE simulations calibrated using experimental data. All data employed here are generated from human tissues - both the aorta and thrombus, and their respective layers - including the geometries determined from magnetic resonance images, and material properties and 3-D residual stretches determined from mechanical experiments. We study the effect of 3-D residual stresses on the distribution of physiological stresses in the aortic layers (intima, media, adventitia) and the layers of the intraluminal thrombus (luminal, medial, abluminal) by comparing three types of FE simulations
Dynamics of High-Speed Train Pantograph-Catenary Co-Simulation of Finite Element and Multibody Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambrósio, Jorge; Rauter, Frederico; Pombo, João; Pereira, Manuel
2010-05-01
The pantograph-catenary system, used for collecting electric energy in high-speed trains should ideally run with low contact forces but without contact loss. Not only defects on the overhead equipment, environmental conditions become more important as the operational speed increases but also the flexibility of the pantograph components may play a role on the overhead contact. In this work a flexible multibody methodology using of the mean-axis conditions, as reference conditions, the mode component synthesis, to reduce the number of generalized coordinates of the system and virtual bodies, to allow using all kinematic joints available for multibody modeling and application of external forces, are used to build flexible multibody pantograph models. The catenary model is build with linear finite elements in a stand-alone code, which is co-simulated with the multibody code to represent the complete system interaction, and the complete nonlinear dynamics of the overhead equipment. A flexible multibody model of the pantograph is described and proposed being the quality of the pantograph-catenary contact analyzed and discussed.
Pfaller, Sebastian; Possart, Gunnar; Steinmann, Paul; Rahimi, Mohammad; Müller-Plathe, Florian; Böhm, Michael C
2016-05-01
A recently developed hybrid method is employed to study the mechanical behavior of silica-polystyrene nanocomposites (NCs) under uniaxial elongation. The hybrid method couples a particle domain to a continuum domain. The region of physical interest, i.e., the interphase around a nanoparticle (NP), is treated at molecular resolution, while the surrounding elastic continuum is handled with a finite-element approach. In the present paper we analyze the polymer behavior in the neighborhood of one or two nanoparticle(s) at molecular resolution. The coarse-grained hybrid method allows us to simulate a large polymer matrix region surrounding the nanoparticles. We consider NCs with dilute concentration of NPs embedded in an atactic polystyrene matrix formed by 300 chains with 200 monomer beads. The overall orientation of polymer segments relative to the deformation direction is determined in the neighborhood of the nanoparticle to investigate the polymer response to this perturbation. Calculations of strainlike quantities give insight into the deformation behavior of a system with two NPs and show that the applied strain and the nanoparticle distance have significant influence on the deformation behavior. Finally, we investigate to what extent a continuum-based description may account for the specific effects occurring in the interphase between the polymer matrix and the NPs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfaller, Sebastian; Possart, Gunnar; Steinmann, Paul; Rahimi, Mohammad; Müller-Plathe, Florian; Böhm, Michael C.
2016-05-01
A recently developed hybrid method is employed to study the mechanical behavior of silica-polystyrene nanocomposites (NCs) under uniaxial elongation. The hybrid method couples a particle domain to a continuum domain. The region of physical interest, i.e., the interphase around a nanoparticle (NP), is treated at molecular resolution, while the surrounding elastic continuum is handled with a finite-element approach. In the present paper we analyze the polymer behavior in the neighborhood of one or two nanoparticle(s) at molecular resolution. The coarse-grained hybrid method allows us to simulate a large polymer matrix region surrounding the nanoparticles. We consider NCs with dilute concentration of NPs embedded in an atactic polystyrene matrix formed by 300 chains with 200 monomer beads. The overall orientation of polymer segments relative to the deformation direction is determined in the neighborhood of the nanoparticle to investigate the polymer response to this perturbation. Calculations of strainlike quantities give insight into the deformation behavior of a system with two NPs and show that the applied strain and the nanoparticle distance have significant influence on the deformation behavior. Finally, we investigate to what extent a continuum-based description may account for the specific effects occurring in the interphase between the polymer matrix and the NPs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porwal, Deeksha; Gupta, A. K.; Pillai, Anju M.; Sharma, Anand Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar; Khan, Kallol; Dey, Arjun
2016-07-01
The present work reports the nanomechanical behavior of a pulsed radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtered vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) film deposited on silicon (Si) substrate using a combination of nanoindentation experiments and a finite element model (FEM). Deposited V2O5 film is characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoprofilometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), nanoindentation and FEM. The phase pure 6.16 μm V2O5 film shows a nanocolumnar structure. The film exhibits nanohardness (H) of 0.16 ± 0.013 GPa and Young’s modulus (E) of about 12.05 ± 1.41 GPa. The FEM reproduces experimentally obtained load versus depth (P-h) plot and subsequently give yield stress and strain hardening component data of V2O5 film on Si substrate. Stress-strain behavior and von-Mises stress distribution of the V2O5 film with Si substrate system are also simulated. The FE model confirms the local maximum equivalent stress active underneath the nanoindenters to be nearly twice as high as the yield stress and thereby explains the plastic deformation observed in the V2O5 film.
Sabaeian, Mohammad; Shahzadeh, Mohammadreza
2015-02-01
The authors report the simulation of temperature distribution and thermally induced stresses of human tooth under CO2 pulsed laser beam. A detailed tooth structure comprising enamel, dentin, and pulp with realistic shapes and thicknesses were considered, and a numerical method of finite element was adopted to solve time-dependent bio-heat and stress equations. The realistic boundary conditions of constant temperature for those parts embedded in the gingiva and heat flux condition for those parts out of the gingiva were applied. The results which were achieved as a function of energy density (J/cm(2)) showed when laser beam is irradiated downward (from the top of the tooth), the temperature and thermal stresses decrease quickly as a function of depth that is a result of strong absorption of CO2 beams by enamel. This effect is so influential that one can use CO2 beams to remove micrometer layers while underlying tissues, especially the pulp, are safe from thermal effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Rahul; Pal, Surjya Kanta; Singh, Shiv Brat
2016-06-01
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process and is handy for welding aluminum alloys. Finite Element Method (FEM) is an important tool to predict state variables of the process but numerical simulation of FSW is highly complex due to non-linear contact interactions between tool and work piece and interdependency of displacement and temperature. In the present work, a three dimensional coupled thermo-mechanical method based on Lagrangian implicit method is proposed to study the thermal history, strain distribution and thermo-mechanical process in butt welding of Aluminum alloy 2024 using DEFORM-3D software. Workpiece is defined as rigid-visco plastic material and sticking condition between tool and work piece is defined. Adaptive re-meshing is used to tackle high mesh distortion. Effect of tool rotational and welding speed on plastic strain is studied and insight is given on asymmetric nature of FSW process. Temperature distribution on the workpiece and tool is predicted and maximum temperature is found in workpiece top surface.
Karimi, Alireza; Razaghi, Reza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Sera, Toshihiro; Kudo, Susumu
2016-04-01
Although there are some traditional models of the gunshot wounds, there is still a need for more modeling analyses due to the difficulties related to the gunshot wounds to the forehead region of the human skull. In this study, the degree of damage as a consequence of penetrating head injuries due to gunshot wounds was determined using a preliminary finite element (FE) model of the human skull. In addition, the role of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge, which can be used as an alternative to reinforce the kinetic energy absorption capacity of bulletproof vest and helmet materials, to minimize the amount of skull injury due to penetrating processes was investigated through the FE model. Digital computed tomography along with magnetic resonance imaging data of the human head were employed to launch a three-dimensional (3D) FE model of the skull. Two geometrical shapes of projectiles (steel ball and bullet) were simulated for penetrating with an initial impact velocity of 734 m/s using nonlinear dynamic modeling code, namely LS-DYNA. The role of the damaged/distorted elements were removed during computation when the stress or strain reached their thresholds. The stress distributions in various parts of the forehead and sponge after injury were also computed. The results revealed the same amount of stress for both the steel ball and bullet after hitting the skull. The modeling results also indicated the time that steel ball takes to penetrate into the skull is lower than that of the bullet. In addition, more than 21% of the steel ball's kinetic energy was absorbed by the PVA sponge and, subsequently, injury sternness of the forehead was considerably minimized. The findings advise the application of the PVA sponge as a substitute strengthening material to be able to diminish the energy of impact as well as the load transmitted to the object. PMID:26886822
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Jai Myun; Yoo, Ji Hoon; Jeong, Hyeok Jae; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Hyoung Seop
2014-11-01
In this study, a serial sectioning technique was employed in order to visualize the three-dimensional (3D) structure, and to accurately simulate the mechanical and thermal behaviors of SiC particle-reinforced Al composites. Sequential, two-dimensional (2D) optical images of the microstructure were acquired after polishing, and then reconstructed to develop 3D geometries for microstructural analyses and finite element modeling. Experimental compressive and thermal expansion tests were performed for comparison with the finite element method results. The Young's modulus and thermal expansion coefficient of the composite, predicted using the 3D microstructure-based finite element analyses, were in good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, the 3D microstructure-based finite element model showed anisotropic thermal expansion behavior that was previously disregarded in the other models used in this study. Therefore, it was confirmed that the combined approach of serial sectioning and finite element modeling provides a significant improvement over 2D and 3D unit-cell modeling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agata, R.; Ichimura, T.; Hori, T.; Hirahara, K.; Hashimoto, C.; Hori, M.
2015-12-01
Inverse analysis of the coseismic/postseismic slip using postseismic deformation observation data is an important topic in geodetic inversion. Inverse analysis method may be improved by using numerical simulation (e.g. finite element (FE) method) of viscoelastic deformation, the model of which is of high-fidelity to the available high-resolution crustal data. The authors had been developing a large-scale simulation method using such FE high-fidelity models (HFM), assuming use of K computer, the current fastest supercomputer in Japan. In this study, we developed an inverse analysis method incorporating HFM, in which the asthenosphere viscosity and fault slip are estimated simultaneously, since the value of viscosity in the simulation is not trivial. We carried out numerical experiments using synthetic crustal deformation data. Based on Ichimura et al. (2013), we constructed an HFM in the domain of 2048x1536x850 km, which includes the Tohoku region in northeast Japan. We used the data set of JTOPO30 (2003), Koketsu et al. (2008) and CAMP standard model (Hashimoto et al. 2004) for the model geometry. The HFM is currently in 2km resolution, resulting in 0.5 billion degrees-of-freedom. The figure shows the overview of HFM. Synthetic crustal deformation data of three years after an earthquake in the location of GEONET, GPS/A observation points, and S-net were used. Inverse analysis was formulated as minimization of L2 norm of the difference between the FE simulation results and the observation data with respect to viscosity and fault slip, combining quasi-Newton algorithm with adjoint method. Coseismic slip was expressed by superposition of 53 subfaults, with four viscoelastic layers. We carried out 90 forward simulations, and the 57 parameters converged to the true values. Due to the fast computation method, it took only five hours using 2048 nodes (1/40 of entire resource) of K computer. In the future, we would like to also consider estimation of after slip and apply
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, Satoshi; Candy, Adam S.; Holland, Paul R.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Jenkins, Adrian
2013-07-01
Several different classes of ocean model are capable of representing floating glacial ice shelves. We describe the incorporation of ice shelves into Fluidity-ICOM, a nonhydrostatic finite-element ocean model with the capacity to utilize meshes that are unstructured and adaptive in three dimensions. This geometric flexibility offers several advantages over previous approaches. The model represents melting and freezing on all ice-shelf surfaces including vertical faces, treats the ice shelf topography as continuous rather than stepped, and does not require any smoothing of the ice topography or any of the additional parameterisations of the ocean mixed layer used in isopycnal or z-coordinate models. The model can also represent a water column that decreases to zero thickness at the 'grounding line', where the floating ice shelf is joined to its tributary ice streams. The model is applied to idealised ice-shelf geometries in order to demonstrate these capabilities. In these simple experiments, arbitrarily coarsening the mesh outside the ice-shelf cavity has little effect on the ice-shelf melt rate, while the mesh resolution within the cavity is found to be highly influential. Smoothing the vertical ice front results in faster flow along the smoothed ice front, allowing greater exchange with the ocean than in simulations with a realistic ice front. A vanishing water-column thickness at the grounding line has little effect in the simulations studied. We also investigate the response of ice shelf basal melting to variations in deep water temperature in the presence of salt stratification.
Yu Maolin; Du, R.
2005-08-05
Sheet metal stamping is one of the most commonly used manufacturing processes, and hence, much research has been carried for economic gain. Searching through the literatures, however, it is found that there are still a lots of problems unsolved. For example, it is well known that for a same press, same workpiece material, and same set of die, the product quality may vary owing to a number of factors, such as the inhomogeneous of the workpice material, the loading error, the lubrication, and etc. Presently, few seem able to predict the quality variation, not to mention what contribute to the quality variation. As a result, trial-and-error is still needed in the shop floor, causing additional cost and time delay. This paper introduces a new approach to predict the product quality variation and identify the sensitive design / process parameters. The new approach is based on a combination of inverse Finite Element Modeling (FEM) and Monte Carlo Simulation (more specifically, the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) approach). With an acceptable accuracy, the inverse FEM (also called one-step FEM) requires much less computation load than that of the usual incremental FEM and hence, can be used to predict the quality variations under various conditions. LHS is a statistical method, through which the sensitivity analysis can be carried out. The result of the sensitivity analysis has clear physical meaning and can be used to optimize the die design and / or the process design. Two simulation examples are presented including drawing a rectangular box and drawing a two-step rectangular box.
Nonlinear, finite deformation, finite element analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Nhung; Waas, Anthony M.
2016-06-01
The roles of the consistent Jacobian matrix and the material tangent moduli, which are used in nonlinear incremental finite deformation mechanics problems solved using the finite element method, are emphasized in this paper, and demonstrated using the commercial software ABAQUS standard. In doing so, the necessity for correctly employing user material subroutines to solve nonlinear problems involving large deformation and/or large rotation is clarified. Starting with the rate form of the principle of virtual work, the derivations of the material tangent moduli, the consistent Jacobian matrix, the stress/strain measures, and the objective stress rates are discussed and clarified. The difference between the consistent Jacobian matrix (which, in the ABAQUS UMAT user material subroutine is referred to as DDSDDE) and the material tangent moduli ( C e ) needed for the stress update is pointed out and emphasized in this paper. While the former is derived based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress, the latter is derived using the Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress. Understanding the difference between these two objective stress rates is crucial for correctly implementing a constitutive model, especially a rate form constitutive relation, and for ensuring fast convergence. Specifically, the implementation requires the stresses to be updated correctly. For this, the strains must be computed directly from the deformation gradient and corresponding strain measure (for a total form model). Alternatively, the material tangent moduli derived from the corresponding Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress of the constitutive relation (for a rate form model) should be used. Given that this requirement is satisfied, the consistent Jacobian matrix only influences the rate of convergence. Its derivation should be based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress to ensure fast convergence; however, the use of a different objective stress rate may also be possible. The error associated
Infinite Possibilities for the Finite Element.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finlayson, Bruce A.
1981-01-01
Describes the uses of finite element methods in solving problems of heat transfer, fluid flow, etc. Suggests that engineers should know the general concepts and be able to apply the principles of finite element methods. (Author/WB)
Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Naili, Salah
2012-08-01
This paper deals with the modeling of guided waves propagation in in vivo cortical long bone, which is known to be anisotropic medium with functionally graded porosity. The bone is modeled as an anisotropic poroelastic material by using Biot's theory formulated in high frequency domain. A hybrid spectral/finite element formulation has been developed to find the time-domain solution of ultrasonic waves propagating in a poroelastic plate immersed in two fluid halfspaces. The numerical technique is based on a combined Laplace-Fourier transform, which allows to obtain a reduced dimension problem in the frequency-wavenumber domain. In the spectral domain, as radiation conditions representing infinite fluid halfspaces may be exactly introduced, only the heterogeneous solid layer needs to be analyzed by using finite element method. Several numerical tests are presented showing very good performance of the proposed procedure. A preliminary study on the first arrived signal velocities computed by using equivalent elastic and poroelastic models will be presented.
Finite Element Heat & Mass Transfer Code
1996-10-10
FEHM is a numerical simulation code for subsurface transport processes. It models 3-D, time-dependent, multiphase, multicomponent, non-isothermal, reactive flow through porous and fractured media. It can accurately represent complex 3-D geologic media and structures and their effects on subsurface flow and transport. Its capabilities include flow of gas, water, and heat; flow of air, water, and heat; multiple chemically reactive and sorbing tracers; finite element/finite volume formulation; coupled stress module; saturated and unsaturated media; andmore » double porosity and double porosity/double permeability capabilities.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Youn, Dong Joon
This thesis presents the development and validation of an advanced hydro-mechanical coupled finite element program analyzing hydraulic fracture propagation within unconventional hydrocarbon formations under various conditions. The realistic modeling of hydraulic fracturing is necessarily required to improve the understanding and efficiency of the stimulation technique. Such modeling remains highly challenging, however, due to factors including the complexity of fracture propagation mechanisms, the coupled behavior of fracture displacement and fluid pressure, the interactions between pre-existing natural and initiated hydraulic fractures and the formation heterogeneity of the target reservoir. In this research, an eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) scheme is developed allowing for representation of single or multiple fracture propagations without any need for re-meshing. Also, the coupled flows through the fracture are considered in the program to account for their influence on stresses and deformations along the hydraulic fracture. In this research, a sequential coupling scheme is applied to estimate fracture aperture and fluid pressure with the XFEM. Later, the coupled XFEM program is used to estimate wellbore bottomhole pressure during fracture propagation, and the pressure variations are analyzed to determine the geometry and performance of the hydraulic fracturing as pressure leak-off test. Finally, material heterogeneity is included into the XFEM program to check the effect of random formation property distributions to the hydraulic fracture geometry. Random field theory is used to create the random realization of the material heterogeneity with the consideration of mean, standard deviation, and property correlation length. These analyses lead to probabilistic information on the response of unconventional reservoirs and offer a more scientific approach regarding risk management for the unconventional reservoir stimulation. The new stochastic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisjak, A.; Liu, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Mahabadi, O. K.; Grasselli, G.
2013-10-01
Stress waves, known as acoustic emissions (AEs), are released by localized inelastic deformation events during the progressive failure of brittle rocks. Although several numerical models have been developed to simulate the deformation and damage processes of rocks, such as non-linear stress-strain behaviour and localization of failure, only a limited number have been capable of providing quantitative information regarding the associated seismicity. Moreover, the majority of these studies have adopted a pseudo-static approach based on elastic strain energy dissipation that completely disregards elastodynamic effects. This paper describes a new AE modelling technique based on the combined finite-discrete element method (FEM/DEM), a numerical tool that simulates material failure by explicitly considering fracture nucleation and propagation in the modelling domain. Given the explicit time integration scheme of the solver, stress wave propagation and the effect of radiated seismic energy can be directly captured. Quasi-dynamic seismic information is extracted from a FEM/DEM model with a newly developed algorithm based on the monitoring of internal variables (e.g. relative displacements and kinetic energy) in proximity to propagating cracks. The AE of a wing crack propagation model based on this algorithm are cross-analysed by traveltime inversion and energy estimation from seismic recordings. Results indicate a good correlation of AE initiation times and locations, and scaling of energies, independently calculated with the two methods. Finally, the modelling technique is validated by simulating a laboratory compression test on a granite sample. The micromechanical parameters of the heterogeneous model are first calibrated to reproduce the macroscopic stress-strain response measured during standard laboratory tests. Subsequently, AE frequency-magnitude statistics, spatial clustering of source locations and the evolution of AE rate are investigated. The distribution of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Jie; Yu, Sheng-Tao; Jiang, Bo-nan
1996-01-01
In this paper a numerical procedure for simulating two-fluid flows is presented. This procedure is based on the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method proposed by Hirt and Nichols and the continuum surface force (CSF) model developed by Brackbill, et al. In the VOF method fluids of different properties are identified through the use of a continuous field variable (color function). The color function assigns a unique constant (color) to each fluid. The interfaces between different fluids are distinct due to sharp gradients of the color function. The evolution of the interfaces is captured by solving the convective equation of the color function. The CSF model is used as a means to treat surface tension effect at the interfaces. Here a modified version of the CSF model, proposed by Jacqmin, is used to calculate the tension force. In the modified version, the force term is obtained by calculating the divergence of a stress tensor defined by the gradient of the color function. In its analytical form, this stress formulation is equivalent to the original CSF model. Numerically, however, the use of the stress formulation has some advantages over the original CSF model, as it bypasses the difficulty in approximating the curvatures of the interfaces. The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) is used to discretize the governing equation systems. The LSFEM has proven to be effective in solving incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and pure convection equations, making it an ideal candidate for the present applications. The LSFEM handles all the equations in a unified manner without any additional special treatment such as upwinding or artificial dissipation. Various bench mark tests have been carried out for both two dimensional planar and axisymmetric flows, including a dam breaking, oscillating and stationary bubbles and a conical liquid sheet in a pressure swirl atomizer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbunova, I.; Khabibullin, R.; Chernyakin, S.; Starinova, O.
