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Sample records for finite frequency zonal

  1. Three-dimensional elliptic grid generation about fighter aircraft for zonal finite-difference computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    An elliptic grid-generation method for finite-difference computations about complex aerodynamic configurations is developed. A zonal approach is used, which involves first making a coarse global grid filling the entire physical domain and then subdividing regions of that grid to make the individual zone grids. The details of the grid-generation method are presented along with results of the present application, a wing-body configuration based on the F-16 fighter aircraft.

  2. Low-frequency intraseasonal variability in a zonally symmetric aquaplanet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Surajit; Sengupta, Debasis; Chakraborty, A.; Sukhatme, Jai; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2016-12-01

    We use the aquaplanet version of the community atmospheric model, with perpetual spring equinox forcing and zonally symmetric sea surface temperature (SST), to study tropical intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs). In the first two experiments, we specify zonally symmetric SST profiles that mimic observed climatological July and January SSTs as surface boundary conditions. In the January SST simulation, we find a zonal wavenumber 1 mode with dominant period of 60 days, moving east at about 6 m s-1. This mode, which resembles the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), is absent in the July SST case, although convectively coupled Kelvin waves are prominent in both experiments. To further investigate the influence of tropical SST on ISO and convectively coupled equatorial waves, we conduct experiments with idealised symmetric SST profiles having different widths of warm ocean centered at the equator. In the narrowest SST experiment, the variance of moist activity is predominantly in weather-scale Kelvin waves. When the latitudinal extent of warm SST is comparable to or larger than the equatorial Rossby radius, we find a dominant low frequency (50-80 days) eastward mode that resembles the MJO, as in the January SST experiment. We also find westward propagating waves with intraseasonal (30-120 days) periods and zonal wavenumber 1-3; the structure of these signals projects onto equatorially trapped Rossby waves with meridional mode numbers 1, 3 and 5, associated with convection that is symmetric about the equator. In addition, the model generates 30-80 days westward moving signals with zonal wavenumber 4-7, particularly in the narrow SST experiment. Although these waves are seen in the wavenumber-frequency spectra in the equatorial region, they have largest amplitude in the middle and high latitudes. Thus, our study shows that wider, meridionally symmetric SST profiles support a strong MJO-like eastward propagation, and even in an aquaplanet setting, westward propagating Rossby

  3. Shear-flow trapped-ion-mode interaction revisited. II. Intermittent transport associated with low-frequency zonal flow dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ghizzo, A.; Palermo, F.

    2015-08-15

    We address the mechanisms underlying low-frequency zonal flow generation in turbulent system and the associated intermittent regime of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence. This model is in connection with the recent observation of quasi periodic zonal flow oscillation at a frequency close to 2 kHz, at the low-high transition, observed in the ASDEX Upgrade [Conway et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 065001 (2011)] and EAST tokamak [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 125001 (2011)]. Turbulent bursts caused by the coupling of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) driven shear flows with trapped ion modes (TIMs) were investigated by means of reduced gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that ITG turbulence can be regulated by low-frequency meso-scale zonal flows driven by resonant collisionless trapped ion modes (CTIMs), through parametric-type scattering, a process in competition with the usual KH instability.

  4. The observations of Low Frequency Zonal Flow in electrode biasing experiments on J-TEXT tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H. G.; Kong, D. F.; Zhao, H. L.; Wu, J.; Lan, T.; Liu, W. D.; Yu, C. X.; Sun, Y.; Liu, H.; Chen, Z. P.; Zhuang, G.; USTC Team; HUST Team

    2013-10-01

    The long-distance correlations features of potential and density fluctuations during electrode biasing (EB) have been investigated using Langmuir probe arrays in the edge of J-TEXT tokamak. During the positive edge EB, both floating potential and density fluctuations in the high frequency ambient turbulence (AT) region are suppressed and radial particle flux is decreased. But no obvious change occurs during the negative edge EB. In the positive EB cases, toroidal and poloidal long-distance correlations of floating potentials increase in the low frequency regions of f < 3 kHz and no distinct long-distance correlations is found in density fluctuations. It shows that this low frequency long-distance correlation mode is low frequency zonal flow (LFZF). In the meantime, strong Er × B shearing is observed when applying a positive EB. The results also suggests that the LFZF may be induced by AT and then regulate the AT amplitude. Supported by NNSFC (Nos. 10990210,10990211,10335060 and 10905057), CPSF (No. 20080440104), YIF (No. WK2030040019) and KIPCAS (No. kjcx-yw-n28).

  5. Shear-flow trapped-ion-mode interaction revisited. I. Influence of low-frequency zonal flow on ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Ghizzo, A.; Palermo, F.

    2015-08-15

    Collisionless trapped ion modes (CTIMs) turbulence exhibits a rich variety of zonal flow physics. The coupling of CTIMs with shear flow driven by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability has been investigated. The work explores the parametric excitation of zonal flow modified by wave-particle interactions leading to a new type of resonant low-frequency zonal flow. The KH-CTIM interaction on zonal flow growth and its feedback on turbulence is investigated using semi-Lagrangian gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations based on a Hamiltonian reduction technique, where both fast scales (cyclotron plus bounce motions) are gyro-averaged.

  6. Surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimman, W. P.

    2016-07-01

    Static time-delay corrections are frequency independent and ignore velocity variations away from the assumed vertical ray path through the subsurface. There is therefore a clear potential for improvement if the finite frequency nature of wave propagation can be properly accounted for. Such a method is presented here based on the Born approximation, the assumption of surface consistency and the misfit of instantaneous phase. The concept of instantaneous phase lends itself very well for sweep-like signals, hence these are the focus of this study. Analytical sensitivity kernels are derived that accurately predict frequency-dependent phase shifts due to P-wave anomalies in the near surface. They are quick to compute and robust near the source and receivers. An additional correction is presented that re-introduces the nonlinear relation between model perturbation and phase delay, which becomes relevant for stronger velocity anomalies. The phase shift as function of frequency is a slowly varying signal, its computation therefore does not require fine sampling even for broad-band sweeps. The kernels reveal interesting features of the sensitivity of seismic arrivals to the near surface: small anomalies can have a relative large impact resulting from the medium field term that is dominant near the source and receivers. Furthermore, even simple velocity anomalies can produce a distinct frequency-dependent phase behaviour. Unlike statics, the predicted phase corrections are smooth in space. Verification with spectral element simulations shows an excellent match for the predicted phase shifts over the entire seismic frequency band. Applying the phase shift to the reference sweep corrects for wavelet distortion, making the technique akin to surface consistent deconvolution, even though no division in the spectral domain is involved. As long as multiple scattering is mild, surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections outperform traditional statics for moderately large

  7. Observation of fluctuation-driven particle flux reduction by low-frequency zonal flow in a linear magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, R.; Xie, J. L. Yu, C. X.; Liu, A. D.; Lan, T.; Li, H.; Liu, W. D.; Zhang, S. B.; Kong, D. F.; Hu, G. H.

    2015-01-15

    Low-frequency zonal flow (ZF) has been observed in a linear magnetic plasma device, exhibiting significant intermittency. Using the conditional analysis method, a time-averaged fluctuation-induced particle flux was observed to consistently decrease as ZF increased in amplitude. A dominant fraction of the flux, which is driven by drift-wave harmonics, is reversely modulated by ZF in the time domain. Spectra of the flux, together with each of the related turbulence properties, are estimated subject to two conditions, i.e., when potential fluctuation series represents a strong ZF intermittency or a very weak ZF component. Comparison of frequency-domain results demonstrates that ZF reduces the cross-field particle transport primarily by suppressing the density fluctuation as well as decorrelating density and potential fluctuations.

  8. Saturation of Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Jin

    2002-11-01

    Zonal flows (ZF) are generated by drift wave (DW) turbulence and then regulate it near marginality by shear suppression. Since collisions damp ZF while ZF suppress DW, the amplitude of DW turbulence (i.e. turbulent transport) is, in turn, proportional to collisionality. A key question is then what happens away from marginality, namely what is the saturation mechanism of ZF in that regime? This raises the interesting physical question of how ZF interact with mne 0, poloidally non-axisymmetric modes [1], both linearly and non linearly. We investigate this issue by exploring the nonlinear excitation of GKH modes by modulational instability in the background of finite amplitude of DW turbulence, as well as the linear inflection-type instability of ZF. In a simple model with cold ions, we show that ZF can grow faster than the linear GKH for γ/ω

    frequency of DW, and p and k are the characteristic wavenumbers of ZF and DW. These findings imply that the linear analysis of GKH may not always be valid and also that there may be no clear distinction between secondary (ZF) and tertiary mode (GKH). The effect of finite ion temperature fluctuations is incorporated in a simple toroidal ion temperature gradient model, within which both zonal flow and temperature are generated by modulational instability. The phase between the two is calculated self-consistently and shown to be positive. Furthermore, the correction to nonlinear generation of GKH modes appears to be small. [1] We refer to these low mne 0 modes as Generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz (GKH) modes, since they will appear as mne 0 distortions of a shear layer.

  9. Fine structure zonal flow excitation by beta-induced Alfvén eigenmode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhiyong; Chen, Liu; Zonca, Fulvio

    2016-10-01

    Nonlinear excitation of low frequency zonal structure (LFZS) by beta-induced Alfvén eigenmode (BAE) is investigated using nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. It is found that electrostatic zonal flow (ZF), rather than zonal current, is preferentially excited by finite amplitude BAE. In addition to the well-known meso-scale radial envelope structure, ZF is also found to exhibit fine radial structure due to the localization of BAE with respect to mode rational surfaces. Specifically, the zonal electric field has an even mode structure at the rational surface where radial envelope peaks.

  10. Propagation Characteristics of Rectangular Waveguides at Terahertz Frequencies with Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Binke; Zhao, Chongfeng

    2014-01-01

    The 2-D finite-difference frequency-domain method (FDFD) combined with the surface impedance boundary condition (SIBC) was employed to analyze the propagation characteristics of hollow rectangular waveguides at Terahertz (THz) frequencies. The electromagnetic field components, in the interior of the waveguide, were discretized using central finite-difference schemes. Considering the hollow rectangular waveguide surrounded by a medium of finite conductivity, the electric and magnetic tangential field components on the metal surface were related by the SIBC. The surface impedance was calculated by the Drude dispersion model at THz frequencies, which was used to characterize the conductivity of the metal. By solving the Eigen equations, the propagation constants, including the attenuation constant and the phase constant, were obtained for a given frequency. The proposed method shows good applicability for full-wave analysis of THz waveguides with complex boundaries.

  11. Finite difference modeling of Biot's poroelastic equations atseismic frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Masson, Y.J.; Pride, S.R.; Nihei, K.T.

    2006-02-24

    Across the seismic band of frequencies (loosely defined as<10 kHz), a seismic wave propagating through a porous material willcreate flow in the pore space that is laminar; that is, in thislow-frequency "seismic limit," the development of viscous boundary layersin the pores need not be modeled. An explicit time steppingstaggered-grid finite difference scheme is presented for solving Biot'sequations of poroelasticity in this low-frequency limit. A key part ofthis work is the establishment of rigorous stability conditions. It isdemonstrated that over a wide range of porous material properties typicalof sedimentary rock and despite the presenceof fluid pressure diffusion(Biot slow waves), the usual Courant condition governs the stability asif the problem involved purely elastic waves. The accuracy of the methodis demonstrated by comparing to exact analytical solutions for both fastcompressional waves and slow waves. Additional numerical modelingexamples are also presented.

  12. Finite-Frequency Tomography of USArray Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic waves diffract around structure perturbations when the length scale of lateral heterogeneities is comparable to the size of the Fresnel zone. Our recent studies based on wave propagation simulations show that Born sensitivity kernels can be used in seismic tomography to account for diffractional effects in surface waves as well as body waves. In addition to direct seismic phases, teleseismic receiver functions which take advantage of secondary waves converted at seismic discontinuities can provides important constraints on discontinuity structures. In this study, we calculate finite-frequency sensitivity of receiver functions to perturbations in seismic discontinuities in the mantle transition zone. The boundary sensitivity kernels based on Born approximation are formulated in the framework of traveling-wave mode summation to account for complete wave interactions within the measurement window. The sensitivity kernels allow us to employ frequency-dependent receiver functions in tomographic inversions to map the topography of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities. We will discuss preliminary results on the structure of mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the continental US imaged from finite-frequency receiver-function tomography using seismograms recorded at USArray TA stations.

  13. The role of plasma elongation on the linear damping of zonal flows

    SciTech Connect

    Angelino, P.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Bottino, A.

    2008-06-15

    Drift wave turbulence is known to self-organize to form axisymmetric macroscopic flows. The basic mechanism for macroscopic flow generation is called inverse energy cascade. Essentially, it is an energy transfer from the short wavelengths to the long wavelengths in the turbulent spectrum due to nonlinear interactions. A class of macroscopic flows, the poloidally symmetric zonal flows, is widely recognized as a key constituent in nearly all cases and regimes of microturbulence, also because of the realization that zonal flows are a critical agent of self-regulation for turbulent transport. In tokamaks and other toroidal magnetic confinement systems, axisymmetric flows exist in two branches, a zero frequency branch and a finite frequency branch, named Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs). The finite frequency is due to the geodesic curvature of the magnetic field. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests strong GAM activity in most devices. Theoretical investigation of the GAMs is still an open field of research. Part of the difficulty of modelling the GAMs stems from the requirement of running global codes. Another issue is that one cannot determine a simple one to one relation between turbulence stabilization and GAM activity. This paper focuses on the study of ion temperature gradient turbulence in realistic tokamak magnetohydrodynamic equilibria. Analytical and numerical analyses are applied to the study of geometrical effects on zonal flows oscillations. Results are shown on the effects of the plasma elongation on the GAM amplitude and frequency and on the zonal flow residual amplitude.

  14. Frequency measurements in a finite cylinder wake at a subcritical Reynolds number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budair, M.; Ayoub, A.; Karamcheti, K.

    1991-01-01

    A spectral study of a hot-wire investigation in the near wake of a finite circular cylinder of high-aspect ratio is reported. The measurements included frequency spectra and cross correlations in spanwise and streamwise directions. The study identifies four spanwise regions, in terms of frequency, in the immediate wake of the finite cylinder.

  15. Finite frequency tomography shows a variety of plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolet, G.; Montelli, R.; Masters, G.; Dahlen, F. A.; Hung, S.

    2003-04-01

    The new technique of finite-frequency tomography (see abstract by Montelli et al., this meeting) is very powerful in imaging objects of small dimension in the lower mantle. The first global images of P velocity anomalies obtained by using this technique to invert a small but very accurate data set of long period P arrivals bottoming in the lower mantle show 18 low velocity anomalies in excess of -0.5%, all but two of which are associated with a known hotspot at the surface, and they serve as an unprecented glimpse into the deep mechanisms that give rise to hotspots. The following synopsis is given under the caveat that we have not yet incorporated high frequency waves into the interpretation, nor completed a full resolution analysis at the time of writing of this abstract (both will be presented at the meeting). We observe six or seven hotspots fed by a plume extending to the core-mantle boundary: Cap Verde, Easter Island, Hawaii, Kerguelen, St Helena, Tahiti, and perhaps also Azores. Several hotspots, among which are Bouvet, Bowie, and Mount Erebus, seem to originate at mid-mantle depth, while others (Afar, Ascension, Galapagos, Iceland, la Reunion and others) seem to be mostly confined to the upper mantle. Many renowned hotspots (such as Eifel, Samoa and Yellowstone) have only very weak low velocity anomalies at depth and may be the result of superficial processes confined to the top of the upper mantle. We confirm the existence of the two superplumes which both have Δ V_P < -0.5% extending as high as 2000 km depth. It is clear that no one plume/hotspot model can explain the variety in deep expressions of hotspots in the mantle. If midmantle plume origins represent originally deep plumes in their end stage, while the two unidentified anomalies are either beginning new plumes (Greenland) or plumes cut off in their initial ascent (W. Pacific), the large number of plumes caught in this phase would point to lengthy rise times of the order of tens of millions of

  16. Frequency and zonal wavenumber spectra of altimetric sea level in the North Pacific as revealed by 9 years of TOPEX data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, C.

    2007-12-01

    These two-dimensional spectra show the prevalence of free baroclinic Rossby waves from the equatorial region to the mid-latitudes. An innovation based on segregating the Fourier components into standing and propagating modes has helped reveal the Rossby waves more clearly where they have been obscured previously by the seal- level signatures of the seasonal heating and cooling cycle. It is found that the linear theory of Rossby waves applies well for most of the ocean (i.e., ignoring zonal and meridional density variations associated with the mean flow) with the possible exception in regions closer to the western boundary currents. That is, the Rossby wave speed is more or less uniform zonally across the North Pacific except closer to the western end in mid- latitudes. From the zonal and meridional distribution of the power of these Rossby waves, the source of these waves can be deciphered.

  17. An analytical description of balanced steady-state free precession with finite radio-frequency excitation.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Oliver

    2011-02-01

    Conceptually, the only flaw in the standard steady-state free precession theory is the assumption of quasi-instantaneous radio-frequency pulses, and 10-20% signal deviations from theory are observed for common balanced steady-state free precession protocols. This discrepancy in the steady-state signal can be resolved by a simple T(2) substitution taking into account reduced transverse relaxation effects during finite radio-frequency excitation. However, finite radio-frequency effects may also affect the transient phase of balanced steady-state free precession, its contrast or its spin-echo nature and thereby have an adverse effect on common steady-state free precession magnetization preparation methods. As a result, an in-depth understanding of finite radio-frequency effects is not only of fundamental theoretical interest but also has direct practical implications. In this article, an analytical solution for balanced steady-state free precession with finite radio-frequency pulses is derived for the transient phase (under ideal conditions) and in the steady state demonstrating that balanced steady-state free precession key features are preserved but revealing an unexpected dependency of finite radio-frequency effects on relaxation times for the transient decay. Finally, the mathematical framework reveals that finite radio-frequency theory can be understood as a generalization of alternating repetition time and fluctuating equilibrium steady-state free precession sequence schemes.

  18. A conservative treatment of zonal boundaries for Euler equation calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Finite-difference calculations require the generation of a grid for the region of interest. A zonal approach, wherein the given region is subdivided into zones and the grid for each zone is generated independently, makes the grid-generation process for complicated topologies and for regions requiring selective grid refinement a fairly simple task. This approach results in new boundaries within the given region, that is, zonal boundaries at the interfaces of the various zones. The zonal-boundary scheme (the integration scheme used to update the points on the zonal boundary) for the Euler equations must be conservative, accurate, stable, and applicable to general curvilinear coordinate systems. A zonal-boundary scheme with these desirable properties is developed in this study. The scheme is designed for explicit, first-order-accurate integration schemes but can be modified to accommodate second-order-accurate explicit and implicit integration schemes. Results for inviscid flow, including supersonic flow over a cylinder, blast-wave diffraction by a ramp, and one-dimensional shock-tube flow are obtained on zonal grids. The conservative nature of the zonal-boundary scheme permits the smooth transition of the discontinuities associated with these flows from one zone to another. The calculations also demonstrate the continuity of contour lines across zonal boundaries that can be achieved with the present zonal scheme.

  19. High Frequency Ground Motion from Finite Fault Rupture Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crempien, Jorge G. F.

    There are many tectonically active regions on earth with little or no recorded ground motions. The Eastern United States is a typical example of regions with active faults, but with low to medium seismicity that has prevented sufficient ground motion recordings. Because of this, it is necessary to use synthetic ground motion methods in order to estimate the earthquake hazard a region might have. Ground motion prediction equations for spectral acceleration typically have geometric attenuation proportional to the inverse of distance away from the fault. Earthquakes simulated with one-dimensional layered earth models have larger geometric attenuation than the observed ground motion recordings. We show that as incident angles of rays increase at welded boundaries between homogeneous flat layers, the transmitted rays decrease in amplitude dramatically. As the receiver distance increases away from the source, the angle of incidence of up-going rays increases, producing negligible transmitted ray amplitude, thus increasing the geometrical attenuation. To work around this problem we propose a model in which we separate wave propagation for low and high frequencies at a crossover frequency, typically 1Hz. The high-frequency portion of strong ground motion is computed with a homogeneous half-space and amplified with the available and more complex one- or three-dimensional crustal models using the quarter wavelength method. We also make use of seismic coda energy density observations as scattering impulse response functions. We incorporate scattering impulse response functions into our Green's functions by convolving the high-frequency homogeneous half-space Green's functions with normalized synthetic scatterograms to reproduce scattering physical effects in recorded seismograms. This method was validated against ground motion for earthquakes recorded in California and Japan, yielding results that capture the duration and spectral response of strong ground motion.

  20. A mixed finite element domain decomposition method for nearly elastic wave equations in the frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Xiaobing

    1996-12-31

    A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.

  1. Nonfragile filtering for discrete-time linear systems in finite-frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Da-Wei; Li, Xiaoli; Wang, Youyi

    2013-04-01

    This article investigates the problem of nonfragile filter design for discrete-time linear systems subject to noises with known frequency ranges. Additive interval uncertainty reflecting imprecision in filter implementation is considered. By the aid of generalised KYP lemma, both deterministic and randomised filtering algorithms are proposed to deal with noises in low-, middle- and high-frequency domain, respectively. The proposed nonfragile finite-frequency filters can get a better noise attenuation performance when frequency ranges of noises are known beforehand. An example about F-18 aircraft model is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  2. Low-frequency scaling applied to stochastic finite-fault modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Stephen; Motazedian, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic finite-fault modeling is an important tool for simulating moderate to large earthquakes. It has proven to be useful in applications that require a reliable estimation of ground motions, mostly in the spectral frequency range of 1 to 10 Hz, which is the range of most interest to engineers. However, since there can be little resemblance between the low-frequency spectra of large and small earthquakes, this portion can be difficult to simulate using stochastic finite-fault techniques. This paper introduces two different methods to scale low-frequency spectra for stochastic finite-fault modeling. One method multiplies the subfault source spectrum by an empirical function. This function has three parameters to scale the low-frequency spectra: the level of scaling and the start and end frequencies of the taper. This empirical function adjusts the earthquake spectra only between the desired frequencies, conserving seismic moment in the simulated spectra. The other method is an empirical low-frequency coefficient that is added to the subfault corner frequency. This new parameter changes the ratio between high and low frequencies. For each simulation, the entire earthquake spectra is adjusted, which may result in the seismic moment not being conserved for a simulated earthquake. These low-frequency scaling methods were used to reproduce recorded earthquake spectra from several earthquakes recorded in the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) Next Generation Attenuation Models (NGA) database. There were two methods of determining the stochastic parameters of best fit for each earthquake: a general residual analysis and an earthquake-specific residual analysis. Both methods resulted in comparable values for stress drop and the low-frequency scaling parameters; however, the earthquake-specific residual analysis obtained a more accurate distribution of the averaged residuals.

  3. Finite-number-of-periods holographic gratings with finite-width incident beams: analysis using the finite-difference frequency-domain method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shun-Der; Glytsis, Elias N.

    2002-10-01

    The effects of finite number of periods (FNP) and finite incident beams on the diffraction efficiencies of holographic gratings are investigated by the finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method. Gratings comprising 20, 15, 10, 5, and 3 periods illuminated by TE and TM incident light with various beam sizes are analyzed with the FDFD method and compared with the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). Both unslanted and slanted gratings are treated in transmission as well as in reflection configurations. In general, the effect of the FNP is a decrease in the diffraction efficiency with a decrease in the number of periods of the grating. Similarly, a decrease in incident-beam width causes a decrease in the diffraction efficiency. Exceptions appear in off-Bragg incidence in which a smaller beam width could result in higher diffraction efficiency. For beam widths greater than 10 grating periods and for gratings with more than 20 periods in width, the diffraction efficiencies slowly converge to the values predicted by the RCWA (infinite incident beam and infinite-number-of-periods grating) for both TE and TM polarizations. Furthermore, the effects of FNP holographic gratings on their diffraction performance are found to be comparable to their counterparts of FNP surface-relief gratings. 2002 Optical Society of America

  4. Finite element modeling of truss structures with frequency-dependent material damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesieutre, George A.

    1991-01-01

    A physically motivated modelling technique for structural dynamic analysis that accommodates frequency dependent material damping was developed. Key features of the technique are the introduction of augmenting thermodynamic fields (AFT) to interact with the usual mechanical displacement field, and the treatment of the resulting coupled governing equations using finite element analysis methods. The AFT method is fully compatible with current structural finite element analysis techniques. The method is demonstrated in the dynamic analysis of a 10-bay planar truss structure, a structure representative of those contemplated for use in future space systems.

  5. Stochastically forced zonal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Kaushik

    This thesis investigates the dynamics of multiple zonal jets, that spontaneously emerge on the barotropic beta-plane, driven by a homogenous and rapidly decorrelating forcing and damped by bottom drag. Decomposing the barotropic vorticity equation into the zonal-mean and eddy equations, and neglecting the eddy-eddy interactions, defines the quasi-linear (QL) system. Numerical solution of the QL system shows zonal jets with length scales comparable to jets obtained by solving the nonlinear (NL) system. Starting with the QL system, one can construct a deterministic equation for the evolution of the two-point single-time correlation function of the vorticity, from which one can obtain the Reynolds stress that drives the zonal mean flow. This deterministic system has an exact nonlinear solution, which is a homogenous eddy field with no jets. When the forcing is also isotropic in space, we characterize the linear stability of this jetless solution by calculating the critical stability curve in the parameter space and successfully comparing this analytic result with numerical solutions of the QL system. But the critical drag required for the onset of NL zonostrophic instability is up to a factor of six smaller than that for QL zonostrophic instability. The constraint of isotropic forcing is then relaxed and spatially anisotropic forcing is used to drive the jets. Meridionally drifting jets are observed whenever the forcing breaks an additional symmetry that we refer to as mirror, or reflexional symmetry. The magnitude of drift speed in our results shows a strong variation with both mu and beta: while the drift speed decreases almost linearly with decreasing mu, it actually increases as beta decreases. Similar drifting jets are also observed in QL, with the same direction (i.e. northward or southward) and similar magnitude as NL jet-drift. Starting from the laminar solution, and assuming a mean-flow that varies slowly with reference to the scale of the eddies, we obtain

  6. Finite element modelling and analysis of the effect of frequency on the electromagnetic compression of tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Kore, Sachin D.

    2016-10-01

    Electromagnetic compression of the tube is a high strain rate forming process, in this process formability of the material can be increased by reducing the spring back effect developed in the process. High electrical conductivity materials like copper, aluminum are generally used for electromagnetic compression. In electromagnetic compression, frequency of the current pulse is an important parameter to be analyzed. In this work the effect of current pulse frequency on the electromagnetic compression of the tube has been studied. The tube and coil were modelled and analyzed using finite element software LS-DYNA. It has been found that the deformation obtained during tube compression were increases first with the increase in frequency, obtained a maximum value and then decreases with the further increase in the frequency. The change in frequency greatly influences the deformation obtained during the electromagnetic compression of tubes.

  7. Reliable finite frequency filter design for networked control systems with sensor faults.

    PubMed

    Ju, He-Hua; Long, Yue; Wang, Heng

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the reliable finite frequency filter design for networked control systems (NCSs) subject to quantization and data missing. Taking into account quantization, possible data missing and sensor stuck faults, NCSs are modeled in the framework of discrete time-delay switched systems, and the finite frequency l(2) gain is adopted for the filter design of discrete time-delay switched systems, which is converted into a set of linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions. By the virtues of the derived conditions, a procedure of reliable filter synthesis is presented. Further, the filter gains are characterized in terms of solutions to a convex optimization problem which can be solved by using the semi-definite programme method. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Reliable Finite Frequency Filter Design for Networked Control Systems with Sensor Faults

    PubMed Central

    Ju, He-Hua; Long, Yue; Wang, Heng

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the reliable finite frequency filter design for networked control systems (NCSs) subject to quantization and data missing. Taking into account quantization, possible data missing and sensor stuck faults, NCSs are modeled in the framework of discrete time-delay switched systems, and the finite frequency l2 gain is adopted for the filter design of discrete time-delay switched systems, which is converted into a set of linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions. By the virtues of the derived conditions, a procedure of reliable filter synthesis is presented. Further, the filter gains are characterized in terms of solutions to a convex optimization problem which can be solved by using the semi-definite programme method. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:22969382

  9. A double expansion method for the frequency response of finite-length beams with periodic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Z. G.; Ni, Y. Q.

    2017-03-01

    A double expansion method for the frequency response of finite-length beams with periodic distribution parameters is proposed. The vibration response of the beam with spatial periodic parameters under harmonic excitations is studied. The frequency response of the periodic beam is the function of parametric period and then can be expressed by the series with the product of periodic and non-periodic functions. The procedure of the double expansion method includes the following two main steps: first, the frequency response function and periodic parameters are expanded by using identical periodic functions based on the extension of the Floquet-Bloch theorem, and the period-parametric differential equation for the frequency response is converted into a series of linear differential equations with constant coefficients; second, the solutions to the linear differential equations are expanded by using modal functions which satisfy the boundary conditions, and the linear differential equations are converted into algebraic equations according to the Galerkin method. The expansion coefficients are obtained by solving the algebraic equations and then the frequency response function is finally determined. The proposed double expansion method can uncouple the effects of the periodic expansion and modal expansion so that the expansion terms are determined respectively. The modal number considered in the second expansion can be reduced remarkably in comparison with the direct expansion method. The proposed double expansion method can be extended and applied to the other structures with periodic distribution parameters for dynamics analysis. Numerical results on the frequency response of the finite-length periodic beam with various parametric wave numbers and wave amplitude ratios are given to illustrate the effective application of the proposed method and the new frequency response characteristics, including the parameter-excited modal resonance, doubling-peak frequency response

  10. Computing ferrite core losses at high frequency by finite elements method including temperature influence

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, B.; Ahmad, J.; Guy, G.

    1994-09-01

    A finite elements method coupled with the Preisach model of hysteresis is used to compute-the ferrite losses in medium power transformers (10--60 kVA) working at relatively high frequencies (20--60 kHz) and with an excitation level of about 0.3 Tesla. The dynamic evolution of the permeability is taken into account. The simple and doubly cubic spline functions are used to account for temperature effects respectively on electric and on magnetic parameters of the ferrite cores. The results are compared with test data obtained with 3C8 and B50 ferrites at different frequencies.

