Effects of finite poloidal gyroradius, shaping, and collisions on the zonal flow residual
Xiao Yong; Catto, Peter J.; Dorland, William
2007-05-15
Zonal flow helps reduce and regulate the turbulent transport level in tokamaks. Rosenbluth and Hinton have shown that zonal flow damps to a nonvanishing residual level in collisionless [M. Rosenbluth and F. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)] and collisional [F. Hinton and M. Rosenbluth, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41, A653 (1999)] banana regime plasmas. Recent zonal flow advances are summarized including the evaluation of the effects on the zonal flow residual by plasma cross-section shaping, shorter wavelengths including those less than an electron gyroradius, and arbitrary ion collisionality relative to the zonal low frequency. In addition to giving a brief summary of these new developments, the analytic results are compared with GS2 numerical simulations [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1991)] to demonstrate their value as benchmarks for turbulence codes.
Generation of zonal flow and magnetic field by finite-amplitude waves in the ionospheric E-layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kahlon, Laila; Kaladze, Tamaz
2016-07-01
We review the generation of zonal flow and magnetic field by coupled electromagnetic (EM) ULF waves in the Earth's ionospheric E layer. It is shown that under the typical ionospheric E-layer conditions different planetary low-frequency waves can couple with each other. Propagation of coupled internal-gravity-Alfvén (CIGA), coupled Rossby-Khantadze (CRK) and coupled Rossby-Alfvén-Khantadze (CRAK) waves is revealed and studied. A set of appropriate equations describing the nonlinear interaction of such waves with sheared zonal flow is derived. The conclusion on the instability of short wavelength turbulence of such coupled waves with respect to the excitation of low-frequency and large-scale perturbation of the sheared zonal flow and sheared magnetic field is deduced. The nonlinear mechanism of the instability is based on the parametric triple interaction of finite amplitude coupled waves leading to the inverse energy cascade toward the longer wavelength. The possibility of generation of the intense mean magnetic field is shown. Obtained growth rates are discussed for each case of the considered coupled waves.
Collisional damping of zonal flows due to finite Larmor radius effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricci, Paolo; Rogers, B. N.; Dorland, W.
2010-07-01
The collisional damping of seeded E ×B zonal flows on the ion Larmor radius scale is studied using a gyrokinetic model. The focus is on flow damping due to finite Larmor radius effects, which cause a v∥/v anisotropy of the ion distribution function that is damped by ion-ion collisions. The gyrokinetic equations are solved in a slab geometry with no gradients or curvature, and a gyroaveraged Lorentz collision operator that conserves particle number, momentum, and energy is used. The solution of the gyrokinetic equations explores the dependence of the damping rate on the wavelength of the flows and the impact of the collisions on the ion distribution function. These numerical results can be used as a benchmark test during the implementation of finite Larmor radius effects in the collision operator of gyrokinetic codes.
Low-frequency intraseasonal variability in a zonally symmetric aquaplanet model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Surajit; Sengupta, Debasis; Chakraborty, A.; Sukhatme, Jai; Murtugudde, Raghu
2016-04-01
We use the aquaplanet version of the community atmospheric model, with perpetual spring equinox forcing and zonally symmetric sea surface temperature (SST), to study tropical intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs). In the first two experiments, we specify zonally symmetric SST profiles that mimic observed climatological July and January SSTs as surface boundary conditions. In the January SST simulation, we find a zonal wavenumber 1 mode with dominant period of 60 days, moving east at about 6 m s-1. This mode, which resembles the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), is absent in the July SST case, although convectively coupled Kelvin waves are prominent in both experiments. To further investigate the influence of tropical SST on ISO and convectively coupled equatorial waves, we conduct experiments with idealised symmetric SST profiles having different widths of warm ocean centered at the equator. In the narrowest SST experiment, the variance of moist activity is predominantly in weather-scale Kelvin waves. When the latitudinal extent of warm SST is comparable to or larger than the equatorial Rossby radius, we find a dominant low frequency (50-80 days) eastward mode that resembles the MJO, as in the January SST experiment. We also find westward propagating waves with intraseasonal (30-120 days) periods and zonal wavenumber 1-3; the structure of these signals projects onto equatorially trapped Rossby waves with meridional mode numbers 1, 3 and 5, associated with convection that is symmetric about the equator. In addition, the model generates 30-80 days westward moving signals with zonal wavenumber 4-7, particularly in the narrow SST experiment. Although these waves are seen in the wavenumber-frequency spectra in the equatorial region, they have largest amplitude in the middle and high latitudes. Thus, our study shows that wider, meridionally symmetric SST profiles support a strong MJO-like eastward propagation, and even in an aquaplanet setting, westward propagating Rossby
The global atmospheric response to low-frequency tropical forcing: Zonally averaged basic states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Long; Nathan, Terrence R.
1994-01-01
The extratropical response to localized, low-frequency tropical forcing is examined using a linearized, non-divergent barotropic model on a sphere. Zonal-mean basic states characterized by solid-body rotation or critical latitudes are considered. An analytical analysis based on WKB and ray tracing methods shows that, in contrast to stationary Rossby waves, westward moving, low-frequency Rossby waves can propagate through the tropical easterlies into the extratropics. It is shown analytically that the difference between the stationary and low-frequency ray paths is proportional to the forcing frequency and inversely proportional to the zonal wavenumber cubed. An expression for the disturbance amplitude is derived that shows the ability of the forced waves to maintain their strength well into middle latitudes depends on their meridional wave scale and northward group velocity, both of which are functions of the slowly varying background flow. A local energetics analysis shows that the combination of energy dispersion from the forcing region and energy extraction from the equatorward flank of the midlatitude jet produces disturbances that have the greatest impact on the extratropical circulation. Under the assumption that the forcing amplitude is independent of frequency, this impact is largest when the tropical forcing period is in the range 10-20 days.
Ghizzo, A.; Palermo, F.
2015-08-15
We address the mechanisms underlying low-frequency zonal flow generation in turbulent system and the associated intermittent regime of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence. This model is in connection with the recent observation of quasi periodic zonal flow oscillation at a frequency close to 2 kHz, at the low-high transition, observed in the ASDEX Upgrade [Conway et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 065001 (2011)] and EAST tokamak [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 125001 (2011)]. Turbulent bursts caused by the coupling of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) driven shear flows with trapped ion modes (TIMs) were investigated by means of reduced gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that ITG turbulence can be regulated by low-frequency meso-scale zonal flows driven by resonant collisionless trapped ion modes (CTIMs), through parametric-type scattering, a process in competition with the usual KH instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghizzo, A.; Palermo, F.
2015-08-01
We address the mechanisms underlying low-frequency zonal flow generation in turbulent system and the associated intermittent regime of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence. This model is in connection with the recent observation of quasi periodic zonal flow oscillation at a frequency close to 2 kHz, at the low-high transition, observed in the ASDEX Upgrade [Conway et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 065001 (2011)] and EAST tokamak [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 125001 (2011)]. Turbulent bursts caused by the coupling of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) driven shear flows with trapped ion modes (TIMs) were investigated by means of reduced gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that ITG turbulence can be regulated by low-frequency meso-scale zonal flows driven by resonant collisionless trapped ion modes (CTIMs), through parametric-type scattering, a process in competition with the usual KH instability.
Finite frequency tomography: the checkerboard test revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mercerat, E. D.; Zaroli, C.; Nolet, G.
2011-12-01
We address some consequences of the application of finite frequency theory for seismic tomography by revisiting the classical checkerboard test. We use a simple borehole-to-borehole experiment set-up in order to have complete control of the situation and to avoid complicating factors such as crustal corrections that still hamper global tomography. We are particularly interested in the feasibility of using ray-based finite frequency kernels in the inversion of travel time perturbations measured by crosscorrelation, in the cross-dependence between S wave velocity perturbations and the measured P travel times, and in the benefits of using finite-frequency theory on one or multiple frequency bands. We have done a 3D checkerboard test to assess the influence of these issues. Full-waveform synthetic seismograms are calculated using the spectral elements method up to 2 kHz maximum frequency. The computational domain extends 200 m x 120 m x 120 m and the target velocity model is a checkerboard with 12 m x 12 m x 12 m blocks of velocities 5% slower and faster than the background (homogeneous, Vp=6 km/s) model. First, we make a comparison between finite-frequency kernels calculated by ray theory with those based on the spectral elements method (adjoint technique), in terms of resolution, accuracy, but also computational cost. From synthetic seismograms calculated for the 3D checkerboard model as well as for the homogeneous model, we measure crosscorrelation travel times at different frequency bands and invert them with classical ray theory as well as with finite frequency theory. Several interesting features are highlighted in our multi-band data set, such as the wavefront healing effect. For instance, we observe that the delay times, in absolute value, are usually larger at short (0.5 ms) than long (4 ms) periods. This can be explained by the presence of the "doughnut hole" along the geometrical ray path in the sensitivity kernels, whose diameter is proportional to the
Ghizzo, A.; Palermo, F.
2015-08-15
Collisionless trapped ion modes (CTIMs) turbulence exhibits a rich variety of zonal flow physics. The coupling of CTIMs with shear flow driven by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability has been investigated. The work explores the parametric excitation of zonal flow modified by wave-particle interactions leading to a new type of resonant low-frequency zonal flow. The KH-CTIM interaction on zonal flow growth and its feedback on turbulence is investigated using semi-Lagrangian gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations based on a Hamiltonian reduction technique, where both fast scales (cyclotron plus bounce motions) are gyro-averaged.
Detection of Zero-Mean-Frequency Zonal Flows in the Core of a High-Temperature Tokamak Plasma
Gupta, D. K.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Shafer, M. W.
2006-09-22
A low-frequency, spectrally broad ({delta}f{approx}10 kHz) poloidal flow structure that peaks near zero frequency is observed in time-resolved measurements of the turbulence velocity field in the core region (r/a{approx}0.6-0.9) of DIII-D tokamak plasmas. These flows exhibit a long poloidal wavelength (low m) and a short radial coherence length comparable to the ambient turbulence decorrelation length. Characteristics of these observed poloidal flows are consistent with the theoretically predicted residual or zero-mean-frequency zonal flows.
Broadband Finite Frequency Ambient Noise Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, K.; Yang, Y.; Luo, Y.; Xie, J.
2015-12-01
Ambient noise tomography (ANT) has become a popular method to study the crustal and uppermost mantle structure of the earth in recent years due to its exclusive capability to extract short-period surface wave signals. Most of ANT are based on ray theory that assumes interstation surface waves from ambient noise are mainly sensitive to a narrow zone alone the ray path from one station to the other. Recently, many studies have demonstrated that long-period Rayleigh wave signal with high SNR can be obtained from cross-correlation of ambient noise data and could be used to do long period surface ware tomography. In order to obtain accurate phase velocity maps using long period surface waves from ambient noise, frequency effects must be considered in tomography. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of finite frequency ANT by calculating 2-D phase sensitivity kernel based on Born approximation. In calculating 2D sensitivity kernels for empirical Green's functions extracted from cross-correlations between a pair of stations, one station is regarded as receiver and the other as virtual source. Based on the 2D finite frequency sensitivity kennels, we develop a finite frequency ambient noise tomography method to construct Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps. To demonstrate the feasibility of our developed method, we apply the method to empirical Green's functions extracted from cross-correlations of USArray noise data to construct phase velocity maps at 20-150 sec periods. Our resulting phase velocity maps are very similar to earthquake-based phase velocity maps with almost zero means and 20-30 m/s stand deviations of differences. Major tectonic features in USA are well revealed in our phase velocity maps.
Surface Consistent Finite Frequency Phase Corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimman, W. P.
2016-04-01
Static time-delay corrections are frequency independent and ignore velocity variations away from the assumed vertical ray-path through the subsurface. There is therefore a clear potential for improvement if the finite frequency nature of wave propagation can be properly accounted for. Such a method is presented here based on the Born approximation, the assumption of surface consistency, and the misfit of instantaneous phase. The concept of instantaneous phase lends itself very well for sweep-like signals, hence these are the focus of this study. Analytical sensitivity kernels are derived that accurately predict frequency dependent phase shifts due to P-wave anomalies in the near surface. They are quick to compute and robust near the source and receivers. An additional correction is presented that re-introduces the non-linear relation between model perturbation and phase delay, which becomes relevant for stronger velocity anomalies. The phase shift as function of frequency is a slowly varying signal, its computation therefore doesn't require fine sampling even for broadband sweeps. The kernels reveal interesting features of the sensitivity of seismic arrivals to the near surface: small anomalies can have a relative large impact resulting from the medium field term that is dominant near the source and receivers. Furthermore, even simple velocity anomalies can produce a distinct frequency dependent phase behaviour. Unlike statics, the predicted phase corrections are smooth in space. Verification with spectral element simulations shows an excellent match for the predicted phase shifts over the entire seismic frequency band. Applying the phase shift to the reference sweep corrects for wavelet distortion, making the technique akin to surface consistent deconvolution, even though no division in the spectral domain is involved. As long as multiple scattering is mild, surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections outperform traditional statics for moderately large
Surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimman, W. P.
2016-07-01
Static time-delay corrections are frequency independent and ignore velocity variations away from the assumed vertical ray path through the subsurface. There is therefore a clear potential for improvement if the finite frequency nature of wave propagation can be properly accounted for. Such a method is presented here based on the Born approximation, the assumption of surface consistency and the misfit of instantaneous phase. The concept of instantaneous phase lends itself very well for sweep-like signals, hence these are the focus of this study. Analytical sensitivity kernels are derived that accurately predict frequency-dependent phase shifts due to P-wave anomalies in the near surface. They are quick to compute and robust near the source and receivers. An additional correction is presented that re-introduces the nonlinear relation between model perturbation and phase delay, which becomes relevant for stronger velocity anomalies. The phase shift as function of frequency is a slowly varying signal, its computation therefore does not require fine sampling even for broad-band sweeps. The kernels reveal interesting features of the sensitivity of seismic arrivals to the near surface: small anomalies can have a relative large impact resulting from the medium field term that is dominant near the source and receivers. Furthermore, even simple velocity anomalies can produce a distinct frequency-dependent phase behaviour. Unlike statics, the predicted phase corrections are smooth in space. Verification with spectral element simulations shows an excellent match for the predicted phase shifts over the entire seismic frequency band. Applying the phase shift to the reference sweep corrects for wavelet distortion, making the technique akin to surface consistent deconvolution, even though no division in the spectral domain is involved. As long as multiple scattering is mild, surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections outperform traditional statics for moderately large
Finite frequency global P wave tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montelli, R.; Nolet, G.; Masters, G.; Dahlen, F. A.; Hung, S.-H.
2003-04-01
The travel time of a finite frequency wave is sensitive to velocity structure off the geometrical ray within a volume known as the Fresnel zone. We compute 3D travel time sensitivity efficiently by using the paraxial approximation in conjunction with ray theory and the Born approximation (Dahlen et al., 2000) to invert global travel times of long-period compressional waves. Our data set consists of 67540 P and 20266 PP-P travel times measured by cross-correlation. The sensitivity of a broad-band P arrival time resembles a hollow-banana surrounding the unperturbed path with sensitivity being zero on the ray. Typical widths of sensitivity kernels at the turning point are about 1000 km and 1300 km for a P wave at 60o and 80o epicentral distance, respectively. The region of insensitivity around the geometrical ray is small near the source and the receiver but can extend to about 400 km near the turning point for a P wave at 80o epicentral distance. Because of the minimax nature, surface reflected PP waves show a much more complicated shape of the sensitivity region, with the banana-doughnut shape replaced by a saddle-shaped region upon passage of a caustic. Not surprisingly, the introduction of such complicated sensitivity has consequences for the final tomographic images. We compare tomographic models inverted with the new method and with the more standard technique of ray theory for the same data fit (i.e. same χ2) and each smoothed to resolve very similar length scales. Depending on depth and size of the anomaly, amplitudes of the velocity perturbations in finite frequency images are on average 30%-60% higher than those obtained with ray theory. This demonstrates a major shortcoming of ray theory. It is not possible to neglect wavefront healing effect, as ray theory does. The images obtained by inverting long-period waves provide unambiguous evidence that a limited number of hot-spots are fed by plumes originating in the lower mantle. To better constrain the P wave
Chen, R.; Xie, J. L. Yu, C. X.; Liu, A. D.; Lan, T.; Li, H.; Liu, W. D.; Zhang, S. B.; Kong, D. F.; Hu, G. H.
2015-01-15
Low-frequency zonal flow (ZF) has been observed in a linear magnetic plasma device, exhibiting significant intermittency. Using the conditional analysis method, a time-averaged fluctuation-induced particle flux was observed to consistently decrease as ZF increased in amplitude. A dominant fraction of the flux, which is driven by drift-wave harmonics, is reversely modulated by ZF in the time domain. Spectra of the flux, together with each of the related turbulence properties, are estimated subject to two conditions, i.e., when potential fluctuation series represents a strong ZF intermittency or a very weak ZF component. Comparison of frequency-domain results demonstrates that ZF reduces the cross-field particle transport primarily by suppressing the density fluctuation as well as decorrelating density and potential fluctuations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathew, Tiju Joseph; Prabhakaran Nayar, S. R.
F-region zonal plasma drifts near the magnetic equator around sunset period have been observed at multiple altitudes using the HF Doppler radar. The pattern of the plasma flow is such that it starts with a westward drift at the pre-sunset times followed by an eastward drift shortly after the E-region sunset. The striking feature of the zonal drift is the altitude dependence of the zonal drift and the presence of a vertical shear around the post sunset period at the F-region. The shear region is found to be in the altitude range of 200-300 km where the F and E -region compete for dominance. The negative gradient in the vertical drift and shear in the zonal drift are the deterministic features of the evening equatorial ionosphere to maintain the curl-free nature of the electric field. The simultaneous observation of the vertical and zonal plasma drifts suggests the existence of a post sunset velocity vortex over the equator.
Low frequency sound radiation from finite stiffened plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keltie, Richard F.
1993-07-01
The purpose of the research effort reported herein was to assess the feasibility of developing efficient low frequency acoustic radiators using flexural vibration of submerged stiffened plates. Candidate radiator geometries were identified at NUWC using an infinite plate model. A finite plate implementation of these models was then examined by the author using an analysis capability previously developed. The purpose of this examination was to study the extent to which infinite plate results could be achieved by a finite radiator, and to obtain an estimate of the effects of plate size and number of attached ribs on the radiation characteristics.
Finite difference modeling of Biot's poroelastic equations atseismic frequencies
Masson, Y.J.; Pride, S.R.; Nihei, K.T.
2006-02-24
Across the seismic band of frequencies (loosely defined as<10 kHz), a seismic wave propagating through a porous material willcreate flow in the pore space that is laminar; that is, in thislow-frequency "seismic limit," the development of viscous boundary layersin the pores need not be modeled. An explicit time steppingstaggered-grid finite difference scheme is presented for solving Biot'sequations of poroelasticity in this low-frequency limit. A key part ofthis work is the establishment of rigorous stability conditions. It isdemonstrated that over a wide range of porous material properties typicalof sedimentary rock and despite the presenceof fluid pressure diffusion(Biot slow waves), the usual Courant condition governs the stability asif the problem involved purely elastic waves. The accuracy of the methodis demonstrated by comparing to exact analytical solutions for both fastcompressional waves and slow waves. Additional numerical modelingexamples are also presented.
Finite frequency tomography shows a variety of plumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nolet, G.; Montelli, R.; Masters, G.; Dahlen, F. A.; Hung, S.
2003-04-01
The new technique of finite-frequency tomography (see abstract by Montelli et al., this meeting) is very powerful in imaging objects of small dimension in the lower mantle. The first global images of P velocity anomalies obtained by using this technique to invert a small but very accurate data set of long period P arrivals bottoming in the lower mantle show 18 low velocity anomalies in excess of -0.5%, all but two of which are associated with a known hotspot at the surface, and they serve as an unprecented glimpse into the deep mechanisms that give rise to hotspots. The following synopsis is given under the caveat that we have not yet incorporated high frequency waves into the interpretation, nor completed a full resolution analysis at the time of writing of this abstract (both will be presented at the meeting). We observe six or seven hotspots fed by a plume extending to the core-mantle boundary: Cap Verde, Easter Island, Hawaii, Kerguelen, St Helena, Tahiti, and perhaps also Azores. Several hotspots, among which are Bouvet, Bowie, and Mount Erebus, seem to originate at mid-mantle depth, while others (Afar, Ascension, Galapagos, Iceland, la Reunion and others) seem to be mostly confined to the upper mantle. Many renowned hotspots (such as Eifel, Samoa and Yellowstone) have only very weak low velocity anomalies at depth and may be the result of superficial processes confined to the top of the upper mantle. We confirm the existence of the two superplumes which both have Δ V_P < -0.5% extending as high as 2000 km depth. It is clear that no one plume/hotspot model can explain the variety in deep expressions of hotspots in the mantle. If midmantle plume origins represent originally deep plumes in their end stage, while the two unidentified anomalies are either beginning new plumes (Greenland) or plumes cut off in their initial ascent (W. Pacific), the large number of plumes caught in this phase would point to lengthy rise times of the order of tens of millions of
Kirk, R.L.
1987-01-01
Thermal evolution of Ganymede from a hot start is modeled. On cooling ice I forms above the liquid H/sub 2/O and dense ices at higher entropy below it. A novel diapiric instability is proposed to occur if the ocean thins enough, mixing these layers and perhaps leading to resurfacing and groove formation. Rising warm-ice diapirs may cause a dramatic heat pulse and fracturing at the surface, and provide material for surface flows. Timing of the pulse depends on ice rheology but could agree with crater-density dates for resurfacing. Origins of the Ganymede-Callisto dichotomy in light of the model are discussed. Based on estimates of the conductivity of H/sub 2/ (Jupiter, Saturn) and H/sub 2/O (Uranus, Neptune), the zonal winds of the giant planets will, if they penetrate below the visible atmosphere, interact with the magnetic field well outside the metallic core. The scaling argument is supported by a model with zonal velocity constant on concentric cylinders, the Lorentz torque on each balanced by viscous stresses. The problem of two-dimensional photoclinometry, i.e. reconstruction of a surface from its image, is formulated in terms of finite elements and a fast algorithm using Newton-SOR iteration accelerated by multigridding is presented.
Reprint of : Finite-frequency noise in a topological superconducting wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valentini, Stefano; Governale, Michele; Fazio, Rosario; Taddei, Fabio
2016-08-01
In this paper we study the finite-frequency current cross-correlations for a topological superconducting nanowire attached to two terminals at one of its ends. Using an analytic 1D model we show that the presence of a Majorana bound state yields vanishing cross-correlations for frequencies larger than twice the applied transport voltage, in contrast to what is found for a zero-energy ordinary Andreev bound state. Zero cross-correlations at high frequency have been confirmed using a more realistic tight-binding model for finite-width topological superconducting nanowires. Finite-temperature effects have also been investigated.
On the validation of seismic imaging methods: Finite frequency or ray theory?
Maceira, Monica; Larmat, Carene; Porritt, Robert W.; Higdon, David M.; Rowe, Charlotte A.; Allen, Richard M.
2015-01-23
We investigate the merits of the more recently developed finite-frequency approach to tomography against the more traditional and approximate ray theoretical approach for state of the art seismic models developed for western North America. To this end, we employ the spectral element method to assess the agreement between observations on real data and measurements made on synthetic seismograms predicted by the models under consideration. We check for phase delay agreement as well as waveform cross-correlation values. Based on statistical analyses on S wave phase delay measurements, finite frequency shows an improvement over ray theory. Random sampling using cross-correlation values identifies regions where synthetic seismograms computed with ray theory and finite-frequency models differ the most. Our study suggests that finite-frequency approaches to seismic imaging exhibit measurable improvement for pronounced low-velocity anomalies such as mantle plumes.
On the validation of seismic imaging methods: Finite frequency or ray theory?
Maceira, Monica; Larmat, Carene; Porritt, Robert W.; Higdon, David M.; Rowe, Charlotte A.; Allen, Richard M.
2015-01-23
We investigate the merits of the more recently developed finite-frequency approach to tomography against the more traditional and approximate ray theoretical approach for state of the art seismic models developed for western North America. To this end, we employ the spectral element method to assess the agreement between observations on real data and measurements made on synthetic seismograms predicted by the models under consideration. We check for phase delay agreement as well as waveform cross-correlation values. Based on statistical analyses on S wave phase delay measurements, finite frequency shows an improvement over ray theory. Random sampling using cross-correlation values identifiesmore » regions where synthetic seismograms computed with ray theory and finite-frequency models differ the most. Our study suggests that finite-frequency approaches to seismic imaging exhibit measurable improvement for pronounced low-velocity anomalies such as mantle plumes.« less
Finite element model calibration using frequency responses with damping equalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abrahamsson, T. J. S.; Kammer, D. C.
2015-10-01
Model calibration is a cornerstone of the finite element verification and validation procedure, in which the credibility of the model is substantiated by positive comparison with test data. The calibration problem, in which the minimum deviation between finite element model data and experimental data is searched for, is normally characterized as being a large scale optimization problem with many model parameters to solve for and with deviation metrics that are nonlinear in these parameters. The calibrated parameters need to be found by iterative procedures, starting from initial estimates. Sometimes these procedures get trapped in local deviation function minima and do not converge to the globally optimal calibration solution that is searched for. The reason for such traps is often the multi-modality of the problem which causes eigenmode crossover problems in the iterative variation of parameter settings. This work presents a calibration formulation which gives a smooth deviation metric with a large radius of convergence to the global minimum. A damping equalization method is suggested to avoid the mode correlation and mode pairing problems that need to be solved in many other model updating procedures. By this method, the modal damping of a test data model and the finite element model is set to be the same fraction of critical modal damping. Mode pairing for mapping of experimentally found damping to the finite element model is thus not needed. The method is combined with model reduction for efficiency and employs the Levenberg-Marquardt minimizer with randomized starts to achieve the calibration solution. The performance of the calibration procedure, including a study of parameter bias and variance under noisy data conditions, is demonstrated by two numerical examples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ke; Jiang, Bin; Shi, Peng; Xu, Jinfa
2014-08-01
The design of a multi-constrained full-order fault estimation observer (FFEO) with finite frequency specifications is studied for continuous-time systems. By constructing an augmented system, a multi-constrained FFEO in finite frequency domain is proposed to achieve fault estimation. Meanwhile, the presented FFEO can avoid the overdesign problem generated by the entire frequency domain by the generalised Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov lemma. Furthermore, by introducing slack variables, improved results on FFEO design in different frequency domains are obtained such that different Lyapunov matrices can be separately designed for each constraint. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and potentials of the proposed techniques.
Approximate solution for frequency synchronization in a finite-size Kuramoto model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chengwei; Rubido, Nicolás; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.
2015-12-01
Scientists have been considering the Kuramoto model to understand the mechanism behind the appearance of collective behavior, such as frequency synchronization (FS) as a paradigm, in real-world networks with a finite number of oscillators. A major current challenge is to obtain an analytical solution for the phase angles. Here, we provide an approximate analytical solution for this problem by deriving a master solution for the finite-size Kuramoto model, with arbitrary finite-variance distribution of the natural frequencies of the oscillators. The master solution embodies all particular solutions of the finite-size Kuramoto model for any frequency distribution and coupling strength larger than the critical one. Furthermore, we present a criterion to determine the stability of the FS solution. This allows one to analytically infer the relationship between the physical parameters and the stable behavior of networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itoh, Kimitaka
2005-10-01
This talk describes an overview of zonal flow physics, covering the theory, simulation and experiment. The zonal flows are excited nonlinearly by drift wave fluctuations, and suppress the turbulence and transport, so as to realize a self-regulating state for turbulence and mesoscale structure. This recognition is the central of recent paradigm shift in plasma physics, i.e., the preceding linear, local and deterministic pictures of instability and transport have been taken over by the new nonlinear, nonlocal (in real and wavenumber spaces) and statistical pictures of them. The zonal flow phenomenon, i.e., the global axial vector fields are generated by the release of global free energy in scalar fields through exciting turbulence, is a typical example of the fundamental issues in modern physics. In this review, the progresses made by theory and simulations, such as the linear damping rate, nonlinear mechanisms for growth and saturation, law of energy partition between turbulence and flow, life time of zonal flow, and so on, are explained. The transport by drift wave fluctuations, which are dressed by zonal flows, is discussed. Then experimental observations and verifications, which have been piled up rapidly in basic plasma experiments and confinement research, are explained, highlighting the integration with theory and simulation. Generalization to include magnetic field (zonal field) is addressed, in the light of the study of dynamo. Zonal flows in both laboratory and planetary-solar circumstances are discussed as well. This presentation illustrates the fast evolution of the physics of turbulence and structure formation of plasmas in the nature and laboratory. In collaboration with S.-I. Itoh, P. H. Diamond, T. S. Hahm, A. Fujisawa, G. R. Tynan and M. Yagi.
Finite frequency effects on global S diffracted traveltimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
To, Akiko; Romanowicz, Barbara
2009-12-01
Many seismic observations have shown that strong heterogeneities exist in the bottom few hundreds kilometres of the mantle. Among different seismic phases, this region, that is, the D'' layer, can be most globally sampled by diffracted waves along the core mantle boundary. Here, we assess the amplitude and distribution of S-wave velocity variations in the D'' layer of an existing tomographic model. We compare observed SHdiff traveltime anomalies to synthetic ones obtained using (1) the coupled spectral element method (CSEM), which is our reference exact method, (2) non-linear asymptotic coupling theory (NACT) and (3) 1-D ray theory. Synthetic waveforms are calculated down to 0.057 Hz with a corner frequency at 0.026 Hz. In the first part of this paper, we compare the traveltime anomaly predictions from the three different methods. The anomalies from CSEM and NACT are obtained by taking cross-correlations of the 3-D and 1-D synthetic waveforms. Both NACT and standard ray theory, which are used in other recent tomographic models, suffer from biases in traveltime predictions for vertically varying structure near the core-mantle boundary: NACT suffers from saturation of traveltimes, due to the portion in the kernel calculation that is based on the reference 1-D model, while ray theory suffers from wave front healing effects in the vertical plane, exacerbated in the presence of thin low velocity layers. In the second part, we compare observed traveltime anomalies and predictions from CSEM. The data consists of 506 Sdiff traveltime anomalies from 15 events, obtained form global seismograph network records. The tomographic model does a good job at predicting traveltimes of Sdiff phases especially when the path mostly samples fast S velocity regions at the base of the mantle, such as beneath India, China, North America and Northern Pacific. The underprediction of the positive observed traveltime anomalies seems to occur in regions where the paths sample close to the border
Feng, Xiaobing
1996-12-31
A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.
A conservative treatment of zonal boundaries for Euler equation calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, M. M.
1984-01-01
Finite-difference calculations require the generation of a grid for the region of interest. A zonal approach, wherein the given region is subdivided into zones and the grid for each zone is generated independently, makes the grid-generation process for complicated topologies and for regions requiring selective grid refinement a fairly simple task. This approach results in new boundaries within the given region, that is, zonal boundaries at the interfaces of the various zones. The zonal-boundary scheme (the integration scheme used to update the points on the zonal boundary) for the Euler equations must be conservative, accurate, stable, and applicable to general curvilinear coordinate systems. A zonal-boundary scheme with these desirable properties is developed in this study. The scheme is designed for explicit, first-order-accurate integration schemes but can be modified to accommodate second-order-accurate explicit and implicit integration schemes. Results for inviscid flow, including supersonic flow over a cylinder, blast-wave diffraction by a ramp, and one-dimensional shock-tube flow are obtained on zonal grids. The conservative nature of the zonal-boundary scheme permits the smooth transition of the discontinuities associated with these flows from one zone to another. The calculations also demonstrate the continuity of contour lines across zonal boundaries that can be achieved with the present zonal scheme.
A Conservation Treatment of Zonal Boundaries for Euler Equation Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan
1986-01-01
Finite-difference calculations require the generation of a grid for the region of interest. A zonal approach, wherein the given region is subdivided into zones and the grid for each zone is generated independently, makes the grid-generation process for complicated topologies and for regions requiring selective grid refinement a fairly simple task. This approach results in new boundaries within the given region, that is, zonal boundaries at the interfaces of the various zones. The zonal-boundary scheme (the integration scheme used to update the points on the zonal boundary) for the Euler equations must be conservative, accurate, stable, and applicable to general curvilinear coordinate systems. A zonal-boundary scheme with these desirable properties is developed in this study. The scheme is designed for explicit, first-order-accurate integration schemes but can be modified to accommodate second-order-accurate explicit and implicit integration schemes. Results for inviscid flow, including supersonic flow over a cylinder, blast-wave diffraction by a ramp, and one-dimensional shock-tube flow are obtained on zonal grids. The conservative nature of the zonal-boundary scheme permits the smooth transition of the discontinuities associated with these flows from one zone to another. The calculations also demonstrate the continuity of contour lines across zonal boundaries that can be achieved with the present zonal scheme.
Low-frequency scaling applied to stochastic finite-fault modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crane, Stephen; Motazedian, Dariush
2014-01-01
Stochastic finite-fault modeling is an important tool for simulating moderate to large earthquakes. It has proven to be useful in applications that require a reliable estimation of ground motions, mostly in the spectral frequency range of 1 to 10 Hz, which is the range of most interest to engineers. However, since there can be little resemblance between the low-frequency spectra of large and small earthquakes, this portion can be difficult to simulate using stochastic finite-fault techniques. This paper introduces two different methods to scale low-frequency spectra for stochastic finite-fault modeling. One method multiplies the subfault source spectrum by an empirical function. This function has three parameters to scale the low-frequency spectra: the level of scaling and the start and end frequencies of the taper. This empirical function adjusts the earthquake spectra only between the desired frequencies, conserving seismic moment in the simulated spectra. The other method is an empirical low-frequency coefficient that is added to the subfault corner frequency. This new parameter changes the ratio between high and low frequencies. For each simulation, the entire earthquake spectra is adjusted, which may result in the seismic moment not being conserved for a simulated earthquake. These low-frequency scaling methods were used to reproduce recorded earthquake spectra from several earthquakes recorded in the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) Next Generation Attenuation Models (NGA) database. There were two methods of determining the stochastic parameters of best fit for each earthquake: a general residual analysis and an earthquake-specific residual analysis. Both methods resulted in comparable values for stress drop and the low-frequency scaling parameters; however, the earthquake-specific residual analysis obtained a more accurate distribution of the averaged residuals.
Thomas, Edward Jr.; Fisher, Ross; Merlino, Robert L.
2007-12-15
An experiment has been performed to study the behavior of dust acoustic waves driven at high frequencies (f>100 Hz), extending the range of previous work. In this study, two previously unreported phenomena are observed--interference effects between naturally excited dust acoustic waves and driven dust acoustic waves, and the observation of finite dust temperature effects on the dispersion relation.
Witteveen, Jeroen A.S. Bijl, Hester
2009-10-01
The Unsteady Adaptive Stochastic Finite Elements (UASFE) method resolves the effect of randomness in numerical simulations of single-mode aeroelastic responses with a constant accuracy in time for a constant number of samples. In this paper, the UASFE framework is extended to multi-frequency responses and continuous structures by employing a wavelet decomposition pre-processing step to decompose the sampled multi-frequency signals into single-frequency components. The effect of the randomness on the multi-frequency response is then obtained by summing the results of the UASFE interpolation at constant phase for the different frequency components. Results for multi-frequency responses and continuous structures show a three orders of magnitude reduction of computational costs compared to crude Monte Carlo simulations in a harmonically forced oscillator, a flutter panel problem, and the three-dimensional transonic AGARD 445.6 wing aeroelastic benchmark subject to random fields and random parameters with various probability distributions.
P-Wave Velocity Structure Beneath Eastern Eurasia From Finite Frequency Seismic Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, T.; Shen, Y.; Yang, X.
2005-12-01
Eastern Eurasia is one of the most tectonically complex regions in the world. While the evolution history of continental lithosphere has been well recognized, the fine structure associated with the complicated deformation in this region is far from clear, and deep mantle processes that accompanied shallower lithosphere deformations are poorly understood. In order to improve the resolution of the velocity structure in the region, we applied the newly-developed Finite Frequency Seismic Tomography (FFST) method, which utilizes the 3D Frechet-Born sensitivity kernels of the travel times of finite frequency seismic waves to account for wavefront healing and off-ray scattering, to eastern Eurasia. In addition to the new technique, we obtained a comprehensive finite-frequency body wave travel time data set from cross-correlation of broadband waveforms. Datasets used in this study include waveforms from the publicly accessible sources (e.g. IRIS, GSN, PASSCAL, and IMS stations) and other seismic networks in the region such as the Japanese Broadband Seismograph Network (F-net), the Japanese International Seismic Network (JISNET), the Taiwan Broadband Seismic Network and China National Digital Seismic Network. Taking advantage of broadband waveforms, we measured relative delays times by waveform cross-correlation in three frequency bands between 0.03 to 2 Hz for P waves. The travel times in the three frequency bands were inverted jointly to take advantage of the `data fusion' made possible by the finite-frequency kernels and separately to understand the resolving power of each data set. Preliminary results are comparable to the velocity models obtained in previous tomographic studies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, L. C.
1976-01-01
The cross correlation of the intensity fluctuations between different frequencies and finite bandwidth effects on the intensity correlations based on the Markov approximation were calculated. Results may be applied to quite general turbulence spectra for an extended turbulent medium. Calculations of the cross-correlation function and of finite bandwidth effects are explicitly carried out for both Gaussian and Kolmogorov turbulence spectra. The increases of the correlation scale of intensity fluctuations are different for these two spectra and the difference can be used to determine whether the interstellar turbulent medium has a Gaussian or a Kolmogorov spectrum.
Finite element modeling of truss structures with frequency-dependent material damping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lesieutre, George A.
1991-01-01
A physically motivated modelling technique for structural dynamic analysis that accommodates frequency dependent material damping was developed. Key features of the technique are the introduction of augmenting thermodynamic fields (AFT) to interact with the usual mechanical displacement field, and the treatment of the resulting coupled governing equations using finite element analysis methods. The AFT method is fully compatible with current structural finite element analysis techniques. The method is demonstrated in the dynamic analysis of a 10-bay planar truss structure, a structure representative of those contemplated for use in future space systems.
Generation of zonal flow and magnetic field in the ionospheric E-layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kahlon, L. Z.; Kaladze, T. D.
2015-10-01
> We review the generation of zonal flow and magnetic field by coupled electromagnetic ultra-low-frequency waves in the Earth's ionospheric E-layer. It is shown that, under typical ionospheric E-layer conditions, different planetary low-frequency waves can couple with each other. Propagation of coupled internal-gravity-Alfvén, coupled Rossby-Khantadze and coupled Rossby-Alfvén-Khantadze waves is revealed and studied. A set of appropriate equations describing the nonlinear interaction of such waves with sheared zonal flow is derived. The conclusion on the instability of short-wavelength turbulence of such coupled waves with respect to the excitation of low-frequency and large-scale perturbation of the sheared zonal flow and sheared magnetic field is deduced. The nonlinear mechanism of the instability is based on the parametric triple interaction of finite-amplitude coupled waves leading to the inverse energy cascade towards longer wavelength. The possibility of generation of an intense mean magnetic field is shown. Obtained growth rates are discussed for each case of the considered coupled waves.
Numerical experiments on the drift wave-zonal flow paradigm for nonlinear saturation
Waltz, R. E.; Holland, C.
2008-12-15
This paper confirms that ExB shearing from toroidally symmetric (toroidal mode number n=0) 'radial modes' provides the dominant nonlinear saturation mechanism for drift wave (n{ne}0) turbulence, which in turn nonlinearly drives the modes. In common usage, this is loosely referred to as the 'drift wave-zonal flow paradigm' for nonlinear saturation despite the fact that radial modes have several components distinguished in this paper: a residual or zero mean frequency 'zonal flow' part and an oscillatory 'geodesic acoustic mode' (GAM) part. Linearly, the zonal flows (and GAMs) are weakly damped only by ion-ion collisions, while the GAMs are strongly Landau damped only at low safety factor q. At high q the Hinton-Rosenbluth residual flow from an impulse vanishes and only the weakly damped GAMs remain. With the linear physics and driving rates of the finite-n transport modes unchanged, this paper argues that GAMs are only somewhat less effective than the residual zonal flows in providing the nonlinear saturation, and in some cases ExB shearing from GAMs (or at least the GAM physics) appears to dominate: transport appears to be nearly linear in the GAM frequency. By deleting the drift wave-drift wave nonlinear coupling, it is found that drift wave-radial mode nonlinear coupling triads account for most of the nonlinear saturation. Furthermore, the ExB shear components of the radial modes nonlinearly stabilize the finite-n modes, while the diamagnetic components nonlinearly destabilize them. Finally, from wave number spectral contour plots of the time average nonlinear entropy transfer function (and rates), it is shown that the peak in entropy generation coincides with the peak in transport production, while entropy dissipation (like Landau damping) is spread equally over all n modes (including n=0). Most of these conclusions appear to hold about equally well for all types of drift wave turbulence.
Robust fault-tolerant H∞ control of active suspension systems with finite-frequency constraint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rongrong; Jing, Hui; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Chen, Nan
2015-10-01
In this paper, the robust fault-tolerant (FT) H∞ control problem of active suspension systems with finite-frequency constraint is investigated. A full-car model is employed in the controller design such that the heave, pitch and roll motions can be simultaneously controlled. Both the actuator faults and external disturbances are considered in the controller synthesis. As the human body is more sensitive to the vertical vibration in 4-8 Hz, robust H∞ control with this finite-frequency constraint is designed. Other performances such as suspension deflection and actuator saturation are also considered. As some of the states such as the sprung mass pitch and roll angles are hard to measure, a robust H∞ dynamic output-feedback controller with fault tolerant ability is proposed. Simulation results show the performance of the proposed controller.
A fault detection observer design for LPV systems in finite frequency domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jianliang; Cao, Yong-Yan; Zhang, Weidong
2015-03-01
This paper addresses the fault detection observer design problem for linear parameter-varying systems. Two finite frequency performance indexes are introduced to measure the fault sensitivity and the disturbance robustness. First, the H- index fault sensitivity condition in finite frequency domain is obtained by generalised Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov lemma and new linearisation techniques. Then, with the aid of Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov lemma and projection lemma, the stability and robustness conditions are derived. It turns out that the non-convexity problem which is caused by dealing with the above three conditions can be translated into a bilinear matrix inequality optimisation problem by increasing the dimensions of slack variable matrix. An iterative linear matrix inequality algorithm is proposed to get the solution. The effectiveness of the filter is shown via three numerical examples.
Fault detection in finite frequency domain for Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems with sensor faults.
Li, Xiao-Jian; Yang, Guang-Hong
2014-08-01
This paper is concerned with the fault detection (FD) problem in finite frequency domain for continuous-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems with sensor faults. Some finite-frequency performance indices are initially introduced to measure the fault/reference input sensitivity and disturbance robustness. Based on these performance indices, an effective FD scheme is then presented such that the generated residual is designed to be sensitive to both fault and reference input for faulty cases, while robust against the reference input for fault-free case. As the additional reference input sensitivity for faulty cases is considered, it is shown that the proposed method improves the existing FD techniques and achieves a better FD performance. The theory is supported by simulation results related to the detection of sensor faults in a tunnel-diode circuit. PMID:24184791
Effect of axial finiteness on electron heating in low-frequency inductively coupled plasmas
Aman-ur-Rehman; Pu, Y.-K.
2006-10-15
Total power absorption inside the plasma (by taking the thermal motion of the electrons into account) has been calculated using different inductively coupled plasma models. The comparison shows that in the low-frequency region the results of the semi-infinite plasma models are different from those of the finite-length plasma models. The semi-infinite plasma models show net reduction of heating in the low-frequency region, due to thermal motion of the electrons from inside the skin region to outside the skin region. The finite-length plasma models on the other hand (due to change in the skin depth owing to the boundary condition of E=0 at z=L, and reflection of electrons from the plasma boundary) show that the decrease in heating due to the motion of the electrons from inside the skin depth to outside the skin depth is recovered by the reflection of the electrons from the plasma boundary. Hence, it is concluded that the results of the semi-infinite plasma models presented by Tyshetskiy et al. [Phys Rev. Lett. 90, 255002 (2003)] can be misleading (in the low-frequency region), since they overlooked the effect of axial finiteness of the plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolstrup, M. L.; Maupin, V.
2015-10-01
We present a data-processing routine to compute relative finite-frequency travel time residuals using a combination of the Iterative Cross-Correlation and Stack (ICCS) algorithm and the Multi-Channel Cross-Correlation method (MCCC). The routine has been tailored for robust measurement of P- and S-wave travel times in several frequency bands and for avoiding cycle-skipping problems at the shortest periods. We also investigate the adequacy of ray theory to calculate crustal corrections for finite-frequency regional tomography in normal continental settings with non-thinned crust. We find that ray theory is valid for both P and S waves at all relevant frequencies as long as the crust does not contain low-velocity layers associated with sediments at the surface. Reverberations in the sediments perturb the arrival times of the S waves and the long-period P waves significantly, and need to be accounted for in crustal corrections. The data-processing routine and crustal corrections are illustrated using data from a~network in southwestern Scandinavia.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolstrup, M. L.; Maupin, V.
2015-07-01
We present a data processing routine to compute relative finite-frequency travel time residuals using a combination of the Iterative Cross-Correlation and Stack (ICCS) algorithm and the MultiChannel Cross-Correlation method (MCCC). The routine has been tailored for robust measurement of P and S wave travel times in several frequency bands and for avoiding cycle-skipping problems at the shortest periods. We also investigate the adequacy of ray theory to calculate crustal corrections for finite-frequency regional tomography in normal continental settings with non-thinned crust. We find that ray theory is valid for both P and S waves at all relevant frequencies as long as the crust does not contain low-velocity layers associated with sediments at the surface. Reverberations in the sediments perturb the arrival times of the S waves and the long-period P waves significantly, and need to be accounted for in crustal corrections. The data processing routine and crustal corrections are illustated using data from a network in southwestern Scandinavia.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.
1996-01-01
An explicit finite difference iteration scheme is developed to study harmonic sound propagation in aircraft engine nacelles. To reduce storage requirements for large 3D problems, the time dependent potential form of the acoustic wave equation is used. To insure that the finite difference scheme is both explicit and stable, time is introduced into the Fourier transformed (steady-state) acoustic potential field as a parameter. Under a suitable transformation, the time dependent governing equation in frequency space is simplified to yield a parabolic partial differential equation, which is then marched through time to attain the steady-state solution. The input to the system is the amplitude of an incident harmonic sound source entering a quiescent duct at the input boundary, with standard impedance boundary conditions on the duct walls and duct exit. The introduction of the time parameter eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with frequency domain solutions, and time marching attains the steady-state quickly enough to make the method favorable when compared to frequency domain methods. For validation, this transient-frequency domain method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D hard wall duct with plug flow.
P-Wave Velocity Structure beneath Eastern Eurasia from Finite Frequency Seismic Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, T.; Shen, Y.; Yang, X.
2006-05-01
Despite the recent extensive seismic studies, the detailed lithospheric structure and deep mantle dynamic processes beneath eastern Eurasia remain poorly constrained. In this study, we applied the Finite Frequency Seismic Tomography (FFST) method, which utilizes the 3D Fréchet sensitivity kernels of the travel times of finite frequency seismic waves to account for wavefront healing and off-ray scattering, to eastern Eurasia. Taking advantage of the broadband feature of seismic records, we measured P wave relative delays times by waveform cross-correlation in three frequency bands (0.03-0.1Hz, 0.1-0.5 Hz and 0.5 to 2.0 Hz), which were inverted jointly to constrain velocity heterogeneities with different distances from the central geometric rays. The effect of strong variations in crustal structure beneath this region on travel time data was removed by conducting a frequency dependent crustal correction. A comprehensive dataset, including waveforms from the publicly accessible sources and other seismic networks in the region, were collected for this study. Our preliminary results are consistent with the velocity models obtained in previous tomographic studies. A more complete dataset will further improve the resolution of the velocity structure beneath eastern Eurasia.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, K. J.; Kreider, K. L.
1996-01-01
An explicit finite difference iteration scheme is developed to study harmonic sound propagation in ducts. To reduce storage requirements for large 3D problems, the time dependent potential form of the acoustic wave equation is used. To insure that the finite difference scheme is both explicit and stable, time is introduced into the Fourier transformed (steady-state) acoustic potential field as a parameter. Under a suitable transformation, the time dependent governing equation in frequency space is simplified to yield a parabolic partial differential equation, which is then marched through time to attain the steady-state solution. The input to the system is the amplitude of an incident harmonic sound source entering a quiescent duct at the input boundary, with standard impedance boundary conditions on the duct walls and duct exit. The introduction of the time parameter eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with frequency domain solutions, and time marching attains the steady-state quickly enough to make the method favorable when compared to frequency domain methods. For validation, this transient-frequency domain method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D hard wall duct with plug flow.
Stochastically forced zonal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasan, Kaushik
This thesis investigates the dynamics of multiple zonal jets, that spontaneously emerge on the barotropic beta-plane, driven by a homogenous and rapidly decorrelating forcing and damped by bottom drag. Decomposing the barotropic vorticity equation into the zonal-mean and eddy equations, and neglecting the eddy-eddy interactions, defines the quasi-linear (QL) system. Numerical solution of the QL system shows zonal jets with length scales comparable to jets obtained by solving the nonlinear (NL) system. Starting with the QL system, one can construct a deterministic equation for the evolution of the two-point single-time correlation function of the vorticity, from which one can obtain the Reynolds stress that drives the zonal mean flow. This deterministic system has an exact nonlinear solution, which is a homogenous eddy field with no jets. When the forcing is also isotropic in space, we characterize the linear stability of this jetless solution by calculating the critical stability curve in the parameter space and successfully comparing this analytic result with numerical solutions of the QL system. But the critical drag required for the onset of NL zonostrophic instability is up to a factor of six smaller than that for QL zonostrophic instability. The constraint of isotropic forcing is then relaxed and spatially anisotropic forcing is used to drive the jets. Meridionally drifting jets are observed whenever the forcing breaks an additional symmetry that we refer to as mirror, or reflexional symmetry. The magnitude of drift speed in our results shows a strong variation with both mu and beta: while the drift speed decreases almost linearly with decreasing mu, it actually increases as beta decreases. Similar drifting jets are also observed in QL, with the same direction (i.e. northward or southward) and similar magnitude as NL jet-drift. Starting from the laminar solution, and assuming a mean-flow that varies slowly with reference to the scale of the eddies, we obtain
Finite element solution of a Schelkunoff vector potential for frequency domain, EM field simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordy, M. A.; Wannamaker, P. E.; Cherkaev, E.
2011-12-01
A novel method for the 3-D diffusive electromagnetic (EM) forward problem is developed and tested. A Lorentz-gauge, Schelkunoff complex vector potential is used to represent the EM field in the frequency domain and the nodal finite element method is used for numerical simulation. The potential allows for three degrees of freedom per node, instead of four if Coulomb-gauge vector and scalar potentials are used. Unlike the finite-difference method, which minimizes error at discrete points, the finite element method minimizes error over the entire domain cell volumes and may easily adapt to complex topography. Existence and uniqueness of this continuous Schelkunoff potential is proven, boundary conditions are found and a governing equation satisfied by the potential in weak form is obtained. This approach for using a Schelkunoff potential in the finite element method differs from other trials found in the literature. If the standard weak form of the Helmholtz equation is used, the obtained solution is continuous and has continuous normal derivative across boundaries of regions with different physical properties; however, continuous Schelkunoff potential components do not have continuous normal derivative, divergence of the potential divided by (complex) conductivity and magnetic permeability is continuous instead. The weak form of governing equation used here imposes proper boundary conditions on the solution. Moreover, as the solution is continuous, nodal shape functions are used instead of edge elements. Magnetotelluric (MT) simulation results using the new method are compared with those from other MT forward codes
Application of a finite-element model to low-frequency sound insulation in dwellings.
Maluski, S P; Gibbs, B M
2000-10-01
The sound transmission between adjacent rooms has been modeled using a finite-element method. Predicted sound-level difference gave good agreement with experimental data using a full-scale and a quarter-scale model. Results show that the sound insulation characteristics of a party wall at low frequencies strongly depend on the modal characteristics of the sound field of both rooms and of the partition. The effect of three edge conditions of the separating wall on the sound-level difference at low frequencies was examined: simply supported, clamped, and a combination of clamped and simply supported. It is demonstrated that a clamped partition provides greater sound-level difference at low frequencies than a simply supported. It also is confirmed that the sound-pressure level difference is lower in equal room than in unequal room configurations. PMID:11051501
Imaging seismic velocity structure beneath the Iceland hot spot: A finite frequency approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hung, Shu-Huei; Shen, Yang; Chiao, Ling-Yun
2004-08-01
Tomographic models based on hypothetically infinite frequency ray interpretation of teleseismic travel time shifts have revealed a region of relatively low P and S wave speeds extending from shallow mantle to 400 km depth beneath Iceland. In reality, seismic waves have finite frequency bandwidths and undergo diffractive wave front healing. The limitation in ray theory leaves large uncertainties in the determinations of the magnitude and shape of the velocity anomaly beneath Iceland and its geodynamic implications. We developed a tomographic method that utilizes the banana-shaped sensitivity of finite frequency relative travel times from the paraxial kernel theory. Using available seismic data from the ICEMELT and HOTSPOT experiments, we applied the new method to image subsurface velocity structure beneath Iceland. Taking advantage that the sensitivity volume of broadband waveforms varies with frequency, we measured relative delay times in three frequency ranges from 0.03 to 2 Hz for P and 0.02 to 0.5 Hz for S waves. Given similar fit to data, the kernel-based models yield the root-mean-square amplitudes of P and S wave speed perturbations about 2-2.8 times those from ray tomography in the depths of 150-400 km. The kernel-based images show that a columnar low-velocity region having a lateral dimension of ˜250-300 km extends to the base of the upper mantle beneath central Iceland, deeper than that resolved by the ray-based studies. The improved resolution in the upper mantle transition zone is attributed to the deeper crossing of broad off-path sensitivity of travel time kernels than in ray approximation and frequency-dependent wave front healing as an intrinsic measure of the distance from velocity heterogeneity to receivers.
Bora, B. Soto, L.
2014-08-15
Capacitively coupled radio frequency (CCRF) plasmas are widely studied in last decades due to the versatile applicability of energetic ions, chemically active species, radicals, and also energetic neutral species in many material processing fields including microelectronics, aerospace, and biology. A dc self-bias is known to generate naturally in geometrically asymmetric CCRF plasma because of the difference in electrode sizes known as geometrical asymmetry of the electrodes in order to compensate electron and ion flux to each electrode within one rf period. The plasma series resonance effect is also come into play due to the geometrical asymmetry and excited several harmonics of the fundamental in low pressure CCRF plasma. In this work, a 13.56 MHz CCRF plasma is studied on the based on the nonlinear global model of asymmetric CCRF discharge to understand the influences of finite geometrical asymmetry of the electrodes in terms of generation of dc self-bias and plasma heating. The nonlinear global model on asymmetric discharge has been modified by considering the sheath at the grounded electrode to taking account the finite geometrical asymmetry of the electrodes. The ion density inside both the sheaths has been taken into account by incorporating the steady-state fluid equations for ions considering that the applied rf frequency is higher than the typical ion plasma frequency. Details results on the influences of geometrical asymmetry on the generation of dc self-bias and plasma heating are discussed.
Finite-frequency noise in a non-interacting quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamoum, Redouane; Lavagna, Mireille; Crépieux, Adeline
2016-05-01
We calculate the non-symmetrized finite-frequency NS-FF noise for a single-level quantum dot connected to reservoirs in the spinless non-interacting case. The calculations are performed within the framework of the Keldysh Green’s function formalism in the wide band approximation limit. We establish the general formula for NS-FF noise for any values of temperature, frequency and bias voltage. The electron transfer processes from one to the other reservoir act via the transmission amplitude and transmission coefficient depending on the energy. By taking the symmetrized version of this expression, we show that our result coincides with the expression of the finite frequency noise obtained by Büttiker using the scattering theory. We also give the explicit analytical expression for the NS-FF noise in the zero temperature limit. Finally, by performing numerical calculations, we discuss the evolution of the NS-FF noise spectrum with varying temperature, dot energy level, and coupling strength to the reservoirs, revealing a large variety of behaviors such as different symmetry properties and changes of sign in the excess noise.
Kuramoto model with uniformly spaced frequencies: Finite-N asymptotics of the locking threshold.
Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H
2016-06-01
We study phase locking in the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators in the special case where the number of oscillators, N, is large but finite, and the oscillators' natural frequencies are evenly spaced on a given interval. In this case, stable phase-locked solutions are known to exist if and only if the frequency interval is narrower than a certain critical width, called the locking threshold. For infinite N, the exact value of the locking threshold was calculated 30 years ago; however, the leading corrections to it for finite N have remained unsolved analytically. Here we derive an asymptotic formula for the locking threshold when N≫1. The leading correction to the infinite-N result scales like either N^{-3/2} or N^{-1}, depending on whether the frequencies are evenly spaced according to a midpoint rule or an end-point rule. These scaling laws agree with numerical results obtained by Pazó [D. Pazó, Phys. Rev. E 72, 046211 (2005)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.72.046211]. Moreover, our analysis yields the exact prefactors in the scaling laws, which also match the numerics. PMID:27415267
Kuramoto model with uniformly spaced frequencies: Finite-N asymptotics of the locking threshold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H.
2016-06-01
We study phase locking in the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators in the special case where the number of oscillators, N , is large but finite, and the oscillators' natural frequencies are evenly spaced on a given interval. In this case, stable phase-locked solutions are known to exist if and only if the frequency interval is narrower than a certain critical width, called the locking threshold. For infinite N , the exact value of the locking threshold was calculated 30 years ago; however, the leading corrections to it for finite N have remained unsolved analytically. Here we derive an asymptotic formula for the locking threshold when N ≫1 . The leading correction to the infinite-N result scales like either N-3 /2 or N-1, depending on whether the frequencies are evenly spaced according to a midpoint rule or an end-point rule. These scaling laws agree with numerical results obtained by Pazó [D. Pazó, Phys. Rev. E 72, 046211 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevE.72.046211]. Moreover, our analysis yields the exact prefactors in the scaling laws, which also match the numerics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bora, B.
2015-10-01
In recent years, dual capacitively coupled radio frequency (CCRF) glow discharge plasma has been widely studied in the laboratory because of its simpler design and high efficiency for different material processing applications such as thin-film deposition, plasma etching, sputtering of insulating materials etc. The main objective of studies on dual frequency CCRF plasma has been the independent control of ion energy and ion flux using an electrical asymmetry effect (EAE). Most studies have been reported in electrode configurations that are either geometrically symmetric (both electrodes are equal) or completely asymmetric (one electrode is infinitely bigger than the other). However, it seems that most of the laboratory CCRF plasmas have finite electrode geometry. In addition, plasma series resonance (PSR) and electron bounce resonance (EBR) heating also come into play as a result of geometrical asymmetry as well as EAE. In this study, a dual frequency CCRF plasma has been studied in which the dual frequency CCRF has been coupled to the lumped circuit model of the plasma and the time-independent fluid model of the plasma sheath, in order to study the effect of finite geometrical asymmetry on the generation of dc-self bias and plasma heating. The dc self-bias is found to strongly depend on the ratio of the area between the electrodes. The dc self-bias is found to depend on the phase angle between the two applied voltage waveforms. The EAE and geometrical asymmetry are found to work differently in controlling the dc self-bias. It can be concluded that the phase angle between the two voltage waveforms in dual CCRF plasmas has an important role in determining the dc self-bias and may be used for controlling the plasma properties in the dual frequency CCRF plasma.
Comments on finite Larmor radius models for ion cyclotron range of frequencies heating in tokamaks
Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R. ); Smithe, D.N. )
1994-12-01
The accuracy of standard finite Larmor radius (FLR) models for wave propagation in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is compared against full hot plasma models. For multiple ion species plasmas, the FLR model is shown to predict the presence of a spurious second harmonic ion--ion type resonance between the second harmonic cyclotron layers of two ion species. It is shown explicitly here that the spurious resonance is an artifact of the FLR models and that no absorption occurs in the plasma as a result of this resonance.''
Comments on finite Larmor radius models for ion cyclotron range of frequencies heating in tokamaks
Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R.; Smithe, D.N.
1994-06-01
The accuracy of standard finite Larmor radius (FLR) models for wave propagation in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is compared against full hot plasma models. For multiple ion species plasmas, the FLR model is shown to predict the presence of a spurious second harmonic ion-ion type resonance between the second harmonic cyclotron layers of two ion species. It is shown explicitly here that the spurious resonance is an artifact of the FLR models and that no absorption occurs in the plasma as a result of this ``resonance.``
Random shearing by zonal flows and transport reduction
Kim, Eun-jin; Diamond, P.H.
2004-12-01
The physics of random shearing by zonal flows and the consequent reduction of scalar field transport are studied. In contrast to mean shear flows, zonal flows have a finite autocorrelation time and can exhibit complex spatial structure. A random zonal flow with a finite correlation time {tau}{sub ZF} decorrelates two nearby fluid elements less efficiently than a mean shear flow does. The decorrelation time is {tau}{sub D}=({tau}{sub {eta}}/{tau}{sub ZF}{omega}{sub rms}{sup 2}){sup 1sol2} ({tau}{sub {eta}} is the turbulent scattering time, and {omega}{sub rms} is the rms shear), leading to larger scalar field amplitude with a slightly different scaling ({proportional_to}{tau}{sub D}/{omega}{sub rms}), as compared to the case of coherent shearing. In the strong shear limit, the flux scales as {proportional_to}{omega}{sub rms}{sup -1}.
Application of generalized Snoek's law over a finite frequency range: A case study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozanov, Konstantin N.; Koledintseva, Marina Y.
2016-02-01
Generalized Snoek's law proposed in an integral form by Acher and coauthors is a useful tool for investigation of high-frequency properties of magnetic materials. This integral law referred to as Acher's law allows for evaluating the ultimate performance of RF and microwave devices which employ magnetic materials. It may also be helpful in obtaining useful information on the structure and morphology of the materials. The key factor in practical application of Acher's law is an opportunity to employ either measured or calculated data available over a finite frequency range. The paper uses simple calculations to check the applicability of Acher's law in cases when the frequency range is limited and the magnetic loss peak is comparatively wide and has a distorted shape. The cases of large magnetic damping, pronounced skin effect, and inhomogeneity of the material are considered. It is shown that in most cases calculation of the integral through fitting of actual magnetic frequency dispersion by the Lorentzian dispersion law results in accurate estimations of the ultimate high-frequency performance of magnetic materials.
Bouayed, Kaïss; Hamdi, Mohamed-Ali
2012-08-01
This paper presents numerical and experimental validation of results obtained by a shell finite element, which has been developed for modeling of the dynamic behavior of sandwich multilayered structures with a viscoelastic core. The proposed shell finite element is very easy to implement in existing finite element solvers, since it uses only the displacements as degrees of freedom at external faces and at inter-layer interfaces. The displacement field is linearly interpolated in the thickness direction of each layer, and analytical integration is made in the thickness direction in order to avoid meshing of each sandwich layer by solid elements. Only the two dimensional mid-surface of reference is meshed, facilitating the mesh generation task. A simplified modal approach using a real modal basis is also proposed to efficiently calculate the dynamic response of the sandwich structure. The proposed method reduces the memory size and computing time and takes into account the frequency-dependence of the polymer core mechanical properties. Results obtained by the proposed element in conjunction with the simplified modal method have been numerically and experimentally validated by comparison to results obtained by commercial software codes (MSC/NASTRAN and ESI/RAYON-VTM), and to measurements done on automobile windscreens. PMID:22894198
Brigham, John C.; Aquino, Wilkins; Aguilo, Miguel A.; Diamessis, Peter J.
2010-01-01
An approach for efficient and accurate finite element analysis of harmonically excited soft solids using high-order spectral finite elements is presented and evaluated. The Helmholtz-type equations used to model such systems suffer from additional numerical error known as pollution when excitation frequency becomes high relative to stiffness (i.e. high wave number), which is the case, for example, for soft tissues subject to ultrasound excitations. The use of high-order polynomial elements allows for a reduction in this pollution error, but requires additional consideration to counteract Runge's phenomenon and/or poor linear system conditioning, which has led to the use of spectral element approaches. This work examines in detail the computational benefits and practical applicability of high-order spectral elements for such problems. The spectral elements examined are tensor product elements (i.e. quad or brick elements) of high-order Lagrangian polynomials with non-uniformly distributed Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre nodal points. A shear plane wave example is presented to show the dependence of the accuracy and computational expense of high-order elements on wave number. Then, a convergence study for a viscoelastic acoustic-structure interaction finite element model of an actual ultrasound driven vibroacoustic experiment is shown. The number of degrees of freedom required for a given accuracy level was found to consistently decrease with increasing element order. However, the computationally optimal element order was found to strongly depend on the wave number. PMID:21461402
Brigham, John C; Aquino, Wilkins; Aguilo, Miguel A; Diamessis, Peter J
2011-01-15
An approach for efficient and accurate finite element analysis of harmonically excited soft solids using high-order spectral finite elements is presented and evaluated. The Helmholtz-type equations used to model such systems suffer from additional numerical error known as pollution when excitation frequency becomes high relative to stiffness (i.e. high wave number), which is the case, for example, for soft tissues subject to ultrasound excitations. The use of high-order polynomial elements allows for a reduction in this pollution error, but requires additional consideration to counteract Runge's phenomenon and/or poor linear system conditioning, which has led to the use of spectral element approaches. This work examines in detail the computational benefits and practical applicability of high-order spectral elements for such problems. The spectral elements examined are tensor product elements (i.e. quad or brick elements) of high-order Lagrangian polynomials with non-uniformly distributed Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre nodal points. A shear plane wave example is presented to show the dependence of the accuracy and computational expense of high-order elements on wave number. Then, a convergence study for a viscoelastic acoustic-structure interaction finite element model of an actual ultrasound driven vibroacoustic experiment is shown. The number of degrees of freedom required for a given accuracy level was found to consistently decrease with increasing element order. However, the computationally optimal element order was found to strongly depend on the wave number. PMID:21461402
Low-frequency finite-element modeling of the gerbil middle ear.