2016-04-01
This paper discusses the research of functioning of different construction types for the spacecraft with a solar sail. Two types of the solar sail are considered, such as frame-type and rotary-type. The research is performed by means of application of the computer-assisted design system. The movement simulation of the spacecraft center mass and the forces acting on the solar sail is described. The finite element models of the two solar sail constructions are developed and compared.
Transient finite element method using edge elements for moving conductor
Tani, Koji; Nishio, Takayuki; Yamada, Takashi ); Kawase, Yoshihiro . Dept. of Information Science)
1999-05-01
For the next generation of high speed railway systems and automobiles new braking systems are currently under development. These braking systems take into account the eddy currents, which are produced by the movement of the conductor in the magnetic field. For their optimum design, it is necessary to know the distribution of eddy currents in the moving conductor. The finite element method (FEM) is often used to simulate them. Here, transient finite element method using edge elements for moving conductor is presented. Here the magnetic vector potential is interpolated at the upwind position and the time derivative term is discretized by the backward difference method. As a result, the system matrix becomes symmetric and the ICCG method is applicable to solve the matrix. This method is used to solve an eddy current rail brake system. The results demonstrate that this approach is suitable to solve transient problems involving movement.
Simulation of CNT-AFM tip based on finite element analysis for targeted probe of the biological cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yousefi, Amin Termeh; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Miyake, Mikio; Ikeda, Shoichiro
2016-07-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are potentially ideal tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) due to the robust mechanical properties, nano scale diameter and also their ability to be functionalized by chemical and biological components at the tip ends. This contribution develops the idea of using CNTs as an AFM tip in computational analysis of the biological cell's. Finite element analysis employed for each section and displacement of the nodes located in the contact area was monitored by using an output database (ODB). This reliable integration of CNT-AFM tip process provides a new class of high performance nanoprobes for single biological cell analysis.
An efficient finite element solution for gear dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooley, C. G.; Parker, R. G.; Vijayakar, S. M.
2010-06-01
A finite element formulation for the dynamic response of gear pairs is proposed. Following an established approach in lumped parameter gear dynamic models, the static solution is used as the excitation in a frequency domain solution of the finite element vibration model. The nonlinear finite element/contact mechanics formulation provides accurate calculation of the static solution and average mesh stiffness that are used in the dynamic simulation. The frequency domain finite element calculation of dynamic response compares well with numerically integrated (time domain) finite element dynamic results and previously published experimental results. Simulation time with the proposed formulation is two orders of magnitude lower than numerically integrated dynamic results. This formulation admits system level dynamic gearbox response, which may include multiple gear meshes, flexible shafts, rolling element bearings, housing structures, and other deformable components.
Finite Element Analysis of Honeycomb Impact Attenuator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Seung-Yong; Choi, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Nohyu
To participate in Student Formula Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) competitions, it is necessary to build an impact attenuator that would give an average deceleration not to exceed 20g when it runs into a rigid wall. Students can use numerical simulations or experimental test data to show that their car satisfies this safety requirement. A student group to study formula cars at the Korea University of Technology and Education has designed a vehicle to take part in a SAE competition, and a honeycomb structure was adopted as the impact attenuator. In this paper, finite element calculations were carried out to investigate the dynamic behavior of the honeycomb attenuator. Deceleration and deformation behaviors were studied. Effect of the yield strength was checked by comparing the numerical results. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code was used.
Overcoming element erosion limitations within Lagrangian finite element codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vignjevic, Rade; Hughes, Kevin; Walker, Andrew; Taylor, Emma A.
2001-10-01
Lagrangian finite element methods have been used extensively in the past to study the non-linear transient behaviour of materials, ranging from crash test of cars to simulating bird strikes on planes.... However, as this type of space discretization does not allow for motion of the material through the mesh when modelling extremely large deformations, the mesh becomes highly distorted. This paper describes some limitations and applicability of this type of analysis for high velocity impacts. A method for dealing with this problem is by the erosion of elements is proposed where the main issue is the deformation of element failure strains. Results were compared with empirical perforation results and were found to be in good agreement. The results were then used to simulate high velocity impacts upon a multi-layered aluminium target, in order to predict a ballistic limit curve. LS-DYNA3D was used as the FE solver for all simulations. Meshes were generated with Truegrid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aminjikarai Vedagiri, Srinivasa Babu
An active field of research that has developed due to the increasing use of computational techniques like finite element simulations for analysis of highly complex structural mechanics problems and the increasing use of composite laminates in varied industries such as aerospace, automotive, bio-medical, etc. is the development of numerical models to capture the behavior of composite materials. One of the big challenges not yet overcome convincingly in this field is the modeling of delamination failure which is one of the primary modes of damage in composite laminates. Hence, the primary aim of this work is to develop two numerical models for finite element simulations of delamination failure in composite laminates and implement them in the explicit finite element software DYNA3D/LS-DYNA. Dynamic fracture mechanics is an example of a complex structural analysis problem for which finite element simulations seem to be the only possible way to extract detailed information on sophisticated physical quantities of the crack-tip at any instant of time along a highly transient history of fracture. However, general purpose, commercial finite element software which have capabilities to do fracture analyses are still limited in their use to stationary cracks and crack propagation along trajectories known a priori. Therefore, an automated dynamic fracture procedure capable of simulating dynamic propagation of through-thickness cracks in arbitrary directions in linear, isotropic materials without user-intervention is first developed and implemented in DYNA3D for its default 8-node solid (brick) element. Dynamic energy release rate and stress intensity factors are computed in the model using integral expressions particularly well-suited for the finite element method. Energy approach is used to check for crack propagation and the maximum circumferential stress criterion is used to determine the direction of crack growth. Since the re-meshing strategy used to model crack growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acevedo, Pedro; Vázquez, Mónica; Durán, Joel; Petrearce, Rodolfo
A simulation case is presented using the Finite Element Method (FEM) to simulate the performance of PVDF arrays to measure temperature gradients through the determination of phase shifts, i.e. time shifts of the waveform of the echo due to a change in the speed of propagation of ultrasound as a result of a change in temperature, they can be interpreted as phase shifts in the frequency domain. Making it possible to determine the change in temperature from the phase shifts; in a medium of propagation previously characterized.
Roveri, D S; Sant'Anna, G M; Bertan, H H; Mologni, J F; Alves, M A R; Braga, E S
2016-01-01
This paper presents a 3D computational framework for evaluating electrostatic properties of a single field emitter characterized by the hemisphere-on-post geometry. Numerical simulations employed the finite elements method by using Ansys-Maxwell software. Extensive parametric simulations were focused on the threshold distance from which the emitter field enhancement factor (γ) becomes independent from the anode-substrate gap (G). This investigation allowed demonstrating that the ratio between G and the emitter height (h) is a reliable reference for a broad range of emitter dimensions; furthermore, results permitted establishing G/h ≥ 2.2 as the threshold condition for setting the anode without affecting γ.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhi-Ming; Hao, Yue; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Xu, Sheng-Rui; Ni, Jin-Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Wei
2009-11-01
Electromagnetic field distribution in the vertical metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) reactor is simulated by using the finite element method (FEM). The effects of alternating current frequency, intensity, coil turn number and the distance between the coil turns on the distribution of the Joule heat are analysed separately, and their relations to the value of Joule heat are also investigated. The temperature distribution on the susceptor is also obtained. It is observed that the results of the simulation are in good agreement with previous measurements.
Variational approach to probabilistic finite elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belytschko, T.; Liu, W. K.; Mani, A.; Besterfield, G.
1991-01-01
Probabilistic finite element methods (PFEM), synthesizing the power of finite element methods with second-moment techniques, are formulated for various classes of problems in structural and solid mechanics. Time-invariant random materials, geometric properties and loads are incorporated in terms of their fundamental statistics viz. second-moments. Analogous to the discretization of the displacement field in finite element methods, the random fields are also discretized. Preserving the conceptual simplicity, the response moments are calculated with minimal computations. By incorporating certain computational techniques, these methods are shown to be capable of handling large systems with many sources of uncertainties. By construction, these methods are applicable when the scale of randomness is not very large and when the probabilistic density functions have decaying tails. The accuracy and efficiency of these methods, along with their limitations, are demonstrated by various applications. Results obtained are compared with those of Monte Carlo simulation and it is shown that good accuracy can be obtained for both linear and nonlinear problems. The methods are amenable to implementation in deterministic FEM based computer codes.
Finite Element Analysis of Reverberation Chambers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bunting, Charles F.; Nguyen, Duc T.
2000-01-01
The primary motivating factor behind the initiation of this work was to provide a deterministic means of establishing the validity of the statistical methods that are recommended for the determination of fields that interact in -an avionics system. The application of finite element analysis to reverberation chambers is the initial step required to establish a reasonable course of inquiry in this particularly data-intensive study. The use of computational electromagnetics provides a high degree of control of the "experimental" parameters that can be utilized in a simulation of reverberating structures. As the work evolved there were four primary focus areas they are: 1. The eigenvalue problem for the source free problem. 2. The development of a complex efficient eigensolver. 3. The application of a source for the TE and TM fields for statistical characterization. 4. The examination of shielding effectiveness in a reverberating environment. One early purpose of this work was to establish the utility of finite element techniques in the development of an extended low frequency statistical model for reverberation phenomena. By employing finite element techniques, structures of arbitrary complexity can be analyzed due to the use of triangular shape functions in the spatial discretization. The effects of both frequency stirring and mechanical stirring are presented. It is suggested that for the low frequency operation the typical tuner size is inadequate to provide a sufficiently random field and that frequency stirring should be used. The results of the finite element analysis of the reverberation chamber illustrate io-W the potential utility of a 2D representation for enhancing the basic statistical characteristics of the chamber when operating in a low frequency regime. The basic field statistics are verified for frequency stirring over a wide range of frequencies. Mechanical stirring is shown to provide an effective frequency deviation.
Domain decomposition methods for mortar finite elements
Widlund, O.
1996-12-31
In the last few years, domain decomposition methods, previously developed and tested for standard finite element methods and elliptic problems, have been extended and modified to work for mortar and other nonconforming finite element methods. A survey will be given of work carried out jointly with Yves Achdou, Mario Casarin, Maksymilian Dryja and Yvon Maday. Results on the p- and h-p-version finite elements will also be discussed.
Wang, Yu; Cao, Meng; Zhao, Xiangrui; Zhu, Gang; McClean, Colin; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yubo
2014-11-01
Heat generated during bone drilling could cause irreversible thermal damage, which can lead to bone necrosis or even osteomyelitis. In this study, vibrational drilling was applied to fresh bovine bones to investigate the cutting heat in comparison with conventional drilling through experimental investigation and finite element analysis (FEA). The influence of vibrational frequency and amplitude on cutting heat generation and conduction were studied. The experimental results showed that, compared with the conventional drilling, vibrational drilling could significantly reduce the cutting temperature in drilling of cortical bone (P<0.05): the cutting temperature tended to decrease with increasing vibrational frequency and amplitude. The FEA results also showed that the vibrational amplitude holds a significant effect on the cutting heat conduction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stagliano, T. R.; Witmer, E. A.; Rodal, J. J. A.
1979-01-01
Finite element modeling alternatives as well as the utility and limitations of the two dimensional structural response computer code CIVM-JET 4B for predicting the transient, large deflection, elastic plastic, structural responses of two dimensional beam and/or ring structures which are subjected to rigid fragment impact were investigated. The applicability of the CIVM-JET 4B analysis and code for the prediction of steel containment ring response to impact by complex deformable fragments from a trihub burst of a T58 turbine rotor was studied. Dimensional analysis considerations were used in a parametric examination of data from engine rotor burst containment experiments and data from sphere beam impact experiments. The use of the CIVM-JET 4B computer code for making parametric structural response studies on both fragment-containment structure and fragment-deflector structure was illustrated. Modifications to the analysis/computation procedure were developed to alleviate restrictions.
Gu, Y D; Ren, X J; Li, J S; Lake, M J; Zhang, Q Y; Zeng, Y J
2010-06-01
Metatarsal fracture is one of the most common foot injuries, particularly in athletes and soldiers, and is often associated with landing in inversion. An improved understanding of deformation of the metatarsals under inversion landing conditions is essential in the diagnosis and prevention of metatarsal injuries. In this work, a detailed three-dimensional (3D) finite element foot model was developed to investigate the effect of inversion positions on stress distribution and concentration within the metatarsals. The predicted plantar pressure distribution showed good agreement with data from controlled biomechanical tests. The deformation and stresses of the metatarsals during landing at different inversion angles (normal landing, 10 degree inversion and 20 degree inversion angles) were comparatively studied. The results showed that in the lateral metatarsals stress increased while in the medial metatarsals stress decreased with the angle of inversion. The peak stress point was found to be near the proximal part of the fifth metatarsal, which corresponds with reported clinical observations of metatarsal injuries.
Cai, Y.; Navon, I.M.
1995-11-01
In this paper, the authors report their work on applying Krylov iterative methods, accelerated by parallelizable domain-decomposed (DD) preconditioners, to the solution of nonsymmetric linear algebraic equations arising from implicit time discretization of a finite element model of the shallow water equations on a limited-area domain. Two types of previously proposed DD preconditioners are employed and a novel one is advocated to accelerate, with post-preconditioning, the convergence of three popular and competitive Krylov iterative linear solvers. Performance sensitivities of these preconditioners to inexact subdomain solvers are also reported. Autotasking, the parallel processing capability representing the third phase of multitasking libraries on CRAY Y-MP, has been exploited and successfully applied to both loop and subroutine level parallelization. Satisfactory speedup results were obtained. On the other hand, automatic loop-level parallelization, made possible by the autotasking preprocessor, attained only a speedup smaller than a factor of two. 39 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.
Scalable, Finite Element Analysis of Electromagnetic Scattering and Radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cwik, T.; Lou, J.; Katz, D.
1997-01-01
In this paper a method for simulating electromagnetic fields scattered from complex objects is reviewed; namely, an unstructured finite element code that does not use traditional mesh partitioning algorithms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Lyle, Karen H.; Spellman, Regina L.
2006-01-01
A study was performed to examine the influence of varying mesh density on an LS-DYNA simulation of a rectangular-shaped foam projectile impacting the space shuttle leading edge Panel 6. The shuttle leading-edge panels are fabricated of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. During the study, nine cases were executed with all possible combinations of coarse, baseline, and fine meshes of the foam and panel. For each simulation, the same material properties and impact conditions were specified and only the mesh density was varied. In the baseline model, the shell elements representing the RCC panel are approximately 0.2-in. on edge, whereas the foam elements are about 0.5-in. on edge. The element nominal edge-length for the baseline panel was halved to create a fine panel (0.1-in. edge length) mesh and doubled to create a coarse panel (0.4-in. edge length) mesh. In addition, the element nominal edge-length of the baseline foam projectile was halved (0.25-in. edge length) to create a fine foam mesh and doubled (1.0-in. edge length) to create a coarse foam mesh. The initial impact velocity of the foam was 775 ft/s. The simulations were executed in LS-DYNA for 6 ms of simulation time. Contour plots of resultant panel displacement and effective stress in the foam were compared at four discrete time intervals. Also, time-history responses of internal and kinetic energy of the panel, kinetic and hourglass energy of the foam, and resultant contact force were plotted to determine the influence of mesh density.
Wavelet and Multiresolution Analysis for Finite Element Networking Paradigms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurdila, Andrew J.; Sharpley, Robert C.
1999-01-01
This paper presents a final report on Wavelet and Multiresolution Analysis for Finite Element Networking Paradigms. The focus of this research is to derive and implement: 1) Wavelet based methodologies for the compression, transmission, decoding, and visualization of three dimensional finite element geometry and simulation data in a network environment; 2) methodologies for interactive algorithm monitoring and tracking in computational mechanics; and 3) Methodologies for interactive algorithm steering for the acceleration of large scale finite element simulations. Also included in this report are appendices describing the derivation of wavelet based Particle Image Velocity algorithms and reduced order input-output models for nonlinear systems by utilizing wavelet approximations.
Algebraic surface design and finite element meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bajaj, Chandrajit L.
1992-01-01
Some of the techniques are summarized which are used in constructing C sup 0 and C sup 1 continuous meshes of low degree, implicitly defined, algebraic surface patches in three dimensional space. These meshes of low degree algebraic surface patches are used to construct accurate computer models of physical objects. These meshes are also used in the finite element simulation of physical phenomena (e.g., heat dissipation, stress/strain distributions, fluid flow characteristics) required in the computer prototyping of both the manufacturability and functionality of the geometric design.
Varga, Peter; Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Zysset, Philippe K; Fliri-Hofmann, Ladina; Widmer, Daniel; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Blauth, Michael; Windolf, Markus
2016-04-01
Osteoporotic proximal femur fractures are caused by low energy trauma, typically when falling on the hip from standing height. Finite element simulations, widely used to predict the fracture load of femora in fall, usually include neither mass-related inertial effects, nor the viscous part of bone׳s material behavior. The aim of this study was to elucidate if quasi-static non-linear homogenized finite element analyses can predict in vitro mechanical properties of proximal femora assessed in dynamic drop tower experiments. The case-specific numerical models of 13 femora predicted the strength (R(2)=0.84, SEE=540N, 16.2%), stiffness (R(2)=0.82, SEE=233N/mm, 18.0%) and fracture energy (R(2)=0.72, SEE=3.85J, 39.6%); and provided fair qualitative matches with the fracture patterns. The influence of material anisotropy was negligible for all predictions. These results suggest that quasi-static homogenized finite element analysis may be used to predict mechanical properties of proximal femora in the dynamic sideways fall situation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okudur, O. O.; Vanstreels, K.; De Wolf, I.; Hangen, U.
2016-01-01
Continuous scaling of integrated circuits has led to the introduction of highly porous low dielectric constant (low-k) materials, whose inferior mechanical properties raise concerns regarding the reliability of integrated circuits. Nanoindentation is proven to be a straightforward method to study mechanical properties of films. However, in the case of low-k, the measurement and analysis are complex due to the porous nature of the films and reduced film thicknesses which give rise to substrate effects. A methodology that combines nanoindentation experiments with finite-element simulations is proposed and validated in this study to extract the substrate-free elastic modulus of porous ultra-thin low-k films. Furthermore, it is shown that imperfections of the nanoindentation probe significantly affect the finite-element results. An effective analytical method that captures the actual nanoindenter behavior upon indentation is proposed by taking both tip radius and conical imperfections into account. Using this method combined with finite element modeling, the elastic modulus of sub-100 nm thick low-k films is successfully extracted. Standard indentation tests clearly overestimated the actual modulus for such thin films, which emphasizes the importance of the proposed methodology.
Holford, D.J.
1994-01-01
This document is a user`s manual for the Rn3D finite element code. Rn3D was developed to simulate gas flow and radon transport in variably saturated, nonisothermal porous media. The Rn3D model is applicable to a wide range of problems involving radon transport in soil because it can simulate either steady-state or transient flow and transport in one-, two- or three-dimensions (including radially symmetric two-dimensional problems). The porous materials may be heterogeneous and anisotropic. This manual describes all pertinent mathematics related to the governing, boundary, and constitutive equations of the model, as well as the development of the finite element equations used in the code. Instructions are given for constructing Rn3D input files and executing the code, as well as a description of all output files generated by the code. Five verification problems are given that test various aspects of code operation, complete with example input files, FORTRAN programs for the respective analytical solutions, and plots of model results. An example simulation is presented to illustrate the type of problem Rn3D is designed to solve. Finally, instructions are given on how to convert Rn3D to simulate systems other than radon, air, and water.
Finite elements and finite differences for transonic flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hafez, M. M.; Murman, E. M.; Wellford, L. C.
1978-01-01
The paper reviews the chief finite difference and finite element techniques used for numerical solution of nonlinear mixed elliptic-hyperbolic equations governing transonic flow. The forms of the governing equations for unsteady two-dimensional transonic flow considered are the Euler equation, the full potential equation in both conservative and nonconservative form, the transonic small-disturbance equation in both conservative and nonconservative form, and the hodograph equations for the small-disturbance case and the full-potential case. Finite difference methods considered include time-dependent methods, relaxation methods, semidirect methods, and hybrid methods. Finite element methods include finite element Lax-Wendroff schemes, implicit Galerkin method, mixed variational principles, dual iterative procedures, optimal control methods and least squares.
Finite-Element Composite-Analysis Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowles, David E.
1990-01-01
Finite Element Composite Analysis Program, FECAP, special-purpose finite-element program for analyzing behavior of composite material with microcomputer. Procedure leads to set of linear simultaneous equations relating unknown nodal displacement to applied loads. Written in HP BASIC 3.0.