  11. Finite Difference Time Marching in the Frequency Domain: A Parabolic Formulation for the Convective Wave Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Kreider, K. L.

    1996-01-01

    An explicit finite difference iteration scheme is developed to study harmonic sound propagation in ducts. To reduce storage requirements for large 3D problems, the time dependent potential form of the acoustic wave equation is used. To insure that the finite difference scheme is both explicit and stable, time is introduced into the Fourier transformed (steady-state) acoustic potential field as a parameter. Under a suitable transformation, the time dependent governing equation in frequency space is simplified to yield a parabolic partial differential equation, which is then marched through time to attain the steady-state solution. The input to the system is the amplitude of an incident harmonic sound source entering a quiescent duct at the input boundary, with standard impedance boundary conditions on the duct walls and duct exit. The introduction of the time parameter eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with frequency domain solutions, and time marching attains the steady-state quickly enough to make the method favorable when compared to frequency domain methods. For validation, this transient-frequency domain method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D hard wall duct with plug flow.

  12. Finite Difference Time Marching in the Frequency Domain: A Parabolic Formulation for Aircraft Acoustic Nacelle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.

    1996-01-01

    An explicit finite difference iteration scheme is developed to study harmonic sound propagation in aircraft engine nacelles. To reduce storage requirements for large 3D problems, the time dependent potential form of the acoustic wave equation is used. To insure that the finite difference scheme is both explicit and stable, time is introduced into the Fourier transformed (steady-state) acoustic potential field as a parameter. Under a suitable transformation, the time dependent governing equation in frequency space is simplified to yield a parabolic partial differential equation, which is then marched through time to attain the steady-state solution. The input to the system is the amplitude of an incident harmonic sound source entering a quiescent duct at the input boundary, with standard impedance boundary conditions on the duct walls and duct exit. The introduction of the time parameter eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with frequency domain solutions, and time marching attains the steady-state quickly enough to make the method favorable when compared to frequency domain methods. For validation, this transient-frequency domain method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D hard wall duct with plug flow.

  13. Finite-frequency-dependent noise of a quantum dot in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moca, C. P.; Simon, P.; Chung, Chung-Hou; Zaránd, G.

    2014-04-01

    We present a detailed study for the finite-frequency current noise of a Kondo quantum dot in the presence of a magnetic field by using a recently developed real-time functional renormalization group approach [C. P. Moca, P. Simon, C. H. Chung, and G. Zaránd, Phys. Rev. B 83, 201303(R) (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.201303]. The scaling equations are modified in an external magnetic field; the couplings and nonlocal current vertices become strongly anisotropic, and develop new singularities. Consequently, in addition to the natural emission threshold frequency, ℏω =|eV|, a corresponding singular behavior is found to emerge in the noise spectrum at frequencies ℏω ≈|eV±B|. The predicted singularities are measurable with present-day experimental techniques.

  14. A wide-range programmable frequency synthesizer based on a finite state machine filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alser, Mohammed H.; Assaad, Maher M.; Hussin, Fawnizu A.

    2013-11-01

    In this article, an FPGA-based design and implementation of a fully digital wide-range programmable frequency synthesizer based on a finite state machine filter is presented. The advantages of the proposed architecture are that, it simultaneously generates a high frequency signal from a low frequency reference signal (i.e. synthesising), and synchronising the two signals (signals have the same phase, or a constant difference) without jitter accumulation issue. The architecture is portable and can be easily implemented for various platforms, such as FPGAs and integrated circuits. The frequency synthesizer circuit can be used as a part of SERDES devices in intra/inter chip communication in system-on-chip (SoC). The proposed circuit is designed using Verilog language and synthesized for the Altera DE2-70 development board, with the Cyclone II (EP2C35F672C6) device on board. Simulation and experimental results are included; they prove the synthesizing and tracking features of the proposed architecture. The generated clock signal frequency of a range from 19.8 MHz to 440 MHz is synchronized to the input reference clock with a frequency step of 0.12 MHz.

  15. Zonal flows in tokamaks with anisotropic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun

    2014-04-15

    Zonal flows (ZFs) in a tokamak plasma with anisotropic pressure are investigated. The dynamics of perpendicular and parallel pressures are determined by the Chew-Goldberger-Low double equations and low-β condition is adopted, where β is the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure. The dispersion relation is analytically derived and illustrates two branches of ZFs. The low frequency zonal flow (LFZF) branch becomes unstable when χ, the ratio of the perpendicular pressure to the parallel one, is greater than a threshold value χ{sub c}, which is about 3.8. In the stable region, its frequency increases first and then decreases with increasing χ. For χ = 1, the frequency of LFZF agrees well with the experimental observation. For the instability, the growth rate of LFZF increases with χ. The geodesic acoustic mode branch is shown to be always stable with a frequency increasing with χ. The safety factor is shown to diminish the frequencies of both branches or the growth rate of LFZF.

  16. Zonal flows in tokamaks with anisotropic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haijun

    2014-04-01

    Zonal flows (ZFs) in a tokamak plasma with anisotropic pressure are investigated. The dynamics of perpendicular and parallel pressures are determined by the Chew-Goldberger-Low double equations and low-β condition is adopted, where β is the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure. The dispersion relation is analytically derived and illustrates two branches of ZFs. The low frequency zonal flow (LFZF) branch becomes unstable when χ, the ratio of the perpendicular pressure to the parallel one, is greater than a threshold value χc, which is about 3.8. In the stable region, its frequency increases first and then decreases with increasing χ. For χ = 1, the frequency of LFZF agrees well with the experimental observation. For the instability, the growth rate of LFZF increases with χ. The geodesic acoustic mode branch is shown to be always stable with a frequency increasing with χ. The safety factor is shown to diminish the frequencies of both branches or the growth rate of LFZF.

  17. Application of generalized Snoek's law over a finite frequency range: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, Konstantin N.; Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    2016-02-01

    Generalized Snoek's law proposed in an integral form by Acher and coauthors is a useful tool for investigation of high-frequency properties of magnetic materials. This integral law referred to as Acher's law allows for evaluating the ultimate performance of RF and microwave devices which employ magnetic materials. It may also be helpful in obtaining useful information on the structure and morphology of the materials. The key factor in practical application of Acher's law is an opportunity to employ either measured or calculated data available over a finite frequency range. The paper uses simple calculations to check the applicability of Acher's law in cases when the frequency range is limited and the magnetic loss peak is comparatively wide and has a distorted shape. The cases of large magnetic damping, pronounced skin effect, and inhomogeneity of the material are considered. It is shown that in most cases calculation of the integral through fitting of actual magnetic frequency dispersion by the Lorentzian dispersion law results in accurate estimations of the ultimate high-frequency performance of magnetic materials.

  18. A Spectral Finite Element Approach to Modeling Soft Solids Excited with High-Frequency Harmonic Loads.

    PubMed

    Brigham, John C; Aquino, Wilkins; Aguilo, Miguel A; Diamessis, Peter J

    2011-01-15

    An approach for efficient and accurate finite element analysis of harmonically excited soft solids using high-order spectral finite elements is presented and evaluated. The Helmholtz-type equations used to model such systems suffer from additional numerical error known as pollution when excitation frequency becomes high relative to stiffness (i.e. high wave number), which is the case, for example, for soft tissues subject to ultrasound excitations. The use of high-order polynomial elements allows for a reduction in this pollution error, but requires additional consideration to counteract Runge's phenomenon and/or poor linear system conditioning, which has led to the use of spectral element approaches. This work examines in detail the computational benefits and practical applicability of high-order spectral elements for such problems. The spectral elements examined are tensor product elements (i.e. quad or brick elements) of high-order Lagrangian polynomials with non-uniformly distributed Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre nodal points. A shear plane wave example is presented to show the dependence of the accuracy and computational expense of high-order elements on wave number. Then, a convergence study for a viscoelastic acoustic-structure interaction finite element model of an actual ultrasound driven vibroacoustic experiment is shown. The number of degrees of freedom required for a given accuracy level was found to consistently decrease with increasing element order. However, the computationally optimal element order was found to strongly depend on the wave number.

  19. A Spectral Finite Element Approach to Modeling Soft Solids Excited with High-Frequency Harmonic Loads

    PubMed Central

    Brigham, John C.; Aquino, Wilkins; Aguilo, Miguel A.; Diamessis, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    An approach for efficient and accurate finite element analysis of harmonically excited soft solids using high-order spectral finite elements is presented and evaluated. The Helmholtz-type equations used to model such systems suffer from additional numerical error known as pollution when excitation frequency becomes high relative to stiffness (i.e. high wave number), which is the case, for example, for soft tissues subject to ultrasound excitations. The use of high-order polynomial elements allows for a reduction in this pollution error, but requires additional consideration to counteract Runge's phenomenon and/or poor linear system conditioning, which has led to the use of spectral element approaches. This work examines in detail the computational benefits and practical applicability of high-order spectral elements for such problems. The spectral elements examined are tensor product elements (i.e. quad or brick elements) of high-order Lagrangian polynomials with non-uniformly distributed Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre nodal points. A shear plane wave example is presented to show the dependence of the accuracy and computational expense of high-order elements on wave number. Then, a convergence study for a viscoelastic acoustic-structure interaction finite element model of an actual ultrasound driven vibroacoustic experiment is shown. The number of degrees of freedom required for a given accuracy level was found to consistently decrease with increasing element order. However, the computationally optimal element order was found to strongly depend on the wave number. PMID:21461402

  20. Finite Element Prediction of Loss Factors for Structures with Frequency-dependent Damping Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everstine, G. C.; Marcus, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element procedure is described for calculating the loss factors for elastic structures to which frequency-dependent viscoelastic damping treatments were applied. The frequency dependence of the viscoelastic damping material is treated by approximating its shear modulus with a second-order polynomial so that the stiffnesses associated with the constant, linear, and quadratic terms can be combined, respectively, with the stiffness, damping, and mass matrices assembled for the rest of the structure. A single complex eigenvalue analysis is then performed in which the eigenvalues are purely imaginary. The loss factor is computed by the modal strain energy (MSE) approach. In the the MSE approach, the loss factor of a composite structure vibrating in one of its natural modes may be visualized as a weighted average of the loss factors of the component parts, with the relative stored energies as weighting constants. The finite element procedure, which can treat very general geometries, is illustrated for the case of a vibrating constrained-layer damped plate.

  1. Determination of cutoff frequencies of simple waveguides using finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolagani, Sridhar

    Waveguides are used to transfer electromagnetic energy from one location to another. Within many electronic circles, waveguides are commonly used for microwave RF signals; the same principle can be used for many forms of waves from sound to light. They have been used in many technologies like acoustic waveguide speaker technology, high-performance passive waveguide technologies for remote sensing and communication, optical computing, robotic-vision, biochemical sensing and many more. Modern waveguide technology employs a variety of waveguides with different cross sections and perturbations, the cutoff frequencies and mode shapes of many of these waveguides are ill-suited for determination by an analytical method. In this thesis, we solve this type of waveguides by employing the numerical procedure of finite difference method. By adopting finite difference approach with an application of eigenvalue method, we discuss about few different types of these waveguides in determining the cutoff frequencies of supported modes, and extracting the possible degenerate modes and their field distributions. To validate the method and its accuracy, it is applied to the two well known rectangular waveguides, viz. PEC Rectangular Waveguide and Artificial Rectangular Waveguide (consists of PEC and PMC walls) and compared with the analytical solutions.

  2. Effects of Frequency and Acceleration Amplitude on Osteoblast Mechanical Vibration Responses: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hung-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Bone cells are deformed according to mechanical stimulation they receive and their mechanical characteristics. However, how osteoblasts are affected by mechanical vibration frequency and acceleration amplitude remains unclear. By developing 3D osteoblast finite element (FE) models, this study investigated the effect of cell shapes on vibration characteristics and effect of acceleration (vibration intensity) on vibrational responses of cultured osteoblasts. Firstly, the developed FE models predicted natural frequencies of osteoblasts within 6.85–48.69 Hz. Then, three different levels of acceleration of base excitation were selected (0.5, 1, and 2 g) to simulate vibrational responses, and acceleration of base excitation was found to have no influence on natural frequencies of osteoblasts. However, vibration response values of displacement, stress, and strain increased with the increase of acceleration. Finally, stress and stress distributions of osteoblast models under 0.5 g acceleration in Z-direction were investigated further. It was revealed that resonance frequencies can be a monotonic function of cell height or bottom area when cell volumes and material properties were assumed as constants. These findings will be useful in understanding how forces are transferred and influence osteoblast mechanical responses during vibrations and in providing guidance for cell culture and external vibration loading in experimental and clinical osteogenesis studies. PMID:28074178

  3. Analysis and Design of Robust H∞ Fault Estimation Observer With Finite-Frequency Specifications for Discrete-Time Fuzzy Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Jiang, Bin; Shi, Peng; Xu, Jinfa

    2015-07-01

    This paper addresses the problem of fault estimation observer design with finite-frequency specifications for discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy systems. First, for such T-S fuzzy models, an H∞ fault estimation observer with pole-placement constraint is proposed to achieve fault estimation. Based on the generalized Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov lemma, the given finite-frequency observer possesses less conservatism compared with the design of the entire-frequency domain. Furthermore, the performance of the presented fault estimation observer is further enhanced by adding the degree of freedom. Finally, two examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  4. Development of low-frequency kernel-function aerodynamics for comparison with time-dependent finite-difference methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    Finite difference methods for unsteady transonic flow frequency use simplified equations in which certain of the time dependent terms are omitted from the governing equations. Kernel functions are derived for two dimensional subsonic flow, and provide accurate solutions of the linearized potential equation with the same time dependent terms omitted. These solutions make possible a direct evaluation of the finite difference codes for the linear problem. Calculations with two of these low frequency kernel functions verify the accuracy of the LTRAN2 and HYTRAN2 finite difference codes. Comparisons of the low frequency kernel function results with the Possio kernel function solution of the complete linear equations indicate the adequacy of the HYTRAN approximation for frequencies in the range of interest for flutter calculations.

  5. 3D frequency-domain finite-difference modeling of acoustic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Operto, S.; Virieux, J.

    2006-12-01

    We present a 3D frequency-domain finite-difference method for acoustic wave propagation modeling. This method is developed as a tool to perform 3D frequency-domain full-waveform inversion of wide-angle seismic data. For wide-angle data, frequency-domain full-waveform inversion can be applied only to few discrete frequencies to develop reliable velocity model. Frequency-domain finite-difference (FD) modeling of wave propagation requires resolution of a huge sparse system of linear equations. If this system can be solved with a direct method, solutions for multiple sources can be computed efficiently once the underlying matrix has been factorized. The drawback of the direct method is the memory requirement resulting from the fill-in of the matrix during factorization. We assess in this study whether representative problems can be addressed in 3D geometry with such approach. We start from the velocity-stress formulation of the 3D acoustic wave equation. The spatial derivatives are discretized with second-order accurate staggered-grid stencil on different coordinate systems such that the axis span over as many directions as possible. Once the discrete equations were developed on each coordinate system, the particle velocity fields are eliminated from the first-order hyperbolic system (following the so-called parsimonious staggered-grid method) leading to second-order elliptic wave equations in pressure. The second-order wave equations discretized on each coordinate system are combined linearly to mitigate the numerical anisotropy. Secondly, grid dispersion is minimized by replacing the mass term at the collocation point by its weighted averaging over all the grid points of the stencil. Use of second-order accurate staggered- grid stencil allows to reduce the bandwidth of the matrix to be factorized. The final stencil incorporates 27 points. Absorbing conditions are PML. The system is solved using the parallel direct solver MUMPS developed for distributed

  6. Effect of finite detector-element width on the spatial-frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Ian A.; Westmore, Michael S.; Fenster, Aaron

    1995-05-01

    Image blur in digital imaging systems results from both the spatial spreading of quanta representing the image in the detector system and from the integration of quanta over the finite detector element width. Linear-systems theory has often been used to describe these blurring mechanisms as a convolution, implying the existence of a corresponding modulation transfer function (MTF) in the spatial-frequency domain. This also implies that the resulting noise- power spectrum (NPS) is modified by the square of the blurring MTF. This deterministic approach correctly describes the effect of each blurring mechanism on the overall system MTF, but does not correctly describe image noise characteristics. This is because the convolution is a deterministic calculation, and neglects the statistical properties of the image quanta. Rabbani et al. developed an expression for the NPS following a stochastic spreading mechanism that correctly accounts for these statistical properties. Use of their results requires a modification in how we should interpret the convolution theorem. We suggest the use of a `stochastic' convolution operator, that uses the Rabbani equation for the NPS rather than the deterministic result. This approach unifies the description of both image blur and image noise into a single linear-systems framework. This method is then used to develop expressions for the signal, NPS, DQE, and pixel SNR for a hypothetical digital detector design that includes the effects of conversion to secondary quanta, stochastic spreading of the secondary quanta, and a finite detector-element width.

  7. Space-Frequency Sampling Criteria for Electromagnetic Scattering of a Finite Object.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    3 *W2**2 -0 PUNCTMN FUNC2 (R, W2) I r C2ud1./ 3 .)*(sIntRIW2))**2. ED 161 C C FUNCrIOt4: FUNC3 C THIS FUNCION WILL PROCC THE LINEAR ITERKLATION )RITDN...8217N’) GO M 50 IF ( OMEGA . NE. ’Y’) GO) MI 3 0 CALL TRAN2D (DATA, MSIZE,-1) CALL rLUT(DATA,MSIZ EARAY1 .ARRAY2 .ARRAYP) GO MD25 C C INVERSE FOURE...AO-A162 553 SPACE-FREQUENCY SAMPLING CRITERIA FOR ELECTROINNINETIC 1/ 3 SCATTERING OF A FINITE UBJECT(U) OHI10 STATE UNIV COLUMBUS ELECTROSCIENCE LAB

  8. Effect of Finite Pulse Length and Laser Frequency Chirp on HGHG and EEHG Seeding

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2011-11-18

    Theoretical studies of high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) often start from a simplified model in which the beam is assumed infinitely long and longitudinally uniform and the laser induced energy modulation is perfectly sinusoidal and of infinite duration. In such a model the resulting seed has a spectrum consisting of a collection of delta-functions (of zero width) located at the harmonics of the laser frequency. Being a useful tool for study of the seed bunching amplitudes, such a model cannot be used for realistic analysis the spectral properties of the seed. In this paper we take into account the finite duration of the laser pulse as well as some possible laser phase errors to study their effect on the spectrum of the seed.

  9. Discrete- and finite-bandwidth-frequency distributions in nonlinear stability applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehl, Joseph J.

    2017-02-01

    A new "wave packet" formulation of the parabolized stability equations method is presented. This method accounts for the influence of finite-bandwidth-frequency distributions on nonlinear stability calculations. The methodology is motivated by convolution integrals and is found to appropriately represent nonlinear energy transfer between primary modes and harmonics, in particular nonlinear feedback, via a "nonlinear coupling coefficient." It is found that traditional discrete mode formulations overestimate nonlinear feedback by approximately 70%. This results in smaller maximum disturbance amplitudes than those observed experimentally. The new formulation corrects this overestimation, accounts for the generation of side lobes responsible for spectral broadening, and results in disturbance representation more consistent with the experiment than traditional formulations. A Mach 6 flared-cone example is presented.

  10. The devil's checkerboard: why cross-correlation delay times require a finite frequency interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolet, G.; Mercerat, D.; Zaroli, C.

    2012-12-01

    We present the first complete test of finite frequency tomography with banana-doughnut kernels, from the generation of seismograms in a 3D model to the final inversion, and are able to lay to rest all of the so-called `controversies' that have slowed down its adoption. Cross-correlation delay times are influenced by energy arriving in a time window that includes later arrivals, either scattered from, or diffracted around lateral heterogeneities. We present here the results of a 3D test in which we generate 1716 seismograms using the spectral element method in a cross-borehole experiment conducted in a checkerboard box. Delays are determined for the broadband signals as well as for five frequency bands (each one octave apart) by cross-correlating seismograms for a homogeneous pattern with those for a checkerboard. The large (10 per cent) velocity contrast and the regularity of the checkerboard pattern causes severe reverberations that arrive late in the cross-correlation window. Data errors are estimated by comparing linearity between delays measured for a model with 10 per cent velocity contrast with those with a 4 per cent contrast. Sensitivity kernels are efficiently computed with ray theory using the `banana-doughnut' kernels from Dahlen et al. (GJI 141:157, 2000). The model resulting from the inversion with a data fit with reduced χ2red=1 shows an excellent correspondence with the input model and allows for a complete validation of the theory. Amplitudes in the (well resolved) top part of the model are close to the input amplitudes. Comparing a model derived from one band only shows the power of using multiple frequency bands in resolving detail - essentially the observed dispersion captures some of the waveform information. Finite frequency theory also allows us to image the checkerboard at some distance from the borehole plane. Most disconcertingly for advocates of ray theory are the results obtained when we interpret cross-correlation delays with ray theory

  11. Finite-frequency traveltime tomography of San Francisco Bay region crustal velocity structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2007-01-01

    Seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay region crust is derived using measurements of finite-frequency traveltimes. A total of 57 801 relative traveltimes are measured by cross-correlation over the frequency range 0.5-1.5 Hz. From these are derived 4862 'summary' traveltimes, which are used to derive 3-D P-wave velocity structure over a 341 ?? 140 km2 area from the surface to 25 km depth. The seismic tomography is based on sensitivity kernels calculated on a spherically symmetric reference model. Robust elements of the derived P-wave velocity structure are: a pronounced velocity contrast across the San Andreas fault in the south Bay region (west side faster); a moderate velocity contrast across the Hayward fault (west side faster); moderately low velocity crust around the Quien Sabe volcanic field and the Sacramento River delta; very low velocity crust around Lake Berryessa. These features are generally explicable with surface rock types being extrapolated to depth ???10 km in the upper crust. Generally high mid-lower crust velocity and high inferred Poisson's ratio suggest a mafic lower crust. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.

  12. Finite-frequency sensitivity kernels of seismic waves to fault zone structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, A. A.; Tape, C.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We analyse the volumetric sensitivity of fault zone seismic head and trapped waves by constructing finite-frequency sensitivity (Fréchet) kernels for these phases using a suite of idealized and tomographically derived velocity models of fault zones. We first validate numerical calculations by waveform comparisons with analytical results for two simple fault zone models: a vertical bimaterial interface separating two solids of differing elastic properties, and a `vertical sandwich' with a vertical low velocity zone surrounded on both sides by higher velocity media. Establishing numerical accuracy up to 12 Hz, we compute sensitivity kernels for various phases that arise in these and more realistic models. In contrast to direct P body waves, which have little or no sensitivity to the internal fault zone structure, the sensitivity kernels for head waves have sharp peaks with high values near the fault in the faster medium. Surface wave kernels show the broadest spatial distribution of sensitivity, while trapped wave kernels are extremely narrow with sensitivity focused entirely inside the low-velocity fault zone layer. Trapped waves are shown to exhibit sensitivity patterns similar to Love waves, with decreasing width as a function of frequency and multiple Fresnel zones of alternating polarity. In models that include smoothing of the boundaries of the low velocity zone, there is little effect on the trapped wave kernels, which are focused in the central core of the low velocity zone. When the source is located outside a shallow fault zone layer, trapped waves propagate through the surrounding medium with body wave sensitivity before becoming confined. The results provide building blocks for full waveform tomography of fault zone regions combining high-frequency head, trapped, body, and surface waves. Such an imaging approach can constrain fault zone structure across a larger range of scales than has previously been possible.

  13. Investigation of the Statistics of Pure Tone Sound Power Injection from Low Frequency, Finite Sized Sources in a Reverberant Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Wayne Farrior

    1973-01-01

    The effect of finite source size on the power statistics in a reverberant room for pure tone excitation was investigated. Theoretical results indicate that the standard deviation of low frequency, pure tone finite sources is always less than that predicted by point source theory and considerably less when the source dimension approaches one-half an acoustic wavelength or greater. A supporting experimental study was conducted utilizing an eight inch loudspeaker and a 30 inch loudspeaker at eleven source positions. The resulting standard deviation of sound power output of the smaller speaker is in excellent agreement with both the derived finite source theory and existing point source theory, if the theoretical data is adjusted to account for experimental incomplete spatial averaging. However, the standard deviation of sound power output of the larger speaker is measurably lower than point source theory indicates, but is in good agreement with the finite source theory.

  14. Zonal flow dynamics in the double tearing mode with antisymmetric shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Aohua; Li, Jiquan; Liu, Jinyuan; Kishimoto, Yasuaki

    2014-05-15

    The generation dynamics and the structural characteristics of zonal flows are investigated in the double tearing mode (DTM) with antisymmetric shear flows. Two kinds of zonal flow oscillations are revealed based on reduced resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations, which depend on the shear flow amplitudes corresponding to different DTM eigen mode states, elaborated by Mao et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 022114 (2013)]. For the weak shear flows below an amplitude threshold, v{sub c}, at which two DTM eigen states with antisymmetric or symmetric magnetic island structure are degenerated, the zonal flows grow oscillatorily in the Rutherford regime during the nonlinear evolution of the DTMs. It is identified that the oscillation mechanism results from the nonlinear interaction between the distorted islands and the zonal flows through the modification of shear flows. However, for the medium shear flows above v{sub c} but below the critical threshold of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, an oscillatory growing zonal flow occurs in the linear phase of the DTM evolution. It is demonstrated that the zonal flow oscillation originates from the three-wave mode coupling or a modulation instability pumped by two DTM eigen modes with the same frequency but opposite propagating direction. With the shear flows increasing, the amplitude of zonal flow oscillation increases first and then decreases, whilst the oscillation frequency as twice of the Doppler frequency shift increases. Furthermore, impacts of the oscillatory zonal flows on the nonlinear evolution of DTM islands and the global reconnection are also discussed briefly.

  15. Finite-frequency sensitivity kernels for global seismic wave propagation based upon adjoint methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qinya; Tromp, Jeroen

    2008-07-01

    We determine adjoint equations and Fréchet kernels for global seismic wave propagation based upon a Lagrange multiplier method. We start from the equations of motion for a rotating, self-gravitating earth model initially in hydrostatic equilibrium, and derive the corresponding adjoint equations that involve motions on an earth model that rotates in the opposite direction. Variations in the misfit function χ then may be expressed as , where δlnm = δm/m denotes relative model perturbations in the volume V, δlnd denotes relative topographic variations on solid-solid or fluid-solid boundaries Σ, and ∇Σδlnd denotes surface gradients in relative topographic variations on fluid-solid boundaries ΣFS. The 3-D Fréchet kernel Km determines the sensitivity to model perturbations δlnm, and the 2-D kernels Kd and Kd determine the sensitivity to topographic variations δlnd. We demonstrate also how anelasticity may be incorporated within the framework of adjoint methods. Finite-frequency sensitivity kernels are calculated by simultaneously computing the adjoint wavefield forward in time and reconstructing the regular wavefield backward in time. Both the forward and adjoint simulations are based upon a spectral-element method. We apply the adjoint technique to generate finite-frequency traveltime kernels for global seismic phases (P, Pdiff, PKP, S, SKS, depth phases, surface-reflected phases, surface waves, etc.) in both 1-D and 3-D earth models. For 1-D models these adjoint-generated kernels generally agree well with results obtained from ray-based methods. However, adjoint methods do not have the same theoretical limitations as ray-based methods, and can produce sensitivity kernels for any given phase in any 3-D earth model. The Fréchet kernels presented in this paper illustrate the sensitivity of seismic observations to structural parameters and topography on internal discontinuities. These kernels form the basis of future 3-D tomographic inversions.

  16. Global Upper Mantle Structure from Finite-Frequency Surface-Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Nolet, G.; Dahlen, F.; Laske, G.

    2004-12-01

    We report global shear-wave velocity structure and radial anisotropy in the upper mantle obtained by finite-frequency surface-wave tomography, based on complete three-dimensional Born sensitivity kernels developed by Zhou et al (2004). Because wavefront healing effects are properly taken into account, finite-frequency surface-wave tomography improves the resolution of small-scale mantle heterogeneities using long-period surface waves. The resulting S-wave velocity models fit the dispersion data better, and show stronger small-scale mantle anomalies compare to traditional ray-theory-based tomographic models. Separate inversions of Love wave (SH-type) and Rayleigh wave (SV-type) dispersion provide insight into the radial anisotropy in the upper mantle. In our model, the globally averaged radial anisotropy is positive (V SH > V SV) (horizontal flow) in the top 220 km, and becomes negative (V SV > V SH) (vertical flow) below 220 km depth. In cratons, both SH and SV velocities show strong fast anomalies down to 250 km depth, and the fast anomalies gradually diminish below 250 km. Radial anisotropy beneath cratons is positive, which largely agrees with a recent global model by Gung et.~al (2003). The old Pacific plate is characterized by strong positive anisotropy with its maximum centered west of Hawaii; this supports an earlier observation on Pacific radial anisotropy by Ekstrom & Dziewonski (1998). The depth extent of mid-ocean ridges and the primary force that drives plate tectonics has been a long-standing question. In our model, ridge anomalies are characterized by strong negative radial anisotropy (vertical flow). Ridge anomalies at fast-spreading centers are stronger than those at slow-spreading centers at shallow depth, but the amount of velocity reduction rapidly decreases below 250 km. However, at slow-spreading centers such as the north Mid-Atlantic ridge (MAR) and East Africa (Red Sea), ridge anomalies extend down at least to the top of the transition zones

  17. Multiscale finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography of the Kaapvaal craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrot, S.; Zhao, L.