Elkhouri, Nidal; Liu, Hengjin; Funnell, W Robert J
2006-12-01
The gerbil is a popular species for experimental middle-ear research. The goal of this study is to develop a 3D finite-element model to quantify the mechanics of the gerbil middle ear at low frequencies (up to about 1 kHz). The 3D reconstruction is based on a magnetic resonance imaging dataset with a voxel size of about 45 microm, and an x-ray micro-CT dataset with a voxel size of about 5.5 microm, supplemented by histological images. The eardrum model is based on moiré shape measurements. Each individual structure in the model was assumed to be homogeneous with isotropic, linear, and elastic material properties derived from a priori estimates in the literature. The behavior of the finite-element model in response to a uniform acoustic pressure on the eardrum of 1 Pa is analyzed. Sensitivity tests are done to evaluate the significance of the various parameters in the finite-element model. The Young's modulus and the thickness of the pars tensa have the most significant effect on the load transfer between the eardrum and the ossicles and, along with the Young's modulus of the pedicle and stapedial annular ligament, on the displacements of the stapes. Overall, the model demonstrates good agreement with low-frequency experimental data. For example, (1) the maximum footplate displacement is about 35 nm; (2) the umbo/stapes displacement ratio is found to be about 3.5; (3) the motion of the stapes is predominantly piston-like; and (4) the displacement pattern of the eardrum shows two points of maximum displacement, one in the posterior region and one in the anterior region. The effects of removing or stiffening the ligaments are comparable to those observed experimentally. PMID:17043944
Zonal flow as pattern formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.
2013-10-01
Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. We show that for statistically averaged equations of the stochastically forced generalized Hasegawa-Mima model, steady-state zonal flows, and inhomogeneous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the wavelength of the zonal flows is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.
Zonal flow as pattern formation
Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.
2013-10-15
Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. We show that for statistically averaged equations of the stochastically forced generalized Hasegawa-Mima model, steady-state zonal flows, and inhomogeneous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the wavelength of the zonal flows is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.
3D frequency-domain finite-difference modeling of acoustic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Operto, S.; Virieux, J.
2006-12-01
We present a 3D frequency-domain finite-difference method for acoustic wave propagation modeling. This method is developed as a tool to perform 3D frequency-domain full-waveform inversion of wide-angle seismic data. For wide-angle data, frequency-domain full-waveform inversion can be applied only to few discrete frequencies to develop reliable velocity model. Frequency-domain finite-difference (FD) modeling of wave propagation requires resolution of a huge sparse system of linear equations. If this system can be solved with a direct method, solutions for multiple sources can be computed efficiently once the underlying matrix has been factorized. The drawback of the direct method is the memory requirement resulting from the fill-in of the matrix during factorization. We assess in this study whether representative problems can be addressed in 3D geometry with such approach. We start from the velocity-stress formulation of the 3D acoustic wave equation. The spatial derivatives are discretized with second-order accurate staggered-grid stencil on different coordinate systems such that the axis span over as many directions as possible. Once the discrete equations were developed on each coordinate system, the particle velocity fields are eliminated from the first-order hyperbolic system (following the so-called parsimonious staggered-grid method) leading to second-order elliptic wave equations in pressure. The second-order wave equations discretized on each coordinate system are combined linearly to mitigate the numerical anisotropy. Secondly, grid dispersion is minimized by replacing the mass term at the collocation point by its weighted averaging over all the grid points of the stencil. Use of second-order accurate staggered- grid stencil allows to reduce the bandwidth of the matrix to be factorized. The final stencil incorporates 27 points. Absorbing conditions are PML. The system is solved using the parallel direct solver MUMPS developed for distributed
Spectrum of Finite Frequency Pump Kinetic Alfvén Wave in the Solar Wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modi, K. V.; Sharma, R. P.; Gaur, Nidhi
2016-01-01
The nonlinear interaction between the kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) and the slow magnetosonic wave is studied. The dynamical equation for the slow magnetosonic wave, in the presence of a ponderomotive force due to finite frequency KAW (ω0<ω_{ci}, where ω0 is the frequency of the KAW and ω_{ci} is the ion gyro frequency) is developed and then numerically solved for the solar wind parameters around 1 AU. Three different propagation angles of the slow magnetosonic wave (θ = 70°, 75°, and 85°) are considered. Our results reveal that due to the nonlinear interplay between the waves, the nature of the formation of localised structures becomes complex and depends on the different propagation angles of the slow magnetosonic wave. The power spectrum of a KAW shows the Kolmogorov scaling in larger scales but exhibits steepening in smaller scales. The scaling index of the power spectrum of the KAW depends on the propagation angles of the slow magnetosonic wave. Therefore, the heating of plasma particles in the solar wind may show such dependence. The present results are consistent with the observation of the Cluster spacecraft for the solar wind around 1 AU.
Finite-difference modeling of Biot's poroelastic equations across all frequencies
Masson, Y.J.; Pride, S.R.
2009-10-22
An explicit time-stepping finite-difference scheme is presented for solving Biot's equations of poroelasticity across the entire band of frequencies. In the general case for which viscous boundary layers in the pores must be accounted for, the time-domain version of Darcy's law contains a convolution integral. It is shown how to efficiently and directly perform the convolution so that the Darcy velocity can be properly updated at each time step. At frequencies that are low enough compared to the onset of viscous boundary layers, no memory terms are required. At higher frequencies, the number of memory terms required is the same as the number of time points it takes to sample accurately the wavelet being used. In practice, we never use more than 20 memory terms and often considerably fewer. Allowing for the convolution makes the scheme even more stable (even larger time steps might be used) than it is when the convolution is entirely neglected. The accuracy of the scheme is confirmed by comparing numerical examples to exact analytic results.
Lu, Yujie; Zhu, Banghe; Shen, Haiou; Rasmussen, John C; Wang, Ge; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M
2010-08-21
Fluorescence molecular imaging/tomography may play an important future role in preclinical research and clinical diagnostics. Time- and frequency-domain fluorescence imaging can acquire more measurement information than the continuous wave (CW) counterpart, improving the image quality of fluorescence molecular tomography. Although diffusion approximation (DA) theory has been extensively applied in optical molecular imaging, high-order photon migration models need to be further investigated to match quantitation provided by nuclear imaging. In this paper, a frequency-domain parallel adaptive finite element solver is developed with simplified spherical harmonics (SP(N)) approximations. To fully evaluate the performance of the SP(N) approximations, a fast time-resolved tetrahedron-based Monte Carlo fluorescence simulator suitable for complex heterogeneous geometries is developed using a convolution strategy to realize the simulation of the fluorescence excitation and emission. The validation results show that high-order SP(N) can effectively correct the modeling errors of the diffusion equation, especially when the tissues have high absorption characteristics or when high modulation frequency measurements are used. Furthermore, the parallel adaptive mesh evolution strategy improves the modeling precision and the simulation speed significantly on a realistic digital mouse phantom. This solver is a promising platform for fluorescence molecular tomography using high-order approximations to the radiative transfer equation. PMID:20671350
Equatorial zonal circulations: Historical perspectives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hastenrath, Stefan
2007-04-01
The changing perceptions on zonal circulations in the equatorial belt are traced for (a) stratospheric wind regimes, and (b) vertical-zonal circulation cells in the troposphere. (a) Observations from the Krakatoa eruption 1883 and Berson's 1908 expedition to East Africa, along with later soundings over Batavia (Jakarta) led to the notion of "Krakatoa easterlies" around 30 km (10 mb) and "Berson westerlies" around 20 km (50 mb). Prompted by contrary observations since the late 1950s, this dogma was replaced by the notion of easterlies alternating with westerlies in the equatorial stratosphere at a rhythm of about 26 months. (b) Stimulated by Bjerknes' postulate of a "Walker circulation" along the Pacific Equator, a multitude of such cells have been hypothesized at other longitudes, in part from zonal contrasts of temperature and cloudiness. Essential for the diagnosis of equatorial zonal circulation cells is the continuity following the flow between the centers of ascending and subsiding motion. Evaluation of the recent NCEP-NCAR and ECMWF Reanalysis upper-air datasets reveals equatorial zonal circulation cells over the Pacific all year round, over the Atlantic only in boreal winter, and over the Indian Ocean only in autumn, all being seasons and oceanic longitudes with strong zonal flow in the lower troposphere.
Chillara, Vamshi Krishna; Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J
2016-04-01
This article describes the use of the frequency domain finite element (FDFE) technique for guided wave mode selection in inhomogeneous waveguides. Problems with Rayleigh-Lamb and Shear-Horizontal mode excitation in isotropic homogeneous plates are first studied to demonstrate the application of the approach. Then, two specific cases of inhomogeneous waveguides are studied using FDFE. Finally, an example of guided wave mode selection for inspecting disbonds in composites is presented. Identification of sensitive and insensitive modes for defect inspection is demonstrated. As the discretization parameters affect the accuracy of the results obtained from FDFE, effect of spatial discretization and the length of the domain used for the spatial fast Fourier transform are studied. Some recommendations with regard to the choice of the above parameters are provided. PMID:26746160
Effect of Finite Pulse Length and Laser Frequency Chirp on HGHG and EEHG Seeding
Stupakov, G.; /SLAC
2011-11-18
Theoretical studies of high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) often start from a simplified model in which the beam is assumed infinitely long and longitudinally uniform and the laser induced energy modulation is perfectly sinusoidal and of infinite duration. In such a model the resulting seed has a spectrum consisting of a collection of delta-functions (of zero width) located at the harmonics of the laser frequency. Being a useful tool for study of the seed bunching amplitudes, such a model cannot be used for realistic analysis the spectral properties of the seed. In this paper we take into account the finite duration of the laser pulse as well as some possible laser phase errors to study their effect on the spectrum of the seed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gardner, Bryce K.; Shorter, Philip J.; Bremner, Paul G.
2002-11-01
At low frequencies, vibroacoustic systems exhibit a dynamic response characterized by spatially correlated motion with low modal density. These systems are typically modeled with deterministic methods. While at high frequencies, the dynamic response is characterized by weak spatial correlation and a large number of modes with high modal overlap. These systems are typically modeled with statistical methods. However many vibroacoustic systems have some regions with high modal density and some regions with low modal density. Such systems require a midfrequency solution technique. One such method has been developed based on a hybrid approach combining finite element analysis (FE) in the low modal density regions and statistical energy analysis (SEA) in the high modal density regions. This method is called RESOUND [Langley and Bremner, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 1657-1671 (1999)]. Recent developments of RESOUND have focused on predicting the appropriate dynamic interactions and mechanisms for energy flow between the FE and the SEA regions. By including these effects, RESOUND can predict the dynamic response of systems having regions with low modal densities and regions with high modal densities. This paper will provide an overview of recent developments.
Finite-frequency traveltime tomography of San Francisco Bay region crustal velocity structure
Pollitz, F.F.
2007-01-01
Seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay region crust is derived using measurements of finite-frequency traveltimes. A total of 57 801 relative traveltimes are measured by cross-correlation over the frequency range 0.5-1.5 Hz. From these are derived 4862 'summary' traveltimes, which are used to derive 3-D P-wave velocity structure over a 341 ?? 140 km2 area from the surface to 25 km depth. The seismic tomography is based on sensitivity kernels calculated on a spherically symmetric reference model. Robust elements of the derived P-wave velocity structure are: a pronounced velocity contrast across the San Andreas fault in the south Bay region (west side faster); a moderate velocity contrast across the Hayward fault (west side faster); moderately low velocity crust around the Quien Sabe volcanic field and the Sacramento River delta; very low velocity crust around Lake Berryessa. These features are generally explicable with surface rock types being extrapolated to depth ???10 km in the upper crust. Generally high mid-lower crust velocity and high inferred Poisson's ratio suggest a mafic lower crust. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.
Finite-frequency sensitivity kernels of seismic waves to fault zone structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allam, A. A.; Tape, C.; Ben-Zion, Y.
2015-12-01
We analyse the volumetric sensitivity of fault zone seismic head and trapped waves by constructing finite-frequency sensitivity (Fréchet) kernels for these phases using a suite of idealized and tomographically derived velocity models of fault zones. We first validate numerical calculations by waveform comparisons with analytical results for two simple fault zone models: a vertical bimaterial interface separating two solids of differing elastic properties, and a `vertical sandwich' with a vertical low velocity zone surrounded on both sides by higher velocity media. Establishing numerical accuracy up to 12 Hz, we compute sensitivity kernels for various phases that arise in these and more realistic models. In contrast to direct P body waves, which have little or no sensitivity to the internal fault zone structure, the sensitivity kernels for head waves have sharp peaks with high values near the fault in the faster medium. Surface wave kernels show the broadest spatial distribution of sensitivity, while trapped wave kernels are extremely narrow with sensitivity focused entirely inside the low-velocity fault zone layer. Trapped waves are shown to exhibit sensitivity patterns similar to Love waves, with decreasing width as a function of frequency and multiple Fresnel zones of alternating polarity. In models that include smoothing of the boundaries of the low velocity zone, there is little effect on the trapped wave kernels, which are focused in the central core of the low velocity zone. When the source is located outside a shallow fault zone layer, trapped waves propagate through the surrounding medium with body wave sensitivity before becoming confined. The results provide building blocks for full waveform tomography of fault zone regions combining high-frequency head, trapped, body, and surface waves. Such an imaging approach can constrain fault zone structure across a larger range of scales than has previously been possible.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Wayne Farrior
1973-01-01
The effect of finite source size on the power statistics in a reverberant room for pure tone excitation was investigated. Theoretical results indicate that the standard deviation of low frequency, pure tone finite sources is always less than that predicted by point source theory and considerably less when the source dimension approaches one-half an acoustic wavelength or greater. A supporting experimental study was conducted utilizing an eight inch loudspeaker and a 30 inch loudspeaker at eleven source positions. The resulting standard deviation of sound power output of the smaller speaker is in excellent agreement with both the derived finite source theory and existing point source theory, if the theoretical data is adjusted to account for experimental incomplete spatial averaging. However, the standard deviation of sound power output of the larger speaker is measurably lower than point source theory indicates, but is in good agreement with the finite source theory.
Finite beta effects on low- and high-frequency magnetosonic waves in a two-ion-species plasma
Toida, Mieko; Aota, Yukio
2013-08-15
A magnetosonic wave propagating perpendicular to a magnetic field in a two-ion-species plasma has two branches, high-frequency and low-frequency modes. The finite beta effects on these modes are analyzed theoretically on the basis of the three-fluid model with finite ion and electron pressures. First, it is shown that the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the low-frequency mode is valid for amplitudes ε<ε{sub max}, where the upper limit of the amplitude ε{sub max} is given as a function of β (β is the ratio of the kinetic and magnetic energy densities), the density ratio, and the cyclotron frequency ratio of two ion species. Next, the linear dispersion relation and KdV equation for the high-frequency mode are derived, including β as a factor. In addition, the theory for heavy ion acceleration by the high-frequency mode pulse and the pulse damping due to this energy transfer in a finite beta plasma are presented.
Multiscale finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography of the Kaapvaal craton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chevrot, S.; Zhao, L.
2007-04-01
We have measured phase delays of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves for 12 events recorded by the Southern Africa Seismic Experiment at frequencies between 0.005 and 0.035 Hz. A novel multiscale finite-frequency tomographic method based on wavelet decomposition of 3-D sensitivity kernels for the phase of Rayleigh waves is used to map the shear velocities in the upper mantle beneath southern Africa. The kernels are computed by summing coupled normal modes over a very fine grid surrounding the seismic array. To estimate and minimize the biases in the model resulting from structures outside the tomographic grid, a jackknife inversion method is implemented. The contribution of heterogeneities outside the target volume is significant, but produces artefacts in the tomographic model that are easily identified and discarded before interpretation. With structures on length scales as short as 100 km retrieved beneath the array, the deep structure of the Kaapvaal craton is revealed with unprecedented detail. Outside the array, the corresponding resolution is 200 km. High velocity cratonic roots are confined to the Archean craton, and extend to depths of at least 250 km. Confirming earlier surface structural studies, we recognize two distinct units in the Kaapvaal craton. The eastern Witwatersrand block and the western Kimberley block are separated by a major near-vertical translithospheric boundary which coincides with the Colesberg Lineament. Lower than average velocities south and east of the Kaapvaal craton reveal extensive metasomatism and heating of the lithosphere, probably related to the Karoo magmatic event and to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean.
Finite element model correlation of a composite UAV wing using modal frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliver, Joseph A.; Kosmatka, John B.; Hemez, François M.; Farrar, Charles R.
2007-04-01
The current work details the implementation of a meta-model based correlation technique on a composite UAV wing test piece and associated finite element (FE) model. This method involves training polynomial models to emulate the FE input-output behavior and then using numerical optimization to produce a set of correlated parameters which can be returned to the FE model. After discussions about the practical implementation, the technique is validated on a composite plate structure and then applied to the UAV wing structure, where it is furthermore compared to a more traditional Newton-Raphson technique which iteratively uses first-order Taylor-series sensitivity. The experimental testpiece wing comprises two graphite/epoxy prepreg and Nomex honeycomb co-cured skins and two prepreg spars bonded together in a secondary process. MSC.Nastran FE models of the four structural components are correlated independently, using modal frequencies as correlation features, before being joined together into the assembled structure and compared to experimentally measured frequencies from the assembled wing in a cantilever configuration. Results show that significant improvements can be made to the assembled model fidelity, with the meta-model procedure producing slightly superior results to Newton-Raphson iteration. Final evaluation of component correlation using the assembled wing comparison showed worse results for each correlation technique, with the meta-model technique worse overall. This can be most likely be attributed to difficultly in correlating the open-section spars; however, there is also some question about non-unique update variable combinations in the current configuration, which lead correlation away from physically probably values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yun; Tian, Xiaobo; Wang, Minling; Xu, Tao; Sun, Changqing; Si, Shaokun; Lan, Haiqiang; Teng, Jiwen
2015-04-01
Combining the new collected teleseismic body waves recorded by TIBET-31N passive seismic array with waveforms from several previous temporary seismic arrays, we carried out finite-frequency tomographic inversions to image three-dimensional velocity structures beneath southern-central Tibet to examine the roles of the upper mantle in the formation of the Tibetan plateau. Strong low P- and S-wave velocity anomalies that extend from the lower crust to about 200 km depth beneath the Comei rift, Yadong-Gulu rift, Tangra Yum Co rift, suggesting that rifting in southern Tibet is probably a process that involves the entire lithosphere. At the same time there is only the low velocity close to Yadong-Gulu rift extending further north and connecting with the massive upper mantle low velocity beneath central Tibet, and moreover, the other two are limited in southern Tibet. This observation implies that the previous proposed fragmentation of underthrusting Indian lithosphere might not happen underneath all the north-south trending rifts. Instead, it only happens close to Yadong-Gulu rift, then hot temperature upwelling materials fill up this lithospheric crack and might stuff the other weak zones in shallow depths beneath southern Tibet. Continuous high velocities are observed beneath Himalayas and Lhasa Terrance with a moderate northward inclination angle. We interpret this anomaly as the subducting/underthrusting Indian continental lithosphere.
FDFD: A 3D Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain Code for Electromagnetic Induction Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Champagne, Nathan J.; Berryman, James G.; Buettner, H. Michael
2001-07-01
A new 3D code for electromagnetic induction tomography with intended applications to environmental imaging problems has been developed. The approach consists of calculating the fields within a volume using an implicit finite-difference frequency-domain formulation. The volume is terminated by an anisotropic perfectly matched layer region that simulates an infinite domain by absorbing outgoing waves. Extensive validation of this code has been done using analytical and semianalytical results from other codes, and some of those results are presented in this paper. The new code is written in Fortran 90 and is designed to be easily parallelized. Finally, an adjoint field method of data inversion, developed in parallel for solving the fully nonlinear inverse problem for electrical conductivity imaging (e.g., for mapping underground conducting plumes), uses this code to provide solvers for both forward and adjoint fields. Results obtained from this inversion method for high-contrast media are encouraging and provide a significant improvement over those obtained from linearized inversion methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, F.; Huang, J.
2009-12-01
In this study, we applied the finite-frequency seismic tomography(FFST) to teleseismic waveform data to determine 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle under the Chinese capital region. The seismic waveform data from more than 300 teleseismic events recorded by the Chinese digital Capital Seismic Network during the period from September 2003 to December 2005 was used in this study. We obtained 18499 high accuracy P-wave relative travel-times by filtering these waveform data on the vertical component into high-, intermediate-, low-frequency bands (1.0-2.0, 0.1-1.0 and 0.05-0.1 hz, respectively) and the multi-channel waveform cross correlation measurement. The 3-D Fréchet sensitivity kernels were calculated by paraxial approximation for each frequency band. We established observation equations with these measured relative travel-times and 3-D Fréchet sensitivity kernels and then determined the 3-D velocity structure by inverting the observation equations. Our results show there are distinct differences of deep velocity structure down to 150 km depth under the four tectonic units of present study region. The Yanshan uplift exhibited the high velocity(high-V) feature. Under the Taihangshan uplift, broad low velocity(low-V) are visible, but it also shows up as small high-V anomalies. A large scale prominent low-V anomaly was revealed in the shallow upper mantle under the North China basin and Bohai bay. In the North China basin the low-V anomaly generally extend from 50 km to 150 km depth, but in the Bohai bay, this low-V anomaly gradually extend down to 200 km depth. The depth of this low-V anomaly is 50-70 km under the North China basin and Bohai bay, which is consistent with the depth of high conductivity layer in the upper mantle determined by the measurement of magnetotelluric sounding and heat flow. This result shows lithosphere thinning in the North China basin and Bohai bay. Most of large earthquakes occurred in the Zhangjiakou-Penglai fault zone
A finite-difference frequency-domain code for electromagnetic induction tomography
Sharpe, R M; Berryman, J G; Buettner, H M; Champagne, N J.,II; Grant, J B
1998-12-17
We are developing a new 3D code for application to electromagnetic induction tomography and applications to environmental imaging problems. We have used the finite-difference frequency- domain formulation of Beilenhoff et al. (1992) and the anisotropic PML (perfectly matched layer) approach (Berenger, 1994) to specify boundary conditions following Wu et al. (1997). PML deals with the fact that the computations must be done in a finite domain even though the real problem is effectively of infinite extent. The resulting formulas for the forward solver reduce to a problem of the form Ax = y, where A is a non-Hermitian matrix with real values off the diagonal and complex values along its diagonal. The matrix A may be either symmetric or nonsymmetric depending on details of the boundary conditions chosen (i.e., the particular PML used in the application). The basic equation must be solved for the vector x (which represents field quantities such as electric and magnetic fields) with the vector y determined by the boundary conditions and transmitter location. Of the many forward solvers that could be used for this system, relatively few have been thoroughly tested for the type of matrix encountered in our problem. Our studies of the stability characteristics of the Bi-CG algorithm raised questions about its reliability and uniform accuracy for this application. We have found the stability characteristics of Bi-CGSTAB [an alternative developed by van der Vorst (1992) for such problems] to be entirely adequate for our application, whereas the standard Bi-CG was quite inadequate. We have also done extensive validation of our code using semianalytical results as well as other codes. The new code is written in Fortran and is designed to be easily parallelized, but we have not yet tested this feature of the code. An adjoint method is being developed for solving the inverse problem for conductivity imaging (for mapping underground plumes), and this approach, when ready, will
Zonal flow dynamics in the double tearing mode with antisymmetric shear flows
Mao, Aohua; Li, Jiquan; Liu, Jinyuan; Kishimoto, Yasuaki
2014-05-15
The generation dynamics and the structural characteristics of zonal flows are investigated in the double tearing mode (DTM) with antisymmetric shear flows. Two kinds of zonal flow oscillations are revealed based on reduced resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations, which depend on the shear flow amplitudes corresponding to different DTM eigen mode states, elaborated by Mao et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 022114 (2013)]. For the weak shear flows below an amplitude threshold, v{sub c}, at which two DTM eigen states with antisymmetric or symmetric magnetic island structure are degenerated, the zonal flows grow oscillatorily in the Rutherford regime during the nonlinear evolution of the DTMs. It is identified that the oscillation mechanism results from the nonlinear interaction between the distorted islands and the zonal flows through the modification of shear flows. However, for the medium shear flows above v{sub c} but below the critical threshold of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, an oscillatory growing zonal flow occurs in the linear phase of the DTM evolution. It is demonstrated that the zonal flow oscillation originates from the three-wave mode coupling or a modulation instability pumped by two DTM eigen modes with the same frequency but opposite propagating direction. With the shear flows increasing, the amplitude of zonal flow oscillation increases first and then decreases, whilst the oscillation frequency as twice of the Doppler frequency shift increases. Furthermore, impacts of the oscillatory zonal flows on the nonlinear evolution of DTM islands and the global reconnection are also discussed briefly.
Zonal flow dynamics in the double tearing mode with antisymmetric shear flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Aohua; Li, Jiquan; Liu, Jinyuan; Kishimoto, Yasuaki
2014-05-01
The generation dynamics and the structural characteristics of zonal flows are investigated in the double tearing mode (DTM) with antisymmetric shear flows. Two kinds of zonal flow oscillations are revealed based on reduced resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations, which depend on the shear flow amplitudes corresponding to different DTM eigen mode states, elaborated by Mao et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 022114 (2013)]. For the weak shear flows below an amplitude threshold, vc, at which two DTM eigen states with antisymmetric or symmetric magnetic island structure are degenerated, the zonal flows grow oscillatorily in the Rutherford regime during the nonlinear evolution of the DTMs. It is identified that the oscillation mechanism results from the nonlinear interaction between the distorted islands and the zonal flows through the modification of shear flows. However, for the medium shear flows above vc but below the critical threshold of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, an oscillatory growing zonal flow occurs in the linear phase of the DTM evolution. It is demonstrated that the zonal flow oscillation originates from the three-wave mode coupling or a modulation instability pumped by two DTM eigen modes with the same frequency but opposite propagating direction. With the shear flows increasing, the amplitude of zonal flow oscillation increases first and then decreases, whilst the oscillation frequency as twice of the Doppler frequency shift increases. Furthermore, impacts of the oscillatory zonal flows on the nonlinear evolution of DTM islands and the global reconnection are also discussed briefly.
Global Rayleigh wave phase-velocity maps from finite-frequency tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Kui; Zhou, Ying
2016-04-01
We report global phase-velocity maps of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves at periods between 25 and 100 s based on finite-frequency tomography. Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements are made using a multitaper technique for both minor-arc and major-arc wave trains. The global phase-velocity maps confirm many features associated with surface tectonics including the ocean-continent dichotomy and the signature of lithospheric cooling in oceanic plates. In addition, the high-resolution phase-velocity maps reveal a major change in the distribution of small-scale anomalies in the Pacific at different wave periods. We calculate the global average of Rayleigh wave phase velocity in major tectonic regions and show that large discrepancies exist between our model and global crustal and mantle models: (1) In oceanic regions, short-period (<˜40 s) Rayleigh waves are faster than calculations based on models CRUST2.0 and S40RTS. The discrepancies could be explained by a thinner crust or faster wave speeds in the crust or upper mantle. The implementation of model CRUST1.0 significantly improves the agreement, with phase-velocity discrepancies less than 0.5 per cent on average. (2) In Archean cratons, Rayleigh wave phase velocities in our model are faster than calculations based on model S40RTS at periods longer than ˜40 s; and the global average in orogenic belts is ˜1-2 per cent slower than CRUST1.0 at periods shorter than ˜50 s.
Finite Frequency Measurements of Conventional and Core-diffracted P-waves (P and Pdiff)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, K.; Sigloch, K.; Stähler, S. C.
2014-12-01
Core-diffracted waves are body waves that dive deep enough to sense the core, and by interaction with this wave guide become dispersive. They sample the core-mantle boundary and the lower third of the mantle extensively. In ray theoretical modeling, the deepest part of the ray starts to graze the core at around 97 degrees distance, but ray theory is a very poor approximation to propagation of core-diffracted waves. In reality, finite-frequency waves with their spatially extend sensitivity regions start to sense the core at significantly smaller distances already. The actual, non-ray-like sensitivities have been difficult to model, as have been the associated synthetic seismograms. Core-diffracted waves have therefore not been used in tomography, despite abundant observations of these phases on modern broadband seismograms. Hence current global body-wave tomographies illuminate the lower third of the mantle much less well than the upper and especially the middle third. This study aims for broadband, global waveform tomography that seamlessly incorporates core-diffracted phases alongside conventional, teleseismic waves as well as regional body-waves. Here, we investigate the properties of P-diffracted waves in terms of waveform characteristics and travel-time measurements as compared to teleseismic P-wave measured by the same methods. Travel time anomalies, the primary data for tomography, are measured by waveform cross-correlation of data with synthetics, where the synthetics are calculated from fully numerical wave propagation in a spherically symmetric background model. These same numerical tools will be used to calculate the associated sensitivity kernels for tomography (figure, top). Demonstrating the extent to which waveform modeling can fit real data, we assemble and discuss a global data set of 851,905 Pdiff and 2,368,452 P-wave multi-frequency cross-correlation travel times. Findings are summarized in the Pdiff travel time map (figure, bottom) in which most
Factors Controlling the Evolution of Anatolia: Clues from Teleseismic Finite-Frequency Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biryol, C. B.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Ozacar, A. A.
2010-12-01
The complex and sinusoidal pattern of subduction zones of the Mediterranenan region plays an important role in controlling the current tectonic framework of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. The Anatolian region is part of this belt and it displays the complex characteristics of the interplay between continent collision in the east and subduction-rollback related backarc extension in the west. The ongoing northward subduction of the African Plate beneath the Anatolian Plate contributes significantly to the emergence of the current tectonic setting of this region. Despite its crucial effect on the tectonics of Anatolia, there are only a few studies that focus on the deeper extent of this zone. In this study we provide higher resolution tomographic images of the subducting African lithosphere beneath Anatolia. Our approach is based on analysis of teleseismic body-wave travel-time data using a finite-frequency seismic tomography algorithm. The data for our analysis comes from multiple permanent and temporary networks deployed in the region. A major part of our dataset is formed by the multiple frequency-band picks of P-wave arrival times recorded at more than 100 broadband and short-period seismic stations of the National Earthquake Monitoring Center and 39 broadband seismic stations of the North Anatolian Passive Seismic Experiment network. The results of our analysis indicates the presence of large and smaller scale gaps in the subducting African Lithosphere, that are interpreted as slab tears. The most significant tear is located beneath western Anatolia with a maximum width of ~250 km. This tear is marked by lack of intermediate to deep seismicity and is associated with slow seismic speed perturbations that we interpret as ascending hot, buoyant asthenosphere. The configuration of the edges of this gap at depths between 50 to 200 km provides clues about how the impediments on the subducting seafloor could have an influence on rates of roll-back on both sides
Finite-Frequency Tomographic Images of Subducting Slabs in the Southeast Caribbean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezada, M. J.; Levander, A.; Schmandt, B.
2009-12-01
We present a tomographic P-wave velocity model for the eastern Caribbean - South America plate boundary in northern Venezuela. The data were collected by the BOLIVAR (Broadband Ocean and Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) passive seismic array that included the 39 stations from the Venezuelan National Seismological Network (VNSN) as well as a temporary deployment of 35 IRIS-PASSCAL, 8 Rice broadband stations and 11 OBSIP ocean bottom seismographs. The temporary stations were deployed for a period of ~17 months. The array covers the eastern part of Venezuela with typical station spacing of ~50-100 km. Coverage is more sparse in the west of the study area and relies on the stations of the VNSN and an ongoing deployment of 8 PASSCAL and Rice instruments. Stations were located from south of the Orinoco river at latitude 6°N, across the northern Guayana Shield, to the Caribbean Sea at latitudes up to 14°N. We used data from 86 stations, and inverted traveltime residuals from 462 teleseismic events with good azimuthal and epicentral distance distribution. Traveltime delays were obtained by cross-correlation of waveforms in frequency bands centered on 1.0, 0.5 and 0.3 Hz. A total of 6619 delays were used in the inversion. Crustal corrections were computed using a 3-D crustal velocity model constructed from five, boundary normal, 2-D active source seismic refraction models and gravity data. The inversion algorithm we applied uses approximate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels and calculates static event and station terms. The tomographic image shows the subducting Atlantic slab very clearly to a depth of > 500 km in the east of the study area. The location of the southern edge of the slab corresponds roughly to the plate boundary in the surface down to ~400 km depth and extends southwards at greater depths. West of the Atlantic slab, the Caribbean mantle is dominated by low velocity anomalies, while the Guayana Shield is characterized by small
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, C. H.; Wong, T. C.; Kandil, O. A.
1988-01-01
The two-dimensional flow over a blunt leading-edge plate is simulated on the basis of an Euler/Navier-Stokes zonal scheme. The scheme uses an implicit upwind finite-volume scheme, which is based on the van Leer flux-vector splitting. It is shown that the Euler/Navier-Stokes zonal scheme with downstream boundary-layer compatibility conditions is accurate and efficient.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dinyavari, M. A. H.; Friedmann, P. P.
1984-01-01
Several incompressible finite-time arbitrary-motion airfoil theories suitable for coupled flap-lag-torsional aeroelastic analysis of helicopter rotors in hover and forward flight are derived. These theories include generalized Greenberg's theory, generalized Loewy's theory, and a staggered cascade theory. The generalized Greenberg's and staggered cascade theories were derived directly in Laplace domain considering the finite length of the wake and using operational methods. The load expressions are presented in Laplace, frequency, and time domains. Approximate time domain loads for the various generalized theories, discussed in the paper, are obtained by developing finite state models using the Pade approximant of the appropriate lift deficiency functions. Three different methods for constructing Pade approximants of the lift deficiency functions were considered and the more flexible one was used. Pade approximants of Loewy's lift deficiency function, for various wake spacing and radial location parameters of a helicopter typical rotor blade section, are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaladze, Tamaz; Kahlon, Laila
Nonlinear dynamics of coupled internal-gravity (IG) and alfven electromagnetic planetary waves in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer is investigated. Under such coupling new type of alfven waves is revealed. It is shown that such short wavelength turbulence of IG and alfvén waves is unstable with respect to the excitation of low-frequency and large-scale perturbations of the zonal flow and magnetic field. A set of coupled equations describing the nonlinear interaction of coupled IG and alfven waves with zonal flows is derived. The nonlinear mechanism of the instability is driven by the advection of vorticity and is based on the parametric excitation of convective cells by finite-amplitude coupled IG and alfven waves leading to the inverse energy cascade toward the longer wavelength. The growth rates of the corresponding instability and the conditions for driving them are determined. The possibility of generation of the intense mean magnetic field is shown.
Nonlinear excitation of zonal flows and streamers in plasmas
Benkadda, S.; Klochkov, D. N.; Popel, S. I.; Izvekova, Yu. N.
2011-05-15
Nonlinear excitation of zonal flows and streamers in plasmas is considered. The emphasis is given to the nonlinear interaction of low- and high-frequency drift waves which can result in the excitation of zonal flows and streamers in a plasma of fusion devices. For this purpose, an inhomogeneous nonisothermal plasma in a strong external magnetic field whose characteristic frequencies are lower than the ion Langmuir frequency but higher than the collision frequency is studied. The excitation of a long-wavelength low-frequency drift wave during the development of the nonlinear modulational interaction of a high-frequency drift pump wave is investigated. The growth rates of the modulational instability are obtained, and the conditions for its development are determined. Self-organized structures described by solutions of evolutionary equations for the modulational interaction are associated with zonal flows and streamers. A possible relation of the modulational interaction in Earth's ionospheric plasma to the formation of dust flows and transport of dust particles in the ionosphere is also discussed. It is shown that one of the ways of transport of dust particles in the ionosphere is vertical flows (streamers), which are generated by dust vortices as a result of development of the modulational instability.
Seismic imaging beneath southwest Africa based on finite-frequency body wave tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Youssof, Mohammad; Yuan, Xiaohui; Tilmann, Frederik; Heit, Benjamin; Weber, Michael; Jokat, Wilfried; Geissler, Wolfram; Laske, Gabi
2016-04-01
We present a seismic model of southwest Africa from teleseismic tomographic inversion of the P- and S- wave data recorded by an amphibious temporary seismic network. The area of study is located at the intersection of the Walvis Ridge with the continental margin of northern Namibia, and extends into the Congo craton. Utilizing 3D finite-frequency sensitivity kernels, we invert traveltime residuals of the teleseismic body waves to image seismic structures in the upper mantle. To test the robustness of our tomographic imaging, we employed various resolution assessments that allow us to inspect the extent of smearing effects and to evaluate the optimum regularization weights (i.e., damping and smoothness). These tests include applying different (ir)regular parameterizations, classical checkerboard and anomaly tests and squeezing modeling. Furthermore, we performed different kinds of weighing schemes for the traveltime dataset. These schemes account for balancing between the picks data amount with their corresponding events directions. Our assessment procedure involves also a detailed investigation of the effect of the crustal correction on the final velocity image, which strongly influenced the image resolution for the mantle structures. Our model can resolve horizontal structures of 1° x 1° below the array down to 300-350 km depth. The resulting model is mainly dominated by the difference in the oceanic and continental mantle lithosphere beneath the study area, with second-order features related to their respective internal structures. The fast lithospheric keel of the Congo Craton reaches a depth of ~250 km. The orogenic Damara Belt and continental flood basalt areas are characterized by low velocity perturbations down to a depth of ~150 km, indicating a normal fertile mantle. High velocities in the oceanic lithosphere beneath the Walvis Ridge appear to show signatures of chemical depletion. A pronounced anomaly of fast velocity is imaged underneath continental NW
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angus, D.; Hammond, J. O.; Kendall, J.; Wookey, J.
2008-12-01
As part of the Ethiopian Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment (EAGLE) 79 seismic stations were deployed, for up to 18 months, in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). Many indicators of melt were observed leading to the idea that magma was driving the rifting process in this region. Some of the best evidence for melt came from observations of anisotropy in studies of surface waves and shear-wave splitting. The shear- wave splitting shows fast directions which change abruptly from being rift parallel on the rift flanks to magmatic-segment parallel in the rift valley. This was interpreted in terms of melt-induced anisotropy. The abrupt change in splitting parameters over small lateral distances suggests that the source of anisotropy is shallow. To further constrain the location of the anisotropy and study the ability of shear-wave splitting to identify sharp lateral changes in anisotropy, we model finite-frequency waveforms for a suite of model representations of the rift zone. This allows us to determine the lateral and vertical extent of the melt-induced anisotropy. The results show how a simple model with two regimes of anisotropy can explain the variability across the rift, in both delay time and shear-wave polarization, over short length scales of the order 20- 40 km. Our models have enabled us to constrain the anisotropic characteristics beneath the MER. Our best model has a 9% anisotropy on the western rift margin, with fast directions of 30°, a 100 km wide rift zone with fast direction of 20° inside the rift zone and with 9% anisotropy close to the western margin, 7% elsewhere, and 7% anisotropy on the eastern margin with fast directions of 30°. In all regions of the model we constrain anisotropy to begin at a depth of 90 km. The depth of anisotropy co-incides with the proposed depth of melt initiation beneath the region, based on geochemistry. Also the elevated splitting beneath the western margin supports evidence of low velocities and highly conductive
Theory of turbulence regulation by oscillatory zonal flows
Kim, Eun-jin
2006-02-15
The theory of turbulence regulation by oscillatory zonal flows is presented for passive scalar field models. Zonal flows are assumed to have linear spatial variation of the form U=-x{omega}(t)y, where {omega}(t) has amplitude {omega}{sub m} and frequency {omega}{sub z}. The flux and fluctuation levels are found to scale as 1/|k{sub y}U{sub m}| and {tau}{sub *}/|k{sub y}U{sub m}|, respectively, for {omega}{sub m}>{omega}{sub z}. Here, {tau}{sub *}={tau}{sub {eta}}({omega}{sub z}/{omega}{sub m}){sup 2} is the effective decorrelation time, {tau}{sub {eta}}={tau}{sub *}({omega}=0), U{sub m}=x{omega}{sub m}, and k{sub y} is the typical poloidal wave number of the turbulence. The effect of stochasticity of oscillatory zonal flows on shear decorrelation is discussed. The results complement the theory of turbulence regulation by low-frequency random zonal flows [E. Kim and P. H. Diamond, Phys. Rev. Lett 91, 075001 (2003)].
Generation of magnetoacoustic zonal flows by Alfven waves in a rotating plasma
Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Lominadze, J. G.; Churikov, A. P.; Erokhin, N. N.; Tsypin, V. S.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Galvao, R. M. O.
2007-08-15
Analytical theory of nonlinear generation of magnetoacoustic zonal flows in a rotating plasma is developed. As the primary modes causing such a generation, a totality of the Alfven waves are considered, along with the kinetic, inertial, and rotational. It is shown that in all these cases of the Alfven waves the generation is possible if the double plasma rotation frequency exceeds the zonal flow frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, L.; Chevrot, S.
2007-12-01
Numerical modeling experiments of wave propagation have shown that the traveltime and amplitude anomalies of a finite-frequency seismic wave are influenced by the heterogeneities in the first Fresnel zone of the wave, a region surrounding its ray path. This leads to the so-called 'banana-doughnut' sensitivity (Fr{é}chet) kernels for finite-frequency waves whose values vary in the first Fresnel zone, rather than concentrate only on the ray path. Therefore, if finite-frequency effect is not taken into account in seismic tomography, the unrealistic sensitivity kernels will limit the resolution to roughly the widths of the first Fresnel zones of the seismic waves, even if all the other aspects are perfect. For the same reason, to realize the full potential of finite-frequency approach in seismic tomography, the spatial sampling in computing the Fr{é}chet kernels and in discretizing the structural model must be sufficiently small so that there are enough sampling points within the width of the first Fresnel zone. This introduces a high demand in computational resources including memory, CPU time, disk storage and the input/output (I/O) operations. To facilitate the practice of finite-frequency high-resolution tomography, we develop an efficient algorithm for computing the Fr{é}chet kernels based on the normal-mode theory in spherically symmetric earth models. The strain Green tensors (SGTs) for a spherically symmetric reference model are computed by normal-mode summation on a dense depth-distance grid by normal-mode summation. This normal-mode SGT database can then be used to calculate all the wavefield quantities needed in seismic studies including synthetic seismograms, partial derivatives with respect to source parameters for the inversion of CMT solutions, and the Fr{é}chet kernels for various kinds of model parameters for the inversions of anelastic and anisotropic structures. The SGT database approach provides the necessary efficiency for calculating the Fr
Validity of the Rytov Approximation in the Form of Finite-Frequency Sensitivity Kernels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Wenjun; Xie, Xiao-Bi; Geng, Jianhua
2015-06-01
The first-order (or linear) Rytov or Born approximation is the foundation for formulation of wave-equation tomography and waveform inversion, so the validity of the Rytov/Born approximation can substantially affect the applicability of these theories. However, discussions and research reported in literature on this topic are insufficient or limited. In this paper we introduce five variables in scattering theory to help us discuss conditions under which the Rytov approximation, in the form of the finite frequency sensitivity kernels (RFFSK), the basis of waveform inversion and tomography, is valid. The five variables are propagation length L, heterogeneity scale a, wavenumber k, anisotropy ratio ξ, and perturbation strength ɛ. Combined with theoretical analysis and numerical experiments, we conclude that varying the conditions used to establish the Rytov approximation can lead to uninterpretable or undesired results. This conclusion has two consequences. First, one cannot rigorously apply the linear Rytov approximation to all theoretical or practical cases without discussing its validity. Second, the nonlinear Rytov approximation is essential if the linear Rytov approximation is not valid. Different from previous literature, only phase (or travel time) terms for the whole wavefield are discussed. The time shifts of two specific events between the background and observed wavefields measured by cross-correlation will serve as a reference for evaluation of whether the time shifts predicted by the FFSKs are reasonably acceptable. Significantly, the reference "cross-correlation" should be regarded as reliable only if the condition "two specific similar signals" is satisfied. We cannot expect it to provide a reasonable result if this condition is not met. This paper reports its reliability and experimental limitations. Using cross-correlation (CC) samples as the X axis and sensitivity kernel (SK) or ray tracing (RT) samples as the Y axis, a chart of cross validation
Zonal flow formation in the Earth's core.
Miyagoshi, Takehiro; Kageyama, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya
2010-02-11
Zonal jets are very common in nature. Well-known examples are those in the atmospheres of giant planets and the alternating jet streams found in the Earth's world ocean. Zonal flow formation in nuclear fusion devices is also well studied. A common feature of these zonal flows is that they are spontaneously generated in turbulent systems. Because the Earth's outer core is believed to be in a turbulent state, it is possible that there is zonal flow in the liquid iron of the outer core. Here we report an investigation at the current low-viscosity limit of numerical simulations of the geodynamo. We find a previously unknown convection regime of the outer core that has a dual structure comprising inner, sheet-like radial plumes and an outer, westward cylindrical zonal flow. We numerically confirm that the dual-convection structure with such a zonal flow is stable under a strong, self-generated dipole magnetic field. PMID:20148036
Localized Single Frequency Lasing States in a Finite Parity-Time Symmetric Resonator Chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phang, Sendy; Vukovic, Ana; Creagh, Stephen C.; Sewell, Phillip D.; Gradoni, Gabriele; Benson, Trevor M.
2016-02-01
In this paper a practical case of a finite periodic Parity Time chain made of resonant dielectric cylinders is considered. The paper analyzes a more general case where PT symmetry is achieved by modulating both the real and imaginary part of the material refractive index along the resonator chain. The band-structure of the finite periodic PT resonator chains is compared to infinite chains in order to understand the complex interdependence of the Bloch phase and the amount of the gain/loss in the system that causes the PT symmetry to break. The results show that the type of the modulation along the unit cell can significantly affect the position of the threshold point of the PT system. In all cases the lowest threshold is achieved near the end of the Brillouin zone. In the case of finite PT-chains, and for a particular type of modulation, early PT symmetry breaking is observed and shown to be caused by the presence of termination states localized at the edges of the finite chain resulting in localized lasing and dissipative modes at each end of the chain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, Kasra; Sigloch, Karin; Staehler, Simon C.
2014-05-01
In its lowermost 200-300 km, the mantle has a complex structure resulting from accumulations of downwellings (subducted slabs), upwellings (LLSVPs and plumes), and probably phase transitions; seismic velocities and density show large variations but are not tightly constrained. Core-diffracted body waves are the seismic phases that sample the lowermost mantle extensively and are prime candidates to be used in tomography for enhancing resolution in this depth range. Since they are diffracted along the core-mantle boundary, their behavior is highly dispersive and cannot be modeled satisfactory using ray theory, nor early versions of finite-frequency modeling. Hence they have rarely been used for tomography so far, and where they have been, large imaging blur can be expected. We present a processing scheme to measure finite-frequency travel-time anomalies of arbitrary seismic body-wave phases in a fully automated way, with an initial focus on core-diffracted P waves. The aim is to extract a maximum of information from observed broadband seismograms using multi-frequency techniques. Using a matched-filtering approach, predicted and observed waveforms are compared in a cross-correlation sense in eight overlapping frequency passbands, with dominant periods ranging between 30 and 2.7sec. This method was applied to a global data set of ≡2000 teleseismic events in our waveform archive, which resulted in 1,616,184 P and 536,190 Pdiff usable multi-frequency measurements of high cross-correlation coefficient (≥ 0.8). The measurements are analyzed statistically in terms of goodness of fit, effects of epicentral distance, and frequency-dependent behavior of P and Pdiff phases. The results for Pdiff waves are displayed by projecting the measured travel time anomalies onto the phase's nominal grazing segments along the core-mantle boundary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joglekar, D. M.; Mitra, M.
2015-11-01
A breathing crack, due to its bilinear stiffness characteristics, modifies the frequency spectrum of a propagating dual-frequency elastic wave, and gives rise to sidebands around the probing frequency. This paper presents an analytical-numerical method to investigate such nonlinear frequency mixing resulting from the modulation effects induced by a breathing crack in 1D waveguides, such as axial rods and the Euler-Bernoulli beams. A transverse edge-crack is assumed to be present in both the waveguides, and the local flexibility caused by the crack is modeled using an equivalent spring approach. A simultaneous treatment of both the waveguides, in the framework of the Fourier transform based spectral finite element method, is presented for analyzing their response to a dual frequency excitation applied in the form of a tone-burst signal. The intermittent contact between the crack surfaces is accounted for by introducing bilinear contact forces acting at the nodes of the damage spectral element. Subsequently, an iterative approach is outlined for solving the resulting system of nonlinear simultaneous equations. Applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by considering several test cases. The existence of sidebands and the higher order harmonics is confirmed in the frequency domain response of both the waveguides under investigation. A qualitative comparison with the previous experimental observations accentuates the utility of the proposed solution method. Additionally, the influence of the two constituent frequencies in the dual frequency excitation is assessed by varying the relative strengths of their amplitudes. A brief parametric study is performed for bringing out the effects of the relative crack depth and crack location on the degree of modulation, which is quantified in terms of the modulation parameter. Results of the present investigation can find their potential use in providing an analytical-numerical support to the studies geared towards the
Numerical analysis of curved frequency selective surface by finite-difference time-domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xin-yi; Wang, Jian-bo; Chen, Gui-bo; Sun, Guan-cheng; Lu, Jun
2011-08-01
Frequency selective surface is a monolayer or multilayer 2D periodic structure which is composed of multiple resonance units scattering by a two-dimensional periodic array on dielectric layer. FSS can't absorb radio frequency energy, but can filter the frequency which is therefore applied in microwave technique or stealth technology. The relative research on curved FSS is relatively scarce since the curved FSS structure can be obtained only when FSS is attached on the materials surfaces of curved structures in engineering application. However, curved FSS is widely applied in practical engineering; therefore, the research on curved FSS structure has important significance. In this paper, a curved FSS structure model of Y-pore unit is established and numerical simulated by means of FDTD. The influence of curvature on FSS transmission characteristics is studied according to the analysis on the changing of radar cross section (RCS). The results show: the center frequency point of the plane band pass FSS structure drifts after the curve surface deformation of the structure; the center frequency point of the curved band pass FSS structure drifts with the changing of the curvature radius, i. e. with the decreasing of curvature radius, the frequency point drifts towards high points and the transmittance decreases. The design of FSS radome demands of accurate and stable center resonance frequency; therefore, the actual situation of curved surface should be considered in practical engineering application when band pass FSS is made into frequency selection filtering radome. The curvature radius should be long enough to avoid center frequency drifting and transmittance deceasing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Mitsuru; Inoue, Takeshi; Shiba, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Yuta
2009-07-01
In recent ocean investigations using underwater sonar transducers, low-frequency and wideband long-range sonar systems have been demanded for strong acoustic radiation and improved detective resolution capability in shallow-sea regions. We developed a disk bender transducer with a dual radiation surface as a miniaturized, light weight, low-frequency, and high-power transducer. However, there were problems in that the fractional bandwidth was small because the radiation surface was far smaller than the radiated wavelength, and the acoustic load per unit radiation area was small. Therefore, we suggest a technique to enable a wideband sonar array using differential connections of multiple disk bender transducers with different resonance frequencies to solve these problems. In this paper, we report results that endorse the above-mentioned technique obtained by finite-element method (FEM) analysis. The results confirm that this technique produces a wideband transducer array with low-frequency and high-power characteristics. We found that a wideband characteristic of more than 100% could be achieved with as a 6 dB fractional bandwidth by differential connection of disk bender transducers with three different resonance frequencies. In addition, we found that a superior horizontally oriented directivity was provided by locating the transducers in a plane symmetrical to the horizontal plane.
Multi-frequency, finite-wavelength and dc-augmentation effects in large area capacitive sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushner, Mark
2009-10-01
The scaling of high frequency, multi-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) to large areas has many challenges. It has been well established that electromagnetic (EM) effects become increasingly more important as the frequency of excitation increases while the diameter of the substrate also increases. The complexity of the system increases with the addition of dc-augmentation. Although much as been learned about EM effects, scaling laws are difficult to develop because the discharge characteristics are functions of the frequency dependence of the conductivity, the response of the electron energy distribution (EED) to the electric fields that penetrate into the plasma, the geometry of the reactor, gas mixture, pressure and dc augmentation power. In the case of multi-frequency excitation, the coupling of low and high frequencies through surface waves and through the bulk plasma is also an issue. In this talk we will discuss results from a computational investigation of multi- and high- frequency (up to 200 MHz) excitation of CCPs having diameters up to 450 mm, with and without dc augmentation. The model used in this study includes a full time-domain solution of Maxwell's equations that enables investigation of coupling between frequencies. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to predict EEDs as a function of position and ion energy distributions to the substrate. Gas mixtures (e.g., Ar and Ar/CF4), pressures (10 mTorr to 100 mTorr) and geometry (gap size) are investigated. Methods to minimize EM effects will be discussed by using variable conductivity and shaped electrodes; and segmented electrodes in which the electrical path from the generator to any point in the plasma is made as consistent as possible.
Rapid Frequency Chirps of TAE mode due to Finite Orbit Energetic Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berk, Herb; Wang, Ge
2013-10-01
The tip model for the TAE mode in the large aspect ratio limit, conceived by Rosenbluth et al. in the frequency domain, together with an interaction term in the frequency domain based on a map model, has been extended into the time domain. We present the formal basis for the model, starting with the Lagrangian for the particle wave interaction. We shall discuss the formal nonlinear time domain problem and the procedure that needs to obtain solutions in the adiabatic limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Gersem, Hilde; Moens, David; Desmet, Wim; Vandepitte, Dirk
2005-12-01
This work introduces a numerical algorithm to calculate frequency response functions of damped finite element models with fuzzy uncertain parameters. Part 1 of this paper focusses on the numerical procedure for the solution of the underlying interval finite element problem, based on the undamped procedure and the principle of Rayleigh damping. Part 2 of this paper illustrates the applicability of the methodology through four case studies. The concepts of the interval and the fuzzy finite element frequency response function analysis are illustrated for different types of uncertainties. The obtained results are compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations.
Model of intermittent zonal flow structure formation
Anderson, Johan; Kim, Eun-jin
2008-11-01
We present a theory the PDF tails of the zonal flow formation by assuming that a modon (a bipolar vortex) drives a zonal flow through the generalized Reynolds stress. We show that the PDF tails of zonal flow formation have exponential behavior {approx_equal}e{sup -{xi}}{sup {phi}{sub Z}{sub F}{sup 3}}, with the overall amplitude {xi} severely quenched by strong flow shear. It is found that stronger zonal flows are generated in ITG turbulence than Hasegawa-Mima (HM) turbulence as well as further from marginal stability. This suggests that although ITG turbulence has a higher level of heat flux, it also more likely generates stronger zonal flows, leading to a self-regulating system. It is also shown that shear flows can significantly reduce the PDF tails of structure formation.
Wareing, Robin R; Davy, John L; Pearse, John R
2016-01-01
Current theories for predicting the sound insulation of orthotropic materials are limited to a small range of infinite panels. This paper presents a method that allows for the prediction of the sound insulation of a finite size orthotropic panel. This method uses an equation for the forced radiation impedance of a finite size rectangular panel. This approach produces an equation that has three nested integrals. The long numerical calculation times were reduced by using approximate formulas for the azimuthally averaged forced radiation impedance. This reduced the number of nested integrals from three to two. The resulting predictions are compared to results measured using two sample sizes of four different thicknesses of plywood and one sample size of another three different thicknesses of plywood. Plywood was used for all the tests because it is somewhat orthotropic. It was found during testing that the Young's moduli of the plywood were dependent on the frequency of excitation. The influence of the frequency dependent Young's moduli was then included in the prediction method. The experimental results were also compared with a simple isotropic prediction method. PMID:26827045
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y.; Han, B.; Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.
2016-09-01
We investigate an optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling. An anti-lumped mass strategy is incorporated to minimize the numerical dispersion. The optimal finite-difference coefficients and the mass weighting coefficients are obtained by minimizing the misfit between the normalized phase velocities and the unity. An iterative damped least-squares method, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, is utilized for the optimization. Dispersion analysis shows that the optimal fourth-order scheme presents less grid dispersion and anisotropy than the conventional fourth-order scheme with respect to different Poisson's ratios. Moreover, only 3.7 grid-points per minimum shear wavelength are required to keep the error of the group velocities below 1%. The memory cost is then greatly reduced due to a coarser sampling. A parallel iterative method named CARP-CG is used to solve the large ill-conditioned linear system for the frequency-domain modeling. Validations are conducted with respect to both the analytic viscoacoustic and viscoelastic solutions. Compared with the conventional fourth-order scheme, the optimal scheme generates wavefields having smaller error under the same discretization setups. Profiles of the wavefields are presented to confirm better agreement between the optimal results and the analytic solutions.
A new paradigm for plasma transport and zonal flows
Sen, A.K.; Sokolov, V.; Wei, X.
2006-05-15
Most tokamak experimental results indicate dependence of the ion thermal conductivity on the isotopic mass close to {chi}{sub perpendicular}{approx}m{sub i}{sup -0.5}, i.e., inverse gyro-Bohm. This is in stark contradiction to most present theoretical models predicting Bohm (m{sub i}{sup 0}) or gyro-Bohm (m{sub i}{sup 0.5}) scaling. A basic physics isotopic scaling experiment [V. Sokolov and A. K. Sen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 095001 (2002)] on the anomalous ion thermal conduction due to ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities in two different gases (hydrogen and deuterium) closely confirms the tokamak results. Another series of experiments designed to explore the physics basis of this scaling appears to lead to a new model for this scaling based on 3-wave coupling of two ITG radial harmonics and an IA wave. The resulting isotopic scaling of transport is {approx}m{sub i}{sup -0.5} dictated primarily by the IA damping. This basic physics may be extrapolated to tokamaks resolving the paradox [V. Sokolov and A. K. Sen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 165002 (2004)]. Last, the much discussed theoretical role of zonal flows in transport regulation is critically examined by another set of experiments. A novel diagnostic has been developed on the basis of the observation that the effect of zonal flow can be seen in the FM modulation (at zonal flow frequency) of the carrier frequency of the large equilibrium Doppler shift frequency of ITG modes both in tokamaks and in the Columbia Linear Machine [V. Sokolov, X. Wei, and A. K.Sen, APS DPP meeting, Savannah (2004)]. The present results indicate zonal flow levels close to the theoretical prediction, but its shear is much lower than that predicted by theory for transport regulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morency, C.; Tromp, J.
2008-12-01
The mathematical formulation of wave propagation in porous media developed by Biot is based upon the principle of virtual work, ignoring processes at the microscopic level, and does not explicitly incorporate gradients in porosity. Based on recent studies focusing on averaging techniques, we derive the macroscopic porous medium equations from the microscale, with a particular emphasis on the effects of gradients in porosity. In doing so, we are able to naturally determine two key terms in the momentum equations and constitutive relationships, directly translating the coupling between the solid and fluid phases, namely a drag force and an interfacial strain tensor. In both terms, gradients in porosity arise. One remarkable result is that when we rewrite this set of equations in terms of the well known Biot variables us, w), terms involving gradients in porosity are naturally accommodated by gradients involving w, the fluid motion relative to the solid, and Biot's formulation is recovered, i.e., it remains valid in the presence of porosity gradients We have developed a numerical implementation of the Biot equations for two-dimensional problems based upon the spectral-element method (SEM) in the time domain. The SEM is a high-order variational method, which has the advantage of accommodating complex geometries like a finite-element method, while keeping the exponential convergence rate of (pseudo)spectral methods. As in the elastic and acoustic cases, poroelastic wave propagation based upon the SEM involves a diagonal mass matrix, which leads to explicit time integration schemes that are well-suited to simulations on parallel computers. Effects associated with physical dispersion & attenuation and frequency-dependent viscous resistance are addressed by using a memory variable approach. Various benchmarks involving poroelastic wave propagation in the high- and low-frequency regimes, and acoustic-poroelastic and poroelastic-poroelastic discontinuities have been
Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Scattering from Frequency-Dependent Lossy Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luebbers, Raymond J.; Beggs, John H.
1991-01-01
During this effort the tasks specified in the Statement of Work have been successfully completed. The extension of Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) to more complicated materials has been made. A three-dimensional FDTD code capable of modeling interactions with both dispersive dielectric and magnetic materials has been written, validated, and documented. This code is efficient and is capable of modeling interesting targets using a modest computer work station platform. However, in addition to the tasks in the Statement of Work, a significant number of other FDTD extensions and calculations have been made. RCS results for two different plate geometries have been reported. The FDTD method has been extended to computing far zone time domain results in two dimensions. Finally, the capability to model nonlinear materials has been incorporated into FDTD and validated. The FDTD computer codes developed have been supplied, along with documentation, and preprints describing the other FDTD advances have been included with this report as attachments.
Low frequency eddy current finite element model validation and benchmark studies
Cherry, M.; Knopp, J.; Mooers, R.; Boehnlein, T.; Aldrin, J. C.; Sabbagh, H. A.
2011-06-23
A finite element method (FEM) model was created to calculate the change in impedance of a coil due to the presence of a notch in a plate. The rectangular notches were created via electrical discharge machining (EDM) in a thick aluminum plate and were positioned at normal and oblique angles (10, 20, and 30 degrees) with respect to the vertical axis of the coil. The FEM method was chosen for this model due to its ability to solve problems in complicated geometries with the use of irregular mesh elements to discretize the solution domain. The change in impedance was calculated from the field variables in the simulation for each probe position along the parallel axis of the plate. The error between the model and the experimental data was approximately 5% for the majority of cases. The validated model was used to investigate more complex problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corrado, Charles N., Jr.
The measurements and analyses were conducted over a mid-frequency range of 2 < ka < 12 corresponding to about 1/2 to 3 times the ring frequency of the empty shell. The measurements were all conducted with the use of wide-band pulses yielding good time resolution of propagating waves. Various time and frequency domain representations of the scattered field are presented to illustrate the evolution of observed backscattering processes. Although the field measured at all aspect angles is reviewed, emphasis is placed on interpretation of the backscatter observed over a range within 30 degrees of beam aspect where phase matched (coincident) excitation of membrane waves occurs. Coincident shear wave radiation is the dominant source of backscatter generated by the empty shell at oblique angles of incidence within 30^circ of beam aspect. Peak levels of backscatter are generally found at combinations of aspect angle and frequency where coincidence and peak levels of length-scale modulation coexist. Coincident back radiation of shear waves remains evident in the backscatter of the ring stiffened shell, but the backscatter is smeared in time and frequency because the rings directly scatter energy to the acoustic medium, as well as from one membrane wave type to another, and to subsonic flexural waves. The decay rate of the empty shell backscatter exceeds that of the ring stiffened shell by a factor of 2-3 because the rings scatter energy to poorly radiating waves. Although details of the backscatter produced by the empty and ring stiffened shells differ, peak levels of target strength consistently fall within a range of -20 to -15 dB re 1 m. The internal loading further impairs coincident radiation but increases the target strength by about 2 dB for ka > 5.5. The damping provided by the resilient mounts increases backscatter decay rates by roughly 1.2 to 1.4 relative to those of the ring stiffened shell. Bistatic measurements of the internally loaded shell also demonstrate
ITG sideband coupling models for zonal flows
Stransky, M.
2011-05-15
Four-wave interaction model between ITG mode and zonal flow was derived using fluid equations. In this model, the zonal flow is excited non-linearly by ITG turbulence via Reynolds stress. Numerical simulations show that the system allows for a small range above the ITG threshold where the zonal flow can stabilize an unstable ITG mode, effectively increasing {eta}{sub i} threshold, an effect which has been called the Dimits shift. However, the shift is smaller than in known cases such that in the Cyclone base.
Turbulence regulation by stochastic zonal flows in dynamical models
Kim, Eun-jin
2005-09-15
A theory of turbulence reduction by zonal flows is presented in the interchange turbulence model. Zonal flows with a finite correlation time {tau}{sub ZF} are shown to lead to a significant reduction in particle transport and turbulence amplitude, with the scalings {upsilon}{sub x}{proportional_to}{tau}{sub D}{omega}{sub eff}{sup -1}{proportional_to}{omega}{sub eff}{sup -3/2}, n{sup 2}{proportional_to}{tau}{sub D}{proportional_to}{omega}{sub eff}{sup -1/2}, and {upsilon}{sub x}{sup 2}{proportional_to}{tau}{sub D}{omega}{sub eff}{sup -2}{proportional_to}{omega}{sub eff}{sup -5/2}. Here, {omega}{sub eff}={tau}{sub ZF}{omega}{sub rms}{sup 2}, {tau}{sub D}=({tau}{sub {eta}}/{omega}{sub eff}){sup 1/2}, and {tau}{sub {eta}} are the effective shearing rate, effective decorrelation time, and diffusive turbulent scattering time, respectively. Compared to the transport of passive scalar fields [E. Kim and P. H. Diamond, Phys. Plasmas, 11, L77 (2004)], the reduction is much more severe due to the suppression of turbulent velocity. However, the overall transport and turbulence amplitude are still larger compared with the case of coherent shearing because shearing by random zonal flows with a finite correlation time is less efficient, with a longer decorrelation time {tau}{sub D} than ({tau}{sub {eta}}/{omega}{sup 2}){sup 1/3} in the case of coherent shearing.