3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor
1996-07-15
TAURUS is an interactive post-processing application supporting visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. TAURUS provides the ability to display deformed geometries and contours or fringes of a large number of derived results on meshes consisting of beam, plate, shell, and solid type finite elements. Time history plotting is also available.
Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott
1992-01-01
A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.
Gleadall, Andrew; Pan, Jingzhe; Ding, Lifeng; Kruft, Marc-Anton; Curcó, David
2015-11-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are widely used to analyse materials at the atomic scale. However, MD has high computational demands, which may inhibit its use for simulations of structures involving large numbers of atoms such as amorphous polymer structures. An atomic-scale finite element method (AFEM) is presented in this study with significantly lower computational demands than MD. Due to the reduced computational demands, AFEM is suitable for the analysis of Young's modulus of amorphous polymer structures. This is of particular interest when studying the degradation of bioresorbable polymers, which is the topic of an accompanying paper. AFEM is derived from the inter-atomic potential energy functions of an MD force field. The nonlinear MD functions were adapted to enable static linear analysis. Finite element formulations were derived to represent interatomic potential energy functions between two, three and four atoms. Validation of the AFEM was conducted through its application to atomic structures for crystalline and amorphous poly(lactide).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Zhongkun; Yin, Yao; Liu, Bilong
2016-03-01
The finite element method is often used to investigate the sound absorption of anechoic coating backed with orthogonally rib-stiffened plate. Since the anechoic coating contains cavities, the number of grid nodes of a periodic unit cell is usually large. An equivalent modulus method is proposed to reduce the large amount of nodes by calculating an equivalent homogeneous layer. Applications of this method in several models show that the method can well predict the sound absorption coefficient of such structure in a wide frequency range. Based on the simulation results, the sound absorption performance of such structure and the influences of different backings on the first absorption peak are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conde, J. C.; Martín, E.; Chiussi, S.; Gontad, F.; Serra, C.; González, P.
2010-07-01
Ultraviolet (UV) Excimer laser assisted processing is an alternative strategy for producing patterned silicon germanium heterostructures. We numerically analyzed the effects caused by pulsed 193 Excimer laser radiation impinging on patterned amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) and germanium (a-Ge:H) bilayers deposited on a crystalline silicon substrate [Si(100)]. The proposed two dimensional axisymmetric numerical model allowed us to estimate the temperature and concentration gradients caused by the laser induced rapid melting and solidification processes. Energy density dependence of maximum melting depth and melting time evolution as well as three dimensional temperature and element distribution have been simulated and compared with experimentally obtained results.
Conde, J. C.; Chiussi, S.; Gontad, F.; Gonzalez, P.; Martin, E.; Serra, C.
2010-07-05
Ultraviolet (UV) Excimer laser assisted processing is an alternative strategy for producing patterned silicon germanium heterostructures. We numerically analyzed the effects caused by pulsed 193 Excimer laser radiation impinging on patterned amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) and germanium (a-Ge:H) bilayers deposited on a crystalline silicon substrate [Si(100)]. The proposed two dimensional axisymmetric numerical model allowed us to estimate the temperature and concentration gradients caused by the laser induced rapid melting and solidification processes. Energy density dependence of maximum melting depth and melting time evolution as well as three dimensional temperature and element distribution have been simulated and compared with experimentally obtained results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Spellman, Regina L.
2004-01-01
A study was performed to examine the influence of varying mesh density on an LS-DYNA simulation of a rectangular-shaped foam projectile impacting the space shuttle leading edge Panel 6. The shuttle leading-edge panels are fabricated of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. During the study, nine cases were executed with all possible combinations of coarse, baseline, and fine meshes of the foam and panel. For each simulation, the same material properties and impact conditions were specified and only the mesh density was varied. In the baseline model, the shell elements representing the RCC panel are approximately 0.2-in. on edge, whereas the foam elements are about 0.5-in. on edge. The element nominal edge-length for the baseline panel was halved to create a fine panel (0.1-in. edge length) mesh and doubled to create a coarse panel (0.4-in. edge length) mesh. In addition, the element nominal edge-length of the baseline foam projectile was halved (0.25-in. edge length) to create a fine foam mesh and doubled (1.0- in. edge length) to create a coarse foam mesh. The initial impact velocity of the foam was 775 ft/s. The simulations were executed in LS-DYNA version 960 for 6 ms of simulation time. Contour plots of resultant panel displacement and effective stress in the foam were compared at five discrete time intervals. Also, time-history responses of internal and kinetic energy of the panel, kinetic and hourglass energy of the foam, and resultant contact force were plotted to determine the influence of mesh density. As a final comparison, the model with a fine panel and fine foam mesh was executed with slightly different material properties for the RCC. For this model, the average degraded properties of the RCC were replaced with the maximum degraded properties. Similar comparisons of panel and foam responses were made for the average and maximum degraded models.
Gu, Y. D.; Ren, X. J.; Li, J. S.; Lake, M. J.; Zhang, Q. Y.
2009-01-01
Metatarsal fracture is one of the most common foot injuries, particularly in athletes and soldiers, and is often associated with landing in inversion. An improved understanding of deformation of the metatarsals under inversion landing conditions is essential in the diagnosis and prevention of metatarsal injuries. In this work, a detailed three-dimensional (3D) finite element foot model was developed to investigate the effect of inversion positions on stress distribution and concentration within the metatarsals. The predicted plantar pressure distribution showed good agreement with data from controlled biomechanical tests. The deformation and stresses of the metatarsals during landing at different inversion angles (normal landing, 10 degree inversion and 20 degree inversion angles) were comparatively studied. The results showed that in the lateral metatarsals stress increased while in the medial metatarsals stress decreased with the angle of inversion. The peak stress point was found to be near the proximal part of the fifth metatarsal, which corresponds with reported clinical observations of metatarsal injuries. PMID:19685241
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu, Sheng-Tao; Jiang, Bo-Nan; Wu, Jie; Duh, J. C.
1996-01-01
This paper reports a numerical study of the Marangoni-Benard (MB) convection in a planar fluid layer. The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) is employed to solve the three-dimensional Stokes equations and the energy equation. First, the governing equations are reduced to be first-order by introducing variables such as vorticity and heat fluxes. The resultant first-order system is then cast into a div-curl-grad formulation, and its ellipticity and permissible boundary conditions are readily proved. This numerical approach provides an equal-order discretization for velocity, pressure, vorticity, temperature, and heat conduction fluxes, and therefore can provide high fidelity solutions for the complex flow physics of the MB convection. Numerical results reported include the critical Marangoni numbers (M(sub ac)) for the onset of the convection in containers with various aspect ratios, and the planforms of supercritical MB flows. The numerical solutions compared favorably with the experimental results reported by Koschmieder et al..
Sahoo, Debasis; Deck, Caroline; Yoganandan, Narayan; Willinger, Rémy
2016-04-01
The objective of this study was to enhance an existing finite element (FE) head model with composite modeling and a new constitutive law for the skull. The response of the state-of-the-art FE head model was validated in the time domain using data from 15 temporo-parietal impact experiments, conducted with postmortem human surrogates. The new model predicted skull fractures observed in these tests. Further, 70 well-documented head trauma cases were reconstructed. The 15 experiments and 70 real-world head trauma cases were combined to derive skull fracture injury risk curves. The skull internal energy was found to be the best candidate to predict skull failure based on an in depth statistical analysis of different mechanical parameters (force, skull internal energy), head kinematic-based parameter, the head injury criterion (HIC), and skull fracture correlate (SFC). The proposed tolerance limit for 50% risk of skull fracture was associated with 453mJ of internal energy. Statistical analyses were extended for individual impact locations (frontal, occipital and temporo-parietal) and separate injury risk curves were obtained. The 50% risk of skull fracture for each location: frontal: 481mJ, occipital: 457mJ, temporo-parietal: 456mJ of skull internal energy.
Manafi-Khanian, Bahram; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas
2016-03-01
Cuff pressure stimulation is applicable for assessing deep-tissue pain sensitivity by exciting a variety of deep-tissue nociceptors. In this study, the relative transfer of biomechanical stresses and strains from the cuff via the skin to the muscle and the somatic tissue layers around bones were investigated. Cuff pressure was applied on the lower leg at three different stimulation intensities (mild pressure to pain). Three-dimensional finite element models including bones and three different layers of deep tissues were developed based on magnetic resonance images (MRI). The skin indentation maps at mild pressure, pain threshold, and intense painful stimulations were extracted from MRI and applied to the model. The mean stress under the cuff position around tibia was 4.6, 4.9 and around fibula 14.8, 16.4 times greater than mean stress of muscle surface in the same section at pain threshold and intense painful stimulations, respectively. At the same stimulation intensities, the mean strains around tibia were 36.4, 42.3 % and around fibula 32.9, 35.0 %, respectively, of mean strain on the muscle surface. Assuming strain as the ideal stimulus for nociceptors the results suggest that cuff algometry is less capable to challenge the nociceptors of tissues around bones as compared to more superficially located muscles.
Books and monographs on finite element technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.
1985-01-01
The present paper proviees a listing of all of the English books and some of the foreign books on finite element technology, taking into account also a list of the conference proceedings devoted solely to finite elements. The references are divided into categories. Attention is given to fundamentals, mathematical foundations, structural and solid mechanics applications, fluid mechanics applications, other applied science and engineering applications, computer implementation and software systems, computational and modeling aspects, special topics, boundary element methods, proceedings of symmposia and conferences on finite element technology, bibliographies, handbooks, and historical accounts.
Finite volume hydromechanical simulation in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordbotten, Jan Martin
2014-05-01
Cell-centered finite volume methods are prevailing in numerical simulation of flow in porous media. However, due to the lack of cell-centered finite volume methods for mechanics, coupled flow and deformation is usually treated either by coupled finite-volume-finite element discretizations, or within a finite element setting. The former approach is unfavorable as it introduces two separate grid structures, while the latter approach loses the advantages of finite volume methods for the flow equation. Recently, we proposed a cell-centered finite volume method for elasticity. Herein, we explore the applicability of this novel method to provide a compatible finite volume discretization for coupled hydromechanic flows in porous media. We detail in particular the issue of coupling terms, and show how this is naturally handled. Furthermore, we observe how the cell-centered finite volume framework naturally allows for modeling fractured and fracturing porous media through internal boundary conditions. We support the discussion with a set of numerical examples: the convergence properties of the coupled scheme are first investigated; second, we illustrate the practical applicability of the method both for fractured and heterogeneous media.
Finite volume hydromechanical simulation in porous media
Nordbotten, Jan Martin
2014-01-01
Cell-centered finite volume methods are prevailing in numerical simulation of flow in porous media. However, due to the lack of cell-centered finite volume methods for mechanics, coupled flow and deformation is usually treated either by coupled finite-volume-finite element discretizations, or within a finite element setting. The former approach is unfavorable as it introduces two separate grid structures, while the latter approach loses the advantages of finite volume methods for the flow equation. Recently, we proposed a cell-centered finite volume method for elasticity. Herein, we explore the applicability of this novel method to provide a compatible finite volume discretization for coupled hydromechanic flows in porous media. We detail in particular the issue of coupling terms, and show how this is naturally handled. Furthermore, we observe how the cell-centered finite volume framework naturally allows for modeling fractured and fracturing porous media through internal boundary conditions. We support the discussion with a set of numerical examples: the convergence properties of the coupled scheme are first investigated; second, we illustrate the practical applicability of the method both for fractured and heterogeneous media. PMID:25574061
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, J.; Ahmadia, A.; Knepley, M. G.; Smith, B.
2011-12-01
The cost of memory, especially memory bandwidth, is becoming increasingly expensive on modern high performance computing architectures including GPUs and multi-core systems. In contrast, floating point operations are relatively inexpensive when they can be vectorized (e.g. thread blocks on a GPU or vector registers on a CPU). This relative cost of memory to flops will continue to become even more pronounced due to fundamental issues of power utilization, therefore it is important to rethink algorithms to effectively utilize hardware. Commonly used methods for implicit solves with finite element methods involve assembly of a sparse matrix. Unfortunately, sparse matrix kernels have an arithmetic intensity (ratio of flops to bytes of memory movement) that is orders of magnitude less than that delivered by modern hardware, causing the floating point units to be massively under-utilized. The ``free flops'' can be effectively utilized by higher order methods which deliver improved accuracy for the same number of degrees of freedom. Effective use of high order methods require eschewing assembled data structures for matrix storage in exchange for unassembled representations. The resulting computation reduces to small dense tensor-product operations and indepedent ``physics'' kernels at each quadrature point, both of which are amenable to vectorization and capable of delivering a high fraction of peak performance. To reduce the effort required to implement new physics (e.g. constitutive relations and additional fields), retain code verifiability, and experiment with different vectorization strategies and solver algorithms, we express the continuum equations in Python and use automatic differentiation, symbolic methods, and code generation techniques to create vectorized kernels for residual evaluation, Jacobian storage, Jacobian application, and adjoints for each block of the system. The performance and effectiveness of these methods is demonstrated for free-surface Stokes
Rayfield, Emily J
2011-01-01
Finite element (FE) analysis is becoming a frequently used tool for exploring the craniofacial biomechanics of extant and extinct vertebrates. Crucial to the application of the FE analysis is the knowledge of how well FE results replicate reality. Here I present a study investigating how accurately FE models can predict experimentally derived strain in the mandible of the ostrich Struthio camelus, when both the model and the jaw are subject to identical conditions in an in-vitro loading environment. Three isolated ostrich mandibles were loaded hydraulically at the beak tip with forces similar to those measured during force transducer pecking experiments. Strains were recorded at four gauge sites at the dorsal and ventral dentary, and medial and lateral surangular. Specimen-specific FE models were created from computed tomography scans of each ostrich and loaded in an identical fashion as in the in-vitro test. The results show that the strain magnitudes, orientation, patterns and maximum : minimum principal strain ratios are predicted very closely at the dentary gauge sites, even though the FE models have isotropic and homogeneous material properties and solid internal geometry. Although the strain magnitudes are predicted at the postdentary sites, the strain orientations and ratios are inaccurate. This mismatch between the dentary and postdentary predictions may be due to the presence of intramandibular sutures or the greater amount of cancellous bone present in the postdentary region of the mandible and requires further study. This study highlights the predictive potential of even simple FE models for studies in extant and extinct vertebrates, but also emphasizes the importance of geometry and sutures. It raises the question of whether different parameters are of lesser or greater importance to FE validation for different taxonomic groups. PMID:20846282
Will Finite Elements Replace Structural Mechanics?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojalvo, I. U.
1984-01-01
This paper presents a personal view regarding the need for a continued interest and activity in structural methods in general, while viewing finite elements and the computer as simply two specific tools for assisting in this endeavor. An attempt is made to provide some insight as to why finite element methods seem to have "won the war," and to give examples of their more (and less) intelligent use. Items addressed include a highlight of unnecessary limitations of many existing standard finite element codes and where it is felt that further development work is needed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Vries, Martinus P.; Hamburg, Marc C.; Schutte, Harm K.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldman, Arthur E. P.
2003-04-01
Surgical removal of the larynx results in radically reduced production of voice and speech. To improve voice quality a voice-producing element (VPE) is developed, based on the lip principle, called after the lips of a musician while playing a brass instrument. To optimize the VPE, a numerical model is developed. In this model, the finite element method is used to describe the mechanical behavior of the VPE. The flow is described by two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The interaction between VPE and airflow is modeled by placing the grid of the VPE model in the grid of the aerodynamical model, and requiring continuity of forces and velocities. By applying and increasing pressure to the numerical model, pulses comparable to glottal volume velocity waveforms are obtained. By variation of geometric parameters their influence can be determined. To validate this numerical model, an in vitro test with a prototype of the VPE is performed. Experimental and numerical results show an acceptable agreement.
Kuniansky, E.L.
1990-01-01
A computer program based on the Galerkin finite-element method was developed to simulate two-dimensional steady-state ground-water flow in either isotropic or anisotropic confined aquifers. The program may also be used for unconfined aquifers of constant saturated thickness. Constant head, constant flux, and head-dependent flux boundary conditions can be specified in order to approximate a variety of natural conditions, such as a river or lake boundary, and pumping well. The computer program was developed for the preliminary simulation of ground-water flow in the Edwards-Trinity Regional aquifer system as part of the Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis Program. Results of the program compare well to analytical solutions and simulations .from published finite-difference models. A concise discussion of the Galerkin method is presented along with a description of the program. Provided in the Supplemental Data section are a listing of the computer program, definitions of selected program variables, and several examples of data input and output used in verifying the accuracy of the program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohout, B.; Pirinen, J.; Ruiter, N. V.
2012-03-01
The established standard screening method to detect breast cancer is X-ray mammography. However X-ray mammography often has low contrast for tumors located within glandular tissue. A new approach is 3D Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT), which is expected to detect small tumors at an early stage. This paper describes the development, improvement and the results of Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations of the Transducer Array System (TAS) used in our 3D USCT. The focus of this work is on researching the influence of meshing and material parameters on the electrical impedance curves. Thereafter, these findings are used to optimize the simulation model. The quality of the simulation was evaluated by comparing simulated impedance characteristics with measured data of the real TAS. The resulting FEM simulation model is a powerful tool to analyze and optimize transducer array systems applied for USCT. With this simulation model, the behavior of TAS for different geometry modifications was researched. It provides a means to understand the acoustical performances inside of any ultrasound transducer represented by its electrical impedance characteristic.
Visualization of higher order finite elements.
Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Crawford, Richard H.; Khardekar, Rahul Vinay
2004-04-01
Finite element meshes are used to approximate the solution to some differential equation when no exact solution exists. A finite element mesh consists of many small (but finite, not infinitesimal or differential) regions of space that partition the problem domain, {Omega}. Each region, or element, or cell has an associated polynomial map, {Phi}, that converts the coordinates of any point, x = ( x y z ), in the element into another value, f(x), that is an approximate solution to the differential equation, as in Figure 1(a). This representation works quite well for axis-aligned regions of space, but when there are curved boundaries on the problem domain, {Omega}, it becomes algorithmically much more difficult to define {Phi} in terms of x. Rather, we define an archetypal element in a new coordinate space, r = ( r s t ), which has a simple, axis-aligned boundary (see Figure 1(b)) and place two maps onto our archetypal element:
A survey of mixed finite element methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brezzi, F.
1987-01-01
This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.
Immersed molecular electrokinetic finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopacz, Adrian M.; Liu, Wing K.
2013-07-01
A unique simulation technique has been developed capable of modeling electric field induced detection of biomolecules such as viruses, at room temperatures where thermal fluctuations must be considered. The proposed immersed molecular electrokinetic finite element method couples electrokinetics with fluctuating hydrodynamics to study the motion and deformation of flexible objects immersed in a suspending medium under an applied electric field. The force induced on an arbitrary object due to an electric field is calculated based on the continuum electromechanics and the Maxwell stress tensor. The thermal fluctuations are included in the Navier-Stokes fluid equations via the stochastic stress tensor. Dielectrophoretic and fluctuating forces acting on the particle are coupled through the fluid-structure interaction force calculated within the surrounding environment. This method was used to perform concentration and retention efficacy analysis of nanoscale biosensors using gold particles of various sizes. The analysis was also applied to a human papillomavirus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paszyński, Maciej; Gurgul, Piotr; Sieniek, Marcin; Pardo, David
2010-06-01
In the first part of the paper we present the multi-scale simulation of the Step-and-Flash Imprint Lithography (SFIL), a modern patterning process. The simulation utilizes the hp adaptive Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) coupled with Molecular Statics (MS) model. Thus, we consider the multi-scale problem, with molecular statics applied in the areas of the mesh where the highest accuracy is required, and the continuous linear elasticity with thermal expansion coefficient applied in the remaining part of the domain. The degrees of freedom from macro-scale element's nodes located on the macro-scale side of the interface have been identified with particles from nano-scale elements located on the nano-scale side of the interface. In the second part of the paper we present Unified Modeling Language (UML) description of the resulting multi-scale application (hp-FEM coupled with MS). We investigated classical, procedural codes from the point of view of the object-oriented (O-O) programming paradigm. The discovered hierarchical structure of classes and algorithms makes the UML project as independent on the spatial dimension of the problem as possible. The O-O UML project was defined at an abstract level, independent on the programming language used.
Finite Element Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, S. H.; Lin, W. J.; Leung, A. Y. T.
2010-05-01
Some pre-tensioned 4-node rectangular elements and 8-node triangular elements are constructed for the free vibration analysis of membranes by finite element. The shape functions are given to derive the element stiffness and mass matrices in accordance with the minimum potential energy principle. Two typical examples show that the calculation by the 4-node rectangular element is very close to the theoretical solution, and 8-node rectangular element has higher accuracy than the 4-node rectangular element. For dense grid, the result is almost consistent with the theoretical solution.