    2007-04-01

    We have measured phase delays of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves for 12 events recorded by the Southern Africa Seismic Experiment at frequencies between 0.005 and 0.035 Hz. A novel multiscale finite-frequency tomographic method based on wavelet decomposition of 3-D sensitivity kernels for the phase of Rayleigh waves is used to map the shear velocities in the upper mantle beneath southern Africa. The kernels are computed by summing coupled normal modes over a very fine grid surrounding the seismic array. To estimate and minimize the biases in the model resulting from structures outside the tomographic grid, a jackknife inversion method is implemented. The contribution of heterogeneities outside the target volume is significant, but produces artefacts in the tomographic model that are easily identified and discarded before interpretation. With structures on length scales as short as 100 km retrieved beneath the array, the deep structure of the Kaapvaal craton is revealed with unprecedented detail. Outside the array, the corresponding resolution is 200 km. High velocity cratonic roots are confined to the Archean craton, and extend to depths of at least 250 km. Confirming earlier surface structural studies, we recognize two distinct units in the Kaapvaal craton. The eastern Witwatersrand block and the western Kimberley block are separated by a major near-vertical translithospheric boundary which coincides with the Colesberg Lineament. Lower than average velocities south and east of the Kaapvaal craton reveal extensive metasomatism and heating of the lithosphere, probably related to the Karoo magmatic event and to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean.

  18. Frontier of the underthrusting Indian lithosphere beneath the central Tibet from finite frequency tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yun; Tian, Xiaobo; Wang, Minling; Xu, Tao; Sun, Changqing; Si, Shaokun; Lan, Haiqiang; Teng, Jiwen

    2015-04-01

    Combining the new collected teleseismic body waves recorded by TIBET-31N passive seismic array with waveforms from several previous temporary seismic arrays, we carried out finite-frequency tomographic inversions to image three-dimensional velocity structures beneath southern-central Tibet to examine the roles of the upper mantle in the formation of the Tibetan plateau. Strong low P- and S-wave velocity anomalies that extend from the lower crust to about 200 km depth beneath the Comei rift, Yadong-Gulu rift, Tangra Yum Co rift, suggesting that rifting in southern Tibet is probably a process that involves the entire lithosphere. At the same time there is only the low velocity close to Yadong-Gulu rift extending further north and connecting with the massive upper mantle low velocity beneath central Tibet, and moreover, the other two are limited in southern Tibet. This observation implies that the previous proposed fragmentation of underthrusting Indian lithosphere might not happen underneath all the north-south trending rifts. Instead, it only happens close to Yadong-Gulu rift, then hot temperature upwelling materials fill up this lithospheric crack and might stuff the other weak zones in shallow depths beneath southern Tibet. Continuous high velocities are observed beneath Himalayas and Lhasa Terrance with a moderate northward inclination angle. We interpret this anomaly as the subducting/underthrusting Indian continental lithosphere.

  19. A finite-difference frequency-domain code for electromagnetic induction tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, R M; Berryman, J G; Buettner, H M; Champagne, N J.,II; Grant, J B

    1998-12-17

    We are developing a new 3D code for application to electromagnetic induction tomography and applications to environmental imaging problems. We have used the finite-difference frequency- domain formulation of Beilenhoff et al. (1992) and the anisotropic PML (perfectly matched layer) approach (Berenger, 1994) to specify boundary conditions following Wu et al. (1997). PML deals with the fact that the computations must be done in a finite domain even though the real problem is effectively of infinite extent. The resulting formulas for the forward solver reduce to a problem of the form Ax = y, where A is a non-Hermitian matrix with real values off the diagonal and complex values along its diagonal. The matrix A may be either symmetric or nonsymmetric depending on details of the boundary conditions chosen (i.e., the particular PML used in the application). The basic equation must be solved for the vector x (which represents field quantities such as electric and magnetic fields) with the vector y determined by the boundary conditions and transmitter location. Of the many forward solvers that could be used for this system, relatively few have been thoroughly tested for the type of matrix encountered in our problem. Our studies of the stability characteristics of the Bi-CG algorithm raised questions about its reliability and uniform accuracy for this application. We have found the stability characteristics of Bi-CGSTAB [an alternative developed by van der Vorst (1992) for such problems] to be entirely adequate for our application, whereas the standard Bi-CG was quite inadequate. We have also done extensive validation of our code using semianalytical results as well as other codes. The new code is written in Fortran and is designed to be easily parallelized, but we have not yet tested this feature of the code. An adjoint method is being developed for solving the inverse problem for conductivity imaging (for mapping underground plumes), and this approach, when ready, will

  20. Nonlinear excitation of zonal flows and streamers in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Benkadda, S.; Klochkov, D. N.; Popel, S. I.; Izvekova, Yu. N.

    2011-05-15

    Nonlinear excitation of zonal flows and streamers in plasmas is considered. The emphasis is given to the nonlinear interaction of low- and high-frequency drift waves which can result in the excitation of zonal flows and streamers in a plasma of fusion devices. For this purpose, an inhomogeneous nonisothermal plasma in a strong external magnetic field whose characteristic frequencies are lower than the ion Langmuir frequency but higher than the collision frequency is studied. The excitation of a long-wavelength low-frequency drift wave during the development of the nonlinear modulational interaction of a high-frequency drift pump wave is investigated. The growth rates of the modulational instability are obtained, and the conditions for its development are determined. Self-organized structures described by solutions of evolutionary equations for the modulational interaction are associated with zonal flows and streamers. A possible relation of the modulational interaction in Earth's ionospheric plasma to the formation of dust flows and transport of dust particles in the ionosphere is also discussed. It is shown that one of the ways of transport of dust particles in the ionosphere is vertical flows (streamers), which are generated by dust vortices as a result of development of the modulational instability.

  1. Splitting intensity measurements of North America and finite-frequency modeling of upper mantle anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongsresawat, Sutatcha

    micro terranes with both continental and oceanic origins throughout its accretion history making it a very complex geological setting including the presence of the north-striking western Idaho shear zone (WISZ) in the middle. We deployed 85 temporary seismic stations with station-spacing of ˜30 km during 2011--2013 and passively recorded seismic data for an average duration of 1.5 years. The SKS phase of the seismogram is used to obtain splitting intensity, which we use to model realistic 3-D upper-mantle anisotropy. There are two parts in this study, first SKS splitting intensity measurements were made from seismograms recorded at 83 IDOR seismic stations and 45 USArray-TA stations, which consist of analyzing more than 75,000 individual traces. As a result, we obtain high-resolution and spatially coherent shear-wave splitting dataset of the IDOR region. Second, we use back-azimuthal variations of splitting intensity at all stations to model for 3-D anisotropy using the finite-frequency approach. Preliminary models show depth-dependent behaviors of both fast polarization direction and strength of anisotropy down to ˜150 km where the model starts to show poor resolution due to the size of the SKS fresnel zone. Last, we show preliminary inverted models for 3-D upper-mantle anisotropy of North America as well as our progress of spherical coordinate inversion of the USArray-TA splitting measurements. This will set up a starting point for performing a joint-inversion with surface wave dataset that will be measured at exact seismic stations. This last task will be exercised by the help of 3-D finite-frequency Frechet sensitivity kernels for surface waveforms based on the Born approximation with a model parametrized for hexagonal symmetry. Their formulation will provide a complementary approach to invert surface wave data in combination with our SI data for upper mantle anisotropy model of North America with highest resolution for the first time.

  2. Seismic structure beneath the Rivera subduction zone from finite-frequency seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ting; Grand, Stephen P.; Wilson, David; Guzman-Speziale, Marco; Gomez-Gonzalez, Juan Martin; Dominguez-Reyes, Tonatiuh; Ni, James

    2009-01-01

    The subduction zone of western Mexico is a unique region on Earth where microplate capture and overriding plate disruption are occurring today. The young, small Rivera plate and the adjacent Cocos plate are subducting beneath the Jalisco block of Mexico. Here, we present a P wave tomographic model of the upper mantle to 400 km depth beneath the Jalisco block and surrounding regions using teleseismic P waves recorded by the Mapping the Rivera Subduction Zone (MARS) and Colima Volcano Deep Seismic Experiment (CODEX) seismic arrays. The inversion used 12,188 P wave residuals and finite-frequency theory to backproject the 3-D traveltime sensitivity kernels through the model. Below a depth of 150 km, the tomography model shows a clear gap between the Rivera and Cocos slabs that increases in size with depth. The gap between the plates lies beneath the northern part of the Colima graben and may be responsible for the location of Colima volcano. The images indicate that the deep Rivera plate is subducting more steeply than does the adjacent Cocos plate and also has a more northerly trajection. At a depth of about 100 km, both the Rivera and Cocos slabs have increased dips such that the slabs are deeper than 200 km beneath the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). It is also found that the Rivera plate is at roughly 140-km depth beneath the young central Jalisco Volcanic lineament. Our images suggest that the Rivera plate and westernmost Cocos plate have recently rolled back toward the trench. This scenario may explain the unusual magmatic activity seen in the TMVB.

  3. Finite-frequency tomography using adjoint methods-Methodology and examples using membrane surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tape, Carl; Liu, Qinya; Tromp, Jeroen

    2007-03-01

    We employ adjoint methods in a series of synthetic seismic tomography experiments to recover surface wave phase-speed models of southern California. Our approach involves computing the Fréchet derivative for tomographic inversions via the interaction between a forward wavefield, propagating from the source to the receivers, and an `adjoint' wavefield, propagating from the receivers back to the source. The forward wavefield is computed using a 2-D spectral-element method (SEM) and a phase-speed model for southern California. A `target' phase-speed model is used to generate the `data' at the receivers. We specify an objective or misfit function that defines a measure of misfit between data and synthetics. For a given receiver, the remaining differences between data and synthetics are time-reversed and used as the source of the adjoint wavefield. For each earthquake, the interaction between the regular and adjoint wavefields is used to construct finite-frequency sensitivity kernels, which we call event kernels. An event kernel may be thought of as a weighted sum of phase-specific (e.g. P) banana-doughnut kernels, with weights determined by the measurements. The overall sensitivity is simply the sum of event kernels, which defines the misfit kernel. The misfit kernel is multiplied by convenient orthonormal basis functions that are embedded in the SEM code, resulting in the gradient of the misfit function, that is, the Fréchet derivative. A non-linear conjugate gradient algorithm is used to iteratively improve the model while reducing the misfit function. We illustrate the construction of the gradient and the minimization algorithm, and consider various tomographic experiments, including source inversions, structural inversions and joint source-structure inversions. Finally, we draw connections between classical Hessian-based tomography and gradient-based adjoint tomography.

  4. Imaging a Remnant Slab Beneath Southeastern US: New Results from Teleseismic, Finite-frequency Tomography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryol, C. B.; Wagner, L. S.; Fischer, K. M.; Hawman, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Our new results from teleseismic, finite-frequency, body-wave tomography analysis reveal a relatively steep east-dipping fast velocity anomaly beneath the Southeastern US. The resolving power of our dataset is good enough to retrieve major mantle anomalies, such as this fast velocity body, owing to the dense receiver coverage provided by US Transportable Array (TA) and the SouthEastern Suture of the Appalachian Margin Experiment (SESAME). Various resolution and recovery tests demonstrate the robustness of this anomaly in our tomographic model between the depths of 60 and 660 km. Our images reveal that the dip of this structure decreases significantly in the mantle transition zone where it terminates. We also observe major gaps in the lateral continuity of this structure. Based on the amplitude, location and geometry of the velocity perturbation, we interpret this anomaly as remnant subducted lithosphere, suspended in the upper mantle after a subduction phase as young as 100-110 Ma or as old as 1Ga. Basic calculations and evaluations on the geometry and location of this anomaly help us to narrow down the origin of this slab to the Farallon flat-slab subduction in the west and Grenville Subduction during assembly of supercontinent Rodinia. Our images reveal possible mechanisms that would allow this slab to remain in the upper mantle without sinking into deeper mantle for such extended periods of time. We believe the flat geometry of the slab near the transition zone and the fragmented nature provide important clues about processes that could delay/resist the sinking while providing necessary time for it to transform into a more neutrally buoyant state. In this respect, we believe our results have broad implications for subduction processes and piece-meal slab failure, as well as tectonic implications for characteristics of former subduction zones that help shape North American Plate.

  5. Factors Controlling the Evolution of Anatolia: Clues from Teleseismic Finite-Frequency Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryol, C. B.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Ozacar, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    The complex and sinusoidal pattern of subduction zones of the Mediterranenan region plays an important role in controlling the current tectonic framework of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. The Anatolian region is part of this belt and it displays the complex characteristics of the interplay between continent collision in the east and subduction-rollback related backarc extension in the west. The ongoing northward subduction of the African Plate beneath the Anatolian Plate contributes significantly to the emergence of the current tectonic setting of this region. Despite its crucial effect on the tectonics of Anatolia, there are only a few studies that focus on the deeper extent of this zone. In this study we provide higher resolution tomographic images of the subducting African lithosphere beneath Anatolia. Our approach is based on analysis of teleseismic body-wave travel-time data using a finite-frequency seismic tomography algorithm. The data for our analysis comes from multiple permanent and temporary networks deployed in the region. A major part of our dataset is formed by the multiple frequency-band picks of P-wave arrival times recorded at more than 100 broadband and short-period seismic stations of the National Earthquake Monitoring Center and 39 broadband seismic stations of the North Anatolian Passive Seismic Experiment network. The results of our analysis indicates the presence of large and smaller scale gaps in the subducting African Lithosphere, that are interpreted as slab tears. The most significant tear is located beneath western Anatolia with a maximum width of ~250 km. This tear is marked by lack of intermediate to deep seismicity and is associated with slow seismic speed perturbations that we interpret as ascending hot, buoyant asthenosphere. The configuration of the edges of this gap at depths between 50 to 200 km provides clues about how the impediments on the subducting seafloor could have an influence on rates of roll-back on both sides

  6. Finite Frequency Measurements of Conventional and Core-diffracted P-waves (P and Pdiff)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, K.; Sigloch, K.; Stähler, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Core-diffracted waves are body waves that dive deep enough to sense the core, and by interaction with this wave guide become dispersive. They sample the core-mantle boundary and the lower third of the mantle extensively. In ray theoretical modeling, the deepest part of the ray starts to graze the core at around 97 degrees distance, but ray theory is a very poor approximation to propagation of core-diffracted waves. In reality, finite-frequency waves with their spatially extend sensitivity regions start to sense the core at significantly smaller distances already. The actual, non-ray-like sensitivities have been difficult to model, as have been the associated synthetic seismograms. Core-diffracted waves have therefore not been used in tomography, despite abundant observations of these phases on modern broadband seismograms. Hence current global body-wave tomographies illuminate the lower third of the mantle much less well than the upper and especially the middle third. This study aims for broadband, global waveform tomography that seamlessly incorporates core-diffracted phases alongside conventional, teleseismic waves as well as regional body-waves. Here, we investigate the properties of P-diffracted waves in terms of waveform characteristics and travel-time measurements as compared to teleseismic P-wave measured by the same methods. Travel time anomalies, the primary data for tomography, are measured by waveform cross-correlation of data with synthetics, where the synthetics are calculated from fully numerical wave propagation in a spherically symmetric background model. These same numerical tools will be used to calculate the associated sensitivity kernels for tomography (figure, top). Demonstrating the extent to which waveform modeling can fit real data, we assemble and discuss a global data set of 851,905 Pdiff and 2,368,452 P-wave multi-frequency cross-correlation travel times. Findings are summarized in the Pdiff travel time map (figure, bottom) in which most

  7. Unsteady aerodynamics in time and frequency domains for finite time arbitrary motion of rotary wings in hover and forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinyavari, M. A. H.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    Several incompressible finite-time arbitrary-motion airfoil theories suitable for coupled flap-lag-torsional aeroelastic analysis of helicopter rotors in hover and forward flight are derived. These theories include generalized Greenberg's theory, generalized Loewy's theory, and a staggered cascade theory. The generalized Greenberg's and staggered cascade theories were derived directly in Laplace domain considering the finite length of the wake and using operational methods. The load expressions are presented in Laplace, frequency, and time domains. Approximate time domain loads for the various generalized theories, discussed in the paper, are obtained by developing finite state models using the Pade approximant of the appropriate lift deficiency functions. Three different methods for constructing Pade approximants of the lift deficiency functions were considered and the more flexible one was used. Pade approximants of Loewy's lift deficiency function, for various wake spacing and radial location parameters of a helicopter typical rotor blade section, are presented.

  8. Zonal flow formation in the Earth's core.

    PubMed

    Miyagoshi, Takehiro; Kageyama, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya

    2010-02-11

    Zonal jets are very common in nature. Well-known examples are those in the atmospheres of giant planets and the alternating jet streams found in the Earth's world ocean. Zonal flow formation in nuclear fusion devices is also well studied. A common feature of these zonal flows is that they are spontaneously generated in turbulent systems. Because the Earth's outer core is believed to be in a turbulent state, it is possible that there is zonal flow in the liquid iron of the outer core. Here we report an investigation at the current low-viscosity limit of numerical simulations of the geodynamo. We find a previously unknown convection regime of the outer core that has a dual structure comprising inner, sheet-like radial plumes and an outer, westward cylindrical zonal flow. We numerically confirm that the dual-convection structure with such a zonal flow is stable under a strong, self-generated dipole magnetic field.

  9. Seismic imaging beneath southwest Africa based on finite-frequency body wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssof, Mohammad; Yuan, Xiaohui; Tilmann, Frederik; Heit, Benjamin; Weber, Michael; Jokat, Wilfried; Geissler, Wolfram; Laske, Gabi

    2016-04-01

    We present a seismic model of southwest Africa from teleseismic tomographic inversion of the P- and S- wave data recorded by an amphibious temporary seismic network. The area of study is located at the intersection of the Walvis Ridge with the continental margin of northern Namibia, and extends into the Congo craton. Utilizing 3D finite-frequency sensitivity kernels, we invert traveltime residuals of the teleseismic body waves to image seismic structures in the upper mantle. To test the robustness of our tomographic imaging, we employed various resolution assessments that allow us to inspect the extent of smearing effects and to evaluate the optimum regularization weights (i.e., damping and smoothness). These tests include applying different (ir)regular parameterizations, classical checkerboard and anomaly tests and squeezing modeling. Furthermore, we performed different kinds of weighing schemes for the traveltime dataset. These schemes account for balancing between the picks data amount with their corresponding events directions. Our assessment procedure involves also a detailed investigation of the effect of the crustal correction on the final velocity image, which strongly influenced the image resolution for the mantle structures. Our model can resolve horizontal structures of 1° x 1° below the array down to 300-350 km depth. The resulting model is mainly dominated by the difference in the oceanic and continental mantle lithosphere beneath the study area, with second-order features related to their respective internal structures. The fast lithospheric keel of the Congo Craton reaches a depth of ~250 km. The orogenic Damara Belt and continental flood basalt areas are characterized by low velocity perturbations down to a depth of ~150 km, indicating a normal fertile mantle. High velocities in the oceanic lithosphere beneath the Walvis Ridge appear to show signatures of chemical depletion. A pronounced anomaly of fast velocity is imaged underneath continental NW

  10. Finite frequency tomography of D″ shear velocity heterogeneity beneath the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Shu-Huei; Garnero, Edward J.; Chiao, Ling-Yun; Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Lay, Thorne

    2005-07-01

    The shear velocity structure in the lowermost 500 km of the mantle beneath the Caribbean and surrounding areas is determined by seismic tomography applied to a suite of Sd-SKS, ScS-S, (Scd + Sbc)-S, and ScS-(Scd + Sbc) differential times, where (Scd + Sbc) is a pair of overlapping triplication arrivals produced by shear wave interaction with an abrupt velocity increase at the top of the D″ region. The inclusion of the triplication arrivals in the inversion, a first for a deep mantle tomographic model, is possible because of the widespread presence of a D″ velocity discontinuity in the region. The improved ray path sampling provided by the triplication arrivals yields improved vertical resolution of velocity heterogeneity within and above the D″ region. The reference velocity model, taken from a prior study of waveforms in the region, has a 2.9% shear velocity discontinuity 250 km above the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Effects of aspherical structure in the mantle at shallower depths than the inversion volume are suppressed by applying corrections for several different long-wavelength shear velocity tomography models. Born-Fréchet kernels are used to characterize how the finite frequency data sample the structure for all of the differential arrival time combinations; inversions are performed with and without the kernels. The use of three-dimensional kernels stabilizes the tomographic inversion relative to a ray theory parameterization, and a final model with 60- and 50-km correlation lengths in the lateral and radial dimensions, respectively, is retrieved. The resolution of the model is higher than that of prior inversions, with 3-4% velocity fluctuations being resolved within what is commonly described as a circum-Pacific ring of high velocities. A broad zone of relatively high shear velocity material extends throughout the lower mantle volume beneath the Gulf of Mexico, with several percent lower shear velocities being found beneath northern South America

  11. Finite-Frequency Tomography of D'' Shear Velocity Heterogeneity beneath the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, S.; Garnero, E. J.; Chiao, L.; Kuo, B.; Lay, T.

    2004-12-01

    The shear velocity structure in the lowermost 500 km of the mantle beneath the Caribbean and surrounding areas is determined by seismic tomography applied to a suite of Sdiff-SKS, ScS-S, (Scd+Sbc)-S, and ScS-(Scd+Sbc) differential times, where (Scd+Sbc) is a pair of overlapping triplication arrivals produced by shear wave interaction with an abrupt velocity increase at the top of the D'' region. The inclusion of the triplication arrivals in the inversion, a first for a deep mantle tomographic model, is possible because of the widespread presence of a D'' velocity discontinuity in the region. The additional raypath sampling provided by the triplication arrivals yields improved vertical resolution of velocity heterogeneity within and above the D'' region. The reference velocity model, taken from a prior study of waveforms in the region, has a 2.9% shear velocity discontinuity 250 km above the CMB. Effects of aspherical structure in the mantle at shallower depths than the inversion volume are suppressed by applying corrections for several different long-wavelength shear velocity tomography models. Born-Fréchet kernels are used to characterize how the finite-frequency data sample the structure for all of the differential arrival time combinations; inversions are performed with and without the kernels. The use of 3-D kernels stabilizes the tomographic inversion relative to a ray theory parameterization, and a final model with 60 and 50 km correlation lengths in the the lateral and radial dimensions, respectively, is retrieved. The resolution of the model is higher than that of prior inversions, with 3 to 4% velocity fluctuations being resolved within what is commonly described as a circum-Pacific ring of high velocities. A broad zone of relatively high shear velocity material extends throughout the lower mantle volume beneath the Gulf of Mexico, with several percent lower shear velocities being found beneath northern South America. Concentrated low velocity regions

  12. A Analysis of the Low Frequency Sound Field in Non-Rectangular Enclosures Using the Finite Element Method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, Earl Russell

    The details of the low frequency sound field for a rectangular room can be studied by the use of an established analytic technique--separation of variables. The solution is straightforward and the results are well-known. A non -rectangular room has boundary conditions which are not separable and therefore other solution techniques must be used. This study shows that the finite element method can be adapted for use in the study of sound fields in arbitrary shaped enclosures. The finite element acoustics problem is formulated and the modification of a standard program, which is necessary for solving acoustic field problems, is examined. The solution of the semi-non-rectangular room problem (one where the floor and ceiling remain parallel) is carried out by a combined finite element/separation of variables approach. The solution results are used to construct the Green's function for the low frequency sound field in five rooms (or data cases): (1) a rectangular (Louden) room; (2) The smallest wall of the Louden room canted 20 degrees from normal; (3) The largest wall of the Louden room canted 20 degrees from normal; (4) both the largest and the smallest walls are canted 20 degrees; and (5) a five-sided room variation of Case 4. Case 1, the rectangular room was calculated using both the finite element method and the separation of variables technique. The results for the two methods are compared in order to access the accuracy of the finite element method models. The modal damping coefficient are calculated and the results examined. The statistics of the source and receiver average normalized RMS P('2) responses in the 80 Hz, 100 Hz, and 125 Hz one-third octave bands are developed. The receiver averaged pressure response is developed to determine the effect of the source locations on the response. Twelve source locations are examined and the results tabulated for comparison. The effect of a finite sized source is looked at briefly. Finally, the standard deviation of the

  13. An Efficient Approach to the Calculation and Storage of Fr{é}chet kernels for Finite-Frequency Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Chevrot, S.

    2007-12-01

    Numerical modeling experiments of wave propagation have shown that the traveltime and amplitude anomalies of a finite-frequency seismic wave are influenced by the heterogeneities in the first Fresnel zone of the wave, a region surrounding its ray path. This leads to the so-called 'banana-doughnut' sensitivity (Fr{é}chet) kernels for finite-frequency waves whose values vary in the first Fresnel zone, rather than concentrate only on the ray path. Therefore, if finite-frequency effect is not taken into account in seismic tomography, the unrealistic sensitivity kernels will limit the resolution to roughly the widths of the first Fresnel zones of the seismic waves, even if all the other aspects are perfect. For the same reason, to realize the full potential of finite-frequency approach in seismic tomography, the spatial sampling in computing the Fr{é}chet kernels and in discretizing the structural model must be sufficiently small so that there are enough sampling points within the width of the first Fresnel zone. This introduces a high demand in computational resources including memory, CPU time, disk storage and the input/output (I/O) operations. To facilitate the practice of finite-frequency high-resolution tomography, we develop an efficient algorithm for computing the Fr{é}chet kernels based on the normal-mode theory in spherically symmetric earth models. The strain Green tensors (SGTs) for a spherically symmetric reference model are computed by normal-mode summation on a dense depth-distance grid by normal-mode summation. This normal-mode SGT database can then be used to calculate all the wavefield quantities needed in seismic studies including synthetic seismograms, partial derivatives with respect to source parameters for the inversion of CMT solutions, and the Fr{é}chet kernels for various kinds of model parameters for the inversions of anelastic and anisotropic structures. The SGT database approach provides the necessary efficiency for calculating the Fr

  14. Nonlinear Generation of Zonal Fields by the Beta-Induced Alfvén Eigenmode in Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huasen; Lin, Zhihong

    2013-10-01

    The zonal fields effect on the beta-induced Alfvén eigenmode (BAE) destabilized by the energetic particles in toroidal plasmas is studied through the gyrokinetic particle simulations. It is found that the localized zonal fields with a negative value around the mode rational surface are generated by the nonlinear BAE. In the weakly driven case, the zonal fields with a strong geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) component have weak effects on the nonlinear BAE evolution. In the strongly driven case, the zonal fields are dominated by a more significant zero frequency component and have stronger effects on the nonlinear BAE evolution.

  15. Zonal flow energy ratio evolution during L-H and H-L transitions in EAST plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailin, ZHAO; Tao, LAN; Adi, LIU; Defeng, KONG; Huagang, SHEN; Jie, WU; Wandong, LIU; Changxuan, YU; Wei, ZHANG; Guosheng, XU; Baonian, WAN

    2017-03-01

    The essential role of zonal flow in the L-H transition and the suppression of turbulence have been studied with a long range correlation technique using Langmuir probe arrays in EAST tokamak. Two toroidally localized probe arrays are used to measure the zonal flow during L-H transition and H-L back transition. The energy ratio of the low frequency zonal flow to the total drift wave turbulence is calculated. During ELM-free H mode, the energy ratio is higher than that in L mode, which reveals the important role of zonal flows in regulating turbulence amplitude in L-H transition.

  16. Efficient integral equation-based analysis of finite periodic structures in the optical frequency range.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Nilufer A; Craeye, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    The optical response of dense finite arrays of nanoparticles can be efficiently analyzed with the help of macro basis functions obtained by employing the array scanning method. This is demonstrated by analyzing optical collimation in arrays of silver nanorods. The accuracy of the solution obtained with the proposed method has been validated by comparison with solutions obtained employing the Krylov subspace iterative method. The relative error in the electric field distribution on an observation plane above the finite array is of the order of -25 dB, while the number of unknowns is reduced by a factor of 32.

  17. Localized Single Frequency Lasing States in a Finite Parity-Time Symmetric Resonator Chain

    PubMed Central

    Phang, Sendy; Vukovic, Ana; Creagh, Stephen C.; Sewell, Phillip D.; Gradoni, Gabriele; Benson, Trevor M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a practical case of a finite periodic Parity Time chain made of resonant dielectric cylinders is considered. The paper analyzes a more general case where PT symmetry is achieved by modulating both the real and imaginary part of the material refractive index along the resonator chain. The band-structure of the finite periodic PT resonator chains is compared to infinite chains in order to understand the complex interdependence of the Bloch phase and the amount of the gain/loss in the system that causes the PT symmetry to break. The results show that the type of the modulation along the unit cell can significantly affect the position of the threshold point of the PT system. In all cases the lowest threshold is achieved near the end of the Brillouin zone. In the case of finite PT-chains, and for a particular type of modulation, early PT symmetry breaking is observed and shown to be caused by the presence of termination states localized at the edges of the finite chain resulting in localized lasing and dissipative modes at each end of the chain. PMID:26848095

  18. Analysis of nonlinear frequency mixing in 1D waveguides with a breathing crack using the spectral finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joglekar, D. M.; Mitra, M.

    2015-11-01

    A breathing crack, due to its bilinear stiffness characteristics, modifies the frequency spectrum of a propagating dual-frequency elastic wave, and gives rise to sidebands around the probing frequency. This paper presents an analytical-numerical method to investigate such nonlinear frequency mixing resulting from the modulation effects induced by a breathing crack in 1D waveguides, such as axial rods and the Euler-Bernoulli beams. A transverse edge-crack is assumed to be present in both the waveguides, and the local flexibility caused by the crack is modeled using an equivalent spring approach. A simultaneous treatment of both the waveguides, in the framework of the Fourier transform based spectral finite element method, is presented for analyzing their response to a dual frequency excitation applied in the form of a tone-burst signal. The intermittent contact between the crack surfaces is accounted for by introducing bilinear contact forces acting at the nodes of the damage spectral element. Subsequently, an iterative approach is outlined for solving the resulting system of nonlinear simultaneous equations. Applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by considering several test cases. The existence of sidebands and the higher order harmonics is confirmed in the frequency domain response of both the waveguides under investigation. A qualitative comparison with the previous experimental observations accentuates the utility of the proposed solution method. Additionally, the influence of the two constituent frequencies in the dual frequency excitation is assessed by varying the relative strengths of their amplitudes. A brief parametric study is performed for bringing out the effects of the relative crack depth and crack location on the degree of modulation, which is quantified in terms of the modulation parameter. Results of the present investigation can find their potential use in providing an analytical-numerical support to the studies geared towards the

  19. Modeling the high-frequency complex modulus of silicone rubber using standing Lamb waves and an inverse finite element method.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Ulf; Lindahl, Olof; Andersson, Britt

    2014-12-01

    To gain an understanding of the high-frequency elastic properties of silicone rubber, a finite element model of a cylindrical piezoelectric element, in contact with a silicone rubber disk, was constructed. The frequency-dependent elastic modulus of the silicone rubber was modeled by a fourparameter fractional derivative viscoelastic model in the 100 to 250 kHz frequency range. The calculations were carried out in the range of the first radial resonance frequency of the sensor. At the resonance, the hyperelastic effect of the silicone rubber was modeled by a hyperelastic compensating function. The calculated response was matched to the measured response by using the transitional peaks in the impedance spectrum that originates from the switching of standing Lamb wave modes in the silicone rubber. To validate the results, the impedance responses of three 5-mm-thick silicone rubber disks, with different radial lengths, were measured. The calculated and measured transitional frequencies have been compared in detail. The comparison showed very good agreement, with average relative differences of 0.7%, 0.6%, and 0.7% for the silicone rubber samples with radial lengths of 38.0, 21.4, and 11.0 mm, respectively. The average complex elastic moduli of the samples were (0.97 + 0.009i) GPa at 100 kHz and (0.97 + 0.005i) GPa at 250 kHz.