Finite size effect on spread of resonance frequencies in arrays of coupled vortices
Vogel, Andreas; Drews, André; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido
2011-01-25
Dynamical properties of magnetic vortices in arrays of magnetostatically coupled ferromagnetic disks are studied by means of a broadband ferromagnetic-resonance (FMR) setup. Magnetic force microscopy and magnetic transmission soft X-ray microscopy are used to image the core polarizations and the chiralities which are both found to be randomly distributed. The resonance frequency of vortex-core motion strongly depends on the magnetostatic coupling between the disks. The parameter describing the relative broadening of the absorption peak observed in the FMR transmission spectra for a given normalized center-to-center distance between the elements is shown to depend on the size of the array.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowacki, A.; Walker, A. M.; Wookey, J.; Kendall, J.
2012-12-01
The core-mantle boundary (CMB) region is the site of the largest change in properties in the Earth. Moreover, the lowermost mantle above it (known as D″) shows the largest lateral variations in seismic velocity and strength of seismic anisotropy below the upper mantle. It is therefore vital to be able to accurately forward model candidate structures in the lowermost mantle with realistic sensitivity to structure and at the same frequencies at which observations are made. We use the spectral finite-element method to produce synthetic seismograms of ScS waves traversing a model of D″ anisotropy derived from mineralogical texture calculations and show that the seismic discontinuity atop the lowermost mantle varies in character laterally purely as a function of the strength and orientation of anisotropy. The lowermost mantle is widely anisotropic, shown by numerous shear wave splitting studies using waves of dominant frequency ~0.2-1 Hz. Whilst methods exist to model the finite-frequency seismic response of the lowermost mantle, most make the problem computationally efficient by imposing a certain symmetry to the problem, and of those which do not, almost none allow for completely general elasticity. Where low frequencies are simulated to reduce computational cost, it is uncertain whether waves of that frequency have comparable sensitivity to D″ structure as those observed at shorter periods. Currently, therefore, these computational limitations precludes the ability to interpret our observations fully. We present recent developments in taking a general approach to forward-modelling waves in D″. We use a modified version of SPECFEM3D_GLOBE, which uses the spectral finite-element method to model seismic wave propagation in a fully generally-elastic (i.e., 3D-varying, arbitrarily anisotropic) Earth. The calculations are computationally challenging: to approach the frequency of the observations, up to 10,000 processor cores and up to 2 TB of memory are needed. The
Aguinaga, Iker; Fierz, Basil; Spillmann, Jonas; Harders, Matthias
2010-12-01
The behavior, performance, and run-time of mechanical simulations in interactive virtual surgery depend heavily on the type of numerical differential equation solver used to integrate in time the dynamic equations obtained from simulation methods, such as the Finite Element Method. Explicit solvers are fast but only conditionally stable. The condition number of the stiffness matrix limits the highest possible time step. This limit is related to the geometrical properties of the underlying mesh, such as element shape and size. In fact, it can be governed by a small set of ill-shaped elements. For many applications this issue can be solved a priori by a careful meshing. However, when meshes are cut during interactive surgery simulation, it is difficult and computationally expensive to control the quality of the resulting elements. As an alternative, we propose to modify the elemental stiffness matrices directly in order to ensure stability. In this context, we first investigate the behavior of the eigenmodes of the elemental stiffness matrix in a Finite Element Method. We then propose a simple filter to reduce high model frequencies and thus allow larger time steps, while maintaining the general mechanical behavior. PMID:20869390
Stoykov, Nikolay S; Kuiken, Todd A; Lowery, Madeleine M; Taflove, Allen
2003-09-01
We present what we believe to be the first algorithms that use a simple scalar-potential formulation to model linear Debye and Lorentz dielectric dispersions at low frequencies in the context of finite-element time-domain (FETD) numerical solutions of electric potential. The new algorithms, which permit treatment of multiple-pole dielectric relaxations, are based on the auxiliary differential equation method and are unconditionally stable. We validate the algorithms by comparison with the results of a previously reported method based on the Fourier transform. The new algorithms should be useful in calculating the transient response of biological materials subject to impulsive excitation. Potential applications include FETD modeling of electromyography, functional electrical stimulation, defibrillation, and effects of lightning and impulsive electric shock. PMID:12943277
Frequency analysis of finite beams on nonlinear Kelvin-Voight foundation under moving loads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, M.; Esmailzadeh, E.; Younesian, D.
2011-03-01
The vibration of an Euler-Bernoulli beam, resting on a nonlinear Kelvin-Voight viscoelastic foundation, traversed by a moving load is studied in the frequency domain. The objective is to obtain the frequency responses of the beam and the effects of different parameters on the system response. The parameters include the magnitude and speed of the moving load and the foundation nonlinearity and its damping coefficient. The solution is obtained by using the Galerkin method in conjunction with the multiple scales method (MSM). The governing nonlinear partial differential equations of motion are discretized into sets of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Subsequently, the solution is calculated for different harmonics by using the MSM as one of the powerful perturbation techniques. The steady-state responses of the main harmonic as well as its two super-harmonics are then obtained. As a case study, a conventional railway track is dynamically simulated and the jump phenomenon in the response is observed for three harmonics. Moreover, a thorough stability analysis of the system is carried out.
A hybrid absorbing boundary condition for frequency-domain finite-difference modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Zhiming; Liu, Yang
2013-10-01
Liu and Sen (2010 Geophysics 75 A1-6 2012 Geophys. Prospect. 60 1114-32) proposed an efficient hybrid scheme to significantly absorb boundary reflections for acoustic and elastic wave modelling in the time domain. In this paper, we extend the hybrid absorbing boundary condition (ABC) into the frequency domain and develop specific strategies for regular-grid and staggered-grid modelling, respectively. Numerical modelling tests of acoustic, visco-acoustic, elastic and vertically transversely isotropic (VTI) equations show significant absorptions for frequency-domain modelling. The modelling results of the Marmousi model and the salt model also demonstrate the effectiveness of the hybrid ABC. For elastic modelling, the hybrid Higdon ABC and the hybrid Clayton and Engquist (CE) ABC are implemented, respectively. Numerical simulations show that the hybrid Higdon ABC gets better absorption than the hybrid CE ABC, especially for S-waves. We further compare the hybrid ABC with the classical perfectly matched layer (PML). Results show that the two ABCs cost the same computation time and memory space for the same absorption width. However, the hybrid ABC is more effective than the PML for the same small absorption width and the absorption effects of the two ABCs gradually become similar when the absorption width is increased.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaladze, T. D.; Horton, W.; Kahlon, L. Z.; Pokhotelov, O.; Onishchenko, O.
2013-12-01
waves and vortices in the weakly ionized ionospheric E layer are dominated by the Hall conductivity that couples the Rossby and Alfvén dynamics giving rise to what are called Rossby-Alfvén-Khantadze electromagnetic structures. At finite amplitudes we show that the nonlinearities in the dynamics generate sheared zonal-flow velocities and zonal magnetic field fluctuations. The zonal-flow mechanism is based on the parametric excitation of the zonal variations through three-wave mode coupling in the planetary-scale waves. The coupled dynamics of the nonlinear 3-D incompressible flows and the magnetic field fluctuations are derived and used to derive the structure and growth rates for the zonal flows and zonal magnetic fields. Large-amplitude planetary waves are shown to drive up magnetic fluctuations up to 100 nT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panayappan, Kadappan
With the advent of sub-micron technologies and increasing awareness of Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility (EMI/EMC) issues, designers are often interested in full- wave solutions of complete systems, taking to account a variety of environments in which the system operates. However, attempts to do this substantially increase the complexities involved in computing full-wave solutions, especially when the problems involve multi- scale geometries with very fine features. For such problems, even the well-established numerical methods, such as the time domain technique FDTD and the frequency domain methods FEM and MoM, are often challenged to the limits of their capabilities. In an attempt to address such challenges, three novel techniques have been introduced in this work, namely Dipole Moment (DM) Approach, Recursive Update in Frequency Domain (RUFD) and New Finite Difference Time Domain ( vFDTD). Furthermore, the efficacy of the above techniques has been illustrated, via several examples, and the results obtained by proposed techniques have been compared with other existing numerical methods for the purpose of validation. The DM method is a new physics-based approach for formulating MoM problems, which is based on the use of dipole moments (DMs), as opposed to the conventional Green's functions. The absence of the Green's functions, as well as those of the vector and scalar potentials, helps to eliminate two of the key sources of difficulties in the conventional MoM formulation, namely the singularity and low-frequency problems. Specifically, we show that there are no singularities that we need to be concerned with in the DM formulation; hence, this obviates the need for special techniques for integrating these singularities. Yet another salutary feature of the DM approach is its ability to handle thin and lossy structures, or whether they are metallic, dielectric-type, or even combinations thereof. We have found that the DM formulation can handle these
EQUATORIAL ZONAL JETS AND JUPITER's GRAVITY
Kong, D.; Liao, X.; Zhang, K.; Schubert, G.
2014-08-20
The depth of penetration of Jupiter's zonal winds into the planet's interior is unknown. A possible way to determine the depth is to measure the effects of the winds on the planet's high-order zonal gravitational coefficients, a task to be undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. It is shown here that the equatorial winds alone largely determine these coefficients which are nearly independent of the depth of the non-equatorial winds.
Long-range correlations induced by the self-regulation of zonal flows and drift-wave turbulence
Manz, P.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.
2010-11-15
By means of a unique probe array, the interaction between zonal flows and broad-band drift-wave turbulence has been investigated experimentally in a magnetized toroidal plasma. Homogeneous potential fluctuations on a magnetic flux surface, previously reported as long range correlations, could be traced back to a predator-prey-like interaction between the turbulence and the zonal flow. At higher frequency the nonlocal transfer of energy to the zonal flow is dominant and the low-frequency oscillations are shown to result from the reduced turbulence activity due to this energy loss. This self-regulation process turns out to be enhanced with increased background shear flows.
Experimental Evidence of a Zonal Magnetic Field in a Toroidal Plasma
Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Shimizu, A.; Nakano, H.; Ohshima, S.; Iguchi, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Okamura, S.; Minami, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Nagaoka, K.; Ida, K.; Toi, K.; Takahashi, C.; Kojima, M.; Nishimura, S.; Isobe, M.; Suzuki, C.; Akiyama, T.; Nagashima, Y.
2007-04-20
A zonal magnetic field is found in a toroidal plasma. The magnetic field has a symmetric bandlike structure, which is uniform in the toroidal and poloidal directions and varies radially with a finite wavelength of mesoscale, which is analogous to zonal flows. A time-dependent bicoherence analysis reveals that the magnetic field should be generated by the background plasma turbulence. The discovery is classified as a new kind of phenomenon of structured magnetic field generation, giving insight into phenomena such as dipole field generation in rotational planets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
This movie is a manipulated sequence showing motions in Jupiter's atmosphere over the course of five days beginning Oct. 1, 2000, as seen by a camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft, using a blue filter.
Beginning with seven images taken at uneven time intervals, this sequence was made by using information on wind speeds derived from actual Jupiter images to create evenly spaced time steps throughout. The final result is a smooth movie sequence consisting of both real and false frames.
The view is of the opposite side of the planet from Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The region shown reaches from 50 degrees north to 50 degrees south of Jupiter's equator, and extends 100 degrees east-to-west, about one-quarter of Jupiter's circumference. The smallest features are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.
Towards the end of the sequence, a shadow appears from one of Jupiter's moons, Europa.
The movie shows the remains of a historic merger that began several years ago, when three white oval storms that had existed for 60 years merged into two, then one. The resulting oval is visible in the lower left portion of the movie.
The movie also shows zonal jets that circle the planet on constant latitudes. Winds seen moving toward the left (westward) correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than Jupiter's magnetic field, and winds moving the opposite direction correspond to features that are rotating a little faster than the magnetic field. Since Jupiter has no solid surface, the rotation of the magnetic field is the point of reference for the rotation of the planet.
Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.
Zonal-flow-driven nonlinear energy transfer in experiment and simulation
Holland, C.; Tynan, G. R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.
2007-05-15
Using a newly developed algorithm, the nonlinear transfer of internal fluctuation energy vertical bar n-tilde vertical bar{sup 2} due to convection of drift-wave turbulence by a geodesic acoustic mode (GAM, a finite-frequency zonal flow) has now been measured directly in a high-temperature plasma. By combining spatially resolved density fluctuation measurements obtained via an upgraded beam emission spectroscopy system in the edge region of the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] with a velocity inference algorithm, the convection of turbulent fluctuations by the GAM has been measured. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that GAM convection of turbulence leads to a transfer of internal fluctuation energy from low to high frequencies, in agreement with expectations from theory and simulation. In addition, the GAM is found to modulate the intensity of the density fluctuations. Calculations of the measured nonlinear interactions in the gyrokinetic code GYRO are found to be in good qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matharu, G.; Bostock, M. G.; Christensen, N. I.; Tromp, J.; Peter, D. B.
2012-12-01
The Leech River Complex (LRC) of southern Vancouver Island is part of a once continuous belt of Cretaceous sandstone, mudstone and volcanics that formed an accretionary wedge along the northwestern margin of North America. Metamorphism at 50 Ma to prehnite-pumpellyite, greenschist, amphibolite and blueschist facies produced pervasive foliations with strong phyllosilicate lattice preferred orientations. Laboratory measurements and in-situ S-wave splitting analysis of tectonic tremor wavetrains indicate that this fabric produces substantial S-wave anisotropy of up to 30%. In this study we seek to gain further understanding on the nature of anisotropy within the LRC using high signal to noise ratio low frequency earthquake (LFE) templates and 3-D simulations from the spectral element method (SEM). The LFEs are characterized by impulsive, double couple, point sources and lie along a surface between 27 and 37 km depth that is inferred to be the plate boundary, immediately underlying the LRC. The SEM modelling employs a regional mesh that incorporates realistic topography, bathymetry and a 3-D tomographic P-wave velocity model of southern Vancouver Island. It allows us to readily simulate wave propagation in general anisotropic media with up to 21 independent elastic constants. We will investigate the orientation and distribution of anisotropy within the LRC by employing sensitivity kernels determined using adjoint methods in conjunction with SEM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Zhitu; Masters, Guy; Mancinelli, Nicholas
2016-01-01
In this study, we obtain a set of 2-D global phase velocity and attenuation maps for Rayleigh waves between 5 and 25 mHz. Correcting the effect of focusing-defocusing is crucial in order to obtain reliable attenuation structure. Great circle linearized ray theory, which has been used to date, can give useful predictions of this effect if careful attention is paid to how the phase velocity model is smoothed. In contrast, predictions based on the 2-D finite-frequency kernels are quite robust in this frequency range and suggest that they are better suited as a basis for inversion. We use a large data set of Rayleigh wave phase and amplitude measurements to invert for the phase velocity, attenuation, source and receiver terms simultaneously. Our models provide 60-70 per cent variance reduction to the raw data though the source terms are the biggest contribution to the fit of the data. The attenuation maps show structures that correlate well with surface tectonics and the age progression trend of the attenuation is clearly seen in the ocean basins. We have also identified problematic stations and earthquake sources as a by-product of our data selection process.
Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.; Liu, J.
2010-01-01
Love-wave propagation has been a topic of interest to crustal, earthquake, and engineering seismologists for many years because it is independent of Poisson's ratio and more sensitive to shear (S)-wave velocity changes and layer thickness changes than are Rayleigh waves. It is well known that Love-wave generation requires the existence of a low S-wave velocity layer in a multilayered earth model. In order to study numerically the propagation of Love waves in a layered earth model and dispersion characteristics for near-surface applications, we simulate high-frequency (>5 Hz) Love waves by the staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) method. The air-earth boundary (the shear stress above the free surface) is treated using the stress-imaging technique. We use a two-layer model to demonstrate the accuracy of the staggered-grid modeling scheme. We also simulate four-layer models including a low-velocity layer (LVL) or a high-velocity layer (HVL) to analyze dispersive energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that: (1) the staggered-grid FD code and stress-imaging technique are suitable for treating the free-surface boundary conditions for Love-wave modeling, (2) Love-wave inversion should be treated with extra care when a LVL exists because of a lack of LVL information in dispersions aggravating uncertainties in the inversion procedure, and (3) energy of high modes in a low-frequency range is very weak, so that it is difficult to estimate the cutoff frequency accurately, and "mode-crossing" occurs between the second higher and third higher modes when a HVL exists. ?? 2010 Birkh??user / Springer Basel AG.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y.; Gu, Y. J.; Hung, S. H.
2014-12-01
Based on finite-frequency theory and cross-correlation teleseismic relative traveltime data from the USArray, Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN) and Canadian Rockies and Alberta Network (CRANE), we present a new tomographic model of P-wave velocity perturbations for the lithosphere and upper mantle beneath the Cordillera-cration transition region in southwestern Canada. The inversion procedure properly accounts for the finite-volume sensitivities of measured travel time residuals, and the resulting model shows a greater resolution of upper mantle velocity heterogeneity beneath the study area than earlier approaches based on the classical ray-theoretical approach. Our model reveals a lateral change of P velocities from -0.5% to 0.5% down to ~200-km depth in a 50-km wide zone between the Alberta Basin and the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, which suggests a sharp structural gradient along the Cordillera deformation front. The stable cratonic lithosphere, delineated by positive P-velocity perturbations of 0.5% and greater, extends down to a maximum depth of ~180 km beneath the Archean Loverna Block (LB). In comparison, the mantle beneath the controversial Medicine Hat Block (MHB) exhibits significantly higher velocities in the uppermost mantle and a shallower (130-150 km depth) root, generally consistent with the average depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath Southwest Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). The complex shape of the lithospheric velocities under the MHB may be evidence of extensive erosion or a partial detachment of the Precambrian lithospheric root. Furthermore, distinct high velocity anomalies in LB and MHB, which are separated by 'normal' mantle block beneath the Vulcan structure (VS), suggest different Archean assembly and collision histories between these two tectonic blocks.
The Galileo probe Doppler wind experiment: Measurement of the deep zonal winds on Jupiter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atkinson, David H.; Pollack, James B.; Seiff, Alvin
1998-09-01
During its descent into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, the Galileo probe transmitted data to the orbiter for 57.5 min. Accurate measurements of the probe radio frequency, driven by an ultrastable oscillator, allowed an accurate time history of the probe motions to be reconstructed. Removal from the probe radio frequency profile of known Doppler contributions, including the orbiter trajectory, the probe descent velocity, and the rotation of Jupiter, left a measurable frequency residual due to Jupiter's zonal winds, and microdynamical motion of the probe from spin, swing under the parachute, atmospheric turbulence, and aerodynamic buffeting. From the assumption of the dominance of the zonal horizontal winds, the frequency residuals were inverted and resulted in the first in situ measurements of the vertical profile of Jupiter's deep zonal winds. A number of error sources with the capability of corrupting the frequency measurements or the interpretation of the frequency residuals were considered using reasonable assumptions and calibrations from prelaunch and in-flight testing. It is found that beneath the cloud tops (about 700 mbar) the winds are prograde and rise rapidly to 170 m/s at 4 bars. Beyond 4 bars to the depth at which the link with the probe was lost, nearly 21 bars, the winds remain constant and strong. Corrections for the high temperatures encountered by the probe have recently been completed and provide no evidence of diminishing or strengthening of the zonal wind profile in the deeper regions explored by the Galileo probe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fourn, Cédric; Lasquellec, Sophie; Brosseau, Christian
2007-12-01
There has been much recent interest in how morphological descriptors may affect the electromagnetic wave transport in particulate composite mediums. In this work, we present results of finite-element simulations that model the permittivity of two-dimensional (or cross sections of infinite three-dimensional parallel, infinitely long, identical, circular cylinders, where the properties and characteristics are invariant along the perpendicular cross-sectional plane) three-phase heterostructures made of a multilayered discoidal particle. While strictly valid only in a direct current situation, our analysis can be extended to treat electric fields that oscillate with time provided that the wavelengths and attenuation lengths associated with the fields are much larger than the microstructure dimension in order that the homogeneous (effective medium) representation of the composite structure makes sense. From simulations over a range of parameters, our analysis evaluates the effect of the surface fraction of inclusion, the conductivity, and thickness (relative to the particle radius) of the particle conductive coating on the effective complex permittivity of isotropic heterostructures in which the filler particles have a core-shell structure. Four main effects are found. First, the importance of the surface fraction of inclusion on the effective complex permittivity at high frequencies (from microwave to infrared) is illustrated over a broad range of coating thicknesses and conductivities. Second, the encapsulation phase (metallic coating) conductivity is identified as the key property controlling the dielectric relaxation due to interfacial polarization. Third, a simple parametrization of the high-frequency effective permittivity spectrum allowed us to obtain a reliable modelization of the Debye-type relaxation processes. From the least-squares fit of the effective complex permittivity data, we extract information on these relaxation processes, i.e., relaxation
Generation of zonal flows by electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas
Kaladze, T. D.; Shad, M.; Tsamalashvili, L. V.
2010-02-15
Generation of large-scale zonal flows by comparatively small-scale electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas is considered. The generation mechanism is based on the parametric excitation of convective cells by finite amplitude drift waves having arbitrary wavelengths (as compared with the ion Larmor radius of plasma ions at the plasma electron temperature). Temperature inhomogeneity of electrons and positrons is taken into account assuming ions to be cold. To describe the generation of zonal flow generalized Hasegawa-Mima equation containing both vector and two scalar (of different nature) nonlinearities is used. A set of coupled equations describing the nonlinear interaction of drift waves and zonal flows is deduced. Explicit expressions for the maximum growth rate as well as for the optimal spatial dimensions of the zonal flows are obtained. Enriched possibilities of zonal flow generation with different growth rates are revealed. The present theory can be used for interpretations of drift wave observations in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chevrot, Sébastien; Martin, Roland; Komatitsch, Dimitri
2012-12-01
Wavelets are extremely powerful to compress the information contained in finite-frequency sensitivity kernels and tomographic models. This interesting property opens the perspective of reducing the size of global tomographic inverse problems by one to two orders of magnitude. However, introducing wavelets into global tomographic problems raises the problem of computing fast wavelet transforms in spherical geometry. Using a Cartesian cubed sphere mapping, which grids the surface of the sphere with six blocks or 'chunks', we define a new algorithm to implement fast wavelet transforms with the lifting scheme. This algorithm is simple and flexible, and can handle any family of discrete orthogonal or bi-orthogonal wavelets. Since wavelet coefficients are local in space and scale, aliasing effects resulting from a parametrization with global functions such as spherical harmonics are avoided. The sparsity of tomographic models expanded in wavelet bases implies that it is possible to exploit the power of compressed sensing to retrieve Earth's internal structures optimally. This approach involves minimizing a combination of a ℓ2 norm for data residuals and a ℓ1 norm for model wavelet coefficients, which can be achieved through relatively minor modifications of the algorithms that are currently used to solve the tomographic inverse problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Youssof, M.; Thybo, H.; Artemieva, I. M.; Levander, A.
2015-06-01
We present a 3D high-resolution seismic model of the southern African cratonic region from teleseismic tomographic inversion of the P- and S-body wave dataset recorded by the Southern African Seismic Experiment (SASE). Utilizing 3D sensitivity kernels, we invert traveltime residuals of teleseismic body waves to calculate velocity anomalies in the upper mantle down to a 700 km depth with respect to the ak135 reference model. Various resolution tests allow evaluation of the extent of smearing effects and help defining the optimum inversion parameters (i.e., damping and smoothness) for regularizing the inversion calculations. The fast lithospheric keels of the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons reach depths of 300-350 km and 200-250 km, respectively. The paleo-orogenic Limpopo Belt is represented by negative velocity perturbations down to a depth of ˜ 250 km, implying the presence of chemically fertile material with anomalously low wave speeds. The Bushveld Complex has low velocity down to ˜ 150 km, which is attributed to chemical modification of the cratonic mantle. In the present model, the finite-frequency sensitivity kernels allow to resolve relatively small-scale anomalies, such as the Colesberg Magnetic Lineament in the suture zone between the eastern and western blocks of the Kaapvaal Craton, and a small northern block of the Kaapvaal Craton, located between the Limpopo Belt and the Bushveld Complex.
Self-organized zonal flow in the flute-mode turbulence of a plasma
Kodama, Y.; Pavlenko, V.P.
1988-04-11
Flute-mode turbulence has a forward spectral cascade unlike the case of drift-wave turbulence. Therefore the linear flute instability may be reduced by this energy cascading toward large wave numbers. As a consequence of three-wave cascade processes derivable from model equations including the effects of density gradient and finite ion Larmor radius the formation of zonal flows in flute mode turbulence is predicted.
Measurements of Zonal Winds on Titan from Millimeter Interferometric Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreno, R.; Marten, A.
2003-05-01
Narrow emission lines of HC3N (cyanoacetylene) and CH3CN (acetonitrile) were observed on Titan with the Plateau-de-Bure Interferometer of IRAM (France) in February-March 2003. Using the most extended configuration of the six-antenna array, an angular resolution of 0.6 arc sec was obtained at the working frequencies (227.4 and 220.7 GHz, respectively), permitting a disk-resolved investigation of the nitrile composition and the zonal wind flow in the upper atmosphere. Observing details and composition results are reported in an accompanying presentation (Marten and Moreno, BAAS, 2003). Our second objective was reached by recording the spectra at a very high spectral resolution of 40 kHz. A sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (greater than 10 for the equatorial measurements) was achieved after 8 hours of integration time on Titan. Examination of the contribution functions calculated for the strongest lines used in our analysis shows that the probed altitudes are in the low mesosphere around 400 km (0.01-mbar pressure level). The Doppler shifts of the lines measured between the east and west limbs provide evidence for a prograde wind direction. The retrieved maps focusing on the zonal wind speeds determined across Titan's disk will be presented.
Penetrative Convection and Zonal Flow on Jupiter
Zhang; Schubert
1996-08-16
Measurements by the Galileo probe support the possibility that the zonal winds in Jupiter's atmosphere originate from convection that takes place in the deep hydrogen-helium interior. However, according to models based on recent opacity data and the probe's temperature measurements, there may be radiative and nonconvective layers in the outer part of the jovian interior, raising the question of how deep convection could extend to the surface. A theoretical model is presented to demonstrate that, because of predominant rotational effects and spherical geometry, thermal convection in the deep jovian interior can penetrate into any outer nonconvective layer. These penetrative convection rolls interact nonlinearly and efficiently in the model to generate and sustain a mean zonal wind with a larger amplitude than that of the nonaxisymmetric penetrative convective motions, a characteristic of the wind field observed at the cloud level on Jupiter. PMID:8688074
Laboratory Exploration of Multiple Zonal Jet Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, C. A.; Speer, K. G.; Griffiths, R. W.
2012-12-01
The differentially heated, rotating annulus has classically been used to study wave interactions within a single, baroclinic jet. At high rotation rates, the baroclinic instability of the flow leads to a transition to a turbulent, eddy-dominated regime. In the presence of a topographic beta effect, the flow has been observed to produce multiple, meandering zonal jets that are qualitatively similar to those found in planetary atmospheres and in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Our study builds on previous annulus experiments [1] by making observations further within this new regime. We observe with PIV and other techniques how the structure of the flow responds to changes in various parameters such as tank geometry, gradient in the Coriolis parameter, rotation rate, and differential thermal forcing. By not employing the more typical direct forcing of small scales, but by applying a large scale forcing over the annulus gap width, this study allows the varying effects of eddy scale selection, enstrophy cascade, etc. to naturally generate flow that more closely resembles planetary atmospheres and the ACC. We seek nondimensional parameters that significantly control zonation in a real fluid. These observations will provide a metric for the comparison of various theoretical models for multiple zonal jet formation. Other properties of the jets, such as their migration, meandering, bifurcation, and merging, can also be observed in an idealized situation and compared to numerical simulations. Ultimately, this will aid the testing and development of sub-grid-scale parameterizations for the multiple zonal jet regime that remain robust in the face of multiple forcing parameters. [1] Wordsworth, R. D., Read, P. L., & Yamazaki, Y. H. (2008). Turbulence, waves, and jets in a differentially heated rotating annulus experiment Physics of Fluids, 20(12), 126602.Streak photograph of suspended particles visualizing the flow representative of multiple zonal jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaladze, T. D.; Kahlon, L. Z.; Tsamalashvili, L. V.; Kaladze, D. T.
2012-11-01
Nonlinear dynamics of coupled internal-gravity (IG) and alfvén electromagnetic planetary waves in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer is investigated. Under such coupling new type of alfvén waves is revealed. It is shown that such short wavelength turbulence of IG and alfvén waves is unstable with respect to the excitation of low-frequency and large-scale perturbations of the zonal flow and magnetic field. A set of coupled equations describing the nonlinear interaction of coupled IG and alfvén waves with zonal flows is derived. The nonlinear mechanism of the instability is driven by the advection of vorticity and is based on the parametric excitation of convective cells by finite-amplitude coupled IG and alfvén waves leading to the inverse energy cascade toward the longer wavelength. The growth rates of the corresponding instability and the conditions for driving them are determined. The possibility of generation of the intense mean magnetic field is shown.
Generalized Quasilinear Approximation: Application to Zonal Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marston, J. B.; Chini, G. P.; Tobias, S. M.
2016-05-01
Quasilinear theory is often utilized to approximate the dynamics of fluids exhibiting significant interactions between mean flows and eddies. We present a generalization of quasilinear theory to include dynamic mode interactions on the large scales. This generalized quasilinear (GQL) approximation is achieved by separating the state variables into large and small zonal scales via a spectral filter rather than by a decomposition into a formal mean and fluctuations. Nonlinear interactions involving only small zonal scales are then removed. The approximation is conservative and allows for scattering of energy between small-scale modes via the large scale (through nonlocal spectral interactions). We evaluate GQL for the paradigmatic problems of the driving of large-scale jets on a spherical surface and on the beta plane and show that it is accurate even for a small number of large-scale modes. As GQL is formally linear in the small zonal scales, it allows for the closure of the system and can be utilized in direct statistical simulation schemes that have proved an attractive alternative to direct numerical simulation for many geophysical and astrophysical problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vlahopoulos, Nickolas
2005-01-01
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) is a finite element based computational method for high frequency vibration and acoustic analysis. The EFEA solves with finite elements governing differential equations for energy variables. These equations are developed from wave equations. Recently, an EFEA method for computing high frequency vibration of structures either in vacuum or in contact with a dense fluid has been presented. The presence of fluid loading has been considered through added mass and radiation damping. The EFEA developments were validated by comparing EFEA results to solutions obtained by very dense conventional finite element models and solutions from classical techniques such as statistical energy analysis (SEA) and the modal decomposition method for bodies of revolution. EFEA results have also been compared favorably with test data for the vibration and the radiated noise generated by a large scale submersible vehicle. The primary variable in EFEA is defined as the time averaged over a period and space averaged over a wavelength energy density. A joint matrix computed from the power transmission coefficients is utilized for coupling the energy density variables across any discontinuities, such as change of plate thickness, plate/stiffener junctions etc. When considering the high frequency vibration of a periodically stiffened plate or cylinder, the flexural wavelength is smaller than the interval length between two periodic stiffeners, therefore the stiffener stiffness can not be smeared by computing an equivalent rigidity for the plate or cylinder. The periodic stiffeners must be regarded as coupling components between periodic units. In this paper, Periodic Structure (PS) theory is utilized for computing the coupling joint matrix and for accounting for the periodicity characteristics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Donald R.; Orne, David
1976-01-01
The influence of pretwist, nonuniformities in mass and flexural stiffness, rotatory inertia and shear deformation on the natural frequencies of intact bones is evaluated by means of a linear elastic, finite-element model which has been programmed for solution on the digital computer. Theoretical results are compared to the results on the forced vibration of intact canine radii obtained experimentally by Thompson. Surprisingly, inclusion of fairly large pretwist angles (from -14 to 12 deg for one specimen) had little affect on the first three frequencies of transverse vibration in either the cranial or lateral directions. Inclusion of shear deformation reduced the third-mode frequency in the stiffest (lateral) direction by about six percent, otherwise shear deformation played a minor role in determining natural frequencies. Similarly. rotatory inertia had negligible influence up to the third natural frequency. The predominant influence on the first three natural frequencies of transverse vibration could be attributed to the variations in mass and flexural stiffness along the length of the test specimens. Different effective moduli of elasticity are required to yield correct absolute values for the frequencies which correspond to experimental findings. thus implying the presence of some inhomogeneities in material properties around the bone cross-section and/or along its length.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moens, David; Vandepitte, Dirk
2005-12-01
This work introduces a numerical algorithm to calculate frequency-response functions (FRFs) of damped finite element (FE) models with fuzzy uncertain parameters. Part one of this paper describes the numerical algorithm for the solution of the underlying interval finite element (IFE) problem. First, the IFE procedure for the calculation of undamped envelope FRFs is discussed. Starting from the undamped procedure, a strategy is developed to analyse damped structures based on the principle of Rayleigh damping. This is achieved by analysing the effect of the proportional damping coefficients on the subsequent steps of the undamped procedure. This finally results in a procedure for the calculation of fuzzy damped FRFs based on an analytical extension of the undamped algorithm. Part one of this paper introduces the numerical procedure. Part two of this paper illustrates the application of the methodology on four numerical case studies.
Gyroaverage effects on chaotic transport by drift waves in zonal flows
Martinell, J.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B
2013-01-01
Finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on E x B test particle chaotic transport in the presence of zonal flows is studied. The FLR effects are introduced by the gyro-average of a simplified E x B guiding center model consisting of the linear superposition of a non-monotonic zonal flow and drift waves. Non-monotonic zonal flows play a critical role on transport because they exhibit robust barriers to chaotic transport in the region(s) where the shear vanishes. In addition, the non-monotonicity gives rise to nontrivial changes in the topology of the orbits of the E x B Hamiltonian due to separatrix reconnection. The present study focuses on the role of FLR effects on these two signatures of non-monotonic zonal flows: shearless transport barriers and separatrix reconnection. It is shown that, as the Larmor radius increases, the effective zonal flow profile bifurcates and multiple shearless regions are created. As a result, the topology of the gyro-averaged Hamiltonian exhibits very complex separatrix reconnection bifurcations. It is also shown that FLR effects tend to reduce chaotic transport. In particular, the restoration of destroyed transport barriers is observed as the Larmor radius increases. A detailed numerical study is presented on the onset of global chaotic transport as function of the amplitude of the drift waves and the Larmor radius. For a given amplitude, the threshold for the destruction of the shearless transport barrier, as function of the Larmor radius, exhibits a fractal-like structure. The FLR effects on a thermal distribution of test particles are also studied. In particular, the fraction of confined particles with a Maxwellian distribution of gyroradii is computed, and an effective transport suppression is found for high enough temperatures.
Gyroaverage effects on chaotic transport by drift waves in zonal flows
Martinell, Julio J.; Castillo-Negrete, Diego del
2013-02-15
Finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on E Multiplication-Sign B test particle chaotic transport in the presence of zonal flows is studied. The FLR effects are introduced by the gyro-average of a simplified E Multiplication-Sign B guiding center model consisting of the linear superposition of a non-monotonic zonal flow and drift waves. Non-monotonic zonal flows play a critical role on transport because they exhibit robust barriers to chaotic transport in the region(s) where the shear vanishes. In addition, the non-monotonicity gives rise to nontrivial changes in the topology of the orbits of the E Multiplication-Sign B Hamiltonian due to separatrix reconnection. The present study focuses on the role of FLR effects on these two signatures of non-monotonic zonal flows: shearless transport barriers and separatrix reconnection. It is shown that, as the Larmor radius increases, the effective zonal flow profile bifurcates and multiple shearless regions are created. As a result, the topology of the gyro-averaged Hamiltonian exhibits very complex separatrix reconnection bifurcations. It is also shown that FLR effects tend to reduce chaotic transport. In particular, the restoration of destroyed transport barriers is observed as the Larmor radius increases. A detailed numerical study is presented on the onset of global chaotic transport as function of the amplitude of the drift waves and the Larmor radius. For a given amplitude, the threshold for the destruction of the shearless transport barrier, as function of the Larmor radius, exhibits a fractal-like structure. The FLR effects on a thermal distribution of test particles are also studied. In particular, the fraction of confined particles with a Maxwellian distribution of gyroradii is computed, and an effective transport suppression is found for high enough temperatures.
Stochastic magnetic field driven charge transport and zonal flow during magnetic reconnection
Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Craig, D.; Chapman, B. E.; Ennis, D.; Fiksel, G.; Gangadhara, S.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Mirnov, V. V.; Prager, S. C.; Sarff, J. S.; Terry, P. W.; Svidzinski, V.; Yates, T.
2008-05-15
Magnetic fluctuation-induced charge transport, resulting from particle transport that is not intrinsically ambipolar, has been measured in the high-temperature interior of a reversed-field pinch plasma. It is found that global resistive tearing modes and their nonlinear interactions lead to significant charge transport, equivalent to the perpendicular Maxwell stress, in the vicinity of the resonant surface for the dominant core resonant mode during magnetic reconnection. Finite charge transport can result in a zonal flow associated with locally strong radial electric field and electric field shear. In the presence of stochastic magnetic field, radial electric field is expected to be balanced by radial electron pressure gradient. Direct measurement of local density gradient is consistent with the formation of radial electric field and the zonal flow.
Predictability of Zonal Means During Boreal Summer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max J.; Pegion, Philip J.; Kistler, Michael A.; Kumar, Arun; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This study examines the predictability of seasonal means during boreal summer. The results are based on ensembles of June-July-August (JJA) simulations (started in mid May) carried out with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed sea surface temperatures (SSTS) and sea ice for the years 1980-1999. We find that the predictability of the JJA extra-tropical height field is primarily in the zonal mean component of the response to the SST anomalies. This contrasts with the cold season (January-February-March) when the predictability of seasonal means in the boreal extratropics is primarily in the wave component of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response. Two patterns dominate the interannual variability of the ensemble mean JJA zonal mean height field. One has maximum variance in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere, while the other has substantial variance in middle latitudes of both hemispheres. Both are symmetric with respect to the equator. A regression analysis suggests that the tropical/subtropical pattern is associated with SST anomalies in the far eastern tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean, while the middle latitude pattern is forced by SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific just east of the dateline. The two leading zonal height patterns are reproduced in model runs forced with the two leading JJA SST patterns of variability. A comparison with observations shows a signature of the middle latitude pattern that is consistent with the occurrence of dry and wet summers over the United States. We hypothesize that both patterns, while imposing only weak constraints on extratropical warm season continental-scale climates, may play a role in the predilection for drought or pluvial conditions.
ZASPE: Zonal Atmospheric Stellar Parameters Estimator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brahm, Rafael; Jordan, Andres; Hartman, Joel; Bakos, Gaspar
2016-07-01
ZASPE (Zonal Atmospheric Stellar Parameters Estimator) computes the atmospheric stellar parameters (Teff, log(g), [Fe/H] and vsin(i)) from echelle spectra via least squares minimization with a pre-computed library of synthetic spectra. The minimization is performed only in the most sensitive spectral zones to changes in the atmospheric parameters. The uncertainities and covariances computed by ZASPE assume that the principal source of error is the systematic missmatch between the observed spectrum and the sythetic one that produces the best fit. ZASPE requires a grid of synthetic spectra and can use any pre-computed library minor modifications.
Zonal flow formation in the presence of ambient mean shear
Hsu, Pei-Chun; Diamond, P. H.
2015-02-15
The effect of mean shear flows on zonal flow formation is considered in the contexts of plasma drift wave turbulence and quasi-geostrophic turbulence models. The generation of zonal flows by modulational instability in the presence of large-scale mean shear flows is studied using the method of characteristics as applied to the wave kinetic equation. It is shown that mean shear flows reduce the modulational instability growth rate by shortening the coherency time of the wave spectrum with the zonal shear. The scalings of zonal flow growth rate and turbulent vorticity flux with mean shear are determined in the strong shear limit.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Picaut, Joel; Camusat, Bruno; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Mcphaden, Michael J.
1990-01-01
The applicability of satellite altimeter data for estimating zonal current variability at the equator is assessed using the meriodionally differenced form of the geostrophic balance. Estimates of geostrophic zonal flow anomalies in the equatorial Pacific have been deduced from 17-day collinear altimeter data during the first year of the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission. Altimeter-derived geostrophic estimates agree well with in situ zonal current variability. Comparison of flow-frequency near-surface zonal current observed from equatorial moorings at 165 deg E, 140 deg W, and 110 deg W yield correlations of 0.83, 0.85, and 0.51, respectively, with a mean rms difference of 23 cm/sec. The inclusion of up to 11 ascending and descending Geosat tracks within the 9-deg band for every 17-day repeat effectively reduced the temporal sampling interval to 1.5 days at 165 deg E and 140 deg W. The 6.8-km along track spacing of the altimeter measurements provides sufficient resolution for the effective filtering of small-scale meridional noise, both instrumental and oceanic.
Zonal flow modes in a tokamak plasma with dominantly poloidal mean flows
Zhou Deng
2010-10-15
The zonal flow eigenmodes in a tokamak plasma with dominantly poloidal mean flows are theoretically investigated. It is found that the frequencies of both the geodesic acoustic mode and the sound wave increase with respect to the poloidal Mach number. In contrast to the pure standing wave form in static plasmas, the density perturbations consist of a standing wave superimposed with a small amplitude traveling wave in the poloidally rotating plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Margolis, R. E.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.
2014-12-01
Here we present a 3D shear velocity model for the lower crust and upper mantle beneath the Great Plains region in the central United States using finite frequency Rayleigh wave travel time tomography. We use USArray Transportable Array (TA) vertical component recording of teleseismic Rayleigh waves that we first invert for phase velocity using the modified two-plane wave method with finite frequency kernels. We then invert the resulting dispersion curves for shear velocity structure. Our analysis includes a characterization of the lithospheric structure in this tectonically transitional regime to illuminate the differences between the actively deforming western US and the stable continental interior of the northeastern Great Plains. The west is defined by slow velocities and thin lithosphere, whereas the east has fast velocities and thick lithosphere, with the thickest lithosphere in the northeast, representing the southwestern keel of the Superior craton. The Great Plains, which abut the Rocky Mountain Front, have an unusual elevation profile that possesses a much broader region of uplifted elevation and lower relief than other orogenic systems (Eaton 2009). From our tomography and regional heat flow data, we infer warm temperatures in the west and suggest that the asthenospheric mantle contributes to anomalously high elevation of the westernmost Great Plains with some secondary contribution due to crustal effects.
EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COHERENT, RADIALLY-SHEARED ZONAL FLOWS IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK
MCKEE,GR; FONCK,RJ; JAKUBOWSKI,M; BURRELL,KH; HALLATSCHEK,K; MOYER,RA; NEVINS,W; PORTER,GD; RUDAKOV,DL; XU,X
2002-11-01
A271 EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COHERENT, RADIALLY-SHEARED ZONAL FLOWS IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK. Application of time-delay-estimation techniques to two-dimensional measurements of density fluctuations, obtained with beam emission spectroscopy in DIII-D plasmas, has provided temporally and spatially resolved measurements of the turbulence flow-field. Features that are characteristic of self-generated zonal flows are observed in the radial region near 0.85 {<=} r/a {<=} 1.0. These features include a coherent oscillation (approximately 15 kHz) in the poloidal flow of density fluctuations that has a long poloidal wavelength, possibly m = 0, narrow radial extent (k{sub r}{rho}{sub I} < 0.2), and whose frequency varies monotonically with the local temperature. The approximate effective shearing rate, dv{sub {theta}}/dr, of the flow is of the same order of magnitude as the measured nonlinear decorrelation rate of the turbulence, and the density fluctuation amplitude is modulated at the frequency of the observed flow oscillation. Some phase coherence is observed between the higher wavenumber density fluctuations and low frequency poloidal flow fluctuations, suggesting a Reynolds stress contribution. These characteristics are consistent with predicted features of zonal flows, specifically identified as geodesic acoustic modes, observed in 3-D Braginskii simulations of core/edge turbulence.
Collisionless Zonal Flow Saturation for Weak Magnetic Shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Zhixin; Wang, Weixing; Diamond, Patrick; Ashourvan, Arash; Tynan, George
2015-11-01
The damping of the zonal flow, either collisional or collisionless, plays an important role in regulating the drift wave-zonal flow system, and can affect the transport and confinement. The tertiary instability, e.g., a generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability driven by flow shear, has been suggested theoretically as a possible damping mechanism [Rogers 2000 PRL, Diamond 2005 PPCF]. The sensitivity of the tertiary mode to magnetic shear has not been quantified, especially in weak magnetic shear regimes. In this work, parametric scans using gyrokinetic simulation demonstrate that the zonal electric field energy normalized by the turbulence electric field energy decreases as magnetic shear decreases. With ITG drive artificially eliminated, the time evolution of the zonal structure indicates that the zonal electric field damps more rapidly at weak shear. This suggests larger collisionless zonal flow damping or larger effective turbulent viscosity at weak magnetic shear. The effects of the zonal components of specific variables, e.g., the parallel shear flow and the radial electric field, on tertiary instability, are also studied. Quantitative studies on the magnetic shear scaling of tertiary instability excitation and the collisionless zonal flow saturation are ongoing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Y.; Hung, S.
2007-12-01
Seismic tomographic imaging has played a key component to unravel the deep processes that caused the surface morphology and rift magmatism in the southwest United States. Several studies used teleseismic body- wave arrivals recorded by the La Ristra experiment, a dense broadband array of 950-km in length deployed during 1999-2001 and run through the Great Plains, the Rio Grande Rift, and the Colorado Plateau, to construct a 2-D tomographic image of the upper mantle structure beneath this linear array (e.g., Gao et al., 2004). However, because of the inevitable smoothing and damping imposed in the tomographic model, the resulting velocity contrast is too weak to explain distinct P and S waveform changes across the array (Song and Helmberger, 2007). In this study, we include all the data from the La Ristra and available nearby arrays and reexamine finite- frequency travel time delays measured by inter-station cross correlation of waveforms at both high- (0.3-2 Hz for P and 0.1-0.5 Hz for S) and low-frequencies (0.03-0.125 Hz for P and 0.03-0.1 Hz for S). Differing from the previous models that rely on classical ray theory and simple grid parameterization, our inversion considers more realistic 3-D sensitivity kernels for relative travel-time delays and a wavelet-based, multi-scale parameterization that enables to yield robust features with spatially-varying resolutions. Our preliminary P-wave model reveals a prominent low-velocity zone extending from near surface to the depth of 300 km beneath the Rio Grande Rift, while the upper mantle which underlies the Great Plains and the Colorado Plateau is seismically fast. We will demonstrate the difference and improvement of 3-D tomographic models through the use of finite-frequency kernels and multi-scale parameterization.
ZONAL FLOWS AND LONG-LIVED AXISYMMETRIC PRESSURE BUMPS IN MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE
Johansen, A.; Youdin, A.; Klahr, H. E-mail: youd@cita.utoronto.ca
2009-06-01
We study the behavior of magnetorotational turbulence in shearing box simulations with a radial and azimuthal extent up to 10 scale heights. Maxwell and Reynolds stresses are found to increase by more than a factor of 2 when increasing the box size beyond two scale heights in the radial direction. Further increase of the box size has little or no effect on the statistical properties of the turbulence. An inverse cascade excites magnetic field structures at the largest scales of the box. The corresponding 10% variation in the Maxwell stress launches a zonal flow of alternating sub- and super-Keplerian velocity. This, in turn, generates a banded density structure in geostrophic balance between pressure and Coriolis forces. We present a simplified model for the appearance of zonal flows, in which stochastic forcing by the magnetic tension on short timescales creates zonal flow structures with lifetimes of several tens of orbits. We experiment with various improved shearing box algorithms to reduce the numerical diffusivity introduced by the supersonic shear flow. While a standard finite difference advection scheme shows signs of a suppression of turbulent activity near the edges of the box, this problem is eliminated by a new method where the Keplerian shear advection is advanced in time by interpolation in Fourier space.
B-spline methods and zonal grids for numerical simulations of turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravchenko, Arthur Grigorievich
1998-12-01
A novel numerical technique is developed for simulations of complex turbulent flows on zonal embedded grids. This technique is based on the Galerkin method with basis functions constructed using B-splines. The technique permits fine meshes to be embedded in physically significant flow regions without placing a large number of grid points in the rest of the computational domain. The numerical technique has been tested successfully in simulations of a fully developed turbulent channel flow. Large eddy simulations of turbulent channel flow at Reynolds numbers up to Rec = 110,000 (based on centerline velocity and channel half-width) show good agreement with the existing experimental data. These tests indicate that the method provides an efficient information transfer between zones without accumulation of errors in the regions of sudden grid changes. The numerical solutions on multi-zone grids are of the same accuracy as those on a single-zone grid but require less computer resources. The performance of the numerical method in a generalized coordinate system is assessed in simulations of laminar flows over a circular cylinder at low Reynolds numbers and three-dimensional simulations at ReD = 300 (based on free-stream velocity and cylinder diameter). The drag coefficients, the size of the recirculation region, and the vortex shedding frequency all agree well with the experimental data and previous simulations of these flows. Large eddy simulations of a flow over a circular cylinder at a sub-critical Reynolds number, ReD = 3900, are performed and compared with previous upwind-biased and central finite-difference computations. In the very near-wake, all three simulations are in agreement with each other and agree fairly well with the PIV experimental data of Lourenco & Shih (1993). Farther downstream, the results of the B- spline computations are in better agreement with the hot- wire experiment of Ong & Wallace (1996) than those obtained in finite-difference simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mobley, Joel; Waters, Kendall R.; Miller, James G.
2005-07-01
Kramers-Kronig (KK) analyses of experimental data are complicated by the extrapolation problem, that is, how the unexamined spectral bands impact KK calculations. This work demonstrates the causal linkages in resonant-type data provided by acoustic KK relations for the group velocity (cg) and the derivative of the attenuation coefficient (α') (components of the derivative of the acoustic complex wave number) without extrapolation or unmeasured parameters. These relations provide stricter tests of causal consistency relative to previously established KK relations for the phase velocity (cp) and attenuation coefficient (α) (components of the undifferentiated acoustic wave number) due to their shape invariance with respect to subtraction constants. For both the group velocity and attenuation derivative, three forms of the relations are derived. These relations are equivalent for bandwidths covering the entire infinite spectrum, but differ when restricted to bandlimited spectra. Using experimental data from suspensions of elastic spheres in saline, the accuracy of finite-bandwidth KK predictions for cg and α' is demonstrated. Of the multiple methods, the most accurate were found to be those whose integrals were expressed only in terms of the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient themselves, requiring no differentiated quantities.
ON THE VARIATION OF ZONAL GRAVITY COEFFICIENTS OF A GIANT PLANET CAUSED BY ITS DEEP ZONAL FLOWS
Kong Dali; Zhang Keke; Schubert, Gerald E-mail: kzhang@ex.ac.uk
2012-04-01
Rapidly rotating giant planets are usually marked by the existence of strong zonal flows at the cloud level. If the zonal flow is sufficiently deep and strong, it can produce hydrostatic-related gravitational anomalies through distortion of the planet's shape. This paper determines the zonal gravity coefficients, J{sub 2n}, n = 1, 2, 3, ..., via an analytical method taking into account rotation-induced shape changes by assuming that a planet has an effective uniform density and that the zonal flows arise from deep convection and extend along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis. Two different but related hydrostatic models are considered. When a giant planet is in rigid-body rotation, the exact solution of the problem using oblate spheroidal coordinates is derived, allowing us to compute the value of its zonal gravity coefficients J-bar{sub 2n}, n=1,2,3,..., without making any approximation. When the deep zonal flow is sufficiently strong, we develop a general perturbation theory for estimating the variation of the zonal gravity coefficients, {Delta}J{sub 2n}=J{sub 2n}-J-bar{sub 2n}, n=1,2,3,..., caused by the effect of the deep zonal flows for an arbitrarily rapidly rotating planet. Applying the general theory to Jupiter, we find that the deep zonal flow could contribute up to 0.3% of the J{sub 2} coefficient and 0.7% of J{sub 4}. It is also found that the shape-driven harmonics at the 10th zonal gravity coefficient become dominant, i.e., {Delta}J{sub 2n}>=J-bar{sub 2n} for n {>=} 5.
Dimbylow, P J
1987-01-01
This paper presents three-dimensional finite difference calculations of induced current densities in a grounded, homogeneous, realistically human-shaped phantom. Comparison is made with published experimental values of current density at 60 Hz, measured in conducting saline manikins with their arms down by the side. The congruence between calculation and experiment gives confidence in the applicability of the numerical method and phantom shape to other configurations. The effect of raising both arms above the head is to reduce the current densities in the head and neck by approximately 50% and to increase those from the thorax downwards by 20-30%. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the shape and dimensions of the phantom, from a 45-kg, 1.5-m-tall person to a 140-kg, 1.9-m-tall person. When the phantom is grounded through both feet the current densities range from 50 to 90 microAm-2 in the head (all values for a 60-Hz, 1-kVm-1, vertical applied field), 70 to 140 microAm-2 in the thorax, 150 to 440 microAm-2 at the crotch, and 500 to 2,230 microAm-2 in the ankle. When grounded through only one foot the current densities at the crotch range from 400 to 1,000 microAm-2 and from 1,000 to 4,400 microAm-2 in the ankle of the grounded leg. Scale transformations of the short-circuit current with phantom height, weight, and surface area are confirmed. PMID:3122768
Mondal, Mintu; Kamlapure, Anand; Ganguli, Somesh Chandra; Jesudasan, John; Bagwe, Vivas; Benfatto, Lara; Raychaudhuri, Pratap
2013-01-01
The persistence of a soft gap in the density of states above the superconducting transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap, has long been thought to be a hallmark of unconventional high-temperature superconductors. However, in the last few years this paradigm has been strongly revised by increasing experimental evidence for the emergence of a pseudogap state in strongly-disordered conventional superconductors. Nonetheless, the nature of this state, probed primarily through scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements, remains partly elusive. Here we show that the dynamic response above Tc, obtained from the complex ac conductivity, is highly modified in the pseudogap regime of strongly disordered NbN films. Below the pseudogap temperature, T*, the superfluid stiffness acquires a strong frequency dependence associated with a marked slowing down of critical fluctuations. When translated into the length-scale of fluctuations, our results suggest a scenario of thermal phase fluctuations between superconducting domains in a strongly disordered s-wave superconductor. PMID:23446946
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Y.; Chen, Y. J.; An, M.; Feng, Y.; Liang, X.; Dong, S.
2013-12-01
The east Qinling orogenic belt is located between the North China Craton and the South China Block, and is also at the northeastern boundary of Tibetan Plateau. A temporal seismic array of over 110 portable seismic stations was deployed by Peking University and the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (CAGS) from July 2011 to October 2013 to study the complex tectonics of this region. We used earthquake data recorded at 65 stations from this array between July 2011 and October 2012 to image the seismic velocity variations of the region using finite-frequency tomography method. The travel times used in the inversion contain 10876 P-waves and 5945 S-waves at 3 different frequencies. Preliminary results show that velocity structures of P-waves and S-waves are quite similar. The upper mantle velocities under the east Qinling orogenic belt are higher in general in the east than that in the west at depth around 80 km. A higher velocity anomaly is observed under the southern Ordos plateau from 40 km to 360km deep and a low velocity anomaly is seen beneath the Taihang uplift from the depth of 40km to the depth of 200km. These velocity anomalies in the lithosphere and the upper mantle will be interpreted with the geologic observations and tectonic process of the region.
Kinefuchi, K.; Funaki, I.; Shimada, T.; Abe, T.
2012-10-15
Under certain conditions during rocket flights, ionized exhaust plumes from solid rocket motors may interfere with radio frequency transmissions. To understand the relevant physical processes involved in this phenomenon and establish a prediction process for in-flight attenuation levels, we attempted to measure microwave attenuation caused by rocket exhaust plumes in a sea-level static firing test for a full-scale solid propellant rocket motor. The microwave attenuation level was calculated by a coupling simulation of the inviscid-frozen-flow computational fluid dynamics of an exhaust plume and detailed analysis of microwave transmissions by applying a frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain method with the Drude dispersion model. The calculated microwave attenuation level agreed well with the experimental results, except in the case of interference downstream the Mach disk in the exhaust plume. It was concluded that the coupling estimation method based on the physics of the frozen plasma flow with Drude dispersion would be suitable for actual flight conditions, although the mixing and afterburning in the plume should be considered depending on the flow condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Fuming; Wang, Bin; Wei, Yadong; Wang, Jian
2013-10-01
Orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) replaces the wavefunction in the kinetic energy by an explicit energy functional and thereby speeds up significantly the calculation of ground state properties of the solid state systems. So far, the application of OFDFT has been centered on closed systems and less attention is paid on the transport properties in open systems. In this paper, we use OFDFT and combine it with non-equilibrium Green's function to simulate equilibrium electronic transport properties in silicon nanostructures from first principles. In particular, we study ac transport properties of a silicon atomic junction consisting of a silicon atomic chain and two monoatomic leads. We have calculated the dynamic conductance of this atomic junction as a function of ac frequency with one to four silicon atoms in the central scattering region. Although the system is transmissive with dc conductance around 4 to 5 e2/h, capacitive-like behavior was found in the finite frequency regime. Our analysis shows that, up to 0.1 THz, this behavior can be characterized by a classic RC circuit consisting of two resistors and a capacitor. One resistor gives rise to dc resistance and the other one accounts for the charge relaxation resistance with magnitude around 0.2 h/e2 when the silicon chain contains two atoms. It was found that the capacitance is around 5 aF for the same system.
Metric-discontinuous zonal grid calculations using the Osher scheme
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, M. M.; Hessenius, K. A.; Chakravarthy, S. R.
1984-01-01
Computations on zonal grids - in particular, grids with metric discontinuities resulting from the interspersion of highly clustered regions with coarse regions - are possible using a fully conservative form of the Osher upwind scheme. These zonal grids can result from an abrupt clustering of points near solution discontinuities or near other flow features that require improved resolution. The zonal approach is shown to capture shocks with almost 'shock-fitting' quality but with minimal effort. Results for inviscid flow, including quasi-one-dimensional nozzle flow, supersonic flow over a cylinder, and blast-wave diffraction by a ramp, are presented. These calculations demonstrate the powerful capabilities of the Osher scheme used in conjunction with zonal grids in simulating flow fields with complex shock patterns.
Zhang, Hai-Feng; Ding, Guo-Wen; Lin, Yi-Bing; Chen, Yu-Qing
2015-05-15
In this paper, the properties of acceptor mode in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (2D PPCs) composed of the homogeneous and isotropic dielectric cylinders inserted into nonmagnetized plasma background with square lattices under transverse-magnetic wave are theoretically investigated by a modified finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method with supercell technique, whose symmetry of every supercell is broken by removing a central rod. A new FDFD method is developed to calculate the band structures of such PPCs. The novel FDFD method adopts a general function to describe the distribution of dielectric in the present PPCs, which can easily transform the complicated nonlinear eigenvalue equation to the simple linear equation. The details of convergence and effectiveness of proposed FDFD method are analyzed using a numerical example. The simulated results demonstrate that the enough accuracy of the proposed FDFD method can be observed compared to the plane wave expansion method, and the good convergence can also be obtained if the number of meshed grids is large enough. As a comparison, two different configurations of photonic crystals (PCs) but with similar defect are theoretically investigated. Compared to the conventional dielectric-air PCs, not only the acceptor mode has a higher frequency but also an additional photonic bandgap (PBG) can be found in the low frequency region. The calculated results also show that PBGs of proposed PPCs can be enlarged as the point defect is introduced. The influences of the parameters for present PPCs on the properties of acceptor mode are also discussed in detail. Numerical simulations reveal that the acceptor mode in the present PPCs can be easily tuned by changing those parameters. Those results can hold promise for designing the tunable applications in the signal process or time delay devices based on the present PPCs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsekhmistrenko, Maria; Sigloch, Karin; Hosseini, Kasra; Barruol, Guilhem
2016-04-01
From 2011 to 2014, the RHUM-RUM project (Reunion Hotspot Upper Mantle - Reunions Unterer Mantel) instrumented a 2000x2000km2 area of Indian Ocean seafloor, islands and Madagascar with broadband seismometers and hydrophones. The central component was a 13-month deployment of 57 German and French Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) in 2300-5600 m depth. This was supplemented by 2-3 year deployments of 37 island stations on Reunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues, the southern Seychelles, the Iles Eparses and southern Madagascar. Two partner projects contributed another 30+ stations on Madagascar. Our ultimate objective is multifrequency waveform tomography of the entire mantle column beneath the Reunion hotspot. Ideally we would use all passbands that efficiently transmit body waves but this meets practical limits in the noise characteristics of ocean-bottom recordings in particular. Here we present the preliminary data set of frequency-dependent P-wave traveltime measurements on seismometers and hydrophones, obtained by cross-correlation of observed with predicted waveforms. The latter are synthesized from fully numerical Green's functions and carefully estimated, broadband source time functions. More than 200 teleseismic events during the 13-month long deployment yielded usable P-waveform measurements. We present our methods and discuss data yield and quality of ocean-bottom versus land seismometers, and of OBS versus broadband hydrophones. Above and below the microseismic noise band, data yields are higher than within it, especially for OBS. The 48 German OBS, equipped with Guralp 60 s sensors, were afflicted by relatively high self-noise compared to the 9 French instruments equipped with Nanometrics Trillium 240 s sensors. The HighTechInc (model HTI-01 and HTI-04-PCA/ULF) hydrophones (100 s corner period) functioned particularly reliably but their waveforms are relatively more challenging to model due to reverberations in the water column. We obtain ~15000 combined cross
Joint inversion of normal-mode and finite-frequency S-wave data using an irregular tomographic grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaroli, Christophe; Lambotte, Sophie; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques
2015-12-01
Global-scale tomographic models should aim at satisfying the full seismic spectrum. For this purpose, and to better constrain isotropic 3-D variations of shear velocities in the mantle, we tackle a joint inversion of spheroidal normal-mode structure coefficients and multiple-frequency S-wave delay times. In all previous studies for which normal modes were jointly inverted for, with body and/or surface waves, the mantle was laterally parametrized with uniform basis functions, such as spherical harmonics, equal-area blocks and evenly spaced spherical splines. In particular, spherical harmonics naturally appear when considering the Earth's free oscillations. However, progress towards higher resolution joint tomography requires a movement away from such uniform parametrization to overcome its computational inefficiency to adapt to local variations in resolution. The main goal of this study is to include normal modes into a joint inversion based upon a non-uniform parametrization that is adapted to the spatially varying smallest resolving length of the data. Thus, we perform the first joint inversion of normal-mode and body-wave data using an irregular tomographic grid, optimized according to ray density. We show how to compute the projection of 3-D sensitivity kernels for both data sets onto our parametrization made up of spherical layers spanned with irregular Delaunay triangulations. This approach, computationally efficient, allows us to map into the joint model multiscale structural informations from data including periods in the 10-51 s range for body waves and 332-2134 s for normal modes. Tomographic results are focused on the 400-2110 km depth range, where our data coverage is the most relevant. We discuss the potential of a better resolution where the grid is fine, compared to spherical harmonics up to degree 40, as the number of model parameters is similar. Our joint model seems to contain coherent structural components beyond degree 40, such as those related
Zonal Flow Dynamics and Size-scaling of Anomalous Transport
Liu Chen; Roscoe B. White; F. Zonca
2003-07-30
Nonlinear equations for the slow space-time evolution of the radial drift wave envelope and zonal flow amplitude have been self-consistently derived for a model nonuniform tokamak equilibrium within the coherent 4-wave drift wave-zonal flow modulation interaction model of Chen, Lin, and White [Phys. Plasmas 7 (2000) 3129]. Solutions clearly demonstrate turbulence spreading due to nonlinearly enhanced dispersiveness and, consequently, the device-size dependence of the saturated wave intensities and transport coefficients.
Deriving Saturn's Zonal Winds from Cassini Radio Occultations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flasar, F. Michael; Schinder, Paul J.