Finite element analysis of flexible, rotating blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgee, Oliver G.
1987-01-01
A reference guide that can be used when using the finite element method to approximate the static and dynamic behavior of flexible, rotating blades is given. Important parameters such as twist, sweep, camber, co-planar shell elements, centrifugal loads, and inertia properties are studied. Comparisons are made between NASTRAN elements through published benchmark tests. The main purpose is to summarize blade modeling strategies and to document capabilities and limitations (for flexible, rotating blades) of various NASTRAN elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Daoru; Wang, Pu; He, Xiaoming; Lin, Tao; Wang, Joseph
2016-09-01
Motivated by the need to handle complex boundary conditions efficiently and accurately in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, this paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) linear immersed finite element (IFE) method with non-homogeneous flux jump conditions for solving electrostatic field involving complex boundary conditions using structured meshes independent of the interface. This method treats an object boundary as part of the simulation domain and solves the electric field at the boundary as an interface problem. In order to resolve charging on a dielectric surface, a new 3D linear IFE basis function is designed for each interface element to capture the electric field jump on the interface. Numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the optimal convergence rates in L2 and H1 norms of the IFE solution. This new IFE method is integrated into a PIC method for simulations involving charging of a complex dielectric surface in a plasma. A numerical study of plasma-surface interactions at the lunar terminator is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the new method.
White, Nicholas A; Danelson, Kerry A; Gayzik, F Scott; Stitzel, Joel D
2014-11-01
A finite element (FE) simulation environment has been developed to investigate aviator head and neck response during a simulated rotary-wing aircraft impact using both an FE anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and an FE human body model. The head and neck response of the ATD simulation was successfully validated against an experimental sled test. The majority of the head and neck transducer time histories received a CORrelation and analysis (CORA) rating of 0.7 or higher, indicating good overall correlation. The human body model simulation produced a more biofidelic head and neck response than the ATD experimental test and simulation, including change in neck curvature. While only the upper and lower neck loading can be measured in the ATD, the shear force, axial force, and bending moment were reported for each level of the cervical spine in the human body model using a novel technique involving cross sections. This loading distribution provides further insight into the biomechanical response of the neck during a rotary-wing aircraft impact.
James, Andrew I.; Jawitz, James W.; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael
2009-01-01
A model to simulate transport of materials in surface water and ground water has been developed to numerically approximate solutions to the advection-dispersion equation. This model, known as the Transport and Reaction Simulation Engine (TaRSE), uses an algorithm that incorporates a time-splitting technique where the advective part of the equation is solved separately from the dispersive part. An explicit finite-volume Godunov method is used to approximate the advective part, while a mixed-finite element technique is used to approximate the dispersive part. The dispersive part uses an implicit discretization, which allows it to run stably with a larger time step than the explicit advective step. The potential exists to develop algorithms that run several advective steps, and then one dispersive step that encompasses the time interval of the advective steps. Because the dispersive step is computationally most expensive, schemes can be implemented that are more computationally efficient than non-time-split algorithms. This technique enables scientists to solve problems with high grid Peclet numbers, such as transport problems with sharp solute fronts, without spurious oscillations in the numerical approximation to the solution and with virtually no artificial diffusion.
Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers
Williams, Alan
2005-03-18
Sparse systems of linear equations arise in many engineering applications, including finite elements, finite volumes, and others. The solution of linear systems is often the most computationally intensive portion of the application. Depending on the complexity of problems addressed by the application, there may be no single solver capable of solving all of the linear systems that arise. This motivates the desire to switch an application from one solver librwy to another, depending on the problem being solved. The interfaces provided by solver libraries differ greatly, making it difficult to switch an application code from one library to another. The amount of library-specific code in an application Can be greatly reduced by having an abstraction layer between solver libraries and the application, putting a common "face" on various solver libraries. One such abstraction layer is the Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers (EEl), which has seen significant use by finite element applications at Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Finite-element models of continental extension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lynch, H. David; Morgan, Paul
1990-01-01
Numerical models of the initial deformation of extending continental lithosphere, computed to investigate the control of preexisting thermal and mechanical heterogeneities on the style of deformation, are presented. The finite element method is used to calculate deformation with a viscoelastic-plastic model for the lithosphere. Comparisons of the results of analytic models and finite-element models using this method show that good results may be obtained by the numerical technique, even with elements containing both brittle and viscoelastic sampling points. It is shown that the gross style of initial extensional deformation is controlled by the depth and width of the initial heterogeneity which localizes deformation.
Quadrilateral finite element mesh coarsening
Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Benzley, Steven E
2012-10-16
Techniques for coarsening a quadrilateral mesh are described. These techniques include identifying a coarsening region within the quadrilateral mesh to be coarsened. Quadrilateral elements along a path through the coarsening region are removed. Node pairs along opposite sides of the path are identified. The node pairs along the path are then merged to collapse the path.
Finite Element Method for Capturing Ultra-relativistic Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, G. A.; Chung, T. J.
2003-01-01
While finite element methods are used extensively by researchers solving computational fluid dynamics in fields other than astrophysics, their use in astrophysical fluid simulations has been predominantly overlooked. Current simulations using other methods such as finite difference and finite volume (based on finite difference) have shown remarkable results, but these methods are limited by their fundamental properties in aspects that are important for simulations with complex geometries and widely varying spatial and temporal scale differences. We have explored the use of finite element methods for astrophysical fluids in order to establish the validity of using such methods in astrophysical environments. We present our numerical technique applied to solving ultra-relativistic (Lorentz Factor Gamma >> 1) shocks which are prevalent in astrophysical studies including relativistic jets and gamma-ray burst studies. We show our finite element formulation applied to simulations where the Lorentz factor ranges up to 2236 and demonstrate its stability in solving ultra-relativistic flows. Our numerical method is based on the Flowfield Dependent Variation (FDV) Method, unique in that numerical diffusion is derived from physical parameters rather than traditional artificial viscosity methods. Numerical instabilities account for most of the difficulties when capturing shocks in this regime. Our method results in stable solutions and accurate results as compared with other methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaowei; Gong, Jianming; Zhao, Yanping; Wang, Yanfei
2015-05-01
This study used ABAQUS finite element (FE) software to investigate the residual stress distributions of P92 welded pipes in both the as-weld and post weld heat treated (PWHT) condition. Sequential coupling quasi-static thermo-mechanical in conjunction with moving double ellipsoidal heat source and an element add/remove technique to simulate deposition of new weld material, are combined in the 3D FE analysis. To validate the simulation results, the residual stresses in axial direction at the surface of pipe were measured by X-ray diffraction technique and compared with the results of FE analysis. Detailed characteristic distributions of the residual stresses are discussed. Results show that the FE model can predict the residual stress distributions satisfactorily. Highest residual stresses on the outer surface are found in the last weld bead to be deposited. And the highest tensile residual stress for the full welded section take place in heat affected zone (HAZ) near the middle thickness. Larger residual sstress can be found around the welding start point along the pipe circumference. Comparison of heat treated specimen and untreated specimen illustrates that PWHT has a strong effect on the residual stress field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simmons, J.; Erlich, D.; Shockey, D.
2009-01-01
A team consisting of Arizona State University, Honeywell Engines, Systems & Services, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center, and SRI International collaborated to develop computational models and verification testing for designing and evaluating turbine engine fan blade fabric containment structures. This research was conducted under the Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance Center of Excellence and was sponsored by the Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program. The research was directed toward improving the modeling of a turbine engine fabric containment structure for an engine blade-out containment demonstration test required for certification of aircraft engines. The research conducted in Phase II began a new level of capability to design and develop fan blade containment systems for turbine engines. Significant progress was made in three areas: (1) further development of the ballistic fabric model to increase confidence and robustness in the material models for the Kevlar(TradeName) and Zylon(TradeName) material models developed in Phase I, (2) the capability was improved for finite element modeling of multiple layers of fabric using multiple layers of shell elements, and (3) large-scale simulations were performed. This report concentrates on the material model development and simulations of the impact tests.
Correlation of composite material test results with finite element analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guƫu, M.
2016-08-01
In this paper are presented some aspects regarding the method of simulation of composite materials testing with finite element analysis software. There were simulated tensile and shear tests of specimens manufactured from glass fiber reinforced polyester. For specimens manufacturing two types of fabrics were used: unidirectional and bidirectional. Experimentally determined elastic properties of composite material were used as input data. Modeling of composite architecture of the specimens was performed with ANSYS Composite PrepPost software. Finite element analysis stresses and strains on strain gauges bonding area were considered and compared with the real values in a diagram. After results comparison, potential causes of deviations were identified.
Experimentally validated finite element model of electrocaloric multilayer ceramic structures
Smith, N. A. S. E-mail: maciej.rokosz@npl.co.uk Correia, T. M. E-mail: maciej.rokosz@npl.co.uk; Rokosz, M. K. E-mail: maciej.rokosz@npl.co.uk
2014-07-28
A novel finite element model to simulate the electrocaloric response of a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) under real environment and operational conditions has been developed. The two-dimensional transient conductive heat transfer model presented includes the electrocaloric effect as a source term, as well as accounting for radiative and convective effects. The model has been validated with experimental data obtained from the direct imaging of MLCC transient temperature variation under application of an electric field. The good agreement between simulated and experimental data, suggests that the novel experimental direct measurement methodology and the finite element model could be used to support the design of optimised electrocaloric units and operating conditions.
Bouzakis, K D; Mitsi, S; Michailidis, N; Mirisidis, I; Mesomeris, G; Maliaris, G; Korlos, A; Kapetanos, G; Antonarakos, P; Anagnostidis, K
2004-06-01
The mechanical strength properties of lumbar spine vertebrae are of great importance in a wide range of applications. Herein, through nanoindentations and appropriate evaluation of the corresponding results, trabecular bone struts stress-strain characteristics can be determined. In the frame of the present paper, an L2 fresh cadaveric vertebra, from which posterior elements were removed, was subjected to compression. With the aid of developed finite elements method based algorithms, the cortical shell and the cancellous core bulk elasticity moduli and stresses were determined, whereas the tested vertebra geometrical model used in these algorithms was considered as having a compound structure, consisting of the cancellous bone surrounded by the cortical shell. Moreover nanoindentations were conducted and an appropriate evaluation method of the obtained results was applied to extract stress-strain curves of individual lumbar spine vertebra trabecular bone struts. These data were used in the mathematical description of the vertebrae compression test. The vertebral cancellous bone structure was simulated by a beam elements network, possessing an equivalent porosity and different stiffnesses in vertical and horizontal direction. Thus, the measured course of the compression load versus the occurring specimen deformation was verified.
Finite element formulations for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tezduyar, Tayfun E.
1989-01-01
Researchers started their studies on the development and application of computational methods for compressible flows. Particular attention was given to proper numerical treatment of sharp layers occurring in such problems and to general mesh generation capabilities for intricate computational geometries. Mainly finite element methods enhanced with several state-of-the art techniques (such as the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin, discontinuity capturing, adaptive implicit-explicit, and trouped element-by-element approximate factorization schemes) were employed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor); Stockwell, Alan E.
2005-01-01
LS-DYNA simulations were conducted to study the influence of model complexity on the response of a typical Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panel to a foam impact at a location approximately midway between the ribs. A structural model comprised of Panels 10, 11, and TSeal 11 was chosen as the baseline model for the study. A simulation was conducted with foam striking Panel 10 at Location 4 at an alpha angle of 10 degrees, with an impact velocity of 1000 ft/sec. A second simulation was conducted after removing Panel 11 from the model, and a third simulation was conducted after removing both Panel 11 and T-Seal 11. All three simulations showed approximately the same response for Panel 10, and the simplified simulation model containing only Panel 10 was shown to be significantly less expensive to execute than the other two more complex models.
Dynamical observer for a flexible beam via finite element approximations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manitius, Andre; Xia, Hong-Xing
1994-01-01
The purpose of this view-graph presentation is a computational investigation of the closed-loop output feedback control of a Euler-Bernoulli beam based on finite element approximation. The observer is part of the classical observer plus state feedback control, but it is finite-dimensional. In the theoretical work on the subject it is assumed (and sometimes proved) that increasing the number of finite elements will improve accuracy of the control. In applications, this may be difficult to achieve because of numerical problems. The main difficulty in computing the observer and simulating its work is the presence of high frequency eigenvalues in the finite-element model and poor numerical conditioning of some of the system matrices (e.g. poor observability properties) when the dimension of the approximating system increases. This work dealt with some of these difficulties.
Milind Deo; Chung-Kan Huang; Huabing Wang
2008-08-31
Black-oil, compositional and thermal simulators have been developed to address different physical processes in reservoir simulation. A number of different types of discretization methods have also been proposed to address issues related to representing the complex reservoir geometry. These methods are more significant for fractured reservoirs where the geometry can be particularly challenging. In this project, a general modular framework for reservoir simulation was developed, wherein the physical models were efficiently decoupled from the discretization methods. This made it possible to couple any discretization method with different physical models. Oil characterization methods are becoming increasingly sophisticated, and it is possible to construct geologically constrained models of faulted/fractured reservoirs. Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) simulation provides the option of performing multiphase calculations on spatially explicit, geologically feasible fracture sets. Multiphase DFN simulations of and sensitivity studies on a wide variety of fracture networks created using fracture creation/simulation programs was undertaken in the first part of this project. This involved creating interfaces to seamlessly convert the fracture characterization information into simulator input, grid the complex geometry, perform the simulations, and analyze and visualize results. Benchmarking and comparison with conventional simulators was also a component of this work. After demonstration of the fact that multiphase simulations can be carried out on complex fracture networks, quantitative effects of the heterogeneity of fracture properties were evaluated. Reservoirs are populated with fractures of several different scales and properties. A multiscale fracture modeling study was undertaken and the effects of heterogeneity and storage on water displacement dynamics in fractured basements were investigated. In gravity-dominated systems, more oil could be recovered at a given pore
Solving finite element equations on concurrent computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nour-Omid, B.; Raefsky, A.; Lyzenga, G.
1987-01-01
This paper discusses the development of a concurrent algorithm for the solution of systems of equations arising in finite element applications. The approach is based on a hybrid of direct elimination method and preconditioned conjugate iteration. Two different preconditioners are used; diagonal scaling and a concurrent implementation of incomplete LU factorization. First, an automatic procedure is used to partition the finite element mesh into sub-structures. The particular mesh partition is chosen to minimize an estimate of the cost for evaluating the solution using this algorithm on a concurrent computer. These procedures are implemented in a finite element program on the JPL/CalTech MARK III hypercube computer. An overview of the structure of this program is presented. The performance of the solution method is demonstrated with the aid of a number of numerical test runs, and its advantages for concurrent implementations are discussed. Efficiency and speed-up factors over sequential machines for the numerical examples are highlighted.
Parallel processing in finite element structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K.
1987-01-01
A brief review is made of the fundamental concepts and basic issues of parallel processing. Discussion focuses on parallel numerical algorithms, performance evaluation of machines and algorithms, and parallelism in finite element computations. A computational strategy is proposed for maximizing the degree of parallelism at different levels of the finite element analysis process including: 1) formulation level (through the use of mixed finite element models); 2) analysis level (through additive decomposition of the different arrays in the governing equations into the contributions to a symmetrized response plus correction terms); 3) numerical algorithm level (through the use of operator splitting techniques and application of iterative processes); and 4) implementation level (through the effective combination of vectorization, multitasking and microtasking, whenever available).
Optimal mapping of irregular finite element domains to parallel processors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flower, J.; Otto, S.; Salama, M.
1987-01-01
Mapping the solution domain of n-finite elements into N-subdomains that may be processed in parallel by N-processors is an optimal one if the subdomain decomposition results in a well-balanced workload distribution among the processors. The problem is discussed in the context of irregular finite element domains as an important aspect of the efficient utilization of the capabilities of emerging multiprocessor computers. Finding the optimal mapping is an intractable combinatorial optimization problem, for which a satisfactory approximate solution is obtained here by analogy to a method used in statistical mechanics for simulating the annealing process in solids. The simulated annealing analogy and algorithm are described, and numerical results are given for mapping an irregular two-dimensional finite element domain containing a singularity onto the Hypercube computer.
Oakley, Emily; Wrazen, Brian; Bellnier, David A; Syed, Yusef; Arshad, Hassan; Shafirstein, Gal
2014-01-01
Background and Objectives: Several clinical studies suggest that interstitial photodynamic therapy (I-PDT) may benefit patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC). For I-PDT, the therapeutic light is delivered through optical fibers inserted into the target tumor. The complex anatomy of the head and neck requires careful planning of fiber insertions. Often the fibers’ location and tumor optical properties may vary from the original plan therefore pretreatment planning needs near real-time updating to account for any changes. The purpose of this work was to develop a finite element analysis (FEA) approach for near real-time simulation of light propagation in LAHNC. Methods: Our previously developed FEA for modeling light propagation in skin tissue was modified to simulate light propagation from interstitial optical fibers. The modified model was validated by comparing the calculations with measurements in a phantom mimicking tumor optical properties. We investigated the impact of mesh element size and growth rate on the computation time, and defined optimal settings for the FEA. We demonstrated how the optimized FEA can be used for simulating light propagation in two cases of LAHNC amenable to I-PDT, as proof-of-concept. Results: The modified FEA was in agreement with the measurements (P=0.0271). The optimal maximum mesh size and growth rate were 0.005-0.02 m and 2-2.5 m/m, respectively. Using these settings the computation time for simulating light propagation in LAHNC was reduced from 25.9 to 3.7 min in one case, and 10.1 to 4 minutes in another case. There were minor differences (1.62%, 1.13%) between the radiant exposures calculated with either mesh in both cases. Conclusions: Our FEA approach can be used to model light propagation from diffused optical fibers in complex heterogeneous geometries representing LAHNC. There is a range of maximum element size (MES) and maximum element growth rate (MEGR) that can be used to minimize the computation
Finite element radiation transport in one dimension
Painter, J.F.
1997-05-09
A new physics package solves radiation transport equations in one space dimension, multiple energy groups and directions. A discontinuous finite element method discretizes radiation intensity with respect to space and angle, and a continuous finite element method discretizes electron temperature `in space. A splitting method solves the resulting linear equations. This is a one-dimensional analog of Kershaw and Harte`s two-dimensional package. This package has been installed in a two-dimensional inertial confinement fusion code, and has given excellent results for both thermal waves and highly directional radiation. In contrast, the traditional discrete ordinate and spherical harmonic methods show less accurate results in both cases.
Yeh, G.T.; Strand, R.H.
1982-12-01
This report presents the user's manual of FECWASTE, a Finite-Element Code for simulating WASTE transport through saturated-unsaturated porous media. The code is designed for generic application. For each site-specific application, 12 control cards are required to specify the size of data arrays and 6 control cards are used to assign the control numbers in the main program. In addition, prior to the execution of FECWASTE, FECWATER must be executed to yield the groundwater flow variables including the pressure head, total head, moisture content, and Darcy's velocity components. Input data to the computer code includes the program control indices, properties of the porous media, parameters of waste-media interaction, the geometry in the form of elements and nodes, boundary and initial conditions, and waste characteristics. Principal output includes the spatial distribution of the concentration and material fluxes at any desired time. Fluxes through various types of boundaries, material accumulated in the matrix and solution, and material transformed through decay and chemical, physical, and biological degradation are also the output, if desired.
Numerical computation of transonic flows by finite-element and finite-difference methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hafez, M. M.; Wellford, L. C.; Merkle, C. L.; Murman, E. M.
1978-01-01
Studies on applications of the finite element approach to transonic flow calculations are reported. Different discretization techniques of the differential equations and boundary conditions are compared. Finite element analogs of Murman's mixed type finite difference operators for small disturbance formulations were constructed and the time dependent approach (using finite differences in time and finite elements in space) was examined.
Slave finite elements: The temporal element approach to nonlinear analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gellin, S.
1984-01-01
A formulation method for finite elements in space and time incorporating nonlinear geometric and material behavior is presented. The method uses interpolation polynomials for approximating the behavior of various quantities over the element domain, and only explicit integration over space and time. While applications are general, the plate and shell elements that are currently being programmed are appropriate to model turbine blades, vanes, and combustor liners.
FEMFLOW3D; a finite-element program for the simulation of three-dimensional aquifers; version 1.0
Durbin, Timothy J.; Bond, Linda D.
1998-01-01
This document also includes model validation, source code, and example input and output files. Model validation was performed using four test problems. For each test problem, the results of a model simulation with FEMFLOW3D were compared with either an analytic solution or the results of an independent numerical approach. The source code, written in the ANSI x3.9-1978 FORTRAN standard, and the complete input and output of an example problem are listed in the appendixes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, N.; Wong, L.; Bloecher, G.; Cacace, M.; Kolditz, O.