  20. Numerical analysis of curved frequency selective surface by finite-difference time-domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin-yi; Wang, Jian-bo; Chen, Gui-bo; Sun, Guan-cheng; Lu, Jun

    2011-08-01

    Frequency selective surface is a monolayer or multilayer 2D periodic structure which is composed of multiple resonance units scattering by a two-dimensional periodic array on dielectric layer. FSS can't absorb radio frequency energy, but can filter the frequency which is therefore applied in microwave technique or stealth technology. The relative research on curved FSS is relatively scarce since the curved FSS structure can be obtained only when FSS is attached on the materials surfaces of curved structures in engineering application. However, curved FSS is widely applied in practical engineering; therefore, the research on curved FSS structure has important significance. In this paper, a curved FSS structure model of Y-pore unit is established and numerical simulated by means of FDTD. The influence of curvature on FSS transmission characteristics is studied according to the analysis on the changing of radar cross section (RCS). The results show: the center frequency point of the plane band pass FSS structure drifts after the curve surface deformation of the structure; the center frequency point of the curved band pass FSS structure drifts with the changing of the curvature radius, i. e. with the decreasing of curvature radius, the frequency point drifts towards high points and the transmittance decreases. The design of FSS radome demands of accurate and stable center resonance frequency; therefore, the actual situation of curved surface should be considered in practical engineering application when band pass FSS is made into frequency selection filtering radome. The curvature radius should be long enough to avoid center frequency drifting and transmittance deceasing.

  1. Optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Han, B.; Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate an optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling. An anti-lumped mass strategy is incorporated to minimize the numerical dispersion. The optimal finite-difference coefficients and the mass weighting coefficients are obtained by minimizing the misfit between the normalized phase velocities and the unity. An iterative damped least-squares method, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, is utilized for the optimization. Dispersion analysis shows that the optimal fourth-order scheme presents less grid dispersion and anisotropy than the conventional fourth-order scheme with respect to different Poisson's ratios. Moreover, only 3.7 grid-points per minimum shear wavelength are required to keep the error of the group velocities below 1%. The memory cost is then greatly reduced due to a coarser sampling. A parallel iterative method named CARP-CG is used to solve the large ill-conditioned linear system for the frequency-domain modeling. Validations are conducted with respect to both the analytic viscoacoustic and viscoelastic solutions. Compared with the conventional fourth-order scheme, the optimal scheme generates wavefields having smaller error under the same discretization setups. Profiles of the wavefields are presented to confirm better agreement between the optimal results and the analytic solutions.

  2. Acoustic guided waves in cylindrical solid-fluid structures: Modeling with a sweeping frequency finite element method and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; D'Angelo, Ralph M.; Sinha, Bikash K.; Zeroug, Smaine

    2017-02-01

    Modeling and understanding the complex elastic-wave physics prevalent in solid-fluid cylindrically-layered structures is of importance in many NDE fields, and most pertinently in the domain of well integrity evaluation of cased holes in the oil and gas industry. Current sonic measurements provide viable techniques for well integrity evaluation yet their practical effectiveness is hampered by the current lack of knowledge of acoustic wave fields particularly in complicated cased-hole geometry where for instance two or more nested steel strings are present in the borehole. In this article, we propose and implement a Sweeping Frequency Finite Element Method (SFFEM) for acoustic guided waves simulation in complex geometries that include double steel strings cemented to each other and to the formation and where the strings may be non-concentric. Transient dynamic finite element models are constructed with sweeping frequency signals being applied as the excitation sources. The sources and receivers disposition simulate current sonic measurement tools deployed in the oilfield. Synthetic wavetrains are recorded and processed with modified matrix pencil method to isolate both the dispersive and non-dispersive propagating guided wave modes. Scaled experiments of fluid-filled double strings with dimensions mimicking the real ones encountered in the field have also been carried out to generate reference data. A comparison of the experimental and numerical results indicates that the SFFEM is capable of accurately reproducing the rich and intricate higher-order multiple wave fields observed experimentally in the fluid-filled double string geometries.

  3. The sound insulation of single leaf finite size rectangular plywood panels with orthotropic frequency dependent bending stiffness.

    PubMed

    Wareing, Robin R; Davy, John L; Pearse, John R

    2016-01-01

    Current theories for predicting the sound insulation of orthotropic materials are limited to a small range of infinite panels. This paper presents a method that allows for the prediction of the sound insulation of a finite size orthotropic panel. This method uses an equation for the forced radiation impedance of a finite size rectangular panel. This approach produces an equation that has three nested integrals. The long numerical calculation times were reduced by using approximate formulas for the azimuthally averaged forced radiation impedance. This reduced the number of nested integrals from three to two. The resulting predictions are compared to results measured using two sample sizes of four different thicknesses of plywood and one sample size of another three different thicknesses of plywood. Plywood was used for all the tests because it is somewhat orthotropic. It was found during testing that the Young's moduli of the plywood were dependent on the frequency of excitation. The influence of the frequency dependent Young's moduli was then included in the prediction method. The experimental results were also compared with a simple isotropic prediction method.

  4. Frequency-dependent damping model for the hydroacoustic finite element analysis of fluid-filled pipes with diameter changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Jan; Koreck, Jürgen; Maess, Matthias; Gaul, Lothar; von Estorff, Otto

    2011-04-01

    The integration of a model for longitudinal hydroacoustic fluid damping in thin hydraulic pipes in 3D finite element models is presented in this paper. In order to perform quantitative prediction of the vibroacoustic behavior and resulting noise levels of such fluid-structure coupled system due to hydraulic excitation, an accurate frequency-dependent fluid damping model including friction effects near the pipe wall is required. This step is achieved by matching complex wave numbers from analytical derivation into a parameterized damped wave equation and consecutive translation into finite element modeling. Since the friction effect close to the pipe wall changes locally with the inner pipe radius, the fluid damping model is applied segment-wise in order to model the influence of cross-sectional discontinuity, such as orifices, on the oscillating pressure pulsations. A component synthesis approach, which uses pipe segments as substructures, allows a simple model generation and fast computation times. The numerical harmonic results are compared to experimental frequency response functions, which are performed on a hydraulic test bench driven by a dynamic pressure source in the kHz-range.

  5. Processed Movie of Zonal Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie is a manipulated sequence showing motions in Jupiter's atmosphere over the course of five days beginning Oct. 1, 2000, as seen by a camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft, using a blue filter.

    Beginning with seven images taken at uneven time intervals, this sequence was made by using information on wind speeds derived from actual Jupiter images to create evenly spaced time steps throughout. The final result is a smooth movie sequence consisting of both real and false frames.

    The view is of the opposite side of the planet from Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The region shown reaches from 50 degrees north to 50 degrees south of Jupiter's equator, and extends 100 degrees east-to-west, about one-quarter of Jupiter's circumference. The smallest features are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Towards the end of the sequence, a shadow appears from one of Jupiter's moons, Europa.

    The movie shows the remains of a historic merger that began several years ago, when three white oval storms that had existed for 60 years merged into two, then one. The resulting oval is visible in the lower left portion of the movie.

    The movie also shows zonal jets that circle the planet on constant latitudes. Winds seen moving toward the left (westward) correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than Jupiter's magnetic field, and winds moving the opposite direction correspond to features that are rotating a little faster than the magnetic field. Since Jupiter has no solid surface, the rotation of the magnetic field is the point of reference for the rotation of the planet.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  6. EQUATORIAL ZONAL JETS AND JUPITER's GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, D.; Liao, X.; Zhang, K.; Schubert, G.

    2014-08-20

    The depth of penetration of Jupiter's zonal winds into the planet's interior is unknown. A possible way to determine the depth is to measure the effects of the winds on the planet's high-order zonal gravitational coefficients, a task to be undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. It is shown here that the equatorial winds alone largely determine these coefficients which are nearly independent of the depth of the non-equatorial winds.

  7. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Generation of large-scale eddies and zonal winds in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishchenko, O. G.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Astafieva, N. M.

    2008-06-01

    The review deals with a theoretical description of the generation of zonal winds and vortices in a turbulent barotropic atmosphere. These large-scale structures largely determine the dynamics and transport processes in planetary atmospheres. The role of nonlinear effects on the formation of mesoscale vortical structures (cyclones and anticyclones) is examined. A new mechanism for zonal wind generation in planetary atmospheres is discussed. It is based on the parametric generation of convective cells by finite-amplitude Rossby waves. Weakly turbulent spectra of Rossby waves are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the results of satellite microwave monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere.

  8. Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Scattering from Frequency-Dependent Lossy Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Beggs, John H.

    1991-01-01

    During this effort the tasks specified in the Statement of Work have been successfully completed. The extension of Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) to more complicated materials has been made. A three-dimensional FDTD code capable of modeling interactions with both dispersive dielectric and magnetic materials has been written, validated, and documented. This code is efficient and is capable of modeling interesting targets using a modest computer work station platform. However, in addition to the tasks in the Statement of Work, a significant number of other FDTD extensions and calculations have been made. RCS results for two different plate geometries have been reported. The FDTD method has been extended to computing far zone time domain results in two dimensions. Finally, the capability to model nonlinear materials has been incorporated into FDTD and validated. The FDTD computer codes developed have been supplied, along with documentation, and preprints describing the other FDTD advances have been included with this report as attachments.

  9. Low frequency eddy current finite element model validation and benchmark studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, M.; Knopp, J.; Mooers, R.; Boehnlein, T.; Aldrin, J. C.; Sabbagh, H. A.

    2011-06-23

    A finite element method (FEM) model was created to calculate the change in impedance of a coil due to the presence of a notch in a plate. The rectangular notches were created via electrical discharge machining (EDM) in a thick aluminum plate and were positioned at normal and oblique angles (10, 20, and 30 degrees) with respect to the vertical axis of the coil. The FEM method was chosen for this model due to its ability to solve problems in complicated geometries with the use of irregular mesh elements to discretize the solution domain. The change in impedance was calculated from the field variables in the simulation for each probe position along the parallel axis of the plate. The error between the model and the experimental data was approximately 5% for the majority of cases. The validated model was used to investigate more complex problems.

  10. Low Frequency Eddy Current Finite Element Model Validation and Benchmark Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, M.; Mooers, R.; Knopp, J.; Aldrin, J. C.; Sabbagh, H. A.; Boehnlein, T.

    2011-06-01

    A finite element method (FEM) model was created to calculate the change in impedance of a coil due to the presence of a notch in a plate. The rectangular notches were created via electrical discharge machining (EDM) in a thick aluminum plate and were positioned at normal and oblique angles (10, 20, and 30 degrees) with respect to the vertical axis of the coil. The FEM method was chosen for this model due to its ability to solve problems in complicated geometries with the use of irregular mesh elements to discretize the solution domain. The change in impedance was calculated from the field variables in the simulation for each probe position along the parallel axis of the plate. The error between the model and the experimental data was approximately 5% for the majority of cases. The validated model was used to investigate more complex problems.

  11. Long-range correlations induced by the self-regulation of zonal flows and drift-wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, P.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.

    2010-11-15

    By means of a unique probe array, the interaction between zonal flows and broad-band drift-wave turbulence has been investigated experimentally in a magnetized toroidal plasma. Homogeneous potential fluctuations on a magnetic flux surface, previously reported as long range correlations, could be traced back to a predator-prey-like interaction between the turbulence and the zonal flow. At higher frequency the nonlocal transfer of energy to the zonal flow is dominant and the low-frequency oscillations are shown to result from the reduced turbulence activity due to this energy loss. This self-regulation process turns out to be enhanced with increased background shear flows.

  12. Precision of recombination frequency estimates after random intermating with finite population sizes.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Matthias; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2008-01-01

    Random intermating of F2 populations has been suggested for obtaining precise estimates of recombination frequencies between tightly linked loci. In a simulation study, sampling effects due to small population sizes in the intermating generations were found to abolish the advantages of random intermating that were reported in previous theoretical studies considering an infinite population size. We propose a mating scheme for intermating with planned crosses that yields more precise estimates than those under random intermating.

  13. Sensitivity kernels of finite-frequency travel times in ocean acoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarsoulis, Emmanuel K.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2004-05-01

    Wave theoretic modeling is applied to obtain travel-time sensitivity kernels representing the amount by which travel times are affected by localized sound-speed variations anywhere in the medium. In the ray approximation travel times are sensitive to medium changes only along the corresponding eigenrays. In the wave-theoretic approach the perturbations of peak arrival times are expressed in terms of pressure perturbations, which are further related with the underlying sound-speed perturbations using the first Born approximation. In this way, an integral representation of travel-time perturbations is obtained in terms of sound-speed perturbations; the associated kernel represents the spatial sensitivity of travel times to sound-speed perturbations. The application of the travel-time sensitivity kernel to an ocean acoustic waveguide gives a picture close to the ray-theoretic one in the high-frequency case but significantly differs at lower frequencies. Low-frequency travel times are sensitive to sound-speed changes in areas surrounding the eigenrays, but not on the eigenrays themselves, where the sensitivity is zero. Further, there are areas of positive sensitivity, where, e.g., a sound-speed increase results in a counter-intuitive increase of arrival times. These findings are confirmed by independent forward calculations.

  14. Localization of finite frequency inertial Alfvén wave and turbulent spectrum in low beta plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinawa, M. L.; Sharma, R. P.; Modi, K. V.

    2015-05-01

    In the present paper, we have investigated nonlinear interaction of inertial Alfvén wave with ion acoustic wave, for low β-plasma ( β≪ m e / m i ) where β is the thermal to magnetic pressure ratio. We have developed the dynamical equation of inertial Alfvén wave by considering the finite frequency as well as finite ion temperature correction. The dynamical equation of ion acoustic wave, propagating at an angle with respect to the background magnetic field, in the presence of ponderomotive nonlinearity due to inertial Alfvén wave is also derived. Numerical simulation has been carried out to study the effect of nonlinear coupling between these waves which results in the formation of localized structures and turbulent spectrum, applicable to auroral region. The result reveals that the localized structures become complex and intense in nature (quasi-steady state). Further, we have studied the turbulent spectrum which follows spectral index (˜ k -4.46) at smaller scales. Relevance of the obtained results has been shown with the observations reported by various spacecrafts like Hawkeye and HEOS-2 (Highly Eccentric Orbiting Satellite-2).

  15. Finite size effect on spread of resonance frequencies in arrays of coupled vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Andreas; Drews, André; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido

    2011-01-25

    Dynamical properties of magnetic vortices in arrays of magnetostatically coupled ferromagnetic disks are studied by means of a broadband ferromagnetic-resonance (FMR) setup. Magnetic force microscopy and magnetic transmission soft X-ray microscopy are used to image the core polarizations and the chiralities which are both found to be randomly distributed. The resonance frequency of vortex-core motion strongly depends on the magnetostatic coupling between the disks. The parameter describing the relative broadening of the absorption peak observed in the FMR transmission spectra for a given normalized center-to-center distance between the elements is shown to depend on the size of the array.

  16. 3-dimensional numerical modeling of an industrial radio frequency heating system using finite elements.

    PubMed

    Chan, T V Chow Ting; Tang, J; Younce, F

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new, yet simple and effective approach to modeling industrial Radio Frequency heating systems, using the wave equation applied in three dimensions instead of the conventional electrostatics method. The central idea is that the tank oscillatory circuit is excited using an external source. This then excites the applicator circuit which is then used to heat or dry the processed load. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental and numerical data, namely the S11-parameter, phase, and heating patterns for different sized loads and positions.

  17. Finite-frequency structural sensitivities of short-period compressional body waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuji, Nobuaki; Chevrot, Sébastien; Zhao, Li; Geller, Robert J.; Kawai, Kenji

    2012-07-01

    We present an extension of the method recently introduced by Zhao & Chevrot for calculating Fréchet kernels from a precomputed database of strain Green's tensors by normal mode summation. The extension involves two aspects: (1) we compute the strain Green's tensors using the Direct Solution Method, which allows us to go up to frequencies as high as 1 Hz; and (2) we develop a spatial interpolation scheme so that the Green's tensors can be computed with a relatively coarse grid, thus improving the efficiency in the computation of the sensitivity kernels. The only requirement is that the Green's tensors be computed with a fine enough spatial sampling rate to avoid spatial aliasing. The Green's tensors can then be interpolated to any location inside the Earth, avoiding the need to store and retrieve strain Green's tensors for a fine sampling grid. The interpolation scheme not only significantly reduces the CPU time required to calculate the Green's tensor database and the disk space to store it, but also enhances the efficiency in computing the kernels by reducing the number of I/O operations needed to retrieve the Green's tensors. Our new implementation allows us to calculate sensitivity kernels for high-frequency teleseismic body waves with very modest computational resources such as a laptop. We illustrate the potential of our approach for seismic tomography by computing traveltime and amplitude sensitivity kernels for high frequency P, PKP and Pdiff phases. A comparison of our PKP kernels with those computed by asymptotic ray theory clearly shows the limits of the latter. With ray theory, it is not possible to model waves diffracted by internal discontinuities such as the core-mantle boundary, and it is also difficult to compute amplitudes for paths close to the B-caustic of the PKP phase. We also compute waveform partial derivatives for different parts of the seismic wavefield, a key ingredient for high resolution imaging by waveform inversion. Our computations

  18. The Galileo probe Doppler wind experiment: Measurement of the deep zonal winds on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David H.; Pollack, James B.; Seiff, Alvin

    1998-09-01

    During its descent into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, the Galileo probe transmitted data to the orbiter for 57.5 min. Accurate measurements of the probe radio frequency, driven by an ultrastable oscillator, allowed an accurate time history of the probe motions to be reconstructed. Removal from the probe radio frequency profile of known Doppler contributions, including the orbiter trajectory, the probe descent velocity, and the rotation of Jupiter, left a measurable frequency residual due to Jupiter's zonal winds, and microdynamical motion of the probe from spin, swing under the parachute, atmospheric turbulence, and aerodynamic buffeting. From the assumption of the dominance of the zonal horizontal winds, the frequency residuals were inverted and resulted in the first in situ measurements of the vertical profile of Jupiter's deep zonal winds. A number of error sources with the capability of corrupting the frequency measurements or the interpretation of the frequency residuals were considered using reasonable assumptions and calibrations from prelaunch and in-flight testing. It is found that beneath the cloud tops (about 700 mbar) the winds are prograde and rise rapidly to 170 m/s at 4 bars. Beyond 4 bars to the depth at which the link with the probe was lost, nearly 21 bars, the winds remain constant and strong. Corrections for the high temperatures encountered by the probe have recently been completed and provide no evidence of diminishing or strengthening of the zonal wind profile in the deeper regions explored by the Galileo probe.

  19. Electromagnetic corrections to the zonal flow residual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusztai, Istvan; Catto, Peter J.; Parra, Felix I.

    2014-10-01

    The axisymmetric zonal flow residual calculation in tokamak plasmas is generalized to include electromagnetic perturbations. Instead of imposing magnetic perturbations externally, we formulate and solve a description retaining the fully self-consistent temporal and spatial perturbations in the electric and magnetic fields. Simple expressions for the electrostatic, shear and compressional magnetic residual responses derived provide a fully electromagnetic test of the zonal flow residual in gyrokinetic codes. We find that at β ~ O (1) the most easily testable quantity is the compressional magnetic perturbation generated by the density perturbation corresponding to the zonal flow potential, while at small values of β, the electrostatic and shear magnetic responses to an initial compressional magnetic perturbation can also be detectable. Without collisions any initial magnetic perturbation remain completely undamped. Supported by US Department of Energy grant at DE-FG02-91ER-54109 at MIT. IP is supported by the International Postdoc grant of Vetenskapsradet.

  20. Dynamics of zonal flow saturation in strong collisionless drift wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-jin; Diamond, P. H.

    2002-11-01

    Generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz (GKH) instability is examined as a mechanism for the saturation of zonal flows in the collisionless regime. By focusing on strong turbulence regimes, GKH instability is analyzed in the presence of a background of finite-amplitude drift waves. A detailed study of a simple model with cold ions shows that nonlinear excitation of GKH modes via modulational instability can be comparable to their linear generation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that zonal flows are likely to grow faster than GKH mode near marginality, with insignificant turbulent viscous damping by linear GKH. The effect of finite ion temperature fluctuations is incorporated in a simple toroidal ion temperature gradient model, within which both zonal flow and temperature are generated by modulational instability. The phase between the two is calculated self-consistently and shown to be positive. Furthermore, the correction to nonlinear generation of GKH modes appears to be small, being of order O(ρi2k2). Thus, the role of linear GKH instability in the saturation of collisionless zonal flows, in general, seems dubious.

  1. Finite-Difference Modeling and Dispersion Analysis of High-Frequency Love Waves for Near-Surface Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yinhe; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Yixian; Zeng, Chong; Liu, Jiangping

    2010-12-01

    Love-wave propagation has been a topic of interest to crustal, earthquake, and engineering seismologists for many years because it is independent of Poisson's ratio and more sensitive to shear (S)-wave velocity changes and layer thickness changes than are Rayleigh waves. It is well known that Love-wave generation requires the existence of a low S-wave velocity layer in a multilayered earth model. In order to study numerically the propagation of Love waves in a layered earth model and dispersion characteristics for near-surface applications, we simulate high-frequency (>5 Hz) Love waves by the staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) method. The air-earth boundary (the shear stress above the free surface) is treated using the stress-imaging technique. We use a two-layer model to demonstrate the accuracy of the staggered-grid modeling scheme. We also simulate four-layer models including a low-velocity layer (LVL) or a high-velocity layer (HVL) to analyze dispersive energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that: (1) the staggered-grid FD code and stress-imaging technique are suitable for treating the free-surface boundary conditions for Love-wave modeling, (2) Love-wave inversion should be treated with extra care when a LVL exists because of a lack of LVL information in dispersions aggravating uncertainties in the inversion procedure, and (3) energy of high modes in a low-frequency range is very weak, so that it is difficult to estimate the cutoff frequency accurately, and "mode-crossing" occurs between the second higher and third higher modes when a HVL exists.

  2. Finite-difference modeling and dispersion analysis of high-frequency love waves for near-surface applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    Love-wave propagation has been a topic of interest to crustal, earthquake, and engineering seismologists for many years because it is independent of Poisson's ratio and more sensitive to shear (S)-wave velocity changes and layer thickness changes than are Rayleigh waves. It is well known that Love-wave generation requires the existence of a low S-wave velocity layer in a multilayered earth model. In order to study numerically the propagation of Love waves in a layered earth model and dispersion characteristics for near-surface applications, we simulate high-frequency (>5 Hz) Love waves by the staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) method. The air-earth boundary (the shear stress above the free surface) is treated using the stress-imaging technique. We use a two-layer model to demonstrate the accuracy of the staggered-grid modeling scheme. We also simulate four-layer models including a low-velocity layer (LVL) or a high-velocity layer (HVL) to analyze dispersive energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that: (1) the staggered-grid FD code and stress-imaging technique are suitable for treating the free-surface boundary conditions for Love-wave modeling, (2) Love-wave inversion should be treated with extra care when a LVL exists because of a lack of LVL information in dispersions aggravating uncertainties in the inversion procedure, and (3) energy of high modes in a low-frequency range is very weak, so that it is difficult to estimate the cutoff frequency accurately, and "mode-crossing" occurs between the second higher and third higher modes when a HVL exists. ?? 2010 Birkh??user / Springer Basel AG.

  3. Novel frequency domain techniques and advances in Finite Difference Time domain (FDTD) method for efficient solution of multiscale electromagnetic problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayappan, Kadappan

    With the advent of sub-micron technologies and increasing awareness of Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility (EMI/EMC) issues, designers are often interested in full- wave solutions of complete systems, taking to account a variety of environments in which the system operates. However, attempts to do this substantially increase the complexities involved in computing full-wave solutions, especially when the problems involve multi- scale geometries with very fine features. For such problems, even the well-established numerical methods, such as the time domain technique FDTD and the frequency domain methods FEM and MoM, are often challenged to the limits of their capabilities. In an attempt to address such challenges, three novel techniques have been introduced in this work, namely Dipole Moment (DM) Approach, Recursive Update in Frequency Domain (RUFD) and New Finite Difference Time Domain ( vFDTD). Furthermore, the efficacy of the above techniques has been illustrated, via several examples, and the results obtained by proposed techniques have been compared with other existing numerical methods for the purpose of validation. The DM method is a new physics-based approach for formulating MoM problems, which is based on the use of dipole moments (DMs), as opposed to the conventional Green's functions. The absence of the Green's functions, as well as those of the vector and scalar potentials, helps to eliminate two of the key sources of difficulties in the conventional MoM formulation, namely the singularity and low-frequency problems. Specifically, we show that there are no singularities that we need to be concerned with in the DM formulation; hence, this obviates the need for special techniques for integrating these singularities. Yet another salutary feature of the DM approach is its ability to handle thin and lossy structures, or whether they are metallic, dielectric-type, or even combinations thereof. We have found that the DM formulation can handle these

  4. Stability of Shallow Jovian Atmospheric Zonal Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Dowling, T. E.; Showman, A. P.

    2007-10-01

    Jupiter's cloud-level zonal jets are remarkably steady in time despite their sharp curvature (i.e., second latitudinal derivative of the zonal wind profile). The stable jets must be supported by a proper sub-cloud wind and thermal structure; however, the large-scale deep structure of the zonal jets and temperature remain a major unknown in the gas-giant planet atmospheres. Past studies suggest two end-point scenarios of deep wind structures that allow stable cloud-level jets. The first shows that the jets are stable if they penetrate through the molecular hydrogen layer (Ingersoll and Pollard, 1982), although they do not address how the deep flow may be coupled to the cloud-level wind. Many other studies, though they may not directly address the shear instabilities, support this "deep jet” scenario (e.g. Heimpel and Aurnou, 2007); however, they do not rule out the possibility that the jets are shallow. Gierasch (2004) introduced a notable alternative to this "deep” picture. Through linear stability analysis, he showed that an isolated eastward jet that reaches a point of zero motion at 100-bar level, with Jupiter-like speeds and widths at the top, can be stable under certain conditions. However, his analysis contained several untested assumptions, and whether such flows are actually stable in a more realistic setting remains an open question. The possibility of stable shallow zonal jets on Jupiter remains largely unexplored, and this possibility deserves a thorough consideration. We present full-3D nonlinear simulations that test the stability of shallow zonal jets. We use Richardson number as a measure of vertical flow scale, and aim to show whether shallow jets are consistent with the observed jets and place theoretical constraints on the sub-cloud wind structure. Our study uses the EPIC model (Dowling et al., 1998, 2006). The research has been supported by NASA Planetary Atmosphere grants to APS and TED.

  5. Self-organized zonal flow in the flute-mode turbulence of a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, Y.; Pavlenko, V.P.

    1988-04-11

    Flute-mode turbulence has a forward spectral cascade unlike the case of drift-wave turbulence. Therefore the linear flute instability may be reduced by this energy cascading toward large wave numbers. As a consequence of three-wave cascade processes derivable from model equations including the effects of density gradient and finite ion Larmor radius the formation of zonal flows in flute mode turbulence is predicted.

  6. Mantle plumes beneath the South Pacific superswell revealed by finite frequency P tomography using regional seafloor and island data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obayashi, M.; Yoshimitsu, J.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Isse, T.; Shiobara, H.; Reymond, D.; Suetsugu, D.

    2016-11-01

    We present a new tomographic image beneath the South Pacific superswell, using finite frequency P wave travel time tomography with global and regional data. The regional stations include broadband ocean-bottom seismograph stations. The tomographic image shows slow anomalies of 200-300 km in diameter beneath most hot spots in the studied region, extending continuously from the shallow upper mantle to 400 km depth. Narrow and weak slow anomalies are detected at depths of 500-1000 km, connecting the upper mantle slow anomalies with large-scale slow anomalies with lateral dimension of 1000-2000 km prevailing below 1000 km depth down to the core-mantle boundary. There are two slow anomalies around the Society hot spot at depths shallower than 400 km, which both emerge from the same slow anomaly at 500 km depth. One of them is located beneath the Society hot spot and the other underlies 500 km east of the Society hot spot, where no volcanism is observed.

  7. Thermal--electrical finite element modelling for radio frequency cardiac ablation: effects of changes in myocardial properties.

    PubMed

    Tungjitkusolmun, S; Woo, E J; Cao, H; Tsai, J Z; Vorperian, V R; Webster, J G

    2000-09-01

    Finite element (FE) analysis has been utilised as a numerical tool to determine the temperature distribution in studies of radio frequency (RF) cardiac ablation. However, none of the previous FE analyses clarified such computational aspects as software requirements, computation time or convergence test. In addition, myocardial properties included in the previous models vary greatly. A process of FE modelling of a system that included blood, myocardium, and an ablation catheter with a thermistor embedded at the tip is described. The bio-heat equation is solved to determine the temperature distribution in myocardium using a commercial software application (ABAQUS). A Cauchy convergence test (epsilon = 0.1 degree C) was performed and it is concluded that the optimal number of elements for the proposed system is 24610. The effects of changes in myocardial properties (+/- 50% electric conductivity, +100%/-50% thermal conductivity, and +100%/-50% specific heat capacity) in both power-controlled (PCRFA) and temperature-controlled RF ablation (TCRFA) were studied. Changes in myocardial properties affect the results of the FE analyses of PCRFA more than those of TCRFA, and the maximum changes in lesion volumes were -58.6% (-50% electric conductivity), -60.7% (+100% thermal conductivity), and +43.2% (-50% specific heat).