2015-11-01
Tracking cloud features from visible images have provided detailed maps of the meridional variation of the mean zonal winds on the giant planets, including Saturn. Filters at different wavelengths can provide information on the vertical structure of the zonal winds, but that is approximate, and the altitudes of winds observed with a given filter generally vary with location, because cloud heights do. Radio occultations provide vertical profiles of refractivity, pressure, and temperature vs. altitude. Zonal winds can be derived from the assumption of gradient wind balance, which relates the zonal wind to the change of geopotential height with latitude along an isobar. Occultations have the advantage that vertical profiles of winds can be obtained in the troposphere and stratosphere. There are, however, complicating factors. In general, the meridional distribution of occultation soundings is limited and unevenly distributed. Moreover, one needs to know the geometry of the occulting atmosphere to correctly account for the path of the refracted radio signal. The zonal winds matter, because they distort isobaric surfaces. For example, an inversion that includes Saturn's oblateness from uniform rotation, based on the Voyager System III period, would yield equatorial temperature profiles that are shifted by ~ 2 K relative to one that also includes the differential rotation associated with the cloud-tracked zonal winds. In retrieving vertical profiles of atmospheric variables from occultation soundings, one also needs an additional symmetry assumption to make the inversions tractable. Typically one uses the zonal winds based on cloud-tracking studies, and assumes they are axisymmetric and barotropic, so that both the gravitational and centrifugal forces are derivable from a potential, and the surfaces of constant geopotential height, pressure, and temperature coincide. This forms the basis for an iterative approach. The pressures and temperatures so retrieved from the
Pulsation-driven mean zonal and meridional flows in rotating massive stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Umin; Mathis, Stéphane; Neiner, Coralie
2016-04-01
Zonal and meridional axisymmetric flows can deeply impact the rotational and chemical evolution of stars. Therefore, momentum exchanges between waves propagating in stars, differential rotation, and meridional circulation must be carefully evaluated. In this work, we study axisymmetric mean flows in rapidly and initially uniformly rotating massive stars driven by small amplitude non-axisymmetric κ-driven oscillations. We treat them as perturbations of second order of the oscillation amplitudes and derive their governing equations as a set of coupled linear ordinary differential equations. This allows us to compute 2D zonal and meridional mean flows driven by low frequency g and r modes in slowly pulsating B stars and p modes in β Cephei stars. Oscillation-driven mean flows usually have large amplitudes only in the surface layers. In addition, the kinetic energy of the induced 2D zonal rotational motions is much larger than that of the meridional motions. In some cases, meridional flows have a complex radial and latitudinal structure. We find pulsation-driven and rotation-driven meridional flows can have similar amplitudes. These results show the importance of taking wave - mean flow interactions into account when studying the evolution of massive stars.
The Congo basin zonal overturning circulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neupane, Naresh
2016-06-01
The Gulf of Guinea in the equatorial Atlantic is characterized by the presence of strong subsidence at certain times of the year. This subsidence appears in June and becomes well established from July to September. Since much of theWest African monsoon flow originates over the Gulf, Guinean subsidence is important for determining moisture sources for the monsoon. Using reanalysis products, I contribute to a physical understanding of what causes this seasonal subsidence, and how it relates to precipitation distributions across West Africa. There is a seasonal zonal overturning circulation above the Congo basin and the Gulf of Guinea in the ERA-Interim, ERA-40, NCEP2, and MERRA reanalyses. The up-branch is located in the Congo basin around 20°E. Mid-tropospheric easterly flows constitute the returning-branch and sinking over the Gulf of Guinea forms the down-branch, which diverges at 2°W near the surface, with winds to the east flowing eastward to complete the circulation. This circulation is driven by surface temperature differences between the eastern Gulf and Congo basin. Land temperatures remain almost uniform, around 298 K, throughout a year, but the Guinean temperatures cool rapidly from 294 K in May to about 290 K in August. These temperature changes increase the ocean/land temperature contrast, up to 8 K, and drive the circulation. I hypothesize that when the overturning circulation is anomalously strong, the northward moisture transport and Sahelian precipitation are also strong. This hypothesis is supported by ERA-Interim and PERSIANN-CDR (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record) data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yun; Tian, Xiaobo; Chen, Yongshun John; Ni, James; Gallegos, Andrea; Klemperer, Simon L.; Wang, Minling; Xu, Tao; Sun, Changqing; Si, Shaokun; Lan, Haiqiang; Teng, Jiwen
2016-06-01
We perform a finite-frequency tomographic inversion to image 3D velocity structures beneath southern and central Tibet using teleseismic body-wave data recorded by the TIBET-31N passive seismic array as well as waveforms from previous temporary seismic arrays. High-velocity bodies dip ∼40° northward beneath the Himalaya and the Lhasa Terrane. We interpret these high-velocity anomalies as subducting Indian Continental Lithosphere (ICL). The ICL appears to extend further north in central Tibet than in eastern Tibet, reaching 350 km depth at ∼31°N along 85°E but at ∼30°N along 91°E. Low P- and S-wave velocity anomalies extend from the lower crust to ≥180 km depth beneath the Tangra Yum Co Rift, Yadong-Gulu Rift, and the Cona Rift, suggesting that rifting in southern Tibet may involve the entire lithosphere. The anomaly beneath Tangra Yum Co Rift extends down to about 180 km, whereas the anomalies west of the Yadong-Gulu Rift and east of the Cona Rift extend to more than 300 km depth. The low-velocity upper mantle west of the Yadong-Gulu Rift extends furthest north and appears to connect with the extensive upper-mantle low-velocity region beneath central Tibet. Thus the northward-subducting Indian Plate is fragmented along north-south breaks that permit or induce asthenospheric upwellings indistinguishable from the upper mantle of northern Tibet.
Centrilobular zonal necrosis as a hallmark of a distinctive subtype of autoimmune hepatitis
Abe, Hiroshi; Sugita, Tomonori; Seki, Nobuyoshi; Chuganji, Yoshimichi; Furumoto, Youhei; Sakata, Akihiko
2016-01-01
Background and aim Centrilobular zonal necrosis (CZN) is a known histological variant of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). However, the significance of CZN is yet to be fully elucidated. This study aimed to determine whether CZN is a hallmark of a distinctive subtype of AIH. Methods Histological changes in the centrilobular zones of liver biopsies from 113 AIH patients were assessed by a single pathologist and classified into three categories: typical zonal necrosis defined as CZN (15 patients); other necroinflammatory change (NIC; 24 patients); and absence of necrosis (non-NIC; 74 patients). The clinicopathological features and immunogenetic background of CZN patients were then assessed. Results The clinicopathological features of AIH with CZN were distinct from other types of AIH, including a higher frequency of acute onset, lower frequency of antinuclear antibodies, lower antinuclear antibody titers, lower serum immunoglobulin G levels, lower grade interface hepatitis, less prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and lower AIH score. Increased and decreased frequencies of HLA-DR9 and HLA-DR4, respectively, were identified as immunogenetic features of AIH with CZN. Conversely, the clinicopathological characteristics of AIH with NIC were similar to those of non-NIC AIH, including the majority of the AIH patients. The therapeutic outcomes of AIH with CZN were excellent when precise diagnoses were made without delay. Conclusion The clinicopathological features and immunogenetic background of AIH with CZN differed from AIH without CZN. CZN may be a hallmark of a distinct subtype of AIH. PMID:26657454
Numerical simulation on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock mass.
Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin
2014-01-01
Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks. PMID:24592166
Numerical Simulation on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Mass
Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin
2014-01-01
Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks. PMID:24592166
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, W. L.; Shi, Z. B.; Xu, Y.; Zou, X. L.; Duan, X. R.; Chen, W.; Jiang, M.; Yang, Z. C.; Zhang, B. Y.; Shi, P. W.; Liu, Z. T.; Xu, M.; Song, X. M.; Cheng, J.; Ke, R.; Nie, L.; Cui, Z. Y.; Fu, B. Z.; Ding, X. T.; Dong, J. Q.; Liu, Yi; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Liu, Y.; HL-2A Team
2015-09-01
The oscillations of poloidal plasma flows induced by radially sheared zonal flows are investigated by newly developed correlation Doppler reflectometers in the HL-2A tokamak. The non-disturbing diagnostic allows one to routinely measure the rotation velocity of turbulence, and hence the radial electric field fluctuations. With correlation Doppler reflectometers, a three-dimensional spatial structure of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is surveyed, including the symmetric feature of poloidal and toroidal Er fluctuations, the dependence of GAM frequency on radial temperature and the radial propagation of GAMs. The co-existence of low-frequency zonal flow and GAM is presented. The temporal behaviors of GAM during ramp-up experiments of plasma current and electron density are studied, which reveal the underlying damping mechanisms for the GAM oscillation level.
Ion gyroradius effects on zonal flows in extended Hasegawa-Mima models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallagher, Stephen; Hnat, Bogdan; Connaughton, Colm; Nazarenko, Sergey
2012-10-01
Zonal flows are important in fusion plasma where they regulate drift wave turbulence and improve plasma confinement. Two mechanisms can lead to the creation of zonal flows: an inverse cascade of energy, similar to that observed for 2D turbulence, and a coupling between wave modes known as the modulational instability. This work focused on the modulational instability; a four mode truncation of the extended Hasegawa-Mima system was derived to model this. The extended Hasegawa-Mima model is more appropriate for tokamaks than its predecessors as it decouples global flows from the flux surface averaged potential of the system. In addition to this truncated model a linearised set of equations for the system has been derived and used to produce a dispersion relation. Finite difference simulations of the whole system have been used to check these models. Previous work, which has largely considered the case where the ion gyroradius has been taken to its limits, has been expanded upon to show how the ion gyroradius can effect the behaviour of drift waves. It has been shown that the ion gyroradius can be used to change the strength of the nonlinearity of the system leading to changes in behaviour that have previously been demonstrated by altering the initial amplitude of the drift wave.
Measurement of a zonal wind profile on Titan by Doppler tracking of the Cassini entry probe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkinson, D. H.; Pollack, J. B.; Seiff, A.
1990-01-01
A program, called the Cassini mission, intended to study the Saturn system by utilizing a Saturn orbiter and a probe descending to the surface of Titan, is discussed. Winds are expected to cause perturbations to the probe local horizontal velocity, resulting in an anomalous drift in the probe location and a shift in the frequency of the probe telemetry, due to the Doppler effect. By using an iterative algorithm, in which the time variation of the probe telemetry frequency is monitored throughout the descent, and the probe trajectory is updated to reflect the effect of wind on the probe location, a highly accurate relative wind profile can be recovered. By adding a single wind velocity, measured by independent means, an absolute wind profile can be obtained. However, the accuracy of the zonal winds recovery is limited by errors in trajectory, and frequency.
Observations of zonal flows in electrode biasing experiments on the Joint Texas Experimental tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, H. G.; Lan, T.; Chen, Z. P.; Kong, D. F.; Zhao, H. L.; Wu, J.; Sun, X.; Liu, A. D.; Xie, J. L.; Li, H.; Ding, W. X.; Liu, W. D.; Yu, C. X.; Xu, M.; Sun, Y.; Liu, H.; Wang, Z. J.; Zhuang, G.
2016-04-01
Zonal flows (ZFs) are observed during the electrode biasing (EB) high confinement mode (H-mode) using Langmuir probe arrays on the edge of J-TEXT tokamak. The long-distance correlation characteristics of floating potentials and interactions with turbulence are studied. During positive biasing H-mode, either the geodesic acoustic mode or low frequency ZF increases. Strong suppression of radial transport by ZFs is found in the low frequency region. The components of the radial particle flux without and with EB are compared in the frequency domain. The interaction between ZFs and ambient turbulence is also discussed. The results show that the rate of ZFs' shear is comparable with that of E × B shear, suggesting that ZFs could be the trigger of the biasing H-mode.
Magnetic Field Generation and Zonal Flows in the Gas Giants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duarte, L.; Wicht, J.; Gastine, T.
2013-12-01
The surface dynamics of Jupiter and Saturn is dominated by a banded system of fierce zonal winds. The depth of these winds remains unclear but they are thought to be confined to the very outer envelopes where hydrogen remains molecular and the electrical conductivity is negligible. The dynamo responsible for the dipole dominated magnetic fields of both Gas Giants, on the other hand, likely operates in the deeper interior where hydrogen assumes a metallic state. We present numerical simulations that attempt to model both the zonal winds and the interior dynamo action in an integrated approach. Using the anelastic version of the MHD code MagIC, we explore the effects of density stratification and radial electrical conductivity variations. The electrical conductivity is assumed to remain constant in the thicker inner metallic region and decays exponentially towards the outer boundary throughout the molecular envelope. Our results show that the combination of stronger density stratification (Δρ≈55) and a weaker conducting outer layer is essential for reconciling dipole dominated dynamo action and a fierce equatorial zonal jet. Previous simulations with homogeneous electrical conductivity show that both are mutually exclusive, with solutions either having strong zonal winds and multipolar magnetic fields or weak zonal winds and dipole dominated magnetic fields. The particular setup explored here allows the equatorial jet to remain confined to the weaker conducting region where is does not interfere with the deeper seated dynamo action. The equatorial jet can afford to remain geostrophic and reaches throughout the whole shell. This is not an option for the additional mid to higher latitude jets, however. In dipole dominated dynamo solutions, appropriate for the Gas Giants, zonal flows remain very faint in the deeper dynamo region but increase in amplitude in the weakly conducting outer layer in some of our simulations. This suggests that the mid to high latitude jets
Zonal flows and turbulence in fluids and plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Jeffrey Bok-Cheung
In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence without zonal flows to statistically inhomogeneous turbulence with steady zonal flows. Starting from the Hasegawa--Mima equation, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking 'zonostrophic instability'. Zonostrophic instability can be understood in a very general way as the instability of some turbulent background spectrum to a zonally symmetric coherent mode. As a special case, the background spectrum can consist of only a single mode. We find that in this case the dispersion relation of zonostrophic instability from the CE2 formalism reduces exactly to that of the 4-mode truncation of generalized modulational instability. We then show that zonal flows constitute pattern formation amid a turbulent bath. Zonostrophic instability is an example of a Type I s instability of pattern-forming systems. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation, the real Ginzburg-Landau equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of zonal flow wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system, and we calculate a stability diagram. The stability diagram is in agreement with direct numerical simulations of the quasilinear
A zonally symmetric model for volcanic influence upon atmospheric circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schatten, K. H.; Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Taylor, H. A., Jr.
1984-01-01
The effects of volcanic activity upon zonal wind flow in a model atmosphere are considered. A low latitude volcanic eruption could lower the tropospheric pole to equator temperature difference and thereby affect the atmospheric motions. When the temperature contrast decreases, the zonal wind velocities at high altitudes are reduced. To conserve angular momentum, the velocities in the lower atmosphere near the surface must increase, thus providing a momentum source for ocean currents. It is suggested that this momentum source may have played a role as a trigger for inducing the 1982-83 anomalous El Nino and possibly other climate changes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jheng, Y.; Hung, S.; Zhou, Y.; Chang, Y.
2012-12-01
Surface wave travel-time tomography has been widely used as a powerful strategy to image shear wave velocity structure of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, providing comparable information other than body wave tomography. Traditionally, lateral variations of dispersive phase velocities are first obtained at multiple frequencies and then used to invert for shear wave velocity with 1-D depth-dependent sensitivity kernels. However, this approach runs short on considering the directional- and depth-dependence of scattering while surface wave propagating through laterally heterogeneous Earth. To refrain from these shortcomings, we here provide a fully 3-D finite-frequency method based on the Born scattering theory formulated with surface wave mode summation, and apply it to regional fundamental Rayleigh wave travel-time tomography in central Tibet. Our data were collected from Project Hi-CLIMB, which deployed an N-S trending linear array of over 100 broadband seismic stations with a large aperture of 800 km and very dense spacing of ~3-8 km across the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes during 2004-2005. We follow a standard procedure of ambient noise cross correlation to extract empirical Green's functions of fundamental Rayleigh waves at 10-33 s between station pairs. A multi-taper method is employed to measure the phase differences as a function of period between observed and synthetic Rayleigh waves as well as the corresponding sensitivity kernels for the measured phase delays to 3-D shear wave velocity perturbations in a spherically-symmetric model suitable for central Tibet. A wavelet-based, multi-scale parameterization is invoked in the tomographic inversion to deal with the intrinsically multi-scale nature of unevenly distributed data and resolve the structure with data-adaptive spectral and spatial resolutions. The preliminary result shows that to the north of the Banggong-Nujiang suture (BNS), the crustal shear wave velocity beneath the Qiangtang terrane is
The modulational instability in the extended Hasegawa-Mima equation with a finite Larmor radius
Gallagher, S.; Hnat, B.; Rowlands, G.; Connaughton, C.; Nazarenko, S.
2012-12-15
The effects of the finite Larmor radius on the generation of zonal flows by the four-wave modulational instability are investigated using an extended form of the Hasegawa-Mima equation. Growth rates of the zonal mode are quantified using analytical predictions from a four-mode truncated model, as well as from direct numerical simulation of the nonlinear extended Hasegawa-Mima equation. We not only consider purely zonal flows but also examine the generic oblique case and show that, for small Larmor radii, off-axis modes may become dominant. We find a key parameter M{sub {rho}} which characterises the behaviour of the system due to changes in the Larmor radius. We find that, similarly to previous results obtained by changing the driving wave amplitude, two separate dynamical regimes can be accessed. These correspond to oscillatory energy transfer between zonal flows and a driving wave and the fully saturated zonal flow.
The modulational instability in the extended Hasegawa-Mima equation with a finite Larmor radius
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallagher, S.; Hnat, B.; Connaughton, C.; Nazarenko, S.; Rowlands, G.
2012-12-01
The effects of the finite Larmor radius on the generation of zonal flows by the four-wave modulational instability are investigated using an extended form of the Hasegawa-Mima equation. Growth rates of the zonal mode are quantified using analytical predictions from a four-mode truncated model, as well as from direct numerical simulation of the nonlinear extended Hasegawa-Mima equation. We not only consider purely zonal flows but also examine the generic oblique case and show that, for small Larmor radii, off-axis modes may become dominant. We find a key parameter Mρ which characterises the behaviour of the system due to changes in the Larmor radius. We find that, similarly to previous results obtained by changing the driving wave amplitude, two separate dynamical regimes can be accessed. These correspond to oscillatory energy transfer between zonal flows and a driving wave and the fully saturated zonal flow.
Navier-Stokes simulation of transonic wing flow fields using a zonal grid approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaderjian, Neal M.
1988-01-01
The transonic Navier-Stokes code was used to simulate flow fields about isolated wings for workshop wind-tunnel and free-air cases using the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. An implicit finite-difference scheme based on a diagonal version of the Beam-Warming algorithm was used to integrate the governing equations. A zonal grid approach was used to allow efficient grid refinement near the wing surface. The flow field was sensitive to the turbulent transition model, and flow unsteadiness was observed for a wind-tunnel case but not for the corresponding free-air case. The specification of experimental pressure at the wind-tunnel exit plane is the primary reason for the difference of these two numerical solutions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lou, Y. Q.
1987-01-01
This paper considers two-dimensional nonlinear MHD waves of large horizontal spatial scales for a thin magnetofluid layer on the surface of a rotating sphere. The 'shallow fluid' hydrodynamic equations are generalized to include the effects of magnetic fields, and it is shown that the resulting MHD equations can be reduced to a single scalar equation for a stream function involving several free functions. For special choices of these free functions, two kinds of finite-amplitude MHD waves are obtained, propagating in the azimuthal direction relative to the uniformly rotating background atmosphere in the presence of a background zonal magnetic field and a steady differential zonal flow. These two kinds of MHD waves are fundamentally due to the joint effects of the uniform rotation of the background atmosphere and background magnetic field; the first is an inertial wave of the Rossby (1939) and Haurwitz (1940) type, modified by the presence of the background zonal magnetic field, while the second is a magnetic Alfven-like wave which is modified by the uniform rotation of the background atmosphere.
Balanced Data Assimilation For Improving Zonal Equatorial Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgers, G.; Balmaseda, M. A.; Vossepoel, F. C.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; van Leeuwen, P. J.
Assimilation schemes that are used for seasonal prediction can have a problem in estimating zonal velocities near the equator. This is the case for OI schemes that use density information for updating only the model density field. In some situations, this leads to a detoriation of the zonal velocity field around the equator. The problem is studied first for the assimilation of height observations in a simple linear 1.5 layer shallow-water model of the equatorial Pacific. It is found that equa- torial zonal velocities can be degraded if velocity is not updated in the assimilation procedure, even if the assimilation increments for height are spread over time. Adding updates to the zonal velocity which are related by geostrophic balance to the height updates is shown to be a simple remedy for the shallow-water model. A straightforward generalisation of the balanced data assimilation method has been implemented in the ocean circulation model of the ECMWF seasonal forecasting sys- tem. First tests are encouraging: upper-ocean surface currents are improved, and cou- pled hindcasts are improved if balanced assimilation is used for the ocean analyses.
Impact of Stratospheric Ozone Zonal Asymmetries on the Tropospheric Circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tweedy, Olga; Waugh, Darryn; Li, Feng; Oman, Luke
2015-01-01
The depletion and recovery of Antarctic ozone plays a major role in changes of Southern Hemisphere (SH) tropospheric climate. Recent studies indicate that the lack of polar ozone asymmetries in chemistry climate models (CCM) leads to a weaker and warmer Antarctic vortex, and smaller trends in the tropospheric mid-latitude jet and the surface pressure. However, the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries is not well understood. In this study we report on a series of integrations of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to further examine the effect of zonal asymmetries on the state of the stratosphere and troposphere. Integrations with the full, interactive stratospheric chemistry are compared against identical simulations using the same CCM except that (1) the monthly mean zonal mean stratospheric ozone from first simulation is prescribed and (2) ozone is relaxed to the monthly mean zonal mean ozone on a three day time scale. To analyze the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries, we examine trends and quantify the differences in temperatures, zonal wind and surface pressure among the integrations.
Can zonally symmetric inertial waves drive an oscillating mean flow?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seelig, Torsten; Harlander, Uwe
2016-04-01
In the presentation [5] zonal mean flow excitation by inertial waves is studied in analogy to mean flow excitation by gravity waves [3] that plays an important role for the quasi-biennial oscillation in the equatorial atmosphere. In geophysical flows that are stratified and rotating, pure gravity and inertial waves correspond to the two limiting cases: gravity waves neglect rotation, inertial waves neglect stratification. The former are more relevant for fluids like the atmosphere, where stratification is dominant, the latter for the deep oceans or planet cores, where rotation dominates. In the present study a hierarchy of simple analytical and numerical models of zonally symmetric inertial wave-mean flow interactions is considered and the results are compared with data from a laboratory experiment [4]. The main findings can be summarised as follows: (i) when the waves are decoupled from the mean flow they just drive a retrograde (eastward) zonal mean flow, independent of the sign of the meridional phase speed; (ii) when coupling is present and the zonal mean flow is assumed to be steady, the waves can drive vertically alternating jets, but still, in contrast to the gravity wave case, the structure is independent of the sign of the meridional phase speed; (iii) when coupling is present and time-dependent zonal mean flows are considered the waves can drive vertically and temporarily oscillating mean flows. The comparison with laboratory data from a rotating annulus experiment shows a qualitative agreement. It appears that the experiment captures the basic elements of the inertial wave mean flow coupling. The results might be relevant to understand how the Equatorial Deep Jets can be maintained against dissipation [1, 2], a process currently discussed controversially. [1] Greatbatch, R., Brandt, P., Claus, M., Didwischus, S., Fu, Y.: On the width of the equatorial deep jets. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 42, 1729-1740 (2012) [2] Muench, J.E., Kunze, E.: Internal wave
Zonal flow generation from trapped electron mode turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lu; Hahm, T. S.
2009-11-01
Most existing zonal flow generation theory [1,2] has been developed with a usual assumption of qrρiθ<<1 (qr is the radial wave number of zonal flow, and ρiθ is the ion poloidal gyroradius). However, recent nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence exhibit a relatively short radial scale of the zonal flows with qrρiθ˜1 [3,4,5]. This work reports an extension of zonal flow growth calculation to this short wavelength regime via the wave kinetics approach. A generalized expression for the polarization shielding for arbitrary radial wavelength [6] which extends the Rosenbluth-Hinton formula in the long wavelength limit [7] is applied. The electron nonlinearity effects on zonal flow are investigated by using GTC simulation. This work was supported by the China Scholarship Council (LW), U.S. DoE Contract No. DE--AC02--09CH11466 (TSH, LW), the U. S. DOE SciDAC center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas, and the U. S. DOE SciDAC-FSP Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (TSH). [1] P. H. Diamond et al., IAEA-CN-69/TH3/1 (1998). [2] L. Chen, Z. Lin, and R. White, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3129 (2000). [3] Z. Lin et al., IAEA-CN-138/TH/P2-8 (2006). [4] D. Ernst et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 055906 (2009). [5] Y. Xiao and Z. Lin, ``Turbulent transport of trapped electron modes in collisionless plasmas'', submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. (2009). [6] Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm, Phys. Plasmas 16, 062309 (2009). [7] M. N. Rosenbluth and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998).
Response of the intertropical convergence zone to zonally asymmetric subtropical surface forcings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw, Tiffany A.; Voigt, Aiko; Kang, Sarah M.; Seo, Jeongbin
2015-11-01
The energetic framework predicts no shift of the zonal mean Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in response to zonally asymmetric forcings (zonal warming and cooling regions with zero zonal mean) assuming radiative feedbacks are linear. Here we show the ITCZ shifts southward in response to a zonally asymmetric forcing in the Northern Hemisphere subtropics in a slab ocean aquaplanet model. The southward shift is consistent with decreased zonal mean energy input to the atmosphere due to cloud radiative effect changes in the cooling region. When cloud-radiative feedbacks are disabled the ITCZ shifts northward consistent with changes in the warming region where increased energy input via surface heat fluxes and stationary Rossby-wave transport dominate. Competition between cooling and warming regions leads to changes in gross moist stability. Our results show rectification of zonally asymmetric forcings play an important role in zonal mean ITCZ dynamics and highlight the importance of assessing the momentum budget when interpreting ITCZ shifts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasui, Takashi; Hasegawa, Koji; Hirayama, Koichi
2016-07-01
The finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method using a staggered grid with the collocated grid points of velocities (SGCV) was formulated for elastic waves propagating in anisotropic solids and for a rectangular SGCV. Resonant frequency analysis of Lamé-mode resonators on a quartz plate was carried out to confirm the accuracy and validity of the proposed method. The resonant frequencies for the fundamental and higher-order Lamé-modes calculated by the proposed method agreed very well with their theoretical values.
Changes in the zonal propagation of El Niño-related SST anomalies: a possible link to the PDO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antico, Pablo L.; Barros, Vicente R.
2016-03-01
Long-term variability of El Niño (EN) cycle has been the topic of several studies, mainly because of its impacts on climate around the globe. This variability has been mainly described by changes in the intensity and frequency of EN events. In this study, interdecadal changes in the zonal evolution of EN-related sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) and their possible link with a well-known mode of Pacific interdecadal variability are analyzed. EN events are classified according to the sense of zonal propagation of SSTA along the equatorial Pacific during the period 1900-2012. As a result, two types of EN are defined: eastward-directed and westward-directed EN. It is found that EN-related SSTA preferably evolves to the east (west) during the warm (cold) phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Hence, this study offers new insights into the possible causes of long-term EN changes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regi, Mauro; De Lauretis, Marcello; Redaelli, Gianluca; Francia, Patrizia
2016-04-01
Recent experimental results suggest that changes in the atmospheric conductivity, due to energetic electrons precipitation, as well as high latitude potential variations, both associated to geomagnetic activity driven by the solar wind, can affect the atmospheric dynamics. In this work we present an investigation of the correspondence of temperature/zonal wind velocity fluctuations in the stratosphere and troposphere with geomagnetic ULF power fluctuations and polar cap potential difference during the solar cycle 23. Daily values of the ERA-Interim temperature and zonal wind over Antarctica are compared with the daily geomagnetic ULF power, in the Pc5 (1-7 mHz) and Pc1-2 (100 mHz-1 Hz) frequency ranges, at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica, corrected geomagnetic latitude λ~ 80°S) and with solar wind data.
Response of the Earth system to zonal tidal forcing examined by VLBI based dUT1 variations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boehm, S.; Schuh, H.
2011-10-01
The VLBI group at the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics of Vienna University of Technology is developing the software VieVS (Vienna VLBI software) for the analysis of geodetic VLBI data. VieVS incorporates the most recent models recommended by the IERS Conventions and in contrast to other VLBI software uses a parameterization with piece-wise linear offsets at integer hours. Thus it provides more flexibility for combination or comparison with time series from other space geodetic techniques or of geophysical origin. We employed this new software to re-process all available geodetic VLBI sessions from 1984 till 2010, suitable for the determination of the Earth rotation parameters (ERP), i.e. dUT1 (UT1-UTC) and the polar motion coordinates xp and yp. Zonal tidal signals with periods from 5 to 35 days in the derived dUT1 long-time series were then used to estimate the so-called zonal response coefficient κ defined by Agnew and Farrell (1978). The frequency dependent zonal response coefficient is an extension to the concept of the Love number k2 which allows for a response of the Earth to tidal forcing, deviating from purely elastic behaviour and thus taking into account effects of ocean tides, a fluid core and mantle anelasticity. A tidally induced change of the rotation rate of the Earth and consequently of dUT1 is proportional to the tide-generating potential through the zonal response coefficient κ. The values estimated for κ for different tidal frequencies from VLBI observations of dUT1 were compared to theory and to the results of previous determinations of κ from observations of space geodetic techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fetzer, Eric J.; Gille, John C.
1996-02-01
Zonal-mean gravity wave variance in the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) temperature data is seen to correlate strongly with the residual term in the LIMS zonal-mean momentum budget throughout much of the observed mesosphere. This momentum residual is attributed to gravity wave momentum transport at scales that cannot be directly sampled by the LIMS instrument Correlation is highest in the vicinity of the fall and winter mesospheric jets, where both gravity wave variance and momentum residual reach their largest values. Correlation is also high in the Southern Hemisphere subtropical mesophere, where gravity wave variance and the momentum residual have broad temporal maxima during the easterly acceleration of the stratopause semi-annual oscillation (SAO). This subtropical correlation has important implications for the SAO eastward acceleration, which several studies suggest is forced by gravity wave momentum flux divergence. Correlation between gravity wave variance and inferred gravity wave momentum flux divergence is unexpected because variance is dominated by large scales and long periods (inertio-gravity waves), while both theoretical arguments and ground-based observations indicate that momentum transport is dominated by periods under 1 h. The results of this study suggest a broadband gravity wave field experiencing forcing and loss processes, which are largely independent of frequency.
Diffusion of Zonal Variables Using Node-Centered Diffusion Solver
Yang, T B
2007-08-06
Tom Kaiser [1] has done some preliminary work to use the node-centered diffusion solver (originally developed by T. Palmer [2]) in Kull for diffusion of zonal variables such as electron temperature. To avoid numerical diffusion, Tom used a scheme developed by Shestakov et al. [3] and found their scheme could, in the vicinity of steep gradients, decouple nearest-neighbor zonal sub-meshes leading to 'alternating-zone' (red-black mode) errors. Tom extended their scheme to couple the sub-meshes with appropriate chosen artificial diffusion and thereby solved the 'alternating-zone' problem. Because the choice of the artificial diffusion coefficient could be very delicate, it is desirable to use a scheme that does not require the artificial diffusion but still able to avoid both numerical diffusion and the 'alternating-zone' problem. In this document we present such a scheme.
Statistical properties of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima zonal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Johan; Botha, G. J. J.
2015-05-01
A theoretical interpretation of numerically generated probability density functions (PDFs) of intermittent plasma transport events in unforced zonal flows is provided within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. The governing equation is solved numerically with various prescribed density gradients that are designed to produce different configurations of parallel and anti-parallel streams. Long-lasting vortices form whose flow is governed by the zonal streams. It is found that the numerically generated PDFs can be matched with analytical predictions of PDFs based on the instanton method by removing the autocorrelations from the time series. In many instances, the statistics generated by the CHM dynamics relaxes to Gaussian distributions for both the electrostatic and vorticity perturbations, whereas in areas with strong nonlinear interactions it is found that the PDFs are exponentially distributed.
Statistical properties of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima zonal flows
Anderson, Johan; Botha, G. J. J.
2015-05-15
A theoretical interpretation of numerically generated probability density functions (PDFs) of intermittent plasma transport events in unforced zonal flows is provided within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. The governing equation is solved numerically with various prescribed density gradients that are designed to produce different configurations of parallel and anti-parallel streams. Long-lasting vortices form whose flow is governed by the zonal streams. It is found that the numerically generated PDFs can be matched with analytical predictions of PDFs based on the instanton method by removing the autocorrelations from the time series. In many instances, the statistics generated by the CHM dynamics relaxes to Gaussian distributions for both the electrostatic and vorticity perturbations, whereas in areas with strong nonlinear interactions it is found that the PDFs are exponentially distributed.
Global variations of zonal mean ozone during stratospheric warming events
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Randel, William J.
1993-01-01
Eight years of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone data are examined to study zonal mean variations associated with stratospheric planetary wave (warming) events. These fluctuations are found to be nearly global in extent, with relatively large variations in the tropics, and coherent signatures reaching up to 50 deg in the opposite (summer) hemisphere. These ozone variations are a manifestation of the global circulation cells associated with stratospheric warming events; the ozone responds dynamically in the lower stratosphere to transport, and photochemically in the upper stratosphere to the circulation-induced temperature changes. The observed ozone variations in the tropics are of particular interest because transport is dominated by zonal-mean vertical motions (eddy flux divergences and mean meridional transports are negligible), and hence, substantial simplifications to the governing equations occur. The response of the atmosphere to these impulsive circulation changes provides a situation for robust estimates of the ozone-temperature sensitivity in the upper stratosphere.
Coherent structures in ion temperature gradient turbulence-zonal flow
Singh, Rameswar; Singh, R.; Kaw, P.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; Diamond, P. H.
2014-10-15
Nonlinear stationary structure formation in the coupled ion temperature gradient (ITG)-zonal flow system is investigated. The ITG turbulence is described by a wave-kinetic equation for the action density of the ITG mode, and the longer scale zonal mode is described by a dynamic equation for the m = n = 0 component of the potential. Two populations of trapped and untrapped drift wave trajectories are shown to exist in a moving frame of reference. This novel effect leads to the formation of nonlinear stationary structures. It is shown that the ITG turbulence can self-consistently sustain coherent, radially propagating modulation envelope structures such as solitons, shocks, and nonlinear wave trains.
The residual zonal flows in anisotropic tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Haijun
2016-06-01
The gyro-kinetic equation is analytically solved based on the anisotropic two-temperature distribution, in which the ions' parallel temperature is a flux function while the perpendicular temperature depends on the poloidal angle. The residual level of collisionless zonal flows (ZFs) is derived and calculated in the large aspect circular limit. Our result shows that the anisotropy plays a remarkable role in determining the residual value of ZFs. Even weak anisotropy can significantly change the residual level.
First zonal harmonic component of cosmic ray neutron intensity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takahashi, H.; Yahagi, N.; Chiba, T.
1985-01-01
Cosmic ray neutron data from the cosmic ray stations from the worldwide network in 1966, 1967 and 1969 are analyzed by means of the three dimensional analysis method by Nagashima. The variations of the north-south anisotropy, which is the first zonal harmonic component obtained from the analysis are studied. The result obtained confirms earlier findings. Relationship of the anisotropy to the interplanetary magnetic field sector polarity is also studied.
Computational fluid dynamics research in three-dimensional zonal techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walters, Robert W.
1989-01-01
Patched-grid algorithms for the analysis of complex configurations with an implicit, upwind-biased Navier-Stokes solver were investigated. Conservative and non-conservative approaches for performing zonal interpolations were implemented. The latter approach yields the most flexible technique in that it can handle both patched and overlaid grids. Results for a two-dimensional blunt body problem show that either approach yield accurate steady-state shock locations and jump conditions. In addition, calculations of the turbulent flow through a hypersonic inlet on a three-zone grid show that the numerical prediction is in good agreement with the experimental results. Through the use of a generalized coordinate transformation at the zonal interface between two or more blocks, the algorithm can be applied to highly stretched viscous grids and to arbitrarily-shaped zonal boundaries. Applications were made to the F-18 aircraft at subsonic, high-alpha conditions, in support of the NASA High-Alpha Research Program. The calculations were compared to ground-based and flight test experiments and were used as a guide to understanding the ground-based tests, which are laminar and transitional, and their relationship to flight. Calculations about a complete reconnaissance aircraft were also performed in order to further demonstrate the capability of the patched-grid algorithm.
Cerebellar Zonal Patterning Relies on Purkinje Cell Neurotransmission
White, Joshua J.; Arancillo, Marife; Stay, Trace L.; George-Jones, Nicholas A.; Levy, Sabrina L.; Heck, Detlef H.
2014-01-01
Cerebellar circuits are patterned into an array of topographic parasagittal domains called zones. The proper connectivity of zones is critical for motor coordination and motor learning, and in several neurological diseases cerebellar circuits degenerate in zonal patterns. Despite recent advances in understanding zone function, we still have a limited understanding of how zones are formed. Here, we focused our attention on Purkinje cells to gain a better understanding of their specific role in establishing zonal circuits. We used conditional mouse genetics to test the hypothesis that Purkinje cell neurotransmission is essential for refining prefunctional developmental zones into sharp functional zones. Our results show that inhibitory synaptic transmission in Purkinje cells is necessary for the precise patterning of Purkinje cell zones and the topographic targeting of mossy fiber afferents. As expected, blocking Purkinje cell neurotransmission caused ataxia. Using in vivo electrophysiology, we demonstrate that loss of Purkinje cell communication altered the firing rate and pattern of their target cerebellar nuclear neurons. Analysis of Purkinje cell complex spike firing revealed that feedback in the cerebellar nuclei to inferior olive to Purkinje cell loop is obstructed. Loss of Purkinje neurotransmission also caused ectopic zonal expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, which is only expressed in adult Purkinje cells when calcium is dysregulated and if excitability is altered. Our results suggest that Purkinje cell inhibitory neurotransmission establishes the functional circuitry of the cerebellum by patterning the molecular zones, fine-tuning afferent circuitry, and shaping neuronal activity. PMID:24920627
Nonstationary Gravity Wave Forcing of the Stratospheric Zonal Mean Wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, M. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.
1996-01-01
The role of gravity wave forcing in the zonal mean circulation of the stratosphere is discussed. Starting from some very simple assumptions about the momentum flux spectrum of nonstationary (non-zero phase speed) waves at forcing levels in the troposphere, a linear model is used to calculate wave propagation through climatological zonal mean winds at solstice seasons. As the wave amplitudes exceed their stable limits, a saturation criterion is imposed to account for nonlinear wave breakdown effects, and the resulting vertical gradient in the wave momentum flux is then used to estimate the mean flow forcing per unit mass. Evidence from global, assimilated data sets are used to constrain these forcing estimates. The results suggest the gravity-wave-driven force is accelerative (has the same sign as the mean wind) throughout most of the stratosphere above 20 km. The sense of the gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere is thus opposite to that in the mesosphere, where gravity wave drag is widely believed to play a principal role in decelerating the mesospheric jets. The forcing estimates are further compared to existing gravity wave parameterizations for the same climatological zonal mean conditions. Substantial disagreement is evident in the stratosphere, and we discuss the reasons for the disagreement. The results suggest limits on typical gravity wave amplitudes near source levels in the troposphere at solstice seasons. The gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere appears to have a substantial effect on lower stratospheric temperatures during southern hemisphere summer and thus may be relevant to climate.
Equatorial ionospheric zonal drift by monitoring local GPS reference networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Shengyue; Chen, Wu; Ding, Xiaoli; Zhao, Chunmei
2011-08-01
The propagation of electromagnetic waves through the turbulent ionosphere produces scintillations through diffraction, and understanding the physical nature of scintillations is important for engineers and technologists as well as for scientists. In recent years, the establishment of the Global Positioning System (GPS) provided a new technique that can be used to study ionospheric scintillations. The usual way of doing that is the deployment of GPS receivers closely spaced in east-west magnetic direction and then estimating the zonal drift velocities based on the signal power observations. One of the weaknesses of this method is that high-rate sampling such as 20 Hz is required for close-spaced stations and generally no such data are available for studying ionospheric scintillation in the past years. In this research work, a scintillation monitoring method based on slant TEC (STEC) observations of local GPS Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) network is proposed. First, the past research works on the equatorial ionospheric drift velocities are summarized. Then, by comparing the scintillation pattern of the signal power and STEC observations of California local GPS reference network, we find that the STEC is a good choice for estimating the ionospheric zonal drift velocity. Then it is illustrated how to calculate the ionospheric scintillation velocity based on STEC. Finally, the proposed method is applied to Hong Kong GPS reference network and several cases of the calculated ionospheric zonal velocities are given.
Effects of Zonal Wind on Stratospheric Ozone Variations over Nigeria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chidinma Okoro, Eucharia,
2016-07-01
The effects of zonal wind on stratospheric ozone variation over Nigeria have been studied. The areas covered in this study include; Maiduguri, Ikeja, Port-Harcourt, Calabar, Makurdi, Ilorin, Akure, Yola, Minna, Jos, Kano and Enugu in Nigeria, from 1986 to 2008. Zonal wind was computed from the iso-velocity map employing MATLAB software. The mean monthly variations of AAM and LOD at pressure levels of 20, 30 and 50 mb in the atmosphere depict a trend of maximum amplitude between April and September, and minimum amplitude between December and March. The trend observed in seasonal variation of O3 column data in the low latitude had maximum amount from May through August and minimum values from December through February. The mean monthly maximum O3 concentrations was found to be 284.70 Du (Kano) occurring in May 1989 while, an average monthly minimum O3 concentration was found to be 235.60 Du (Port-Harcourt and Calabar) occurring in January 1998. It has been established in this study that, the variation in atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) caused by variation of the universal time or length of day (LOD) transfer ozone (O3) by means of zonal wind from the upper troposphere to the lower stratosphere in the stations understudy. The strong effect of the pressure levels of the atmosphere on O3 variation could be attributed to its effect on the AAM and LOD. Variation in the LOD is significant in the tropics, suggesting that, the effects of the extra-tropical suction pump (ETSP) action is not the only driver responsible for O3 transportation from the tropics to extra-tropical zones. Consequently, these findings lead to a deduction that weather pattern alteration observed due to these changes could lead to climate change. Keywords: ozone variations; dynamical processes; harmattan wind; ETSP; and climatic variability
Magnetic flux concentration and zonal flows in magnetorotational instability turbulence
Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M.
2014-11-20
Accretion disks are likely threaded by external vertical magnetic flux, which enhances the level of turbulence via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Using shearing-box simulations, we find that such external magnetic flux also strongly enhances the amplitude of banded radial density variations known as zonal flows. Moreover, we report that vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated toward low-density regions of the zonal flow. Mean vertical magnetic field can be more than doubled in low-density regions, and reduced to nearly zero in high-density regions in some cases. In ideal MHD, the scale on which magnetic flux concentrates can reach a few disk scale heights. In the non-ideal MHD regime with strong ambipolar diffusion, magnetic flux is concentrated into thin axisymmetric shells at some enhanced level, whose size is typically less than half a scale height. We show that magnetic flux concentration is closely related to the fact that the turbulent diffusivity of the MRI turbulence is anisotropic. In addition to a conventional Ohmic-like turbulent resistivity, we find that there is a correlation between the vertical velocity and horizontal magnetic field fluctuations that produces a mean electric field that acts to anti-diffuse the vertical magnetic flux. The anisotropic turbulent diffusivity has analogies to the Hall effect, and may have important implications for magnetic flux transport in accretion disks. The physical origin of magnetic flux concentration may be related to the development of channel flows followed by magnetic reconnection, which acts to decrease the mass-to-flux ratio in localized regions. The association of enhanced zonal flows with magnetic flux concentration may lead to global pressure bumps in protoplanetary disks that helps trap dust particles and facilitates planet formation.
Magnetic Flux Concentration and Zonal Flows in Magnetorotational Instability Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M.
2014-11-01
Accretion disks are likely threaded by external vertical magnetic flux, which enhances the level of turbulence via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Using shearing-box simulations, we find that such external magnetic flux also strongly enhances the amplitude of banded radial density variations known as zonal flows. Moreover, we report that vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated toward low-density regions of the zonal flow. Mean vertical magnetic field can be more than doubled in low-density regions, and reduced to nearly zero in high-density regions in some cases. In ideal MHD, the scale on which magnetic flux concentrates can reach a few disk scale heights. In the non-ideal MHD regime with strong ambipolar diffusion, magnetic flux is concentrated into thin axisymmetric shells at some enhanced level, whose size is typically less than half a scale height. We show that magnetic flux concentration is closely related to the fact that the turbulent diffusivity of the MRI turbulence is anisotropic. In addition to a conventional Ohmic-like turbulent resistivity, we find that there is a correlation between the vertical velocity and horizontal magnetic field fluctuations that produces a mean electric field that acts to anti-diffuse the vertical magnetic flux. The anisotropic turbulent diffusivity has analogies to the Hall effect, and may have important implications for magnetic flux transport in accretion disks. The physical origin of magnetic flux concentration may be related to the development of channel flows followed by magnetic reconnection, which acts to decrease the mass-to-flux ratio in localized regions. The association of enhanced zonal flows with magnetic flux concentration may lead to global pressure bumps in protoplanetary disks that helps trap dust particles and facilitates planet formation.
Longitudinal variation in zonal winds at subauroral regions: Possible mechanisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hui; Lühr, Hermann
2016-01-01
Longitudinal differences in thermospheric zonal winds (ΔUy) are investigated in the subauroral region for different seasons and under solar maximum and medium conditions by using Challenging Minisatellite Payload observations. Prominent wave-1 longitudinal and diurnal variations of ΔUy are observed, along with an antiphase relationship between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. These structures persist over the whole year and are independent of solar activity. ΔUy values are greater at nighttime than at daytime, and values in the south are greater than those in the north in local summer and winter. Model simulations confirm observed results in large-scale structures, and the nonzero dipole tilt is found to be vital for the longitudinal variation of the zonal wind. The neutral air pressure gradient caused by the day-night difference in solar heating is a major contributor to the observed ΔUy. The pressure effects are larger at nighttime than at daytime and larger in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere. Ion drag reduces the compatibility between the modeled and observed ΔUy as expected, with larger effects at nighttime than at daytime. Viscous force also reduces the compatibility between the modeled and observed ΔUy with greater effects at daytime, except at nighttime in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, the Coriolis force makes the difference between the modeled and observed ΔUy larger. The sum of these factors can explain, in general, the observed local time and hemispheric asymmetry features in longitudinal variation of the zonal wind.
Zonal drifts of irregularities imparted by meridional winds.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waldman, H.; Da Rosa, A. V.
1973-01-01
In a uniform ionosphere, meridional winds cause only meridional motions of irregularities. It is shown, however, that, if F-region irregularities are considered in a real ionosphere in which there is a highly conductive E-layer, zonal motions occur. During the day a substantial westward drift takes place, while at night the drift is eastward but smaller, owing to the much smaller E-layer conductivity. Thus, the effect of meridional winds is to impart a net westward drift to small irregularities in the ionization, provided such irregularities persist long enough.
The Zonal Satellite Problem. I. Near-Escape Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mioc, V.; Stavinschi, M.
The study of the zonal satellite problem is continued by tackling the situation r-> infty. New equations of motion (for which the infinite distance is a singularity) and the corresponding first integrals of energy and angular momentum are set up. The infinity singularity is blown up via McGehee-type transformations, and the infinity manifold is pasted on the phase space. The fictitious flow on this manifold is described. Then, resorting to the rotational symmetry of the problem and to the angular momentum integral, the near-escape local flow is depicted. The corresponding phase curves are interpreted as physical motions.
A simple inertial model for Neptune's zonal circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allison, Michael; Lumetta, James T.
1990-01-01
Voyager imaging observations of zonal cloud-tracked winds on Neptune revealed a strongly subrotational equatorial jet with a speed approaching 500 m/s and generally decreasing retrograde motion toward the poles. The wind data are interpreted with a speculative but revealingly simple model based on steady gradient flow balance and an assumed global homogenization of potential vorticity for shallow layer motion. The prescribed model flow profile relates the equatorial velocity to the mid-latitude shear, in reasonable agreement with the available data, and implies a global horizontal deformation scale L(D) of about 3000 km.
Zonal flow regimes in rotating anelastic spherical shells (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gastine, T.; Wicht, J.; Aurnou, J. M.; Heimpel, M. H.
2013-12-01
The surface zonal winds observed in the giant planets form a complex jet pattern with alternating prograde and retrograde direction. While the main equatorial band is prograde on the gas giants, both ice giants have a pronounced retrograde equatorial jet. The depth of these jets is however poorly known and highly debated. Theoretical scenarios range from "shallow models", that assume that these zonal flows are restricted to the outer stably stratified layer; to "deep models" that hypothesise that the surface winds are the signature of deep-seated convection. Most of the numerical models supporting the latter idea employed the Boussinesq approximation where compressibility effects are ignored. While this approximation is suitable for modelling the liquid iron core of terrestrial planets, this becomes questionable in the gas giants interiors, where density increases by several orders of magnitude. To tackle this problem, several numerical models using the "anelastic approximation" have been recently developed to study the compressibility effects while filtering out the fast acoustic waves. Here, we consider such anelastic models of rapidly-rotating spherical shells to explore the properties of the zonal winds in different regimes where either rotation or buoyancy dominates the force balance. We conduct several parameter studies to quantify the dependence of zonal flows on the background density stratification and the driving of convection. We find that the direction of the equatorial wind is controlled by the ratio of buoyancy and Coriolis force. The prograde equatorial band maintained by Reynolds stresses is found in the rotation-dominated regime. At low Ekman numbers, several alternating jets form at high latitude in a similar way to some previous Boussinesq calculations. In cases where buoyancy dominates Coriolis force, the angular momentum per unit mass is homogenised and the equatorial band is retrograde, reminiscent to those observed in the ice giants
Non-linear Paradigm for Drift Wave - Zonal Flow interplay: coherence, chaos and turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zonca, Fulvio
2003-10-01
Non-linear equations for the slow space-time evolution of the radial drift wave (DW) envelope and zonal flow (ZF) amplitude have been self-consistently derived for a model nonuniform tokamak equilibrium within the coherent 4-wave drift wave-zonal flow modulation interaction model of Chen, Lin and White(chen00). For the sake of simplicity, in this work we assume electrostatic fluctuations; but our formalism is readily extended to electromagnetic fluctuations(chen01). In the local limit, i.e. neglecting equilibrium profile variations, the coherent 4-wave DW-ZF modulation interaction model has successfully demonstrated spontaneous generation of ZFs and non-linear DW/ITG-ZF dynamics in toroidal plasmas(chen00). The present work is an extension of previous analyses to allow both (slow) temporal and spatial variations of the DW/ITG radial envelope; thus, it naturally incorporates the effects of equilibrium variations; i.e., turbulence spreading and size-dependence of the saturated wave intensities and transport coefficients(lin99). This approach makes it possible to treat equilibrium profile variations and non-linear interactions on the same footing, assuming that coupling among different DWs on the shortest non-linear time scale is mediated by ZF only. At this level, the competition between linear drive/damping, DW spreading due to finite linear (and nonlinear) group velocity(lin02,chen02,kim02) and non-linear energy transfer between DWs and ZF, determines the saturation levels of the fluctuating fields. Despite the coherence of the underlying non-linear dynamics at this level, this system exhibits both chaotic behavior and intermittency, depending on system size and proximity to marginal stability(chen02). The present model can be further extended to include longer time-scale physics such as 3-wave interactions and collisionless damping of zonal flows. 9 chen00 Liu Chen, Zhihong Lin and Roscoe White, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3129, (2000). chen01 L. Chen, Z. Lin, R.B. White and
Experimental studies of zonal flow and field in compact helical system plasma
Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Shimizu, A.; Nakano, H.; Ohshima, S.; Iguchi, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Okamura, S.; Minami, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Nagaoka, K.; Ida, K.; Toi, K.; Takahashi, C.; Kojima, M.; Nishimura, S.; Isobe, M.; Suzuki, C.; Akiyama, T.; Ido, T.
2008-05-15
The experimental studies on zonal flows and turbulence have been carried out in Compact Helical System [K. Matsuoka, S. Kubo, M. Hosokawa et al., in Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Proc. 12th Int. Conf., Nice, 1988 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1989, Vol. 2, p. 411] using twin heavy ion beam probes. The paper presents the experimental observations of stationary zonal flow, nonlinear couplings between zonal flow and turbulence, and the role of zonal flow in the improved confinement, together with the recent discovery of zonal magnetic field. The presented experimental results strongly support the new paradigm that the plasma transport should be considered as a system of drift wave and zonal flows, and provides the first direct evidence for turbulence dynamo that the structured magnetic field can be really generated by turbulence.
Overview of gyrokinetic studies of finite-β microturbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terry, P. W.; Carmody, D.; Doerk, H.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hatch, D. R.; Hegna, C. C.; Ishizawa, A.; Jenko, F.; Nevins, W. M.; Predebon, I.; Pueschel, M. J.; Sarff, J. S.; Whelan, G. G.
2015-10-01
Recent results on electromagnetic turbulence from gyrokinetic studies in different magnetic configurations are overviewed, detailing the physics of electromagnetic turbulence and transport, and the effect of equilibrium magnetic field scale lengths. Ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence is shown to produce magnetic stochasticity through nonlinear excitation of linearly stable tearing-parity modes. The excitation, which is catalyzed by the zonal flow, produces an electron heat flux proportional to β2 that deviates markedly from quasilinear theory. Above a critical beta known as the non-zonal transition (NZT), the magnetic fluctuations disable zonal flows by allowing electron streaming that shorts zonal potential between flux surfaces. This leads to a regime of very high transport levels. Kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) saturation is described. For tokamaks saturation involves twisted structures arising from magnetic shear; for helical plasmas oppositely inclined convection cells interact by mutual shearing. Microtearing modes are unstable in the magnetic geometry of tokamaks and the reversed field pinch (RFP). In NSTX instability requires finite collisionality, large beta, and is favored by increasing magnetic shear and decreasing safety factor. In the RFP, a new branch of microtearing with finite growth rate at vanishing collisionality is shown from analytic theory to require the electron grad-B/curvature drift resonance. However, gyrokinetic modeling of experimental MST RFP discharges at finite beta reveals turbulence that is electrostatic, has large zonal flows, and a large Dimits shift. Analysis shows that the shorter equilibrium magnetic field scale lengths increase the critical gradients associated with the instability of trapped electron modes, ITG and microtearing, while increasing beta thresholds for KBM instability and the NZT.
Physical mechanism behind zonal-flow generation in drift-wave turbulence.
Manz, P; Ramisch, M; Stroth, U
2009-10-16
The energetic interaction between drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows is studied experimentally in two-dimensional wave number space. The kinetic energy is found to be transferred nonlocally from the drift waves to the zonal flow. This confirms the theoretical prediction that the parametric-modulational instability is the driving mechanism of zonal flows. The physical mechanism of this nonlocal energetic interaction between and zonal flows and turbulent drift-wave eddies in relation to the suppression of turbulent transport is discussed. PMID:19905704
Implementing Multidisciplinary and Multi-Zonal Applications Using MPI
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fineberg, Samuel A.
1995-01-01
Multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications are an important class of applications in the area of Computational Aerosciences. In these codes, two or more distinct parallel programs or copies of a single program are utilized to model a single problem. To support such applications, it is common to use a programming model where a program is divided into several single program multiple data stream (SPMD) applications, each of which solves the equations for a single physical discipline or grid zone. These SPMD applications are then bound together to form a single multidisciplinary or multi-zonal program in which the constituent parts communicate via point-to-point message passing routines. Unfortunately, simple message passing models, like Intel's NX library, only allow point-to-point and global communication within a single system-defined partition. This makes implementation of these applications quite difficult, if not impossible. In this report it is shown that the new Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard is a viable portable library for implementing the message passing portion of multidisciplinary applications. Further, with the extension of a portable loader, fully portable multidisciplinary application programs can be developed. Finally, the performance of MPI is compared to that of some native message passing libraries. This comparison shows that MPI can be implemented to deliver performance commensurate with native message libraries.
Progress on the development of a zonal bimorph deformable mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffith, Mike S.; Laycock, Leslie C.; Archer, Nick; Myers, Richard; Doel, Peter; Birch, Rolf
2008-07-01
The Zonal Bimorph Deformable Mirror (ZBDM) is a new concept of adaptive mirror. It exploits the benefits normally associated with bimorph mirrors, namely simple rugged construction, low capacitance, and cost effectiveness, but in a significant departure from classical, edge supported bimorphs each element is supported from underneath. This results in a localised (zonal) response and enables the device to be scalable up to large aperture, multi-1000 element devices. Crucially, the combination of continuous support coupled with the use of flexi-circuit interconnect promotes the assembly of a high density 'tweeter' deformable mirror (DM) onto a lower density, high dynamic range 'woofer' DM to generate an integrated, dual-stage deformable mirror which can deliver both high resolution and high dynamic range simultaneously. Such a device has the potential to significantly simplify the design of astronomical adaptive optics (AO) systems. We present the progress made on the development of the ZBDM as part of a collaborative project funded by the newly formed UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.
Zonal Flows from Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking of Homogeneous Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Jeffrey; Krommes, John
2013-10-01
To study how zonal flows (ZF) arise, we examine one of the simplest possible models, the stochastically forced Hasegawa-Mima equation, which displays the bifurcation of steady ZFs from a state of homogeneous turbulence; thus a statistical treatment is required. Here an approach is adopted in which the ZFs are treated as mean fields that spontaneously break the background symmetry. The resulting inhomogeneous ensemble is treated self-consistently without assuming weak inhomogeneity. Closed statistical equations are obtained by ignoring the drift-wave self-interactions while fully retaining the drift-wave-ZF nonlinearities. We show that from the statistical point of view ZF generation can be understood as pattern formation. This leads to the surprising result that in a saturated turbulent state the ZF wavelength is not unique; a continuous band of ZF scales is allowed. Only those within a smaller sub-band are linearly stable. That stability is analyzed and the stability diagram in parameter space is calculated and successfully compared with simulations. The stability concept provides a way of interpreting the merging of zonal jets, a phenomenon commonly observed in observations and numerical studies. Work supported by U.S DOE Contract No DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.
Application of zonal model on indoor air sensor network design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y. Lisa; Wen, Jin
2007-04-01
Growing concerns over the safety of the indoor environment have made the use of sensors ubiquitous. Sensors that detect chemical and biological warfare agents can offer early warning of dangerous contaminants. However, current sensor system design is more informed by intuition and experience rather by systematic design. To develop a sensor system design methodology, a proper indoor airflow modeling approach is needed. Various indoor airflow modeling techniques, from complicated computational fluid dynamics approaches to simplified multi-zone approaches, exist in the literature. In this study, the effects of two airflow modeling techniques, multi-zone modeling technique and zonal modeling technique, on indoor air protection sensor system design are discussed. Common building attack scenarios, using a typical CBW agent, are simulated. Both multi-zone and zonal models are used to predict airflows and contaminant dispersion. Genetic Algorithm is then applied to optimize the sensor location and quantity. Differences in the sensor system design resulting from the two airflow models are discussed for a typical office environment and a large hall environment.
Zonal harmonics of the gravity field in DEF-variables.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aparicio, I.; Floría, L.
In order to be in a position to take advantage of the linear and regular formulation and treatment of Celestial Mechanics problems, in a recent paper Sharaf & Saad (1997) have given an analytical expansion of the Earth's zonal potential in terms of Kustaanheimo-Stiefel (KS) regular elements (Kustaanheimo & Stiefel 1965; Stiefel & Scheifele 1971), putting special emphasis on the consideration of elliptic-type two-body orbits. In the present paper we carry out an application of the so-called focal method (Burdet 1969) to derive the expression, in terms of the linearizing DEF-variables (Deprit, Elipe & Ferrer 1994, S S 4.1), of any zonal harmonic of the gravitational field created by a central body, and obtain the corresponding equations of motion for any value of the eccentricity. To this end, we will follow a variant of the focal method canonical approach based on the (weakly) canonical extension of the projective-decomposition point-transformation proposed by these authors.
Asymmetric zonal shim coils for magnetic resonance applications.
Forbes, L K; Crozier, S
2001-08-01
A method is presented for the systematic design of asymmetric zonal shim coils for magnetic resonance applications. Fourier-series methods are used to represent the magnetic field inside and outside a circular cylinder of length 2L and radius a. The current density on the cylinder is also represented using Fourier series. Any desired field can be specified in advance on the cylinder's radius, over some nonsymmetric portion pL
Non-axisymmetric instabilities in discs with imposed zonal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanon, R.; Ogilvie, G. I.
2016-09-01
We conduct a linear stability calculation of an ideal Keplerian flow on which a sinusoidal zonal flow is imposed. The analysis uses the shearing sheet model and is carried out both in isothermal and adiabatic conditions, with and without self-gravity (SG). In the non-SG regime a structure in the potential vorticity (PV) leads to a non-axisymmetric Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability; in the short-wavelength limit its growth rate agrees with the incompressible calculation by Lithwick (2007), which only considers perturbations elongated in the streamwise direction. The instability's strength is analysed as a function of the structure's properties, and zonal flows are found to be stable if their wavelength is ≳ 8H, where H is the disc's scale height, regardless of the value of the adiabatic index γ. The non-axisymmetric KH instability can operate in Rayleigh-stable conditions, and it therefore represents the limiting factor to the structure's properties. Introducing SG triggers a second non-axisymmetric instability, which is found to be located around a PV maximum, while the KH instability is linked to a PV minimum, as expected. In the adiabatic regime, the same gravitational instability is detected even when the structure is present only in the entropy (not in the PV) and the instability spreads to weaker SG conditions as the entropy structure's amplitude is increased. This eventually yields a non-axisymmetric instability in the non-SG regime, albeit of weak strength, localised around an entropy maximum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2015-10-01
The world has agreed on 17 Sustainable Development Goals, to be adopted this week. This is great progress towards acknowledging that the planet's finite resources need to be managed carefully in the face of humanity's unlimited aspirations.
Chen, Z.
2001-01-01
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron scattering research facility. The linear accelerator (linac) is the principal accelerating structure and divided into a room-temperature linac and a superconducting linac. The normal conducting linac system that consists of a Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and a Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) is to be built by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The CCL structure is 55.36-meters long. It accelerates H- beam from 86.8 Mev to 185.6 Mev at operating frequency of 805 MHz. This side coupled cavity structure has 8 cells per segment, 12 segments and 11 bridge couplers per module, and 4 modules total. A 5-MW klystron powers each module. The number 3 and number 9 bridge coupler of each module are connected to the 5-MW RF power supply. The bridge coupler with length of 2.5 {beta}{gamma} is a three-cell structure and located between the segments and allows power flow through the module. The center cell of each bridge coupler is excited during normal operation. To obtain a uniform electromagnetic filed and meet the resonant frequency shift, the RF induced heat must be removed. Thus, the thermal deformation and frequency shift studies are performed via numerical simulations in order to have an appropriate cooling design and predict the frequency shift under operation. The center cell of the bridge coupler also contains a large 4-inch slug tuner and a tuning post that used to provide bulk frequency adjustment and field intensity adjustment, so that produce the proper total field distribution in the module assembly.
Detection of zonal flow spectra in DIII-D by a dual-channel Doppler backscattering system
Schmitz, L.; Wang, G.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Peebles, W. A.; White, A. E.; Zeng, L.; Carter, T. A.; Solomon, W.
2008-10-15
Doppler backscattering (DBS) has been successfully used to measure the ExB flow velocity and local intermediate wavenumber density fluctuation levels in the DIII-D tokamak. Depending on the launch angle and the frequency of the probing beam, the signal backscattered from the plasma cut-off layer is sensitive to density fluctuations at a specific perpendicular wavenumber (1{<=}k{sub perpendicular}{rho}{sub s}{<=}4). Due to the localization and high time resolution for poloidal flow measurements, DBS is well suited to detect stationary and time-dependent shear flows [zonal flows (ZFs)]. We present a novel scheme to measure ZF spectra using a dual-channel DBS system capable of simultaneously probing two minor radii separated by a distance of 0.2 cm<{delta}r<3 cm. Frequency spectra of geodesic acoustic modes and low frequency ZFs (f{<=}10 kHz) have been obtained for 0.6
Residual zonal flows in tokamaks and stellarators at arbitrary wavelengths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monreal, Pedro; Calvo, Iván; Sánchez, Edilberto; Parra, Félix I.; Bustos, Andrés; Könies, Axel; Kleiber, Ralf; Görler, Tobias
2016-04-01
In the linear collisionless limit, a zonal potential perturbation in a toroidal plasma relaxes, in general, to a non-zero residual value. Expressions for the residual value in tokamak and stellarator geometries, and for arbitrary wavelengths, are derived. These expressions involve averages over the lowest order particle trajectories, that typically cannot be evaluated analytically. In this work, an efficient numerical method for the evaluation of such expressions is reported. It is shown that this method is faster than direct gyrokinetic simulations performed with the Gene and EUTERPE codes. Calculations of the residual value in stellarators are provided for much shorter wavelengths than previously available in the literature. Electrons must be treated kinetically in stellarators because, unlike in tokamaks, kinetic electrons modify the residual value even at long wavelengths. This effect, that had already been predicted theoretically, is confirmed by gyrokinetic simulations.
Converging and Diverging Shocks in Space Plasmas: Zonal Flow Effect?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Z.; Hirose, A.