2012-12-01
We present our recent development of the finite element method (FEM) for simulating coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in discretely fractured porous media and an application to geothermal reservoir modeling for the research test site Gross Schoenebeck in Germany operated by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. Numerical analysis of multi-physics problems in fractured rocks is important for various geotechnical applications. In particular for enhanced geothermal reservoirs where induced fractures and possibly natural fault systems dominate the system behavior, explicit modeling of those characteristic fractures (i.e. discrete fracture models) is essential to get more detailed understanding of in-situ processes and reliable estimations of heat extraction from those deep reservoirs. However, as fractures are mechanical discontinuities, it is difficult to solve the problems using continuity based numerical methods such as the FEM. Currently, equivalent porous medium or multiple continuum model approaches are often only the way to model fractured rocks with the FEM. The authors have recently developed lower-dimensional interface elements (LIEs) for modeling mechanics-involved coupled processes with pre-existing fractures (Watanabe et al. 2012 IJNME). The method does not require any double nodes unlike conventional interface elements. Moreover, for coupled problems, the approach allows for the use of a single mesh for both mechanical and other related processes such as flow and transport. All the code developments have been carried out within the scientific open source project OpenGeoSys (www.opengeosys.net) (Kolditz et al. 2012 EES). Using both traditional and new simulation techniques, a geothermal reservoir model for the research test site Gross Schoenebeck has been developed. Unstructured meshing of the complex faulted reservoir including both rock matrix and fracture elements has been conducted using recently developed automatic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sui, Guo-Fa; Li, Jin-Shan; Li, Hong-Wei; Sun, Feng; Zhang, Tie-Bang; Fu, Heng-Zhi
2012-02-01
To solve the difficulty in the explosive welding of corrosion-resistant aluminum and stainless steel tubes, three technologies were proposed after investigating the forming mechanism through experiments. Then, a 3D finite element model was established for systematic simulations in the parameter determination. The results show that the transition-layer approach, the coaxial initial assembly of tubes with the top-center-point the detonation, and the systematic study by numerical modeling are the key technologies to make the explosive welding of LF6 aluminum alloy and 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel tubes feasible. Numerical simulation shows that radial contraction and slope collision through continuous local plastic deformation are necessary for the good bonding of tubes. Stand-off distances between tubes ( D 1 and D 2) and explosives amount ( R) have effect on the plastic deformation, moving velocity, and bonding of tubes. D 1 of 1 mm, D 2 of 2 mm, and R of 2/3 are suitable for the explosive welding of LF6-L2-1Cr18Ni9Ti three-layer tubes. The plastic strain and moving velocity of the flyer tubes increase with the increase of stand-off distance. More explosives ( R>2/3) result in the asymmetrical distribution of plastic strain and non-bonding at the end of detonation on the tubes.
Oftadeh, R.; Karimi, Z.; Villa-Camacho, J.; Tanck, E.; Verdonschot, N.; Goebel, R.; Snyder, B. D.; Hashemi, H. N.; Vaziri, A.; Nazarian, A.
2016-01-01
In this paper, a CT based structural rigidity analysis (CTRA) method that incorporates bone intrinsic local curvature is introduced to assess the compressive failure load of human femur with simulated lytic defects. The proposed CTRA is based on a three dimensional curved beam theory to obtain critical stresses within the human femur model. To test the proposed method, ten human cadaveric femurs with and without simulated defects were mechanically tested under axial compression to failure. Quantitative computed tomography images were acquired from the samples, and CTRA and finite element analysis were performed to obtain the failure load as well as rigidities in both straight and curved cross sections. Experimental results were compared to the results obtained from FEA and CTRA. The failure loads predicated by curved beam CTRA and FEA are in agreement with experimental results. The results also show that the proposed method is an efficient and reliable method to find both the location and magnitude of failure load. Moreover, the results show that the proposed curved CTRA outperforms the regular straight beam CTRA, which ignores the bone intrinsic curvature and can be used as a useful tool in clinical practices. PMID:27585495
Oftadeh, R; Karimi, Z; Villa-Camacho, J; Tanck, E; Verdonschot, N; Goebel, R; Snyder, B D; Hashemi, H N; Vaziri, A; Nazarian, A
2016-01-01
In this paper, a CT based structural rigidity analysis (CTRA) method that incorporates bone intrinsic local curvature is introduced to assess the compressive failure load of human femur with simulated lytic defects. The proposed CTRA is based on a three dimensional curved beam theory to obtain critical stresses within the human femur model. To test the proposed method, ten human cadaveric femurs with and without simulated defects were mechanically tested under axial compression to failure. Quantitative computed tomography images were acquired from the samples, and CTRA and finite element analysis were performed to obtain the failure load as well as rigidities in both straight and curved cross sections. Experimental results were compared to the results obtained from FEA and CTRA. The failure loads predicated by curved beam CTRA and FEA are in agreement with experimental results. The results also show that the proposed method is an efficient and reliable method to find both the location and magnitude of failure load. Moreover, the results show that the proposed curved CTRA outperforms the regular straight beam CTRA, which ignores the bone intrinsic curvature and can be used as a useful tool in clinical practices. PMID:27585495
Wang, Qian; Wood, Sarah A.; Grosse, Ian R.; Ross, Callum F.; Zapata, Uriel; Byron, Craig D.; Wright, Barth W.; Strait, David S.
2012-01-01
The global biomechanical impact of cranial sutures on the face and cranium during dynamic conditions is not well understood. It is hypothesized that sutures act as energy absorbers protecting skulls subjected to dynamic loads. This hypothesis predicts that sutures have a significant impact on global patterns of strain and cranial structural stiffness when analyzed using dynamic simulations; and that this global impact is influenced by suture material properties. In a finite element model developed from a juvenile Rhesus macaque cranium, five different sets of suture material properties for the zygomaticotemporal sutures were tested. The static and dynamic analyses produced similar results in terms of strain patterns and reaction forces, indicating that the zygomaticotemporal sutures have limited impact on global skull mechanics regardless of loading design. Contrary to the functional hypothesis tested here, the zygomaticotemporal sutures did not absorb significant amounts of energy during dynamic simulations regardless of loading speed. It is alternatively hypothesized that sutures are mechanically significant only insofar as they are weak points on the cranium that must be shielded from unduly high stresses so as not to disrupt vitally important growth processes. Thus, sutural and overall cranial form in some vertebrates may be optimized to minimize or otherwise modulate sutural stress and strain. PMID:22190334
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghoneim, A.; Hunedy, J.; Ojo, O. A.
2013-02-01
A new numerical simulation model is developed by using an interface-enriched eXtended Finite Element-Level Set (XFE-LS) method to study the solute-induced melting of additive powder particles (APPs) during transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding. The robust model captures rapidly occurring concurrent interfacial events at multiple propagating liquid-solid interfaces to simulate the melting behavior. In contrast to the critical assumption in analytical models, numerical calculations show that solute-transport into the APPs during the equilibration of the liquid composition is a significant factor that affects the APPs melting behavior. Also, the study shows that the solute-transport dependence of extent of APPs melting is influenced by the kinetics of solid-state solute diffusion within the particles. The understanding generated by the numerical analysis has resulted in the use of interlayer powder mixture that contains base-alloy APPs to produce single crystal TLP joint that has matching crystallographic orientations with single crystal substrate material, at a substantially reduced processing time, which has been previously considered unfeasible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amsellem, O.; Borit, F.; Jeulin, D.; Guipont, V.; Jeandin, M.; Boller, E.; Pauchet, F.
2012-03-01
Moving from a 2-dimensional to a 3-dimensional (3D) approach to microstructure and properties has been expected eagerly for a long while to result in a dramatic increase in the knowledge of thermally sprayed coatings. To meet these expectations, in the present study, microtomography and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out to simulate the microstructure of plasma-sprayed alumina. As-sprayed and excimer laser-processed deposits were studied. Some unexpected but relevant results, e.g., regarding pore orientation in the coatings, could be obtained. EIS led to the establishment of an equivalent electrical circuit representation of the microstructure which enabled modeling of the insulating properties as a function of interfaces and pore interconnection. The pore interconnection was studied by microtomography. From this 3D simulation, a finite element analysis of Young's modulus properties was developed and compared to experiments. Using this approach, excimer laser surface processing was shown to be an innovative process to modify insulating characteristics of plasma-sprayed alumina.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oftadeh, R.; Karimi, Z.; Villa-Camacho, J.; Tanck, E.; Verdonschot, N.; Goebel, R.; Snyder, B. D.; Hashemi, H. N.; Vaziri, A.; Nazarian, A.
2016-09-01
In this paper, a CT based structural rigidity analysis (CTRA) method that incorporates bone intrinsic local curvature is introduced to assess the compressive failure load of human femur with simulated lytic defects. The proposed CTRA is based on a three dimensional curved beam theory to obtain critical stresses within the human femur model. To test the proposed method, ten human cadaveric femurs with and without simulated defects were mechanically tested under axial compression to failure. Quantitative computed tomography images were acquired from the samples, and CTRA and finite element analysis were performed to obtain the failure load as well as rigidities in both straight and curved cross sections. Experimental results were compared to the results obtained from FEA and CTRA. The failure loads predicated by curved beam CTRA and FEA are in agreement with experimental results. The results also show that the proposed method is an efficient and reliable method to find both the location and magnitude of failure load. Moreover, the results show that the proposed curved CTRA outperforms the regular straight beam CTRA, which ignores the bone intrinsic curvature and can be used as a useful tool in clinical practices.
Adaptive finite element strategies for shell structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stanley, G.; Levit, I.; Stehlin, B.; Hurlbut, B.
1992-01-01
The present paper extends existing finite element adaptive refinement (AR) techniques to shell structures, which have heretofore been neglected in the AR literature. Specific challenges in applying AR to shell structures include: (1) physical discontinuities (e.g., stiffener intersections); (2) boundary layers; (3) sensitivity to geometric imperfections; (4) the sensitivity of most shell elements to mesh distortion, constraint definition and/or thinness; and (5) intrinsic geometric nonlinearity. All of these challenges but (5) are addressed here.
A multidimensional finite element method for CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pepper, Darrell W.; Humphrey, Joseph W.
1991-01-01
A finite element method is used to solve the equations of motion for 2- and 3-D fluid flow. The time-dependent equations are solved explicitly using quadrilateral (2-D) and hexahedral (3-D) elements, mass lumping, and reduced integration. A Petrov-Galerkin technique is applied to the advection terms. The method requires a minimum of computational storage, executes quickly, and is scalable for execution on computer systems ranging from PCs to supercomputers.
Quadrilateral/hexahedral finite element mesh coarsening
Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Scott, Michael A; Benzley, Steven E
2012-10-16
A technique for coarsening a finite element mesh ("FEM") is described. This technique includes identifying a coarsening region within the FEM to be coarsened. Perimeter chords running along perimeter boundaries of the coarsening region are identified. The perimeter chords are redirected to create an adaptive chord separating the coarsening region from a remainder of the FEM. The adaptive chord runs through mesh elements residing along the perimeter boundaries of the coarsening region. The adaptive chord is then extracted to coarsen the FEM.
Finite Element Model of Cardiac Electrical Conduction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, John Zhihao
1994-01-01
In this thesis, we develop mathematical models to study electrical conduction of the heart. One important pattern of wave propagation of electrical excitation in the heart is reentry which is believed to be the underlying mechanism of some dangerous cardiac arhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. We present in this thesis a new ionic channel model of the ventricular cardiac cell membrane to study the microscopic electrical properties of myocardium. We base our model on recent single channel experiment data and a simple physical diffusion model of the calcium channel. Our ionic channel model of myocardium has simpler differential equations and fewer parameters than previous models. Further more, our ionic channel model achieves better results in simulating the strength-interval curve when we connect the membrane patch model to form a one dimensional cardiac muscle strand. We go on to study a finite element model which uses multiple states and non-nearest neighbor interactions to include curvature and dispersion effects. We create a generalized lattice randomization to overcome the artifacts generated by the interaction between the local dynamics and the regularities of the square lattice. We show that the homogeneous model does not display spontaneous wavefront breakup in a reentrant wave propagation once the lattice artifacts have been smoothed out by lattice randomization with a randomization scale larger than the characteristic length of the interaction. We further develop a finite 3-D 3-state heart model which employs a probability interaction rule. This model is applied to the simulation of Body Surface Laplacian Mapping (BSLM) using a cylindrical volume conductor as the torso model. We show that BSLM has a higher spatial resolution than conventional mapping methods in revealing the underlying electrical activities of the heart. The results of these studies demonstrate that mathematical modeling and computer simulation are very
Animation of finite element models and results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lipman, Robert R.
1992-01-01
This is not intended as a complete review of computer hardware and software that can be used for animation of finite element models and results, but is instead a demonstration of the benefits of visualization using selected hardware and software. The role of raw computational power, graphics speed, and the use of videotape are discussed.
Finite element displacement analysis of a lung.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matthews, F. L.; West, J. B.
1972-01-01
A method is given based on the technique of finite elements which determines theoretically the mechanical behavior of a lung-shaped body loaded by its own weight. The results of this theoretical analysis have been compared with actual measurements of alveolar size and pleural pressures in animal lungs.
Finite element analysis of a meniscus mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamashita, Y.
1989-10-01
Finite element analyses were carried out for a 7.5 m meniscus mirror of 20 cm thickness. Calculations were made for deformations of the mirror surface due to the gravity and the effect of a hole through which a lateral supporting mechanism would be installed. Vibrational eigenmodes were also calculated when the mirror is fixed by three axial and three lateral hard points.
Direct finite element equation solving algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melosh, R. J.; Utku, S.; Salama, M.
1985-01-01
This paper presents and examines direct solution algorithms for the linear simultaneous equations that arise when finite element models represent an engineering system. It identifies the mathematical processing of four solution methods and assesses their data processing implications using concurrent processing.
Finite element models of the space shuttle main engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muller, G. R.
1980-01-01
Finite element models were developed as input to dynamic simulations of the high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP), the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME). Descriptions are provided for the five basic finite element models: HPFTP rotor, HPFTP case, HPOTP rotor, HPOTP case, and SSME (excluding turbopumps). Modal results are presented for the HPFTP rotor, HPFTP case, HPOTP rotor, coupled HPFTP rotor and case, HPOTP case, coupled HPOTP rotor and case, SSME (excluding turbopumps), and SSME (including turbopumps). Results for the SSME (including turbopumps) model are compared to data from a SSME HPOTP modal survey.
2012-01-01
Background Osteoporotic hip fractures represent major cause of disability, loss of quality of life and even mortality among the elderly population. Decisions on drug therapy are based on the assessment of risk factors for fracture, from BMD measurements. The combination of biomechanical models with clinical studies could better estimate bone strength and supporting the specialists in their decision. Methods A model to assess the probability of fracture, based on the Damage and Fracture Mechanics has been developed, evaluating the mechanical magnitudes involved in the fracture process from clinical BMD measurements. The model is intended for simulating the degenerative process in the skeleton, with the consequent lost of bone mass and hence the decrease of its mechanical resistance which enables the fracture due to different traumatisms. Clinical studies were chosen, both in non-treatment conditions and receiving drug therapy, and fitted to specific patients according their actual BMD measures. The predictive model is applied in a FE simulation of the proximal femur. The fracture zone would be determined according loading scenario (sideway fall, impact, accidental loads, etc.), using the mechanical properties of bone obtained from the evolutionary model corresponding to the considered time. Results BMD evolution in untreated patients and in those under different treatments was analyzed. Evolutionary curves of fracture probability were obtained from the evolution of mechanical damage. The evolutionary curve of the untreated group of patients presented a marked increase of the fracture probability, while the curves of patients under drug treatment showed variable decreased risks, depending on the therapy type. Conclusion The FE model allowed to obtain detailed maps of damage and fracture probability, identifying high-risk local zones at femoral neck and intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric areas, which are the typical locations of osteoporotic hip fractures. The
On Hybrid and mixed finite element methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pian, T. H. H.
1981-01-01
Three versions of the assumed stress hybrid model in finite element methods and the corresponding variational principles for the formulation are presented. Examples of rank deficiency for stiffness matrices by the hybrid stress model are given and their corresponding kinematic deformation modes are identified. A discussion of the derivation of general semi-Loof elements for plates and shells by the hybrid stress method is given. It is shown that the equilibrium model by Fraeijs de Veubeke can be derived by the approach of the hybrid stress model as a special case of semi-Loof elements.
Finite element computation with parallel VLSI
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgregor, J.; Salama, M.
1983-01-01
This paper describes a parallel processing computer consisting of a 16-bit microcomputer as a master processor which controls and coordinates the activities of 8086/8087 VLSI chip set slave processors working in parallel. The hardware is inexpensive and can be flexibly configured and programmed to perform various functions. This makes it a useful research tool for the development of, and experimentation with parallel mathematical algorithms. Application of the hardware to computational tasks involved in the finite element analysis method is demonstrated by the generation and assembly of beam finite element stiffness matrices. A number of possible schemes for the implementation of N-elements on N- or n-processors (N is greater than n) are described, and the speedup factors of their time consumption are determined as a function of the number of available parallel processors.
Revolution in Orthodontics: Finite element analysis
Singh, Johar Rajvinder; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Jain, Megha; Khandelwal, Piyush
2016-01-01
Engineering has not only developed in the field of medicine but has also become quite established in the field of dentistry, especially Orthodontics. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computational procedure to calculate the stress in an element, which performs a model solution. This structural analysis allows the determination of stress resulting from external force, pressure, thermal change, and other factors. This method is extremely useful for indicating mechanical aspects of biomaterials and human tissues that can hardly be measured in vivo. The results obtained can then be studied using visualization software within the finite element method (FEM) to view a variety of parameters, and to fully identify implications of the analysis. This is a review to show the applications of FEM in Orthodontics. It is extremely important to verify what the purpose of the study is in order to correctly apply FEM. PMID:27114948
Flow Applications of the Least Squares Finite Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan
1998-01-01
The main thrust of the effort has been towards the development, analysis and implementation of the least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) for fluid dynamics and electromagnetics applications. In the past year, there were four major accomplishments: 1) special treatments in computational fluid dynamics and computational electromagnetics, such as upwinding, numerical dissipation, staggered grid, non-equal order elements, operator splitting and preconditioning, edge elements, and vector potential are unnecessary; 2) the analysis of the LSFEM for most partial differential equations can be based on the bounded inverse theorem; 3) the finite difference and finite volume algorithms solve only two Maxwell equations and ignore the divergence equations; and 4) the first numerical simulation of three-dimensional Marangoni-Benard convection was performed using the LSFEM.
Adaptive finite-element ballooning analysis of bipolar ionized fields
Al-Hamouz, Z.M.
1995-12-31
This paper presents an adaptive finite-element iterative method for the analysis of the ionized field around high-voltage bipolar direct-current (HVDC) transmission line conductors without resort to Deutsch`s assumption. A new iterative finite-element ballooning technique is proposed to solve Poisson`s equation wherein the commonly used artificial boundary around the transmission line conductors is simulated at infinity. Unlike all attempts reported in the literature for the solution of ionized field, the constancy of the conductors` surface field at the corona onset value is directly implemented in the finite-element formulation. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a laboratory model was built. It has been found that the calculated V-I characteristics and the ground-plane current density agreed well with those measured experimentally. The simplicity in computer programming in addition to the low number of iterations required to achieve convergence characterize this method of analysis.
Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers
2005-03-18
Sparse systems of linear equations arise in many engineering applications, including finite elements, finite volumes, and others. The solution of linear systems is often the most computationally intensive portion of the application. Depending on the complexity of problems addressed by the application, there may be no single solver capable of solving all of the linear systems that arise. This motivates the desire to switch an application from one solver librwy to another, depending on themore » problem being solved. The interfaces provided by solver libraries differ greatly, making it difficult to switch an application code from one library to another. The amount of library-specific code in an application Can be greatly reduced by having an abstraction layer between solver libraries and the application, putting a common "face" on various solver libraries. One such abstraction layer is the Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers (EEl), which has seen significant use by finite element applications at Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.« less
New hybrid quadrilateral finite element for Mindlin plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chin, Yi; Zhang, Jingyu
1994-02-01
A new quadrilateral plate element concerning the effect of transverse shear strain was presented. It was derived from the hybrid finite element model based on the principles of virtual work. The outstanding advantage of this element was to use more rational trial functions of the displacements. For this reason, every variety of plate deformation can be simulated really while the least degrees of freedom was employed. A wide range of numerical tests was conducted and the results illustrate that this element has a very wide application scope to the thickness of plates and satisfactory accuracy can be obtained by coarse mesh for all kinds of examples.