  8. Optimized discrete wavelet transforms in the cubed sphere with the lifting scheme—implications for global finite-frequency tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrot, Sébastien; Martin, Roland; Komatitsch, Dimitri

    2012-12-01

    Wavelets are extremely powerful to compress the information contained in finite-frequency sensitivity kernels and tomographic models. This interesting property opens the perspective of reducing the size of global tomographic inverse problems by one to two orders of magnitude. However, introducing wavelets into global tomographic problems raises the problem of computing fast wavelet transforms in spherical geometry. Using a Cartesian cubed sphere mapping, which grids the surface of the sphere with six blocks or 'chunks', we define a new algorithm to implement fast wavelet transforms with the lifting scheme. This algorithm is simple and flexible, and can handle any family of discrete orthogonal or bi-orthogonal wavelets. Since wavelet coefficients are local in space and scale, aliasing effects resulting from a parametrization with global functions such as spherical harmonics are avoided. The sparsity of tomographic models expanded in wavelet bases implies that it is possible to exploit the power of compressed sensing to retrieve Earth's internal structures optimally. This approach involves minimizing a combination of a ℓ2 norm for data residuals and a ℓ1 norm for model wavelet coefficients, which can be achieved through relatively minor modifications of the algorithms that are currently used to solve the tomographic inverse problem.

  9. Gyrokinetic simulations in general geometry and applications to collisional damping of zonal flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Z.; Hahm, T.S.; Lee, W.W.; Tang, W.M.; White, R.B.

    2000-02-15

    A fully three-dimensional gyrokinetic particle code using magnetic coordinates for general geometry has been developed and applied to the investigation of zonal flows dynamics in toroidal ion-temperature-gradient turbulence. Full torus simulation results support the important conclusion that turbulence-driven zonal flows significantly reduce the turbulent transport. Linear collisionless simulations for damping of an initial poloidal flow perturbation exhibit an asymptotic residual flow. The collisional damping of this residual causes the dependence of ion thermal transport on the ion-ion collision frequency even in regimes where the instabilities are collisionless.

  10. Zonal scales of Madden-Julian Oscillation in model experiments with and without continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Surajit; Sengupta, Debasis; Chakraborty, Arindam; Sukhatme, Jai; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2015-04-01

    The low-frequency eastward propagating Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) impacts weather and climate around the globe. MJO has zonal wavenumber 1-5, but the reason why these characteristic spatial scales arise are not clearly understood. We use the aquaplanet version of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-5), with perpetual spring equinox forcing and zonally symmetric sea surface temperature (SST), to study tropical intraseasonal oscillations (ISO), including MJO. In the first two experiments, we specify zonally symmetric SST profiles that mimic observed climatological July and January conditions. In the January SST simulation, we find a zonal wavenumber 1 mode with dominant period of 60 days, moving east at about 6 m/s. This mode, which resembles the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), is absent when the model was forced by July SST. This shows the importance of the meridional gradient of SST on generation of MJO in this model. For further investigation of the influence of tropical SST on ISO and convectively coupled equatorial waves (CCEW), we conduct experiments with idealized symmetric SST profiles having different widths of warm ocean centered at the equator. When the latitudinal extent of warm SST is comparable to or larger than the equatorial Rossby radius, we find a dominant low frequency (50-80 days) eastward mode that resembles the MJO, as in the January SST experiment. Our study shows that wider, meridionally symmetric SST profiles are necessary for a stronger MJO-like mode. In contrast to many other aquaplanet studies, a significant finding is the existence of westward propagating 30-120 day Rossby waves with zonal wavenumber 1 to 3, and meridional wavenumber 1, 3 and 5. However, in all the aquaplanet simulations, the MJO variance occurs at zonal wavenumber one. To understand the role of land-sea distribution on zonal wavenumber of MJO, we perform a third set of experiments by introducing continents with realistic orography in the model. These experiments

  11. Isotope effect on gyro-fluid edge turbulence and zonal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, O. H. H.; Kendl, A.

    2016-11-01

    The role of ion polarisation and finite Larmor radius on the isotope effect on turbulent tokamak edge transport and flows is investigated by means of local electromagnetic multi-species gyro-fluid computations. Transport is found to be reduced with the effective plasma mass for protium, deuterium and tritium mixtures. This isotope effect is found for both cold and warm ion models, but significant influence of finite Larmor radius and polarisation effects are identified. Sheared flow reduction of transport through self generated turbulent zonal flows and geodesic acoustic modes in the present model (not including neoclassical flows) is found to play only a minor role on regulating isotopically improved confinement.

  12. The dynamics of baroclinic zonal jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Multiple alternating zonal jets are a ubiquitous feature of planetary atmospheres and oceans. However, most studies to date have focused on the special case of barotropic jets. Here we investigate the dynamics of freely evolving baroclinic jets, using a two-layer quasi-geostrophic annulus model with sloping topography. In a suite of 15 numerical simulations, the baroclinic Rossby radius and baroclinic Rhines scale are sampled by varying the stratification and root-mean-square eddy velocity, respectively. Small-scale eddies in the initial state evolve through geostrophic turbulence and accelerate zonally as they grow in horizontal scale, first isotropically and then anisotropically. This process leads ultimately to the formation of jets, which take about 2,500 rotation periods to equilibrate. The kinetic energy spectrum of the equilibrated baroclinic zonal flow steepens from a -3 power law at small scales to a -5 power law near the jet scale. The conditions most favorable for producing multiple alternating baroclinic jets are large baroclinic Rossby radius (i.e., strong stratification) and small baroclinic Rhines scale (i.e., weak root-mean-square eddy velocity). The baroclinic jet width is diagnosed objectively and found to be 2.2-2.8 times larger than the baroclinic Rhines scale, with a best estimate of 2.5 times larger. This finding suggests that Rossby wave motions must be moving at speeds of approximately 6 times the turbulent eddy velocity in order to be capable of arresting the isotropic inverse energy cascade. Reference Williams PD and Kelsall CW (2015) The dynamics of baroclinic zonal jets. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, in press. DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-14-0027.1

  13. Semiautomatic Design Of Zonal Computational Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Alison Andrews

    1991-01-01

    EZGrid is knowledge-based computer program semiautomatically generating zonal computational grids for use in numerical simulations of two-dimensional flows. Zoning necessary because of limitations imposed by size of available computer memory and by topological complexity of typical flow field. Complexity and amount of required memory reduced by dividing flow field into zones, within each of which computational grid refined only to extent necessary to resolve local high gradients. Developed to speed and systematize zoning.

  14. Laboratory Exploration of Multiple Zonal Jet Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. A.; Speer, K. G.; Griffiths, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    The differentially heated, rotating annulus has classically been used to study wave interactions within a single, baroclinic jet. At high rotation rates, the baroclinic instability of the flow leads to a transition to a turbulent, eddy-dominated regime. In the presence of a topographic beta effect, the flow has been observed to produce multiple, meandering zonal jets that are qualitatively similar to those found in planetary atmospheres and in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Our study builds on previous annulus experiments [1] by making observations further within this new regime. We observe with PIV and other techniques how the structure of the flow responds to changes in various parameters such as tank geometry, gradient in the Coriolis parameter, rotation rate, and differential thermal forcing. By not employing the more typical direct forcing of small scales, but by applying a large scale forcing over the annulus gap width, this study allows the varying effects of eddy scale selection, enstrophy cascade, etc. to naturally generate flow that more closely resembles planetary atmospheres and the ACC. We seek nondimensional parameters that significantly control zonation in a real fluid. These observations will provide a metric for the comparison of various theoretical models for multiple zonal jet formation. Other properties of the jets, such as their migration, meandering, bifurcation, and merging, can also be observed in an idealized situation and compared to numerical simulations. Ultimately, this will aid the testing and development of sub-grid-scale parameterizations for the multiple zonal jet regime that remain robust in the face of multiple forcing parameters. [1] Wordsworth, R. D., Read, P. L., & Yamazaki, Y. H. (2008). Turbulence, waves, and jets in a differentially heated rotating annulus experiment Physics of Fluids, 20(12), 126602.Streak photograph of suspended particles visualizing the flow representative of multiple zonal jets

  15. Building an anisotropic meniscus with zonal variations.

    PubMed

    Higashioka, Michael M; Chen, Justin A; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2014-01-01

    Toward addressing the difficult problems of knee meniscus regeneration, a self-assembling process has been used to re-create the native morphology and matrix properties. A significant problem in such attempts is the recapitulation of the distinct zones of the meniscus, the inner, more cartilaginous and the outer, more fibrocartilaginous zones. In this study, an anisotropic and zonally variant meniscus was produced by self-assembly of the inner meniscus (100% chondrocytes) followed by cell seeding the outer meniscus (coculture of chondrocytes and meniscus cells). After 4 weeks in culture, the engineered, inner meniscus exhibited a 42% increase in both instantaneous and relaxation moduli and a 62% increase in GAG/DW, as compared to the outer meniscus. In contrast, the circumferential tensile modulus and collagen/DW of the outer zone was 101% and 129% higher, respectively, than the values measured for the inner zone. Furthermore, there was no difference in the radial tensile modulus between the control and zonal engineered menisci, suggesting that the inner and outer zones of the engineered zonal menisci successfully integrated. These data demonstrate that not only can biomechanical and biochemical properties be engineered to differ by the zone, but they can also recapitulate the anisotropic behavior of the knee meniscus.

  16. The Dynamics of Baroclinic Zonal Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple alternating zonal jets are a ubiquitous feature of planetary atmospheres and oceans. However, most studies to date have focused on the special case of barotropic jets. Here, the dynamics of freely evolving baroclinic jets are investigated using a two-layer quasigeostrophic annulus model with sloping topography. In a suite of 15 numerical simulations, the baroclinic Rossby radius and baroclinic Rhines scale are sampled by varying the stratification and root-mean-square eddy velocity, respectively. Small-scale eddies in the initial state evolve through geostrophic turbulence and accelerate zonally as they grow in horizontal scale, first isotropically and then anisotropically. This process leads ultimately to the formation of jets, which take about 2500 rotation periods to equilibrate. The kinetic energy spectrum of the equilibrated baroclinic zonal flow steepens from a -3 power law at small scales to a -5 power law near the jet scale. The conditions most favorable for producing multiple alternating baroclinic jets are large baroclinic Rossby radius (i.e., strong stratification) and small baroclinic Rhines scale (i.e., weak root-mean-square eddy velocity). The baroclinic jet width is diagnosed objectively and found to be 2.2-2.8 times larger than the baroclinic Rhines scale, with a best estimate of 2.5 times larger. This finding suggests that Rossby wave motions must be moving at speeds of approximately 6 times the turbulent eddy velocity in order to be capable of arresting the isotropic inverse energy cascade.

  17. ZonalMetrics - a Python toolbox for zonal landscape structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Joanna; Tiede, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    We present a Python toolbox for the calculation of zonal landscape metrics. Instead of global calculations focusing on the whole landscape, the proposed ZonalMetrics toolbox allows the calculation of landscape metrics for user-defined zones. Such zones can be defined through regular units (e.g. hexagons, grids) that can be created within the toolbox. In addition, any polygonal set specified by the user (e.g. administrative units) can be used. The implemented set of landscape metrics is specifically selected and valid for calculations within zones. The tool is demonstrated based on a case study for the Warsaw metropolitan area and the possibilities of applying the toolbox for different zonal layers are illustrated. The implementation is based on the Python toolbox introduced in ArcGIS 10.1, offering an easy to use graphical user interface and batch calculation possibilities. The source code is free and open to the community and extendable to specific needs.

  18. Interpretation of ambient noise cross-correlation traveltimes: Finite-frequency tomography of Love group velocities in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentova, L.; Gallovic, F.; Ruzek, B.; de la Puente, J.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, great emphasis has been laid on finite-frequency tomography. The inverted observables are considered to be dependent not only on model parameters along infinitely thin raypaths but to exhibit more complicated spatial dependency represented by so-called sensitivity kernels. Efficient tool for the calculation of the sensitivity kernels is adjoint method. It is based on two calculations: forward calculation of wavefield propagating from source to receivers in an initial model, and adjoint calculation where the residuals between observed data and synthetics backpropagate from the receivers to the source (so-called adjoint wavefield). The aim of the presented work is obtaining surface wave group velocity maps of the Czech Republic for specific periods in the range of 2 - 20 s. Data used in the inversion consist of crosscorrelation traveltimes of Love waves between stations located in the Czech Republic and adjacent areas acquired from ambient seismic noise band-pass filtered around the specific periods. The inverse problem for the L2 crosscorrelation traveltime misfit is solved by the conjugate gradient technique, with misfit gradients calculated using the adjoint method. Assuming that propagation of surface waves along Earth's surface can be approximated by membrane wave problem, the computations are reduced to only 2D domain. Therefore, the calculations could be performed using adjoint version of SeisSol, elastodynamic equation solver using Discontinuous Galerkin method with Arbitrary High Order time Derivatives (ADER-DG). More attention is paid to the inversion of data of the highest periods i.e. 16s and 20s. The main advantage are lower computational demands. Moreover, 16s and 20s Love waves have similar depth sensitivities, thus the travel times and the resulting models are expected to exhibit only very minor differences. However, in real application this may not be valid, as the data and their processing are subject to various kinds of errors

  19. Gyroaverage effects on chaotic transport by drift waves in zonal flows

    SciTech Connect

    Martinell, Julio J.; Castillo-Negrete, Diego del

    2013-02-15

    Finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on E Multiplication-Sign B test particle chaotic transport in the presence of zonal flows is studied. The FLR effects are introduced by the gyro-average of a simplified E Multiplication-Sign B guiding center model consisting of the linear superposition of a non-monotonic zonal flow and drift waves. Non-monotonic zonal flows play a critical role on transport because they exhibit robust barriers to chaotic transport in the region(s) where the shear vanishes. In addition, the non-monotonicity gives rise to nontrivial changes in the topology of the orbits of the E Multiplication-Sign B Hamiltonian due to separatrix reconnection. The present study focuses on the role of FLR effects on these two signatures of non-monotonic zonal flows: shearless transport barriers and separatrix reconnection. It is shown that, as the Larmor radius increases, the effective zonal flow profile bifurcates and multiple shearless regions are created. As a result, the topology of the gyro-averaged Hamiltonian exhibits very complex separatrix reconnection bifurcations. It is also shown that FLR effects tend to reduce chaotic transport. In particular, the restoration of destroyed transport barriers is observed as the Larmor radius increases. A detailed numerical study is presented on the onset of global chaotic transport as function of the amplitude of the drift waves and the Larmor radius. For a given amplitude, the threshold for the destruction of the shearless transport barrier, as function of the Larmor radius, exhibits a fractal-like structure. The FLR effects on a thermal distribution of test particles are also studied. In particular, the fraction of confined particles with a Maxwellian distribution of gyroradii is computed, and an effective transport suppression is found for high enough temperatures.

  20. Gyroaverage effects on chaotic transport by drift waves in zonal flows

    SciTech Connect

    Martinell, J.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B

    2013-01-01

    Finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on E x B test particle chaotic transport in the presence of zonal flows is studied. The FLR effects are introduced by the gyro-average of a simplified E x B guiding center model consisting of the linear superposition of a non-monotonic zonal flow and drift waves. Non-monotonic zonal flows play a critical role on transport because they exhibit robust barriers to chaotic transport in the region(s) where the shear vanishes. In addition, the non-monotonicity gives rise to nontrivial changes in the topology of the orbits of the E x B Hamiltonian due to separatrix reconnection. The present study focuses on the role of FLR effects on these two signatures of non-monotonic zonal flows: shearless transport barriers and separatrix reconnection. It is shown that, as the Larmor radius increases, the effective zonal flow profile bifurcates and multiple shearless regions are created. As a result, the topology of the gyro-averaged Hamiltonian exhibits very complex separatrix reconnection bifurcations. It is also shown that FLR effects tend to reduce chaotic transport. In particular, the restoration of destroyed transport barriers is observed as the Larmor radius increases. A detailed numerical study is presented on the onset of global chaotic transport as function of the amplitude of the drift waves and the Larmor radius. For a given amplitude, the threshold for the destruction of the shearless transport barrier, as function of the Larmor radius, exhibits a fractal-like structure. The FLR effects on a thermal distribution of test particles are also studied. In particular, the fraction of confined particles with a Maxwellian distribution of gyroradii is computed, and an effective transport suppression is found for high enough temperatures.

  1. Predictability of Zonal Means During Boreal Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max J.; Pegion, Philip J.; Kistler, Michael A.; Kumar, Arun; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the predictability of seasonal means during boreal summer. The results are based on ensembles of June-July-August (JJA) simulations (started in mid May) carried out with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed sea surface temperatures (SSTS) and sea ice for the years 1980-1999. We find that the predictability of the JJA extra-tropical height field is primarily in the zonal mean component of the response to the SST anomalies. This contrasts with the cold season (January-February-March) when the predictability of seasonal means in the boreal extratropics is primarily in the wave component of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response. Two patterns dominate the interannual variability of the ensemble mean JJA zonal mean height field. One has maximum variance in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere, while the other has substantial variance in middle latitudes of both hemispheres. Both are symmetric with respect to the equator. A regression analysis suggests that the tropical/subtropical pattern is associated with SST anomalies in the far eastern tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean, while the middle latitude pattern is forced by SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific just east of the dateline. The two leading zonal height patterns are reproduced in model runs forced with the two leading JJA SST patterns of variability. A comparison with observations shows a signature of the middle latitude pattern that is consistent with the occurrence of dry and wet summers over the United States. We hypothesize that both patterns, while imposing only weak constraints on extratropical warm season continental-scale climates, may play a role in the predilection for drought or pluvial conditions.

  2. ZASPE: Zonal Atmospheric Stellar Parameters Estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahm, Rafael; Jordan, Andres; Hartman, Joel; Bakos, Gaspar

    2016-07-01

    ZASPE (Zonal Atmospheric Stellar Parameters Estimator) computes the atmospheric stellar parameters (Teff, log(g), [Fe/H] and vsin(i)) from echelle spectra via least squares minimization with a pre-computed library of synthetic spectra. The minimization is performed only in the most sensitive spectral zones to changes in the atmospheric parameters. The uncertainities and covariances computed by ZASPE assume that the principal source of error is the systematic missmatch between the observed spectrum and the sythetic one that produces the best fit. ZASPE requires a grid of synthetic spectra and can use any pre-computed library minor modifications.

  3. Energy Finite Element Analysis for Computing the High Frequency Vibration of the Aluminum Testbed Cylinder and Correlating the Results to Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahopoulos, Nickolas

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) is a finite element based computational method for high frequency vibration and acoustic analysis. The EFEA solves with finite elements governing differential equations for energy variables. These equations are developed from wave equations. Recently, an EFEA method for computing high frequency vibration of structures either in vacuum or in contact with a dense fluid has been presented. The presence of fluid loading has been considered through added mass and radiation damping. The EFEA developments were validated by comparing EFEA results to solutions obtained by very dense conventional finite element models and solutions from classical techniques such as statistical energy analysis (SEA) and the modal decomposition method for bodies of revolution. EFEA results have also been compared favorably with test data for the vibration and the radiated noise generated by a large scale submersible vehicle. The primary variable in EFEA is defined as the time averaged over a period and space averaged over a wavelength energy density. A joint matrix computed from the power transmission coefficients is utilized for coupling the energy density variables across any discontinuities, such as change of plate thickness, plate/stiffener junctions etc. When considering the high frequency vibration of a periodically stiffened plate or cylinder, the flexural wavelength is smaller than the interval length between two periodic stiffeners, therefore the stiffener stiffness can not be smeared by computing an equivalent rigidity for the plate or cylinder. The periodic stiffeners must be regarded as coupling components between periodic units. In this paper, Periodic Structure (PS) theory is utilized for computing the coupling joint matrix and for accounting for the periodicity characteristics.

  4. Titan's zonal winds in its lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Schinder, Paul J.

    2016-10-01

    Titan's atmosphere near 80 km (20 mbar) marks the transition between lower altitudes, where radiative damping times are large and seasonal variations are muted, and higher higher altitudes, where the damping times are much smaller and temperatures and winds vary significantly over the year. Cassini radio occultation soundings at high northern latitudes in winter have indicated a sharp transition from a highly stable temperature profile in the lower stratosphere to a layer between 80 and 100 km where temperatures decrease with altitude. The cause of this destabilization may be associated with the enhanced infrared opacity of a cloud of organic ices. It is curious that 20 mbar is also the level where the Doppler Wind Experiment on the Huygens Probe at 10° S observed a deep minimum in the zonal wind profile. Application of the gradient wind relation to the altitude-pressure profiles obtained from the Cassini radio occultation soundings have shown that this minimum is global. More recent soundings, obtained as Titan's southern hemisphere moves toward winter, indicate that this structure persists. The cause of this peculiar behavior is not really understood, but the the deceleration of the zonal winds observed in the lower stratosphere may be caused by radiative damping of vertically propagating atmospheric waves in a region where the damping time decreases rapidly with altitude.

  5. Zonal flow generation in parallel flow shear driven turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2017-03-01

    Generation of zonal flow in parallel flow shear driven turbulence is discussed. Nonlinear dynamics is formulated by calculating energy transfer in the wave number space. It is shown that zonal flows can be generated (gain energy) from the primary mode which is driven by parallel flow shear. As a result, helical flow pattern can develop in turbulent plasmas. Our results imply that zonal flow can be generated in 3D parallel flow shear driven turbulence, which indicates that zonal flows are ubiquitous in turbulent plasmas, either 2D or 3D. Implications for turbulent momentum transport in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are discussed.

  6. On the gravitational signature of zonal flows in Jupiter-like planets: An analytical solution and its numerical validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2017-02-01

    It is expected that the Juno spacecraft will provide an accurate spectrum of the Jovian zonal gravitational coefficients that would be affected by both the deep zonal flow, if it exists, and the basic rotational distortion. We derive the first analytical solution, under the spheroidal-shape approximation, for the density anomaly induced by an internal zonal flow in rapidly rotating Jupiter-like planets. We compare the density anomaly of the analytical solution to that obtained from a fully numerical solution based on a three-dimensional finite element method; the two show excellent agreement. We apply the analytical solution to a rapidly rotating Jupiter-like planet and show that there exists a close relationship between the spatial structure of the zonal flow and the spectrum of zonal gravitational coefficients. We check the accuracy of the spheroidal-shape approximation by computing both the spheroidal and non-spheroidal solutions with exactly the same physical parameters. We also discuss implications of the new analytical solution for interpreting the future high-precision gravitational measurements of the Juno spacecraft.

  7. Validation of the geostrophic method for estimating zonal currents at the equator from Geosat altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picaut, Joel; Camusat, Bruno; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Mcphaden, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The applicability of satellite altimeter data for estimating zonal current variability at the equator is assessed using the meriodionally differenced form of the geostrophic balance. Estimates of geostrophic zonal flow anomalies in the equatorial Pacific have been deduced from 17-day collinear altimeter data during the first year of the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission. Altimeter-derived geostrophic estimates agree well with in situ zonal current variability. Comparison of flow-frequency near-surface zonal current observed from equatorial moorings at 165 deg E, 140 deg W, and 110 deg W yield correlations of 0.83, 0.85, and 0.51, respectively, with a mean rms difference of 23 cm/sec. The inclusion of up to 11 ascending and descending Geosat tracks within the 9-deg band for every 17-day repeat effectively reduced the temporal sampling interval to 1.5 days at 165 deg E and 140 deg W. The 6.8-km along track spacing of the altimeter measurements provides sufficient resolution for the effective filtering of small-scale meridional noise, both instrumental and oceanic.

  8. Zonal Flow Growth Rates: Modulational Instability vs Statistical Steady States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krommes, J. A.; Kolesnikov, R. A.

    2002-11-01

    The nonlinear growth rate of zonal flows has been the subject of various investigations. The calculations can be grouped into two major classes: those based on modulational instability of a fixed pump wave;(L. Chen et al., Phys. Plasmas 7), 3129 (2000); P. N. Guzdar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 015001 (2001); C. N. Lashmore-Davies et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 5121 (2001). and those employing statistical formalism to describe a self-consistent, energy-conserving steady state.(J. A. Krommes and C.--B. Kim, Phys. Rev. E 62), 8508 (2000), and references therein. The results from these two approaches do not necessarily agree either in their dependence on parameters like the plasma pressure β, on the threshold for instability, or even, in some cases, on the sign. The reasons for such disagreements are isolated, and it is shown to what extent the steady-state statistical approach can be reconciled with a generic modulational instability calculation. Generalizations of the statistical formalism to the multifield systems appropriate for finite β are described. Specific calculations based on model systems are used to illustrate the general arguments.

  9. Zonal Jets on the Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showman, A. P.; Lian, Y.; Gierasch, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    The question of what causes the numerous east-west zonal jets on the giant planets has remained a mystery since high-resolution Pioneer and Voyager images were returned in the 1970s. A probable hypothesis is that small-scale turbulence undergoes an inverse energy cascade that reorganizes the energy into zonal jets, but whether this turbulence results from deep penetrative convection or shallow cloud-layer processes (e.g., thunderstorms) remains unknown. Here I provide a broad summary of this problem and proceed to describe several results on the effect of cloud-layer turbulence on the flow. I present 3D numerical simulations showing that cloud-layer thermal contrasts (resulting from sunlight or latent-heat variations in the upper troposphere) can drive numerous Jupiter-like zonal jets at the cloud level, in some cases including a superrotating equatorial jet resembling that on Jupiter. Furthermore, these simulations -- as well as linear, analytic calculations -- show that such shallow forcing can produce deep jets that extend far below the level of the forcing. This disproves the common assumption that jets produced by cloud-layer processes would be confined to these shallow layers. An implication is that, contrary to the claims of many publications, the winds measured by the Galileo probe to pressures of 22 bars might just as easily result from shallow forcing as from deep convective forcing. Detailed diagnostics show that the deep jets result from Coriolis accelerations acting on deep meridional circulations that are induced by the upper-level forcing. I also show that, under some conditions, vertical stretching of atmospheric columns can inhibit the standard jet-formation mechanism and lead to vortices instead of jets. Cloud-layer turbulence can also substantially modify pre-existing deep jets, leading to different jet patterns at the 1-bar cloud level than exist in the interior. On balance, these simulations support the idea that cloud-level forcing plays an

  10. Simulation of seismic wave propagation in 2-D poroelastic media using weighted-averaging finite difference stencils in the frequency-space domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qingjie; Mao, Weijian

    2017-01-01

    The poroelastodynamic equations are used to describe the dynamic solid-fluid interaction in the reservoir. To obtain the intrinsic properties of reservoir rocks from geophysical data measured in both laboratory and field, we need an accurate solution of the wave propagation in porous media. At present, the poroelastic wave equations are mostly solved in the time domain, which involves a difficult and complicated time convolution. In order to avoid the issues caused by the time convolution, we propose a frequency-space domain method. The poroelastic wave equations are composed of a linear system in the frequency domain, which easily takes into account the effects of all frequencies on the dispersion and attenuation of seismic wave. A 25-point weighted-averaging finite different scheme is proposed to discretize the equations. For the finite model, the perfectly matched layer technique is applied at the model boundaries. We validated the proposed algorithm by testing three numerical examples of poroelastic models, which are homogenous, two-layered and heterogeneous with different fluids, respectively. The testing results are encouraging in the aspects of both computational accuracy and efficiency.

  11. Zonal-flow dynamics and size scaling of anomalous transport.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liu; White, Roscoe B; Zonca, F

    2004-02-20

    Nonlinear equations for the slow space-time evolution of the radial drift-wave envelope and zonal flow amplitude have been self-consistently derived for a model nonuniform tokamak equilibrium within the coherent four-wave drift wave-zonal flow modulation interaction model of Chen, Lin, and White [Phys. Plasmas 7, 3129 (2000)

  12. Collisionless Zonal Flow Saturation for Weak Magnetic Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhixin; Wang, Weixing; Diamond, Patrick; Ashourvan, Arash; Tynan, George

    2015-11-01

    The damping of the zonal flow, either collisional or collisionless, plays an important role in regulating the drift wave-zonal flow system, and can affect the transport and confinement. The tertiary instability, e.g., a generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability driven by flow shear, has been suggested theoretically as a possible damping mechanism [Rogers 2000 PRL, Diamond 2005 PPCF]. The sensitivity of the tertiary mode to magnetic shear has not been quantified, especially in weak magnetic shear regimes. In this work, parametric scans using gyrokinetic simulation demonstrate that the zonal electric field energy normalized by the turbulence electric field energy decreases as magnetic shear decreases. With ITG drive artificially eliminated, the time evolution of the zonal structure indicates that the zonal electric field damps more rapidly at weak shear. This suggests larger collisionless zonal flow damping or larger effective turbulent viscosity at weak magnetic shear. The effects of the zonal components of specific variables, e.g., the parallel shear flow and the radial electric field, on tertiary instability, are also studied. Quantitative studies on the magnetic shear scaling of tertiary instability excitation and the collisionless zonal flow saturation are ongoing.