2011-12-01
Cluster observed converging and diverging shocks in magnetosphere at the same time1. No explanations have been proposed till now. We set up a self-similar, two-fluid model, and study the features of nonlinear waves propagating along geomagnetic field lines. Well-known three shapes of nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary structures (sinusoidal, sawtooth, and spiky or bipolar) in space plasmas were obtained in both Cartesian2 and cylindrical3 geometries via analytical and numerical calculations. Importantly, not only the observed two-type shocks are obtained simultaneously in the cylindrical frame, but accompanying characteristics are illustrated, such as, two reversely propagating nonlinear waves, density dips and humps, etc. The study4~6 exposes that field-aligned plasma beams contribute to highly structured magnetospheric electric fields; the fields bring about zonal flows which are the prime mover of Cluster-measured shocks.
Zonal wave number variance spectra of stratospheric microwave brightness temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Russell L.; Stanford, John L.
1986-01-01
Well-known theoretical predictions suggest that variances of large-scale atmospheric fluctuations, for scales somewhat shorter than those of the forcing mechanisms, should obey a power law, k exp -b, where k is the horizontal wave number. The invariance of the exponent b with season, hemisphere, and latitude is tested using satellite-measured brightness temperatures. Global grids of Tiros-N Microwave Sounding Unit channel 4 measurements, which closely approximate the 30- to 150-mbar layer mean temperature, are constructed for January, March, and August 1979. These grids are zonally Fourier-transformed, and the resulting spectra are averaged over four 18 deg-wide latitude bands. Fits of a power law to these spectra over wave numbers 10-36 and 10-26 give values of b which are independent of season, hemisphere, and latitude band, to within statistical uncertainties. The observed values of b are about 3.6, as compared to theoretical predictions of 3.
Effect of chlorofluoromethane infrared radiation on zonal atmospheric temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickinson, R. E.; Donahue, T. M.; Liu, S. C.
1978-01-01
Estimates are made of changes in the atmospheric climate due to the radiative effects of 10 ppb of chlorofluoromethanes (CFM's). The estimates are derived on the basis of a 12-layer stratospheric general circulation model with a specified change of ocean temperature. Two tropical maxima in zonal average temperature change were observed: one in the upper troposphere and one centered at the tropopause. The temperature change exceeds the surface temperature change by a factor of at least two. If the 1975 CFM emission rate were to continue indefinitely, stratospheric water-vapor concentrations would increase by up to 60% due to CFM radiative effects. This would reduce ozone concentrations by an additional 4% of the natural ozone column.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veljović-Jovanović, S.; Vidović, M.; Morina, F.; Prokić, Lj.; Todorović, D. M.
2016-09-01
Green-white variegated leaves of Pelargonium zonale were studied using the photoacoustic method. Our aim was to characterize photosynthetically active green tissue and nonphotosynthetically active white tissue by the photoacoustic amplitude signals. We observed lower stomatal conductance and higher leaf temperature in white tissue than in green tissue. Besides these thermal differences, significantly higher absorbance in green tissue was based on chlorophyll and carotenoids which were absent in white tissue. However, optical properties of epidermal layers of both tissues were equal. The photoacoustic amplitude of white tissue was over four times higher compared to green tissue, which was correlated with lower stomatal conductance. In addition, at frequencies >700 Hz, the significant differences between the photoacoustic signals of green and white tissue were obtained. We identified the photoacoustic signal deriving from photosynthetic oxygen evolution in green tissue, using high intensity of red light modulated at 10 Hz. Moreover, the photoacoustic amplitude of green tissue increased progressively with time which corresponded to the period of induction of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. For the first time, very high frequencies (1 kHz to 5 kHz) were applied on leaf material.
A PV view of the zonal mean distribution of temperature and wind in the extratropical troposphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, De-Zheng; Lindzen, Richard S.
1994-01-01
The dependence of the temperature and wind distribution of the zonal mean flow in the extratropical troposphere on the gradient of pontential vorticity along isentropes is examined. The extratropics here refer to the region outside the Hadley circulation. Of particular interest is whether the distribution of temperature and wind corresponding to a constant potential vorticity (PV) along isentropes resembles the observed, and the implications of PV homogenization along isentropes for the role of the tropics. With the assumption that PV is homogenized along isentropes, it is found that the temperature distribution in the extratropical troposphere may be determined by a linear, first-order partial differential equation. When the observed surface temperature distribution and tropical lapse rate are used as the boundary conditions, the solution of the equation is close to the observed temperature distribution except in the upper troposphere adjacent to the Hadley circulation, where the troposphere with no PV gradient is considerably colder. Consequently, the jet is also stronger. It is also found that the meridional distribution of the balanced zonal wind is very sensitive to the meridional distribution of the tropopause temperature. The result may suggest that the requirement of the global momentum balance has no practical role in determining the extratropical temperature distribution. The authors further investigated the sensitivity of the extratropical troposphere with constant PV along isentropes to changes in conditions at the tropical boundary (the edge of the Hadley circulation). It is found that the temperature and wind distributions in the extratropical troposphere are sensitive to the vertical distribution of PV at the tropical boundary. With a surface distribution of temperature that decreases linearly with latitude, the jet maximum occurs at the tropical boundary and moves with it. The overall pattern of wind distribution is not sensitive to the change of
The residual zonal flow in tokamak plasmas toroidally rotating at arbitrary velocity
Zhou, Deng
2014-08-15
Zonal flows, initially driven by ion-temperature-gradient turbulence, may evolve due to the neoclassic polarization in a collisionless tokamak plasma. In our previous work [D. Zhou, Nucl. Fusion 54, 042002 (2014)], the residual zonal flow in a tokamak plasma rotating toroidally at sonic speed is found to have the same form as that of a static plasma. In the present work, the form of the residual zonal flow is presented for tokamak plasmas rotating toroidally at arbitrary velocity. The gyro-kinetic equation is analytically solved for low speed rotation to give the expression of residual zonal flows, and the expression is then generalized for cases with arbitrary rotating velocity through interpolation. The zonal flow level decreases as the rotating velocity increases. The numerical evaluation is in good agreement with the former simulation result for high aspect ratio tokamaks.
Constraining the depth of Saturn’s zonal winds by measuring thermal and gravitational signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Junjun; Schneider, Tapio; Fletcher, Leigh N.
2014-09-01
Based on straightforward dynamical considerations, we show how available and upcoming measurements of Saturn’s thermal and gravitational signals can be used to constrain the depth to which its zonal winds penetrate. The dynamical considerations issue from the facts that Saturn has a strong intrinsic heat flux, rotates rapidly, and has negligible atmospheric viscosity. As a result, convective motions align with surfaces of constant specific angular momentum, which are, away from the equator, approximately cylinders concentric with the planet’s spin axis. Convective motions in the interior therefore tend to homogenize entropy in the direction of the spin axis, but not necessarily perpendicular to it. Using the assumption of interior entropy homogenization in the direction of the spin axis, we determine the zonal winds and their associated thermal and gravitational signals by combining thermal wind balance, the equation of state, the observed zonal winds at the cloud level, and estimates of the strength of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) drag that zonal winds experience in the deep interior. We find zonal winds likely extend deeply into Saturn, to a depth between about 0.63 and 0.83RS (with Saturn’s radius RS), or to pressures between 1.4 and 0.3 Mbar. The equation of state of hydrogen constrains zonal winds with strengths similar to the cloud level winds to be confined within the outer few percent of Saturn’s radius, with substantially weaker winds below, irrespective of where in the range of plausible estimates Saturn’s imprecisely known rotation rate falls. Depending on the rotation rate and the precise depth to which zonal winds penetrate, we estimate that the meridional equator-to-pole temperature contrasts in thermal wind balance with the inferred zonal winds increase with depth and reach 1-2 K at 1 bar and 2-4 K at 5 bar. They would be much larger if the cutoff radii of the zonal winds were much shallower than we estimate, but thermal observations by
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hopkins, Edward John
This investigation produces zonally and temporally averaged irradiance and illumination geometry data and their annual and long-term variability in greater detail than previously available. The computational algorithm (the HELIO-DAY algorithm) evaluates zonally averaged irradiance data and supporting information describing the latitudinally dependent illumination geometry (solar zenith angles and daylight duration) on a daily basis, provided an input of mean annual orbital elements applicable to the epoch are inserted; numerical summation of each day's irradiation within an interval generates multiday average irradiance for any zone. The accuracy of this methodology was tested with results consistent with theoretical evaluations. Using Berger's (1978) computational formulae to produce the time sequence of pertinent orbital elements, arrays of monthly and tri-monthly zonal average extra-atmospheric irradiance are produced by the HELIO-DAY algorithm from 500,000 B.P. to 1950.0 A.D. at 1000 yr time steps, for 10(DEGREES)-, 30(DEGREES) - and hemispheric-sized zones. Comparison of these tabulations is made with traditional astronomical and caloric half -year insolation chronologies. For the northern hemisphere 321 separate insolation chronologies are prepared, sorted according to a given multiday and zonal combination, and analyzed in both temporal and spectral domains. These frequency spectra for the 500,000 yr multiday-zonal irradiance time series reveal dominant periodicities: 40,600 yr associated with the obliquity of the ecliptic, the 23,600 and 18,900 yr with the precessional parameter (the longitude of perihelion with respect to the equinox of date, modulated by the eccentricity) and weak 385,000 and 100,000 yr periodicities associated with the eccentricity. This investigation shows that over the last 500,000 yr the monthly and tri-monthly average irradiance for individual 10(DEGREES) zones experience frequency spectra significantly different from those of the
The generation of zonal jets by large-scale mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scott, R. K.; Tissier, A.-S.
2012-12-01
The development of zonal flows on a midlatitude β-plane subject to a time-varying topographic forcing is investigated in a series of numerical integrations in which the forcing is concentrated at large scales, and in which the usual two-dimensional inverse energy cascade is absent. In contrast to the case of small-scale forcing, where mixing of potential vorticity occurs largely through the action of small-scale eddies, mixing of potential vorticity in this case occurs predominantly in latitudinally localized Rossby wave critical layer regions, whose width grows continuously in time due to the entrainment of background fluid. The potential vorticity is found to organize into a piecewise constant staircase-like profile, monotonic in latitude, provided the ratio L_Rh/L_fgtrsim 1, where L_Rh is the usual Rhines scale and Lf is the scale of the forcing; this may be regarded as supplemental to the condition L_Rh/L_{\\varepsilon }gtrsim 6, where Lɛ = (ɛ/β3)1/5 and ɛ is the rate of energy input, obtained recently [R. K. Scott and D. G. Dritschel, "The structure of zonal jets in geostrophic turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 711, 576-598 (2012), 10.1017/jfm.2012.410] for the case of small-scale forcing. The numerical results further suggest that the nature of the potential vorticity mixing is controlled by the ratio Lɛ/Lf, and occurs predominantly in critical layers when Lɛ/Lf ≲ 1/6. A combined condition for staircase formation may therefore be expressed as L_Rh/L_{\\varepsilon }gtrsim max lbrace 6,L_f/L_{\\varepsilon }rbrace. Finally, in a separate set of experiments it is shown that when forcing is represented by an additive source term in the evolution equation, as is common practice in numerical investigations of two-dimensional turbulence, the effect of non-conservation of potential vorticity may obscure the development of the staircase profile in the critical layer mixing dominated regime.
Recent pollen spectra and zonal vegetation in the western USSR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peterson, G. M.
The relationship of modern pollen spectra to present-day vegetation is critical to the reconstruction of vegetation and climate from fossil pollen spectra. This study uses isopoll maps to illustrate the pollen-vegetation relationships in the Soviet Union west of 100°E and presents descriptive statistics for 544 modern samples of arboreal pollen and for 370 samples of herb pollen obtained from the Soviet palynological literature. Data are assembled from this large geographic region and presented in a standardized form on a scale which can be used to relate quantitative pollen data to zonal vegetation and climatic variables and to make comparisons with other regions. In order to show the relationship between pollen types and major ecotones in forested and non-forested areas, the pollen data are presented as percentages of a sum including both arboreal and non-arboreal pollen. Major pollen types which attain values of 10% or more in at least one vegetation zone include Betula (birch), Cyperaceae (sedges), Picea (spruce), Pinus (total pine), Pinus sibirica, Ericaceae (heath family), Gramineae (grasses), Artemisia (sage), and Chenopodiaceae (i.e., saltbush, Russian thistle, pigweed family). Samples from the tundra and forest-tundra have high values of Ericaceae (heath family), birch, alder, and sedge pollen. In the boreal forest, pine, spruce, and birch pollen predominate. In the mixed and deciduous forests, Tilia (linden), Quercus (oak), Ulmus (elm), and Corylus (hazel) pollen attain maximum values. In the forest-steppe and steppe zones, arboreal pollen decreases in importance and is replaced by non-arboreal pollen types. Pollen of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae predominates in the semi-desert zones. In spite of variation in the pollen spectra arising from the use of different sediment types (soil, peat, and river sediments), and human disturbance of vegetation, the pollen spectra are clearly related to zonal vegetation. Pollen spectra from the western USSR show
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regi, M.; De Lauretis, M.; Redaelli, G.; Francia, P.
2016-01-01
In the present study we investigated the possible coupling between geomagnetic activity and the low atmosphere dynamics in the polar cap. We compared daily values of the ERA-Interim temperature and zonal wind over Antarctica, with the daily geomagnetic ULF power, in the Pc5 (1-7 mHz), Pc1, and Pc2 (100 mHz-1 Hz) frequency ranges, at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica, corrected geomagnetic latitude λ ~ 80°S) and with solar wind data during 2007, in correspondence to the last declining phase of the solar cycle 23. We found a high and statistically significant correspondence of temperature and zonal wind fluctuations in the stratosphere and troposphere with geomagnetic ULF power fluctuations at the ~27 day periodicity, with a substantial reduction at the tropopause height. A similar, clear relationship between the meteorological parameters and the polar cap potential difference was also observed. The results suggest that the changes in the atmospheric conductivity, due to energetic electrons precipitation driven by the ULF waves, as well as the high latitude potential variations, both associated to high geomagnetic activity, can affect the atmospheric dynamics.
Zonal Flow as Pattern Formation: Merging Jets and the Ultimate Jet Length Scale
Jeffrey B. Parker and John A. Krommes
2013-01-30
Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. It is shown that for statisti- cally averaged equations of quasigeostrophic turbulence on a beta plane, zonal flows and inhomoge- neous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.
Barotropic instability of midlatitude zonal jets on Mars, earth and Venus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Michelangeli, Diane V.; Zurek, Richard W.; Elson, Lee S.
1987-01-01
A linearized, nondivergent, barotropic vorticity model on a sphere is used to intercompare the fastest growing, barotropically unstable wave modes computed for zonal jets at high latitudes in the middle atmospheres of Venus, earth, and Mars. The model is briefly described, and the choice of a range of zonal jet parameters - primarily Rossby numbers and the jet width - appropriate to Venus and Mars is discussed. The results are presented and compared with those found by Elson (1982) and Hartmann (1983) for nondivergent, barotropically unstable modes in relatively broad, midlatitude zonal jets in planetary atmospheres. Some specific examples appropriate to Venus and Mars are presented.
Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo
2016-03-01
Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.
Equatorial superrotation in a thermally driven zonally symmetric circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.
1981-01-01
Near the equator where the Coriolis force vanishes, the momentum balance for the axially symmetric circulation is established between horizontal and vertical diffusion, which, a priori, does not impose constraints on the direction or magnitude of the zonal winds. Solar radiation absorbed at low latitudes is a major force in driving large scale motions with air rising near the equator and falling at higher latitudes. In the upper leg of the meridional cell, angular momentum is redistributed so that the atmosphere tends to subrotate (or corotate) at low latitudes and superrotate at high latitudes. In the lower leg, however, the process is reversed and produces a tendency for the equatorial region to superrotate. The outcome depends on the energy budget which is closely coupled to the momentum budget through the thermal wind equation; a pressure (temperature) maximum is required to sustain equatorial superrotation. Such a condition arises in regions which are convectively unstable and the temperature lapse rate is superadiabatic. It should arise in the tropospheres of Jupiter and Saturn; planetary energy from the interior is carried to higher altitudes where radiation to space becomes important. Upward equatorial motions in the direct and indirect circulations (Ferrel-Thomson type) imposed by insolation can then trap dynamic energy for equatorial heating which can sustain the superrotation of the equatorial region.
Temporal transferability and updating of zonal level accident prediction models.
Hadayeghi, Alireza; Shalaby, Amer S; Persaud, Bhagwant N; Cheung, Carl
2006-05-01
This paper examines the temporal transferability of the zonal accident prediction models by using appropriate evaluation measures of predictive performance to assess whether the relationship between the dependent and independent variables holds reasonably well across time. The two temporal contexts are the years 1996 and 2001, with updated 1996 models being used to predict 2001 accidents in each traffic zone of the City of Toronto. The paper examines alternative updating methods for temporal transfer by imagining that only a sample of 2001 data is available. The sensitivity of the performance of the updated models to the 2001 sample size is explored. The updating procedures examined include the Bayesian updating approach and the application of calibration factors to the 1996 models. Models calibrated for the 2001 samples were also explored, but were found to be inadequate. The results show that the models are not transferable in a strict statistical sense. However, relative measures of transferability indicate that the transferred models yield useful information in the application context. Also, it is concluded that the updated accident models using the calibration factors produce better results for predicting the number of accidents in the year 2001 than using the Bayesian approach. PMID:16414003
Zonal release of proteins within tissue engineering scaffolds.
Suciati, Tri; Howard, Daniel; Barry, John; Everitt, Nicola M; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Rose, Felicity Raj
2006-11-01
The manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications that can control the location and timing of growth factor release is described. The scaffold is formed by the sintering of poly(DL-lactic acid) (P(DL)LA) microparticles, plasticized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), although the method can be used for many other polymer types. The microparticles were loaded with model proteins, trypsin and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Entrapment efficiencies above 75% were achieved using a solid-in-oil-in-water system. Controlled release of active protein was achieved for at least 30 days. Microparticles were built into protein-loaded or protein-free layers and release of the protein was restricted to zones within the scaffold. Cell response to rhBMP-2 was tuneable by changing the dose of the rhBMP-2 released by varying the ratio of protein-loaded and protein-free microparticles within scaffolds. Zonal activity of rhBMP-2 on C2C12 cells was demonstrated. The scaffolds may find utility in applications where gradients of growth factors within 3D templates are required or where zonation of tissue growth is required. PMID:17122918
Combinatorial scaffold morphologies for zonal articular cartilage engineering.
Steele, J A M; McCullen, S D; Callanan, A; Autefage, H; Accardi, M A; Dini, D; Stevens, M M
2014-05-01
Articular cartilage lesions are a particular challenge for regenerative medicine strategies as cartilage function stems from a complex depth-dependent organization. Tissue engineering scaffolds that vary in morphology and function offer a template for zone-specific cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) production and mechanical properties. We fabricated multi-zone cartilage scaffolds by the electrostatic deposition of polymer microfibres onto particulate-templated scaffolds produced with 0.03 or 1.0mm(3) porogens. The scaffolds allowed ample space for chondrocyte ECM production within the bulk while also mimicking the structural organization and functional interface of cartilage's superficial zone. Addition of aligned fibre membranes enhanced the mechanical and surface properties of particulate-templated scaffolds. Zonal analysis of scaffolds demonstrated region-specific variations in chondrocyte number, sulfated GAG-rich ECM, and chondrocytic gene expression. Specifically, smaller porogens (0.03mm(3)) yielded significantly higher sGAG accumulation and aggrecan gene expression. Our results demonstrate that bilayered scaffolds mimic some key structural characteristics of native cartilage, support in vitro cartilage formation, and have superior features to homogeneous particulate-templated scaffolds. We propose that these scaffolds offer promise for regenerative medicine strategies to repair articular cartilage lesions. PMID:24370641
Fractionation of liver plasma membranes prepared by zonal centrifugation
Evans, W. H.
1970-01-01
1. Plasma membranes were isolated from crude nuclear sediments from mouse and rat liver by a rate-dependent centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient contained in the `A' type zonal rotor. 2. The membranes were further purified by isopycnic centrifugation, and characterized enzymically, chemically and morphologically. 3. When the plasma-membrane fraction of sucrose density 1.17g/cm3 was dispersed in a tight-fitting homogenizer, two subfractions of densities 1.12 and 1.18 were obtained by isopycnic centrifugation. 4. The light subfraction contained 5′-nucleotidase, nucleoside diphosphatase, leucine naphthylamidase and Mg2+-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activities at higher specific activities than unfractionated membranes. The heavy subfraction was deficient in the above enzymes but contained higher Na++K+-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity. 5. The light subfraction contained twice as much phospholipid and cholesterol, and three times as much N-acetylneuraminic acid relative to unit protein weight as the heavy subfraction. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated differences in protein composition. 6. Electron microscopy showed the light subfraction to be vesicular. The heavy subfraction contained membrane strips with junctional complexes in addition to vesicles. ImagesPLATE 2PLATE 3PLATE 1 PMID:4315049
Zonal Flow Velocimetry in Spherical Couette Flow using Acoustic Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Matthew M.; Mautino, Anthony R.; Stone, Douglas R.; Triana, Santiago A.; Lekic, Vedran; Lathrop, Daniel P.
2015-11-01
We present studies of spherical Couette flows using the technique of acoustic mode Doppler velocimetry. This technique uses rotational splittings of acoustic modes to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of a rotating flow, and is of special interest in experiments where direct flow visualization is impractical. The primary experimental system consists of a 60 cm diameter outer spherical shell concentric with a 20 cm diameter sphere, with air or nitrogen gas serving as the working fluid. The geometry of the system approximates that of the Earth's core, making these studies geophysically relevant. A turbulent shear flow is established in the system by rotating the inner sphere and outer shell at different rates. Acoustic modes of the fluid volume are excited using a speaker and measured via microphones, allowingdetermination of rotational splittings. Preliminary results comparing observed splittings with those predicted by theory are presented. While the majority of these studies were performed in the 60 cm diameter device using nitrogen gas, some work has also been done looking at acoustic modes in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Prospects for measuring zonal velocity profiles in a wide variety of experiments are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, King-Fai; Yao, Kaixuan; Taketa, Cameron; Zhang, Xi; Liang, Mao-Chang; Jiang, Xun; Newman, Claire; Tung, Ka-Kit; Yung, Yuk L.
2016-04-01
With the advance of modern computers, studies of planetary atmospheres have heavily relied on general circulation models (GCMs). Because these GCMs are usually very complicated, the simulations are sometimes difficult to understand. Here we develop a semi-analytic zonally averaged, cyclostrophic residual Eulerian model to illustrate how some of the large-scale structures of the middle atmospheric circulation can be explained qualitatively in terms of simple thermal (e.g. solar heating) and mechanical (the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence) forcings. This model is a generalization of that for fast rotating planets such as the Earth, where geostrophy dominates (Andrews and McIntyre 1987). The solution to this semi-analytic model consists of a set of modified Hough functions of the generalized Laplace's tidal equation with the cyclostrohpic terms. As an example, we apply this model to Titan. We show that the seasonal variations of the temperature and the circulation of these slowly-rotating planets can be well reproduced by adjusting only three parameters in the model: the Brunt-Väisälä bouyancy frequency, the Newtonian radiative cooling rate, and the Rayleigh friction damping rate. We will also discuss an application of this model to study the meridional transport of photochemically produced tracers that can be observed by space instruments.
Fundamental Scalings of Zonal Flows in a Basic Plasma Physics Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolov, Vladimir; Wei, Xiao; Sen, Amiya K.
2007-11-01
A basic physics experimental study of zonal flows (ZF) associated with ITG (ion temperature gradient) drift modes has been performed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM) and ZF has been definitively identified [1]. However, in contrast to most tokamak experiments, the stabilizing effect of ZF shear to ITG appears to be small in CLM. We now report on the study of important scaling behavior of ZF. First and most importantly, we report on the collisional damping scaling of ZF, which is considered to be its saturation mechanism [2]. By varying the sum of ion-ion and ion-neutral collision frequency over nearly half an order of magnitude, we find no change in the amplitude of ZF. Secondly, we study the scaling of ZF amplitude with ITG amplitude via increasing ITG drive though ηi, as well as feedback (stabilizing / destabilizing). We have observed markedly different scaling near and far above marginal stability. [1] V. Sokolov, X. Wei, A.K. Sen and K. Avinash, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 48, S111 (2006). [2] P.H. Diamond, S.-I. Itoh, K.Itoh and T.S. Hahm, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 47, R35 (2005).
Zonal Flow Velocimetry using Acoustic Modes in Experimental Models of a Planetary Core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, M. M.; Mautino, A. R.; Stone, D.; Triana, S. A.; Lekic, V.; Lathrop, D. P.
2015-12-01
Rotating hydromagnetic experiments can serve as models of planetary cores, matching some of the dimensionless parameters relevant to planets. One challenge with such experiments is determining the flows present. The opacity of the fluids used in these experiments (e.g. liquid sodium) prevents direct flow visualization techniques from being employed. One method allowing determination of zonal flows in such experiments is acoustic mode velocimetry. In this technique, the rotational splittings of acoustic mode spectra are used to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of the flow. Here we present the use of this technique to study flows in experimental models of the Earth's core. Most of these results were obtained in a 60 cm diameter spherical Couette device, with a 20 cm diameter inner sphere, and using nitrogen gas as the working fluid. Turbulent flow is driven in the system via differential rotation of the outer shell and inner sphere. Acoustic modes are excited in the fluid volume using a speaker, and microphones are used to measure the frequencies and rotational splittings of the modes. We compare the observed splittings with those predicted by theory as a way of validating the method, and infer mean flows from these observations. We also present some preliminary results of acoustic studies in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Finally, we discuss future prospects for this experimental technique.
Investigating the zonal wind response to SST warming using transient ensemble AGCM experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palipane, Erool; Lu, Jian; Staten, Paul; Chen, Gang; Schneider, Edwin K.
2016-04-01
The response of the atmospheric circulation to greenhouse gas-induced SST warming is investigated using large ensemble experiments with two AGCMs, with a focus on the robust feature of the poleward shift of the eddy driven jet. In these experiments, large ensembles of simulations are conducted by abruptly switching the SST forcing on from January 1st to focus on the wintertime circulation adjustment. A hybrid, finite amplitude wave activity budget analysis is performed to elucidate the nonlinear and irreversible aspects of the eddy-mean flow interaction during the adjustment of the zonal wind towards a poleward shifted state. The results confirm the results from earlier more idealized studies, particularly the importance of reduced dissipation of wave activity, in which the midlatitude decrease of effective diffusivity appears to be dominant. This reduction in dissipation increases the survival of midlatitude waves. These surviving waves, when reaching the upper propagation level in the upper troposphere, are subject to the influence of the increase of reflection phase speed at the poleward side of the mean jet, and thus more waves are reflected equatorward across the jet, giving rise to a poleward transport of momentum and thus an eddy momentum flux convergence for the poleward shift. The relative importance of wave breaking-induced PV mixing versus diabatic PV source in the evolution of the Lagrangian PV gradient is also investigated. The former plays the dominant role in the PV gradient formation during the initial phase of the jet shift, while the latter actually opposes the evolution of the Lagrangian PV gradient at times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Futatani, S.; Horton, W.; Kahlon, L. Z.; Kaladze, T. D.
2015-01-01
Nonlinear simulations of electromagnetic Rossby and Khantadze planetary waves in the presence of a shearless and sheared zonal flows in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer are carried out. The simulations show that the nonlinear action of the vortex structures keeps the solitary character in the presence of shearless zonal winds as well as the ideal solutions of solitary vortex in the absence of zonal winds. In the presence of sheared zonal winds, the zonal flows result in breaking into separate multiple smaller pieces. A passively convected scalar field is shown to clarify the transport associated with the vortices. The work shows that the zonal shear flows provide an energy source into the vortex structure according to the shear rate of the zonal winds.
Futatani, S.; Horton, W.; Kahlon, L. Z.; Kaladze, T. D.
2015-01-15
Nonlinear simulations of electromagnetic Rossby and Khantadze planetary waves in the presence of a shearless and sheared zonal flows in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer are carried out. The simulations show that the nonlinear action of the vortex structures keeps the solitary character in the presence of shearless zonal winds as well as the ideal solutions of solitary vortex in the absence of zonal winds. In the presence of sheared zonal winds, the zonal flows result in breaking into separate multiple smaller pieces. A passively convected scalar field is shown to clarify the transport associated with the vortices. The work shows that the zonal shear flows provide an energy source into the vortex structure according to the shear rate of the zonal winds.
Atanasiu, P; Tsiang, H; Lavergne, M; Chermann, J C
1977-01-01
A human rabies vaccine is prepared on bovine foetal kidney cells in absence of serum. This vaccine is concentrated and purified by zonal centrifugation. An immunogenic vaccine is obtained from the purified viral particles. Preliminary results are reported. PMID:563208
Stationary Zonal Flows during the Formation of the Edge Transport Barrier in the JET Tokamak
Hillesheim, J.
2016-01-01
High spatial resolution Doppler backscattering measurements in JET have enabled new insights into the development of the edge E-r. We observe fine-scale spatial structures in the edge E-r well with a wave number k(r rho i) approximate to 0.4-0.8, consistent with stationary zonal flows, the characteristics of which vary with density. The zonal flow amplitude and wavelength both decrease with local collisionality, such that the zonal flow E x B shear increases. Above the minimum of the L-H transition power threshold dependence on density, the zonal flows are present during L mode and disappear following the H-mode transition, while below the minimum they are reduced below measurable amplitude during L mode, before the L-H transition.
Asahi, Y. Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.
2014-05-15
Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger than or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.
Two- and three-dimensional natural and mixed convection simulation using modular zonal models
Wurtz, E.; Nataf, J.M.; Winkelmann, F.
1996-07-01
We demonstrate the use of the zonal model approach, which is a simplified method for calculating natural and mixed convection in rooms. Zonal models use a coarse grid and use balance equations, state equations, hydrostatic pressure drop equations and power law equations of the form {ital m} = {ital C}{Delta}{sup {ital n}}. The advantage of the zonal approach and its modular implementation are discussed. The zonal model resolution of nonlinear equation systems is demonstrated for three cases: a 2-D room, a 3-D room and a pair of 3-D rooms separated by a partition with an opening. A sensitivity analysis with respect to physical parameters and grid coarseness is presented. Results are compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genthon, C.; Le Treut, H.; Sadourny, R.; Jouzel, J.
1990-11-01
A Charney-Branscome based parameterization has been tested as a way of representing the eddy sensible heat transports missing in a zonally averaged dynamic model (ZADM) of the atmosphere. The ZADM used is a zonally averaged version of a General Circulation Model (GCM). The parameterized transports in the ZADM are gaged against the corresponding fluxes explicitly simulated in the GCM, using the same zonally averaged boundary conditions in both models. The Charney-Branscome approach neglects stationary eddies and transient barotropic disturbances and relies on a set of simplifying assumptions, including the linear approximation, to describe growing transient baroclinic eddies. Nevertheless, fairly satisfactory results are obtained when the parameterization is performed interactively with the model. Compared with noninteractive tests, a very efficient restoring feedback effect between the modeled zonal-mean climate and the parameterized meridional eddy transport is identified.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Genthon, Christophe; Le Treut, Herve; Sadourny, Robert; Jouzel, Jean
1990-01-01
A Charney-Branscome based parameterization has been tested as a way of representing the eddy sensible heat transports missing in a zonally averaged dynamic model (ZADM) of the atmosphere. The ZADM used is a zonally averaged version of a general circulation model (GCM). The parameterized transports in the ZADM are gaged against the corresponding fluxes explicitly simulated in the GCM, using the same zonally averaged boundary conditions in both models. The Charney-Branscome approach neglects stationary eddies and transient barotropic disturbances and relies on a set of simplifying assumptions, including the linear appoximation, to describe growing transient baroclinic eddies. Nevertheless, fairly satisfactory results are obtained when the parameterization is performed interactively with the model. Compared with noninteractive tests, a very efficient restoring feedback effect between the modeled zonal-mean climate and the parameterized meridional eddy transport is identified.
Studies of Zonal Flows Driven by Drift Mode Turbulence in Laboratory and Space Plasmas
Bingham, R.; Trines, R.; Dunlop, M. W.; Davies, J. A.; Bamford, R. A.; Mendonca, J. T.; Silva, L. O.; Shukla, P. K.; Vaivads, A.; Mori, W. B.; Tynan, G.
2008-10-15
The interaction between broadband drift mode turbulence and zonal flows is an important topic associated with transport at plasma boundaries. The generation of zonal flows by the modulational instability of broad band drift waves has resulted in the observation of self organized solitary wave structures at the magnetopause. To understand these structures and their importance to future burning plasmas and space plasmas we have developed a unique numerical simulation code that describes drift wave--zonal flow turbulence. We show that observations by cluster spacecraft confirms the role of drift wave zonal flow turbulence at the Earth's magnetopause and further demonstrates that the magnetopause boundary acts in a s similar manner to transport barriers in tokamak fusion devices. Thus cementing the relationship between the plasma physics of laboratory devices and space plasmas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hou, Arthur Y.; Goody, Richard M.; Fels, Stephen B.
1990-01-01
The equilibrium zonal wind structure resulting from the interaction of the semidiurnal tide and the mean meridional circulation driven by the zonally averaged solar heating above the Venus cloud base were calculated. The results show that the tidal mechanism proposed by Fels and Lindzen (1974) can account for a substantial fraction (and possibly all) of the increase of the equatorial wind speed above the cloud base. Above the cloud tops, tidal deceleration may be too small to produce the zonal wind decrease with height inferred from thermal data. Tidal forcing does not explain the superrotation below the clouds, and additional eddy sources are needed to account for the zonal wind structure at mid and high latitudes.
Thermodynamic and dynamic controls on changes in the zonally anomalous hydrological cycle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wills, Robert C.; Byrne, Michael P.; Schneider, Tapio
2016-05-01
The wet gets wetter, dry gets drier paradigm explains the expected moistening of the extratropics and drying of the subtropics as the atmospheric moisture content increases with global warming. Here we show, using precipitation minus evaporation (P - E) data from climate models, that it cannot be extended to apply regionally to deviations from the zonal mean. Wet and dry zones shift substantially in response to shifts in the stationary-eddy circulations that cause them. Additionally, atmospheric circulation changes lead to a smaller increase in the zonal variance of P - E than would be expected from atmospheric moistening alone. The P - E variance change can be split into dynamic and thermodynamic components through an analysis of the atmospheric moisture budget. This reveals that a weakening of stationary-eddy circulations and changes in the zonal variation of transient-eddy moisture fluxes moderate the strengthening of the zonally anomalous hydrological cycle with global warming.
Stationary Zonal Flows during the Formation of the Edge Transport Barrier in the JET Tokamak.
Hillesheim, J C; Delabie, E; Meyer, H; Maggi, C F; Meneses, L; Poli, E; Jet Contributors
2016-02-12
High spatial resolution Doppler backscattering measurements in JET have enabled new insights into the development of the edge Er. We observe fine-scale spatial structures in the edge Er well with a wave number krρi≈0.4-0.8, consistent with stationary zonal flows, the characteristics of which vary with density. The zonal flow amplitude and wavelength both decrease with local collisionality, such that the zonal flow E×B shear increases. Above the minimum of the L-H transition power threshold dependence on density, the zonal flows are present during L mode and disappear following the H-mode transition, while below the minimum they are reduced below measurable amplitude during L mode, before the L-H transition. PMID:26918997
Xiao Yong; Catto, Peter J.
2006-10-15
Sheared zonal flow helps to reduce the turbulent transport caused by the ion temperature gradient mode. Rosenbluth and Hinton (R-H) calculated the residual zonal flow level for radial wavelengths that are much larger than the ion poloidal gyroradius. Their calculation is extended to treat arbitrary radial wavelengths. For the radial wavelengths that approach the ion poloidal gyroradius, but are much larger than the ion gyroradius, an analytical formula is obtained. For radial wavelengths that are comparable or shorter than the poloidal ion gyroradius and the ion gyroradius a numerical solution is provided. These small radial wavelength results are then extended into the electron temperature gradient regime, where the residual zonal flow level is large but ineffective in regulating the turbulence, indicating that the conventional R-H explanation that zonal flow regulates turbulence is incomplete.
Stationary zonal flows during the formation of the edge transport barrier in the JET tokamak
Hillesheim, J. C.; Meyer, H.; Maggi, C. F.; Meneses, L.; Poli, E.; Delabie, E.
2016-02-10
In this study, high spatial resolution Doppler backscattering measurements in JET have enabled new insights into the development of the edge Er. We observe fine-scale spatial structures in the edge Er well with a wave number krρi ≈ 0.4-0.8, consistent with stationary zonal flows, the characteristics of which vary with density. The zonal flow amplitude and wavelength both decrease with local collisionality, such that the zonal flow E x B shear increases. Above the minimum of the L-H transition power threshold dependence on density, the zonal flows are present during L mode and disappear following the H-mode transition, while belowmore » the minimum they are reduced below measurable amplitude during L mode, before the L-H transition.« less
Ion Layer Separation and Equilibrium Zonal Winds in Midlatitude Sporadic E
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Earle, G. D.; Kane, T. J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Bounds, S. R.
2000-01-01
In-situ observations of a moderately strong mid-latitude sporadic-E layer show a separation in altitude between distinct sublayers composed of Fe(+), Mg(+), and NO(+). From these observations it is possible to estimate the zonal wind field consistent with diffusive equilibrium near the altitude of the layer. The amplitude of the zonal wind necessary to sustain the layer against diffusive effects is less than 10 meters per second, and the vertical wavelength is less than 10 km.
Fluctuating zonal flows in the I-mode regime in Alcator C-Moda)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cziegler, I.; Diamond, P. H.; Fedorczak, N.; Manz, P.; Tynan, G. R.; Xu, M.; Churchill, R. M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Lipschultz, B.; Sierchio, J. M.; Terry, J. L.; Theiler, C.
2013-05-01
Velocity fields and density fluctuations of edge turbulence are studied in I-mode [F. Ryter et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 40, 725 (1998)] plasmas of the Alcator C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] tokamak, which are characterized by a strong thermal transport barrier in the edge while providing little or no barrier to the transport of both bulk and impurity particles. Although previous work showed no clear geodesic-acoustic modes (GAM) on C-Mod, using a newly implemented, gas-puff-imaging based time-delay-estimate velocity inference algorithm, GAM are now shown to be ubiquitous in all I-mode discharges examined to date, with the time histories of the GAM and the I-mode specific [D. Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)] Weakly Coherent Mode (WCM, f = 100-300 kHz, Δf/f≈0.5, and kθ≈1.3 cm-1) closely following each other through the entire duration of the regime. Thus, the I-mode presents an example of a plasma state in which zero frequency zonal flows and GAM continuously coexist. Using two-field (density-velocity and radial-poloidal velocity) bispectral methods, the GAM are shown to be coupled to the WCM and to be responsible for its broad frequency structure. The effective nonlinear growth rate of the GAM is estimated, and its comparison to the collisional damping rate seems to suggest a new view on I-mode threshold physics.
Effects of Collisional Zonal Flow Damping on ITG turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Zhihong
1999-11-01
In most previous transport studies, ion-ion collisions have been assumed to have little or no effect on the ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence, and tokamak core ion thermal transport have been considered ``collisionless''. However, recent transport scaling studies on DIII-D(C.C. Petty and T.C. Luce, Phys. Plasmas) 6, 909 (1999). core plasmas showed that effective thermal diffusivity strongly depends on collisionality in the H-mode, and is almost independent of collisionality in the L-mode. Here we report results of massively parallel gyrokinetic particle simulations which show that the ion thermal transport from electrostatic ITG turbulence depends on ion-ion collisions for representative tokamak core H-mode plasma parameters. The collisionality-dependence of the turbulent transport comes from the neoclassical damping of self-generated E × B zonal flows(Z. Lin, T.S. Hahm, W.W. Lee, W.M. Tang, and R.B. White, Science) 281, 1835 (1998). which regulate the turbulence. The results from our full torus gyrokinetic simulations with a momentum and energy conserving Fokker-Planck operator are consistent with the experimental observation that the collisional dependence of transport is much more pronounced in the enhanced confinement regime where turbulence is expected to be weaker than that of typical L-mode plasmas. Furthermore, the fluctuations and heat transport in these simulations exhibit bursting behavior with a period corresponding to the collisional damping time of poloidal flows. This is consistent with the observation in TFTR core plasmas(E. Mazzucato et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3145 (1996). of a density fluctuation bursting with a period ( ~ 3 ms) close to the collisional flow damping time calculated from experimental plasma parameters.
Characterization and Origin of Zonal Sapphire from Shandong Province, China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Xiaoyan; Niu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Linghao
2015-02-01
Shandong Province is the main producer of sapphire in China. Among the sapphire deposits discovered in China, Shandong sapphire hosted in Cenzoic basalt shows a great variety of features, especially for in zoning. These sapphire crystals are generally large in size, with depth in color and well-developed zoning. In this article, the characteristics of zonal sapphire have been studied by using petrography, trace element data from laser ablation inductively coupled with plasma-mass spectrometry, and Raman spectrometry. The trace elements variation is proposed to correspond with their parent magma composition, and the changes in growth environment of sapphire have resulted in the formation of zoning features. Sapphires from different geological settings have different characteristics. Trace elements in sapphire not only affect the color but also reflect the changes of physical and chemical conditions of sapphire growth. The concentration of impurity elements in the zoning core of Shandong sapphire is the highest, indicating that the parent magma of Shandong sapphire-host basaltic rock is rich in trace elements. Fe content is more than 2.00% in the zoning core, which causes the deepest color in the samples. It also suggests that the total content of Fe is positively correlated to the band color. The Raman spectrum shows that the spectrum peaks at 246 cm-1 caused by Fe3+ vary regularly with the band color, which shows that Fe is dominated by Fe3+ in Shandong sapphire. With the changes of forming condition, the parent magma composition has changed accordingly, which causes the zoning formation.
Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.
Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning
2013-01-01
The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, Alexey V.; Burls, Natalie J.; Lawrence, Kira T.; Peterson, Laura C.
2015-12-01
The climate of the tropics and surrounding regions is defined by pronounced zonal (east-west) and meridional (equator to mid-latitudes) gradients in sea surface temperature. These gradients control zonal and meridional atmospheric circulations, and thus the Earth’s climate. Global cooling over the past five million years, since the early Pliocene epoch, was accompanied by the gradual strengthening of these temperature gradients. Here we use records from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, including a new alkenone palaeotemperature record from the South Pacific, to reconstruct changes in zonal and meridional sea surface temperature gradients since the Pliocene, and assess their connection using a comprehensive climate model. We find that the reconstructed zonal and meridional temperature gradients vary coherently over this time frame, showing a one-to-one relationship between their changes. In our model simulations, we systematically reduce the meridional sea surface temperature gradient by modifying the latitudinal distribution of cloud albedo or atmospheric CO2 concentration. The simulated zonal temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific adjusts proportionally. These experiments and idealized modelling indicate that the meridional temperature gradient controls upper-ocean stratification in the tropics, which in turn controls the zonal gradient along the equator, as well as heat export from the tropical oceans. We conclude that this tight linkage between the two sea surface temperature gradients posits a fundamental constraint on both past and future climates.
Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses
Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning
2013-01-01
The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683
Chaotic transport in zonal flows in analogous geophysical and plasma systems
Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego
2000-05-01
Zonal flows occur naturally in geophysical fluids. Important examples include Jupiter's zonal flows, large scale jets in the earth's stratosphere, and oceanic jets like the Gulf Stream. These zonal flows create transport barriers that have a crucial influence on mixing and confinement. On the other hand, zonal flows have also been observed in fusion plasmas and their role in the reduction of transport has been widely recognized. Based on the analogy between Rossby waves in quasigeostrophic flows and drift waves in magnetically confined plasmas, recent models and laboratory experiments developed for studying transport in geophysical fluid dynamics are discussed in the context of plasma physics. The flows considered are not turbulent and are dominated by large scale coherent structures which we describe with simple deterministic Hamiltonian models that exhibit chaotic transport. Two transport problems are studied: the role of drift/Rossby waves in the destruction of transport barriers, and the statistics of test particle motion. It is shown that non-monotonic zonal flows close to marginal stability typically exhibit robust transport barriers at the peak velocity where the shear locally vanishes. Also, it is shown that the trapping effect of vortices combined with the zonal flows gives rise to anomalous diffusion and Levy (non-Gaussian) statistics. The models are compared with fluid laboratory experiment. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Chang, Xijiang; Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 ; Kunii, Kazuki; Liang, Rongqing; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University,3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561
2013-11-14
A large-area planar plasma source with a resonant cavity type launcher driven by a 915 MHz ultra-high frequency wave was developed. Theoretical analysis with the three-dimensional finite difference time-domain simulation was carried out to determine the optimized launcher structure by analyzing the resonant transverse magnetic mode in the resonant cavity. Numerical result expects that the resonant electric field distribution inside the cavity dominantly consists of the TM{sub 410} mode. The resonant cavity type launcher having 8 holes in an octagonal geometry was designed to fit the resonant transverse magnetic mode. Adjusting 8 hole positions of the launcher to the field pattern of the resonant TM{sub 410} mode, we found that the plasma density increased about 40%∼50% from 1.0∼1.1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} to ∼1.5 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} at the same incident power of 2.5 kW, compared with the previous results with the launcher having 6 holes in the hexagonal geometry. It is also noted that the electron density changes almost linearly with the incident wave power without any mode jumps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaladze, T. D.; Kahlon, L. Z.; Tsamalashvili, L. V.
2012-02-01
Nonlinear dynamics of Rossby-Khantadze electromagnetic planetary waves in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer is investigated. Along with the prevalent effect of Hall conductivity for these waves, the latitudinal inhomogeneity of both the Earth's angular velocity and the geomagnetic field becomes essential. It is shown that such short wavelength turbulence of Rossby-Khantadze waves is unstable with respect to the excitation of low-frequency and large-scale perturbations of the zonal flow and magnetic field. The nonlinear mechanism of the instability is driven by the advection of vorticity, leading to the inverse energy cascade toward the longer wavelength. The growth rate of the corresponding instability is found. It is shown that the generation of the intense mean magnetic field is caused by the latitudinal gradient of the geomagnetic field.
Disturbance zonal and vertical plasma drifts in the Peruvian sector during solar minimum phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.
2016-03-01
In the present work, we investigate the behavior of the equatorial F region zonal plasma drifts over the Peruvian region under magnetically disturbed conditions during two solar minimum epochs, one of them being the recent prolonged solar activity minimum. The study utilizes the vertical and zonal components of the plasma drifts measured by the Jicamarca (11.95°S; 76.87°W) incoherent scatter radar during two events that occurred on 10 April 1997 and 24 June 2008 and model calculation of the zonal drift in a realistic ionosphere simulated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model-INPE. Two main points are focused: (1) the connection between electric fields and plasma drifts under prompt penetration electric field during a disturbed periods and (2) anomalous behavior of daytime zonal drift in the absence of any magnetic storm. A perfect anticorrelation between vertical and zonal drifts was observed during the night and in the initial and growth phases of the magnetic storm. For the first time, based on a realistic low-latitude ionosphere, we will show, on a detailed quantitative basis, that this anticorrelation is driven mainly by a vertical Hall electric field induced by the primary zonal electric field in the presence of an enhanced nighttime E region ionization. It is shown that an increase in the field line-integrated Hall-to-Pedersen conductivity ratio (∑H/∑P), which can arise from precipitation of energetic particles in the region of the South American Magnetic Anomaly, is capable of explaining the observed anticorrelation between the vertical and zonal plasma drifts. Evidence for the particle ionization is provided from the occurrence of anomalous sporadic E layers over the low-latitude station, Cachoeira Paulista (22.67°S; 44.9°W)—Brazil. It will also be shown that the zonal plasma drift reversal to eastward in the afternoon two hours earlier than its reference quiet time pattern is possibly caused by weakening of the zonal wind
An implicit, conservative, zonal-boundary scheme for Euler equation calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, M. M.
1985-01-01
A zonal, or patched, grid approach is one in which the flow region of interest is divided into subregions which are then discretized independently, using existing grid generators. The equations of motion are integrated in each subregion in conjunction with zonal boundary schemes which allow proper information transfer across interfaces that separate subregions. The zonal approach greatly simplifies the treatment of complex geometries and also the addition of grid points to selected regions of the flow. A conservative, zonal boundary condition that could be used with explicit schemes was extended so that it can be used with existing second order accurate implicit integration schemes such as the Beam-Warming and Osher schemes. In the test case considered, the implicit schemes increased the rate of convergence considerably (by a factor of about 30 over that of the explicit scheme). Results demonstrating the time accuracy of the zonal scheme and the feasibility of performing calculations on zones that move relative to each other are also presented.
Zonally symmetric tides in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere above Antarctica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, Damian; Aso, Takehiko; Fritts, Dave C.; Hibbins, Robert E.; McDonald, Adrian; Riggin, Dennis; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Vincent, Robert
Concurrent operation of the MF radars at Davis (69S, 78E), Syowa (69S, 30E), Rothera (68S, 68W) and Scott Base (78S, 167E) in Antarctica provides unprecedented global-scale coverage of the polar wind field in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT: 80-100km) on short time scales. Coupled with a linear approximation to the latitudinal structure of atmospheric tides, it is possible to extract time series of the diurnal and semidiurnal tides at various zonal wave numbers. Such an analysis has identified non-zero zonally symmetric (wavenumber zero) tides in the meridional wind. The continuity equation, cast in spherical polar coordinates, relates the magnitude and slope (with latitude) of the zonally averaged meridional wind to the change in the vertical mass flux with height. Meridional velocity variations associated with the zonally symmetric tides should therefore drive vertical motions whose magnitude can be obtained by integrating the vertical mass flux. In this study, diurnal and semidiurnal vertical motions are predicted from MF radar derived tidal amplitudes during 2003/2004 and 2005/2006. A simple vertical transport model that combines the effects of air parcel movement and adiabatic expansion is used to predict the temperature perturbations associated with these zonally symmetric tidal components. These can then be compared to proxy temperature observations to infer the relative importance of horizontal transport and vertical motions.
The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Howard, N. T.; Holland, C.
2016-06-01
The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the threshold for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. The zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ion-scale gyrokinetic simulations.
Gyrokinetic study of the spatial entropy dynamics in turbulent plasmas with zonal flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imadera, Kenji; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Li, Jiquan; Utsumi, Takayuki
2009-11-01
We have developed a new computational algorithm based on the IDO-CF (Conservative Form of Interpolated Differential Operator) scheme [1], which is efficient in capturing sharp domain structure in long time scale, for solving full-f Gyrokineitc Vlasov-Poisson system. By using the developed code, we have performed the ITG simulation focusing on entropy dynamics and associated zonal flow formation. Here, we have introduced the modified local entropy defined asδSm(x)=<δf^2/ 2f0(-1+v||^2 /T) >yzdv , which retains the spatial information. It is found that the entropy balances with the acoustic coupling driven by ITG mode in the linear stage, and then the zonal flows expel the entropy to outside region via its convection. The spatial structure of the entropy is regulated by the zonal flows, and finally, the quasi-steady state where the entropy and zonal flows have similar structure is established. This indicates that the zonal flows couple with the entropy spatially [1] Y.Imai et al., J. Comput. Phys. 227 (2008) 2263.
Buoyancy storms in a zonal stream on the polar beta-plane: Experiments with altimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sui, Y.; Afanasyev, Y. D.
2013-06-01
Results from a new series of experiments on flows generated by localized heating in the presence of a background zonal current on the polar β-plane are presented. The flow induced by a heater without the background zonal flow is in the form of a β-plume. Zonal jets of alternating directions are formed within the plume. The westward transport velocity in the plume is proportional to the upwelling velocity above the heater in agreement with linear theory. When the background flow in the form of the eastward zonal current is present, the β-plume can be overwhelmed by the eastward current. The main control parameters of the experiment are the strength of the heater and strength of the sink which is used to create the background flow. The regime diagram shows the area where a β-plume can exist in the parameter space. The critical value of the velocity of the zonal flow below which the β-plume can exist is obtained by considering barotropic Rossby waves emitted by the baroclinic eddies in the heated area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaatri, A.; Komm, R.; González Hernández, I.; Howe, R.; Corbard, T.
2006-07-01
We study the North South asymmetry of zonal and meridional components of horizontal, solar subsurface flows during the years 2001 2004, which cover the declining phase of solar cycle 23. We measure the horizontal flows from the near-surface layers to 16 Mm depth by analyzing 44 consecutive Carrington rotations of Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Doppler images with a ring-diagram analysis technique. The meridional flow and the errors of both flow components show an annual variation related to the B 0-angle variation, while the zonal flow is less affected by the B 0-angle variation. After correcting for this effect, the meridional flow is mainly poleward but it shows a counter cell close to the surface at high latitudes in both hemispheres. During the declining phase of the solar cycle, the meridional flow mainly increases with time at latitudes poleward of about 20˚, while it mainly decreases at more equatorward latitudes. The temporal variation of the zonal flow in both hemispheres is significantly correlated at latitudes less than about 20˚. The zonal flow is larger in the southern hemisphere than the northern one, and this North South asymmetry increases with depth. Details of the North South asymmetry of zonal and meridional flow reflect the North South asymmetry of the magnetic flux. The North South asymmetries of the flows show hints of a variation with the solar cycle.
The response of a zonally symmetric atmosphere to subtropical thermal forcing - Threshold behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plumb, R. A.; Hou, Arthur Y.
1992-01-01
We consider the response of a zonally symmetric atmosphere to a thermal forcing that is localized in the subtropics. Specifically, the equilibrium temperature distribution has a local subtropical peak and is flat elsewhere, including at the equator. On the basis of inviscid steady-state theory, it is argued that the response to such forcing is one of two distinct types. Below a threshold forcing, the atmosphere adopts a steady state of thermal equilibrium with no meridional flow. With supercritical forcing, this state breaks down and a strong meridional circulation is predicted. The threshold forcing value is that at which the absolute vorticity of the zonal flow (in gradient balance with the equilibrium temperatures) vanishes at the upper boundary. These inviscid predictions are tested in a zonally symmetric numerical model; while the model viscosity shifts the threshold and otherwise modifies the response, the threshold is clearly evident in the model behavior.
Calculation of Zonal Winds using Accelerometer and Rate Data from Mars Global Surveyor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baird, Darren T.; Tolson, Robert; Bougher, Stephen; Steers, Brian
2006-01-01
The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft was initially placed into a high eccentricity, nearly polar orbit about Mars with a 45-hour period. To accomplish the science objectives of the mission, a 2-hour, circular orbit was required. Using a method known as aerobraking, numerous passes through the upper atmosphere slowed the spacecraft, thereby reducing the orbital period and eccentricity. To successfully perform aerobraking, the spacecraft was designed to be longitudinally, aerodynamically stable in pitch and yaw. Since the orbit is nearly polar, the yaw orientation of the spacecraft was sensitive to disturbances caused by the zonal components of wind (east-to-west or west-to-east) acting on the spacecraft at aerobraking altitudes. Zonal wind velocities were computed by equating the aerodynamic and inertia-related torques acting on the spacecraft. Comparisons of calculated zonal winds with those computed from the Mars Thermospheric Global Circulation Model are discussed.
Zonal flow generation and its feedback on turbulence production in drift wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pushkarev, Andrey V.; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Nazarenko, Sergey V.
2013-04-01
Plasma turbulence described by the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations is simulated numerically for different models and values of the adiabaticity parameter C. It is found that for low values of C turbulence remains isotropic, zonal flows are not generated and there is no suppression of the meridional drift waves and particle transport. For high values of C, turbulence evolves towards highly anisotropic states with a dominant contribution of the zonal sector to the kinetic energy. This anisotropic flow leads to a decrease of turbulence production in the meridional sector and limits the particle transport across the mean isopycnal surfaces. This behavior allows to consider the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations a minimal PDE model, which contains the drift-wave/zonal-flow feedback loop mechanism.
Zonal flow generation and its feedback on turbulence production in drift wave turbulence
Pushkarev, Andrey V.; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Nazarenko, Sergey V.
2013-04-15
Plasma turbulence described by the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations is simulated numerically for different models and values of the adiabaticity parameter C. It is found that for low values of C turbulence remains isotropic, zonal flows are not generated and there is no suppression of the meridional drift waves and particle transport. For high values of C, turbulence evolves towards highly anisotropic states with a dominant contribution of the zonal sector to the kinetic energy. This anisotropic flow leads to a decrease of turbulence production in the meridional sector and limits the particle transport across the mean isopycnal surfaces. This behavior allows to consider the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations a minimal PDE model, which contains the drift-wave/zonal-flow feedback loop mechanism.
Zonally averaged model of dynamics, chemistry and radiation for the atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tung, K. K.
1985-01-01
A nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation is formulated using the nonlinear primitive equations on a sphere, taking advantage of the more direct relationship between the mean meridional circulation and diabatic heating rate which is available in isentropic coordinates. Possible differences between results of nongeostrophic theory and the commonly used geostrophic formulation are discussed concerning: (1) the role of eddy forcing of the diabatic circulation, and (2) the nonlinear nearly inviscid limit vs the geostrophic limit. Problems associated with the traditional Rossby number scaling in quasi-geostrophic formulations are pointed out and an alternate, more general scaling based on the smallness of mean meridional to zonal velocities for a rotating planet is suggested. Such a scaling recovers the geostrophic balanced wind relationship for the mean zonal flow but reveals that the mean meridional velocity is in general ageostrophic.
Conservative zonal schemes for patched grids in 2 and 3 dimensions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hessenius, Kristin A.
1987-01-01
The computation of flow over complex geometries, such as realistic aircraft configurations, poses difficult grid generation problems for computational aerodynamicists. The creation of a traditional, single-module grid of acceptable quality about an entire configuration may be impossible even with the most sophisticated of grid generation techniques. A zonal approach, wherein the flow field is partitioned into several regions within which grids are independently generated, is a practical alternative for treating complicated geometries. This technique not only alleviates the problems of discretizing a complex region, but also facilitates a block processing approach to computation thereby circumventing computer memory limitations. The use of such a zonal scheme, however, requires the development of an interfacing procedure that ensures a stable, accurate, and conservative calculation for the transfer of information across the zonal borders.
Convergence acceleration for a three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes zonal approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flores, J.
1985-01-01
A fast diagonal algorithm is coupled with a zonal approach to solve the three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. Transonic viscous solutions are obtained on a 150,000 point mesh for a NACA 0012 wing. The new computational approach yields a speedup by as much as a factor of 40 over the standard Beam-Warming algorithm/zonal method originally coded. A three-order-of-magnitude drop in the L2-norm of the residual requires approximately 500 iterations, which takes about 45 min of CPU time on a Cray-XMP. The numerically computed solutions are in good agreement with experimental results. Effects on convergence rate owing to increasing the zonal boundary overlap regions, different stretching distributions in the viscous regions, and different CFL values are also explored.
Zonal calculation for large scale drought monitoring based on MODIS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hongjun; Zheng, Li; Li, Chunqiang; Lei, Yuping
2006-08-01
Temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) is a simple and effective methods for drought monitoring. In this study, the statistic characteristics of MODIS-EVI and MODI-NDVI at two different times were analyzed and compared. NDVI reaches saturation in well-vegetated areas while EVI has no such a shortcoming. In current study, we used MODIS-EVI as vegetation index for TVDI. The analysis of vegetation index and land surface temperature at different latitudes and different times showed that there was a zonal distribution of land surface parameters. It is therefore necessary to calculate the TVDI with a zonal distribution. Compared with TVDI calculated for the whole region, the zonal calculation of TVDI increases the accuracy of regression equations of wet and dry edge, improves the correlations of TVDI and measured soil moisture, and the effectiveness of the large scale drought monitoring using remote sensing data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Mengyang; Li, Dahai; Zhang, Chen; E, Kewei; Hong, Zhihan; Li, Chengxu
2015-08-01
Zonal wavefront reconstruction by use of the well known Southwell algorithm with rectangular grid patterns has been considered in the literature. However, when the grid patterns are nonrectangular, modal wavefront reconstruction has been extensively used. We propose an improved zonal wavefront reconstruction algorithm for Hartmann type test with arbitrary grid patterns. We develop the mathematical expressions to show that the wavefront over arbitrary grid patterns, such as misaligned, partly obscured, and non-square mesh grids, can be estimated well. Both iterative solution and least-square solution for the proposed algorithm are described and compared. Numerical calculation shows that the zonal wavefront reconstruction over nonrectangular profile with the proposed algorithm results in a significant improvement in comparison with the Southwell algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, George Ilhwan; Moin, Parviz
2016-01-01
This paper focuses on numerical and practical aspects associated with a parallel implementation of a two-layer zonal wall model for large-eddy simulation (LES) of compressible wall-bounded turbulent flows on unstructured meshes. A zonal wall model based on the solution of unsteady three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations on a separate near-wall grid is implemented in an unstructured, cell-centered finite-volume LES solver. The main challenge in its implementation is to couple two parallel, unstructured flow solvers for efficient boundary data communication and simultaneous time integrations. A coupling strategy with good load balancing and low processors underutilization is identified. Face mapping and interpolation procedures at the coupling interface are explained in detail. The method of manufactured solution is used for verifying the correct implementation of solver coupling, and parallel performance of the combined wall-modeled LES (WMLES) solver is investigated. The method has successfully been applied to several attached and separated flows, including a transitional flow over a flat plate and a separated flow over an airfoil at an angle of attack.
A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, D. W.
1989-01-01
A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields is based on the coupling of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code to a potential flow code. By minimizing the extent of the viscous Navier-Stokes zones the zonal method can be a cost effective flow analysis tool. The successful coupling of the zonal solutions provides the viscous/inviscid interations that are necessary to achieve convergent and unique overall solutions. The feasibility of coupling the two vastly different codes is demonstrated. The interzone boundaries were overlapped to facilitate the passing of boundary condition information between the codes. Routines were developed to extract the normal velocity boundary conditions for the potential flow zone from the viscous zone solution. Similarly, the velocity vector direction along with the total conditions were obtained from the potential flow solution to provide boundary conditions for the Navier-Stokes solution. Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the overlap of the interzone boundaries and the convergence of the zonal solutions on the convergence of the overall solution. The zonal method was applied to a jet impingement problem to model the suckdown effect that results from the entrainment of the inviscid zone flow by the viscous zone jet. The resultant potential flow solution created a lower pressure on the base of the vehicle which produces the suckdown load. The feasibility of the zonal method was demonstrated. By enhancing the Navier-Stokes code for powered-lift flow fields and optimizing the convergence of the coupled analysis a practical flow analysis tool will result.
Thermodynamic and dynamic controls on the amplitude of the zonally anomalous hydrological cycle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wills, Robert; Byrne, Michael; Schneider, Tapio
2016-04-01
The "wet gets wetter, dry gets drier" paradigm is a useful starting point for under- standing zonal-mean changes in precipitation minus evaporation (P-E). It can explain the expected moistening of the high latitudes and drying of the subtropics in response to global warming. We examine P-E changes over the next century in comprehensive climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). We show that "wet gets wetter, dry gets drier" can not be extended to apply to regional variations about the zonal mean, which account for the majority of the spatial variability of P-E in the modern climate. Wet and dry zones shift substantially in response to shifts in the stationary-eddy circulations that cause them. The largest changes are in the tropical oceans where wet zones get drier and dry zones get wetter in response to a restructuring and decrease in strength of tropical circulations such as the Walker circulation. Further progress can be made by examining changes in the zonal variance of P-E. The zonal variance of P-E increases robustly at all latitudes in the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP8.5 scenario, but with a smaller fractional increase than the moisture content of the atmosphere. The variance change can be split into dynamic and thermodynamic components by relating it to changes in surface specific humidity, stationary-eddy divergent circulations, and transient-eddy fluxes. The modeled sub Clausius-Clapeyron change of zonal P-E variance gives evidence of a decrease in stationary-eddy overturning and in zonally anomalous transient-eddy moisture flux convergence with global warming.
Electromagnetic interchange-like mode and zonal flow in electron-magnetohydrodynamic plasma
Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Horiuchi, Ritoku
2006-10-15
A numerical simulation of the nonlinear state of interchange instability associated with electron inertia in an unmagnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that a self-consistent sheared transverse electron current flow is generated due to nonlinear mechanisms. This zonal flow can reduce the growth rate of the magnetic interchange-like instability and reach a steady state. The zonal flow generation mechanisms are discussed by truncated Fourier mode representation. In the truncated model, three mode equations are considered that have an exact analytic solution that matches well with the numerical solution. The effect of different boundary conditions in such investigations is also discussed.
Triple Cascade Behavior in Quasigeostrophic and Drift Turbulence and Generation of Zonal Jets
Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda
2009-09-11
We study quasigeostrophic (QG) and plasma drift turbulence within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. We focus on the zonostrophy, an extra invariant in the CHM model, and on its role in the formation of zonal jets. We use a generalized Fjoertoft argument for the energy, enstrophy, and zonostrophy and show that they cascade anisotropically into nonintersecting sectors in k space with the energy cascading towards large zonal scales. Using direct numerical simulations of the CHM equation, we show that zonostrophy is well conserved, and the three invariants cascade as predicted by the Fjoertoft argument.