Baillie, D; St Aubin, J; Fallone, B; Steciw, S
2014-06-15
Purpose: To design a new compact S-band linac waveguide capable of producing a 10 MV x-ray beam, while maintaining the length (27.5 cm) of current 6 MV waveguides. This will allow higher x-ray energies to be used in our linac-MRI systems with the same footprint. Methods: Finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics was used to design an accelerator cavity matching one published in an experiment breakdown study, to ensure that our modeled cavities do not exceed the threshold electric fields published. This cavity was used as the basis for designing an accelerator waveguide, where each cavity of the full waveguide was tuned to resonate at 2.997 GHz by adjusting the cavity diameter. The RF field solution within the waveguide was calculated, and together with an electron-gun phase space generated using Opera3D/SCALA, were input into electron tracking software PARMELA to compute the electron phase space striking the x-ray target. This target phase space was then used in BEAM Monte Carlo simulations to generate percent depth doses curves for this new linac, which were then used to re-optimize the waveguide geometry. Results: The shunt impedance, Q-factor, and peak-to-mean electric field ratio were matched to those published for the breakdown study to within 0.1% error. After tuning the full waveguide, the peak surface fields are calculated to be 207 MV/m, 13% below the breakdown threshold, and a d-max depth of 2.42 cm, a D10/20 value of 1.59, compared to 2.45 cm and 1.59, respectively, for the simulated Varian 10 MV linac and brehmsstrahlung production efficiency 20% lower than a simulated Varian 10 MV linac. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the design of a functional 27.5 cm waveguide producing 10 MV photons with characteristics similar to a Varian 10 MV linac.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abhilash, T.; Balasubrahmaniyam, M.; Kasiviswanathan, S.
2016-03-01
Photochromic transitions in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded titanium dioxide (TiO2) films under green light illumination are marked by reduction in strength and blue shift in the position of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) associated with AgNPs. These transitions, which happen in the sub-nanometer length scale, have been analysed using the variations observed in the effective dielectric properties of the Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite films in response to the size reduction of AgNPs and subsequent changes in the surrounding medium due to photo-oxidation. Bergman-Milton formulation based on spectral density approach is used to extract dielectric properties and information about the geometrical distribution of the effective medium. Combined with finite element method simulations, we isolate the effects due to the change in average size of the nanoparticles and those due to the change in the dielectric function of the surrounding medium. By analysing the dynamics of photochromic transitions in the effective medium, we conclude that the observed blue shift in LSPR is mainly because of the change in the dielectric function of surrounding medium, while a shape-preserving effective size reduction of the AgNPs causes decrease in the strength of LSPR.
Zhang, Gong; Yuan, Hai; Chen, Xianshuai; Wang, Weijun; Chen, Jianyu; Liang, Jimin; Zhang, Peng
2016-01-01
Background/Purpose. This three-dimensional finite element study observed the stress distribution characteristics of 12 types of dental implants and their surrounding bone tissues with various structured abutments, implant threads, and healing methods under different amounts of concentrated loading. Materials and Methods. A three-dimensional geometrical model of a dental implant and its surrounding bone tissue was created; the model simulated a screw applied with a preload of 200 N or a torque of 0.2 N·m and a prosthetic crown applied with a vertical or an inclined force of 100 N. The Von Mises stress was evaluated on the 12 types of dental implants and their surrounding bone tissues. Results. Under the same loading force, the stress influence on the implant threads was not significant; however, the stress influence on the cancellous bone was obvious. The stress applied to the abutment, cortical bone, and cancellous bone by the inclined force applied to the crown was larger than the stress applied by the vertical force to the crown, and the abutment stress of the nonsubmerged healing implant system was higher than that of the submerged healing implant system. Conclusion. A dental implant system characterised by a straight abutment, rectangle tooth, and nonsubmerged healing may provide minimum value for the implant-bone interface. PMID:26904121
Huang, Jane; Uchio, Eiichi; Goto, Satoru
2015-01-01
Purpose To determine the biomechanical response of an impacting airbag on eyes with different axial lengths with transsclerally fixated posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL). Materials and methods Simulations in a model human eye were performed with a computer using a finite element analysis program created by Nihon, ESI Group. The airbag was set to be deployed at five different velocities and to impact on eyes with three different axial lengths. These eyes were set to have transsclerally fixated PC IOL by a 10-0 polypropylene possessing a tensile force limit of 0.16 N according to the United States Pharmacopeia XXII. Results The corneoscleral opening was observed at a speed of 40 m/second or more in all model eyes. Eyes with the longest axial length of 25.85 mm had the greatest extent of deformity at any given impact velocity. The impact force exceeded the tensile force of 10-0 polypropylene at an impact velocity of 60 m/second in all eyes, causing breakage of the suture. Conclusion Eyes with transsclerally fixated PC IOL could rupture from airbag impact at high velocities. Eyes with long axial lengths experienced a greater deformity upon airbag impact due to a thinner eye wall. Further basic research on the biomechanical response for assessing eye injuries could help in developing a better airbag and in the further understanding of ocular traumas. PMID:25709387
Finite element analysis of human joints
Bossart, P.L.; Hollerbach, K.
1996-09-01
Our work focuses on the development of finite element models (FEMs) that describe the biomechanics of human joints. Finite element modeling is becoming a standard tool in industrial applications. In highly complex problems such as those found in biomechanics research, however, the full potential of FEMs is just beginning to be explored, due to the absence of precise, high resolution medical data and the difficulties encountered in converting these enormous datasets into a form that is usable in FEMs. With increasing computing speed and memory available, it is now feasible to address these challenges. We address the first by acquiring data with a high resolution C-ray CT scanner and the latter by developing semi-automated method for generating the volumetric meshes used in the FEM. Issues related to tomographic reconstruction, volume segmentation, the use of extracted surfaces to generate volumetric hexahedral meshes, and applications of the FEM are described.
2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor
1996-07-15
ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less
A 2-D Interface Element for Coupled Analysis of Independently Modeled 3-D Finite Element Subdomains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.
1998-01-01
Over the past few years, the development of the interface technology has provided an analysis framework for embedding detailed finite element models within finite element models which are less refined. This development has enabled the use of cascading substructure domains without the constraint of coincident nodes along substructure boundaries. The approach used for the interface element is based on an alternate variational principle often used in deriving hybrid finite elements. The resulting system of equations exhibits a high degree of sparsity but gives rise to a non-positive definite system which causes difficulties with many of the equation solvers in general-purpose finite element codes. Hence the global system of equations is generally solved using, a decomposition procedure with pivoting. The research reported to-date for the interface element includes the one-dimensional line interface element and two-dimensional surface interface element. Several large-scale simulations, including geometrically nonlinear problems, have been reported using the one-dimensional interface element technology; however, only limited applications are available for the surface interface element. In the applications reported to-date, the geometry of the interfaced domains exactly match each other even though the spatial discretization within each domain may be different. As such, the spatial modeling of each domain, the interface elements and the assembled system is still laborious. The present research is focused on developing a rapid modeling procedure based on a parametric interface representation of independently defined subdomains which are also independently discretized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salinas, P.; Jackson, M.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C.; Adam, A.; Xie, Z.; Percival, J. R.
2015-12-01
We present a new, high-order, control-volume-finite-element (CVFE) method with discontinuous representation for pressure and velocity to simulate multiphase flow in heterogeneous porous media. Time is discretized using an adaptive, fully implicit method. Heterogeneous geologic features are represented as volumes bounded by surfaces. Within these volumes, termed geologic domains, the material properties are constant. A given model typically contains numerous such geologic domains. Our approach conserves mass and does not require the use of CVs that span domain boundaries. Computational efficiency is increased by use of dynamic mesh optimization, in which an unstructured mesh adapts in space and time to key solution fields, such as pressure, velocity or saturation, whilst preserving the geometry of the geologic domains. Up-, cross- or down-scaling of material properties during mesh optimization is not required, as the properties are uniform within each geologic domain. We demonstrate that the approach, amongst other features, accurately preserves sharp saturation changes associated with high aspect ratio geologic domains such as fractures and mudstones, allowing efficient simulation of flow in highly heterogeneous models. Moreover, accurate solutions are obtained at significantly lower computational cost than an equivalent fine, fixed mesh and conventional CVFE methods. The use of implicit time integration allows the method to efficiently converge using highly anisotropic meshes without having to reduce the time-step. The work is significant for two key reasons. First, it resolves a long-standing problem associated with the use of classical CVFE methods to model flow in highly heterogeneous porous media, in which CVs span boundaries between domains of contrasting material properties. Second, it reduces computational cost/increases solution accuracy through the use of dynamic mesh optimization and time-stepping with large Courant number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz-Baier, Ricardo; Lunati, Ivan
2016-10-01
We present a novel discretization scheme tailored to a class of multiphase models that regard the physical system as consisting of multiple interacting continua. In the framework of mixture theory, we consider a general mathematical model that entails solving a system of mass and momentum equations for both the mixture and one of the phases. The model results in a strongly coupled and nonlinear system of partial differential equations that are written in terms of phase and mixture (barycentric) velocities, phase pressure, and saturation. We construct an accurate, robust and reliable hybrid method that combines a mixed finite element discretization of the momentum equations with a primal discontinuous finite volume-element discretization of the mass (or transport) equations. The scheme is devised for unstructured meshes and relies on mixed Brezzi-Douglas-Marini approximations of phase and total velocities, on piecewise constant elements for the approximation of phase or total pressures, as well as on a primal formulation that employs discontinuous finite volume elements defined on a dual diamond mesh to approximate scalar fields of interest (such as volume fraction, total density, saturation, etc.). As the discretization scheme is derived for a general formulation of multicontinuum physical systems, it can be readily applied to a large class of simplified multiphase models; on the other, the approach can be seen as a generalization of these models that are commonly encountered in the literature and employed when the latter are not sufficiently accurate. An extensive set of numerical test cases involving two- and three-dimensional porous media are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the method (displaying an optimal convergence rate), the physics-preserving properties of the mixed-primal scheme, as well as the robustness of the method (which is successfully used to simulate diverse physical phenomena such as density fingering, Terzaghi's consolidation
Finite element based electric motor design optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, C. Warren
1993-01-01
The purpose of this effort was to develop a finite element code for the analysis and design of permanent magnet electric motors. These motors would drive electromechanical actuators in advanced rocket engines. The actuators would control fuel valves and thrust vector control systems. Refurbishing the hydraulic systems of the Space Shuttle after each flight is costly and time consuming. Electromechanical actuators could replace hydraulics, improve system reliability, and reduce down time.
Finite element methods in fracture mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liebowitz, H.; Moyer, E. T., Jr.
1989-01-01
Finite-element methodology specific to the analysis of fracture mechanics problems is reviewed. Primary emphasis is on the important algorithmic developments which have enhanced the numerical modeling of fracture processes. Methodologies to address elastostatic problems in two and three dimensions, elastodynamic problems, elastoplastic problems, special considerations for three-dimensional nonlinear problems, and the modeling of stable crack growth are reviewed. In addition, the future needs of the fracture community are discussed and open questions are identified.
Finite element based electric motor design optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, C. Warren
1993-11-01
The purpose of this effort was to develop a finite element code for the analysis and design of permanent magnet electric motors. These motors would drive electromechanical actuators in advanced rocket engines. The actuators would control fuel valves and thrust vector control systems. Refurbishing the hydraulic systems of the Space Shuttle after each flight is costly and time consuming. Electromechanical actuators could replace hydraulics, improve system reliability, and reduce down time.
Finite Element Results Visualization for Unstructured Grids
Speck, Douglas E.; Dovey, Donald J.
1996-07-15
GRIZ is a general-purpose post-processing application supporting interactive visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. In addition to basic pseudocolor renderings of state variables over the mesh surface, GRIZ provides modern visualization techniques such as isocontours and isosurfaces, cutting planes, vector field display, and particle traces. GRIZ accepts both command-line and mouse-driven input, and is portable to virtually any UNIX platform which provides Motif and OpenGl libraries.
ExodusII Finite Element Data Model
2005-05-14
EXODUS II is a model developed to store and retrieve data for finite element analyses. It is used for preprocessing (problem definition), postprocessing (results visualization), as well as code to code data transfer. An EXODUS II data file is a random access, machine independent, binary file that is written and read via C, C++, or Fortran library routines which comprise the Application Programming Interface. (exodus II is based on netcdf)
EXODUS II: A finite element data model
Schoof, L.A.; Yarberry, V.R.
1994-09-01
EXODUS II is a model developed to store and retrieve data for finite element analyses. It is used for preprocessing (problem definition), postprocessing (results visualization), as well as code to code data transfer. An EXODUS II data file is a random access, machine independent, binary file that is written and read via C, C++, or Fortran library routines which comprise the Application Programming Interface (API).
Finite element analysis of wrinkling membranes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, R. K.; Hedgepeth, J. M.; Weingarten, V. I.; Das, P.; Kahyai, S.
1984-01-01
The development of a nonlinear numerical algorithm for the analysis of stresses and displacements in partly wrinkled flat membranes, and its implementation on the SAP VII finite-element code are described. A comparison of numerical results with exact solutions of two benchmark problems reveals excellent agreement, with good convergence of the required iterative procedure. An exact solution of a problem involving axisymmetric deformations of a partly wrinkled shallow curved membrane is also reported.
Finite-Element Analysis of Multiphase Immiscible Flow Through Soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuppusamy, T.; Sheng, J.; Parker, J. C.; Lenhard, R. J.
1987-04-01
A finite-element model is developed for multiphase flow through soil involving three immiscible fluids: namely, air, water, and a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL). A variational method is employed for the finite-element formulation corresponding to the coupled differential equations governing flow in a three-fluid phase porous medium system with constant air phase pressure. Constitutive relationships for fluid conductivities and saturations as functions of fluid pressures, which are derived in a companion paper by J. C. Parker et al. (this issue) and which may be calibrated from two-phase laboratory measurements, are employed in the finite-element program. The solution procedure uses backward time integration with iteration by a modified Picard method to handle the nonlinear properties. Laboratory experiments involving water displacement from soil columns by p cymene (a benzene-derivative hydrocarbon) under constant pressure were simulated by the finite-element program to validate the numerical model and formulation for constitutive properties. Transient water outflow predicted using independently measured saturation-capillary head data agreed with observed outflow data within the limits of precision of the predictions as estimated by a first-order Taylor series approximation considering parameter uncertainty due to experimental reproducability and constitutive model accuracy. Two-dimensional simulations are presented for a hypothetical field case involving introduction of NAPL near the soil surface due to leakage from an underground storage tank. Subsequent transport of NAPL in the variably saturated vadose and groundwater zones is analyzed.
Finite-element approach to Brownian dynamics of polymers.
Cyron, Christian J; Wall, Wolfgang A
2009-12-01
In the last decades simulation tools for Brownian dynamics of polymers have attracted more and more interest. Such simulation tools have been applied to a large variety of problems and accelerated the scientific progress significantly. However, the currently most frequently used explicit bead models exhibit severe limitations, especially with respect to time step size, the necessity of artificial constraints and the lack of a sound mathematical foundation. Here we present a framework for simulations of Brownian polymer dynamics based on the finite-element method. This approach allows simulating a wide range of physical phenomena at a highly attractive computational cost on the basis of a far-developed mathematical background.
FESDIF -- Finite Element Scalar Diffraction theory code
Kraus, H.G.
1992-09-01
This document describes the theory and use of a powerful scalar diffraction theory based computer code for calculation of intensity fields due to diffraction of optical waves by two-dimensional planar apertures and lenses. This code is called FESDIF (Finite Element Scalar Diffraction). It is based upon both Fraunhofer and Kirchhoff scalar diffraction theories. Simplified routines for circular apertures are included. However, the real power of the code comes from its basis in finite element methods. These methods allow the diffracting aperture to be virtually any geometric shape, including the various secondary aperture obstructions present in telescope systems. Aperture functions, with virtually any phase and amplitude variations, are allowed in the aperture openings. Step change aperture functions are accommodated. The incident waves are considered to be monochromatic. Plane waves, spherical waves, or Gaussian laser beams may be incident upon the apertures. Both area and line integral transformations were developed for the finite element based diffraction transformations. There is some loss of aperture function generality in the line integral transformations which are typically many times more computationally efficient than the area integral transformations when applicable to a particular problem.
Finite Element analyses of soil bioengineered slopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamagnini, Roberto; Switala, Barbara Maria; Sudan Acharya, Madhu; Wu, Wei; Graf, Frank; Auer, Michael; te Kamp, Lothar
2014-05-01
Soil Bioengineering methods are not only effective from an economical point of view, but they are also interesting as fully ecological solutions. The presented project is aimed to define a numerical model which includes the impact of vegetation on slope stability, considering both mechanical and hydrological effects. In this project, a constitutive model has been developed that accounts for the multi-phase nature of the soil, namely the partly saturated condition and it also includes the effects of a biological component. The constitutive equation is implemented in the Finite Element (FE) software Comes-Geo with an implicit integration scheme that accounts for the collapse of the soils structure due to wetting. The mathematical formulation of the constitutive equations is introduced by means of thermodynamics and it simulates the growth of the biological system during the time. The numerical code is then applied in the analysis of an ideal rainfall induced landslide. The slope is analyzed for vegetated and non-vegetated conditions. The final results allow to quantitatively assessing the impact of vegetation on slope stability. This allows drawing conclusions and choosing whenever it is worthful to use soil bioengineering methods in slope stabilization instead of traditional approaches. The application of the FE methods show some advantages with respect to the commonly used limit equilibrium analyses, because it can account for the real coupled strain-diffusion nature of the problem. The mechanical strength of roots is in fact influenced by the stress evolution into the slope. Moreover, FE method does not need a pre-definition of any failure surface. FE method can also be used in monitoring the progressive failure of the soil bio-engineered system as it calculates the amount of displacements and strains of the model slope. The preliminary study results show that the formulated equations can be useful for analysis and evaluation of different soil bio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasegawa, Kei; Geller, Robert J.; Hirabayashi, Nobuyasu
2016-06-01
We present a theoretical analysis of the error of synthetic seismograms computed by higher-order finite-element methods (ho-FEMs). We show the existence of a previously unrecognized type of error due to degenerate coupling between waves with the same frequency but different wavenumbers. These results are confirmed by simple numerical experiments using the spectral element method as an example of ho-FEMs. Errors of the type found by this study may occur generally in applications of ho-FEMs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Jiahao; Shahba, Ahmad; Ghosh, Somnath
2016-05-01
Image-based CPFE modeling involves computer generation of virtual polycrystalline microstructures from experimental data, followed by discretization into finite element meshes. Discretization is commonly accomplished using three-dimensional four-node tetrahedral or TET4 elements, which conform to the complex geometries. It has been commonly observed that TET4 elements suffer from severe volumetric locking when simulating deformation of incompressible or nearly incompressible materials. This paper develops and examines three locking-free stabilized finite element formulations in the context of crystal plasticity finite element analysis. They include a node-based uniform strain (NUS) element, a locally integrated B-bar (LIB) based element and a F-bar patch (FP) based element. All three formulations are based on the partitioning of TET4 element meshes and integrating over patches to obtain favorable incompressibility constraint ratios without adding large degrees of freedom. The results show that NUS formulation introduces unstable spurious energy modes, while the LIB and FP elements stabilize the solutions and are preferred for reliable CPFE analysis. The FP element is found to be computationally efficient over the LIB element.
Nikkhoo, Mohammad; Khalaf, Kinda; Kuo, Ya-Wen; Hsu, Yu-Chun; Haghpanahi, Mohammad; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Wang, Jaw-Lin
2015-01-01
The risk of low back pain resulted from cyclic loadings is greater than that resulted from prolonged static postures. Disk degeneration results in degradation of disk solid structures and decrease of water contents, which is caused by activation of matrix digestive enzymes. The mechanical responses resulted from internal solid–fluid interactions of degenerative disks to cyclic loadings are not well studied yet. The fluid–solid interactions in disks can be evaluated by mathematical models, especially the poroelastic finite element (FE) models. We developed a robust disk poroelastic FE model to analyze the effect of degeneration on solid–fluid interactions within disk subjected to cyclic loadings at different loading frequencies. A backward analysis combined with in vitro experiments was used to find the elastic modulus and hydraulic permeability of intact and enzyme-induced degenerated porcine disks. The results showed that the averaged peak-to-peak disk deformations during the in vitro cyclic tests were well fitted with limited FE simulations and a quadratic response surface regression for both disk groups. The results showed that higher loading frequency increased the intradiscal pressure, decreased the total fluid loss, and slightly increased the maximum axial stress within solid matrix. Enzyme-induced degeneration decreased the intradiscal pressure and total fluid loss, and barely changed the maximum axial stress within solid matrix. The increase of intradiscal pressure and total fluid loss with loading frequency was less sensitive after the frequency elevated to 0.1 Hz for the enzyme-induced degenerated disk. Based on this study, it is found that enzyme-induced degeneration decreases energy attenuation capability of disk, but less change the strength of disk. PMID:25674562
Cook, S.J.; Bowman, J.R.; Forster, C.B.