  13. B-spline methods and zonal grids for numerical simulations of turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, Arthur Grigorievich

    1998-12-01

    A novel numerical technique is developed for simulations of complex turbulent flows on zonal embedded grids. This technique is based on the Galerkin method with basis functions constructed using B-splines. The technique permits fine meshes to be embedded in physically significant flow regions without placing a large number of grid points in the rest of the computational domain. The numerical technique has been tested successfully in simulations of a fully developed turbulent channel flow. Large eddy simulations of turbulent channel flow at Reynolds numbers up to Rec = 110,000 (based on centerline velocity and channel half-width) show good agreement with the existing experimental data. These tests indicate that the method provides an efficient information transfer between zones without accumulation of errors in the regions of sudden grid changes. The numerical solutions on multi-zone grids are of the same accuracy as those on a single-zone grid but require less computer resources. The performance of the numerical method in a generalized coordinate system is assessed in simulations of laminar flows over a circular cylinder at low Reynolds numbers and three-dimensional simulations at ReD = 300 (based on free-stream velocity and cylinder diameter). The drag coefficients, the size of the recirculation region, and the vortex shedding frequency all agree well with the experimental data and previous simulations of these flows. Large eddy simulations of a flow over a circular cylinder at a sub-critical Reynolds number, ReD = 3900, are performed and compared with previous upwind-biased and central finite-difference computations. In the very near-wake, all three simulations are in agreement with each other and agree fairly well with the PIV experimental data of Lourenco & Shih (1993). Farther downstream, the results of the B- spline computations are in better agreement with the hot- wire experiment of Ong & Wallace (1996) than those obtained in finite-difference simulations

  14. ON THE VARIATION OF ZONAL GRAVITY COEFFICIENTS OF A GIANT PLANET CAUSED BY ITS DEEP ZONAL FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Dali; Zhang Keke; Schubert, Gerald E-mail: kzhang@ex.ac.uk

    2012-04-01

    Rapidly rotating giant planets are usually marked by the existence of strong zonal flows at the cloud level. If the zonal flow is sufficiently deep and strong, it can produce hydrostatic-related gravitational anomalies through distortion of the planet's shape. This paper determines the zonal gravity coefficients, J{sub 2n}, n = 1, 2, 3, ..., via an analytical method taking into account rotation-induced shape changes by assuming that a planet has an effective uniform density and that the zonal flows arise from deep convection and extend along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis. Two different but related hydrostatic models are considered. When a giant planet is in rigid-body rotation, the exact solution of the problem using oblate spheroidal coordinates is derived, allowing us to compute the value of its zonal gravity coefficients J-bar{sub 2n}, n=1,2,3,..., without making any approximation. When the deep zonal flow is sufficiently strong, we develop a general perturbation theory for estimating the variation of the zonal gravity coefficients, {Delta}J{sub 2n}=J{sub 2n}-J-bar{sub 2n}, n=1,2,3,..., caused by the effect of the deep zonal flows for an arbitrarily rapidly rotating planet. Applying the general theory to Jupiter, we find that the deep zonal flow could contribute up to 0.3% of the J{sub 2} coefficient and 0.7% of J{sub 4}. It is also found that the shape-driven harmonics at the 10th zonal gravity coefficient become dominant, i.e., {Delta}J{sub 2n}>=J-bar{sub 2n} for n {>=} 5.

  15. A finite-difference, frequency-domain numerical scheme for the solution of the linearized unsteady Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.; Atassi, Hafiz M.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical method is developed for solving periodic, three-dimensional, vortical flows around lifting airfoils in subsonic flow. The first-order method, that is presented, fully accounts for the distortion effects of the nonuniform mean flow on the convected upstream vortical disturbances. The unsteady velocity is split into a vortical component which is a known function of the upstream flow conditions and the Lagrangian coordinates of the mean flow, and an irrotational field whose potential satisfies a nonconstant-coefficient, inhomogeneous, convective wave equation. Using an elliptic coordinate transformation, the unsteady boundary value problem is solved in the frequency domain on grids which are determined as a function of the Mach number and reduced frequency. Extensive comparisons are made with known solutions to unsteady vortical flow problems, and it is seen that the agreement is generally very good for reduced frequencies ranging from 0 up to 4.

  16. Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.

  17. Transonic Navier-Stokes wing solutions using a zonal approach. Part 2: High angle-of-attack simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.

    1986-01-01

    A computer code is under development whereby the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are to be applied to realistic fighter aircraft configurations. This transonic Navier-Stokes code (TNS) utilizes a zonal approach in order to treat complex geometries and satisfy in-core computer memory constraints. The zonal approach was applied to isolated wing geometries in order to facilitate code development. The TNS finite difference algorithm, zonal methodology, and code validation with experimental data is addressed. Also addressed are some numerical issues such as code robustness, efficiency, and accuracy at high angles of attack. Special free-stream-preserving metrics proved an effective way to treat H-mesh singularities over a large range of severe flow conditions, including strong leading edge flow gradients, massive shock induced separation, and stall. Furthermore, lift and drag coefficients were computed for a wing up through CLmax. Numerical oil flow patterns and particle trajectories are presented both for subcritical and transonic flow. These flow simulations are rich with complex separated flow physics and demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the zonal approach.

  18. Transonic Navier-Stokes wing solutions using a zonal approach. Part 2: High angle-of-attack simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    A computer code is under development whereby the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are to be applied to realistic fighter-aircraft configurations. This transonic Navier-Stokes code (TNS) utilizes a zonal approach in order to treat complex geometries and satisfy in-core computer memory constraints. The zonal approach has been applied to isolated wing geometries in order to facilitate code development. Part 1 of this paper addresses the TNS finite-difference algorithm, zonal methodology, and code validation with experimental data. Part 2 of this paper addresses some numerical issues such as code robustness, efficiency, and accuracy at high angles of attack. Special free-stream-preserving metrics proved an effective way to treat H-mesh singularities over a large range of severe flow conditions, including strong leading-edge flow gradients, massive shock-induced separation, and stall. Furthermore, lift and drag coefficients have been computed for a wing up through CLmax. Numerical oil flow patterns and particle trajectories are presented both for subcritical and transonic flow. These flow simulations are rich with complex separated flow physics and demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the zonal approach.

  19. A modified zonal index and its physical sense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianping; Wang, Julian X. L.

    2003-06-01

    A modified zonal index (ZI) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) general circulation is defined as the normalized difference in zonal-averaged sea level pressure anomalies between 35°N and 65°N. The ZI is a measure of hemispheric-wide fluctuations in air mass between two annular belts of action (ABAs) over middle and high latitudes, centered near 35°N and 65°N, respectively. The spatial structure of the NH general circulation represented by the ZI is a zonally symmetric pattern, similar to the NH annular mode. Some physical features associated with the ZI are discussed and summarized as a concept model, and the analysis indicates that the Ferrel cell stands out as a dominant signal in the zonal-mean circulation anomalies related to the ZI, implying a strong dynamical property of the general circulation in the mid-high latitudes.

  20. Exploring the Origin of High-frequency Coherent Radiation Imaged from Back Projection, Using Stochastic Finite-fault Earthquake Rupture Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satriano, C.; Ruiz, J. A.; Bernard, P.; Vilotte, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Back projection (BP) has recently emerged as a tool for imaging the spatio-temporal distribution of high-frequency (HF) emission during the earthquake rupture. BP images are typically constructed from HF-filtered, far field velocity waveforms, shifted and stacked according to the predicted travel-time from each node of a source grid. The underlying assumption is that the radiated wave field is coherent across the recording array, so that waveforms sum up constructively when the correct source point is selected. For regional arrays, at teleseismic distance, this assumption is generally valid up to 2-3 Hz. BP is an inherently HF method (resolution degrades at lower frequencies), and has been often used in conjunction with kinematic slip modeling (inherently low-frequency) to discuss the variability of rupture behavior with frequency. Many studies have evidenced that HF emissions occur at the border of large slip asperities and/or are associated with abrupt changes in rupture velocity. Here we perform a systematic investigation of the relationship between rupture properties and BP images of HF emission through the analysis of synthetic finite-source models, using a kinematic k-2 source model. This approach is based on a composite source description, with sub-events following a fractal distribution of sizes. Each elementary source is activated by the macro scale rupture front, with rupture duration proportional to its size. This approach generates, in the far-field approximation, ground displacements that follow the ω-2 model with frequency-dependent directivity effects. For a large earthquake rupture (M~9), synthetic far field recordings can be generated up to 4 Hz, with reasonable computing time. We study several scenarios, exploring the spatial variability of rupture velocity, fractal properties (slip heterogeneity) and source directivity, and analyze the effect of the relative position between the recording teleseismic array and the fault.

  1. Evolutions of zonal flows and turbulence in a tokamak edge plasma during electron cyclotron resonance heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D. F.; Liu, A. D.; Lan, T.; Cui, Z. Y.; Yu, D. L.; Yan, L. W.; Zhao, H. L.; Sheng, H. G.; Chen, R.; Xie, J. L.; Li, H.; Liu, W. D.; Yu, C. X.; Ding, W. X.; Sun, X.; Hong, W. Y.; Cheng, J.; Zhao, K. J.; Dong, J. Q.; Duan, X. R.

    2013-12-01

    Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) and low-frequency zonal flow (LFZF) are both observed through Langmuir probe arrays during electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) on the HL-2A tokamak edge. The radial distributions of the amplitude and peak frequency of GAM in floating potential fluctuations are investigated through rake probe arrays under different ECRH powers. It is observed that the GAM frequency would decrease and the intensity of carbon line emission would increase as the ECRH power exceeds a certain threshold. The analyses suggest that the impurity ions may play an important role in the GAM frequency at the edge region. It is also found that during the ECRH phase besides the mean flow, both GAM and LFZF are strengthened. The total fluctuation power and the fraction of that power associated with zonal flows both increase with the ECRH power, consistent with a predator-prey model. The auto- and cross-bicoherence analyses show the coupling between GAM and its second harmonic during the ECRH phase. Moreover, the results also suggest that the couplings between GAM and the components with multiple GAM frequency are strengthened. These couplings may be important for GAM saturation during the ECRH phase.

  2. Invited Article: Acousto-optic finite-difference frequency-domain algorithm for first-principles simulations of on-chip acousto-optic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu; Cerjan, Alexander; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a finite-difference frequency-domain algorithm for coupled acousto-optic simulations. First-principles acousto-optic simulation in time domain has been challenging due to the fact that the acoustic and optical frequencies differ by many orders of magnitude. We bypass this difficulty by formulating the interactions between the optical and acoustic waves rigorously as a system of coupled nonlinear equations in frequency domain. This approach is particularly suited for on-chip devices that are based on a variety of acousto-optic interactions such as the stimulated Brillouin scattering. We validate our algorithm by simulating a stimulated Brillouin scattering process in a suspended waveguide structure and find excellent agreement with coupled-mode theory. We further provide an example of a simulation for a compact on-chip resonator device that greatly enhances the effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering. Our algorithm should facilitate the design of nanophotonic on-chip devices for the harnessing of photon-phonon interactions.

  3. Multi-parametric study of temperature and thermal damage of tumor exposed to high-frequency nanosecond-pulsed electric fields based on finite element simulation.

    PubMed

    Mi, Yan; Rui, Shaoqin; Li, Chengxiang; Yao, Chenguo; Xu, Jin; Bian, Changhao; Tang, Xuefeng

    2016-11-16

    High-frequency nanosecond-pulsed electric fields were recently introduced for tumor or abnormal tissue ablation to solve some problems of conventional electroporation. However, it is necessary to study the thermal effects of high-field-intensity nanosecond pulses inside tissues. The multi-parametric analysis performed here is based on a finite element model of liver tissue with a tumor that has been punctured by a pair of needle electrodes. The pulse voltage used in this study ranges from 1 to 4 kV, the pulse width ranges from 50 to 500 ns, and the repetition frequency is between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. The total pulse length is 100 μs, and the pulse burst repetition frequency is 1 Hz. Blood flow and metabolic heat generation have also been considered. Results indicate that the maximum instantaneous temperature at 100 µs can reach 49 °C, with a maximum instantaneous temperature at 1 s of 40 °C, and will not cause thermal damage during single pulse bursts. By parameter fitting, we can obtain maximum instantaneous temperature at 100 µs and 1 s for any parameter values. However, higher temperatures will be achieved and may cause thermal damage when multiple pulse bursts are applied. These results provide theoretical basis of pulse parameter selection for future experimental researches.

  4. Deriving Saturn's Zonal Winds from Cassini Radio Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Schinder, Paul J.

    2015-11-01

    Tracking cloud features from visible images have provided detailed maps of the meridional variation of the mean zonal winds on the giant planets, including Saturn. Filters at different wavelengths can provide information on the vertical structure of the zonal winds, but that is approximate, and the altitudes of winds observed with a given filter generally vary with location, because cloud heights do. Radio occultations provide vertical profiles of refractivity, pressure, and temperature vs. altitude. Zonal winds can be derived from the assumption of gradient wind balance, which relates the zonal wind to the change of geopotential height with latitude along an isobar. Occultations have the advantage that vertical profiles of winds can be obtained in the troposphere and stratosphere. There are, however, complicating factors. In general, the meridional distribution of occultation soundings is limited and unevenly distributed. Moreover, one needs to know the geometry of the occulting atmosphere to correctly account for the path of the refracted radio signal. The zonal winds matter, because they distort isobaric surfaces. For example, an inversion that includes Saturn's oblateness from uniform rotation, based on the Voyager System III period, would yield equatorial temperature profiles that are shifted by ~ 2 K relative to one that also includes the differential rotation associated with the cloud-tracked zonal winds. In retrieving vertical profiles of atmospheric variables from occultation soundings, one also needs an additional symmetry assumption to make the inversions tractable. Typically one uses the zonal winds based on cloud-tracking studies, and assumes they are axisymmetric and barotropic, so that both the gravitational and centrifugal forces are derivable from a potential, and the surfaces of constant geopotential height, pressure, and temperature coincide. This forms the basis for an iterative approach. The pressures and temperatures so retrieved from the

  5. Investigation of zonal flows by using the collective scattering measurement of density fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H. G.; Yu, Y.; Lan, T.; Li, Y. D.; Liu, A. D.; Xie, J. L.; Liu, W. D.; Yu, C. X.; Zhang, W. Y.; Ti, A.; Li, J. G.

    2015-09-01

    The poloidal {{E}r}× {{B}\\text{T}} rotation velocities in the core plasma region are studied using the instantaneous frequency method (IFM) with the density fluctuations measured by the CO2 laser collective scattering diagnostics on the HT-7 tokamak. A coherent mode is observed in the fluctuations of poloidal velocities with the mode frequency from 10 to 20 kHz. It is identified as geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) zonal flow with poloidal symmetry (m = 0) and its mode frequency coinciding with the theoretical expected GAM frequency. The nonlinear interactions are investigated by applying the envelope analysis on the density fluctuations. The results confirm that the envelope modulation in the high frequency density fluctuations only comes from the shearing by GAM. The comparison between IFM and envelope analysis is also discussed.

  6. Iterated finite-orbit Monte Carlo simulations with full-wave fields for modeling tokamak ion cyclotron resonance frequency wave heating experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, M.; Chan, V. S.; Lao, L. L.; Pinsker, R. I.; Green, D.; Berry, L. A.; Jaeger, F.; Park, J. M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Liu, D.; Podesta, M.; Harvey, R.; Smithe, D. N.; Bonoli, P.

    2010-05-15

    The five-dimensional finite-orbit Monte Carlo code ORBIT-RF[M. Choi et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 1 (2005)] is successfully coupled with the two-dimensional full-wave code all-orders spectral algorithm (AORSA) [E. F. Jaeger et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056101 (2006)] in a self-consistent way to achieve improved predictive modeling for ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) wave heating experiments in present fusion devices and future ITER [R. Aymar et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1301 (2001)]. The ORBIT-RF/AORSA simulations reproduce fast-ion spectra and spatial profiles qualitatively consistent with fast ion D-alpha [W. W. Heidbrink et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 49, 1457 (2007)] spectroscopic data in both DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] and National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1435 (2001)] high harmonic ICRF heating experiments. This work verifies that both finite-orbit width effect of fast-ion due to its drift motion along the torus and iterations between fast-ion distribution and wave fields are important in modeling ICRF heating experiments.

  7. Iterated finite-orbit Monte Carlo simulations with full-wave fields for modeling tokamak ion cyclotron resonance frequency wave heating experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, M.; Green, David L; Heidbrink, W. W.; Harvey, R. W.; Liu, D.; Chan, V. S.; Berry, Lee A; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Lao, L.L.; Pinsker, R. I.; Podesta, M.; Smithe, D. N.; Park, J. M.; Bonoli, P.

    2010-01-01

    The five-dimensional finite-orbit Monte Carlo code ORBIT-RF [M. Choi , Phys. Plasmas 12, 1 (2005)] is successfully coupled with the two-dimensional full-wave code all-orders spectral algorithm (AORSA) [E. F. Jaeger , Phys. Plasmas 13, 056101 (2006)] in a self-consistent way to achieve improved predictive modeling for ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) wave heating experiments in present fusion devices and future ITER [R. Aymar , Nucl. Fusion 41, 1301 (2001)]. The ORBIT-RF/AORSA simulations reproduce fast-ion spectra and spatial profiles qualitatively consistent with fast ion D-alpha [W. W. Heidbrink , Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 49, 1457 (2007)] spectroscopic data in both DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] and National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono , Nucl. Fusion 41, 1435 (2001)] high harmonic ICRF heating experiments. This work verifies that both finite-orbit width effect of fast-ion due to its drift motion along the torus and iterations between fast-ion distribution and wave fields are important in modeling ICRF heating experiments. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3314336

  8. Numerical solution of Maxwell equations by a finite-difference time-domain method in a medium with frequency and spatial dispersion.

    PubMed

    Potravkin, N N; Perezhogin, I A; Makarov, V A

    2012-11-01

    We propose an alternative method of integration of Maxwell equations. This method is the generalization of a finite-difference time-domain method with an auxiliary differential equation for the case of a linear optical medium with a frequency dispersion and an arbitrary source of spatial dispersion. We apply this method to the problem of the propagation of short plane-wave linearly polarized light pulses in such a medium. It is shown that some features of their propagation are completely different from those that are generally recognized for the linear optical activity phenomenon. For example, in some cases an initially linearly polarized light pulse becomes elliptically polarized during the propagation. This effect is more prominent in the front part of the pulse.

  9. Prediction of low-frequency structure-borne sound in concrete structures using the finite-difference time-domain method.

    PubMed

    Asakura, T; Ishizuka, T; Miyajima, T; Toyoda, M; Sakamoto, S

    2014-09-01

    Due to limitations of computers, prediction of structure-borne sound remains difficult for large-scale problems. Herein a prediction method for low-frequency structure-borne sound transmissions on concrete structures using the finite-difference time-domain scheme is proposed. The target structure is modeled as a composition of multiple plate elements to reduce the dimensions of the simulated vibration field from three-dimensional discretization by solid elements to two-dimensional discretization. This scheme reduces both the calculation time and the amount of required memory. To validate the proposed method, the vibration characteristics using the numerical results of the proposed scheme are compared to those measured for a two-level concrete structure. Comparison of the measured and simulated results suggests that the proposed method can be used to simulate real-scale structures.

  10. Finite frequency effects on apparent S-wave splitting in the D″ layer: comparison between ray theory and full-wave synthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgeaud, Anselme F. E.; Konishi, Kensuke; Kawai, Kenji; Geller, Robert J.

    2016-10-01

    We conduct a numerical experiment to investigate potential bias in measurements of S-wave splitting (apparent differences between the arrival times of SH and SV phases) for waves propagating close to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) in the D″ layer. The bias is defined as the discrepancy between shear wave splitting measured from finite frequency synthetic seismograms (`apparent splitting') and the splitting predicted by ray theory, which is a high-frequency approximation. For simple isotropic models, we find biases which are typically between 0.5 and 4 s, depending on the model, the Q structure and the dominant period of the synthetics. The bias increases for lower frequencies or lower Q values. The epicentral distance at which the bias starts depends on the frequency and the Q structure. We also compute synthetics for models based on mineral physics (using the elastic constants under lower-mantle pressure and temperature conditions, taking into account the phase transition from Mg-perovskite to Mg-post-perovskite) and geodynamics (the thermal boundary layer) and find that the depth of the positive velocity jump associated with the phase transition and the depth range over which the velocity decreases (due to temperature increases) in the thermal boundary layer significantly influence the wavefield in the lowermost mantle. For example, in cold regions beneath subduction zones, wavefields for SH and SV differ greatly due to the steep velocity decrease close to the CMB. For complex models, apparent splitting can also arise from the possibility that low amplitude direct phases might be overlooked, and larger amplitude later phases might instead incorrectly be picked as the direct arrival. Biases of the type investigated in this study combine with other sources of uncertainty for splitting in D″ (e.g. the correction for upper-mantle anisotropy and the difference between SH and SV ray paths) to make a precise evaluation of the anisotropy in D″ difficult.

  11. Rossby wave, drift wave and zonal flow turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Brenda E.

    An extensive qualitative and quantitative study of Rossby wave, drift wave and zonal flow turbulence in the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model is presented. This includes details of two generation mechanisms of the zonal flows, evidence of the nonlocal nature of this turbulence and of the energy exchange between the small and large scales. The modulational instability study shows that for strong primary waves the most unstable modes are perpendicular to the primary wave, which corresponds to the generation of a zonal flow if the primary wave is purely meridional. For weak waves, the maximum growth occurs for off-zonal modulations that are close to being in three-wave resonance with the primary wave. Nonlinear jet pinching is observed for all nonlinearity levels but the subsequent dynamics differ between strong and weak primary waves. The jets of the former further roll up into Karman-like vortex streets and saturate, while for the latter, the growth of the unstable mode reverses and the system oscillates between a dominant jet and a dominant primary wave. A critical level of nonlinearity is defined which separates the two regimes. Some of these characteristics are captured by truncated models. Numerical proof of the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence is presented. While the theoretical derivations of this invariant stem from the wave kinetic equation which assumes weak wave amplitudes, it is shown to be relatively-well conserved for higher nonlinearities also. Together with the energy and enstrophy, these three invariants cascade into anisotropic sectors in the k-space as predicted by the Fjortoft argument. The cascades are characterised by the zonostrophy pushing the energy to the zonal scales. A small scale instability forcing applied to the model has demonstrated the wellknown drift wave - zonal flow feedback loop. The drift wave turbulence is generated from this primary instability. The zonal flows are then excited by either one of the generation

  12. Finite-frequency wave propagation through outer rise fault zones and seismic measurements of upper mantle hydration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Nathaniel; Lizarralde, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Effects of serpentine-filled fault zones on seismic wave propagation in the upper mantle at the outer rise of subduction zones are evaluated using acoustic wave propagation models. Modeled wave speeds depend on azimuth, with slowest speeds in the fault-normal direction. Propagation is fastest along faults, but, for fault widths on the order of the seismic wavelength, apparent wave speeds in this direction depend on frequency. For the 5–12 Hz Pn arrivals used in tomographic studies, joint-parallel wavefronts are slowed by joints. This delay can account for the slowing seen in tomographic images of the outer rise upper mantle. At the Middle America Trench, confining serpentine to fault zones, as opposed to a uniform distribution, reduces estimates of bulk upper mantle hydration from ~3.5 wt % to as low as 0.33 wt % H2O.

  13. Enhancement of the finite-frequency superfluid response in the pseudogap regime of strongly disordered superconducting films

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Mintu; Kamlapure, Anand; Ganguli, Somesh Chandra; Jesudasan, John; Bagwe, Vivas; Benfatto, Lara; Raychaudhuri, Pratap

    2013-01-01

    The persistence of a soft gap in the density of states above the superconducting transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap, has long been thought to be a hallmark of unconventional high-temperature superconductors. However, in the last few years this paradigm has been strongly revised by increasing experimental evidence for the emergence of a pseudogap state in strongly-disordered conventional superconductors. Nonetheless, the nature of this state, probed primarily through scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements, remains partly elusive. Here we show that the dynamic response above Tc, obtained from the complex ac conductivity, is highly modified in the pseudogap regime of strongly disordered NbN films. Below the pseudogap temperature, T*, the superfluid stiffness acquires a strong frequency dependence associated with a marked slowing down of critical fluctuations. When translated into the length-scale of fluctuations, our results suggest a scenario of thermal phase fluctuations between superconducting domains in a strongly disordered s-wave superconductor. PMID:23446946

  14. Finite-frequency wave propagation through outer rise fault zones and seismic measurements of upper mantle hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Nathaniel C.; Lizarralde, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Effects of serpentine-filled fault zones on seismic wave propagation in the upper mantle at the outer rise of subduction zones are evaluated using acoustic wave propagation models. Modeled wave speeds depend on azimuth, with slowest speeds in the fault-normal direction. Propagation is fastest along faults, but, for fault widths on the order of the seismic wavelength, apparent wave speeds in this direction depend on frequency. For the 5-12 Hz Pn arrivals used in tomographic studies, joint-parallel wavefronts are slowed by joints. This delay can account for the slowing seen in tomographic images of the outer rise upper mantle. At the Middle America Trench, confining serpentine to fault zones, as opposed to a uniform distribution, reduces estimates of bulk upper mantle hydration from 3.5 wt % to as low as 0.33 wt % H2O.

  15. Shape, zonal winds and gravitational field of Jupiter: a fully self-consistent, multi-layered model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Gerald; Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke

    2016-10-01

    We construct a three-dimensional, finite-element, fully self-consistent, multi-layered,non-spheroidal model of Jupiter consisting of an inner core, a metallic electrically conducting dynamo region and an outer molecular electrically insulating envelope. We assume that the Jovian zonal winds are on cylinders parallel to the rotation axis but, due to the effect of magnetic braking, are confined within the outer molecular envelope. Two related calculations are carried out. The first provides an accurate description of the shape and internal density profile of Jupiter; the effect of rotational distortion is not treated as a small perturbation on a spherically symmetric state. This calculation determines the density, size and shape of the inner core, the irregular shape of the 1-bar pressure level, and the internal structure of Jupiter; the full effect of rotational distortion, without the influence of the zonal winds, is accounted for. Our multi-layered model is able to produce the known mass, the known equatorial and polar radii, and the known zonal gravitational coefficient J2 of Jupiter within their error bars; it also yields the coefficients J4 and J6 within about 5% accuracy, and the core equatorial radius 0.09RJ containing 3.73 Earth masses.The second calculation determines the variation of the gravitational field caused solely by the effect of the zonal winds on the rotationally distorted non-spheroidal Jupiter. Four different cases, ranging from a deep wind profile to a very shallow profile, are considered and implications for accurate interpretation of the zonal gravitational coefficients expected from the Juno mission are discussed.

  16. Fully parallel adaptive finite element simulation using the simplified spherical harmonics approximations for frequency-domain fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yujie; Zhu, Banghe; Shen, Haiou; Rasmussen, John C.; Wang, Ge; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging/tomography may play an important role in preclinical research and clinical diagnostics as a type of optical molecular. Time- and frequency-domain measurement can acquire more measurement information, reducing the ill-posedness and improving the reconstruction quality of fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography. Although the diffusion approximation (DA) theory has been extensively in optical imaging, high-order photon migration models must be further investigated for application to complex and small tissue volumes. In this paper, a frequency-domain fully parallel adaptive finite element solver is developed with the simplified spherical harmonics (SPN) approximations. To fully evaluate the performance of the SPN approximations, a fast tetrahedron-based Monte Carlo simulator suitable for complex heterogeneous geometries is developed using the convolution strategy to realize the simulation of the fluorescence excitation and emission. With simple and real digital mouse phantoms, the results show that the significant precision and speed improvements are obtained from the parallel adaptive mesh evolution strategy.

  17. Computational fluid dynamics and frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain method coupling for the interaction between microwaves and plasma in rocket plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Kinefuchi, K.; Funaki, I.; Shimada, T.; Abe, T.

    2012-10-15

    Under certain conditions during rocket flights, ionized exhaust plumes from solid rocket motors may interfere with radio frequency transmissions. To understand the relevant physical processes involved in this phenomenon and establish a prediction process for in-flight attenuation levels, we attempted to measure microwave attenuation caused by rocket exhaust plumes in a sea-level static firing test for a full-scale solid propellant rocket motor. The microwave attenuation level was calculated by a coupling simulation of the inviscid-frozen-flow computational fluid dynamics of an exhaust plume and detailed analysis of microwave transmissions by applying a frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain method with the Drude dispersion model. The calculated microwave attenuation level agreed well with the experimental results, except in the case of interference downstream the Mach disk in the exhaust plume. It was concluded that the coupling estimation method based on the physics of the frozen plasma flow with Drude dispersion would be suitable for actual flight conditions, although the mixing and afterburning in the plume should be considered depending on the flow condition.

  18. Dynamic response of silicon nanostructures at finite frequency: An orbital-free density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fuming; Wang, Bin; Wei, Yadong; Wang, Jian

    2013-10-01

    Orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) replaces the wavefunction in the kinetic energy by an explicit energy functional and thereby speeds up significantly the calculation of ground state properties of the solid state systems. So far, the application of OFDFT has been centered on closed systems and less attention is paid on the transport properties in open systems. In this paper, we use OFDFT and combine it with non-equilibrium Green's function to simulate equilibrium electronic transport properties in silicon nanostructures from first principles. In particular, we study ac transport properties of a silicon atomic junction consisting of a silicon atomic chain and two monoatomic leads. We have calculated the dynamic conductance of this atomic junction as a function of ac frequency with one to four silicon atoms in the central scattering region. Although the system is transmissive with dc conductance around 4 to 5 e2/h, capacitive-like behavior was found in the finite frequency regime. Our analysis shows that, up to 0.1 THz, this behavior can be characterized by a classic RC circuit consisting of two resistors and a capacitor. One resistor gives rise to dc resistance and the other one accounts for the charge relaxation resistance with magnitude around 0.2 h/e2 when the silicon chain contains two atoms. It was found that the capacitance is around 5 aF for the same system.

  19. Analyzing the properties of acceptor mode in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals based on a modified finite-difference frequency-domain method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Ding, Guo-Wen; Lin, Yi-Bing; Chen, Yu-Qing

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, the properties of acceptor mode in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (2D PPCs) composed of the homogeneous and isotropic dielectric cylinders inserted into nonmagnetized plasma background with square lattices under transverse-magnetic wave are theoretically investigated by a modified finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method with supercell technique, whose symmetry of every supercell is broken by removing a central rod. A new FDFD method is developed to calculate the band structures of such PPCs. The novel FDFD method adopts a general function to describe the distribution of dielectric in the present PPCs, which can easily transform the complicated nonlinear eigenvalue equation to the simple linear equation. The details of convergence and effectiveness of proposed FDFD method are analyzed using a numerical example. The simulated results demonstrate that the enough accuracy of the proposed FDFD method can be observed compared to the plane wave expansion method, and the good convergence can also be obtained if the number of meshed grids is large enough. As a comparison, two different configurations of photonic crystals (PCs) but with similar defect are theoretically investigated. Compared to the conventional dielectric-air PCs, not only the acceptor mode has a higher frequency but also an additional photonic bandgap (PBG) can be found in the low frequency region. The calculated results also show that PBGs of proposed PPCs can be enlarged as the point defect is introduced. The influences of the parameters for present PPCs on the properties of acceptor mode are also discussed in detail. Numerical simulations reveal that the acceptor mode in the present PPCs can be easily tuned by changing those parameters. Those results can hold promise for designing the tunable applications in the signal process or time delay devices based on the present PPCs.