Exploring the connections between dark spot dynamics and zonal wind structure on Uranus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Beau, Raymond P.; Palotai, Csaba
2015-11-01
The past several years have witnessed new observations revealing more clouds and long-lived features in the atmosphere of Uranus. Each new set of images provides new cloud-tracking data and the opportunity to assess the structure of the zonal winds on Uranus. This has led to a sequence of fits for the Uranian zonal winds with the latest entries being those proposed in Sromovsky et al. (2015). Karkoschka (2015) also provides a new view of the zonal winds, but in this case through reanalyzing the Voyager II observations. While all these profiles have in common features like a retrograde equatorial jet, the details of these profiles differ significantly. These differences can be further accentuated when considering the vorticity profiles derived from these zonal winds. As shown in LeBeau and Dowling (1998) and Hammel et al. (2009), atmospheric simulations using different zonal vorticity profiles suggest that the vorticity gradient can affect the dynamics of dark spot vortices in the atmosphere. Later work (Deng et al. 2009) has indicated that these dynamics may be further complicated by the presence of cloud companion features.To further investigate these interactions, some of the most recent zonal profiles are used in simulations of Uranus with the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) atmospheric model. By inducing vortices at different latitudes, the effects of different zonal wind profiles on these features can be investigated. A methane microphysics model is used to generate representative companion clouds. The subsequent vortex and companion cloud motions can then be compared to observations, providing another tool in the effort to understand possible changes in the zonal wind structure of Uranus.References:L.A. Sromovsky et al. Icarus 258:192-223, 2015E. Karkoschka. Icarus 250:294-307, 2015H.B. Hammel et al. Icarus 201:257-271, 2009R.P. LeBeau and T.E. Dowling. Icarus 132:239-265, 1998X. Deng et al. 1st AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments
Saturn’s Zonal Winds at Cloud Level between 2004-2013 from Cassini ISS Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blalock, John J.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ewald, Shawn P.; Ingersoll , Andrew P.
2014-11-01
We examine images of Saturn returned by Cassini orbiter’s Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) camera between 2004 to 2013 to analyze the temporal evolution of the zonal mean wind speed as a function of latitude. Our study primarily examines the images captured in the 752-nm continuum band using the CB2 filter. Images captured using the CB2 filter sense the upper troposphere of Saturn between 350 mbar and 500 mbar (Pérez-Hoyos and Sánchez-Lavega, 2006; Sánchez-Lavega et al, 2006; García-Melendo et al, 2009). We measure the wind speed using a two-dimensional Correlation Imaging Velocimetry (CIV) technique. The wind vectors are computed using pairs of images separated in time by up to two planetary rotations, and binned in latitude to determine the zonal mean wind profile, which typically covers a limited range of latitude. To achieve pole-to-pole coverage, we systematically merge all the wind measurements during each of the calendar years in order to compile a yearly, near-global record of Saturn's zonal wind structure. Using our wind measurements, we analyze the temporal evolution of the zonal wind. We specifically focus on changes in the wind profile after the 2009 equinox; we predict that changes in the insolation pattern caused by the shifting ring shadows affect the horizontal temperature gradient, and change the zonal mean wind through the thermal wind relationship. Furthermore, we also extend the zonal wind analysis by Sayanagi et al (2013), who detected changes in the zonal wind related to the Great Storm of 2010-2011, to study the subsequent evolution of the region affected by the storm. We compare our results with previously published zonal wind profiles obtained from Voyager 1 and 2 (Sánchez-Lavega et al, 2000) and Cassini (García-Melendo et al, 2011). Out study is supported by the Cassini Project, and our investigation is funded by NASA Outer Planets Research Program grant NNX12AR38G and NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics grant 1212216 to KMS.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Offermann, Dirk; Jackman, Charles H. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Gravity wave temperature fluctuations acquired by the CRISTA instrument are compared to previous estimates of zonal-mean gravity wave temperature variance inferred from the LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET satellite instruments during northern winter. Careful attention is paid to the range of vertical wavelengths resolved by each instrument. Good agreement between CRISTA data and previously published results from LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET are found. Key latitudinal features in these variances are consistent with previous findings from ground-based measurements and some simple models. We conclude that all four satellite instruments provide reliable global data on zonal-mean gravity wave temperature fluctuations throughout the middle atmosphere.
On the normal modes of Laplace's tidal equations for zonal wavenumber zero
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tanaka, H. L.; Kasahara, Akira
1992-01-01
The characteristic differences between two different rotational modes of Laplace's tidal equations for wavenumber m = 0, called the K- and the S-modes, are compared in their energy ratio and structures. It is shown that the K-mode representation captures most of the observed zonal energy with a few terms, whereas the S-mode representation requires many terms. For small vertical scale components, the K-mode series converges faster than the S-mode series. Attention is also given to the differences between the energy spectra projected upon the K- and S-modes and the merits of each set as expansion functions for the zonal atmospheric motions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Offermann, Dirk
2000-12-01
Gravity wave temperature fluctuations acquired by the CRISTA instrument are compared to previous estimates of zonal-mean gravity wave temperature variance inferred from the LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET satellite instruments during northern winter. Careful attention is paid to the range of vertical wavelengths resolved by each instrument. Good agreement between CRISTA data and previously published results from LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET are found. Key latitudinal features in these variances are consistent with previous findings from ground-based measurements and some simple models. We conclude that all four satellite instruments provide reliable global data on zonal-mean gravity wave temperature fluctuations throughout the middle atmosphere.
The Indian Ocean Zonal Mode over the past millennium in observed and modeled precipitation isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konecky, Bronwen; Russell, James; Vuille, Mathias; Rehfeld, Kira
2014-11-01
The Indian Ocean Zonal Mode (IOZM) has gained considerable attention in the past decade due to its role in causing widespread flooding and droughts in the continents and islands surrounding the Indian Ocean. The IOZM has also been observed to vary on a low-frequency (multi-decadal) basis, making its behavior important to understand both for mid-range 21st century climate prediction and for paleoclimate studies. Despite efforts to reconstruct the IOZM using corals and other high-resolution proxies, nonstationarities in the response of paleoclimate proxies to the IOZM have also been noted, raising the possibility that the IOZM may be difficult to reconstruct or to predict in the long-term. It is therefore critical to assess the low-frequency component of the IOZM in observed, modeled, and paleoclimate data from the Indian Ocean region in order to identify nonstationary behavior and to assess its role in low-frequency climate variations. We present an analysis of low-frequency and nonstationary behavior in the IOZM on multi-decadal to centennial timescales using a combination of modeled, observed, and proxy reconstructions of δ18O/δDprecip. In order to assess multiple timescales of low-frequency variability, we focus on two key time periods: the historical period (1870-2003), and the past millennium (1000 C.E.-present). We find significant nonstationarities in the relationships between the IOZM, precipitation amount, and δ18Oprecip/δDprecip during the historical period. These relationships vary on a multi-decadal basis in our model and in observed/reanalysis datasets. Air-sea interactions in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool and teleconnections to the Pacific Ocean, as well as the phase of the IOZM itself, may contribute to this nonstationary behavior. We examine the potential ramifications of nonstationary IOZM behavior using a synthesis of spatially distributed proxy archives of δ18Oprecip/δDprecip from both sides of the IOZM region spanning the past millennium. Our
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vancleef, Garrett Warren; Shaw, John H.
1989-01-01
Atmospheric winds at heights between 25 and 120 km have been retrieved with precisions of 5/ms from the Doppler shifts of atmospheric absorption lines measured from a satellite-borne instrument. Lines of the upsilon 3 CO2 and upsilon 2 H2O rotation-vibration bands caused by gases in the instrument allowed the instrumental frequency scale to be absolutely calibrated so that accurate relative speeds could be obtained. By comparing the positions of both sets of instrumental lines the calibration of the frequency scale was determined to be stable to a precision of less than 2 x 10(-5) cm during the course of each occultation. It was found that the instrumental resolution of 0.015 cm after apodization, the signal to noise ratio of about 100 and stable calibration allowed relative speeds to be determined to a precision of 5 ms or better by using small numbers of absorption lines between 1600 and 3200 cm. Absolute absorption line positions were simultaneously recovered to precisions of 5 x 10(-5) cm or better. The wind speed profiles determined from four sunset occultations and one sunrise occultation show remarkable similarities in the magnitudes and directions of the zonal wind velocities as functions of height. These wind profiles appear to be manifestations of atmospheric tides.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
North, G. R.; Bell, T. L.; Cahalan, R. F.; Moeng, F. J.
1982-01-01
Geometric characteristics of the spherical earth are shown to be responsible for the increase of variance with latitude of zonally averaged meteorological statistics. An analytic model is constructed to display the effect of a spherical geometry on zonal averages, employing a sphere labeled with radial unit vectors in a real, stochastic field expanded in complex spherical harmonics. The variance of a zonally averaged field is found to be expressible in terms of the spectrum of the vector field of the spherical harmonics. A maximum variance is then located at the poles, and the ratio of the variance to the zonally averaged grid-point variance, weighted by the cosine of the latitude, yields the zonal correlation typical of the latitude. An example is provided for the 500 mb level in the Northern Hemisphere compared to 15 years of data. Variance is determined to increase north of 60 deg latitude.
Influence of DE3 tide on the equinoctial asymmetry of the zonal mean ionospheric electron density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Zhipeng; Wan, Weixing; Xiong, Jiangang; Liu, Libo
2014-12-01
Through respectively adding September DE3 tide and March DE3 tide at the low boundary of Global Coupled Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Electrodynamics Model, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (GCITEM-IGGCAS), we simulate the influence of DE3 tide on the equinoctial asymmetry of the zonal mean ionospheric electron density. The influence of DE3 tide on the equinoctial asymmetry of the zonal mean electron density varies with latitude, altitude, and solar activity level. Compared with the density driven by the September DE3 tide, the March DE3 tide mainly decreases the lower ionospheric zonal mean electron density and mainly increases the electron density at higher ionosphere. In the low-latitude ionosphere, DE3 tide drives an equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) structure at higher ionosphere in the relative difference of zonal mean electron density, which suggests that DE3 tide affects the longitudinal mean equatorial vertical E × B plasma drifts. Although the lower ionospheric equinoctial asymmetry driven by DE3 tide mainly decreases with the increase of solar activity, the asymmetry at higher ionosphere mainly increases with solar activity. However, EIA in equinoctial asymmetry mainly decreases with the increase of solar activity.
Analysis of antifungal and anticancer effects of the extract from Pelargonium zonale.
Lewtak, Kinga; Fiołka, Marta J; Szczuka, Ewa; Ptaszyńska, Aneta A; Kotowicz, Natalia; Kołodziej, Przemysław; Rzymowska, Jolanta
2014-11-01
The extract from Pelargonium zonale stalks exhibits activity against Candida albicans and exerts an effect on the HeLa cell line. The action against C. albicans cells was analysed using light, CLSM, SEM, and TEM microscopes. The observations indicate that the extract influenced fungal cell morphology and cell metabolic activity. The morphological changes include cell wall damage, deformations of cell surfaces, and abnormalities in fungal cell shape and size. Cells of C. albicans treated with the extract exhibited disturbances in the budding pattern and a tendency to form agglomerates and multicellular chains. The P. zonale extract caused a significant decrease in the metabolic activity of C. albicans cells. Cells died via both apoptosis and necrosis. The antitumor activity of the extract was analysed using the MTT assay. The P. zonale extract exhibited minor cytotoxicity against the HeLa cell line but a dose-dependent cytopathic effect was noticed. The P. zonale extract is a promising source for the isolation of antifungal and anticancer compounds. PMID:24972056
Daytime zonal drifts in the ionospheric E and 150 km regions estimated using EAR observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peddapati, PavanChaitanya; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Patra, Amit
2016-07-01
The Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR), located at Kototabang (0.2o S, 100.32o E, mag. lat. 10.36o S), Indonesia, is capable of detecting both E region and 150 km echoes during daytime. We have conducted multi-beam observations using the EAR during daytime covering all seasons to study seasonal variations of these echoes and their dynamics. Given the facts that drifts at the 150 km region are governed primarily by electric field, drifts at the E region are governed by both electric field and neutral wind, simultaneous observations of drifts in both E and 150 km regions would help understand their variations. In this paper we present local time and seasonal variations of zonal drifts in the E and 150 km regions estimated using multi-beam observations. Zonal drifts (positive eastward) in the E and 150 km regions are found to be in the range of -10 to -60 m/s and -40 to 80 m/s, respectively. In the E region, zonal drifts show height reversal and temporal variations having tidal signature and noticeable seasonal variations. Zonal drifts in the 150 km region also show noticeable height and seasonal variations. These results are compared with model drifts and evaluated in terms of electric field and neutral wind.
Gravity and Zonal Flows of Giant Planets: From the Euler Equation to the Thermal Wind Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Hao; Stevenson, David J.
2015-11-01
The nature of the east-west zonal flows observed on the cloud level of the solar system giant planets remains to be determined. The upcoming gravity and magnetic field measurements to be carried out by the Juno mission and the Cassini Grand Finale provide an opportunity to establish an observational fact about whether these flows are shallow atmospheric dynamics or surface expression of deep interior dynamics. It is currently debated whether the thermal wind equation (TWE) is applicable in forward calculating the gravity field associated with deep zonal flows. Here we will present a critical comparison between the Euler equation and the thermal wind equation (TWE). The TWE, which is a local diagnostic relation, captures the local density variations associated with the zonal flows while neglects the global shape change and density variations with non-local origins. Our analysis shows that the global corrections to the high degree gravity moments are small (less than a few tens of percent). Our analysis also shows that the applicability of the TWE in calculating the gravity moments does depend crucially on retaining the non-sphericity of the background density and gravity. Only when the background non-sphericity of the planet is taken into account, the TWE makes accurate enough prediction (with a few tens of percent errors) for the high-degree gravity moments associated with deep zonal flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Paula, E. R.; Muella, M. T. A. H.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Batista, I. S.; Beach, T. L.; Groves, K. M.
2010-08-01
The Conjugate Point Equatorial Experiment (COPEX) campaign was carried out in Brazil, between October and December 2002, to study the conjugate nature of plasma bubble irregularities and to investigate their generation mechanisms, development characteristics, spatial-temporal distribution, and dynamics. In this work we will focus mainly on the zonal spaced GPS (1.575 GHz) and VHF (250 MHz) receivers' data collected simultaneously at two magnetic conjugate sites of the COPEX geometry: Boa Vista and Campo Grande. These GPS/VHF receivers were set up to detect the equatorial scintillations and to measure ionospheric scintillation pattern velocities. Then, the zonal irregularity drift velocities were estimated by applying a methodology that corrects the effects caused by vertical drifts and geometrical factors. The results reveal the coexistence of kilometer- (VHF) and hundred-meter-scale (GPS L-band) irregularities into the underlying depletion structure. Over the conjugate site of Campo Grande, the average zonal velocity at VHF seems to be consistently larger than the estimated GPS velocities until ˜0200 UT, whereas over Boa Vista the irregularities detected from both techniques are drifting with comparable velocities. The hundred-meter-scale structures causing L-band scintillations appear to be drifting with comparable velocities over both the conjugate sites, whereas the kilometer-scale structures are drifting over Campo Grande with larger average velocities (before 0300 UT). Complementary data of ionospheric parameters scaled from collocated digital ionosondes are used in the analysis to explain differences/similarities on the scintillation/zonal drift results.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
e Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flowers from zonal geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum). Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from Pelargonium × hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paraly...
Self-Organization of Zonal Jets in Outer Planet Atmospheres: Uranus and Neptune
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedson, A. James
1997-01-01
The statistical mechnical theory of a two-dimensional Euler fluid is appleid for the first time to explore the spontaneous self-oganization of zonal jets in outer planet atmospheres. Globally conserved integralls of motion are found to play a central role in defining jet structure.
A walk to remember: Endocrine Society of India Torrent Young Scholar Award East Zonal round 2015
Beatrice, Anne M.; Dutta, Deep
2015-01-01
This letter aims to bring out a few highlights and the experiences of the participants, audience, quizmasters, and the judges at Endocrine Society of India Torrent Young Scholar Award East Zonal round 2015 held in Kolkata on 6th September, 2015. PMID:26693440
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lamb, Janeen; Branson, Christopher M.
2015-01-01
This paper outlines actions that educational change leaders can take to better meet their curriculum change obligations and responsibilities. In order to do this we extend Vygotsky's (1978) zonal theory and its many extensions and elaborations by positioning educational change leadership within this theory. We rename the zones to Zone of Principal…
Effects of density stratification in driving zonal flow in gas giants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gastine, T.; Wicht, J.
2011-12-01
The banded structures at the surfaces of Jupiter and Saturn are associated with prograde and retrograde zonal flows. The depth of these jets remains however poorly known. Theoretical scenarios range from ``shallow models'', that assume that zonal flows are restricted to a very thin layer close to the surface; to ``deep models'' that suppose that the jets involve the whole molecular shell (typically 104 kms). The latter idea was supported by fully 3-D numerical simulations (e.g. Heimpel, 2005) using the Boussinesq approximation, meaning that the background properties (temperature, density, ...) are constant with radius (Christensen, 2002). While this approximation is suitable for liquid iron cores of planets, it is more questionable in the envelopes of gas giants, where density increases by several orders of magnitude (Guillot, 1999). The anelastic approximation provides a more realistic framework to simulate the dynamics of zonal flows as it allows compressibility effects, while filtering out fast acoustic waves (Lantz & Fan, 1999). Recent anelastic simulations suggest that including compressibility effects yields interesting differences to Boussinesq approaches (Jones, 2009; Showman et al., 2011). Here, we therefore adopt an anelastic formulation to simulate 3-D compressible flows in rapidly rotating shells. We have conducted a systematic parametric study on the effects of background density stratification and analysed the influences on both convective flows and zonal jets. Despite the strong dependence of convection on the density stratification (i.e. the typical lengthscale of convective flows decreases when compressibility increases), the comparison between Boussinesq and anelastic simulations reveals striking common features: the latitudinal extent, the amplitude and the number of zonal jets is found to be nearly independent of the density stratification, provided convection is strongly driven. Mass-weighted properties of the flow (and notably a mass
3D Effects in the Formation of Zonal Jets Through Inverse Cascade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Showman, A. P.
2006-09-01
The atmospheric zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn are characterized by the broad, prograde, equatorial jet and the narrower, higher-latitude jets that alternate between prograde and retrograde. The question of what controls the widths and directions of those jets remains a major unsolved problem in geophysical fluid dynamics. Past studies have shown that, in shallow flows on a rotating sphere, small random vortices can undergo inverse cascade to form zonal jets with a characteristic width called the Rhines scale. Most of the studies to date use 2D non-divergent or shallow-water models in studying this zonal jet formation mechanism. However, in the parameter ranges representative of the Jovian conditions, the flows produced by 2D non-divergent models are typically dominated by strong circumpolar jets, and the shallow-water models produce a robust retrograde equatorial jet. These models' apparent inabilities in reproducing some key Jovian jet features may suggest the importance of 3D effects in controlling the jets' large-scale horizontal structures. To date, Kitamura and Matsuda (Fluid Dynamics Research, 34, 33-57, 2004) is the only published study that analyzes the 3D effects in the zonalization of fine-scale random turbulence through the inverse cascade. Their two-layer primitive equation simulations of free-evolving flows resulted in circumpolar jet dominated flows, although slower mid-latitude jets are also present. Our study is a significant extension over that by Kitamura and Matsuda and includes substantially more layers to study the zonalization process to more fully resolve relevant 3D effects in the inverse cascade. We test the flow behavior's dependence on the deformation radius and the resulting vertical structures in both spherical and beta-plane geometries. Our study uses the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) model (Dowling et al, Icarus, 32, 221-238., 1998). The research is supported by a NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant to APS.
3D Effects in the Formation of Zonal Jets Through Inverse Cascade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayanagi, K. M.; Showman, A. P.
2006-12-01
The atmospheric zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn are characterized by the broad, prograde, equatorial jet and the narrower, higher-latitude jets that alternate between prograde and retrograde. The question of what controls the widths and directions of those jets remains a major unsolved problem in geophysical fluid dynamics. Past studies have shown that, in shallow flows on a rotating sphere, small random vortices can undergo inverse cascade to form zonal jets with a characteristic width called the Rhines scale. Most of the studies to date use 2D non-divergent or shallow-water models in studying this zonal jet formation mechanism. However, in the parameter ranges representative of the Jovian conditions, the flows produced by 2D non- divergent models are typically dominated by strong circumpolar jets, and the shallow-water models produce a robust retrograde equatorial jet. These models' apparent inabilities in reproducing some key Jovian jet features may suggest the importance of 3D effects in controlling the jets' large-scale horizontal structures. To date, Kitamura and Matsuda (Fluid Dynamics Research, 34, 33-57, 2004) is the only published study that analyzes the 3D effects in the zonalization of fine-scale random turbulence through the inverse cascade. Their two-layer primitive equation simulations of free-evolving flows resulted in circumpolar jet dominated flows, although slower mid-latitude jets are also present. Our study is a significant extension over that by Kitamura and Matsuda and includes substantially more layers to study the zonalization process to more fully resolve relevant 3D effects in the inverse cascade. We test the flow behavior's dependence on the deformation radius and the resulting vertical structures in both spherical and beta-plane geometries. Our study uses the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) model (Dowling et al, Icarus, 32, 221-238., 1998). The research is supported by a NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant to APS.
Zonal flow regimes in rotating anelastic spherical shells: An application to giant planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gastine, T.; Wicht, J.; Aurnou, J. M.
2013-07-01
The surface zonal winds observed in the giant planets form a complex jet pattern with alternating prograde and retrograde direction. While the main equatorial band is prograde on the gas giants, both ice giants have a pronounced retrograde equatorial jet. We use three-dimensional numerical models of compressible convection in rotating spherical shells to explore the properties of zonal flows in different regimes where either rotation or buoyancy dominates the force balance. We conduct a systematic parameter study to quantify the dependence of zonal flows on the background density stratification and the driving of convection. In our numerical models, we find that the direction of the equatorial zonal wind is controlled by the ratio of the global-scale buoyancy force and the Coriolis force. The prograde equatorial band maintained by Reynolds stresses is found in the rotation-dominated regime. In cases where buoyancy dominates Coriolis force, the angular momentum per unit mass is homogenized and the equatorial band is retrograde, reminiscent to those observed in the ice giants. In this regime, the amplitude of the zonal jets depends on the background density contrast with strongly stratified models producing stronger jets than comparable weakly stratified cases. Furthermore, our results can help to explain the transition between solar-like (i.e. prograde at the equator) and the "anti-solar" differential rotations (i.e. retrograde at the equator) found in anelastic models of stellar convection zones. In the strongly stratified cases, we find that the leading order force balance can significantly vary with depth. While the flow in the deep interior is dominated by rotation, buoyancy can indeed become larger than Coriolis force in a thin region close to the surface. This so-called "transitional regime" has a visible signature in the main equatorial jet which shows a pronounced dimple where flow amplitudes notably decay towards the equator. A similar dimple is observed on
Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, Kh. Z.
2011-02-15
A study is made of the generation and subsequent linear and nonlinear evolution of ultralow-frequency planetary electromagnetic waves in the E region of a dissipative ionosphere in the presence of a nonuniform zonal wind (a sheared flow). Hall currents flowing in the E region and such permanent global factors as the spatial nonuniformity of the geomagnetic field and of the normal component of the Earth's angular velocity give rise to fast and slow planetary-scale electromagnetic waves. The efficiency of the linear amplification of planetary electromagnetic waves in their interaction with a nonuniform zonal wind is analyzed. When there are sheared flows, the operators of linear problems are non-self-conjugate and the corresponding eigenfunctions are nonorthogonal, so the canonical modal approach is poorly suited for studying such motions and it is necessary to utilize the so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis. It is shown that, in the linear evolutionary stage, planetary electromagnetic waves efficiently extract energy from the sheared flow, thereby substantially increasing their amplitude and, accordingly, energy. The criterion for instability of a sheared flow in an ionospheric medium is derived. As the shear instability develops and the perturbation amplitude grows, a nonlinear self-localization mechanism comes into play and the process ends with the self-organization of nonlinear, highly localized, solitary vortex structures. The system thus acquires a new degree of freedom, thereby providing a new way for the perturbation to evolve in a medium with a sheared flow. Depending on the shape of the sheared flow velocity profile, nonlinear structures can be either purely monopole vortices or vortex streets against the background of the zonal wind. The accumulation of such vortices can lead to a strongly turbulent state in an ionospheric medium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orr, A.; Hunt, J.; Light, M.; Cresswell, D.
2003-04-01
Analysis of surface temperature (ST) anomalies of the Antarctic for the period 1982-1998 has shown that the largest warming trend in the world occurs on the western coast of the Antarctic Peninsula (by approximately 1.0{o}C over the past 20 years). This is associated with related warming of the peripheral seas and decrease of the sea-ice extent (Kwok and Comiso, 2002). This can be studied by considering how zonal winds interact with the mountains (2km high) of the peninsula. Since westerly winds are turned southwards through Coriolis forces, warmer air over the southern ocean is transported to the western side of the Antarctic Peninsula. On its eastern side (warming of approximately 0.5{o}C over the past 20 years), strong southerly katabatic winds overcome the weak northerly synoptically driven flows and flow along the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula. However for easterly winds passing over the Weddell Sea, Coriolis forces cause winds which add to the cold katabatic southerly winds from the Antarctic plateau. Both these types of wind cool the east and west sides of the peninsula. Therefore the observed increase in the frequency of westerly winds should cause a net warming, particularly on the western side, as recent synoptic data from the NCEP/ECMWF reanalysis project has shown for the past 20 years (Kwok and Comiso, 2002). This concept has been tested using detailed modelling of the stably stratified atmospheric flows over the peninsula. The idealised 2-layer model of Hunt et al. (2002) for typical mesoscale atmospheric flows with sharp variations in surface roughness and mountainous elevation verifies the above flow behaviour for easterly and westerly winds perpendicular to a `cape' such as the Antarctic Peninsula. Numerical modelling using the UK Met Office Unified Model (UM) at 12km resolution showed a flow response which agrees with observational weather station data on the eastern side. But it is less satisfactory on the western side where the
Development of an upwind, finite-volume code with finite-rate chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Molvik, Gregory A.
1994-01-01
Under this grant, two numerical algorithms were developed to predict the flow of viscous, hypersonic, chemically reacting gases over three-dimensional bodies. Both algorithms take advantage of the benefits of upwind differencing, total variation diminishing techniques, and a finite-volume framework, but obtain their solution in two separate manners. The first algorithm is a zonal, time-marching scheme, and is generally used to obtain solutions in the subsonic portions of the flow field. The second algorithm is a much less expensive, space-marching scheme and can be used for the computation of the larger, supersonic portion of the flow field. Both codes compute their interface fluxes with a temporal Riemann solver and the resulting schemes are made fully implicit including the chemical source terms and boundary conditions. Strong coupling is used between the fluid dynamic, chemical, and turbulence equations. These codes have been validated on numerous hypersonic test cases and have provided excellent comparison with existing data.
High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells
Fabian, Paul
2012-03-31
The U.S. Department of Energy is leading the development of alternative energy sources that will ensure the long-term energy independence of our nation. One key renewable resource being advanced is geothermal energy which offers an environmentally benign, reliable source of energy for the nation. To utilize this resource, water will be introduced into wells 3 to 10 km deep to create a geothermal reservoir. This approach is known as an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). The high temperatures and pressures at these depths have become a limiting factor in the development of this energy source. For example, reliable zonal isolation for high-temperature applications at high differential pressures is needed to conduct mini-fracs and other stress state diagnostics. Zonal isolation is essential for many EGS reservoir development activities. To date, the capability has not been sufficiently demonstrated to isolate sections of the wellbore to: 1) enable stimulation; and 2) seal off unwanted flow regions in unknown EGS completion schemes and high-temperature (>200°C) environments. In addition, packers and other zonal isolation tools are required to eliminate fluid loss, to help identify and mitigate short circuiting of flow from injectors to producers, and to target individual fractures or fracture networks for testing and validating reservoir models. General-purpose open-hole packers do not exist for geothermal environments, with the primary barrier being the poor stability of elastomeric seals at high temperature above 175°C. Experimental packer systems have been developed for geothermal environments but they currently only operate at low pressure, they are not retrievable, and they are not commercially available. The development of the high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) zonal isolation device would provide the geothermal community with the capability to conduct mini-fracs, eliminate fluid loss, to help identify and mitigate short circuiting of flow from injectors to
Electromagnetic gyrokinetic turbulence in finite-beta helical plasmas
Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Nakajima, N.; Maeyama, S.
2014-05-15
A saturation mechanism for microturbulence in a regime of weak zonal flow generation is investigated by means of electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations. The study identifies a new saturation process of the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) turbulence originating from the spatial structure of the KBM instabilities in a finite-beta Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma. Specifically, the most unstable KBM in LHD has an inclined mode structure with respect to the mid-plane of a torus, i.e., it has a finite radial wave-number in flux tube coordinates, in contrast to KBMs in tokamaks as well as ion-temperature gradient modes in tokamaks and helical systems. The simulations reveal that the growth of KBMs in LHD is saturated by nonlinear interactions of oppositely inclined convection cells through mutual shearing as well as by the zonal flow. The saturation mechanism is quantitatively investigated by analysis of the nonlinear entropy transfer that shows not only the mutual shearing but also a self-interaction with an elongated mode structure along the magnetic field line.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagura, Motoki; McPhaden, Michael J.
2014-07-01
This study examines the zonal momentum budget along the equator in the Indian Ocean in a high-resolution ocean general circulation model. Wyrtki Jets, wind-driven eastward flows in the upper 100 m that appear typically twice per year in boreal spring and fall, are a prominent feature of the ocean circulation in this region. Our results indicate that nonlinearity associated with these jets is an important element of the zonal momentum budget, with wind driven eastward momentum advected downward into the thermocline. This advection results in annually averaged zonal currents that flow against the zonal pressure gradient in the upper 200 m, such that there is no mean subsurface undercurrent in the Indian Ocean as there is in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Zonal momentum is further distributed along the equator by zonal advection, with eastward flow substantially enhanced in the eastern basin relative to the western basin. Meridional advection, though generally weak, tends to decelerate surface eastward flow along the equator. These results contrast with those from previous idealized wind-forced model experiments that primarily emphasized the importance of vertical momentum advection. Also, beyond semiannual period fluctuations, significant momentum advection results from a broad range of interacting processes, spanning intraseasonal to interannual time scales. We conclude that proper simulation of zonal flows along the equator in the Indian Ocean, including their climatically relevant impacts on the mass and heat balance, requires accurate representation of nonlinearities that derive from a broad range of time and space scales.
Results of a zonally truncated three-dimensional model of the Venus middle atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, M.
1992-01-01
Although the equatorial rotational speed of the solid surface of Venus is only 4 m s(exp-1), the atmospheric rotational speed reaches a maximum of approximately 100 m s(exp-1) near the equatorial cloud top level (65 to 70 km). This phenomenon, known as superrotation, is the central dynamical problem of the Venus atmosphere. We report here the results of numerical simulations aimed at clarifying the mechanism for maintaining the equatorial cloud top rotation. Maintenance of an equatorial rotational speed maximum above the surface requires waves or eddies that systematically transport angular momentum against its zonal mean gradient. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is driven thermally and acts to reduce the rotational speed at the equatorial cloud top level; thus wave or eddy transport must counter this tendency as well as friction. Planetary waves arising from horizontal shear instability of the zonal flow (barotropic instability) could maintain the equatorial rotation by transporting angular momentum horizontally from midlatitudes toward the equator. Alternatively, vertically propagating waves could provide the required momentum source. The relative motion between the rotating atmosphere and the pattern of solar heating, which as a maximum where solar radiation is absorbed near the cloud tops, drives diurnal and semidiurnal thermal tides that propagate vertically away from the cloud top level. The effect of this wave propagation is to transport momentum toward the cloud top level at low latitudes and accelerate the mean zonal flow there. We employ a semispectral primitive equation model with a zonal mean flow and zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2. These waves correspond to the diurnal and semidiurnal tides, but they can also be excited by barotropic or baroclinic instability. Waves of higher wavenumbers and interactions between the waves are neglected. Symmetry about the equator is assumed, so the model applies to one hemisphere and covers the altitude range 30 to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Angela; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, Inez S.; Abdu, Mangalathayil; Souza, Jonas
2016-07-01
In this work, we investigate the equatorial F region zonal plasma drifts over Jicamarca, Peru, under magnetically disturbed conditions during two solar minimum epochs, one of them being the recent prolonged solar activity minimum. The study utilizes the plasma drifts measured by the Jicamarca (11.95° S; 76.87° W) incoherent scatter radar during two events that occurred on 10 April 1997 and 24 June 2008 and model calculation of the zonal drift in a realistic ionosphere simulated by the SUPIM-INPE. Two main points are focused: (1) the connection between prompt penetration electric fields and zonal and vertical plasma drifts and (2) anomalous behavior of daytime zonal drift in the absence of any magnetic storm. A perfect anticorrelation between vertical and zonal drifts was observed during the night and in the initial and growth phases of the magnetic storm. Based on a detailed quantitative analysis we will show that this anticorrelation is driven mainly by a vertical Hall electric field induced by the primary zonal penetration electric field in the presence of enhanced nighttime E region conductivity. An increase in the field line integrated Hall-to-Pedersen conductivity ratio, arising from energetic particle precipitation in the South American Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) region is found to be capable of explaining the observed anti correlation between the vertical and zonal plasma drifts. Evidence for the particle ionization is provided from the occurrence of anomalous sporadic E layers over the SAMA region. It will also be shown that the zonal plasma drift reversal to eastward in the afternoon can occur earlier due to the weakening of the zonal wind system during the prolonged solar minimum period.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Pedersen, T. R.; Castilho, Vivian M.; Arruda, Daniela C. S.; Muella, M. T. A. H.; Batista, I. S.; Mascarenhas, M.; de Paula, E. R.; Kintner, P. M.; Kherani, E. A.; Medeiros, A. F.; Buriti, R. A.; Takahashi, H.; Schuch, N. J.; Denardini, C. M.; Zamlutti, C. J.; Pimenta, A. A.; de Souza, J. R.; Bertoni, F. C. P.
2009-04-01
We analyze in detail the zonal velocities of large-scale ionospheric plasma depletions over two conjugate stations inferred from OI 630 nm airglow all-sky images obtained during the Conjugate Point Equatorial Experiment (COPEX) campaign carried out in Brazil between October and November 2002. The conjugate stations were Boa Vista (BV) (geogr. 2.8N, 60.7W, dip angle 22.0°N) and Campo Grande (CG) (geogr. 20.5S, 54.7W, dip angle 22.32°S). Over Campo Grande, the zonal velocities were measured also by a system of spaced GPS scintillation receivers. The airglow zonal velocities at the conjugate sites were seen to agree very closely, except for a slightly increased velocity over CG which we attribute to the presence of the geomagnetic anomaly. The results show a high degree of alignment of the bubbles along the geomagnetic field lines during the bubble development phase and as the bubbles travel eastward, thereby suggesting that the neutral zonal wind effect in the zonal plasma motion is an integrated effect along the flux tube. The zonal velocities obtained from the GPS technique were always larger than those calculated by the airglow technique, which permitted observation of zonal plasma velocity shear between the altitudes of the airglow emitting layer and of the GPS scintillation. Theoretical ambient plasma zonal velocities calculated using the formulations by Haerendel et al. (1992) and Eccles (1998) are compared with the experimental results. Our results also reveal some degree of dependence of the zonal velocities on the solar flux (F10.7) and magnetic (Kp) indices during the COPEX period.
Zonal variations in K+ currents in vestibular crista calyx terminals
Meredith, Frances L.
2014-01-01
We developed a rodent crista slice to investigate regional variations in electrophysiological properties of vestibular afferent terminals. Thin transverse slices of the gerbil crista ampullaris were made and electrical properties of calyx terminals in central zones (CZ) and peripheral zones (PZ) compared with whole cell patch clamp. Spontaneous action potential firing was observed in 25% of current-clamp recordings and was either regular or irregular in both zones. Firing was abolished when extracellular choline replaced Na+ but persisted when hair cell mechanotransduction channels or calyx AMPA receptors were blocked. This suggests that ion channels intrinsic to the calyx can generate spontaneous firing. In response to depolarizing voltage steps, outward K+ currents were observed at potentials above −60 mV. K+ currents in PZ calyces showed significantly more inactivation than currents in CZ calyces. Underlying K+ channel populations contributing to these differences were investigated. The KCNQ channel blocker XE991 dihydrochloride blocked a slowly activating, sustained outward current in both PZ and CZ calyces, indicating the presence of KCNQ channels. Mean reduction was greatest in PZ calyces. XE991 also reduced action potential firing frequency in CZ and PZ calyces and broadened mean action potential width. The K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (10–50 μM) blocked rapidly activating, moderately inactivating currents that were more prevalent in PZ calyces. α-Dendrotoxin, a selective blocker of KV1 channels, reduced outward currents in CZ calyces but not in PZ calyces. Regional variations in K+ conductances may contribute to different firing responses in calyx afferents. PMID:25343781
Generation of Large-Scale Zonal Structures by Drift Flute Waves in High-Beta HED Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasin, Essam; Sotnikov, Vladmir; Kindel, Joseph; Onishchenko, O. G.; Leboeuf, J. N.
2009-05-01
Our aim is to develop a more general analysis of nonlinear dynamics of drift-flute waves, applicable to arbitrary plasma beta and arbitrary spatial scales in comparison with the ion Larmor radius. This study is of interest for fundamental plasma theory as well as for the interpretation of Z-pinch and laboratory astrophysics experiments. Description of low-frequency waves and in particular drift flute waves in a high beta plasma, generally speaking, requires a kinetic approach, based on the Vlasov-Maxwell set of equations. In the present work we show that the alternative two-fluid description can adequately describe the ion perturbations with arbitrary ratio of the characteristic spatial scales to the ion Larmor radius in so-called Pade approximation. For this purpose reduced two-fluid hydrodynamic equations which describe nonlinear dynamics of the flute waves with arbitrary spatial scales and arbitrary plasma beta are derived. The linear dispersion relation of the flute waves and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability are analyzed. A general nonlinear dispersion relation which describes generation of large-scale zonal structures by the flute waves is presented and analyzed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, T. J.
1982-01-01
Models of intermediate complexity have been used to study some aspects of the climatic effects of anomalous heating, but many aspects of the problem have yet to be explored thoroughly. The present study represents a preliminary investigated of the gaps in scientific understanding of the interaction of heating and atmospheric dynamics. The principle research tool is a model of intermediate complexity, including a time-dependent, nonlinear-two-layer quasi-geostrophic model of relatively high horizontal resolution which incorporates simple heating parameterizations. The model is used to examine systematically the interaction of heating arising from anomalies in surface temperature with zonally symmetric and zonally asymmetric flows characterized by different values of static stability and mean vertical wind shear.
Interaction of Moist Convection with Zonal Jets on Jupiter and Saturn
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Liming; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Huang, Xianglei
2006-01-01
Observations suggest that moist convection plays an important role in the large-scale dynamics of Jupiter s and Saturn s atmospheres. Here we use a reduced-gravity quasigeostrophic model, with a parameterization of moist convection that is based on observations, to study the interaction between moist convection and zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn. Stable jets with approximately the same width and strength as observations are generated in the model. The observed zonal jets violate the barotropic stability criterion but the modeled jets do so only if the flow in the deep underlying layer is westward. The model results suggest that a length scale and a velocity scale associated with moist convection control the width and strength of the jets. The length scale and velocity scale offer a possible explanation of why the jets of Saturn are stronger and wider than those of Jupiter.
Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, Biswajit; Kumar, Suraj; Boruah, Bosanta R.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing frame rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.
Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film
Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.; Kumar, Suraj
2015-12-15
In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing frame rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.
Mechanism of the zonal displacements of the Pacific warm pool: Implications for ENSO
Picaut, J.; Ioualalen, M.; Delcroix, T.
1996-11-29
The western equatorial Pacific warm pool is subject to strong east-west migrations on interannual time scales in phase with the Southern Oscillation Index. The dominance of surface zonal advection in this migration is demonstrated with four different current data sets and three oceans models. The eastward advection of warm and less saline water form the western Pacific together with the westward advection of cold and more saline water from the central-eastern Pacific induces a convergence of water masses at the eastern edge of the warm pool and a well-defined salinity front. The location of this convergence is zonally displaced in association with El Nino-La Nina wind-driven surface current variations. These advective processes and water-mass convergences have significant implications for understanding and simulating coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions associated with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
Calculation of a residual mean meridional circulation for a zonal-mean tracer transport model
Choi, W.K.; Rotman, D.A.; Wuebbles, D.J.
1995-04-01
Because of their computational advantages, zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport models are widely used to investigate the distribution of chemical species and their change due to the anthropogenic chemicals in the lower and middle atmosphere. In general, the Lagrangian-mean formulation would be ideal to treat transport due to the zonal mean circulation and eddies. However, the Lagrangian formulation is difficult to use in practical applications. The most widely-used formulation for treating global atmospheric dynamics in two-dimensional models is the transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) equations. The residual mean meridional circulation (RMMC) in the TEM system is used to advect tracers. In this study, the authors describe possible solution techniques for obtaining the RMMC in the LLNL two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport model. In the first section, the formulation will be described. In sections 3 and 4, possible solution procedures will be described for a diagnostic and prognostic case, respectively.
Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film.
Pathak, Biswajit; Kumar, Suraj; Boruah, Bosanta R
2015-12-01
In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing frame rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement. PMID:26724061
Toplin, I.
1967-01-01
The B-IV and B-IX zonal ultracentrifuge rotors were applied to the concentration and purification of the Moloney and Rauscher murine leukemia viruses from large volumes of infected tissue culture fluids and animal materials. Potassium tartrate, potassium citrate and sucrose gradients were used to obtain viral concentrates from the density 1.16 to 1.18 zone. Proteolytic enzyme digestion of tissue culture preparations prior to zonal ultracentrifuge processing was effective in releasing virus from cell debris and producing highly purified, though nonleukemogenic, viral concentrates. Infected Rauscher mouse plasma was processed to give highly purified infectious virus fractions. A single centrifugation of crude Rauscher mouse spleen homogenates resulted in partially purified infectious concentrates with high virus particle counts. Images Fig. 4 PMID:6035050
On the wave forcing of the semi-annual zonal wind oscillation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nagpal, O. P.; Raghavarao, R.
1991-01-01
Observational evidence of rather large period waves (23-60 d) in the troposphere/stratosphere, particularly during the winter months, is presented. Wind data collected on a regular basis employing high-altitude balloons and meteorological rockets over the past few years are used. Maximum entropy methods applied to the time series of zonal wind data indicate the presence of 23-60-waves more prominently than shorter-period waves. The waves have substantial amplitudes in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere, often larger than those noted in the troposphere. The mean zonal wind in the troposphere (5-15 km altitude) during December, January, and February exhibits the presence of strong westerlies at latitudes between 8 and 21 deg N.
CFD zonal modeling of leading-edge ice effects for a complete aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Summa, J. M.; Strash, D. J.; Lednicer, D. A.
1993-01-01
A simplified, uncoupled zonal procedure was utilized to assess the capability of numerically simulating icing effects on a Boeing 727-200 aircraft. The computational approach combines potential flow, plus boundary layer simulations by VSAERO for the un-iced aircraft forces and moments, with Navier-Stokes simulations by ARC3D for the incremental forces and moments due to iced components. These are compared with wind tunnel longitudinal force and moment data. Although the computational results compared favorably with the test data in the linear angle of attack range, it is clear that for general aircraft icing calculations, a multiblock Navier-Stokes code will be required for the viscous component of this zonal method.
Measurement of osmotic second virial coefficients by zonal size-exclusion chromatography.
Winzor, Donald J
2016-07-01
Numerical simulation of protein migration reflecting linear concentration dependence of the partition isotherm has been used to invalidate a published procedure for measuring osmotic second virial coefficients (B22) by zonal exclusion chromatography. Failure of the zonal procedure to emulate its frontal chromatographic counterpart reflects ambiguity about the solute concentration that should be used to replace the applied concentration in the rigorous quantitative expression for frontal migration; the recommended use of the peak concentration in the eluted zone is incorrect on theoretical grounds. Furthermore, the claim for its validation on empirical grounds has been traced to the use of inappropriate B22 magnitudes as the standards against which the experimentally derived values were being tested. PMID:27095059
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nyadjro, E. S.; McPhaden, M. J.
2014-12-01
We present results on the zonal current variations along the equator in the upper layers of eastern Indian Ocean in relation to variations in the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Our study utilizes data from the Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) and model outputs from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - Ocean Reanalysis System 4 (ECMWF-ORAS4) for 1960-2011. Surface currents are characterized by strong semi-annual eastward flowing Wyrtki jets in boreal spring and fall, forced by westerly monsoon transition winds along the equator. The fall jet intensifies during negative IOD (NIOD) events when westerlies are stronger than normal but significantly weakens during positive IOD (PIOD) events when westerlies are weaker than normal. Associated with weakened PIOD zonal wind stresses, sea surface height becomes unusually low in the eastern basin and high in the west, setting up an anomalous pressure force that drives increased eastward transport in the thermocline. In contrast, during NIOD events when equatorial westerlies and the normal zonal surface height gradient intensify, the eastward zonal current in the thermocline significantly weakens. A surface layer mass budget calculation for the eastern pole of the IOD indicates upwelling at a rate of ~2.9±0.7 Sv during normal periods, increasing by 40-50% during PIOD events and reducing to zero during NIOD events. IOD-related variations in Wyrtki jet and thermocline transports are major influences on these upwelling rates, which are consistent with observed sea surface temperature changes.
Characteristic zonal winds and long-lived vortices in the atmospheres of the outer planets.
Beebe, Reta
1994-06-01
The cameras on board the NASA Voyager spacecraft provided a survey of cloud systems within the atmospheres of the giant planets and allowed determination of zonal wind patterns, which constrain long-lived cloud systems. The basic atmospheric circulations are compared and long-lived cloud features are reviewed. The basic structure of the Great Red Spot is reviewed and the tendency of the spot to drift at -4 m s(-1) or -2 m s(-1) is presented. PMID:12780094
Zonal temperature-anomaly maps of Indian ocean surface waters: modern and ice-age patterns.
Prell, W L; Hutson, W H
1979-10-26
Maps of sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean in modern and ice-age times reveal striking changes in its surface circulation. During the last glacial maximum (18,000 years before the present), the Indian Ocean had colder average zonal surface temperatures, a cooler and less extensive Agulhas Current, a distinct eastern boundary current, and decreased upwelling and a weaker southwest monsoon in its northwestern region. PMID:17809371
Tracking Jupiter’s Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation and Mid-Latitude Zonal Waves: Initial Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greathouse, Thomas K.; Orton, Glenn S.; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Fletcher, Leigh N.; DeWitt, Curtis N.; Cosentino, Rick; Richter, Matthew J.; Lacy, John H.
2014-11-01
We report on initial results of a long term observational study to track the temporal and 3-dimensional evolution of the Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation (QQO) and the propagation and evolution of mid-latitude zonal waves in Jupiter’s stratosphere. These wave-driven phenomena affect variations in Jupiter’s vertical and horizontal temperature field, which can be inferred by measuring methane emission in the thermal infrared at 1245 cm-1. Using TEXES, the Texas Echelon cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph, mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility we observed high-spectral resolution (R=75,000) scan maps of Jupiter’s mid-latitudes in January and October 2012, February 2013, and February 2014. These initial datasets were taken using several different observing strategies in an attempt to optimize efficiency and mapping accuracy in preparation for our prime study period (2014-2019). We will present the zonally averaged inferred thermal structure over ±30° latitude and between 10 and 0.01 mbar, showing the QQO’s downward progression along with inferred 3-dimensional thermal maps (latitude, longitude, pressure) displaying a multitude of vertically isolated waves and eddies. These results set the stage for an unprecedented dataset that will: 1) significantly improve the determination of the period and vertical descent velocity of Jupiter’s QQO and map its 3-dimensional spatial structure; 2) measure the zonal wavenumbers, vertical wavelengths, zonal group velocities and lifetimes of transient mid-latitude waves that are impossible to obtain from historic mid-infrared imaging datasets due to their lack of vertical resolution; and 3) record the thermal state of Jupiter’s stratosphere in detail prior to, during, and after Juno’s prime mission to assist in analysis of Juno Mission observations from the Waves, JIRAM, and UVS instruments.
Simulation of transonic viscous wing and wing-fuselage flows using zonal methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flores, Jolen
1987-01-01
The thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are coupled with a zonal scheme (or domain-decomposition method) to develop the Transonic Navier-Stokes (TNS) wing-alone code. The TNS has a total of 4 zones and is extended to a total of 16 zones for the wing-fuselage version of the code. Results are compared on the Cray X-MP-48 and compared with experimental data.
Mean zonal winds on Venus from Doppler tracking of the Vega balloons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andreev, R. A.; Altunin, V. I.; Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Kogan, L. R.; Kostenko, V. I.; Kustodiev, V. D.; Linkin, V. M.; Matveenko, L. I.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Preston, R. A.
1986-01-01
Doppler measurements of the two Vega balloons yield the following provisional estimates for the mean zonal wind velocity at the 53-54 km level in the Venus atmosphere: 69 + or - 1 m/sec for Vega 1 and 66 + or - 1 m/sec for Vega 2, with westward flow. The wind data show a perturbation which might be an evidence of solar tides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Saedeleer, Bernard
2005-03-01
This paper is a contribution to the Theory of the Artificial Satellite, within the frame of the Lie Transform as canonical perturbation technique (elimination of the short period terms). We consider the perturbation by any zonal harmonic J n (n ≥ 2) of the primary on the satellite, what we call here the complete zonal problem of the artificial satellite. This is quite useful for primaries with symmetry of revolution. We give an analytical formula to compute directly the first order averaged Hamiltonian. The computation is carried out in closed form for all terms, avoiding therefore tedious expansions in the eccentricity or in any anomaly; this feature makes the averaging process, not only valid for all kind of elliptic trajectories but at the same time it yields the averaged Hamiltonian in a very short and compact way. The formula allows us to now skip the averaging process, which means an asymptotic gain of a factor 3n/2 regarding the computational cost of the n th zonal. Our analytical formulae have been widely checked, by comparison on one hand with published works (Brouwer, 1959) (which contained results for particular zonal harmonics, let’s say typically from J 2 to J 8), and on the other hand with the results of 3 symbolic manipulation software, among which the MM (standing for ‘Moon’s series Manipulator’), which has already been used and described in (De Saedeleer B., 2004). Additionally, the first order generator associated with this transformation is given into the same closed form, and has also been validated.
Zonal average earth radiation budget measurements from satellites for climate studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ellis, J. S.; Haar, T. H. V.
1976-01-01
Data from 29 months of satellite radiation budget measurements, taken intermittently over the period 1964 through 1971, are composited into mean month, season and annual zonally averaged meridional profiles. Individual months, which comprise the 29 month set, were selected as representing the best available total flux data for compositing into large scale statistics for climate studies. A discussion of spatial resolution of the measurements along with an error analysis, including both the uncertainty and standard error of the mean, are presented.
Comparison of zonal neutral winds with equatorial plasma bubble and plasma drift velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapagain, Narayan P.; Fisher, Daniel J.; Meriwether, John W.; Chau, Jorge L.; Makela, Jonathan J.
2013-04-01
A one-year dataset spanning March 2011 to March 2012 of coincident observations of nighttime thermospheric zonal neutral winds, equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) velocities, and zonal plasma drifts is used to examine the relationship between the thermosphere and the ionosphere near the geomagnetic equator over Peru. Thermospheric neutral winds are determined by using a bistatic Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) experiment located at Merihill and Nazca in Peru. The ambient plasma drift velocities were obtained using the incoherent scatter radar at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory in Peru. The EPB zonal velocities were estimated utilizing images of the OI 630.0 nm emission recorded by a narrow-field optical imaging system at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The joint analysis of these datasets illustrates that the nighttime and night-to-night variations in the zonal neutral winds, EPB velocities, and plasma drifts are well correlated. This consistent result of the local time variations of the neutral winds with that of EPB and plasma drifts illustrates that the F-region dynamo is, in general, fully activated. However, at times, the magnitude of the EPB velocities and the plasma drifts are different from the neutral winds. It is plausible that such a difference is due either to the effect of polarization electric fields developed inside the EPB or due to the latitudinal gradient of the neutral winds and EPB velocity measurements since the EPB velocities are estimated at a higher latitude, corresponding to an apex altitude of ~400 km, than the wind estimates, which derive from an apex altitude of ~250 km.
Zero potential vorticity envelopes for the zonal-mean velocity of the Venus/Titan atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allison, M.; del Genio, A. D.; Zhou, W.
1994-03-01
The diagnostic analysis of numerical simulations of the Venus/Titan wind regime reveals an overlooked constraint upon the latitudinal structure of their zonal-mean angular momentum. The numerical experiments, as well as the limited planetary observations, are approximately consistent with the hypothesis that within the latitudes bounded by the wind maxima the total Ertel potential vorticity associated with the zonal-mean motion is approximately well mixed with respect to the neutral equatorial value for a stable circulation. The implied latitudinal profile of angular momentum is of the form M equal to or less than Me(cos lambda)2/Ri, where lambda is the latitude and Ri the local Richardson number, generally intermediate between the two extremes of uniform angular momentum (Ri approaches infinity) and uniform angular velocity (Ri = 1). The full range of angular momentum profile variation appears to be realized within the observed meridional - vertical structure of the Venus atmosphere, at least crudely approaching the implied relationship between stratification and zonal velocity there. While not itself indicative of a particular eddy mechanism or specific to atmospheric superrotation, the zero potential vorticity (ZPV) constraint represents a limiting bound for the eddy - mean flow adjustment of a neutrally stable baroclinic circulation and may be usefully applied to the diagnostic analysis of future remote sounding and in situ measurements from planetary spacecraft.
MPIRUN: A Portable Loader for Multidisciplinary and Multi-Zonal Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fineberg, Samuel A.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications are an important class of applications in the area of Computational Aerosciences. In these codes, two or more distinct parallel programs or copies of a single program are utilized to model a single problem. To support such applications, it is common to use a programming model where a program is divided into several single program multiple data stream (SPMD) applications, each of which solves the equations for a single physical discipline or grid zone. These SPMD applications are then bound together to form a single multidisciplinary or multi-zonal program in which the constituent parts communicate via point-to-point message passing routines. One method for implementing the message passing portion of these codes is with the new Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. Unfortunately, this standard only specifies the message passing portion of an application, but does not specify any portable mechanisms for loading an application. MPIRUN was developed to provide a portable means for loading MPI programs, and was specifically targeted at multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications. Programs using MPIRUN for loading and MPI for message passing are then portable between all machines supported by MPIRUN. MPIRUN is currently implemented for the Intel iPSC/860, TMC CM5, IBM SP-1 and SP-2, Intel Paragon, and workstation clusters. Further, MPIRUN is designed to be simple enough to port easily to any system supporting MPI.
Computation of transonic separated wing flows using an Euler/Navier-Stokes zonal approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaynak, Uenver; Holst, Terry L.; Cantwell, Brian J.
1986-01-01
A computer program called Transonic Navier Stokes (TNS) has been developed which solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations around wings using a zonal grid approach. In the present zonal scheme, the physical domain of interest is divided into several subdomains called zones and the governing equations are solved interactively. The advantages of the Zonal Grid approach are as follows: (1) the grid for any subdomain can be generated easily; (2) grids can be, in a sense, adapted to the solution; (3) different equation sets can be used in different zones; and, (4) this approach allows for a convenient data base organization scheme. Using this code, separated flows on a NACA 0012 section wing and on the NASA Ames WING C have been computed. First, the effects of turbulence and artificial dissipation models incorporated into the code are assessed by comparing the TNS results with other CFD codes and experiments. Then a series of flow cases is described where data are available. The computed results, including cases with shock-induced separation, are in good agreement with experimental data. Finally, some futuristic cases are presented to demonstrate the abilities of the code for massively separated cases which do not have experimental data.
Turbulent anti-resistivity and the zonal magnetic field dynamo in drift-ballooning turbulence
Kleva, Robert G.; Guzdar, Parvez N.
2007-11-15
The effect of turbulent fluctuations on the zonal (flux surface averaged) magnetic field in drift-ballooning turbulence is shown to be equivalent to a turbulent anti-resistivity. The flux surface average of the convective nonlinearity in Ohm's law is proportional to the flux surface average of the current. The coefficient of proportionality can be defined as a turbulent resistivity {eta}{sub turb}. The correlation of the flux surface average of the convective nonlinearity with the negative of the flux surface average of the current is nearly 100%. Because the convective nonlinearity is correlated with the negative of the current, and not the current, the turbulent resistivity is negative. The magnitude of {eta}{sub turb} is virtually identical to the magnitude of the collisional resistivity {eta}, but opposite in sign, so that the total resistivity {eta}{sub total}={eta}+{eta}{sub turb} is nearly zero. The effect of the fluctuations is to balance the effect of collisional resistive diffusion. As a result, while the energy in the zonal flow increases to a large value as the fluctuations grow and saturate, the energy in the zonal magnetic field remains very small.
Effects of solar and geomagnetic activities on the zonal drift of equatorial plasma bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chao-Song; Roddy, Patrick A.
2016-01-01
Equatorial plasma bubbles are mostly generated in the postsunset sector and then move in the zonal direction. Plasma bubbles can last for several hours and move over hundreds of kilometers (even more than 1000 km). In this study, we use measurements of ion density by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System satellite to determine the orbit-averaged drift velocity of plasma bubbles. The objective of the study is to identify the dependence of the bubble drift on the solar radio flux and geomagnetic activities. In total, 5463 drift velocities are derived over May 2008 to April 2014, and a statistical analysis is performed. The average pattern of the bubble drift is in good agreement with the zonal drift of the equatorial F region plasma. The zonal drift velocity of plasma bubbles increases with the solar radio flux. However, the increase shows different features at different local times. Geomagnetic activities cause a decrease of the eastward drift velocity of plasma bubbles, equivalent to the occurrence of a westward drift, through disturbance dynamo process. In particular, the decrease of the eastward drift velocity appears to become accelerated when the Dst index is smaller than -60 nT or Kp is larger than 4.
Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua
2014-01-01
This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine–airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411
Kleva, Robert G.; Guzdar, Parvez N.
2008-08-15
The character of particle and energy transport in numerical simulations of drift-ballooning turbulence changes dramatically as the density exceeds a critical limit. When the density is not too large, then unstable drift-ballooning fluctuations grow and nonlinearly generate a sheared zonal (flux surface averaged) flow that saturates the turbulence. But when diamagnetic drift effects are small and the density increases beyond a critical limit, then the turbulent density flux increases monotonically in time to large values without saturation. This loss of confinement is caused by the suppression of the stabilizing zonal flow by the magnetic component of the turbulence. A Kelvin-Helmholtz-like shear-flow instability does not play any role in reducing the magnitude of the zonal flow. The magnetic turbulence prevents the zonal flow from growing large enough to become shear-flow unstable.
Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua
2014-08-13
This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411
Rossby and drift wave turbulence and zonal flows: The Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connaughton, Colm; Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda
2015-12-01
A detailed study of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions is presented. These simple nonlinear partial differential equations suggested for both Rossby waves in the atmosphere and drift waves in a magnetically-confined plasma, exhibit some remarkable and nontrivial properties, which in their qualitative form, survive in more realistic and complicated models. As such, they form a conceptual basis for understanding the turbulence and zonal flow dynamics in real plasma and geophysical systems. Two idealised scenarios of generation of zonal flows by small-scale turbulence are explored: a modulational instability and turbulent cascades. A detailed study of the generation of zonal flows by the modulational instability reveals that the dynamics of this zonal flow generation mechanism differ widely depending on the initial degree of nonlinearity. The jets in the strongly nonlinear case further roll up into vortex streets and saturate, while for the weaker nonlinearities, the growth of the unstable mode reverses and the system oscillates between a dominant jet, which is slightly inclined to the zonal direction, and a dominant primary wave. A numerical proof is provided for the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence-zonostrophy. While the theoretical derivations of this invariant stem from the wave kinetic equation which assumes weak wave amplitudes, it is shown to be relatively well-conserved for higher nonlinearities also. Together with the energy and enstrophy, these three invariants cascade into anisotropic sectors in the k-space as predicted by the Fjørtoft argument. The cascades are characterised by the zonostrophy pushing the energy to the zonal scales. A small scale instability forcing applied to the model has demonstrated the well-known drift wave-zonal flow feedback loop. The drift wave turbulence is generated from this primary instability. The zonal flows are then excited by either one of the generation mechanisms, extracting energy from
Zonal Variations of Eddy Diffusivities in an ACC-like Channel: Discrete Transport Corridors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazar, A.; Thompson, A. F.
2014-12-01
The meridional overturning circulation in a wind-driven re-entrant channel arises from a balance between an Eulerian mean overturning and an eddy overturning. These cancel to leading order in the Southern Ocean's Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). An ACC-like flow, with realistic stratification, zonal transport and distributions of eddy kinetic energy, develops even when these two overturning components cancel completely. Many studies have noted that an enhancement of the Eulerian overturning circulation, which tends to steepen isopycnals, is balanced in part by an enhancement of the eddy circulation that relaxes isopycnal tilt. Thus the domain-averaged isopycnal slope and zonal transport are relatively insensitive to changes in wind forcing. However, the response of the system's mesoscale variability and eddy fluxes is not uniform throughout the domain. We present a process study of an idealized eddy-resolving ACC-like channel with negligible residual overturning to explore how the along-stream distribution of eddy characteristics establishes a balance between wind and eddy overturning circulations. For each simulation, we decompose the overturning circulation into mean, standing and transient components. As the surface wind stress increases, the standing component balances a larger portion of the mean overturning. This in turn leads to an increasing departure from zonally-symmetric eddy characteristics. A zonal-mean, or net, eddy diffusivity Κnet is defined as the eddy diffusivity required to exactly balance the mean overturning based on the zonal-mean isopycnal slope, s. This gives Κnet=τ/ρ0fs, where τ is the wind stress, ρ0 is a reference density and f is the Coriolis parameter. Κnet is compared to local eddy diffusivities, Κlocal, diagnosed directly from the divergent component of the eddy buoyancy flux divided by the local isopycnal slope. We find that with a simple topographic ridge and moderate wind forcing, along-stream averages of
CALL FOR PAPERS: Special cluster issue on `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itoh, S.-I.
2005-07-01
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (PPCF) invites submissions on the topic of `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence', for consideration for a special topical cluster of articles to be published early in 2006. The topical cluster will be published in an issue of PPCF, combined with regular articles. The Guest Editor for the special cluster will be S-I Itoh, Kyushu University, Japan. There has been remarkable progress in the area of structure formation by turbulence. One of the highlights has been the physics of zonal flow and drift wave turbulence in toroidal plasmas. Extensive theoretical as well as computational studies have revealed the various mechanisms in turbulence and zonal flows. At the same time, experimental research on the zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of global electric field by turbulence has evolved rapidly. Fast growth in reports of experimental results has stimulated further efforts to develop increased knowledge and systematic understanding. Each paper considered for the special cluster should describe the present research status and new scientific knowledge/results from the authors on experimental studies of zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of electric field by turbulence (including studies of Reynolds-Maxwell stresses, etc). Manuscripts submitted to this special cluster in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion will be refereed according to the normal criteria and procedures of the journal. The Guest Editor guides the progress of the cluster from the initial open call, through the standard refereeing process, to publication. To be considered for inclusion in the special cluster, articles must be submitted by 2 September 2005 and must clearly state `for inclusion in the Turbulent Plasma Cluster'. Articles submitted after this deadline may not be included in the cluster issue but may be published in a later issue of the journal. Please submit your manuscript electronically via our web site at www
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heimpel, M.; Aurnou, J.; Wicht, J.
2007-12-01
We use numerical models to show that deep convection can result in the observed surface fluid flow and thermal emission patterns of Jupiter and Saturn. The simulations of Boussinesq convection in a spherical shell are dynamically self-consistent and generate large-scale zonal jets that interact with thermal plumes to produce the surface heat flow pattern. The surface fluid flow is dominantly zonal with a prograde equatorial jet and multiple alternating jets at higher latitudes. The zonal jet widths in our numerical models, and of Jupiter and Saturn, follow Rhines scaling. The scaling for zonal flow in a spherical shell is distinguished from that in a full sphere or a shallow layer by the effect of the tangent cylinder, which marks a reversal in the sign of the planetary β - parameter and a jump in the Rhines length. This jump is present in the numerical simulations as a sharp equator-ward increase in jet widths - a transition that is also apparent on Jupiter and Saturn. Our models generate a surface heat flow pattern with a broad minimum at the equator and peaks at the poles. The zonal jets modulate this pattern at smaller latitudinal scales. Superposing the model heat flow pattern with incoming solar radiation results in global heat flow that, similar to Jupiter and Saturn, is roughly constant in latitude. Our results support the hypothesis that the large-scale patterns of heat and zonal flow originate deep within the molecular hydrogen envelopes of the giant planets.