1997-01-01
Results of calcite-dolomite geothermometry and oxygen isotope studies of marbles in the southern portion of the contact aureole surrounding the Alta stock (Utah) provide evidence for extensive hydrothermal metamorphism in this part of the aureole. Simulation of these two independent data sets with two-dimensional, finite element fluid flow and heat transport models constrains the pattern of fluid flow, minimum permeability, and the permeability structure in this part of the aureole. Model results demonstrate that intrusion of the stock into a homogeneous, isotropic permeability medium yields peak metamorphic temperatures significantly lower than those measured in the marbles and significant {sup 18}O depletions both above and below the Alta-Grizzly thrust system. The latter contradicts the observations in the south aureole that {sup 18}O depletions in the marbles are restricted to marbles below the Alta-Grizzly thrust; dolomitic marbles above the thrust retain original sedimentary values up to the intrusive contact. Models with horizontal permeability barriers above the Alta-Grizzly thrust and extending over the top of the Alta stock are capable of reproducing the observed thermal and {delta}{sup 18}O profiles in the southern aureole. The presence of such horizontal barriers reduces the predominantly vertical fluid flow and heat transfer that would occur in a homogeneous and isotropic permeability medium, forcing fluid flow and heat transfer laterally away from the upper flanks of the stock. Such horizontal flow patterns are necessary to produce significant {sup 18}O depletion above the thrust, and to provide the necessary lateral heat transfer to duplicate the observed temperature profile. Best fit model results to the observed thermal and {delta}{sup 18}O profiles provide several new insights into the dynamics of fluid circulation and hydrogeologic characteristics of the southern Alta aureole during prograde metamorphism.
Advance finite element modeling of rotor blade aeroelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Straub, F. K.; Sangha, K. B.; Panda, B.
1994-01-01
An advanced beam finite element has been developed for modeling rotor blade dynamics and aeroelasticity. This element is part of the Element Library of the Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS). The element allows modeling of arbitrary rotor systems, including bearingless rotors. It accounts for moderately large elastic deflections, anisotropic properties, large frame motion for maneuver simulation, and allows for variable order shape functions. The effects of gravity, mechanically applied and aerodynamic loads are included. All kinematic quantities required to compute airloads are provided. In this paper, the fundamental assumptions and derivation of the element matrices are presented. Numerical results are shown to verify the formulation and illustrate several features of the element.
Modelling bucket excavation by finite element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pecingina, O. M.
2015-11-01
Changes in geological components of the layers from lignite pits have an impact on the sustainability of the cup path elements and under the action of excavation force appear efforts leading to deformation of the entire assembly. Application of finite element method in the optimization of components leads to economic growth, to increase the reliability and durability of the studied machine parts thus the machine. It is obvious usefulness of knowledge the state of mechanical tensions that the designed piece or the assembly not to break under the action of tensions that must cope during operation. In the course of excavation work on all bucket cutting force components, the first coming into contact with the material being excavated cutting edge. Therefore in the study with finite element analysis is retained only cutting edge. To study the field of stress and strain on the cutting edge will be created geometric patterns for each type of cup this will be subject to static analysis. The geometric design retains the cutting edge shape and on this on the tooth cassette location will apply an areal force on the abutment tooth. The cutting edge real pattern is subjected to finite element study for the worst case of rock cutting by symmetrical and asymmetrical cups whose profile is different. The purpose of this paper is to determine the displacement and tensions field for both profiles considering the maximum force applied on the cutting edge and the depth of the cutting is equal with the width of the cutting edge of the tooth. It will consider the worst case when on the structure will act both the tangential force and radial force on the bucket profile. For determination of stress and strain field on the form design of cutting edge profile will apply maximum force assuming uniform distribution and on the edge surface force will apply a radial force. After geometric patterns discretization on the cutting knives and determining stress field, can be seen that at the
Finite element modelling of the 1969 Portuguese tsunami
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guesmia, M.; Heinrich, Ph.; Mariotti, C.
1996-03-01
On the 28 th February 1969, the coasts of Portugal, Spain and Morocco were affected by water waves generated by a submarine earthquake (Ms=7.3) with epicenter located off Portugal. The propagation of this tsunami has been simulated by a finite element numerical model solving the Boussinesq equations. These equations have been discretized using the finite element Galerkin method and a Crank-Nicholson scheme in time. The 2-D simulation of the 1969 tsunami is carried out using the hydraulic source calculated from the geophysical model of Okada and seismic parameters of Fukao. The modeled waves are compared with the recorded waves with respect to the travel times, the maximum amplitudes, the periods of the signal. Good agreement is found for most of the studied gauges. The comparison between Boussinesq and shallow-water models shows that the effects of frequency dispersion are minor using Fukao's seismic parameters.
A finite element model for residual stress in repair welds
Feng, Z.; Wang, X.L.; Spooner, S.; Goodwin, G.M.; Maziasz, P.J.; Hubbard, C.R.; Zacharia, T.
1996-03-28
This paper describes a three-dimensional finite element model for calculation of the residual stress distribution caused by repair welding. Special user subroutines were developed to simulate the continuous deposition of filler metal during welding. The model was then tested by simulating the residual stress/strain field of a FeAl weld overlay clad on a 2{1/4}Cr-1 Mo steel plate, for which neutron diffraction measurement data of the residual strain field were available. It is shown that the calculated residual stress distribution was consistent with that determined with neutron diffraction. High tensile residual stresses in both the longitudinal and transverse directions were observed around the weld toe at the end of the weld. The strong spatial dependency of the residual stresses in the region around the weld demonstrates that the common two-dimensional cross-section finite element models should not be used for repair welding analysis.
Modelling the arterial wall by finite elements.
Mosora, F; Harmant, A; Bernard, C; Fossion, A; Pochet, T; Juchmes, J; Cescotto, S
1993-01-01
The mechanical behaviour of the arterial wall was determined theoretically utilizing some parameters of blood flow measured in vivo. Continuous experimental measurements of pressure and diameter were recorded in anesthetized dogs on the thoracic ascending and midabdominal aorta. The pressure was measured by using a catheter, and the diameter firstly, at the same site, by a plethysmograph with mercury gauge and secondly, by a sonomicrometer with ferroelectric ceramic transducers. The unstressed radius and thickness were measured at the end of each experiment in situ. Considering that the viscous component is not important relatively to the nonlinear component of the elasticity and utilizing several equations for Young modulus calculation (thick and thin wall circular cylindrical tube formulas and Bergel's equation) the following values were obtained for this parameter: 0.6 MPa-2 MPa in midabdominal aorta and 2 MPa-6.5 MPa in thoracic ascending aorta. The behaviour of the aorta wall was modelled considering an elastic law and using the finite element program "Lagamine" working in large deformations. The discretized equilibrium equations are non-linear and a unique axi-symmetric, iso-parametric element of 1 cm in length with 8 knots was used for this bi-dimensional problem. The theoretical estimation of radius vessel, utilizing a constant 5 MPa Young modulus and also a variable one, are in good agreement with the experimental results, showing that this finite element model can be applied to study mechanical properties of the arteries in physiological and pathological conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, J.; Adams, M.; Fertis, J.; Zeid, I.; Lam, P.
1982-01-01
Finite element codes are used in modelling rotor-bearing-stator structure common to the turbine industry. Engine dynamic simulation is used by developing strategies which enable the use of available finite element codes. benchmarking the elements developed are benchmarked by incorporation into a general purpose code (ADINA); the numerical characteristics of finite element type rotor-bearing-stator simulations are evaluated through the use of various types of explicit/implicit numerical integration operators. Improving the overall numerical efficiency of the procedure is improved.
An interactive virtual environment for finite element analysis
Bradshaw, S.; Canfield, T.; Kokinis, J.; Disz, T.
1995-06-01
Virtual environments (VE) provide a powerful human-computer interface that opens the door to exciting new methods of interaction with high-performance computing applications in several areas of research. The authors are interested in the use of virtual environments as a user interface to real-time simulations used in rapid prototyping procedures. Consequently, the authors are developing methods for coupling finite element models of complex mechanical systems with a VE interface for real-time interaction.
An Efficient Vector Finite Element Method for Nonlinear Electromagnetic Modeling
Fisher, A C; White, D A; Rodrigue, G H
2006-06-27
We have developed a mixed Vector Finite Element Method (VFEM) for Maxwell's equations with a nonlinear polarization term. The method allows for discretization of complicated geometries with arbitrary order representations of the B and E fields. In this paper we will describe the method and a series of optimizations that significantly reduce the computational cost. Additionally, a series of test simulations will be presented to validate the method. Finally, a nonlinear waveguide mode mixing example is presented and discussed.
Enhanced finite element scheme for vibrational and flow induced sound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaltenbacher, M.; Triebenbacher, S.; Wohlmuth, B.; Zörnre, S.
2010-06-01
The paper presents Finite Element (FE) methods for classical vibroacoustics as well as computational aeroacoustics. Therewith, we can handle different grid sizes in different regions and ensure a correct coupling at the interfaces by applying the Mortar FE method. Furthermore, we can fully take into account free radiation by a new Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) technique, which is stable even for long term computations. The applicability of our developed numerical methods will be demonstrated by simulation results of the human phonation.
Finite volume and finite element methods applied to 3D laminar and turbulent channel flows
Louda, Petr; Příhoda, Jaromír; Sváček, Petr; Kozel, Karel
2014-12-10
The work deals with numerical simulations of incompressible flow in channels with rectangular cross section. The rectangular cross section itself leads to development of various secondary flow patterns, where accuracy of simulation is influenced by numerical viscosity of the scheme and by turbulence modeling. In this work some developments of stabilized finite element method are presented. Its results are compared with those of an implicit finite volume method also described, in laminar and turbulent flows. It is shown that numerical viscosity can cause errors of same magnitude as different turbulence models. The finite volume method is also applied to 3D turbulent flow around backward facing step and good agreement with 3D experimental results is obtained.
Adaptive mesh generation for edge-element finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuboi, Hajime; Gyimothy, Szabolcs
2001-06-01
An adaptive mesh generation method for two- and three-dimensional finite element methods using edge elements is proposed. Since the tangential component continuity is preserved when using edge elements, the strategy of creating new nodes is based on evaluation of the normal component of the magnetic vector potential across element interfaces. The evaluation is performed at the middle point of edge of a triangular element for two-dimensional problems or at the gravity center of triangular surface of a tetrahedral element for three-dimensional problems. At the boundary of two elements, the error estimator is the ratio of the normal component discontinuity to the maximum value of the potential in the same material. One or more nodes are set at the middle points of the edges according to the value of the estimator as well as the subdivision of elements where new nodes have been created. A final mesh will be obtained after several iterations. Some computation results of two- and three-dimensional problems using the proposed method are shown.
2-D Finite Element Heat Conduction
1989-10-30
AYER is a finite element program which implicitly solves the general two-dimensional equation of thermal conduction for plane or axisymmetric bodies. AYER takes into account the effects of time (transient problems), in-plane anisotropic thermal conductivity, a three-dimensional velocity distribution, and interface thermal contact resistance. Geometry and material distributions are arbitrary, and input is via subroutines provided by the user. As a result, boundary conditions, material properties, velocity distributions, and internal power generation may be mademore » functions of, e.g., time, temperature, location, and heat flux.« less
Chemorheology of reactive systems: Finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Douglas, C.; Roylance, D.
1982-01-01
The equations which govern the nonisothermal flow of reactive fluids are outlined, and the means by which finite element analysis is used to solve these equations for the sort of arbitrary boundary conditions encountered in industrial practice are described. The performance of the computer code is illustrated by several trial problems, selected more for their value in providing insight to polymer processing flows than as practical production problems. Although a good deal remains to be learned as to the performance and proper use of this numerical technique, it is undeniably useful in providing better understanding of today's complicated polymer processing problems.
A finite element model of ultrasonic extrusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucas, M.; Daud, Y.
2009-08-01
Since the 1950's researchers have carried out investigations into the effects of applying ultrasonic excitation to metals undergoing elastic and plastic deformation. Experiments have been conducted where ultrasonic excitation is superimposed in complex metalworking operations such as wire drawing and extrusion, to identify the benefits of ultrasonic vibrations. This study presents a finite element analysis of ultrasonic excitation applied to the extrusion of a cylindrical aluminium bar. The effects of friction on the extrusion load are reported for the two excitation configurations of radially and axially applied ultrasonic vibrations and the results are compared with experimental data reported in the literature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gelinas, R. J.; Doss, S. K.; Vajk, J. P.; Djomehri, J.; Miller, K.
1983-01-01
The mathematical background regarding the moving finite element (MFE) method of Miller and Miller (1981) is discussed, taking into account a general system of partial differential equations (PDE) and the amenability of the MFE method in two dimensions to code modularization and to semiautomatic user-construction of numerous PDE systems for both Dirichlet and zero-Neumann boundary conditions. A description of test problem results is presented, giving attention to aspects of single square wave propagation, and a solution of the heat equation.
Interpreting finite element results for brittle materials in endodontic restorations
2011-01-01
Background Finite element simulation has been used in last years for analysing the biomechanical performance of post-core restorations in endodontics, but results of these simulations have been interpreted in most of the works using von Mises stress criterion. However, the validity of this failure criterion for brittle materials, which are present in these restorations, is questionable. The objective of the paper is to analyse how finite element results for brittle materials of endodontic restorations should be interpreted to obtain correct conclusions about the possible failure in the restoration. Methods Different failure criteria (Von Mises, Rankine, Coulomb-Mohr, Modified Mohr and Christensen) and material strength data (diametral tensile strength and flexural strength) were considered in the study. Three finite element models (FEM) were developed to simulate an endodontic restoration and two typical material tests: diametral tensile test and flexural test. Results Results showed that the Christensen criterion predicts similar results as the Von Mises criterion for ductile components, while it predicts similar results to all other criteria for brittle components. The different criteria predict different failure points for the diametral tensile test, all of them under multi-axial stress states. All criteria except Von Mises predict failure for flexural test at the same point of the specimen, with this point under uniaxial tensile stress. Conclusions From the results it is concluded that the Christensen criterion is recommended for FEM result interpretation in endodontic restorations and that the flexural test is recommended to estimate tensile strength instead of the diametral tensile test. PMID:21635759
Tadepalli, Srinivas C; Erdemir, Ahmet; Cavanagh, Peter R
2011-08-11
Finite element analysis has been widely used in the field of foot and footwear biomechanics to determine plantar pressures as well as stresses and strains within soft tissue and footwear materials. When dealing with anatomical structures such as the foot, hexahedral mesh generation accounts for most of the model development time due to geometric complexities imposed by branching and embedded structures. Tetrahedral meshing, which can be more easily automated, has been the approach of choice to date in foot and footwear biomechanics. Here we use the nonlinear finite element program Abaqus (Simulia, Providence, RI) to examine the advantages and disadvantages of tetrahedral and hexahedral elements under compression and shear loading, material incompressibility, and frictional contact conditions, which are commonly seen in foot and footwear biomechanics. This study demonstrated that for a range of simulation conditions, hybrid hexahedral elements (Abaqus C3D8H) consistently performed well while hybrid linear tetrahedral elements (Abaqus C3D4H) performed poorly. On the other hand, enhanced quadratic tetrahedral elements with improved stress visualization (Abaqus C3D10I) performed as well as the hybrid hexahedral elements in terms of contact pressure and contact shear stress predictions. Although the enhanced quadratic tetrahedral element simulations were computationally expensive compared to hexahedral element simulations in both barefoot and footwear conditions, the enhanced quadratic tetrahedral element formulation seems to be very promising for foot and footwear applications as a result of decreased labor and expedited model development, all related to facilitated mesh generation.
Impeller deflection and modal finite element analysis.
Spencer, Nathan A.
2013-10-01
Deflections of an impeller due to centripetal forces are calculated using finite element analysis. The lateral, or out of plane, deflections are an important design consideration for this particular impeller because it incorporates an air bearing with critical gap tolerances. The target gap distance is approximately 10 microns at a rotational velocity of 2500 rpm. The centripetal forces acting on the impeller cause it deflect in a concave fashion, decreasing the initial gap distance as a function of radial position. This deflection is characterized for a previous and updated impeller design for comparative purposes. The impact of design options such as material selection, geometry dimensions, and operating rotational velocity are also explored, followed by a sensitivity study with these parameters bounded by specific design values. A modal analysis is also performed to calculate the impeller's natural frequencies which are desired to be avoided during operation. The finite element modeling techniques continue to be exercised by the impeller design team to address specific questions and evaluate conceptual designs, some of which are included in the Appendix.
Finite element analysis of bolted flange connections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, D. Y.; Stallings, J. M.
1994-06-01
A 2-D axisymmetric finite element model and a 3-D solid finite element model of a high pressure bolted flange joint were generated to investigate the stress behaviors. This investigation includes comparisons for axisymmetric loading of both the 2-D and 3-D models, the effects of non-axisymmetric bolt pretensions in the 3-D models, and the differences between 2-D and 3-D models subjected to non-axisymmetric loading. Comparisons indicated differences in von Mises stress up to 12% at various points due to the non-axisymmetric bolt pretensions. Applied bending moments were converted to equivalent axial forces for use in the 2-D model. It was found that the largest von Mises stresses in 3-D model did not occur on the side of the connection where the bending stresses and applied axial stresses were additive. Hence, in the 2-D model where the equivalent axial force (for bending moment) and applied axial forces were added, the 2-D model under estimated the maximum von Mises stress obtained from the 3-D model by 30%.
Finite element analysis of multilayer coextrusion.
Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Schunk, Peter Randall; Baer, Thomas A.; Mrozek, Randy A.; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Collins, Robert; Mondy, Lisa Ann
2011-09-01
Multilayer coextrusion has become a popular commercial process for producing complex polymeric products from soda bottles to reflective coatings. A numerical model of a multilayer coextrusion process is developed based on a finite element discretization and two different free-surface methods, an arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh implementation and an Eulerian level set method, to understand the moving boundary problem associated with the polymer-polymer interface. The goal of this work is to have a numerical capability suitable for optimizing and troubleshooting the coextrusion process, circumventing flow instabilities such as ribbing and barring, and reducing variability in layer thickness. Though these instabilities can be both viscous and elastic in nature, for this work a generalized Newtonian description of the fluid is used. Models of varying degrees of complexity are investigated including stability analysis and direct three-dimensional finite element free surface approaches. The results of this work show how critical modeling can be to reduce build test cycles, improve material choices, and guide mold design.
A suitable low-order, eight-node tetrahedral finite element for solids
Key, S.W.; Heinstein, M.S.; Stone, C.M.; Mello, F.J.; Blanford, M.L.; Budge, K.G.
1998-03-01
To use the all-tetrahedral mesh generation existing today, the authors have explored the creation of a computationally efficient eight-node tetrahedral finite element (a four-node tetrahedral finite element enriched with four mid-face nodal points). The derivation of the element`s gradient operator, studies in obtaining a suitable mass lumping, and the element`s performance in applications are presented. In particular they examine the eight-node tetrahedral finite element`s behavior in longitudinal plane wave propagation, in transverse cylindrical wave propagation, and in simulating Taylor bar impacts. The element samples only constant strain states and, therefore, has 12 hour-glass modes. In this regard it bears similarities to the eight-node, mean-quadrature hexahedral finite element. Comparisons with the results obtained from the mean-quadrature eight-node hexahedral finite element and the four-node tetrahedral finite element are included. Given automatic all-tetrahedral meshing, the eight-node, constant-strain tetrahedral finite element is a suitable replacement for the eight-node hexahedral finite element in those cases where mesh generation requires an inordinate amount of user intervention and direction to obtain acceptable mesh properties.
Finite element model for brittle fracture and fragmentation
Li, Wei; Delaney, Tristan J.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Samulyak, Roman; Lu, Cao
2016-06-01
A new computational model for brittle fracture and fragmentation has been developed based on finite element analysis of non-linear elasticity equations. The proposed model propagates the cracks by splitting the mesh nodes alongside the most over-strained edges based on the principal direction of strain tensor. To prevent elements from overlapping and folding under large deformations, robust geometrical constraints using the method of Lagrange multipliers have been incorporated. In conclusion, the model has been applied to 2D simulations of the formation and propagation of cracks in brittle materials, and the fracture and fragmentation of stretched and compressed materials.
A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements
Schmid, W.
1996-12-31
We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beilina, Larisa
2016-08-01
We present domain decomposition finite element/finite difference method for the solution of hyperbolic equation. The domain decomposition is performed such that finite elements and finite differences are used in different subdomains of the computational domain: finite difference method is used on the structured part of the computational domain and finite elements on the unstructured part of the domain. Explicit discretizations for both methods are constructed such that the finite element and the finite difference schemes coincide on the common structured overlapping layer between computational subdomains. Then the resulting approach can be considered as a pure finite element scheme which avoids instabilities at the interfaces. We derive an energy estimate for the underlying hyperbolic equation with absorbing boundary conditions and illustrate efficiency of the domain decomposition method on the reconstruction of the conductivity function in three dimensions.