  20. Numerical Simulation on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Mass

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks. PMID:24592166

  1. Numerical simulation on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock mass.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks.

  2. Finite frequency P-wave traveltime measurements on ocean bottom seismometers and hydrophones in the western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekhmistrenko, Maria; Sigloch, Karin; Hosseini, Kasra; Barruol, Guilhem

    2016-04-01

    From 2011 to 2014, the RHUM-RUM project (Reunion Hotspot Upper Mantle - Reunions Unterer Mantel) instrumented a 2000x2000km2 area of Indian Ocean seafloor, islands and Madagascar with broadband seismometers and hydrophones. The central component was a 13-month deployment of 57 German and French Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) in 2300-5600 m depth. This was supplemented by 2-3 year deployments of 37 island stations on Reunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues, the southern Seychelles, the Iles Eparses and southern Madagascar. Two partner projects contributed another 30+ stations on Madagascar. Our ultimate objective is multifrequency waveform tomography of the entire mantle column beneath the Reunion hotspot. Ideally we would use all passbands that efficiently transmit body waves but this meets practical limits in the noise characteristics of ocean-bottom recordings in particular. Here we present the preliminary data set of frequency-dependent P-wave traveltime measurements on seismometers and hydrophones, obtained by cross-correlation of observed with predicted waveforms. The latter are synthesized from fully numerical Green's functions and carefully estimated, broadband source time functions. More than 200 teleseismic events during the 13-month long deployment yielded usable P-waveform measurements. We present our methods and discuss data yield and quality of ocean-bottom versus land seismometers, and of OBS versus broadband hydrophones. Above and below the microseismic noise band, data yields are higher than within it, especially for OBS. The 48 German OBS, equipped with Guralp 60 s sensors, were afflicted by relatively high self-noise compared to the 9 French instruments equipped with Nanometrics Trillium 240 s sensors. The HighTechInc (model HTI-01 and HTI-04-PCA/ULF) hydrophones (100 s corner period) functioned particularly reliably but their waveforms are relatively more challenging to model due to reverberations in the water column. We obtain ~15000 combined cross

  3. Impact of zonal flows on edge pedestal collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhang, Hogun; Kaang, Helen H.; Kim, S. S.; Rhee, T.; Singh, R.; Hahm, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    We perform a computational study of the role of zonal flows in edge pedestal collapse on the basis of a nonlinear three-field reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. A dramatic change of dynamics takes place when ideal ballooning modes are completely stabilized. Analyses show that a new instability is developed due to a strong excitation of zonal vorticity, resulting in a series of secondary crashes. The presence of subsidiary bursts after a main crash increases the effective crash time and energy loss. These simulation results resemble the behavior of compound edge localized modes (ELMs). Analyses in this paper indicate that a complete understanding of ELM crash dynamics requires the self-consistent inclusion of nonlinear zonal flows-MHD interaction and transport physics.

  4. Magnetic Field Generation and Zonal Flows in the Gas Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, L.; Wicht, J.; Gastine, T.

    2013-12-01

    The surface dynamics of Jupiter and Saturn is dominated by a banded system of fierce zonal winds. The depth of these winds remains unclear but they are thought to be confined to the very outer envelopes where hydrogen remains molecular and the electrical conductivity is negligible. The dynamo responsible for the dipole dominated magnetic fields of both Gas Giants, on the other hand, likely operates in the deeper interior where hydrogen assumes a metallic state. We present numerical simulations that attempt to model both the zonal winds and the interior dynamo action in an integrated approach. Using the anelastic version of the MHD code MagIC, we explore the effects of density stratification and radial electrical conductivity variations. The electrical conductivity is assumed to remain constant in the thicker inner metallic region and decays exponentially towards the outer boundary throughout the molecular envelope. Our results show that the combination of stronger density stratification (Δρ≈55) and a weaker conducting outer layer is essential for reconciling dipole dominated dynamo action and a fierce equatorial zonal jet. Previous simulations with homogeneous electrical conductivity show that both are mutually exclusive, with solutions either having strong zonal winds and multipolar magnetic fields or weak zonal winds and dipole dominated magnetic fields. The particular setup explored here allows the equatorial jet to remain confined to the weaker conducting region where is does not interfere with the deeper seated dynamo action. The equatorial jet can afford to remain geostrophic and reaches throughout the whole shell. This is not an option for the additional mid to higher latitude jets, however. In dipole dominated dynamo solutions, appropriate for the Gas Giants, zonal flows remain very faint in the deeper dynamo region but increase in amplitude in the weakly conducting outer layer in some of our simulations. This suggests that the mid to high latitude jets

  5. A dynamo driven by zonal winds at the upper surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.

    2009-12-01

    In a first approximation, Jupiter is made of two fluid layers: a deep metallic hydrogen layer where the jovian dynamo is generated and a superficial “atmospheric” non metallic envelope of approximately 10,000 km depth (10-20% of the total radius of the planet). Recent numerical simulations of three-dimensional rotating convection in a relatively thin spherical shell modelling the atmospheric layer of Jupiter reproduce zonal winds similar to the bands visible on Jupiter’s surface [1]. The simulated flow displays a quasi two-dimensional structure aligned with axis of rotation. Thus [1] suggests that the zonal winds may be “deep rooted” within Jupiter’s interior. These zonal winds are believed to be damped within the deep metallic hydrogen layer [2]. The main question that leads to our work is simple: can the external forcing created by the zonal winds at the top of the metallic hydrogen region drive a dynamo? The external zonal winds generate geostrophic shear layers inside which may lead to non-axisymmetric hydrodynamic instabilities. Such instabilities are known to excite dynamo action [3], [4] and the jovian dynamo will be discussed following these ideas. [1] Heimpel, M.H., Aurnou, J.M., Wicht, J., 2005. Simulation of equatorial and high-latitude jets on Jupiter in a deep convection model. Nature 438, 193-196. [2] Kirk, R.L., Stevenson, D.J., 1987. Hydromagnetic constraints on deep zonal flow in the giant planets. Astrophys. J. 316, 816-846 [3] Guervilly C. and Cardin P., 2009. Numerical simulations of dynamos generated in spherical Couette flows, submitted to Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. [4] Schaeffer, N. and Cardin, P., 2006. Quasi-geostrophic kinematic dynamos at low magnetic Prandtl number. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 245, 595-604.

  6. A zonally symmetric model for volcanic influence upon atmospheric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.; Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of volcanic activity upon zonal wind flow in a model atmosphere are considered. A low latitude volcanic eruption could lower the tropospheric pole to equator temperature difference and thereby affect the atmospheric motions. When the temperature contrast decreases, the zonal wind velocities at high altitudes are reduced. To conserve angular momentum, the velocities in the lower atmosphere near the surface must increase, thus providing a momentum source for ocean currents. It is suggested that this momentum source may have played a role as a trigger for inducing the 1982-83 anomalous El Nino and possibly other climate changes.

  7. A zonally symmetric model for volcanic influence upon atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, K. H.; Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The effects of volcanic activity upon zonal wind flow in a model atmosphere are considered. A low latitude volcanic eruption could lower the tropospheric pole to equator temperature difference and thereby affect the atmospheric motions. When the temperature contrast decreases, the zonal wind velocities at high altitudes are reduced. To conserve angular momentum, the velocities in the lower atmosphere near the surface must increase, thus providing a momentum source for ocean currents. It is suggested that this momentum source may have played a role as a trigger for inducing the 1982-83 anomalous El Nino and possibly other climate changes.

  8. Measurement of a zonal wind profile on Titan by Doppler tracking of the Cassini entry probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, D. H.; Pollack, J. B.; Seiff, A.

    1990-01-01

    A program, called the Cassini mission, intended to study the Saturn system by utilizing a Saturn orbiter and a probe descending to the surface of Titan, is discussed. Winds are expected to cause perturbations to the probe local horizontal velocity, resulting in an anomalous drift in the probe location and a shift in the frequency of the probe telemetry, due to the Doppler effect. By using an iterative algorithm, in which the time variation of the probe telemetry frequency is monitored throughout the descent, and the probe trajectory is updated to reflect the effect of wind on the probe location, a highly accurate relative wind profile can be recovered. By adding a single wind velocity, measured by independent means, an absolute wind profile can be obtained. However, the accuracy of the zonal winds recovery is limited by errors in trajectory, and frequency.

  9. Observations of zonal flows in electrode biasing experiments on the Joint Texas Experimental tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H. G.; Lan, T.; Chen, Z. P.; Kong, D. F.; Zhao, H. L.; Wu, J.; Sun, X.; Liu, A. D.; Xie, J. L.; Li, H.; Ding, W. X.; Liu, W. D.; Yu, C. X.; Xu, M.; Sun, Y.; Liu, H.; Wang, Z. J.; Zhuang, G.

    2016-04-01

    Zonal flows (ZFs) are observed during the electrode biasing (EB) high confinement mode (H-mode) using Langmuir probe arrays on the edge of J-TEXT tokamak. The long-distance correlation characteristics of floating potentials and interactions with turbulence are studied. During positive biasing H-mode, either the geodesic acoustic mode or low frequency ZF increases. Strong suppression of radial transport by ZFs is found in the low frequency region. The components of the radial particle flux without and with EB are compared in the frequency domain. The interaction between ZFs and ambient turbulence is also discussed. The results show that the rate of ZFs' shear is comparable with that of E × B shear, suggesting that ZFs could be the trigger of the biasing H-mode.

  10. Finite-frequency P-wave tomography of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin: Implications for the lithospheric evolution in Western Laurentia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yunfeng; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Hung, Shu-Huei

    2017-02-01

    The lithosphere beneath the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin has potentially undergone Precambrian subduction and collisional orogenesis, resulting in a complex network of crustal domains. To improve the understanding of its evolutionary history, we combine data from the USArray and three regional networks to invert for P-wave velocities of the upper mantle using finite-frequency tomography. Our model reveals distinct, vertically continuous high (> 1%) velocity perturbations at depths above 200 km beneath the Precambrian Buffalo Head Terrane, Hearne craton and Medicine Hat Block, which sharply contrasts with those beneath the Canadian Rockies (<- 1%) at comparable depths. The P velocity increases from - 0.5% above 70 km depth to 1.5% at 330 km depth beneath southern Alberta, which provides compelling evidence for a deep, structurally complex Hearne craton. In comparison, the lithosphere is substantially thinner beneath the adjacent Buffalo Head Terrane (160 km) and Medicine Hat Block (200 km). These findings are consistent with earlier theories of tectonic assembly in this region, which featured distinct Archean and Proterozoic plate convergences between the Hearne craton and its neighboring domains. The highly variable, bimodally distributed craton thicknesses may also reflect different lithospheric destruction processes beneath the western margin of Laurentia.

  11. Navier-Stokes simulation of transonic wing flow fields using a zonal grid approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.

    1988-01-01

    The transonic Navier-Stokes code was used to simulate flow fields about isolated wings for workshop wind-tunnel and free-air cases using the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. An implicit finite-difference scheme based on a diagonal version of the Beam-Warming algorithm was used to integrate the governing equations. A zonal grid approach was used to allow efficient grid refinement near the wing surface. The flow field was sensitive to the turbulent transition model, and flow unsteadiness was observed for a wind-tunnel case but not for the corresponding free-air case. The specification of experimental pressure at the wind-tunnel exit plane is the primary reason for the difference of these two numerical solutions.

  12. Impact of Stratospheric Ozone Zonal Asymmetries on the Tropospheric Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedy, Olga; Waugh, Darryn; Li, Feng; Oman, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The depletion and recovery of Antarctic ozone plays a major role in changes of Southern Hemisphere (SH) tropospheric climate. Recent studies indicate that the lack of polar ozone asymmetries in chemistry climate models (CCM) leads to a weaker and warmer Antarctic vortex, and smaller trends in the tropospheric mid-latitude jet and the surface pressure. However, the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries is not well understood. In this study we report on a series of integrations of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to further examine the effect of zonal asymmetries on the state of the stratosphere and troposphere. Integrations with the full, interactive stratospheric chemistry are compared against identical simulations using the same CCM except that (1) the monthly mean zonal mean stratospheric ozone from first simulation is prescribed and (2) ozone is relaxed to the monthly mean zonal mean ozone on a three day time scale. To analyze the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries, we examine trends and quantify the differences in temperatures, zonal wind and surface pressure among the integrations.

  13. Can zonally symmetric inertial waves drive an oscillating mean flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelig, Torsten; Harlander, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    In the presentation [5] zonal mean flow excitation by inertial waves is studied in analogy to mean flow excitation by gravity waves [3] that plays an important role for the quasi-biennial oscillation in the equatorial atmosphere. In geophysical flows that are stratified and rotating, pure gravity and inertial waves correspond to the two limiting cases: gravity waves neglect rotation, inertial waves neglect stratification. The former are more relevant for fluids like the atmosphere, where stratification is dominant, the latter for the deep oceans or planet cores, where rotation dominates. In the present study a hierarchy of simple analytical and numerical models of zonally symmetric inertial wave-mean flow interactions is considered and the results are compared with data from a laboratory experiment [4]. The main findings can be summarised as follows: (i) when the waves are decoupled from the mean flow they just drive a retrograde (eastward) zonal mean flow, independent of the sign of the meridional phase speed; (ii) when coupling is present and the zonal mean flow is assumed to be steady, the waves can drive vertically alternating jets, but still, in contrast to the gravity wave case, the structure is independent of the sign of the meridional phase speed; (iii) when coupling is present and time-dependent zonal mean flows are considered the waves can drive vertically and temporarily oscillating mean flows. The comparison with laboratory data from a rotating annulus experiment shows a qualitative agreement. It appears that the experiment captures the basic elements of the inertial wave mean flow coupling. The results might be relevant to understand how the Equatorial Deep Jets can be maintained against dissipation [1, 2], a process currently discussed controversially. [1] Greatbatch, R., Brandt, P., Claus, M., Didwischus, S., Fu, Y.: On the width of the equatorial deep jets. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 42, 1729-1740 (2012) [2] Muench, J.E., Kunze, E.: Internal wave

  14. Zonal flow generation from trapped electron mode turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Hahm, T. S.

    2009-11-01

    Most existing zonal flow generation theory [1,2] has been developed with a usual assumption of qrρiθ<<1 (qr is the radial wave number of zonal flow, and ρiθ is the ion poloidal gyroradius). However, recent nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence exhibit a relatively short radial scale of the zonal flows with qrρiθ˜1 [3,4,5]. This work reports an extension of zonal flow growth calculation to this short wavelength regime via the wave kinetics approach. A generalized expression for the polarization shielding for arbitrary radial wavelength [6] which extends the Rosenbluth-Hinton formula in the long wavelength limit [7] is applied. The electron nonlinearity effects on zonal flow are investigated by using GTC simulation. This work was supported by the China Scholarship Council (LW), U.S. DoE Contract No. DE--AC02--09CH11466 (TSH, LW), the U. S. DOE SciDAC center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas, and the U. S. DOE SciDAC-FSP Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (TSH). [1] P. H. Diamond et al., IAEA-CN-69/TH3/1 (1998). [2] L. Chen, Z. Lin, and R. White, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3129 (2000). [3] Z. Lin et al., IAEA-CN-138/TH/P2-8 (2006). [4] D. Ernst et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 055906 (2009). [5] Y. Xiao and Z. Lin, ``Turbulent transport of trapped electron modes in collisionless plasmas'', submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. (2009). [6] Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm, Phys. Plasmas 16, 062309 (2009). [7] M. N. Rosenbluth and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998).

  15. Modeling the Interaction of Moist Convection with the Zonal Jets of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2004-11-01

    We use a reduced-gravity quasi-geostrophic model with a parameterization of moist convection that is based on Galileo and Cassini observations of lightning and convective storms (Little et al., 1999; Gierasch et al., 2000; Porco et al., 2003). The features of the jets we want to reproduce in the model include: (1) the curvature of the zonal jet profile, which violates the barotropic stability criterion near many of the westward jets (Ingersoll et al., 1981; Li et al., 2004), (2) the speed of the zonal jets, which is related to their width, given that the jets marginally violate the barotropic stability criterion, and (3) the sign of the eddy momentum flux, which is into the jets and tends to sustain them (Beebe et al., 1979; Ingersoll et al., 1981; Salyk et al., 2004). The features of moist convective storms that are taken from observation include: (1) the tendency of the storms to occur in the cyclonic belts, (2) the rapid divergence of horizontal velocity near the cloud tops, and (3) the lifetime of the storms, which is on average 4-5 days (Li et al., 2004). We find that moist convection leads to zonal jets in the upper layer, but the jets violate the barotropic stability criterion only if the flow in the deep underlying layer is westward. We can reproduce the chevron shape on the sides of the jets if we postulate that the clouds persist longer than the storms that produce them. We can reproduce the number and frequency of moist convection storms by assuming that they carry most of the planet's vertical heat flux (Gierasch et al., 2000). The NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program supported this research.

  16. Observed variability in the upper layers at the Equator, 90°E in the Indian Ocean during 2001-2008, 1: zonal currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R. R.; Horii, T.; Masumoto, Y.; Mizuno, K.

    2016-06-01

    The observed variability of zonal currents (ZC) at the Equator, 90°E shows a strong seasonal cycle in the near-surface 40-350 m water column with periodic east-west reversals most pronounced at semiannual frequency. Superposed on this, a strong intraseasonal variability of 30-90 day periodicity is also prominently seen in the near-surface layer (40-80 m) almost throughout the year with the only exception of February-March. An eastward flowing equatorial undercurrent (EUC) is present in the depth range of 80-160 m during March-April and October-November. The observed intraseasonal variability in the near-surface layer is primarily determined by the equatorial zonal westerly wind bursts (WWBs) through local frictional coupling between the zonal flow in the surface layer and surface zonal winds and shows large interannual variability. The eastward flowing EUC maintained by the ZPG set up by the east-west slope of the thermocline remotely controlled by the zonal wind (ZW) and zonally propagating wave fields also shows significant interannual variability. This observed variability on interannual time scales appears to be controlled by the corresponding variability in the alongshore winds off the Somalia coast during the preceding boreal winter, the ZW field along the equator, and the associated zonally propagating Kelvin and Rossby waves. The salinity induced vertical stratification observed in the near-surface layer through barrier layer thickness (BLT) effects also shows a significant influence on the ZC field on intraseasonal time scale. Interestingly, among all the 8 years (2001-2008), relatively weaker annual cycle is seen in both ZC in the 40-350 m water column and boreal spring sea surface temperature (SST) only during 2001 and 2008 along the equator caused through propagating wave dynamics.

  17. A finite-frequency P-wave tomographic model: images of subducted slabs stagnant above, penetrating through and trapped below the 660-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukao, Y.; Obayashi, M.

    2012-12-01

    We constructed a new P-wave tomographic model of the mantle using more than ten millions of travel time data. The finite frequency effect of seismic ray was taken into account by calculating banana-donut kernels at 2 Hz for all the first arrival data and at 0.1 Hz for the broadband differential travel time data. Based on this model, a systematic survey was made for subducted slab images around the circum Pacific including Kurile, Honshu, Izu-Bonin, Mariana, Java, Tonga-Kermadec, southern and northern South America, and Central America. This survey clarified a progressive lateral variation of slab configuration along the arc or through the arc to arc, where a subducted slab is in general in one or two of the following four stages: I. slab stagnant above the 660, II. slab penetrating the 660, III. slab trapped in the uppermost lower mantle (660 to ˜1000 km in depth), and IV. slab descending well into the deep lower mantle. The majority of the slab images are either at stage I or III. We interpret I to IV as the successive stages of slab subduction through the transition region with the 660 at the middle, where I and III are relatively stable or neutral stages and II and IV are relatively unstable, transient stages. In particular, we emphasize III as a distinct stage of slab subduction, through which the slab once softened by the phase transition may progressively recover its hardness. Alternatively, the mantle viscosity may not increase stepwise across the 660 but increase gradually throughout the uppermost lower mantle. Plots of hypocentral distribution on tomographic slab images show that deep shocks at depths greater than ˜620 km are a good measure of slab penetration at stage either II or III.

  18. Influence of loading cycle profile and frequency on a biomechanical parameter of a model of a balloon kyphoplasty-augmented lumbar spine segment: a finite element analysis study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Lewis, Gladius

    2010-01-01

    For patients who are suffering debilitating and persistent pain due to vertebral compression fracture(s) and for whom conservative therapies have not provided relief, balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) is used as a surgical option. There are only a very few literature reports on the use of the finite element analysis (FEA) method to obtain biomechanical parameters of models of spine segments that include BKP augmentation at a given level. In each of these studies, the applied loading used was quasi-static. During normal activities of daily living, the patient's spine would be subject to dynamically-applied loading. Thus, the question of the influence of the characteristics of a dynamically-applied loading cycle on biomechanical parameters of a spine that includes BKP-augmented segment(s) is germane; however, a study of this issue is lacking. We investigated this issue in the present FEA work, with the spine segment model being the L1-L3 motion segment units (MSUs) (a segment that is commonly augmented using BKP) and prophylactic BKP simulated at L2. The dynamic load was the compressive load-versus-time cycle to which the L3-L4 MSU is subjected during gait. Four cases of the cycle were considered, corresponding to slow-, normal-, fast- and very fast-paced gait. The loading cycle was applied to the superior surface of L1 while the inferior surface of L3 was fully constrained. It was found that (1) the global mean von Mises stress during the loading cycle (σVMG), in each tissue in the model increased in going from a slow-paced gait cycle to a very fast-paced gait cycle; and (2) for the slow-paced gait cycle, with increase in frequency of the cycle, f (1 ≤ f ≤ 3 Hz), σVMG in each of these tissues increased. Potential uses of the present findings are identified.

  19. First observation of a new zonal-flow cycle state in the H-mode transport barrier of the experimental advanced superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G. S.; Wang, H. Q.; Wan, B. N.; Guo, H. Y.; Zhang, W.; Chang, J. F.; Wang, L.; Chen, R.; Liu, S. C.; Ding, S. Y.; Shao, L. M.; Xiong, H.; Naulin, V.; Diamond, P. H.; Tynan, G. R.; Xu, M.; Yan, N.; Zhao, H. L.

    2012-12-15

    A new turbulence-flow cycle state has been discovered after the formation of a transport barrier in the H-mode plasma edge during a quiescent phase on the EAST superconducting tokamak. Zonal-flow modulation of high-frequency-broadband (0.05-1 MHz) turbulence was observed in the steep-gradient region leading to intermittent transport events across the edge transport barrier. Good confinement (H{sub 98y,2} {approx} 1) has been achieved in this state, even with input heating power near the L-H transition threshold. A novel model based on predator-prey interaction between turbulence and zonal flows reproduced this state well.

  20. A Multi-scale Finite-frequency Approach to the Inversion of Reciprocal Travel Times for 3-D Velocity Structure beneath Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y.; Hung, S.; Kuo, B.; Kuochen, H.

    2012-12-01

    Taiwan is one of the archetypical places for studying the active orogenic process in the world, where the Luzon arc has obliquely collided into the southwest China continental margin since 5 Ma ago. Because of the lack of convincing evidence for the structure in the lithospheric mantle and at even greater depths, several competing models have been proposed for the Taiwan mountain-building process. With the deployment of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) on the seafloor around Taiwan from the TAIGER (TAiwan Integrated GEodynamic Research) and IES seismic experiments, the aperture of the seismic network is greatly extended to improve the depth resolution of tomographic imaging, which is critical to illuminate the nature of the arc-continent collision and accretion in Taiwan. In this study, we use relative travel-time residuals between a collection of teleseismic body wave arrivals to tomographically image the velocity structure beneath Taiwan. In addition to those from common distant earthquakes observed across an array of stations, we take advantage of dense seismicity in the vicinity of Taiwan and the source and receiver reciprocity to augment the data coverage from clustered earthquakes recorded by global stations. As waveforms are dependent of source mechanisms, we carry out the cluster analysis to group the phase arrivals with similar waveforms into clusters and simultaneously determine relative travel-time anomalies in the same cluster accurately by a cross correlation method. The combination of these two datasets would particularly enhance the resolvability of the tomographic models offshore of eastern Taiwan, where the two subduction systems of opposite polarity are taking place and have primarily shaped the present tectonic framework of Taiwan. On the other hand, our inversion adopts an innovation that invokes wavelet-based, multi-scale parameterization and finite-frequency theory. Not only does this approach make full use of frequency-dependent travel

  1. Anelastic models of the zonal winds in gas giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastine, T.; Wicht, J.

    2012-12-01

    The banded structures observed at the surfaces of Jupiter and Saturn are associated with eastward and westward zonal flows. In both gas giants, we observe a large amplitude prograde equatorial jet, which is flanked by multiple alternating zonal winds of weaker amplitudes. The depth of these jets is however poorly known and highly debated. Theoretical scenarios encompass "shallow models", that assume that these zonal flows are restricted to the outer weather layer; as well as "deep models" that suppose that the jets penetrate deeper down in the molecular envelope. The latter idea has been supported by 3-D numerical simulations using the so-called "Boussinesq approximation", that assumes the reference state to be constant with radius (e.g. Heimpel et al., 2005). While this approximation is well-adapted to weakly-stratified fluids (e.g. iron cores of Earth-like planets), it becomes more questionable in the gas giants interiors, where the density contrast is huge (ρ bot/ρ top ˜ 104). The "anelastic approximation", already employed in recent models of the gas giants (e.g. Jones & Kuzanyan 2009; Gastine & Wicht 2012), thus provides a more realistic framework to simulate the interior dynamics of such planets. We present here the results of a systematic parameter study where we explore the dependence of convection and zonal flows on density stratification. While the density contrast affects the convective flow amplitude and the typical lengthscale of convection, global quantities and zonal jets properties are found to be fairly independent of the density contrast. Notwithstanding these common properties, compressibility effects also yield interesting differences to Boussinesq approaches. For instance, in the strongly stratified models, the main force balance can significantly vary with depth. While the flow in the deep interior is dominated by rotation, buoyancy can indeed become larger than Coriolis force close to the surface. This "transitional regime" has a visible

  2. Changes in the zonal propagation of El Niño-related SST anomalies: a possible link to the PDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antico, Pablo L.; Barros, Vicente R.

    2016-03-01

    Long-term variability of El Niño (EN) cycle has been the topic of several studies, mainly because of its impacts on climate around the globe. This variability has been mainly described by changes in the intensity and frequency of EN events. In this study, interdecadal changes in the zonal evolution of EN-related sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) and their possible link with a well-known mode of Pacific interdecadal variability are analyzed. EN events are classified according to the sense of zonal propagation of SSTA along the equatorial Pacific during the period 1900-2012. As a result, two types of EN are defined: eastward-directed and westward-directed EN. It is found that EN-related SSTA preferably evolves to the east (west) during the warm (cold) phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Hence, this study offers new insights into the possible causes of long-term EN changes.

  3. Gravity Wave Variance in LIMS Temperatures. Part II: Comparison with the Zonal-Mean Momentum Balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Gille, John C.

    1996-02-01

    Zonal-mean gravity wave variance in the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) temperature data is seen to correlate strongly with the residual term in the LIMS zonal-mean momentum budget throughout much of the observed mesosphere. This momentum residual is attributed to gravity wave momentum transport at scales that cannot be directly sampled by the LIMS instrument Correlation is highest in the vicinity of the fall and winter mesospheric jets, where both gravity wave variance and momentum residual reach their largest values. Correlation is also high in the Southern Hemisphere subtropical mesophere, where gravity wave variance and the momentum residual have broad temporal maxima during the easterly acceleration of the stratopause semi-annual oscillation (SAO). This subtropical correlation has important implications for the SAO eastward acceleration, which several studies suggest is forced by gravity wave momentum flux divergence. Correlation between gravity wave variance and inferred gravity wave momentum flux divergence is unexpected because variance is dominated by large scales and long periods (inertio-gravity waves), while both theoretical arguments and ground-based observations indicate that momentum transport is dominated by periods under 1 h. The results of this study suggest a broadband gravity wave field experiencing forcing and loss processes, which are largely independent of frequency.

  4. Behavior of zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio and its relationship with zonal mean temperature during the winter 1978-1979 stratospheric warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P.-H.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of the zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio in the lower stratosphere near 75 deg N and its relationship with the zonal mean temperature during the January-February 1979 stratospheric sudden warming have been investigated based on the satellite sensor SAM II (Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement) and auxiliary meteorological measurements. The results indicate that distinct changes in the zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio occurred during this stratospheric sudden warming. It is also found that horizontal eddy transport due to planetary waves may have played a significant role in determining the distribution of the zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio.

  5. Statistical properties of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima zonal flows

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Johan; Botha, G. J. J.

    2015-05-15

    A theoretical interpretation of numerically generated probability density functions (PDFs) of intermittent plasma transport events in unforced zonal flows is provided within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. The governing equation is solved numerically with various prescribed density gradients that are designed to produce different configurations of parallel and anti-parallel streams. Long-lasting vortices form whose flow is governed by the zonal streams. It is found that the numerically generated PDFs can be matched with analytical predictions of PDFs based on the instanton method by removing the autocorrelations from the time series. In many instances, the statistics generated by the CHM dynamics relaxes to Gaussian distributions for both the electrostatic and vorticity perturbations, whereas in areas with strong nonlinear interactions it is found that the PDFs are exponentially distributed.

  6. Coherent structures in ion temperature gradient turbulence-zonal flow

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rameswar; Singh, R.; Kaw, P.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; Diamond, P. H.

    2014-10-15

    Nonlinear stationary structure formation in the coupled ion temperature gradient (ITG)-zonal flow system is investigated. The ITG turbulence is described by a wave-kinetic equation for the action density of the ITG mode, and the longer scale zonal mode is described by a dynamic equation for the m = n = 0 component of the potential. Two populations of trapped and untrapped drift wave trajectories are shown to exist in a moving frame of reference. This novel effect leads to the formation of nonlinear stationary structures. It is shown that the ITG turbulence can self-consistently sustain coherent, radially propagating modulation envelope structures such as solitons, shocks, and nonlinear wave trains.