Li, Qian; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Yuqing Yuan; Yang, Lingjian; Zhang, Yajun; Bian, Liujiao; Zheng, Jianbin; Li, Zijian; Zhao, Xinfeng; Zhang, Youyi
2015-07-01
Zonal elution and nonlinear chromatography are two mainstream models for the determination of drug-protein interaction in affinity chromatography. This work intended to compare the results by zonal elution with that by nonlinear chromatography when it comes to the analysis of the interaction between seven drugs and immobilised β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR). The results of the zonal elution showed that clorprenaline, clenbuterol, methoxyphenamine, salbutamol, terbutaline, tulobuterol and bambuterol have only one type of binding site on immobilised β2-AR, while nonlinear chromatography confirmed the existence of at least two types of binding sites between β2-AR and clorprenaline, clenbuterol and bambuterol. On these sites, both zonal elution and nonlinear chromatography presented the same rank order for the association constants of the seven drugs. Compared with the data from zonal elution, the association constants calculated using nonlinear chromatography gave a good linear response to the corresponding values by radio-ligand binding assay. The sampling efficiencies of nonlinear chromatography were clearly higher than zonal elution. Nonlinear chromatography will probably become a powerful alternative for the high throughput determination of drug-protein interaction. PMID:26002106
Effect of the magnetic field curvature on the generation of zonal flows by drift-Alfven waves
Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Kovalishen, E. A.; Shirokov, M. S.; Tsypin, V. S.; Galvao, R. M. O.
2007-05-15
The generation of zonal flows by drift-Alfven waves is studied with allowance for magnetic curvature effects. The basic plasmadynamic equations relating the electrostatic potential, vector potential, and perturbed plasma density are the vorticity equation, longitudinal Ohm's law, and continuity equation. The basic equations are analyzed by applying a parametric formalism similar to that used in the theory of the generation of convective cells. In contrast to most previous investigations on the subject, consideration is given to primary modes having an arbitrary spectrum rather than to an individual monochromatic wave packet. The parametric approach so modified makes it possible to reveal a new class of instabilities of zonal flows that are analogous to two-stream instabilities in linear theory. It is shown that, in the standard theory of zonal flows, the zonal components of the vector potential and perturbed density are not excited. It is pointed out that zonal flows can be generated both in the case of a magnetic hill and in the case of a magnetic well. In the first case, the instabilities of zonal flows are analogous to negative-mass instabilities in linear theory, and, in the second case, they are analogous to two-stream instabilities.
Finite Element Analysis of Reverberation Chambers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bunting, Charles F.; Nguyen, Duc T.
2000-01-01
The primary motivating factor behind the initiation of this work was to provide a deterministic means of establishing the validity of the statistical methods that are recommended for the determination of fields that interact in -an avionics system. The application of finite element analysis to reverberation chambers is the initial step required to establish a reasonable course of inquiry in this particularly data-intensive study. The use of computational electromagnetics provides a high degree of control of the "experimental" parameters that can be utilized in a simulation of reverberating structures. As the work evolved there were four primary focus areas they are: 1. The eigenvalue problem for the source free problem. 2. The development of a complex efficient eigensolver. 3. The application of a source for the TE and TM fields for statistical characterization. 4. The examination of shielding effectiveness in a reverberating environment. One early purpose of this work was to establish the utility of finite element techniques in the development of an extended low frequency statistical model for reverberation phenomena. By employing finite element techniques, structures of arbitrary complexity can be analyzed due to the use of triangular shape functions in the spatial discretization. The effects of both frequency stirring and mechanical stirring are presented. It is suggested that for the low frequency operation the typical tuner size is inadequate to provide a sufficiently random field and that frequency stirring should be used. The results of the finite element analysis of the reverberation chamber illustrate io-W the potential utility of a 2D representation for enhancing the basic statistical characteristics of the chamber when operating in a low frequency regime. The basic field statistics are verified for frequency stirring over a wide range of frequencies. Mechanical stirring is shown to provide an effective frequency deviation.
An Analysis of Finite-Difference and Finite-Volume Formulations of Convervation Laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinokur, Marcel
1989-03-01
Finite-difference and finite-volume formulations are analyzed in order to clear up the confusion concerning their application to the numerical solution of conservation laws. A new coordinate-free formulation of systems of conservation laws is developed, which clearly distinguishes the role of physical vectors from that of algebraic vectors which characterize the system. The analysis considers general types of equations-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes. Three-dimensional unsteady flows with time-varying grids are described using a single, consistent nomenclature for both formulations. Grid motion due to a non-inertial reference frame as well as flow adaptation is covered. In comparing the two formulations, it is found useful to distinguish between differences in numerical methods and differences in grid definition. The former plays a role for non-Cartesian grids and results in only cosmetic differences in the manner in which geometric terms are handled. The differences in grid definition for the two formulations is found to be more important, since it affects the manner in which boundary conditions, zonal procedures, and grid singularities are handled at computational boundaries. The proper interpretation of strong and weak conservation-law forms for quasi-one-dimensional and axisymmetric flows is brought out.
An analysis of finite-difference and finite-volume formulations of conservation laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinokur, Marcel
1986-06-01
Finite-difference and finite-volume formulations are analyzed in order to clear up the confusion concerning their application to the numerical solution of conservation laws. A new coordinate-free formulation of systems of conservation laws is developed, which clearly distinguishes the role of physical vectors from that of algebraic vectors which characterize the system. The analysis considers general types of equations--potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes. Three-dimensional unsteady flows with time-varying grids are described using a single, consistent nomeclature for both formulations. Grid motion due to a non-inertial reference frame as well as flow adaptation is covered. In comparing the two formulations, it is found useful to distinguish between differences in numerical methods and differences in grid definition. The former plays a role for non-Cartesian grids, and results in only cosmetic differences in the manner in which geometric terms are handled. The differences in grid definition for the two formulations is found to be more important, since it affects the manner in which boundary conditions, zonal procedures, and grid singularities are handled at computational boundaries. The proper interpretation of strong and weak conservation-law forms for quasi-one-dimensional and axisymmetric flows is brought out.
An analysis of finite-difference and finite-volume formulations of conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vinokur, Marcel
1986-01-01
Finite-difference and finite-volume formulations are analyzed in order to clear up the confusion concerning their application to the numerical solution of conservation laws. A new coordinate-free formulation of systems of conservation laws is developed, which clearly distinguishes the role of physical vectors from that of algebraic vectors which characterize the system. The analysis considers general types of equations--potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes. Three-dimensional unsteady flows with time-varying grids are described using a single, consistent nomeclature for both formulations. Grid motion due to a non-inertial reference frame as well as flow adaptation is covered. In comparing the two formulations, it is found useful to distinguish between differences in numerical methods and differences in grid definition. The former plays a role for non-Cartesian grids, and results in only cosmetic differences in the manner in which geometric terms are handled. The differences in grid definition for the two formulations is found to be more important, since it affects the manner in which boundary conditions, zonal procedures, and grid singularities are handled at computational boundaries. The proper interpretation of strong and weak conservation-law forms for quasi-one-dimensional and axisymmetric flows is brought out.
An analysis of finite-difference and finite-volume formulations of conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vinokur, Marcel
1989-01-01
Finite-difference and finite-volume formulations are analyzed in order to clear up the confusion concerning their application to the numerical solution of conservation laws. A new coordinate-free formulation of systems of conservation laws is developed, which clearly distinguishes the role of physical vectors from that of algebraic vectors which characterize the system. The analysis considers general types of equations: potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes. Three-dimensional unsteady flows with time-varying grids are described using a single, consistent nomenclature for both formulations. Grid motion due to a non-inertial reference frame as well as flow adaptation is covered. In comparing the two formulations, it is found useful to distinguish between differences in numerical methods and differences in grid definition. The former plays a role for non-Cartesian grids, and results in only cosmetic differences in the manner in which geometric terms are handled. The differences in grid definition for the two formulations is found to be more important, since it affects the manner in which boundary conditions, zonal procedures, and grid singularities are handled at computational boundaries. The proper interpretation of strong and weak conservation-law forms for quasi-one-dimensional and axisymmetric flows is brought out.
PMC brightness zonal variability and its correlation with temperature and water vapor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rong, P.; Russell, J. M.; Randall, C. E.; Bailey, S. M.; Lambert, A.
2012-12-01
The correlation between the Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) daily zonal variation and the environmental variables temperature (T) and H2O is investigated using CIPS/AIM albedo, MLS/Aura T and H2O observations, and a 0-D PMC thermodynamic equilibrium model [Hervig et al., 2009]. CIPS measurements cover the entire polar region (> 60°N/S) with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 2 km, and in this study we examine the zonal variability of the albedo on a daily basis. We have chosen 18 longitudinal bins and for each bin a mean albedo north of 70°N is used. The 0-D model is used to assess the relative roles of temperature and H2O in determining the zonal variability of the cloud ice mass density based on an analysis for the 0.00464 hPa pressure surface corresponding to an altitude of ~ 84km, which is the mean northern hemisphere cloud height. Here the ice mass density is used as a proxy to the albedo since both variables reflect the cloud brightness and their horizontal variations are highly similar. Statistics of all days of the five northern seasons from 2007 to 2011 indicate that MLS T and CIPS cloud variation (with scales larger than zonal wave 8-9) are anti-correlated throughout the season, except in the core of the season where the correlation is relatively weak. The cloud and H2O correlation in the zonal direction is generally poor but overall speaking it is slightly positive. The slightly positive correlation implies that more abundant H2O leads to stronger PMCs. Nevertheless, the correlation is overall poor because the H2O depletion from the ice particle formation leads to a systematic phase shift (~50-90 degree in longitude) between the clouds and the measured "post-ice" H2O. Although H2O dominantly controls the cloud brightness variation in the high brightness limit (e.g., >50 ng/m3) [Rong, et al., 2011], T takes on an important role in the weak cloud limit, i.e., when T approaches the frost point. The weak cloud limit applies here because a large
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nyadjro, Ebenezer S.; McPhaden, Michael J.
2014-11-01
This study examines equatorial zonal current variations in the upper layers of eastern Indian Ocean in relation to variations in the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). The analysis utilizes data from the Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts-Ocean Reanalysis System 4 (ECMWF-ORAS4). Surface currents are characterized by semiannual eastward flowing Wyrtki jets along the equator in boreal spring and fall, forced by westerly monsoon transition winds. The fall jet intensifies during negative IOD (NIOD) events when westerlies are anomalously strong but significantly weakens during positive IOD (PIOD) events when westerlies are anomalously weak. As zonal wind stress weakens during PIOD events, sea surface height becomes unusually low in the eastern basin and high in the west, setting up an anomalous pressure force that drives increased eastward transport in the thermocline. Opposite tendencies are evident during NIOD events in response to intensified equatorial westerlies. Current transport adjustments to anomalous zonal wind forcing during IOD events extend into the following year, consistent with the cycling of equatorial wave energy around the basin. A surface layer mass budget calculation for the eastern sea surface temperature (SST) pole of the IOD indicates upwelling of ˜2.9±0.7 Sv during normal periods, increasing by 40-50% during PIOD events and reducing effectively to zero during NIOD events. IOD-related variations in Wyrtki jet and thermocline transports are major influences on these upwelling rates and associated water mass transformations, which vary consistently with SST changes.
Non-Migrating Tides, with Zonally Symmetric Component, Generated in the Mesosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Talaat, E. R.; Porter, H. S.; Hines, C. O.
2003-01-01
For comparison with measurements from the TIMED satellite and coordinated ground based observations, we discuss results from our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) that incorporates the Doppler Spread Parameterization (Hines, 1997) for small-scale gravity waves (GWs). The NSM extends from the ground into the thermosphere and describes the major dynamical features of the atmosphere including the wave driven equatorial oscillations (QBO and SAO), and the seasonal variations of tides and planetary waves. With emphasis on the non-migrating tides, having periods of 24 and 12 hours, we discuss our modeling results that account for the classical migrating solar excitation sources only. As reported earlier, the NSM reproduces the observed seasonal variations and in particular the large equinoctial maxima in the amplitude of the migrating diurnal tide at altitudes around 90 km. Filtering of the tide by the zonal circulation and GW momentum deposition was identified as the cause. The GWs were also shown to produce a strong non-linear interaction between the diurnal and semi-diurnal tides. Confined largely to the mesosphere, the NSM produces through dynamical interactions a relatively large contribution of non-migrating tides. A striking feature is seen in the diurnal and semi-diurnal oscillations of the zonal mean (m = 0). Eastward propagating tides are also generated for zonal wave numbers m = 1 to 4. When the NSM is run without GWs, the amplitudes for the non-migrating tides, including m = 0, are generally small. Planetary wave interaction and non-linear coupling that involves the filtering of GWs and related height integration of dynamical features are discussed as possible mechanisms for generating these non-migrating tides in the NSM. As is the case for the solar migrating tides, the non-migrating tides reveal persistent seasonal variations. Under the influence of the QBO and SAO, interannual variations are produced.
Saturn Ring Mass and Zonal Gravitational Harmonics Estimate at the End of the Cassini "Grand Finale"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brozovic, M.; Jacobson, R. A.; Roth, D. C.
2015-12-01
"Solstice" mission is the 7-year extension of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft exploration of the Saturn system that will culminate with the "Grand Finale". Beginning in mid-2017, the spacecraft is scheduled to execute 22 orbits that have their periapses between the innermost D-ring and the upper layers of Saturn's atmosphere. These orbits will be perturbed by the gravitational field of Saturn as well as by the rings. We present an analysis of simulated "Grand Finale" radiometric data, and we investigate their sensitivity to the ring mass and higher zonal gravitational harmonics of the planet. We model the data quantity with respect to the available coverage of the tracking stations on Earth, and we account for the times when the spacecraft is occulted either by Saturn or the rings. We also use different data weights to simulate changes in the data quality. The dynamical model of the spacecraft motion includes both gravitational and non-gravitational forces, such as the daily momentum management due to Reaction Wheel Assembly and radioisotope thermo-electric generator accelerations. We solve the equations of motion and use a weighted-least squares fit to obtain spacecraft's state vector, mass(es) of the ring or the individual rings, zonal harmonics, and non-gravitational accelerations. We also investigate some a-priori values of the A- and B-ring masses from Tiscareno et al. (2007) and Hedman et al. (2015) analyses. The preliminary results suggest that the "Grand Finale" orbits should remain sensitive to the ring mass even for GMring<2 km3/s2 and that they will also provide high accuracy estimates of the zonal harmonics J8, J10, and J12.
Neptune's zonal winds from near-IR Keck adaptive optics imaging in August 2001
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Shuleen Chau; de Pater, Imke; Marcus, Philip
2012-01-01
We present H-band (1.4-1.8 μm) images of Neptune with a spatial resolution of ˜0.06″, taken with the W.M. Keck II telescope using the slit-viewing camera (SCAM) of the NIRSPEC instrument backed with Adaptive Optics. Images with 60-second integration times span 4 hours each on UT 20 and 21 August, 2001 and ˜1 hour on UT 1 September, 2001. These images were used to characterize the overall brightness distribution on Neptune, and to determine rotations periods (which translate into wind speeds) of individual cloud features. The images show that the spatial brightness distribution of cloud features, in particular the bright bands at mid-southern latitudes and near 30°N, changed considerably between 1989 (Voyager era) and 2001. The brightest features extend latitudinally over several degrees, and despite the different velocities in different latitude bands, these bright features remain coherent. We show that these features are bright in part because of the foreshortening effect near the limb, which suggests that the features may be composed of small bright clouds that happen to line up near the limb. At certain latitudes (mid-southern and northern latitudes), there is considerable dispersion in relative rotation periods (and hence zonal velocities) of faint and moderately bright features, while there is essentially no velocity dispersion of features at 50°S. While the zonal speeds of the brightest features are consistent with the Voyager-derived zonal-mean wind profile, there are many cloud features that do not appear to move with the flow. The data are further suggestive of oscillations in longitude, with periods > 4 hrs. We suggest that tidal forcing by Triton could play a role in exciting the waves responsible for the velocity variations of the observed period.
Monthly Climatology of Thermospheric Zonal and Meridional Winds Obtained from a Kalman Filter Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scherliess, L.; Lomidze, L.
2015-12-01
Knowledge of the thermospheric neutral wind and its meridional and zonal components is critical for an improved understanding of the low- and mid-latitude F-region dynamics and morphology. To date, the reliable estimation of the wind and its components remains a challenge because of difficulties in both measurement and modeling. Previous methods that use ionospheric measurements to deduce winds provide their values only in the direction of the magnetic meridian. We will present the monthly climatology of the zonal and meridional components of thermospheric neutral wind at low and mid-latitudes obtained by a Kalman Filter technique. First, the climatology of the magnetic meridional wind is obtained by assimilating monthly maps of F-region ionosphere peak parameters (NmF2 and hmF2), obtained from COSMIC radio occultation data, into the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements Full Physics (GAIM-FP) model. The model provides the 3-D electron density throughout the ionosphere, together with the magnetic meridional wind. Next, the estimation of the global zonal and meridional wind components is performed using the newly developed Thermospheric Wind Assimilation Model (TWAM). TWAM combines magnetic meridional wind data obtained from GAIM-FP with a physics-based 3-D thermospheric neutral wind model using an implicit Kalman Filter technique. The ionospheric drag and ion diffusion velocities, needed for the wind calculation, are also taken from the GAIM-FP model. We present the monthly climatology of our wind estimation and compare individual horizontal wind components to their corresponding empirical model values and to measurements made by interferometers.
In vitro anti-HMPV activity of meroditerpenoids from marine alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotales).
Mendes, Gabriella; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Sigiliano, Lorena; Machado, Fernanda; Kaiser, Carlos; Romeiro, Nelilma; Gestinari, Lísia; Santos, Norma; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela
2011-01-01
In this paper, we evaluated the antiviral activity against HMPV replication of crude extract of the marine algae Stypopodium zonale and of two meroditerpenoids obtained from it, atomaric acid and epitaondiol, and a methyl ester derivative of atomaric acid. Their selectivity indexes were 20.78, >56.81, 49.26 and 12.82, respectively. Compared to ribavirin, the substances showed a relatively low cytotoxicity on LLC-MK2 cells, with a significant antiviral activity, inhibiting at least 90% of viral replication in vitro, which demonstrates the potential of these marine natural products to combat infections caused by HMPV in vitro. PMID:21986522
Representation of the tropical stratospheric zonal wind in global atmospheric reanalyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawatani, Yoshio; Hamilton, Kevin; Miyazaki, Kazuyuki; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Anstey, James A.
2016-06-01
This paper reports on a project to compare the representation of the monthly-mean zonal wind in the equatorial stratosphere among major global atmospheric reanalysis data sets. The degree of disagreement among the reanalyses is characterized by the standard deviation (SD) of the monthly-mean zonal wind and this depends on latitude, longitude, height, and the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). At each height the SD displays a prominent equatorial maximum, indicating the particularly challenging nature of the reanalysis problem in the low-latitude stratosphere. At 50-70 hPa the geographical distributions of SD are closely related to the density of radiosonde observations. The largest SD values are over the central Pacific, where few in situ observations are available. At 10-20 hPa the spread among the reanalyses and differences with in situ observations both depend significantly on the QBO phase. Notably the easterly-to-westerly phase transitions in all the reanalyses except MERRA are delayed relative to those directly observed in Singapore. In addition, the timing of the easterly-to-westerly phase transitions displays considerable variability among the different reanalyses and this spread is much larger than for the timing of the westerly-to-easterly phase changes. The eddy component in the monthly-mean zonal wind near the Equator is dominated by zonal wavenumber 1 and 2 quasi-stationary planetary waves propagating from midlatitudes in the westerly phase of the QBO. There generally is considerable disagreement among the reanalyses in the details of the quasi-stationary waves near the Equator. At each level, there is a tendency for the agreement to be best near the longitude of Singapore, suggesting that the Singapore observations act as a strong constraint on all the reanalyses. Our measures of the quality of the reanalysis clearly show systematic improvement over the period considered (1979-2012). The SD among the reanalysis declines significantly over
Anderson, J.; Miki, K.; Uzawa, K.; Li, J.; Kishimoto, Y.
2006-11-30
During the past years the understanding of the multi scale interaction problems have increased significantly. However, at present there exists a flora of different analytical models for investigating multi scale interactions and hardly any specific comparisons have been performed among these models. In this work two different models for the generation of zonal flows from ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) background turbulence are discussed and compared. The methods used are the coherent mode coupling model and the wave kinetic equation model (WKE). It is shown that the two models give qualitatively the same results even though the assumption on the spectral difference is used in the (WKE) approach.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mueller, A. C.
1977-01-01
An analytical first order solution has been developed which describes the motion of an artificial satellite perturbed by an arbitrary number of zonal harmonics of the geopotential. A set of recursive relations for the solution, which was deduced from recursive relations of the geopotential, was derived. The method of solution is based on Von-Zeipel's technique applied to a canonical set of two-body elements in the extended phase space which incorporates the true anomaly as a canonical element. The elements are of Poincare type, that is, they are regular for vanishing eccentricities and inclinations. Numerical results show that this solution is accurate to within a few meters after 500 revolutions.
Application of Classical and Lie Transform Methods to Zonal Perturbation in the Artificial Satellite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
San-Juan, J. F.; San-Martin, M.; Perez, I.; Lopez-Ochoa, L. M.
2013-08-01
A scalable second-order analytical orbit propagator program is being carried out. This analytical orbit propagator combines modern perturbation methods, based on the canonical frame of the Lie transform, and classical perturbation methods in function of orbit types or the requirements needed for a space mission, such as catalog maintenance operations, long period evolution, and so on. As a first step on the validation of part of our orbit propagator, in this work we only consider the perturbation produced by zonal harmonic coefficients in the Earth's gravity potential, so that it is possible to analyze the behaviour of the perturbation methods involved in the corresponding analytical theories.
The effect of zonal harmonic coefficients in the framework of the restricted three-body problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abouelmagd, Elbaz I.; Alhothuali, M. S.; Guirao, Juan L. G.; Malaikah, H. M.
2015-03-01
The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive analytical study on the existence of the libration points and their linear stability in the frame of the restricted three-body problem considering the effect of the first two even zonal harmonics parameters with respect to both primaries. Moreover, the periodic orbits around the libration points, the expressions for semi-major and semi-minor axes, the eccentricities and the periods of elliptical orbits as well as the orientation of the principal axes are stated. In addition, we support our study with some numerical and graphical experiments.
Long period perturbations of earth satellite orbits. [Von Zeipel method and zonal harmonics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, K. C.
1979-01-01
All the equations involved in extending the PS phi solution to include the long periodic and second order secular effects of the zonal harmonics are presented. Topics covered include DSphi elements and relations for their conconical transformation into the PS phi elements; the solution algorithm based on the Von Zeipel method; and the elimination of long periodic terms and analytical integration of primed variables. The equations were entered into the ASOP program, checked out, and verified. Comparisons with numerical integrations show the long period theory to be accurate within several meters after 800 revolutions.
Some studies of zonal and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.
1985-01-01
At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both zonal and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.
Marcus, Philip S; Shetty, Sushil
2011-02-28
The east-west striped pattern of clouds in Jupiter's weather layer is accompanied by a zonal flow containing 12 eastward-going jet streams alternating in latitude with westward-going jet streams. Based on theory, simulation and observations of the Earth's oceans and atmosphere, it is conjectured that Jupiter's weather layer is made of bands of constant potential vorticity (PV), where the interfaces between bands are at the latitudes of the maxima of the eastward-going jet streams. It is speculated that the mixing of PV on Jupiter is analogous to the mixing of salt in the ocean by the Phillips effect, which causes the salt density to form a monotonic 'staircase'. It is hypothesized that the PV in Jupiter's weather layer is also a staircase, decreasing from north to south. PV is a function of vorticity, as well as parameters with unknown values, e.g. the vertical stratification and the zonal flow beneath the observable weather layer. Therefore, these hypotheses cannot be tested directly. Using an atmospheric model that contains these unknown parameters, we solved the inverse problem and found values of the unknown parameters (and their uncertainties) that best fit Jovian observations. The unknown parameters influence how the zonal flow interacts with large vortices, e.g. the Great Red Spot (GRS; the largest and longest-lived Jovian vortex, centred at 23° S) and the Oval BA (the second largest vortex, centred at 33° S). Although we found that the PV distribution is approximately piecewise-constant and that the peaks of the eastward-going jet streams are at the latitudes of PV interfaces, there is also a PV interface at 20° S, where there is a westward-going jet stream. We find that the zonal PV is not a monotonic staircase due to the 'backwards' interface at 20° S. We show that this backwards interface is necessary to make the GRS nearly round, and that without that interface, the Red Spot would be highly elongated in the east-west direction and probably unstable
QUARKONIUM AT FINITE TEMPERATURE.
UMEDA, T.
2006-06-09
Lattice QCD studies on charmonium at finite temperature are presented After a discussion about problems for the Maximum Entropy Method applied to finite temperature lattice QCD, I show several results on charmonium spectral functions. The 'wave function' of charmonium is also discussed to study the spatial correlation between quark and anti-quark in deconfinement phase.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dhuria, H.
1981-01-01
The zonal temporal averages of albedos at the top of the atmosphere were considered as a function of the length of the day. The length of the day were used to determine the average daily values of mu sub 0(=Cos of the solar zenith angle, theta sub 0). Polynominal fits of the slope and intercept functions of A sub s (cloud-free albedo) and A sub c(cloud albedo) as function of Cos theta sub 0 were obtained by using the sample values of albedo corresponding to solar zenith angles from 0 to 90 deg with interval of 5 deg. The daily zonal values of mu sub 0 and the surface albedos were used to compute the daily zonal values of albedos at the top of the clear and cloudy atmosphere. The monthly zonal cloud fractions were used to compute planetary albedo A at the top of the atmosphere. The global values of monthly albedos A sub s, A sub c and A were computed by using the weighting function defined as the difference of the sins of zonal values of latitudes. The computer program implementation is also described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.; Denardini, C. M.
2016-06-01
The dynamics of equatorial ionospheric plasma bubbles over Brazilian sector during two magnetic storm events are investigated in this work. The observations were made at varying phases of magnetic disturbances when the bubble zonal drift velocity was found to reverse westward from its normally eastward velocity. Calculation of the zonal drift based on a realistic low-latitude ionosphere modeled by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model showed on a quantitative basis a clear competition between vertical Hall electric field and disturbance zonal winds on the variations observed in the zonal velocity of the plasma bubble. The Hall electric field arising from enhanced ratio of field line-integrated conductivities, ΣH/ΣP, is most often generated by an increase in the integrated Hall conductivity, arising from enhanced energetic particle precipitation in the South American Magnetic Anomaly region for which evidence is provided from observation of anomalous sporadic E layers over Cachoeira Paulista and Fortaleza. Such sporadic E layers are also by themselves evidence for the development of the Hall electric field that modifies the zonal drift.
Glucose Gradients Influence Zonal Matrix Deposition in 3D Cartilage Constructs
Spitters, Tim W.G.M.; Mota, Carlos M.D.; Uzoechi, Samuel C.; Slowinska, Barbara; Martens, Dirk E.; Moroni, Lorenzo
2014-01-01
Reproducing the native collagen structure and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) distribution in tissue-engineered cartilage constructs is still a challenge. Articular cartilage has a specific nutrient supply and mechanical environment due to its location and function in the body. Efforts to simulate this native environment have been reported through the use of bioreactor systems. However, few of these devices take into account the existence of gradients over cartilage as a consequence of the nutrient supply by diffusion. We hypothesized that culturing chondrocytes in an environment, in which gradients of nutrients can be mimicked, would induce zonal differentiation. Indeed, we show that glucose gradients facilitating a concentration distribution as low as physiological glucose levels enhanced a zonal chondrogenic capacity similar to the one found in native cartilage. Furthermore, we found that the glucose consumption rates of cultured chondrocytes were higher under physiological glucose concentrations and that GAG production rates were highest in 5 mM glucose. From these findings, we concluded that this condition is better suited for matrix deposition compared to 20 mM glucose standard used in a chondrocyte culture system. Reconsidering the culture conditions in cartilage tissue engineering strategies can lead to cartilaginous constructs that have better mechanical and structural properties, thus holding the potential of further enhancing integration with the host tissue. PMID:24903611
Laboratory modeling of multiple zonal jets on the polar beta-plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasyev, Y.
2011-12-01
Zonal jets observed in the oceans and atmospheres of planets are studied in a laboratory rotating tank. The fluid layer in the rotating tank has parabolic free surface and dynamically simulates the polar beta-plane where the Coriolis parameter varies quadratically with distance from the pole. Velocity and surface elevation fields are measured with an optical altimetry method (Afanasyev et al., Exps Fluids 2009). The flows are induced by a localized buoyancy source along radial direction. The baroclinic flow consisting of a field of eddies propagates away from the source due West and forms zonal jets (Fig. 1). Barotropic jets ahead of the baroclinic flow are formed by radiation of beta plumes. Inside the baroclinic flow the jets flow between the chains of eddies. Experimental evidence of so-called noodles (baroclinic instability mode with motions in the radial, North-South direction) theoretically predicted by Berloff et al. (JFM, JPO 2009) was found in our experiments. Beta plume radiation mechanism and the mechanism associated with the instability of noodles are likely to contribute to formation of jets in the baroclinic flow.
The Brown Alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae): A Potential Source of Anti-Leishmania Drugs.
Soares, Deivid Costa; Szlachta, Marcella Macedo; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Soares, Angelica Ribeiro; Saraiva, Elvira Maria
2016-01-01
This study evaluated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of a lipophilic extract from the brown alga Stypopodium zonale and atomaric acid, its major compound. Our initial results revealed high inhibitory activity for intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner and an IC50 of 0.27 μg/mL. Due to its high anti-Leishmania activity and low toxicity toward host cells, we fractionated the lipophilic extract. A major meroditerpene in this extract, atomaric acid, and its methyl ester derivative, which was obtained by a methylation procedure, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 20.2 μM (9 μg/mL) and 22.9 μM (10 μg/mL), and selectivity indexes of 8.4 μM and 11.5 μM. The leishmanicidal activity of both meroditerpenes was independent of nitric oxide (NO) production, but the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be at least partially responsible for the amastigote killing. Our results suggest that the lipophilic extract of S. zonale may represent an important source of compounds for the development of anti-Leishmania drugs. PMID:27618071
Zonal Toroidal Harmonic Expansions of External Gravitational Fields for Ring-like Objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Toshio
2016-08-01
We present an expression of the external gravitational field of a general ring-like object with axial and plane symmetries such as oval toroids or annular disks with an arbitrary density distribution. The main term is the gravitational field of a uniform, infinitely thin ring representing the limit of zero radial width and zero vertical height of the object. The additional term is derived from a zonal toroidal harmonic expansion of a general solution of Laplace’s equation outside the Brillouin toroid of the object. The special functions required are the point value and the first-order derivative of the zonal toroidal harmonics of the first kind, namely, the Legendre function of the first kind of half integer degree and an argument that is not less than unity. We developed a recursive method to compute them from two pairs of seed values explicitly expressed by some complete elliptic integrals. Numerical experiments show that appropriately truncated expansions converge rapidly outside the Brillouin toroid. The truncated expansion can be evaluated so efficiently that, for an oval toroid with an exponentially damping density profile, it is 3000–10,000 times faster than the two-dimensional numerical quadrature. A group of the Fortran 90 programs required in the new method and their sample outputs are available electronically.
Studies of Arctic stratospheric ozone in a 2-D model including some effects of zonal asymmetries
Isaksen, I.S.A.; Rognerud, B.; Stordal, F. ); Coffey, M.T.; Mankin, W.G. )
1990-03-01
A two-dimensional (2-D) zonally averaged chemistry-transport model of the stratosphere has been extended to include some zonally asymmetric effects to study the chemically disturbed conditions in the Arctic winter during the occurrence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). The model allows air parcels that have been in PSCs in the polar night to be exposed to sunlight during the passage south through a wave trough. Large enhancements of ClO are estimated as well as significant ozone reductions, most pronounced around the 20 km height level. The ozone depletions maximize in late March, about one month after the cease in PSC activity in the model, and amount to 5-8% in column ozone at 70{degree}N. In agreement with column measurements made from the DC-8, the model estimates an increase in the columns of HNO{sub 3} and ClONO{sub 2}, and a decrease in the HCl column within the polar vortex.
A two-dimensional approach to modelling the short timescale zonal flow in Earth's core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
More, C.; Dumberry, M.
2015-12-01
Reconstructions of flow in Earth's outer core based on surface magnetic data predict mean zonal accelerations on several timescales. Since accelerations in the core couple to the angular momentum of the mantle, their existence has been confirmed by length-of-day observations. Recent studies suggest that free modes of torsional oscillations are responsible for relatively weak signals with a 5-6 year period. The mechanisms responsible for stronger decadal signals are less well understood.To address the problem, we construct a quasi-geostrophic model of magnetoconvection, with thermally-driven flows perturbing a steady, imposed background magnetic field. This approach is justified by the Taylor-Proudman theorem, in which velocities in a rapidly rotating system vary little parallel to the rotational axis. Using only two dimensions allows a much more rapid exploration of parameter space than traditional three-dimensional approaches.Our model is capable of producing mean zonal accelerations similar to those predicted by the geomagnetic reconstructions of Earth. In particular, we see a clear separation in period between the free modes (short) and forced modes (long) of torsional oscillations. We then systematically run the model with a variety of parameters, attempting to extrapolate our results to the conditions found in Earth's core.
Zonal procedure for predicting the hover performance of a helicopter rotor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moulton, Marvin Allyn
The prediction of the performance of rotorcraft is complicated by the need to simultaneously account for many disparate elements in a single problem. To date, most CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analyses of rotorcraft have been concerned with the computation of the flow on isolated elements-such as the flow on the blade surface. The treatment of realistic configurations requires the development of a methodology which can include a wide range of flow elements-especially, the main rotor and its wake system. This dissertation concerns the development of a new scheme for computing the flow of a complete rotor/wake system and applying this to predict the hover performance of a helicopter rotor. Navier-Stokes solvers are needed for predicting viscous effects, but do not have the ability to compute extensive wake regions without numerical dissipation. On the other hand, a vorticity embedded code can easily handle the wake but cannot predict the surface viscous flow. Therefore, this problem requires a zonal approach. To predict the profile power, a Navier-Stokes analysis is used near the blade surface. To avoid dissipation of the wake, the far field convection scheme is based on a full- potential solver equipped with vorticity embedding. Application of the zonal procedure to predict the hover performance of the Sikorsky UH-60A rotor provides the first evaluation of this method. Performance predictions of the Army AH-64A rotor demonstrate a new ability to predict hovering flows into the stall regime.
Efficiency prediction for a low head bulb turbine with SAS SST and zonal LES turbulence models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jošt, D.; Škerlavaj, A.
2014-03-01
A comparison between results of numerical simulations and measurements for a 3-blade bulb turbine is presented in order to determine an appropriate numerical setup for accurate and reliable simulations of flow in low head turbines. Numerical analysis was done for three angles of runner blades at two values of head. For the smallest blade angle the efficiency was quite accurately predicted, but for the optimal and maximal blade angles steady state analysis entirely failed to predict the efficiency due to underestimated torque on the shaft and incorrect results in the draft tube. Transient simulation with SST did not give satisfactory results, but with SAS and zonal LES models the prediction of efficiency was significantly improved. From the results obtained by SAS and zonal LES the interdependence between turbulence models, vortex structures in the flow, values of eddy viscosity and flow energy losses in the draft tube can be seen. Also the effect of using the bounded central differential scheme instead of the high resolution scheme was evident. To test the effect of grid density, simulations were performed on four grids. While a difference between results obtained on the basic grid and on the fine grid was small, the results obtained on the coarse grids were not satisfactory.
On the long-term variability of Jupiter and Saturn zonal winds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Garcia-Melendo, E.; Hueso, R.; Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Legarreta, J.; Rojas, J. F.
2012-12-01
We present an analysis of the long-term variability of Jupiter and Saturn zonal wind profiles at their upper cloud level as retrieved from cloud motion tracking on images obtained at ground-based observatories and with different spacecraft missions since 1979, encompassing about three Jovian and one Saturn years. We study the sensitivity and variability of the zonal wind profile in both planets to major planetary-scale disturbances and to seasonal forcing. We finally discuss the implications that these results have for current model efforts to explain the global tropospheric circulation in these planets. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. [1] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Icarus, 147, 405-420 (2000). [2] García-Melendo E., Sánchez LavegaA., Icarus, 152, 316-330 (2001) [3] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 423, 623-625 (2003). [4] García-Melendo E., et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L22204 (2010).
Impact of ocean heat transport variations on the zonal mean circulation in an idealized moist GCM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bischoff, T.; Schneider, T.
2012-12-01
We study how equatorial surface heat sources affect the strength and width of the Hadley circulation to elucidate the dynamics of tropical-extratropical interactions. The well-known atmospheric response to El Niño-like forcings includes an equatorward shift in the Hadley circulation terminus and the subtropical jets. One proposed mechanisms for this response involves changes in subtropical baroclinicity and associated equatorward shifts in critical latitudes. Here we use an idealized aquaplanet general circulation model with a hydrological cycle and a time-independent, zonally symmetric background ocean heat transport to investigate systematically how the zonal mean climate responds to imposed equatorial ocean heating anomalies. This approach allows for dynamically adjusted surface temperatures and closed surface energy budgets. We study the sensitivity to the equatorial heating anomalies for different imposed longwave optical thickness profiles representing cold, Earth-like and warm climates. Consistent with previous studies, we find a shift of the Hadley circulation terminus towards the equator and a concomitant increase in subtropical baroclinicity for equatorial warming, and vice versa for an equatorial cooling. Together with the Hadley circulation terminus, the subtropical jets, regions of poleward eddy momentum and heat fluxes as well as storm tracks, shift towards (away from) the equator for simulations with imposed equatorial warming (cooling). We account for the circulation response with theoretical arguments for the structure of baroclinic eddies.
Climatology and trends in the forcing of the stratospheric zonal-mean flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monier, E.; Weare, B. C.
2011-04-01
The momentum budget of the Transformed Eulerian-Mean (TEM) equation is calculated using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40). This study outlines the considerable contribution of unresolved waves, dominated by gravity waves, to the forcing of the zonal-mean flow. A trend analysis, from 1980 to 2001, shows that the onset and break down of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) stratospheric polar night jet has a tendency to occur later. This temporal shift is associated with long-term changes in the planetary wave activity that are mainly due to synoptic waves. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), the polar vortex shows a tendency to persist further into the SH summertime. This is associated with a statistically significant decrease in the intensity of the stationary EP flux divergence over the 1980-2001 period. Ozone depletion is well known for strengthening westerly winds through the thermal wind balance, which in turn causes a reduction in wave activity in high latitudes. This study suggests that the decrease in planetary wave activity provides an important feedback to the zonal wind as it delays the breakdown of the polar vortex. Finally, we identify long-term changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation that, this study suggests, are largely caused by trends in the planetary wave activity during winter and by trends in the gravity wave forcing otherwise.
Glucose gradients influence zonal matrix deposition in 3D cartilage constructs.
Spitters, Tim W G M; Mota, Carlos M D; Uzoechi, Samuel C; Slowinska, Barbara; Martens, Dirk E; Moroni, Lorenzo; Karperien, Marcel
2014-12-01
Reproducing the native collagen structure and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) distribution in tissue-engineered cartilage constructs is still a challenge. Articular cartilage has a specific nutrient supply and mechanical environment due to its location and function in the body. Efforts to simulate this native environment have been reported through the use of bioreactor systems. However, few of these devices take into account the existence of gradients over cartilage as a consequence of the nutrient supply by diffusion. We hypothesized that culturing chondrocytes in an environment, in which gradients of nutrients can be mimicked, would induce zonal differentiation. Indeed, we show that glucose gradients facilitating a concentration distribution as low as physiological glucose levels enhanced a zonal chondrogenic capacity similar to the one found in native cartilage. Furthermore, we found that the glucose consumption rates of cultured chondrocytes were higher under physiological glucose concentrations and that GAG production rates were highest in 5 mM glucose. From these findings, we concluded that this condition is better suited for matrix deposition compared to 20 mM glucose standard used in a chondrocyte culture system. Reconsidering the culture conditions in cartilage tissue engineering strategies can lead to cartilaginous constructs that have better mechanical and structural properties, thus holding the potential of further enhancing integration with the host tissue. PMID:24903611
Characterization of the zonal wind flow in the stratosphere of Titan with UVES
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luz, D.; Courtin, R.; Gautier, D.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Approuchaux, T.; Ferri, F.; Lara, L.; Kaufer, A.; Hourdin, F.
2003-05-01
We will report on recent efforts to characterize the zonal wind flow in Titan's stratosphere. We have used the UVES echelle spectrometer mounted at ESO's VLT-UT2 to obtain high-resolution solar spectra reflected off Titan. The purpose of the observations has been to detect the differential Doppler shift induced by the zonal wind flow in the back-scattered solar radiation from the East and West limbs of Titan. Since the wind speed should not exceed 200 m/s, an absolute detection of the shift on single solar lines is not feasible due to the limited spectral resolution of UVES. This is why we apply a retrieval scheme developed for stellar accelerometry (Connes 1985, ApSS 110, 211; Martyc et al. 1999, A&A 351, 993) which makes use of the full spectral range ( ˜4200 to 6200 Angstroms for the red arm of the instrument) and takes into account all the lines present in the spectrum. Our results strongly suggest that the wind is prograde, which will allow to reduce the error ellipse of the Huygens probe by one half. DL acknowledges financial support from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (grant SFRH/BPD/3630/2000) and from Observatoire de Paris.
Characterization of the Zonal Wind Flow in the Stratosphere of Titan with UVES
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luz, D.; Courtin, R.; Gautier, D.; Ferri, F.; Appourchaux, T.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Cabane, M.; Rannou, P.; Hourdin, F.; Lara, L.; Kaufer, A.
2002-09-01
We will report on recent efforts to characterize the zonal wind flow in Titan's stratosphere. We used the UVES echelle spectrometer at the focus of the UT2 of the Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile, to measure the reflection spectrum of Titan between 4200 and 6200 angstrom with a resolution of 80,000. The purpose of these observations, which were carried out in February 2002, is to detect the differential Doppler shift induced by the zonal wind flow between the East and West limbs of Titan. However, because the wind speed is not expected to exceed 200 m/s, an absolute detection of the Doppler shift on isolated solar lines is not feasible, even at the spectral resolution of UVES. Therefore, we have made use of a retrieval scheme developed for absolute stellar accelerometry (Connes 1985, ApSS 110, 211; Martic et al. 1999, A&A 351, 993) to extract the velocity signal by simultaneously taking into account all the lines present in the spectrum. We will describe the method and discuss preliminary results. Research supported by the "Programme National de Planetologie" of the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (France). D. Luz acknowledges financial support by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, ref.SFRH-BPD-3630-2000.
Development and application of a zonal k-epsilon turbulence model for complex 3-D flowfields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ladd, J. A.; Kral, L. D.
1992-07-01
A compressible, low Reynolds number two-equation turbulence model is applied to complex engineering problems. An upwind, implicit, factored algorithm with an optional TVD operator is used to solve both the mean-flow equations and the k-epsilon equations for three-dimensional turbulenct flow. A zonal approach is used for solution of both the mean flow variables and the turbulence variables. The zonal method allows complex geometries to be broken down into smaller blocks which are then computed sequentially. Several low Reynolds number k-epsilon models are implemented and validated for a subsonic and supersonic flat plate boundary layer. Calculations using the k-epsilon turbulence model are also presented for an axisymmetric jet plume, a supersonic combusting shear layer, a multislot ejector nozzle, and an F/A-18 forebody at high angle of attack. Comparison of the two-equation turbulence model results is made with results using algebraic turbulence models as well as experimental measurements. The two-equation turbulence model predicts better many of the flowfield characteristics for these complex geometries when compared with the algebraic solutions.
How the Inverse Turbulent Cascade and Vortex Dynamics Create Planetary Zonal Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcus, Philip S.
1999-11-01
The analogies between pure--electron plasmas and geophysical fluid flows that are quasi--2--dimensional due rotation and/or stratification are well--known. The formation of vortices, their interactions and persistence along with their tendencies to both filament and merge are the subject of many fluid experiments and numerical simulations and have analogies in plasma experiments. The hallmark of two--dimensional turbulence is the inverse cascade of energy from small to large scales. Here we are interested in finding if the inverse energy cascade along with our usual notions of vortex dynamics can be used to explain the large--scale structures of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn which are dominated by long--lived east--west (zonal) flows. Little is known about what sets their velocity scales or their length scales (i.e., the number of zones on each planet). Typically, the energy--containing modes in a turbulent flow span a range of scales, and in the rare cases that there are coherent features, their lengths are usually determined directly by the boundaries or the forcing length scales. Even turbulence in geophysical flows show this trait: the scale of granulation on the Sun (due to turbulent convection cells) is set by the depth of the convective zone; Jupiter's long--lived vortices, such as the Red Spot, are set by the widths of the local zonal flows in which they are situated. By examining a simple forced/dissipated flow we show that the widths of zonal flows are determined by a subtle combination of the forcing and dissipation and not set by boundary conditions or by the length scale of the forcing. We show that under a wide variety of conditions a turbulent flow without east--west winds forms via a inverse energy cascade and that zonal flows (with a single dominant length scale) form only for a small set of parameters. We present a simple theory which determines these parameter values and which also provides scaling laws for the zones' velocities and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Futatani, S.; Horton, W.; Kahlon, L. Z.; Kaladze, T.
2014-10-01
Nonlinear simulations are carried out for planetary scale [ >1000 km] electromagnetic Rossby and Khantadze planetary waves in the presence of a sheared zonal flow in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer. A variety of sheared flow profiles are studied. We shown that the nonlinear dynamics with the sheared zonal flows provides an energy source into the vortex structures. The energy transfer through the Reynolds stress tensor produces growth of the stable vortices under a variety of conditions. The energy accumulation breaks the vortex structure into multiple species according to the non-uniformity of profile of the external zonal shear flows. S. Futatani, W. Horton, T. D. Kaladze, Phys. Plasmas 20, 102903 (2013). T. D. Kaladze, L. Z. Kahlon, W. Horton. O Pokhotelov, and O. Onishenchenko, EPL 106, A05302 (2014).
The effect of global warming on lightning frequencies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Price, Colin; Rind, David
1990-01-01
The first attempt to model global lightning distributions by using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM is reported. Three sets of observations showing the relationship between lightning frequency and cloud top height are shown. Zonally averaged lightning frequency observed by satellite are compared with those calculated using the GISS GCM, and fair agreement is found. The change in lightning frequency for a double CO2 climate is calculated and found to be nearly 2.23 x 10 exp 6 extra lightning flashes per day.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hillesheim, Jon
2015-11-01
High spatial resolution measurements with Doppler backscattering in JET have provided new insights into the development of the edge radial electric field during pedestal formation. The characteristics of Er have been studied as a function of density at 2.5 MA plasma current and 3 T toroidal magnetic field. We observe fine-scale spatial structure in the edge Er well prior to the LH transition, consistent with stationary zonal flows. Zonal flows are a fundamental mechanism for the saturation of turbulence and this is the first direct evidence of stationary zonal flows in a tokamak. The radial wavelength of the zonal flows systematically decreases with density. The zonal flows are clearest in Ohmic conditions, weaker in L-mode, and absent in H-mode. Measurements also show that after neutral beam heating is applied, the edge Er builds up at a constant gradient into the core during L-mode, at radii where Er is mainly due to toroidal velocity. The local stability of velocity shear driven turbulence, such as the parallel velocity gradient mode, will be assessed with gyrokinetic simulations. This critical Er shear persists across the LH transition into H-mode. Surprisingly, a reduction in the apparent magnitude of the Er well depth is observed directly following the LH transition at high densities. Establishing the physics basis for the LH transition is important for projecting scalings to ITER and these observations challenge existing models based on increased Er shear or strong zonal flows as the trigger for the transition. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under grant agreement No 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission.
Advances in 3D electromagnetic finite element modeling
Nelson, E.M.
1997-08-01
Numerous advances in electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA) have been made in recent years. The maturity of frequency domain and eigenmode calculations, and the growth of time domain applications is briefly reviewed. A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will also be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis is also discussed.
Predictions of zonal wind and angular momentum by the NMC medium-range forecast model during 1985-89
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, Richard D.; Salstein, David A.; Nehrkorn, Thomas
1991-01-01
This paper investigates the quality of weather predictions of the atmosphere's relative angular momentum (M) made by the most recent version of the NMC medium-range forecast model (MRF88) during December 1985-1989. It was found that, compared with older versions of MRF, bias errors in the MRF88 forecasts of M became more prominent, while random errors were not affected. Both types of errors in the M forecasts could be traced to problems with forecasts in the zonal mean zonal wind in the tropics.
Competition for finite resources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, L. Jonathan; Zia, R. K. P.
2012-05-01
The resources in a cell are finite, which implies that the various components of the cell must compete for resources. One such resource is the ribosomes used during translation to create proteins. Motivated by this example, we explore this competition by connecting two totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) to a finite pool of particles. Expanding on our previous work, we focus on the effects on the density and current of having different entry and exit rates.
Zonal characterization of hillslope erosion processes in a semi-arid high mountain catchment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, Raquel; Millares, Agustín; Aguilar, Cristina; Moñino, Antonio; Ángel Losada, Miguel; José Polo, María
2013-04-01
Mediterranean and semi-arid catchments, generally suffer heterogeneous erosive processes at different spatio-temporal scales which produce, in a synergistic manner, a large amount of sediment supply. In mountainous catchments, the influence of pluvio-nival hydrological regime leads to a clear subdivision into homogeneous zones regarding the nature of hillslope processes. Here, a distinction could be addressed with 1) subsurface erosion due to saturated soil by intense snowmelt pulses and 2) steepest mid-mountain soil loss with rill/interrill, small-scale landslides and ephemeral or permanent gullying. Furthermore, the associated channels in these areas are formed by wide alluvial floodplains with important bedload contributions. This complexity conditions the evaluation of erosion and monitoring at catchment scale with elevated costs in time, devices and staff. The catchment of the Guadalfeo river encloses 1200 km², with important presence of snow in the summits height on its right margin, and semiarid low range hills with very erodible soils on its left margin. Gully erosion, landslides and stream bed-load processes, extremely actives in this area, are responsible of a real problem of soil loss and desertification with a high associated cost. This work suggests a methodology for the zonal assessment of different erosive processes taking into account the described heterogeneity and the reduction of research costs. To do this, high resolution bathymetric and topographic surveys supported in a reservoir (110 hm3) allowed the differentiation of bedload and suspended sediments as both are deposited in different locations and hence the validation of the hillslope sediment yield. In parallel, measurements in homogeneous areas were selected in order to obtain zonal results to achieve the representative processes involved. The use of portable samplers allows the remote changing of sampling routines, and thus to capture the temporal scale of the processes and the
Are Strong Zonal Winds in Giant Planets Caused by Density-Stratification?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verhoeven, J.; Stellmach, S.
2012-12-01
One of the most striking features of giant planets like Jupiter and Saturn are the zonal wind patterns observed on their surfaces. The mechanism that drives this differential rotation is still not clearly identified and is currently strongly debated in the astro- and geophysics community. Different mechanisms have been proposed over the last decades. Here, a recently discovered mechanism based on background density stratification (Glatzmaier et al., 2009) is investigated. This mechanism has the potential to overcome known difficulties of previous explanations and its efficiency has been demonstrated in 2-d simulations covering equatorial planes. By performing highly resolved numerical simulations in a local Cartesian geometry, we are able to test the efficiency and functionality of this mechanism in turbulent, rotating convection in three spatial dimensions. The choice of a Cartesian model geometry naturally excludes other known mechanisms capable of producing differential rotation, thus allowing us to investigate the role of density stratification in isolation. Typically, the dynamics can be classified into two main regimes: A regime exhibiting strong zonal winds for weak to moderate thermal driving and a regime where zonal winds are largely absent in the case of a strong thermal forcing. Our results indicate that previous 2-d results must be handled with care and can only explain parts of the full 3-d behavior. We show that the density-stratification mechanism tends to operate in a more narrow parameter range in 3-d as compared to 2-d simulations. The dynamics of the regime transition is shown to differ in both cases, which renders scaling laws derived from two-dimensional studies questionable. Based on our results, we provide estimates for the importance of the density-stratification mechanism for giant planets like Jupiter (strong density stratification), for systems like the Earth's core (weak density stratification) and compare its efficiency with other
A tensor artificial viscosity using a finite element approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolev, Tz. V.; Rieben, R. N.
2009-12-01
We derive a tensor artificial viscosity suitable for use in a 2D or 3D unstructured arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics code. This work is similar in nature to that of Campbell and Shashkov [1]; however, our approach is based on a finite element discretization that is fundamentally different from the mimetic finite difference framework. The finite element point of view leads to novel insights as well as improved numerical results. We begin with a generalized tensor version of the Von Neumann-Richtmyer artificial viscosity, then convert it to a variational formulation and apply a Galerkin discretization process using high order Gaussian quadrature to obtain a generalized nodal force term and corresponding zonal heating (or shock entropy) term. This technique is modular and is therefore suitable for coupling to a traditional staggered grid discretization of the momentum and energy conservation laws; however, we motivate the use of such finite element approaches for discretizing each term in the Euler equations. We review the key properties that any artificial viscosity must possess and use these to formulate specific constraints on the total artificial viscosity force term as well as the artificial viscosity coefficient. We also show, that under certain simplifying assumptions, the two-dimensional scheme from [1] can be viewed as an under-integrated version of our finite element method. This equivalence holds on general distorted quadrilateral grids. Finally, we present computational results on some standard shock hydro test problems, as well as some more challenging problems, indicating the advantages of the new approach with respect to symmetry preservation for shock wave propagation over general grids.
Translation operator for finite dmensional electromagnetic fields
Howard, A.Q. Jr.
1981-04-01
Computation of electromagnetic fields in particular applications is usually accompanied by the adhoc assumption that the field contains a finite number of degrees of freedom. Herein, this assumption is made at the outset. It is shown that if an annular region between two closed surfaces contains no sources or sinks and is isotropic, lossless and homogeneous, a unique translation operator can be defined algebraically. Conservation of energy defines the translation operator T to within an arbitrary unitary transformation. The conditions of causality, unitarity and energy conservation are shown to uniquely determine T. Both scalar and vector fields are treated. In both of these cases, frequency and time domain transforms are computed. The transform T is compared with the analagous one as derived from the time domain Stratton-Chu Formulation. The application to a radiation condition boundary constraint on finite difference and finite element computations is discussed.
Small scale coherent vortex generation in drift wave-zonal flow turbulence
Guo, Z. B. Hahm, T. S.; Diamond, P. H.
2015-12-15
We present a paradigm for the generation of small scale coherent vortex (SSCV) in drift wave-zonal flow (DW-ZF) turbulence. We demonstrate that phases of DWs can couple coherently, mediated by the ZF shearing. A SSCV is formed when the phases of the DWs are “attracted” to form a stable “phase cluster.” We show that the ZF shearing induces asymmetry between “attractive” and “repulsive” phase couplings, so that a net attractive phase coupling results. The turbulent DWs will (partially)synchronize into a stable SSCV at locations, where the attractive phase coupling induced by the ZF shearing exceeds the “detuning” effects by the DW dispersion and random phase scattering. We also discuss the “self-binding” effect of the newly formed SSCV.
Neumann, P.M.; Chamel, A.
1986-06-01
/sup 63/Ni was applied to nonsenescent source leaves and found to be transported to sink tissues in pea (Pisum saativum L.) and geranium plants (Pelargonium zonale L.). The comparative mobilities (percent tracer transported out of source leaf division % /sup 86/Rb transported) for /sup 63/Ni in peas was 2.12 and in geranium 0.25. The value for the phloem mobile /sup 86/Rb was 1.00. By contrast, the comparative mobility of /sup 45/Ca, which is relatively immobile in the phloem, was low (0.05 in peas, 0.00 in geranium). Interruption of the phloem pathway between source and sink leaves by steam girdling almost completely inhibited /sup 63/Ni accumulation in the sink leaves of both species. The authors conclude that Ni is transported from nonsenescent source leaves to sink tissues via the phloem of leguminous and nonleguminous plants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elkins, J. W.; Nance, J. D.; Dutton, G. S.; Montzka, S. A.; Hall, B. D.; Miller, B.; Butler, J. H.; Mondeel, D. J.; Siso, C.; Moore, F. L.; Hintsa, E. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Rigby, M. L.
2015-12-01
The Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) of NOAA's Global Monitoring Division started measurements of the major chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide in 1977 from flask samples collected at five remote sites around the world. Our program has expanded to over 40 compounds at twelve sites, which includes six in situ instruments and twelve flask sites. The Montreal Protocol for Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and its subsequent amendments has helped to decrease the concentrations of many of the ozone depleting compounds in the atmosphere. Our goal is to provide zonal emission estimates for these trace gases from multi-box models and their estimated atmospheric lifetimes in this presentation and make the emission values available on our web site. We plan to use our airborne measurements to calibrate the exchange times between the boxes for 5-box and 12-box models using sulfur hexafluoride where emissions are better understood.
Yu, J; Chambers, W W; Liu, C N
1978-01-01
In monkeys, cerebellar vermal cortical or fastigial nuclear lesion resulted in no significant postural asymmetry. Combined decerebration (but not bulbar pyramid section) and unilateral vermal cortical or fastigial nuclear lesion gave marked ipsilateral hyperextension and contralateral hyperflexion of limbs. Unilateral eighth nerve section resulted in only ipsilateral head tilt but combined unilateral eighth nerve section and decerebration or bilateral or contralateral cerebral cortical areas 4 and 6 lesion gave also ipsilateral flexion and contralateral extension of limbs. Cervical deafferentation or postbrachial spinal cord transection did not alter these results. This study indicates a powerful cerebral influence on postural effects of cerebellar vermal zonal lesion or eighth nerve section in monkeys. Possible mechanisms mediating these effects in monkeys as compared to cats were discussed. PMID:107730
The effect of zonal gradients of sea surface temperature on the Indian Ocean winter monsoon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, C.
1981-01-01
Several global climate simulations by the 7-layer, 8 x 10 GISS climate model were designed to test the contributions of various surface boundary conditions to the global climate. The model was run with the sun fixed at a perpetual January. In a comparison of run #5, in which realistic January surface boundary conditions were used, with run #4, which was the same except that a zonally symmetric climatological January sea surface temperature (SST) field was used, one of the results was that run #5 provided a better simulation of the Indian Ocean monsoon. A further comparison of the wind fields over the Indian Ocean that were generated by these two model runs is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.
1989-01-01
This paper examines a parameterization of a quasi-geostrophic eddy transport that takes into account the time variation of eddy transfer coefficients according to Green's (1970) theory. It was found that, in the original eddy transfer relationship of Green, connecting the integral of the northward eddy entropy flux through midlatitudes with the second power of the difference in 500-mb entropy across the region of baroclinic activity, a value of 4 for the exponent is obtained when the temperature gradients at 500 mb are used. When the gradients at 1000 mb are used, an exponent of 1.5 is obtained. The differences in the powers in the eddy transfer relation were explored in a two-level zonally averaged model. It was found that an appropriate choice of power may be of special importance if the model is devised to simulate the seasonal climate cycle or to test astronomical changes inducing different seasonalities.
Dynamic stall computations using a zonal Navier-Stokes model. Master's thesis
Conroyd, J.H.
1988-06-01
A zonal Navier-Stokes model is installed and verified on the NASA Ames Cray X/MP-48 computer and is used to calculate the flow field about a NACA 0012 airfoil oscillating in pitch. Surface-pressure distributions and integrated lift, pitching moment, and drag coefficient versus angle of attack are compared to existing experimental data for four cases and existing computational data for one case. These cases involve deep dynamic stall and fully detached flow at and below a free-stream Mach number of .184. The flow field about the oscillating airfoil is investigated through the study of pressure, vorticity, local velocity, and stream function. Finally, the effects of pitch rate on dynamic stall are investigated.
Proposed geomagnetic control of semiannual waves in the mesospheric zonal wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belmont, A. D.; Nastrom, G. D.; Mayr, H. G.
1974-01-01
The polar semiannual oscillation in zonal wind can explain midwinter weakening of the polar vortex and the relatively short stratospheric and mesospheric summar easterlies. The phase of the wind oscillation is equinoctial, as is the phase of the semiannual component in magnetic storm activity. For a given altitude, the contours of amplitude of the semiannual wind oscillation have less variability in geomagnetic than in geographic coordinates. It is suggested that polar wind oscillations are caused by the semiannual maxima in magnetic storm activity which lead to electron dissociation of O2 into O, in turn increasing ozone more rapidly than the dissociation of N2 destroys ozone, and thereby inducing a semiannual variation in the thermal and wind fields. This implies that geomagnetic processes may cause or affect the development of sudden warmings. As the tropical semiannual wind oscillation is symmetric about the geomagnetic equator, the same processes may also influence the location of the tropical wind wave.
A local noncircular equilibrium model and its application to residual zonal flow calculations
Zhou Deng; Yu Weihong
2011-05-15
A local up-down symmetric tokamak equilibrium model is proposed. The model, with constant plasma shape parameters, is a special case of the more general Miller's local model [R. L. Miller et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 973 (1998)]. Correspondingly, the equilibrium is determined only by a given reference flux surface, the local safety factor, the local pressure profile, and the profile of local toroidal field function. Although it is not complete, the model is particularly suitable for analytically investigating the effect of plasma shape factors on the radially localized plasma modes, like reversed shear Alfvenic eigenmodes, ballooning mode, etc. As an example of the application, the residual zonal flow in a shaped plasma is evaluated, and the result is in qualitative agreement with the previous investigations.
Proposed geomagnetic control of semiannual waves in the mesospheric zonal wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belmont, A. D.; Nastrom, G. D.; Mayr, H. G.
1975-01-01
The polar semiannual oscillation in zonal wind explains midwinter weakening of the polar vortex and the relatively short stratospheric and mesospheric summer easterlies. The phase of the wind oscillation is equinoctial, as is the phase of the semiannual component in magnetic storm activity. For a given altitude, the contours of amplitude of the semiannual wind oscillation have less variability in geomagnetic than in geographic coordinates. It is suggested that the polar wind oscillations are caused by the semiannual maxima in magnetic storm activity, which lead to electron dissociation of O2 into O, in turn increasing ozone more rapidly than the dissociation of N2 destroys ozone, and inducing a semiannual variation in the thermal and wind fields. This implies that geomagnetic processes may cause or affect the development of sudden warmings. As the tropical semiannual wind oscillation is symmetric about the geomagnetic equator, the same processes may also influence the location of the tropical wind wave.
Angle-of-attack validation of a new zonal CFD method for airfoil simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoo, Sungyul; Summa, J. Michael; Strash, Daniel J.
1990-01-01
The angle-of-attack validation of a new concept suggested by Summa (1990) for coupling potential and viscous flow methods has been investigated for two-dimensional airfoil simulations. The fully coupled potential/Navier-Stokes code, ZAP2D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program 2D), has been used to compute the flow field around an NACA 0012 airfoil for a range of angles of attack up to stall at a Mach number of 0.3 and a Reynolds number of 3 million. ZAP2D calculation for various domain sizes from 25 to 0.12 chord lengths are compared with the ARC2D large domain solution as well as with experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lund, T. S.; Tavella, D. A.; Roberts, L.
1985-01-01
A viscous-inviscid interaction methodology based on a zonal description of the flowfield is developed as a mean of predicting the performance of two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejectors. An inviscid zone comprising the irrotational flow about the device is patched together with a viscous zone containing the turbulent mixing flow. The inviscid region is computed by a higher order panel method, while an integral method is used for the description of the viscous part. A non-linear, constrained optimization study is undertaken for the design of the inlet region. In this study, the viscous-inviscid analysis is complemented with a boundary layer calculation to account for flow separation from the walls of the inlet region. The thrust-based Reynolds number as well as the free stream velocity are shown to be important parameters in the design of a thrust augmentor inlet.
Present-day secular variations in the zonal harmonics of earth's geopotential
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitrovica, J. X.; Peltier, W. R.
1993-01-01
The mathematical formulation required for predicting secular variation in the geopotential is developed for the case of a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating, viscoelastic earth model and an arbitrary surface load which can include a gravitational self-consistent ocean loading component. The theory is specifically applied to predict the present-day secular variation in the zonal harmonics of the geopotenial arising from the surface mass loading associated with the late Pleistocene glacial cycles. A procedure is outlined in which predictions of the present-day geopotential signal due to the late Pleistocene glacial cycles may be used to derive bounds on the net present-day mass flux from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to the local oceans.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Magalhaes, Julio A.; Weir, Andrew L.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Conrath, Barney J.; Leroy, Stephen S.
1990-01-01
Global digital maps of Jupiter's upper-tropospheric temperature have been generated at the 270- and 150-mb pressure levels, together with IR cloud optical depths at 5 and 45 microns and the ammonia abundance near the 680-mb pressure level, on the basis of Voyager IRIS north-south mapping sequences. Attention is given to the 270-mb and 45 micron data; global digital maps are presented for violet and orange reflectivities. The dominant upper tropospheric thermal structures move at a rate far different from that of the cloud indicators, and are noted to remain stationary relative to the planet's bulk rotation. Strong stationary features are found at a zonal wavenumber of 9 near 15 deg N latitude and of 11 near 20 deg latitude.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holst, T. L.; Thomas, S. D.; Kaynak, U.; Gundy, K. L.; Flores, J.; Chaderjian, N. M.