Improved finite element methodology for integrated thermal structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dechaumphai, P.; Thornton, E. A.
1982-01-01
An integrated thermal-structural finite element approach for efficient coupling of thermal and structural analyses is presented. New thermal finite elements which yield exact nodal and element temperature for one dimensional linear steady state heat transfer problems are developed. A nodeless variable formulation is used to establish improved thermal finite elements for one dimensional nonlinear transient and two dimensional linear transient heat transfer problems. The thermal finite elements provide detailed temperature distributions without using additional element nodes and permit a common discretization with lower order congruent structural finite elements. The accuracy of the integrated approach is evaluated by comparisons with analytical solutions and conventional finite element thermal-structural analyses for a number of academic and more realistic problems. Results indicate that the approach provides a significant improvement in the accuracy and efficiency of thermal stress analysis for structures with complex temperature distributions.
Improved finite element methodology for integrated thermal structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dechaumphai, P.; Thornton, E. A.
1982-01-01
An integrated thermal-structural finite element approach for efficient coupling of thermal and structural analysis is presented. New thermal finite elements which yield exact nodal and element temperatures for one dimensional linear steady state heat transfer problems are developed. A nodeless variable formulation is used to establish improved thermal finite elements for one dimensional nonlinear transient and two dimensional linear transient heat transfer problems. The thermal finite elements provide detailed temperature distributions without using additional element nodes and permit a common discretization with lower order congruent structural finite elements. The accuracy of the integrated approach is evaluated by comparisons with analytical solutions and conventional finite element thermal structural analyses for a number of academic and more realistic problems. Results indicate that the approach provides a significant improvement in the accuracy and efficiency of thermal stress analysis for structures with complex temperature distributions.
Seakeeping with the semi-Lagrangian particle finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadukandi, Prashanth; Servan-Camas, Borja; Becker, Pablo Agustín; Garcia-Espinosa, Julio
2016-07-01
The application of the semi-Lagrangian particle finite element method (SL-PFEM) for the seakeeping simulation of the wave adaptive modular vehicle under spray generating conditions is presented. The time integration of the Lagrangian advection is done using the explicit integration of the velocity and acceleration along the streamlines (X-IVAS). Despite the suitability of the SL-PFEM for the considered seakeeping application, small time steps were needed in the X-IVAS scheme to control the solution accuracy. A preliminary proposal to overcome this limitation of the X-IVAS scheme for seakeeping simulations is presented.
Structural health monitoring system design using finite element analysis
Stinemates, D. W.; Bennett, J. G.
2002-01-01
The project described in this report was performed to couple experimental and analytical techniques in the field of structural health monitoring and damage identification. To do this, a finite element model was constructed of a simulated three-story building used for damage identification experiments. The model was used in conjunction with data from the physical structure to research damage identification algorithms. Of particular interest was modeling slip in joints as a function of bolt torque and predicting the smallest change of torque that could be detected experimentally. After being validated with results from the physical structure, the model was used to produce data to test the capabilities of damage identification algorithms. This report describes the finite element model constructed, the results obtained, and proposed future use of the model.
Finite element model of magnetoconvection of a ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snyder, Suzanne M.; Cader, Tahir; Finlayson, Bruce A.
2003-06-01
Combined natural and magnetic convective heat transfer through a ferrofluid in a cubic enclosure is simulated numerically. The momentum equation includes a magnetic term that arises when a magnetic fluid is in the presence of a magnetic field gradient and a temperature gradient. In order to validate the theory, the wall temperature isotherms and Nusselt numbers are compared to experimental work of Sawada et al. (Int. J. Appl. Electromagn. Mater. 4 (1994) 329). Results are obtained using standard computational fluid dynamics codes, with modifications to account for the Langevin factor when needed. The CFD code FIDAP uses the finite element method, sometimes with a user-defined subroutine. The CFD code FEMLAB uses the finite element method with a user-supplied body force.
Finite Element Modeling of Micromachined MEMS Photon Devices
Datskos, P.G.; Evans, B.M.; Schonberger, D.
1999-09-20
The technology of microelectronics that has evolved over the past half century is one of great power and sophistication and can now be extended to many applications (MEMS and MOEMS) other than electronics. An interesting application of MEMS quantum devices is the detection of electromagnetic radiation. The operation principle of MEMS quantum devices is based on the photoinduced stress in semiconductors, and the photon detection results from the measurement of the photoinduced bending. These devices can be described as micromechanical photon detectors. In this work, we have developed a technique for simulating electronic stresses using finite element analysis. We have used our technique to model the response of micromechanical photon devices to external stimuli and compared these results with experimental data. Material properties, geometry, and bimaterial design play an important role in the performance of micromechanical photon detectors. We have modeled these effects using finite element analysis and included the effects of bimaterial thickness coating, effective length of the device, width, and thickness.
Finite element analysis of fiber-reinforced fixed partial dentures.
Nakamura, Takashi; Ohyama, Tatsuo; Waki, Tomonori; Kinuta, Soichiro; Wakabayashi, Kazumichi; Takano, Naoki; Yatani, Hirofumi
2005-06-01
Two-dimensional finite element models were created for a three-unit posterior fixed partial denture. An experimental resin-impregnated glass fiber was used as the fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) for the framework. The FRC was evaluated using varying combinations of position and thickness, alongside with two types of veneering composite. A load of 50 N simulating bite force was applied at the pontic in a vertical direction. Tensile stress was examined using a finite element analysis program. Model without FRC showed tensile stress concentrations within the veneering composite on the cervical side of the pontic--from the connector area to the bottom of the pontic. Model with FRC at the top of the pontic had almost the same stress distribution as the model without FRC. Models with 0.4-0.8 mm thick FRC positioned at the bottom of the pontic showed maximum tensile stresses reduced by 4-19% within the veneering composite. PMID:16022451
Surface subsidence prediction by nonlinear finite-element analysis
Najjar, Y. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Zaman, M. . School of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science)
1993-11-01
An improved two-dimensional plane-strain numerical procedure based on the incremental-iterative nonlinear finite-element is developed to predict ground subsidence caused by underground mining. The procedure emphasizes the use of the following features: (1) an appropriate constitutive model that can accurately describe the nonlinear behavior of geological strata; and (2) an accurate algorithm for simulation of excavation sequences consistent with the actual underground mining process. The computer code is used to analyze a collapse that occurred in the Blue Goose Lease [number sign]1 Mine in northeastern Oklahoma. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of some selected factors on the shape and extent of subsidence profiles. Analyses of the numerical results indicate that the nonlinear finite-element technique can be employed to meaningfully predict and characterize the potential for ground subsidence due to underground mining.
Finite element analysis of electrically excited quartz tuning fork devices.
Oria, Roger; Otero, Jorge; González, Laura; Botaya, Luis; Carmona, Manuel; Puig-Vidal, Manel
2013-05-30
Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF)-based Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is an important field of research. A suitable model for the QTF is important to obtain quantitative measurements with these devices. Analytical models have the limitation of being based on the double cantilever configuration. In this paper, we present an electromechanical finite element model of the QTF electrically excited with two free prongs. The model goes beyond the state-of-the-art of numerical simulations currently found in the literature for this QTF configuration. We present the first numerical analysis of both the electrical and mechanical behavior of QTF devices. Experimental measurements obtained with 10 units of the same model of QTF validate the finite element model with a good agreement.
Integrated transient thermal-structural finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.; Wieting, A. R.; Tamma, K. K.
1981-01-01
An integrated thermal structural finite element approach for efficient coupling of transient thermal and structural analysis is presented. Integrated thermal structural rod and one dimensional axisymmetric elements considering conduction and convection are developed and used in transient thermal structural applications. The improved accuracy of the integrated approach is illustrated by comparisons with exact transient heat conduction elasticity solutions and conventional finite element thermal finite element structural analyses.
Biomechanical investigation of naso-orbitoethmoid trauma by finite element analysis.
Huempfner-Hierl, Heike; Schaller, Andreas; Hemprich, Alexander; Hierl, Thomas
2014-11-01
Naso-orbitoethmoid fractures account for 5% of all facial fractures. We used data derived from a white 34-year-old man to make a transient dynamic finite element model, which consisted of about 740 000 elements, to simulate fist-like impacts to this anatomically complex area. Finite element analysis showed a pattern of von Mises stresses beyond the yield criterion of bone that corresponded with fractures commonly seen clinically. Finite element models can be used to simulate injuries to the human skull, and provide information about the pathogenesis of different types of fracture.
Contact stress analysis of spiral bevel gears using nonlinear finite element static analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bibel, G. D.; Kumar, A.; Reddy, S.; Handschuh, Robert F.
1993-01-01
A procedure is presented for performing three-dimensional stress analysis of spiral bevel gears in mesh using the finite element method. The procedure involves generating a finite element model by solving equations that identify tooth surface coordinates. Coordinate transformations are used to orientate the gear and pinion for gear meshing. Contact boundary conditions are simulated with gap elements. A solution technique for correct orientation of the gap elements is given. Example models and results are presented.
Contact Stress Analysis of Spiral Bevel Gears Using Finite Element Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bibel, G. D.; Kumar, A; Reddy, S.; Handschuh, R.
1995-01-01
A procedure is presented for performing three-dimensional stress analysis of spiral bevel gears in mesh using the finite element method. The procedure involves generating a finite element model by solving equations that identify tooth surface coordinates. Coordinate transformations are used to orientate the gear and pinion for gear meshing. Contact boundary conditions are simulated with gap elements. A solution technique for correct orientation of the gap elements is given. Example models and results are presented.
Gao, Yanfei
2006-01-01
Inhomogeneous deformation of amorphous alloys is caused by the initiation, multiplication and interaction of shear bands (i.e., narrow bands with large plastic deformation). Based on the free volume model under the generalized multiaxial stress state, this work develops a finite element scheme to model the individual processes of shear bands that contribute to the macroscopic plasticity behavior. In this model, the stress-driven increase of the free volume reduces the viscosity and thus leads to the strain localization in the shear band. Using the small-strain and rate-dependent plasticity framework, the plastic strain is assumed to be proportional to the deviatoric stress, and the flow stress is a function of the free volume, while the temporal change of the free volume is also coupled with the stress state. Nonlinear equations from the incremental finite element formulation are solved by the Newton-Raphson method, in which the corresponding material tangent is obtained by simultaneously and implicitly integrating the plastic flow equation and the evolution equation of the free volume field. This micromechanical model allows us to study the interaction between individual shear bands and between the shear bands and the background stress fields. To illustrate its capabilities, the method is used to solve representative boundary value problems.
Asymmetric quadrilateral shell elements for finite strains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Areias, P.; Dias-da-Costa, D.; Pires, E. B.; Van Goethem, N.
2013-07-01
Very good results in infinitesimal and finite strain analysis of shells are achieved by combining either the enhanced-metric technique or the selective-reduced integration for the in-plane shear energy and an assumed natural strain technique (ANS) in a non-symmetric Petrov-Galerkin arrangement which complies with the patch-test. A recovery of the original Wilson incompatible mode element is shown for the trial functions in the in-plane components. As a beneficial side-effect, Newton-Raphson convergence behavior for non-linear problems is improved with respect to symmetric formulations. Transverse-shear and in-plane patch tests are satisfied while distorted-mesh accuracy is higher than with symmetric formulations. Classical test functions with assumed-metric components are required for compatibility reasons. Verification tests are performed with advantageous comparisons being observed in all of them. Applications to large displacement elasticity and finite strain plasticity are shown with both low sensitivity to mesh distortion and (relatively) high accuracy. A equilibrium-consistent (and consistently linearized) updated-Lagrangian algorithm is proposed and tested. Concerning the time-step dependency, it was found that the consistent updated-Lagrangian algorithm is nearly time-step independent and can replace the multiplicative plasticity approach if only moderate elastic strains are present, as is the case of most metals.
A finite element model with nonviscous damping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roussos, L. A.; Hyer, M. W.; Thornton, E. A.
1981-01-01
A constitutive law by which structural damping is modeled as a relationship between stress, strain, and strain rate in a material is used in conjunction with the finite element method to develop general integral expressions for viscous and nonviscous damping matrices. To solve the set of nonlinear equations resulting from the presence of nonviscous damping, a solution technique is developed by modifying the Newmark method to accommodate an iterative solution and treat the nonviscous damping as a pseudo-force. The technique is then checked for accuracy and convergence in single- and multi-degree-of-freedom problems, and is found to be accurate and efficient for initial-condition problems with small nonviscous damping.
Finite-element solutions for geothermal systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, J. C.; Conel, J. E.
1977-01-01
Vector potential and scalar potential are used to formulate the governing equations for a single-component and single-phase geothermal system. By assuming an initial temperature field, the fluid velocity can be determined which, in turn, is used to calculate the convective heat transfer. The energy equation is then solved by considering convected heat as a distributed source. Using the resulting temperature to compute new source terms, the final results are obtained by iterations of the procedure. Finite-element methods are proposed for modeling of realistic geothermal systems; the advantages of such methods are discussed. The developed methodology is then applied to a sample problem. Favorable agreement is obtained by comparisons with a previous study.
Finite-element modeling of nanoindentation
Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Myers, S.M.; Barbour, J.C.; Friedmann, T.A.
1999-02-01
Procedures have been developed based on finite-element modeling of nanoindentation data to obtain the mechanical properties of thin films and ion-beam-modified layers independently of the properties of the underlying substrates. These procedures accurately deduce the yield strength, Young{close_quote}s elastic modulus, and layer hardness from indentations as deep as 50{percent} of the layer thickness or more. We have used these procedures to evaluate materials ranging from ion implanted metals to deposited, diamond-like carbon layers. The technique increases the applicability of indentation testing to very thin layers, composite layers, and modulated compositions. This article presents an overview of the procedures involved and illustrates them with selected examples. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer
1992-02-01
TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less
Finite element analyses of CCAT preliminary design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarawit, Andrew T.; Kan, Frank W.
2014-07-01
This paper describes the development of the CCAT telescope finite element model (FEM) and the analyses performed to support the preliminary design work. CCAT will be a 25 m diameter telescope operating in the 0.2 to 2 mm wavelength range. It will be located at an elevation of 5600 m on Cerro Chajnantor in Northern Chile, near ALMA. The telescope will be equipped with wide-field cameras and spectrometers mounted at the two Nasmyth foci. The telescope will be inside an enclosure to protect it from wind buffeting, direct solar heating, and bad weather. The main structures of the telescope include a steel Mount and a carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastic (CFRP) primary truss. The finite element model developed in this study was used to perform modal, frequency response, seismic response spectrum, stress, and deflection analyses of telescope. Modal analyses of telescope were performed to compute the structure natural frequencies and mode shapes and to obtain reduced order modal output at selected locations in the telescope structure to support the design of the Mount control system. Modal frequency response analyses were also performed to compute transfer functions at these selected locations. Seismic response spectrum analyses of the telescope subject to the Maximum Likely Earthquake were performed to compute peak accelerations and seismic demand stresses. Stress analyses were performed for gravity load to obtain gravity demand stresses. Deflection analyses for gravity load, thermal load, and differential elevation drive torque were performed so that the CCAT Observatory can verify that the structures meet the stringent telescope surface and pointing error requirements.
Nonlinear probabilistic finite element models of laminated composite shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engelstad, S. P.; Reddy, J. N.
1993-01-01
A probabilistic finite element analysis procedure for laminated composite shells has been developed. A total Lagrangian finite element formulation, employing a degenerated 3-D laminated composite shell with the full Green-Lagrange strains and first-order shear deformable kinematics, forms the modeling foundation. The first-order second-moment technique for probabilistic finite element analysis of random fields is employed and results are presented in the form of mean and variance of the structural response. The effects of material nonlinearity are included through the use of a rate-independent anisotropic plasticity formulation with the macroscopic point of view. Both ply-level and micromechanics-level random variables can be selected, the latter by means of the Aboudi micromechanics model. A number of sample problems are solved to verify the accuracy of the procedures developed and to quantify the variability of certain material type/structure combinations. Experimental data is compared in many cases, and the Monte Carlo simulation method is used to check the probabilistic results. In general, the procedure is quite effective in modeling the mean and variance response of the linear and nonlinear behavior of laminated composite shells.
Visualizing Higher Order Finite Elements: FY05 Yearly Report.
Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre
2005-11-01
This report contains an algorithm for decomposing higher-order finite elementsinto regions appropriate for isosurfacing and proves the conditions under which thealgorithm will terminate. Finite elements are used to create piecewise polynomialapproximants to the solution of partial differential equations for which no analyticalsolution exists. These polynomials represent fields such as pressure, stress, and mo-mentim. In the past, these polynomials have been linear in each parametric coordinate.Each polynomial coefficient must be uniquely determined by a simulation, and thesecoefficients are called degrees of freedom. When there are not enough degrees of free-dom, simulations will typically fail to produce a valid approximation to the solution.Recent work has shown that increasing the number of degrees of freedom by increas-ing the order of the polynomial approximation (instead of increasing the number offinite elements, each of which has its own set of coefficients) can allow some typesof simulations to produce a valid approximation with many fewer degrees of freedomthan increasing the number of finite elements alone. However, once the simulation hasdetermined the values of all the coefficients in a higher-order approximant, tools donot exist for visual inspection of the solution.This report focuses on a technique for the visual inspection of higher-order finiteelement simulation results based on decomposing each finite element into simplicialregions where existing visualization algorithms such as isosurfacing will work. Therequirements of the isosurfacing algorithm are enumerated and related to the placeswhere the partial derivatives of the polynomial become zero. The original isosurfacingalgorithm is then applied to each of these regions in turn.3 AcknowledgementThe authors would like to thank David Day and Louis Romero for their insight into poly-nomial system solvers and the LDRD Senior Council for the opportunity to pursue thisresearch. The authors were
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fix, G. J.; Rose, M. E.
1983-01-01
A least squares formulation of the system divu = rho, curlu = zeta is surveyed from the viewpoint of both finite element and finite difference methods. Closely related arguments are shown to establish convergence estimates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
The development of two new shell finite elements for applications to large deflection problems is considered. The elements in question are doubly curved and of triangular and quadrilateral planform. They are restricted to small strains of elastic materials, and can accommodate large rotations. The elements described, which are based on relatively simple linear elements, make use of a new displacement function approach specifically designed for strongly nonlinear problems. The displacement function development for nonlinear applications is based on certain beam element formulations, and the strain-displacement equations are of a shallow shell type. Additional terms were included in these equations in an attempt to avoid the large errors characteristic of shallow shell elements in certain types of problems. An incremental nonlinear solution procedure specifically adopted to the element formulation was developed. The solution procedure is of combined incremental and total Lagrangian type, and uses a new updating scheme. A computer program was written to evaluate the developed formulations. This program can accommodate small element groups in arbitrary arrangements. Two simple programs were successfully solved. The results indicate that this new type of element has definite promise and should be a fruitful area for further research.
Stadelmann, Vincent A; Zderic, Ivan; Baur, Annick; Unholz, Cynthia; Eberli, Ursula; Gueorguiev, Boyko
2016-02-01
Vertebroplasty has been shown to reinforce weak vertebral bodies and reduce fracture risks, yet cement leakage is a major problem that can cause severe complications. Since cement flow is nearly impossible to control during surgery, small volumes of cement are injected, but then mechanical benefits might be limited. A better understanding of cement flows within bone structure is required to further optimize vertebroplasty and bone augmentation in general. We developed a novel imaging method, composite time-lapse CT, to characterize cement flow during injection. In brief, composite-resolution time-lapse CT exploits the qualities of microCT and clinical CT. The method consists in overlaying low-resolution time-lapse CT scans acquired during injection onto pre-operative high-resolution microCT scans, generating composite-resolution time-lapse CT series of cement flow within bone. In this in vitro study, composite-resolution time-lapse CT was applied to eight intact and five artificially fractured cadaveric vertebrae during vertebroplasty. The time-lapse scans were acquired at one-milliliter cement injection steps until a total of 10 ml cement was injected. The composite-resolution series were then converted into micro finite element models to compute strains distribution under virtual axial loading. Relocation of strain energy density within bone structure was observed throughout the progression of the procedure. Interestingly, the normalized effect of cement injection on the overall stiffness of the vertebrae was similar between intact and fractured specimens, although at different orders of magnitude. In conclusion, composite time-lapse CT can picture cement flows during bone augmentation. The composite images can also be easily converted into finite element models to compute virtual strain distributions under loading at every step of an injection, providing deeper understanding on the biomechanics of vertebroplasty.