1985-01-01
Transonic flow fields about wing geometries are computed using an Euler/Navier-Stokes approach in which the flow field is divided into several zones. The flow field immediately adjacent to the wing surface is resolved with fine grid zones and solved using a Navier-Stokes algorithm. Flow field regions removed from the wing are resolved with less finely clustered grid zones and are solved with an Euler algorithm. Computational issues associated with this zonal approach, including data base management aspects, are discussed. Solutions are obtained that are in good agreement with experiment, including cases with significant wind tunnel wall effects. Additional cases with significant shock induced separation on the upper wing surface are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Méchi, Rachid; Farhat, Habib; Said, Rachid
2016-01-01
Nongray radiation calculations are carried out for a case problem available in the literature. The problem is a non-isothermal and inhomogeneous CO2-H2O- N2 gas mixture confined within an axisymmetric cylindrical furnace. The numerical procedure is based on the zonal method associated with the weighted sum of gray gases (WSGG) model. The effect of the wall emissivity on the heat flux losses is discussed. It is shown that this property affects strongly the furnace efficiency and that the most important heat fluxes are those leaving through the circumferential boundary. The numerical procedure adopted in this work is found to be effective and may be relied on to simulate coupled turbulent combustion-radiation in fired furnaces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Delisi, Donald P.; Dunkerton, Timothy J.
1988-01-01
Zonally averaged equatorial temperatures obtained aboard Nimbus 7 by the stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS) are compared to comparable data obtained from the limb IR monitor of the stratosphere. The SAMS data are shown to confirm the seasonal asymmetry in semiannual wind regimes previously noted in rocketsonde observations near the equator. Two explanations for the asymmetry are considered: (1) an improved Kelvin and gravity wave transmissivity in stronger equatorial easterlies (resulting from planetary Rossby wave momentum transport), implying stronger westerly mean flow acceleration in the first cycle than in the second; and (2) evidence of strong polar-tropical coupling in the northern winter indicating that mean meridional circulations are present on a global scale.
Isolation of plasma lipoproteins by zonal ultracentrifugation in the B14 and B15 titanium rotors.
Wilcox, H G; Heimberg, M
1970-01-01
Lipoproteins were isolated from plasma of man, dog, rabbit, rat, and chicken by ultracentrifugation in continuous density gradients using the B14 titanium and B15 titanium zonal rotors. Both the VLDL and the LDL of human plasma were separated easily from the HDL and from the other more plentiful plasma proteins by centrifugation for only 1 or 2 hr in the B14 or B15 rotor, respectively. Satisfactory separation of the HDL from the more dense plasma proteins was not achieved with these rotors. The human LDL achieved isopycnic equilibrium (d 1.04) on prolonged periods (> 24 hr) of centrifugation in a sucrose-KBr density gradient. The pattern of distribution of cholesterol and phospholipid throughout the density gradient coincided with the pattern of distribution of the lipoprotein-protein measured spectrophotometrically or chemically. The concentration of cholesterol and phospholipid in the lipoproteins isolated by zonal ultracentrifugation agreed with analyses reported for lipoproteins isolated by sequential centrifugation in solutions of increasing density. The lipoproteins isolated by zonal ultracentrifugation were characterized further by their electrophoretic behavior. The fractions which were identified as the LDL (d 1.04-1.05) from all species migrated on paper as a beta-globulin; the LDL from plasma of dogs contained an additional component which has been designated as an alpha(2)-globulin. The fractions which were identified as the HDL from all species migrated as an alpha(1)-globulin. Reaction of human LDL with either rabbit antihuman beta-lipoprotein or rabbit antihuman serum resulted in a single immunodiffusion band. The S(f, 1.063) of the human LDL was calculated to be 6.0. When plasma from humans or rabbits was centrifuged in the B15 rotor, the HDL was not visible as a distinct peak and was not separable from the bulk of the more dense plasma proteins; when plasma from dogs or chickens was centrifuged under identical conditions, the HDL was clearly
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connell, Peter S.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Burley, Joel D.; Johnston, Harold S.
1994-01-01
We have investigated the effects of incorporating representations of heterogeneous chemical processes associated with stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosol into the LLNL two-dimensional, zonally averaged, model of the troposphere and stratosphere. Using distributions of aerosol surface area and volume density derived from SAGE II satellite observations, we were primarily interested in changes in partitioning within the Cl- and N- families in the lower stratosphere, compared to a model including only gas phase photochemical reactions. We have considered the heterogeneous hydrolysis reactions N2O5 + H2O(aerosol) yields 2 HNO3 and ClONO2 + H2O(aerosol) yields HOCl + HNO3 alone and in combination with the proposed formation of nitrosyl sulfuric acid (NSA) in the aerosol and its reaction with HCl. Inclusion of these processes produces significant changes in partitioning in the NO(y) and ClO(y) families in the middle stratosphere.
Shape based zonal wave-front reconstruction for arbitrary shape pupils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Zhaoliang; Qu, Qing; Wang, Yukun; Xu, Huanyu; Wang, Shaoxin; Yang, Chengliang; Xuan, Li
2015-02-01
Zonal method is widely used to reconstruct the wave-front. Up to now, the iterative algorithms have been used to reconstruct the arbitrary shape wave-front with high reconstruction accuracy. However, it has the shortcomings of long time consumption. To reduce the time delay, a shaped based method is proposed by adding the shape information into the geometry matrix. The simulated and experimental results indicate that the reconstruction accuracy of proposed method is similar to that of the iterative LS-based method, but the computation time of our method is 3 times less than that of the iteration method. Consequently, the high accuracy and low time consumption are simultaneously achieved with the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chanishvili, R.; Chagelishvili, G.; Uchava, E.; Kharshiladze, O.
2016-04-01
Our goal is to gain new insight into the physics of wave dynamics in ionospheric zonal shear flows. We study the shear flow non-normality induced linear coupling of planetary scale (slow) modified Rossby waves and westward propagating fast magnetized (Khantadze) waves using an approach different from the existing one to the linear wave dynamics. The performed analysis allows us to separate from each other different physical processes, grasp their interplay, and, by this way, construct the basic physics of the linear coupling of the slow and fast waves in an ionospheric zonal flow with linear shear of mean velocity, U0=(S y ,0 ) . It should be noted from the beginning that we consider incompressible flow and the classified "slow" and "fast" waves are not connected with the similarly labeled magnetosonic waves in compressible heliosphere. We show that: the modified Rossby waves generate fast magnetized waves due to the coupling for a quite wide range of ionospheric and shear flow parameters; the linear transient processes are highly anisotropic in wavenumber plane; the generation of the magnetized waves/oscillations is most efficient/optimal for S ≃0.1 (S is the shear rate normalized to the combination of the angular velocity and latitude, Ω0 cos θ0 ); the streamwise wave number of the optimally generated magnetized wave harmonics decreases (the length scale increases) with increasing the Hall parameter, α. At the end, we discuss nonlinear consequences of the described anisotropic linear dynamics—they should lead to an anisotropy of nonlinear cascade processes (in wavenumber plane). In turn, an interplay of the analyzed quite strong transient growth of the fast magnetic waves with anisotropic nonlinear processes should ensure self-sustenance of (stochastic or regular) magnetic perturbations.
Zonal currents in the F region deduced from Swarm constellation measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lühr, Hermann; Kervalishvili, Guram; Rauberg, Jan; Stolle, Claudia
2016-01-01
The Swarm constellation has been used to estimate zonal currents in the topside F region ionosphere at about 500 km. Near-simultaneous magnetic field measurements from two altitudes but the same meridian are used for the current density calculations. We consider the period 15 February to 23 June 2014 for deriving a full 24 h local time coverage of the latitudinal distribution over ±50° in magnetic latitude. Intervals with close orbital phasing at the two heights are considered, which repeat every 6 days. From such days seven successive orbits are used where the epochs of equator crossings differ by less than 2 min. Deduced current densities are predominantly eastward (about 20 nA/m2) on the dayside and westward (about 10 nA/m2) on the nightside. A number of different drivers contribute to the observed total current. We identified the gravity-driven eastward current as the most prominent at low latitudes. Eastward currents in the Northern Hemisphere are clearly stronger than in the south. This is attributed to the proximity of our study period to June solstice, when the solar radiation is stronger in the north. In addition, interhemispheric winds from the Northern (summer) to the Southern (winter) Hemisphere contribute. They cause eastward currents in the north and westward in the south. We find a relatively large variability of the zonal currents both in space and time. The standard deviation is at least twice as large as the mean value of current density. This large variability is suggested to be related to gravity wave forcing from below.
Estimation of thermospheric zonal and meridional winds using a Kalman filter technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lomidze, Levan; Scherliess, Ludger
2015-11-01
Knowledge of the thermospheric neutral wind and its horizontal components is critical for an improved understanding of F region dynamics and morphology. However, to date their reliable estimation remains a challenge because of difficulties in both measurement and modeling. We present a new method to estimate the climatology of the zonal and meridional components of thermospheric neutral wind at low and middle latitudes using a Kalman filter technique. First, the climatology of the magnetic meridional wind is obtained by assimilating seasonal maps of F region ionosphere peak parameters (NmF2 and hmF2), obtained from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate radio occultation data, into the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements Full Physics (GAIM-FP) model. GAIM-FP provides the 3-D electron density throughout the ionosphere, together with the magnetic meridional wind. Next, the global zonal and meridional wind components are estimated using a newly developed Thermospheric Wind Assimilation Model (TWAM). TWAM combines magnetic meridional wind data obtained from GAIM-FP with a physics-based 3-D thermospheric neutral wind model using an implicit Kalman filter technique. Ionospheric drag and ion diffusion velocities, needed for the wind calculation, are also taken from GAIM-FP. The obtained wind velocities are in close agreement with measurements made by interferometers and with wind values from the Horizontal Wind Model 93 (HWM93) over Millstone Hill, Arecibo, and Arequipa during December and June solstices, and March equinox. In addition, it is shown that compared to HWM93 the winds from TWAM significantly improve the accuracy of the Ionosphere/Plasmasphere Model in reproducing the observed electron density variation over the Weddell Sea Anomaly.
A zonally averaged, coupled ocean-atmosphere model for paleoclimate studies
Stocker, T.F.; Mysak, L.A. ); Wright, D.G. )
1992-08-01
A zonally averaged ocean model for the thermohaline circulation is coupled to a zonally averaged, one-layer energy balance model of the atmosphere to form a climate model for paleoclimate studies. The emphasis of the coupled model is on the ocean's thermohaline circulation in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans. Under present-day conditions, the global conveyor belt is simulated. Latitude-depth structures of modeled temperature and salinity fields, as well as depth-integrated meridional transports of heat and freshwater, compare well with estimates from observations when wind stress is included. Ekman cells are present in the upper ocean and contribute substantially to the meridional fluxes at low latitudes.The atmospheric component of the coupled climate model consists of a classical balance model. When the two components are coupled after being spun up individually, the system remains steady. If intermittent convection is operating, the coupled model shows systematic deviations of the surface salinity, which may result in reversals of the thermohaline circulation. This climate drift can be inhibited by removing intermittent convection prior to coupling. The climate model is applied to investigate the effect of excess freshwater discharge into the North Atlantic, and the influence of the parameterization of precipitation is tested. The Atlantic thermohalinc flow is sensitive to anomalous freshwater input. Reversals of the deep circulation can occur in the Atlantic, leading to a state where deep water is formed only in the Southern Ocean. A feedback mechanism is identified that may also trigger the reversal of the Pacific thermobaline circulation yielding the inverse conveyor bell as an additional steady state. In total, four different stable equilibria of the coupled model were realized.
Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.
Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark
2014-05-01
Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands. PMID:24753570
The Influence of the Zonal Wave Three on Antarctic Sea Ice during Ice Advance Season
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, H. M.; Raphael, M. N.
2015-12-01
Previous works have looked at the influence of key atmospheric circulation patterns on sea ice in the Antarctic in terms of the atmosphere's seasonal cycle. This study examines the influence of one of these atmospheric patterns, the zonal wave three (ZW3), in terms of the sea ice's seasons from 1979-2009 in order to better understand the response of the sea ice. An index to represent the amplitude of the ZW3 was calculated using zonal anomalies of 850 hPa geopotential heights taken from the ERA-Interim data set. Sea ice concentrations (SIC), taken from the Hadley Center sea ice and sea surface temperature data set, were found to be significantly positively correlated with the ZW3 index during the ice advance season (March to August) in the Ross and Weddell Seas and off the Amery ice shelf. These regions align with where cold, southerly flow associated with the ZW3 are found. In the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas region, SIC was found to be negatively correlated with the ZW3 index, which coincides with where the warm, northerly flow of the wave is found in this region. Regression analysis showed SIC to be significantly dependent upon the ZW3 in parts of the Ross Sea, the ice edge in the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas and off the Amery ice shelf during ice advance season. The results suggest that the ZW3 plays a role in the occurrence of the observed sea ice trends in the Ross Sea, Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas, Weddell Sea and off the Amery ice shelf regions during the ice advance season, the critical period for sea ice growth. The results also demonstrate that re-examining the influence of relevant atmospheric patterns on sea ice in terms of the ice's seasonal cycles could allow firmer connections to be established between sea ice trends and atmospheric patterns.
Kawahara, Ai; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro
2013-10-01
Coastal dune vegetation distributes zonally along the environmental gradients of, e.g., soil disturbance. In the preset study, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a coastal dune ecosystem were characterized with respect to tolerance to soil disturbance. Two grass species, Elymus mollis and Miscanthus sinensis, are distributed zonally in the seaward and landward slopes, respectively, in the primary dunes in Ishikari, Japan. The seaward slope is severely disturbed by wind, while the landward slope is stabilized by the thick root system of M. sinensis. The roots and rhizosphere soils of the two grasses were collected from the slopes. The soils were sieved to destruct the fungal hyphal networks, and soil trap culture was conducted to assess tolerance of the communities to disturbance, with parallel analysis of the field communities using a molecular ecological tool. In the landward communities, large shifts in the composition and increases in diversity were observed in the trap culture compared with the field, but in the seaward communities, the impact of trap culture was minimal. The landward field community was significantly nested within the landward trap culture community, implying that most members in the field community did not disappear in the trap culture. No nestedness was observed in the seaward communities. These observations suggest that disturbance-tolerant fungi have been preferentially selected in the seaward slope due to severe disturbance in the habitat. Whereas a limited number of fungi, which are not necessarily disturbance-sensitive, dominate in the stable landward slope, but high-potential diversity has been maintained in the habitat. PMID:23474896
The Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation Climate Impact - Zonal and Meridional Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, Rolf; Kirillov, Andrey; Valev, Dimitar; Atanassov, Atanas; Danov, Dimitar; Guineva, Veneta
2016-07-01
The Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation (AMO) shows a period of about 60-70 years. Over the time span from 1860 up to 2014 the AMO has had a strong climate impact on the Northern Hemisphere. The AMO is considered to be related to the Atlantic overturning circulation, but the origin of the oscillation is not fully understood up till now. To study the AMO impact on climate, the Hadcrut4, Crut4 and HadSST3 temperature data sets have been employed in the current study. The influence of the AMO on the zonal and meridional temperature distribution has been investigated in detail. The strongest zonal AMO impact was obtained in the Arctic region. The results indicated that the AMO influence on temperature at Southern latitudes was opposite in phase compared to the temperature influence in the Northern Hemisphere, in agreement with the well known heat transfer phenomenon from South to North Atlantic. In the Northern Hemisphere the strongest AMO temperature impact was found over the Atlantic and America. In the West from American continent, over the Pacific, the AMO impact was the lowest obtained over the whole Northern Hemisphere. The Rocky Mountains and Sierra Madre, connected with it southwards, built up an atmospheric circulation barrier preventing a strong propagation of the AMO temperature signal westerly. The amplitude of the AMO index itself was greater during summer-fall. However stronger AMO influence on the Northern Hemisphere temperatures was found during the fall-winter season, when the differences between the Northern Hemisphere temperatures and the temperatures in the tropics were the greatest.
Application of vector spherical harmonics for kinematic analysis of stars from zonal catalogues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vityazev, V. V.; Tsvetkov, A. S.
2011-12-01
We solve the problem on a kinematic analysis of the three-dimensional velocity field of stars from zonal catalogues, i.e., catalogues in which the stars are presented at all right ascensions in some declination zones. We have constructed a system of vector spherical harmonics with the properties of completeness and orthogonality for a chosen declination zone. We suggest a method that allows the Ogorodnikov-Milne model parameters in the Galactic coordinate system to be estimated by analyzing the proper motions and radial velocities of stars in the equatorial coordinate system. The vector spherical harmonics are shown to have the following advantages over the standard approach based on a direct leastsquares estimation of the parameters for a specific model. First, in contrast to the standard approach, the new method can reveal all systematic components of the velocity field irrespective of a particular model. Second, it allows one to get rid of the correlation between the sought-for parameters, which presents a serious problem for the conventional method in the case of zonal catalogues. Third, the method of vector spherical harmonics allows the kinematic parameters to be estimated at least by two techniques. Comparison of these two solutions makes it possible to test the standard kinematic model for compatibility with the observational data. The developed method has been tested on the basis of numerical experiments and applied for a kinematic analysis of the proper motions of Tycho-2 stars in the southern hemisphere for which the parallaxes can be estimated using data from the Tycho-2 Spectral Type Catalogue.
Accelerated CMR using zonal, parallel and prior knowledge driven imaging methods
Kozerke, Sebastian; Plein, Sven
2008-01-01
Accelerated imaging is highly relevant for many CMR applications as competing constraints with respect to spatiotemporal resolution and tolerable scan times are frequently posed. Three approaches, all involving data undersampling to increase scan efficiencies, are discussed in this review. Zonal imaging can be considered a niche but nevertheless has found application in coronary imaging and CMR flow measurements. Current work on parallel-transmit systems is expected to revive the interest in zonal imaging techniques. The second and main approach to speeding up CMR sequences has been parallel imaging. A wide range of CMR applications has benefited from parallel imaging with reduction factors of two to three routinely applied for functional assessment, perfusion, viability and coronary imaging. Large coil arrays, as are becoming increasingly available, are expected to support reduction factors greater than three to four in particular in combination with 3D imaging protocols. Despite these prospects, theoretical work has indicated fundamental limits of coil encoding at clinically available magnetic field strengths. In that respect, alternative approaches exploiting prior knowledge about the object being imaged as such or jointly with parallel imaging have attracted considerable attention. Five to eight-fold scan accelerations in cine and dynamic CMR applications have been reported and image quality has been found to be favorable relative to using parallel imaging alone. With all acceleration techniques, careful consideration of the limits and the trade-off between acceleration and occurrence of artifacts that may arise if these limits are breached is required. In parallel imaging the spatially varying noise has to be considered when measuring contrast- and signal-to-noise ratios. Also, temporal fidelity in images reconstructed with prior knowledge driven methods has to be studied carefully. PMID:18534005
Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures
Douglas, Peter M. J.; Affek, Hagit P.; Ivany, Linda C.; Houben, Alexander J. P.; Sijp, Willem P.; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark
2014-01-01
Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10–17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands. PMID:24753570
Riggs, H.C.
1968-01-01
This manual describes graphical and mathematical procedures for preparing frequency curves from samples of hydrologic data. It also discusses the theory of frequency curves, compares advantages of graphical and mathematical fitting, suggests methods of describing graphically defined frequency curves analytically, and emphasizes the correct interpretations of a frequency curve.
Achterberg, R. K.; Hesman, B. E.; Gierasch, P. J.; Conrath, B. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Flasar, F. M.
2014-05-10
We use far-infrared (20-200 μm) data from the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on the Cassini spacecraft to determine the zonal-mean temperature and hydrogen para-fraction in Saturn's upper troposphere from observations taken before and after the large northern hemisphere storm in 2010-2011. During the storm, zonal mean temperatures in the latitude band between approximately 25°N and 45°N (planetographic latitude) increased by about 3 K, while the zonal mean hydrogen para-fraction decreased by about 0.04 over the same latitudes, at pressures greater than about 300 mbar. These changes occurred over the same latitude range as the disturbed cloud band seen in visible images. The observations are consistent with low para-fraction gas being brought up from the level of the water cloud by the strong convective plume associated with the storm, while being heated by condensation of water vapor, and then advected zonally by the winds near the plume tops in the upper troposphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drouot, T.; Gravier, E.; Reveille, T.; Collard, M.
2015-10-01
This paper presents a study of zonal flows generated by trapped-electron mode and trapped-ion mode micro turbulence as a function of two plasma parameters—banana width and electron temperature. For this purpose, a gyrokinetic code considering only trapped particles is used. First, an analytical equation giving the predicted level of zonal flows is derived from the quasi-neutrality equation of our model, as a function of the density fluctuation levels and the banana widths. Then, the influence of the banana width on the number of zonal flows occurring in the system is studied using the gyrokinetic code. Finally, the impact of the temperature ratio Te/Ti on the reduction of zonal flows is shown and a close link is highlighted between reduction and different gyro-and-bounce-average ion and electron density fluctuation levels. This reduction is found to be due to the amplitudes of gyro-and-bounce-average density perturbations ne and ni gradually becoming closer, which is in agreement with the analytical results given by the quasi-neutrality equation.
Drouot, T.; Gravier, E.; Reveille, T.; Collard, M.
2015-10-15
This paper presents a study of zonal flows generated by trapped-electron mode and trapped-ion mode micro turbulence as a function of two plasma parameters—banana width and electron temperature. For this purpose, a gyrokinetic code considering only trapped particles is used. First, an analytical equation giving the predicted level of zonal flows is derived from the quasi-neutrality equation of our model, as a function of the density fluctuation levels and the banana widths. Then, the influence of the banana width on the number of zonal flows occurring in the system is studied using the gyrokinetic code. Finally, the impact of the temperature ratio T{sub e}/T{sub i} on the reduction of zonal flows is shown and a close link is highlighted between reduction and different gyro-and-bounce-average ion and electron density fluctuation levels. This reduction is found to be due to the amplitudes of gyro-and-bounce-average density perturbations n{sub e} and n{sub i} gradually becoming closer, which is in agreement with the analytical results given by the quasi-neutrality equation.
Development of an upwind, finite-volume code with finite-rate chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Molvik, Gregory A.
1995-01-01
Under this grant, two numerical algorithms were developed to predict the flow of viscous, hypersonic, chemically reacting gases over three-dimensional bodies. Both algorithms take advantage of the benefits of upwind differencing, total variation diminishing techniques and of a finite-volume framework, but obtain their solution in two separate manners. The first algorithm is a zonal, time-marching scheme, and is generally used to obtain solutions in the subsonic portions of the flow field. The second algorithm is a much less expensive, space-marching scheme and can be used for the computation of the larger, supersonic portion of the flow field. Both codes compute their interface fluxes with a temporal Riemann solver and the resulting schemes are made fully implicit including the chemical source terms and boundary conditions. Strong coupling is used between the fluid dynamic, chemical and turbulence equations. These codes have been validated on numerous hypersonic test cases and have provided excellent comparison with existing data. This report summarizes the research that took place from August 1,1994 to January 1, 1995.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feinsilver, Philip; Schott, René
2009-09-01
We discuss topics related to finite-dimensional calculus in the context of finite-dimensional quantum mechanics. The truncated Heisenberg-Weyl algebra is called a TAA algebra after Tekin, Aydin and Arik who formulated it in terms of orthofermions. It is shown how to use a matrix approach to implement analytic representations of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra in univariate and multivariate settings. We provide examples for the univariate case. Krawtchouk polynomials are presented in detail, including a review of Krawtchouk polynomials that illustrates some curious properties of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra, as well as presenting an approach to computing Krawtchouk expansions. From a mathematical perspective, we are providing indications as to how to implement infinite terms Rota's 'finite operator calculus'.
Finite-Temperature Micromagnetism
Skomski, R; Kumar, P; Hadjipanayis, GC; Sellmyer, DJ
2013-07-01
It is investigated how magnetic hysteresis is affected by finite-temperature excitations, using soft regions in hard-magnetic matrices as model systems. In lowest order, magnetization processes are described by the traditional approach of using finite-temperature materials constants such as K-1(T). Nanoscale excitations are usually small perturbations. For example, a Bloch summation over all magnon wave vectors shows that remanence is slightly enhanced, because long-wavelength excitations are suppressed. However, a reverse magnetic field enhances the effect of thermal excitations and causes a small reduction of the coercivity. To describe such effects, we advocate micromagnetic calculations where finite-temperature fluctuations are treated as small corrections to the traditional approach, as contrasted to full-scale Monte Carlo simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Häusler, K.; Lühr, H.; Rentz, S.; Köhler, W.
2007-08-01
New observations, obtained by the accelerometer onboard the CHAMP satellite, reveal a detailed picture of the thermospheric zonal wind. Based on three years of data (2002 2004) we have studied the longitudinal dependence of the zonal delta wind (deviations from the zonal average) at the dip equator. The large number of passes (˜33 750) allows to consider several aspects of the wind characteristics at the same time. For this analysis we derived the longitudinal variation of the zonal delta wind at about 400 km altitude and investigated its dependence on solar flux, magnetic activity, and season. Major longitudinal dependences are confined to the morning hours, 03-09 local time (LT). The amplitude of the delta wind is approximately proportional to the latitudinal displacement of the magnetic dip equator from the geographic equator. The direction of the delta wind reverses sign between the June and December Solstices. During Equinox seasons these large scale features are almost absent. The flux level of solar EUV has no significant influence on the longitudinal variations. A dependence on magnetic activity could only be found during the post-sunset hours, 18-21 LT. Performing a Fourier transform of our delta wind velocities revealed a dominance of the wavenumber 4 in the Equinox data at some LT sectors. The wave-4 structure is a prevailing feature in the slowly precessing satellite frame, which has been recently reported, e.g. in nonmigrating tidal temperature measurements of the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite in the Mesosphere Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region. Therefore, this statistical study of zonal wind longitudinal dependences provides new observational evidence for the coupling of the various atmospheric layers by nonmigrating tides.
Correction algorithm for finite sample statistics.
Pöschel, T; Ebeling, W; Frömmel, C; Ramírez, R
2003-12-01
Assume in a sample of size M one finds M(i) representatives of species i with i = 1..N*. The normalized frequency pi* triple bond Mi/M, based on the finite sample, may deviate considerably from the true probabilities p(i). We propose a method to infer rank-ordered true probabilities r(i) from measured frequencies M(i). We show that the rank-ordered probabilities provide important informations on the system, e.g., the true number of species, the Shannon- and the Renyi-entropies. PMID:15007750
Automatic finite element generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, P. S.
1984-01-01
The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.
Finite coplanar waveguide width effects in pulsed inductive microwave magnetometry
Schneider, M.L.; Kos, A.B.; Silva, T.J.
2004-07-12
The effect of finite coplanar waveguide (CPW) width on the measurement of the resonance frequency in thin ferromagnetic films has been characterized for pulsed inductive microwave magnetometry. A shift in resonant frequency is a linear function of the ratio of sample thickness to CPW width. The proportionality constant is experimentally determined to be 0.74{+-}0.1 times the saturation magnetization of the film. The frequency shift may be modeled as arising from an effective magnetic-anisotropy field.
Neptune at summer solstice: Zonal mean temperatures from ground-based observations, 2003-2007
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fletcher, Leigh N.; de Pater, Imke; Orton, Glenn S.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Sitko, Michael L.; Irwin, Patrick G. J.
2014-03-01
Imaging and spectroscopy of Neptune’s thermal infrared emission from Keck/LWS (2003), Gemini-N/MICHELLE (2005); VLT/VISIR (2006) and Gemini-S/TReCS (2007) is used to assess seasonal changes in Neptune’s zonal mean temperatures between Voyager-2 observations (1989, heliocentric longitude Ls=236°) and southern summer solstice (2005, Ls=270°). Our aim was to analyse imaging and spectroscopy from multiple different sources using a single self-consistent radiative-transfer model to assess the magnitude of seasonal variability. Globally-averaged stratospheric temperatures measured from methane emission tend towards a quasi-isothermal structure (158-164 K) above the 0.1-mbar level, and are found to be consistent with spacecraft observations of AKARI. This remarkable consistency, despite very different observing conditions, suggests that stratospheric temporal variability, if present, is <±5 K at 1 mbar and <±3 K at 0.1 mbar during this solstice period. Conversely, ethane emission is highly variable, with abundance determinations varying by more than a factor of two (from 500 to 1200 ppb at 1 mbar). The retrieved C2H6 abundances are extremely sensitive to the details of the T(p) derivation, although the underlying cause of the variable ethane emission remains unidentified. Stratospheric temperatures and ethane are found to be latitudinally uniform away from the south pole (assuming a latitudinally-uniform distribution of stratospheric methane), with no large seasonal hemispheric asymmetries evident at solstice. At low and mid-latitudes, comparisons of synthetic Voyager-era images with solstice-era observations suggest that tropospheric zonal temperatures are unchanged since the Voyager 2 encounter, with cool mid-latitudes and a warm equator and pole. A re-analysis of Voyager/IRIS 25-50 μm mapping of tropospheric temperatures and para-hydrogen disequilibrium (a tracer for vertical motions) suggests a symmetric meridional circulation with cold air rising at mid
Nonlinear, finite deformation, finite element analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Nhung; Waas, Anthony M.
2016-06-01
The roles of the consistent Jacobian matrix and the material tangent moduli, which are used in nonlinear incremental finite deformation mechanics problems solved using the finite element method, are emphasized in this paper, and demonstrated using the commercial software ABAQUS standard. In doing so, the necessity for correctly employing user material subroutines to solve nonlinear problems involving large deformation and/or large rotation is clarified. Starting with the rate form of the principle of virtual work, the derivations of the material tangent moduli, the consistent Jacobian matrix, the stress/strain measures, and the objective stress rates are discussed and clarified. The difference between the consistent Jacobian matrix (which, in the ABAQUS UMAT user material subroutine is referred to as DDSDDE) and the material tangent moduli ( C e ) needed for the stress update is pointed out and emphasized in this paper. While the former is derived based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress, the latter is derived using the Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress. Understanding the difference between these two objective stress rates is crucial for correctly implementing a constitutive model, especially a rate form constitutive relation, and for ensuring fast convergence. Specifically, the implementation requires the stresses to be updated correctly. For this, the strains must be computed directly from the deformation gradient and corresponding strain measure (for a total form model). Alternatively, the material tangent moduli derived from the corresponding Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress of the constitutive relation (for a rate form model) should be used. Given that this requirement is satisfied, the consistent Jacobian matrix only influences the rate of convergence. Its derivation should be based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress to ensure fast convergence; however, the use of a different objective stress rate may also be possible. The error associated
Drift zonal plasma ionospheric in the Brazilian sector during a period of extreme low solar activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Tardelli-Coelho, Flavia Elaine
2016-07-01
The zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma irregularities of large scale were analyzed; these irregularities were observed using optical emission techniques OI 630.0 nm obtained by photometers imagers installed in two locations on the campus of Urbanova UNIVAP in São José dos Campos - SP designated SJC and Campus ULBRA in Palmas - TO cited as PAL. Data were collected from five years, from 2006 to 2010, low solar activity period. Of the total of 337 nights in SJC and 329 nights in PAL analyzed were selected a total of 18 nights of significant plasma bubble occurrences, 9 nights in SJC and 9 nights in PAL, and studied under two conditions: considering fixed altitude of 280 km OI emission layer of 630.0 nm and calculating the height of this variable layer over each night analyzed. To find these varying altitudes along each night we were assisted with the analysis of CADI digital ionosonde data operating in conjunction with the imaging photometer in its observatory. The radio data available in digisonde allowed to do the analysis on 12 variables altitudes of 18 nights studied for fixed altitude; this occurred because of scattering present in ionograms for those nights and times, due to the presence of plasma bubbles in the study through the of the observatory zenith. Quantitative analysis determined the drift velocity zone for each of the analyzed bubbles 18 nights during the given fixed height and 12 nights evaluating varying altitudes along each night. The means were obtained nights analyzed in each observatory for both methods; SJC in the average velocities is derived from the plasma zone 9 nights bubbles analyzed in the method is fixed altitude 84 ± 18 m / s in the case of PAL the average velocities found is 87 ± 12 m / s. In the other case with variable altitude emission to SJC 8 nights analyzed, we reached a mean value of 87 ± 12 m / s, and for PAL, 4 of 9 nights initially selected, the average speed of the zonal drift plasma bubbles were found 85
Climatology and trends in the forcing of the stratospheric zonal-mean flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monier, E.; Weare, B. C.
2011-12-01
The momentum budget of the Transformed Eulerian-Mean (TEM) equation is calculated using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-40) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis 2 (R-2). This study outlines the considerable contribution of unresolved waves, deduced to be gravity waves, to the forcing of the zonal-mean flow. A trend analysis, from 1980 to 2001, shows that the onset and break down of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) stratospheric polar night jet has a tendency to occur later in the season in the more recent years. This temporal shift follows long-term changes in planetary wave activity that are mainly due to synoptic waves, with a lag of one month. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), the polar vortex shows a tendency to persist further into the SH summertime. This also follows a statistically significant decrease in the intensity of the stationary EP flux divergence over the 1980-2001 period. Ozone depletion is well known for strengthening the polar vortex through the thermal wind balance. However, the results of this work show that the SH polar vortex does not experience any significant long-term changes until the month of December, even though the intensification of the ozone hole occurs mainly between September and November. This study suggests that the decrease in planetary wave activity in November provides an important feedback to the zonal wind as it delays the breakdown of the polar vortex. In addition, the absence of strong eddy feedback before November explains the lack of significant trends in the polar vortex in the SH early spring. A long-term weakening in the Brewer-Dobson (B-D) circulation in the polar region is identified in the NH winter and early spring and during the SH late spring and is likely driven by the decrease in planetary wave activity previously mentioned. During the rest of the year, there are large discrepancies in the representation of the B-D circulation and
Global ozone observations from the UARS MLS: An overview of zonal-mean results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe W.; Read, William G.; Elson, Lee S.; Flower, Dennis A.; Jarnot, Robert F.
1994-01-01
Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the zonal-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Well-known features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longer-term changes are believed to be related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), with a strong semiannual signal above 20 hPa. Ozone values near 50 hPa exhibit an equatorial low from October 1991 to June 1992, after which the low ozone pattern splits into two subtropical lows (possibly in connection with residual circulation changes tied to the QBO) and returns to an equatorial low in September 1993. The ozone hole development at high southern latitudes is apparent in MLS column data integrated down to 100 hPa, the MLS data reinforce current knowledge of this lower-stratospheric phenomenon by providing a height-dependent view of the variations. The region from 30 deg S to 30 deg N (an area equal to half the global area) shows very little change in the ozone column from year to year and within each year. The most striking ozone changes have occurred at northern midlatitudes, with the October 1992 to July 1993 column values significantly lower than during the prior year. The zonal-mean changes manifest themselves as a slower rate of increase during the 1992/93 winter, and there is some evidence for a lower fall minimum. A recovery occurs during late summer of 1993; early 1994 values are significantly larger than during the two previous winters. The timing and latitudinal extent of the northern midlatitude decreases appear to rule out observed ClO enhancements in the Arctic vortex, with related chemical processing and ozone dilution effects, as a unique cause. Local depletion from ClO-related chemical mechanisms alone is also not sufficient, based
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie
Much of modern research in the field of atomic, molecular, and optical science relies on lasers, which were invented some 50 years ago and perfected in five decades of intense research and development. Today, lasers and photonic technologies impact most fields of science and they have become indispensible in our daily lives. Laser frequency combs were conceived a decade ago as tools for the precision spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. Through the development of optical frequency comb techniques,
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Jagadish; Omale, Achonu Joseph
2016-02-01
This article examines the effects of the zonal harmonics on the out-of-plane equilibrium points of Robe's circular restricted three-body problem when the hydrostatic equilibrium shape of the first primary is an oblate spheroid, the shape of the second primary is an oblate spheroid with oblateness coefficients up to the second zonal harmonic, and the full buoyancy of the fluid is considered. It is observed that the size of the oblateness and the zonal harmonics affect the positions of the out-of-plane equilibrium points L6 and L7. It is also observed that these points within the possible region of motion are unstable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Songer, Jocelyn E.; Eatock, Ruth Anne
2011-11-01
The mammalian saccule detects head tilt and low-frequency head accelerations as well as higher-frequency bone vibrations and sounds. It has two different hair cell types, I and II, dispersed throughout two morphologically distinct regions, the striola and extrastriola. Afferents from the two zones have distinct response dynamics which may arise partly from zonal differences in hair cell properties. We find that type II hair cells in the rat saccular epithelium adapt with a time course appropriate for influencing afferent responses to head motions. Moreover, striolar type II hair cells adapted by a greater extent than extrastriolar type II hair cells and had greater phase leads in the mid-frequency range (5-50 Hz). These differences suggest that hair cell transduction may contribute to zonal differences in the adaptation of vestibular afferents to head motions.
The study of zonal dynamo electric fields observed by the IPEI on board ROCSAT-1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, C. M.; Lin, T. C.
2014-12-01
The earth's ionosphere is under direct and indirect influence from the sun. Electric currents, fields and other effects can penetrate into magnetosphere and high latitude ionosphere through magnetic field lines, and into the low latitudes by the disturbance dynamo mechansim, which can lasts for a few hours to a few days, with accumulation of positive charges at the low latitude ionosphere around the midnight. The directions of the corresponding disturbed electric fields are westward in the daytime and eastward in the nighttime, opposite to the normal quiet time condition. A comparison between model results and observed data from the IPEI on board ROCSAT-1 is carried out and presented. There were 23 storm cases with DST indexes lower than -140 from 2000 to 2003. The zonal electric fields, within ±30 degrees in magnetic latitude, are compared at periods one and two days before the storm onset and the time during the storm, which precisely shows the perturbed electric fields at different local times and different magnetic latitudes. Siganificant eastward perturbed electric fields at dawn were found in 17 out of the 23 events. The satellite orbit tracjectories are not suitable or nothing is found for the others.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plumb, R. A.
1985-01-01
Two dimensional modeling has become an established technique for the simulation of the global structure of trace constituents. Such models are simpler to formulate and cheaper to operate than three dimensional general circulation models, while avoiding some of the gross simplifications of one dimensional models. Nevertheless, the parameterization of eddy fluxes required in a 2-D model is not a trivial problem. This fact has apparently led some to interpret the shortcomings of existing 2-D models as indicating that the parameterization procedure is wrong in principle. There are grounds to believe that these shortcomings result primarily from incorrect implementations of the predictions of eddy transport theory and that a properly based parameterization may provide a good basis for atmospheric modeling. The existence of these GCM-derived coefficients affords an unprecedented opportunity to test the validity of the flux-gradient parameterization. To this end, a zonally averaged (2-D) model was developed, using these coefficients in the transport parameterization. Results from this model for a number of contrived tracer experiments were compared with the parent GCM. The generally good agreement substantially validates the flus-gradient parameterization, and thus the basic principle of 2-D modeling.
Wingle, W.L.
1996-12-31
When evaluating a site, whether for oil, minerals, or contaminants in ground water, a principle concern is the distribution of material properties. A traditional approach has been to apply geostatistical methods such as kriging or conditional simulation. These approaches are based on the assumption of stationarity (i.e. that the spatial variation of properties is consistent across the site). At many sites, the stationarity assumption is not valid and can lead to inaccurate results. One approach to circumvent this limitation is to divide the area into zones where the stationarity assumptions are reasonable, krige each zone, and manually merge the results together. This approach has three major draw backs, (1) boundaries between zones are abrupt, (2) the merging process is tedious, and (3) there is no way to manage{open_quote}gradational{close_quote} boundaries. An integrated system which allows a modeler to: (1) define multiple, distinct zones within a model; (2) define zonal inter-relationships (e.g. Zone A grades into zone B. Zone C and Zone D have a sharp contact), and model the results using simple or ordinary kriging, or conditional simulation is presented. This technique is integrated into a modeling package which allows users to examine basic site statistics, develop and model semivariograms, krige and simulate material properties, model ground water flow and contaminant transport, assess risk or uncertainty, and visualize results with 2D, 2-1/2D, and 3D tools.
Wingle, W.L. )
1996-01-01
When evaluating a site, whether for oil, minerals, or contaminants in ground water, a principle concern is the distribution of material properties. A traditional approach has been to apply geostatistical methods such as kriging or conditional simulation. These approaches are based on the assumption of stationarity (i.e. that the spatial variation of properties is consistent across the site). At many sites, the stationarity assumption is not valid and can lead to inaccurate results. One approach to circumvent this limitation is to divide the area into zones where the stationarity assumptions are reasonable, krige each zone, and manually merge the results together. This approach has three major draw backs, (1) boundaries between zones are abrupt, (2) the merging process is tedious, and (3) there is no way to manage[open quote]gradational[close quote] boundaries. An integrated system which allows a modeler to: (1) define multiple, distinct zones within a model; (2) define zonal inter-relationships (e.g. Zone A grades into zone B. Zone C and Zone D have a sharp contact), and model the results using simple or ordinary kriging, or conditional simulation is presented. This technique is integrated into a modeling package which allows users to examine basic site statistics, develop and model semivariograms, krige and simulate material properties, model ground water flow and contaminant transport, assess risk or uncertainty, and visualize results with 2D, 2-1/2D, and 3D tools.
Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic effects on Alfvén eigenmode evolution and zonal flow generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todo, Y.; Berk, H. L.; Breizman, B. N.
2010-08-01
Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects on Alfvén eigenmode evolution were investigated via hybrid simulations of an MHD fluid interacting with energetic particles. The investigation focused on the evolution of an n = 4 toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) which is destabilized by energetic particles in a tokamak. In addition to fully nonlinear code, a linear-MHD code was used for comparison. The only nonlinearity in that linear code is from the energetic-particle dynamics. No significant difference was found in the results of the two codes for low saturation levels, δB/B ~ 10-3. In contrast, when the TAE saturation level predicted by the linear code is δB/B ~ 10-2, the saturation amplitude in the fully nonlinear simulation was reduced by a factor of 2 due to the generation of zonal (n = 0) and higher-n (n >= 8) modes. This reduction is attributed to the increased dissipation arising from the nonlinearly generated modes. The fully nonlinear simulations also show that geodesic acoustic mode is excited by the MHD nonlinearity after the TAE mode saturation.
Transient pressure analysis of fractured well in bi-zonal gas reservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yu-Long; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Liu, Yong-hui; Hu, Shu-Yong; Liu, Qi-Guo
2015-05-01
For hydraulic fractured well, how to evaluate the properties of fracture and formation are always tough jobs and it is very complex to use the conventional method to do that, especially for partially penetrating fractured well. Although the source function is a very powerful tool to analyze the transient pressure for complex structure well, the corresponding reports on gas reservoir are rare. In this paper, the continuous point source functions in anisotropic reservoirs are derived on the basis of source function theory, Laplace transform method and Duhamel principle. Application of construction method, the continuous point source functions in bi-zonal gas reservoir with closed upper and lower boundaries are obtained. Sequentially, the physical models and transient pressure solutions are developed for fully and partially penetrating fractured vertical wells in this reservoir. Type curves of dimensionless pseudo-pressure and its derivative as function of dimensionless time are plotted as well by numerical inversion algorithm, and the flow periods and sensitive factors are also analyzed. The source functions and solutions of fractured well have both theoretical and practical application in well test interpretation for such gas reservoirs, especial for the well with stimulated reservoir volume around the well in unconventional gas reservoir by massive hydraulic fracturing which always can be described with the composite model.
Evapotranspiration Analysis using a Zonal Temperature-Vegetation Remote Sensing Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, H.; Gorelick, S.
2015-12-01
Remote sensing methods based on temperature-vegetation relationships have been widely used to analyze regional evapotranspiration (ET) patterns. These methods essentially rely on the identification of extreme soil moisture conditions (i.e., cold and hot pixels) as determined from the outer boundaries a triangle or trapezoid-shaped scatterplot of radiometric surface temperature and vegetation fraction. However, the validity of these pixels has been increasingly questioned in studies that involve heterogeneous climatic and land cover conditions, compromising the performance of remote sensing-based ET estimates in large areas. Here we developed a geospatial analysis scheme to discretize a targeted area into climate-land zones based on precipitation, radiation, wind, humidity, soil, and vegetation factors. Zonal ET estimates based on temperature-vegetation indexes were spatially aggregated to generate regional ET estimates over different time scales. We applied this approach to Jordan using Landsat and MODIS images over the period 2005-2014 and compared the ET estimates to MOD16 ET products and pan evaporation measurements. We explored contrasting hydrological conditions across a range of bioclimatic regions. Results show that our approach is able to capture regional ET heterogeneity in both water-limited and energy-limited environments and identify the hydroclimatic controls. Our comparisons of different methods shed light on the efficient estimation of agricultural water use in data-scarce, arid/semi-arid regions based on remote sensing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, Eliot; Young, Leslie; Olkin, Cathy; Barth, Erika
2014-05-01
Central flashes occur in occultation light curves when the observing station is located close to the center of the shadow path. We observed a double-peaked central flash event on 31-JUL-2007 from the Mt John Observatory in New Zealand, in two filters simultaneously. A stellar occultation by Pluto in 2002 was observed from various telescopes on Mauna Kea over wavelengths spanning B- through K-bands and showed compelling evidence of a wavelength-dependent opacity source. Unlike the 2002 results, the 2007 central flash light curve shows no difference between the 0.5 and 0.7 micron light curves, suggesting that the haze observed in 2002 is a variable phenomenon. In the absence of haze, the height of the central flash peaks must be due to differential refraction; the peaks therefore provide strong constraints on the location and magnitude of a thermal inversion in Pluto's atmosphere at the time of the event. Finally, the relative height and spacing of the two central flash peaks are extremely sensitive constraints on Pluto's oblateness, which in turn can constrain the magnitude of zonal winds.
Spectrophotometry of zonal cloud structure variations on Jupiter, 1988-1993
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tejfel, V. G.; Vdovichenko, V. D.; Sinyaeva, N. V.; Mosina, S. A.; Gajsina, W. N.; Kharitonova, G. A.; Aksenov, A. N.
1994-04-01
Global changes of zonal cloud structure on Jupiter have been observed and analyzed from data obtained with a 1-m telescope and a low-dispersion spectrograph in the spectral range wavelengths 400-680 nm, and with a 70-cm telescope and planetary three-channel spectrometer in the spectral range wavelengths 320-1100 nm during each Jovian apparition from 1988 to 1992. Variations of the observed meridional intensity profiles and relative spectrophotometric gradients are described as well as the changes of absolute spectral reflectivity of five main belts on Jupiter (North and South Equatorial belts, North and South Tropical zones, and Equatorial region). Some peculiarities in the behavior of spectrophotometric gradients may be interpreted as a result of increased Rayleigh scattering in the gas layer over the deeper effective cloud boundary within main dark belts. The polar limb darkening varies only slightly with wavelength and it may be considered as evidence for dark aerosols in the stratosphere at high latitudes. The intensity of the methane absorption band centered at 8860 A shows an increase from the equator to temperate latitudes throughout the 1988-1992 period, despite the large variations in belt and zone reflectivities observed during this period in the southern hemisphere.
Zonally averaged thermal balance and stability models for nitrogen polar caps on Triton
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stansberry, John A.; Lunine, J. I.; Porco, C. C.; Mcewen, A. S.
1990-01-01
Voyager four-color imaging data of Triton are analyzed to calculate the bolometric hemispheric albedo as a function of latitude and longitude. Zonal averages of these data have been incorporated into a thermal balance model involving insolation, reradiation, and latent heat of sublimation of N2 ice for the surface. The current average bolometric albedo of Triton's polar caps is 0.8, implying an effective temperature of 34.2 K and a surface pressure of N2 of 1.6 microbar for unit emissivity. This pressure is an order of magnitude lower than the surface pressure of 18 microbar inferred from Voyager data (Broadfoot et al., 1989; Conrath et al., 1989), a discrepancy that can be reconciled if the emissivity of the N2 on Triton's surface is 0.66. The model predicts that Triton's surface north of 15 deg N latitude is experiencing deposition of N2 frosts, as are the bright portions of the south polar cap near the equator. This result explains why the south cap covers nearly the entire southern hemisphere of Triton.
Simulation of deep-seated zonal jets and shallow vortices in gas giant atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heimpel, Moritz; Gastine, Thomas; Wicht, Johannes
2016-01-01
Jupiter's banded cloud layer hosts spots of various sizes. The bands are defined by eastward and westward jet streams and the spots correspond to vortices, predominantly anticyclones, which rotate in the opposite direction of Earth's cyclonic storms. Despite 350 years of observation, the origin and dynamics of jets and vortices in the atmospheres of giant planets remain debated. Simulations of the shallow weather layer produce both features, but only reproduce observed prograde equatorial flow on Jupiter and Saturn under special conditions. In contrast, deep convection models reproduce equatorial superrotation, but lack coherent vortices. Here we combine both approaches in a three-dimensional simulation where deep convection grades into a stably stratified shallow layer. We find that steady zonal jets are driven by deep convective flows, whereas anticyclonic vortices form where upwelling plumes impinge on the shallow layer. The simulated vortex circulation consists of cool anticyclones shielded by warm downwelling cyclonic rings and filaments, in agreement with observations and theory. We find that the largest vortices form in westward anticyclonic shear flow nearest to the equatorial jet, similar to Saturn's so-called storm alley and Jupiter's Great Red Spot. We conclude that vortices have a deep origin in gas giant atmospheres.
Zonal flow and vortices with deep convection and shallow stable stratification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heimpel, M. H.; Gastine, T.; Wicht, J.
2014-12-01
Bands and vortices are the two main features of Jupiter's cloud layer. The bands correspond to zonal jets, with strong eastward flow near the equator, and alternating east-west jets at higher latitudes. The vortices are mostly anticyclonic, including the Great Red Spot, which drifts at a southern latitude in the first anticyclonic shear zone away from the equator. Although space missions and ground based observations have revealed beautiful and detailed images of cloud layer flow and thermal emissions, fundamental questions remain unanswered. How deeply are the jets and vortices seated? Why are most jovian vortices anticyclonic, opposite to cyclones on Earth? Previous investigations of planetary flows have focussed on either jets or vortices with few studies of systems that host both features. Here we study rotating convection using the benchmarked 3D spherical anelastic dynamo code MAGIC, with flow driven by convection at depth, but with a stably stratified outer layer. Our results show that multiple jets, which are driven by convection, penetrate deeper than vortices, which are confined to the shallow stably stratified layer. Due to computational limitations requiring high viscosity, model vortices have short lifetimes. Nevertheless, similar to the Great Red Spot, the largest model vortices occur in the lowest latitude anticyclonic shear bands, which form near the outer boundary latitudes corresponding to the inner boundary tangent cylinder. The dominance of anticyclonic vortices is explained simply in that they arise from ascending (divergent) plumes which are spun in the anticyclonic direction by the Coriolis force.
Zonal multigrid solution of compressible flow problems on unstructured and adaptive meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1989-01-01
The simultaneous use of adaptive meshing techniques with a multigrid strategy for solving the 2-D Euler equations in the context of unstructured meshes is studied. To obtain optimal efficiency, methods capable of computing locally improved solutions without recourse to global recalculations are pursued. A method for locally refining an existing unstructured mesh, without regenerating a new global mesh is employed, and the domain is automatically partitioned into refined and unrefined regions. Two multigrid strategies are developed. In the first, time-stepping is performed on a global fine mesh covering the entire domain, and convergence acceleration is achieved through the use of zonal coarse grid accelerator meshes, which lie under the adaptively refined regions of the global fine mesh. Both schemes are shown to produce similar convergence rates to each other, and also with respect to a previously developed global multigrid algorithm, which performs time-stepping throughout the entire domain, on each mesh level. However, the present schemes exhibit higher computational efficiency due to the smaller number of operations on each level.
Brounts, S H; Rashmir-Raven, A M; Black, S S
2001-08-01
This case report describes a distinctive deep cutaneous lesion in a 1-year-old Quarter Horse filly with hyperelastosis cutis. The horse had a typical clinical presentation of hyperelastic skin associated with a 6-month history of cutaneous wounds that developed following minor cutaneous trauma. Punch biopsies of skin from the affected horse were thinner than similar biopsies from an age- and breed-matched control. Significant microscopic lesions were not seen in cutaneous punch biopsies stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stains, but the ultrastructure of the dermis from the affected horse was characterized by variation in collagen fibre diameter and loose packing of collagen fibres within bundles. The horse was euthanized and necropsied, and full-thickness sections of skin were collected and examined microscopically. Affected skin was of normal thickness; however, the deep dermis contained a distinctive horizontal linear zone in which separation of collagen bundles resulted in the formation of large empty cleft-like spaces between the upper and lower regions of the deep dermis. We suggest the term 'zonal dermal separation' for this microscopic lesion. Incisional full-thickness skin biopsies should be taken in suspected cases of equine hyperelastosis cutis because punch biopsies may not obtain enough deep dermis to adequately represent pathological change in the skin of horses with this disorder. PMID:11493407
Vaporization and Zonal Mixing in Performance Modeling of Advanced LOX-Methane Rockets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, George J., Jr.; Stiegemeier, Benjamin R.
2013-01-01
Initial modeling of LOX-Methane reaction control (RCE) 100 lbf thrusters and larger, 5500 lbf thrusters with the TDK/VIPER code has shown good agreement with sea-level and altitude test data. However, the vaporization and zonal mixing upstream of the compressible flow stage of the models leveraged empirical trends to match the sea-level data. This was necessary in part because the codes are designed primarily to handle the compressible part of the flow (i.e. contraction through expansion) and in part because there was limited data on the thrusters themselves on which to base a rigorous model. A more rigorous model has been developed which includes detailed vaporization trends based on element type and geometry, radial variations in mixture ratio within each of the "zones" associated with elements and not just between zones of different element types, and, to the extent possible, updated kinetic rates. The Spray Combustion Analysis Program (SCAP) was leveraged to support assumptions in the vaporization trends. Data of both thrusters is revisited and the model maintains a good predictive capability while addressing some of the major limitations of the previous version.
Purification of DNA-origami nanostructures by rate-zonal centrifugation
Lin, Chenxiang; Perrault, Steven D.; Kwak, Minseok; Graf, Franziska; Shih, William M.
2013-01-01
Most previously reported methods for purifying DNA-origami nanostructures rely on agarose-gel electrophoresis (AGE) for separation. Although AGE is routinely used to yield 0.1–1 µg purified DNA nanostructures, obtaining >100 µg of purified DNA-origami structure through AGE is typically laborious because of the post-electrophoresis extraction, desalting and concentration steps. Here, we present a readily scalable purification approach utilizing rate-zonal centrifugation, which provides comparable separation resolution as AGE. The DNA nanostructures remain in aqueous solution throughout the purification process. Therefore, the desired products are easily recovered with consistently high yield (40–80%) and without contaminants such as residual agarose gel or DNA intercalating dyes. Seven distinct three-dimensional DNA-origami constructs were purified at the scale of 0.1–100 µg (final yield) per centrifuge tube, showing the versatility of this method. Given the commercially available equipment for gradient mixing and fraction collection, this method should be amenable to automation and further scale up for preparation of larger amounts (e.g. milligram quantities) of DNA nanostructures. PMID:23155067
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Fengzhao; Li, Jie; Wang, Xiangzhao; Bu, Yang
2016-05-01
A novel zonal method is proposed for exact discrete reconstruction of a two-dimensional wavefront with high spatial resolution for lateral shearing interferometry. Four difference wavefronts measured in the x and y shear directions are required. Each of the two shear directions is measured twice with different shear amounts. The shear amounts of the second measurements of the x and y directions are Sx+1 pixels and Sy+1 pixels, where Sx pixels and Sy pixels are the shear amounts of the first measurements in the x and y directions, respectively. The shear amount in each direction can be chosen freely, provided that it is below a maximum value determined by the pupil shape and the number of samples N in that direction; thus, the choices are not limited by the more stringent condition required by previous methods, namely, that the shear amounts must be divisors of N. This method can exactly reconstruct any wavefront at evaluation points up to an arbitrary constant if the data is noiseless, and high spatial resolution can be achieved even with large shear amounts. The method is applicable not only to square pupils, but also to general pupil shapes if a sufficient number of Gerchberg iterations are employed. In this study, the validity and capability of the method were confirmed by numerical experiments. In addition, the experiments demonstrated that the method is stable with respect to noise in the difference wavefronts.
Composition of structural fragments and the mineralization rate of organic matter in zonal soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larionova, A. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Kolyagin, Yu. G.; Kvitkina, A. K.; Kaganov, V. V.; Kudeyarov, V. N.
2015-10-01
Comparative analysis of the climatic characteristics and the recalcitrance against decomposition of organic matter in the zonal soil series of European Russia, from peat surface-gley tundra soil to brown semidesert soil, has assessed the relationships between the period of biological activity, the content of chemically stable functional groups, and the mineralization of humus. The stability of organic matter has been determined from the ratio of functional groups using the solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy of soil samples and the direct measurements of organic matter mineralization from CO2 emission. A statistically significant correlation has been found between the period of biological activity and the humification indices: the CHA/CFA ratio, the aromaticity, and the alkyl/ O-alkyl ratio in organic matter. The closest correlation has been observed between the period of biological activity and the alkyl/ O-alkyl ratio; therefore, this parameter can be an important indicator of the soil humus status. A poor correlation between the mineralization rate and the content of chemically stable functional groups in soil organic matter has been revealed for the studied soil series. At the same time, the lowest rate of carbon mineralization has been observed in southern chernozem characterized by the maximum content of aromatic groups (21% Corg) and surface-gley peat tundra soil, where an extremely high content of unsubstituted CH2 and CH3 alkyl groups (41% Corg) has been noted.
Optimizing zonal advection of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamics for Intel MIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.
2014-10-01
The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is the most widely used community weather forecast and research model in the world. There are two distinct varieties of WRF. The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) is an experimental, advanced research version featuring very high resolution. The WRF Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) has been designed for forecasting operations. WRF consists of dynamics code and several physics modules. The WRF-ARW core is based on an Eulerian solver for the fully compressible nonhydrostatic equations. In the paper, we will use Intel Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture to substantially increase the performance of a zonal advection subroutine for optimization. It is of the most time consuming routines in the ARW dynamics core. Advection advances the explicit perturbation horizontal momentum equations by adding in the large-timestep tendency along with the small timestep pressure gradient tendency. We will describe the challenges we met during the development of a high-speed dynamics code subroutine for MIC architecture. Furthermore, lessons learned from the code optimization process will be discussed. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 2.4x.
Kitakawa, Takaaki; Hayashi, Takaaki; Takashina, Hirotsugu; Mitooka, Katsuya; Gekka, Tamaki; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi
2012-06-01
The purpose of this study was to report a patient with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) unilaterally, who received steroid pulse therapy. A 42-year-old woman presented with photopsias and severe vision loss in her left eye. Visual acuity was 0.04, and Humphrey visual field testing showed overall depression with a mean deviation (MD) value of -25.78 dB in the left eye. Fundus and angiographic examinations found no specific abnormal findings, leading to a diagnosis of AZOOR. Optical coherence tomography showed attenuation of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction (IS/OS) line. Focal macular electroretinography (fmERG) demonstrated that there were non-detectable responses at 5°, 10° and 15° (in diameter). Following steroid pulse therapy, her visual acuity was 1.0, her MD value improved to -16.08 dB, and there were both partial recovery of the IS/OS line and apparent improvements of fmERG responses (at 10° and 15°). The present findings suggest that steroid pulse therapy might potentially be an effective treatment in some AZOOR patients. PMID:22402912
Estimates of the zonal slope and seasonal transport of the Atlantic North Equatorial Countercurrent
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carton, James A.; Katz, Eli J.
1990-01-01
Data from six inverted echo sounder moorings and the Geosat satellite altimeter are used to examine the seasonal variability of sea surface elevation. Monthly sea level maps are constructed using a contemporaneous subsurface temperature survey to provide a reference sea level field. The maps are then used to describe the origin and structure of the western tropical Atlantic North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) during a two-year period beginning in November 1987. The data reveal a zonal current which is confined between 3 deg N and 9 deg N with a typical width of 300 km. The NECC flows strongly eastward during November and December 1986 and May 1987 through January 1988. The reappearance of the current is then delayed until August, but the current flows strongly from August until the end of the record in October 1988. Volume transport is estimated for the two-year period from surface elevation by approximating the vertical structure of the ocean as a two-layer fluid. It is found that the NECC has a maximum transport of 40 x 10 to the 6th cu m/s at 38 deg W.
Southern Ocean zonal asymmetries in mixed layer depth variability in the NEMO GCM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonnewald, Maike; Ferrari, Raffaele; Nurser, George
2015-04-01
The mixed layer facilitates the conversation between the ocean and atmosphere. It is a crucial feature for biological and chemical processes, and a key feature for ocean models to capture. Here, we investigate the mixed layer depth both in a coarse (1°), an eddy permitting (1/4°) and an eddy-resolving (1/12°) version of the NEMO general circulation model (GCM). We highlight the model's skill, comparing model data with available observational datasets, with focus on the zonal asymmetry in the Southern Ocean. We find that NEMO is largely in agreement with Argo measurements within observational error. We assess the buoyancy forcing in the respective areas, as well as the role of advection. Using the one-dimensional Price-Weller-Pinkel (PWP) model we show that advective processes are key to the initial deepening through setting the autumn stratification. Heat flux is then key to restratification, particular in the deep regions. We also assess the contribution of the Ekman buoyancy flux.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Remsberg, Ellis E.; Bhatt, Praful P.
1994-01-01
Comparisons of satellite-derived temperatures with correlative temperatures indicate that the LIMS temperatures are accurate and contain more of the needed vertical resolution for calculating a residual mean circulation for transporting tracer-like species. Generally, the LIMS temperatures are accurate to at least 2 K. Other satellite data sets are comprised of temperatures with coarser vertical resolution, leading to biases that occur with an error pattern that is characteristic of their resolution. Their biases exceed 2 K at some altitudes. Retrievals of species using an infrared limb emission technique are sensitive to any temperature bias. Generally, the IMS comparisons with other data sets for ozone and water vapor are good to better than 20 percent; this represents an independent confirmation of the quality of LIMS and temperatures. Zonal mean comparisons between LIMS and SAMS temperatures also indicate agreement to better than 2 K from about 7 to 2hPa. Therefore, we are confident that SAMS N2O and CH4 are relatively free of temperature bias in that region. These factors support the generally good agreement in G90 between model N2O transported using a LIMS-derived RMC and the N2O contours from SAMS.
Zonal Dynamic Equivalents Based on the Concept of Relative Electrical Distance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, Rimjhim; Dhadbanjan, Thukaram
2013-05-01
Abstract: This article presents a systematic approach to construct the zonal dynamic equivalents of a large-power system based on the concept of relative electrical distance (RED). The task of dynamic equivalencing is to eliminate the full model of the external system and replace it with an equivalent model, which has dynamic characteristics close enough to the full model. The dynamic equivalent models are used for large-scale power system offline transient stability analysis with large disturbance. Dynamic equivalencing also helps in reducing the computation burden and memory requirements in wide area monitoring system (WAMS) for online stability assessment. The procedure is illustrated on IEEE 39 bus system and on a practical 205 bus system consisting of three zones of Indian Southern grid, where an equivalent of a zone has been constructed. The simulation results of the original system and equivalent system are compared. The proposed approach is also compared with the existing Ward equivalent method and the results are found to be similar. The simulation results show that the developed equivalent system has close accuracy in representing the dynamic characteristics of the original system.
A New Look at Titan's Zonal Winds from Cassini Radio Occultations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flasar, F. M.; Schinder, P. J.
2012-01-01
We use the existing thirteen Cassini radio'occultation soundings to construct a meridional cross section of geopotential height vs. pressure and latitude. The assumption of balanced flow permits the construction of a similar cross section of zonal winds, from near the surface to the 0.1'mbar level. In the lower troposphere, the winds are approx.10 m/s, except within 20deg of the equator, where they are much smaller. The winds increase higher up in the troposphere to nearly 40 m/s in the tropopause region, but then decay rapidly in the lower stratosphere to near'zero values at 20 mbar (approx.80 km), reminiscent of the Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment result. This null zone extends over most latitudes, except for limited bands at mid'latitudes. Higher up in the stratosphere, the winds become larger. They are highest in the northern (winter) hemisphere. We compare the occultation results with the DWE and CIRS retrievals and discuss the similarities and differences among the data sets.
Version 8 SBUV Ozone Profile Trends Compared with Trends from a Zonally Averaged Chemical Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenfield, Joan E.; Frith, Stacey; Stolarski, Richard
2004-01-01
Linear regression trends for the years 1979-2003 were computed using the new Version 8 merged Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) data set of ozone profiles. These trends were compared to trends computed using ozone profiles from the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) zonally averaged coupled model. Observed and modeled annual trends between 50 N and 50 S were a maximum in the higher latitudes of the upper stratosphere, with southern hemisphere (SH) trends greater than northern hemisphere (NH) trends. The observed upper stratospheric maximum annual trend is -5.5 +/- 0.9 % per decade (1 sigma) at 47.5 S and -3.8 +/- 0.5 % per decade at 47.5 N, to be compared with the modeled trends of -4.5 +/- 0.3 % per decade in the SH and -4.0 +/- 0.2% per decade in the NH. Both observed and modeled trends are most negative in winter and least negative in summer, although the modeled seasonal difference is less than observed. Model trends are shown to be greatest in winter due to a repartitioning of chlorine species and the increasing abundance of chlorine with time. The model results show that trend differences can occur depending on whether ozone profiles are in mixing ratio or number density coordinates, and on whether they are recorded on pressure or altitude levels.