  7. Global variations of zonal mean ozone during stratospheric warming events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Eight years of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone data are examined to study zonal mean variations associated with stratospheric planetary wave (warming) events. These fluctuations are found to be nearly global in extent, with relatively large variations in the tropics, and coherent signatures reaching up to 50 deg in the opposite (summer) hemisphere. These ozone variations are a manifestation of the global circulation cells associated with stratospheric warming events; the ozone responds dynamically in the lower stratosphere to transport, and photochemically in the upper stratosphere to the circulation-induced temperature changes. The observed ozone variations in the tropics are of particular interest because transport is dominated by zonal-mean vertical motions (eddy flux divergences and mean meridional transports are negligible), and hence, substantial simplifications to the governing equations occur. The response of the atmosphere to these impulsive circulation changes provides a situation for robust estimates of the ozone-temperature sensitivity in the upper stratosphere.

  8. Statistical properties of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima zonal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Johan; Botha, G. J. J.

    2015-05-01

    A theoretical interpretation of numerically generated probability density functions (PDFs) of intermittent plasma transport events in unforced zonal flows is provided within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. The governing equation is solved numerically with various prescribed density gradients that are designed to produce different configurations of parallel and anti-parallel streams. Long-lasting vortices form whose flow is governed by the zonal streams. It is found that the numerically generated PDFs can be matched with analytical predictions of PDFs based on the instanton method by removing the autocorrelations from the time series. In many instances, the statistics generated by the CHM dynamics relaxes to Gaussian distributions for both the electrostatic and vorticity perturbations, whereas in areas with strong nonlinear interactions it is found that the PDFs are exponentially distributed.

  9. Zonal isolation and evaluation for cemented horizontal liners

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, H; Summers, T.D.; Cocking, D.A.; Greaves, C.

    1996-12-01

    This paper discusses the novel application of technology in the cementing and bond evaluation from the world-record breaking extended-reach drilling (ERD) wells in Wytch Farm, where horizontal liners of the order of 800 to 1,300 m at TVD of approximately 1,600 m have been successfully cemented and perforated. Detailed analysis of the conditions by a multidisciplinary team provided some practical procedures that enabled the authors to achieve their objectives of zonal isolation and cement bond evaluation successfully. Important aspects of zonal isolation, such as the use of spiral-blade centralizers, rotating the liner, and trials of the external casing packer (ECP), are discussed in detail. Cement bond evaluation is also detailed, involving coiled tubing (CT) deployment and various bond-logging tools, including ultrasonic tools. The cement bond log (CBL) was found to be surprisingly reliable if used correctly.

  10. Analysis of Venusian Zonal Winds Using Venus Express Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, Ryan M.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Blalock, John J.; Peralta, Javier; Gray, Candace L.; McGouldrick, Kevin; Imamura, Takeshi

    2016-10-01

    We measure the zonal mean wind structure of Venus between 2006 and 2013 in the ultraviolet images captured by the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard the ESA Venus Express spacecraft. Our wind measurements employ the digital two-dimensional Correlation Imaging Velocimetry method to track cloud motions. Our current focus is on understanding the short- and long-term dynamics of Venus's atmospheric superrotation, in which the equatorial atmosphere rotates with a period of approximately 4-5 days (~60 times faster than the solid planet). The Venusian atmospheric superrotation's forcing and maintenance mechanisms remain to be explained. A number of studies have been published on the cloud-tracking wind measurements on Venus, however, those different measurements have not reached a consensus on the temporal evolution of the zonal wind structure (e.g., Kouyama et al 2013, Khatuntsev et al 2013, Patsaeva et al. 2015). Temporal evolution of the zonal wind could reveal the transport of energy and momentum and eventually shed a light on mechanisms that maintain the superrotation. Our first goal is to characterize the temporal dynamics of Venus's zonal wind profile and two-dimensional wind field, in which we will search for equatorial waves (in particular the so-called "Y-feature") that may force the Venusian atmospheric superrotation.Kouyama, T. et al (2013), J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 37-46, doi:10.1029/2011JE004013.Khatuntsev et al. (2013), Icarus, 226, 140-158, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.05.018.Patsaeva,M.V.,et al. (2015), Planetary and Space Science, 113, 100-108, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2015.01.013.

  11. Dynamic Stall Computations Using a Zonal Navier-Stokes Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    COMPUTATIONS USING A ZONAL NAVIER-STOKES MODEL OfOSONA, AUTWOR(S) Conrovd, Jack H. r. __ _ I, ,3 , iOR co T’M( COVERED DATE Of REPORT (Yea, Month Oy) IS PAGE...48 computer and is used to calculate the flow field about a NACA 0012 airfoil oscillating in pitch. Surface pressure distributions and integrated...lift, pitching moment, and drag coefficient versus angle of attack are compared to existing experimental data for four cases and existing computational

  12. Cloud Radiative Feedback and Zonal Surface Temperature Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Yang, J.; Peltier, W. R.; Hu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Two fully coupled atmosphere--ocean general circulation models, CCSM3 and CCSM4 are employed to investigate the response of the mean climate state of the tropics to a sequence of CO2 concentrations (pCO2) from 17.5 to 4576 ppmv. Analyses based upon both of thes models demonstrate that the zonal surface temperature gradient across the equatorial Pacific is a monotonic function of pCO2, decreasing as pCO2 is increased. It is found that increased pCO2 enhances both the strength of convection and the area of the western and central Pacific over which it occurs thereby leading to increased cloudiness, an increase in shortwave reflection, and therefore a diminution of surface temperature in the region. The opposite tendencies are realized in response to deacreasing pCO2. This study demonstrates that cloud radiative feedback promotes a weakening (strengthening) of the zonal surface temperature gradient as greenhouse gas concentrations increase (decrease), which has important implications for future climate change and also for the understanding of past warm and cold climates. Long-term mean sea surface temperature and and zonal SST gradient along the equatorial Pacific in CCSM3 (a and c) and CCSM4 (b and d). The CO2 level in CCSM3 is between 35 and 4576 ppmv while in CCSM4 it is between 17.5 and 2288 ppmv. The zonal SST gradient is defined by the maximum minus the minimum (red dots), or the area-averaged value of 145E--165E minus that of 120W--100W (blue squares).

  13. Interaction of Moist Convection With Jupiter's Zonal Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Huang, X.

    2004-12-01

    Since Voyager times, observations have suggested that Jupiter's zonal jets violate the barotropic stability criterion (BSTC) (Ingersoll et al., 1981; Limaye, 1986; Li et al., in press). Recently, images from the Cassini Imaging Science System (ISS) (Porco et al., 2003; Li et al., in press) and from the Galileo imaging system (Little et al., 1999; Gierasch et al., 2000) have revealed important features of moist convection on Jupiter and suggest that moist convection may be driving the zonal jets. Here we investigate the interaction of moist convection with the zonal jets in a reduced-gravity quasi-geostrophic model using a moist convection parameterization that is based on the new observations. Our study shows that moist convection can excite multiple jets when the velocity of the flow in the deep underlying layer is zero, but these jets never violate the BSTC. However, based on a model of the interaction between the magnetic field and the zonal flow, Liu and Stevenson (2003, DPS 35th meeting) predict that there are easterly flows in the deep underlying layer at middle latitudes. With easterly flows in the deep underlying layer we can get stable multiple jets that violate the BSTC. Furthermore, the modeled jets have almost same width and amplitude as the observed jets. An easterly flow in the lower layer provides a simple explanation for why the upper layer jets are stable even though they violate the BSTC. The model reproduces the tilted, chevron-shaped cloud features provided we assume that the clouds persist longer than the moist convective storms that produce them.

  14. Broadband finite-pulse radio-frequency-driven recoupling (fp-RFDR) with (XY8)4(1) super-cycling for homo-nuclear correlations in very high magnetic fields at fast and ultra-fast MAS frequencies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ming; Hu, Bingwen; Lafon, Oliver; Trébosc, Julien; Chen, Qun; Amoureux, Jean-Paul

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate that inter-residue (13)C-(13)C proximities (of about 380 pm) in uniformly (13)C-labeled proteins can be probed by applying robust first-order recoupling during several milliseconds in single-quantum single-quantum dipolar homo-nuclear correlation (SQ-SQ D-HOMCOR) 2D experiments. We show that the intensity of medium-range homo-nuclear correlations in these experiments is enhanced using broadband first-order finite-pulse radio-frequency-driven recoupling (fp-RFDR) NMR sequence with a nested (XY8)4(1) super-cycling. The robustness and the efficiency of the fp-RFDR-(XY8)4(1) method is demonstrated at high magnetic field (21.1T) and high Magic-Angle Spinning (MAS) speeds (up to 60 kHz). The introduced super-cycling, formed by combining phase inversion and a global four-quantum phase cycle, improves the robustness of fp-RFDR to (i) chemical shift anisotropy (CSA), (ii) spread in isotropic chemical shifts, (iii) rf-inhomogeneity and (iv) hetero-nuclear dipolar couplings for long recoupling times. We show that fp-RFDR-(XY8)4(1) is efficient sans (1)H decoupling, which is beneficial for temperature-sensitive biomolecules. The efficiency and the robustness of fp-RFDR-(XY8)4(1) is investigated by spin dynamics numerical simulations as well as solid-state NMR experiments on [U-(13)C]-L-histidine·HCl, a tetra-peptide (Fmoc-[U-(13)C,(15)N]-Val-[U-(13)C,(15)N]-Ala-[U-(13)C,(15)N]-Phe-Gly-t-Boc) and Al(PO(3))(3).

  15. Nonstationary Gravity Wave Forcing of the Stratospheric Zonal Mean Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    The role of gravity wave forcing in the zonal mean circulation of the stratosphere is discussed. Starting from some very simple assumptions about the momentum flux spectrum of nonstationary (non-zero phase speed) waves at forcing levels in the troposphere, a linear model is used to calculate wave propagation through climatological zonal mean winds at solstice seasons. As the wave amplitudes exceed their stable limits, a saturation criterion is imposed to account for nonlinear wave breakdown effects, and the resulting vertical gradient in the wave momentum flux is then used to estimate the mean flow forcing per unit mass. Evidence from global, assimilated data sets are used to constrain these forcing estimates. The results suggest the gravity-wave-driven force is accelerative (has the same sign as the mean wind) throughout most of the stratosphere above 20 km. The sense of the gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere is thus opposite to that in the mesosphere, where gravity wave drag is widely believed to play a principal role in decelerating the mesospheric jets. The forcing estimates are further compared to existing gravity wave parameterizations for the same climatological zonal mean conditions. Substantial disagreement is evident in the stratosphere, and we discuss the reasons for the disagreement. The results suggest limits on typical gravity wave amplitudes near source levels in the troposphere at solstice seasons. The gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere appears to have a substantial effect on lower stratospheric temperatures during southern hemisphere summer and thus may be relevant to climate.

  16. Cerebellar Zonal Patterning Relies on Purkinje Cell Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    White, Joshua J.; Arancillo, Marife; Stay, Trace L.; George-Jones, Nicholas A.; Levy, Sabrina L.; Heck, Detlef H.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebellar circuits are patterned into an array of topographic parasagittal domains called zones. The proper connectivity of zones is critical for motor coordination and motor learning, and in several neurological diseases cerebellar circuits degenerate in zonal patterns. Despite recent advances in understanding zone function, we still have a limited understanding of how zones are formed. Here, we focused our attention on Purkinje cells to gain a better understanding of their specific role in establishing zonal circuits. We used conditional mouse genetics to test the hypothesis that Purkinje cell neurotransmission is essential for refining prefunctional developmental zones into sharp functional zones. Our results show that inhibitory synaptic transmission in Purkinje cells is necessary for the precise patterning of Purkinje cell zones and the topographic targeting of mossy fiber afferents. As expected, blocking Purkinje cell neurotransmission caused ataxia. Using in vivo electrophysiology, we demonstrate that loss of Purkinje cell communication altered the firing rate and pattern of their target cerebellar nuclear neurons. Analysis of Purkinje cell complex spike firing revealed that feedback in the cerebellar nuclei to inferior olive to Purkinje cell loop is obstructed. Loss of Purkinje neurotransmission also caused ectopic zonal expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, which is only expressed in adult Purkinje cells when calcium is dysregulated and if excitability is altered. Our results suggest that Purkinje cell inhibitory neurotransmission establishes the functional circuitry of the cerebellum by patterning the molecular zones, fine-tuning afferent circuitry, and shaping neuronal activity. PMID:24920627

  17. Zonal organization of the mammalian main and accessory olfactory systems.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, K; von Campenhause, H; Yoshihara, Y

    2000-01-01

    Zonal organization is one of the characteristic features observed in both main and accessory olfactory systems. In the main olfactory system, most of the odorant receptors are classified into four groups according to their zonal expression patterns in the olfactory epithelium. Each group of odorant receptors is expressed by sensory neurons distributed within one of four circumscribed zones. Olfactory sensory neurons in a given zone of the epithelium project their axons to the glomeruli in a corresponding zone of the main olfactory bulb. Glomeruli in the same zone tend to represent similar odorant receptors having similar tuning specificity to odorants. Vomeronasal receptors (or pheromone receptors) are classified into two groups in the accessory olfactory system. Each group of receptors is expressed by vomeronasal sensory neurons in either the apical or basal zone of the vomeronasal epithelium. Sensory neurons in the apical zone project their axons to the rostral zone of the accessory olfactory bulb and form synaptic connections with mitral tufted cells belonging to the rostral zone. Signals originated from basal zone sensory neurons are sent to mitral tufted cells in the caudal zone of the accessory olfactory bulb. We discuss functional implications of the zonal organization in both main and accessory olfactory systems. PMID:11205342

  18. Zonal subdivision of marine sequences: achievements and discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladenkov, Yuri

    2010-05-01

    It was 150 years ago when a notion of zone was introduced into stratigraphy. By the present time zonal units with a duration of 0.3-3.0 M.y. in average have been established virtually for all systems and stages of the Phanerozoic. Their quantity reached 300. It is not a chance that zonal stratigraphy is considered to be one of the most significant achievement of the modern geology. There are different interpretations of essence and goals of zonal stratigraphy, techniques of separation of zones, and evaluation of zones as stratigraphic units. Particularly it is reflected in International Stratigraphic Guide (Murphy, Salvador, 1999), Russian Stratigraphic Code (Zhamoida, 2006), and a number of stratigraphic reports of the last years. It concerns different approaches to: (a) establishment of different types of zones (biostratigraphic zones and chronozones, oppel-zones and biohorizons, etc.); (b) assessment of spatial distribution of zones (global or provincial) and a role of sedimentological factor; (c) definition of zones as stratigraphic units (relationships with geostratigraphic units of the standard and regional scales). The latest publications show that because of the different interpretations of zones, authors should explain usage of certain type of zone (for example, when they use the terms "interval-zone" or "assemblage-zone", what limitations stem from application of datum-levels, and others). It is common opinion, that biostratigraphic zones used widely by paleontologists and stratigraphers cannot be a final goal of stratigraphy although they provide a base for solution of many important problems (definition of certain stratigraphic levels, correlation of different biofacies, and others). At the same time, the most important stratigraphic units are chronozones, which correspond to stages or phases of geological evolutio of basins and are marked by distinct fossil assemblages and other properties (magnetic and other characteristics) in the type sections

  19. Longitudinal variation in zonal winds at subauroral regions: Possible mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Lühr, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal differences in thermospheric zonal winds (ΔUy) are investigated in the subauroral region for different seasons and under solar maximum and medium conditions by using Challenging Minisatellite Payload observations. Prominent wave-1 longitudinal and diurnal variations of ΔUy are observed, along with an antiphase relationship between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. These structures persist over the whole year and are independent of solar activity. ΔUy values are greater at nighttime than at daytime, and values in the south are greater than those in the north in local summer and winter. Model simulations confirm observed results in large-scale structures, and the nonzero dipole tilt is found to be vital for the longitudinal variation of the zonal wind. The neutral air pressure gradient caused by the day-night difference in solar heating is a major contributor to the observed ΔUy. The pressure effects are larger at nighttime than at daytime and larger in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere. Ion drag reduces the compatibility between the modeled and observed ΔUy as expected, with larger effects at nighttime than at daytime. Viscous force also reduces the compatibility between the modeled and observed ΔUy with greater effects at daytime, except at nighttime in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, the Coriolis force makes the difference between the modeled and observed ΔUy larger. The sum of these factors can explain, in general, the observed local time and hemispheric asymmetry features in longitudinal variation of the zonal wind.

  20. Effects of Zonal Wind on Stratospheric Ozone Variations over Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidinma Okoro, Eucharia,

    2016-07-01

    The effects of zonal wind on stratospheric ozone variation over Nigeria have been studied. The areas covered in this study include; Maiduguri, Ikeja, Port-Harcourt, Calabar, Makurdi, Ilorin, Akure, Yola, Minna, Jos, Kano and Enugu in Nigeria, from 1986 to 2008. Zonal wind was computed from the iso-velocity map employing MATLAB software. The mean monthly variations of AAM and LOD at pressure levels of 20, 30 and 50 mb in the atmosphere depict a trend of maximum amplitude between April and September, and minimum amplitude between December and March. The trend observed in seasonal variation of O3 column data in the low latitude had maximum amount from May through August and minimum values from December through February. The mean monthly maximum O3 concentrations was found to be 284.70 Du (Kano) occurring in May 1989 while, an average monthly minimum O3 concentration was found to be 235.60 Du (Port-Harcourt and Calabar) occurring in January 1998. It has been established in this study that, the variation in atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) caused by variation of the universal time or length of day (LOD) transfer ozone (O3) by means of zonal wind from the upper troposphere to the lower stratosphere in the stations understudy. The strong effect of the pressure levels of the atmosphere on O3 variation could be attributed to its effect on the AAM and LOD. Variation in the LOD is significant in the tropics, suggesting that, the effects of the extra-tropical suction pump (ETSP) action is not the only driver responsible for O3 transportation from the tropics to extra-tropical zones. Consequently, these findings lead to a deduction that weather pattern alteration observed due to these changes could lead to climate change. Keywords: ozone variations; dynamical processes; harmattan wind; ETSP; and climatic variability

  1. Response of zonal chondrocytes to extracellular matrix-hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Nathaniel S; Varghese, Shyni; Lee, H Janice; Theprungsirikul, Parnduangjai; Canver, Adam; Sharma, Blanka; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2007-09-04

    We investigated the biological response of chondrocytes isolated from different zones of articular cartilage and their cellular behaviors in poly (ethylene glycol)-based (PEG) hydrogels containing exogenous type I collagen, hyaluronic acid (HA), or chondroitin sulfate (CS). The cellular morphology was strongly dependent on the extracellular matrix component of hydrogels. Additionally, the exogenous extracellular microenvironment affected matrix production and cartilage specific gene expression of chondrocytes from different zones. CS-based hydrogels showed the strongest response in terms of gene expression and matrix accumulation for both superficial and deep zone chondrocytes, but HA and type I collagen-based hydrogels demonstrated zonal-dependent cellular responses.

  2. RESPONSE OF ZONAL CHONDROCYTES TO EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-HYDROGELS

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Nathaniel S.; Varghese, Shyni; Lee, H. Janice; Theprungsirikul, Parnduangjai; Canver, Adam; Sharma, Blanka; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the biological response of chondrocytes isolated from different zones of articular cartilage and their cellular behaviors in poly (ethylene glycol)-based (PEG) hydrogels containing exogenous type I collagen, hyaluronic acid (HA), or chondroitin sulfate (CS). The cellular morphology was strongly dependent on the extracellular matrix component of hydrogels. Additionally, the exogenous extracellular microenvironment affected matrix production and cartilage specific gene expression of chondrocytes from different zones. CS-based hydrogels showed the strongest response in terms of gene expression and matrix accumulation for both superficial and deep zone chondrocytes, but HA and type I collagen-based hydrogels demonstrated zonal-dependent cellular responses. PMID:17692846

  3. Zonal flow regimes in rotating anelastic spherical shells (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastine, T.; Wicht, J.; Aurnou, J. M.; Heimpel, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    The surface zonal winds observed in the giant planets form a complex jet pattern with alternating prograde and retrograde direction. While the main equatorial band is prograde on the gas giants, both ice giants have a pronounced retrograde equatorial jet. The depth of these jets is however poorly known and highly debated. Theoretical scenarios range from "shallow models", that assume that these zonal flows are restricted to the outer stably stratified layer; to "deep models" that hypothesise that the surface winds are the signature of deep-seated convection. Most of the numerical models supporting the latter idea employed the Boussinesq approximation where compressibility effects are ignored. While this approximation is suitable for modelling the liquid iron core of terrestrial planets, this becomes questionable in the gas giants interiors, where density increases by several orders of magnitude. To tackle this problem, several numerical models using the "anelastic approximation" have been recently developed to study the compressibility effects while filtering out the fast acoustic waves. Here, we consider such anelastic models of rapidly-rotating spherical shells to explore the properties of the zonal winds in different regimes where either rotation or buoyancy dominates the force balance. We conduct several parameter studies to quantify the dependence of zonal flows on the background density stratification and the driving of convection. We find that the direction of the equatorial wind is controlled by the ratio of buoyancy and Coriolis force. The prograde equatorial band maintained by Reynolds stresses is found in the rotation-dominated regime. At low Ekman numbers, several alternating jets form at high latitude in a similar way to some previous Boussinesq calculations. In cases where buoyancy dominates Coriolis force, the angular momentum per unit mass is homogenised and the equatorial band is retrograde, reminiscent to those observed in the ice giants

  4. Zonal drifts of irregularities imparted by meridional winds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldman, H.; Da Rosa, A. V.

    1973-01-01

    In a uniform ionosphere, meridional winds cause only meridional motions of irregularities. It is shown, however, that, if F-region irregularities are considered in a real ionosphere in which there is a highly conductive E-layer, zonal motions occur. During the day a substantial westward drift takes place, while at night the drift is eastward but smaller, owing to the much smaller E-layer conductivity. Thus, the effect of meridional winds is to impart a net westward drift to small irregularities in the ionization, provided such irregularities persist long enough.

  5. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.; Brandon, S. T.; Langer, S. H.; Nora, R. C.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.

    2017-03-01

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. This new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  6. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.; ...

    2017-03-06

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  7. Implementing Multidisciplinary and Multi-Zonal Applications Using MPI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineberg, Samuel A.

    1995-01-01

    Multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications are an important class of applications in the area of Computational Aerosciences. In these codes, two or more distinct parallel programs or copies of a single program are utilized to model a single problem. To support such applications, it is common to use a programming model where a program is divided into several single program multiple data stream (SPMD) applications, each of which solves the equations for a single physical discipline or grid zone. These SPMD applications are then bound together to form a single multidisciplinary or multi-zonal program in which the constituent parts communicate via point-to-point message passing routines. Unfortunately, simple message passing models, like Intel's NX library, only allow point-to-point and global communication within a single system-defined partition. This makes implementation of these applications quite difficult, if not impossible. In this report it is shown that the new Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard is a viable portable library for implementing the message passing portion of multidisciplinary applications. Further, with the extension of a portable loader, fully portable multidisciplinary application programs can be developed. Finally, the performance of MPI is compared to that of some native message passing libraries. This comparison shows that MPI can be implemented to deliver performance commensurate with native message libraries.

  8. Variations in Nimbus-7 cloud estimates. Part I: Zonal averages

    SciTech Connect

    Weare, B.C. )

    1992-12-01

    Zonal averages of low, middle, high, and total cloud amount estimates derived from measurements from Nimbus-7 have been analyzed for the six-year period April 1979 through March 1985. The globally and zonally averaged valued of six-year annual means and standard deviations of total cloud amount and a proxy of cloudtop height are illustrated. Separate means for day and night and land and sea are also shown. The globally averaged value of intra-annual variability of total cloud amount is greater than 7%, and that for cloud height is greater than 0.3 km. Those of interannual variability are more than one-third of these values. Important latitudinal differences in variability are illustrated. The dominant empirical orthogonal analyses of the intra-annual variations of total cloud amount and heights show strong annual cycles, indicating that in the tropics increases in total cloud amount of up to about 30% are often accompanied by increases in cloud height of up to 1.2 km. This positive link is also evident in the dominant empirical orthogonal function of interannual variations of a total cloud/cloud height complex. This function shows a large coherent variation in total cloud cover of about 10% coupled with changes in cloud height of about 1.1 km associated with the 1982-83 El Ni[tilde n]o-Southern Oscillation event. 14 refs. 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Application of zonal model on indoor air sensor network design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Lisa; Wen, Jin

    2007-04-01

    Growing concerns over the safety of the indoor environment have made the use of sensors ubiquitous. Sensors that detect chemical and biological warfare agents can offer early warning of dangerous contaminants. However, current sensor system design is more informed by intuition and experience rather by systematic design. To develop a sensor system design methodology, a proper indoor airflow modeling approach is needed. Various indoor airflow modeling techniques, from complicated computational fluid dynamics approaches to simplified multi-zone approaches, exist in the literature. In this study, the effects of two airflow modeling techniques, multi-zone modeling technique and zonal modeling technique, on indoor air protection sensor system design are discussed. Common building attack scenarios, using a typical CBW agent, are simulated. Both multi-zone and zonal models are used to predict airflows and contaminant dispersion. Genetic Algorithm is then applied to optimize the sensor location and quantity. Differences in the sensor system design resulting from the two airflow models are discussed for a typical office environment and a large hall environment.

  10. Flexible Finite-Element Modeling of Global Geomagnetic Depth Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribaudo, Joseph Thomas

    Time-varying primary magnetic fields generated outside Earth by the magnetospheric ring current induce electrical currents in Earth's interior, which give rise to secondary magnetic fields with a complementary geometry. Geomagnetic depth sounding involves the analysis of magnetic field data to compute frequency-dependent response functions which yield information about the electrical conductivity of Earth's interior. I explore methods and results of forward-modeling global electromagnetic induction under a variety of assumptions about Earth conductivity and the spatial structure of the primary field. I begin by developing computational tools to perform time- and frequency-domain simulations of global induction in models with arbitrary conductivity and primary field structure using FlexPDE, a general-purpose software package that employs the finite-element method to solve partial differential equations. The method is shown to produce solutions with better than 1% accuracy when the simulated fields and response functions are compared to analytic solutions for a variety of problems in electromagnetic induction, and to qualitatively reproduce fields and response functions measured by satellites and observatories. The technique is employed in combination with analytic methods to explore the effect on the response of Earth models to primary fields with asymmetric structure. Standard methods of producing response functions from scalar and vector magnetic data are compared, and scalar methods are found to generate responses with significantly greater spatial bias for models with non-zonal fields. I develop the mathematical formulation for including Earth-rotation in the forward models, and use it to calculate frequency-dependent estimates of the amount of non-zonal structure required to produce previously reported local-time bias in empirical satellite response functions. Because it is difficult to validate solutions to induction problems that lack analytic solutions, we

  11. Decomposition method for zonal resource allocation problems in telecommunication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konnov, I. V.; Kashuba, A. Yu

    2016-11-01

    We consider problems of optimal resource allocation in telecommunication networks. We first give an optimization formulation for the case where the network manager aims to distribute some homogeneous resource (bandwidth) among users of one region with quadratic charge and fee functions and present simple and efficient solution methods. Next, we consider a more general problem for a provider of a wireless communication network divided into zones (clusters) with common capacity constraints. We obtain a convex quadratic optimization problem involving capacity and balance constraints. By using the dual Lagrangian method with respect to the capacity constraint, we suggest to reduce the initial problem to a single-dimensional optimization problem, but calculation of the cost function value leads to independent solution of zonal problems, which coincide with the above single region problem. Some results of computational experiments confirm the applicability of the new methods.

  12. A Zonal Approach for Prediction of Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, S. H.; Hixon, D. R.; Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1995-01-01

    A zonal approach for direct computation of sound generation and propagation from a supersonic jet is investigated. The present work splits the computational domain into a nonlinear, acoustic-source regime and a linear acoustic wave propagation regime. In the nonlinear regime, the unsteady flow is governed by the large-scale equations, which are the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations. In the linear acoustic regime, the sound wave propagation is described by the linearized Euler equations. Computational results are presented for a supersonic jet at M = 2. 1. It is demonstrated that no spurious modes are generated in the matching region and the computational expense is reduced substantially as opposed to fully large-scale simulation.

  13. Effect of chlorofluoromethane infrared radiation on zonal atmospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. E.; Donahue, T. M.; Liu, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    Estimates are made of changes in the atmospheric climate due to the radiative effects of 10 ppb of chlorofluoromethanes (CFM's). The estimates are derived on the basis of a 12-layer stratospheric general circulation model with a specified change of ocean temperature. Two tropical maxima in zonal average temperature change were observed: one in the upper troposphere and one centered at the tropopause. The temperature change exceeds the surface temperature change by a factor of at least two. If the 1975 CFM emission rate were to continue indefinitely, stratospheric water-vapor concentrations would increase by up to 60% due to CFM radiative effects. This would reduce ozone concentrations by an additional 4% of the natural ozone column.

  14. Zonal analysis of two high-speed inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dilley, A. D.; Switzer, G. F.; Eppard, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    Using a zonal technique, thin layer Navier-Stokes solutions for two high speed inlet geometries are presented and compared with experimental data. The first configuration consists of a 3-D inlet preceded by a sharp flat plate. Results with two different grids demonstrate the importance of adequate grid refinement in high speed internal flow computations. The fine grid solution has reasonably good agreement with experimental heat transfer and pressure values inside the inlet. The other configuration consists of a 3-D inlet mounted on a research hypersonic forebody. Numerical results for this configuration have good agreement with experimental pressure data along the forebody, but not inside the inlet. A more refined grid calculation is currently being done to better predict the flowfield in the inlet.

  15. Residual zonal flows in tokamaks and stellarators at arbitrary wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monreal, Pedro; Calvo, Iván; Sánchez, Edilberto; Parra, Félix I.; Bustos, Andrés; Könies, Axel; Kleiber, Ralf; Görler, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    In the linear collisionless limit, a zonal potential perturbation in a toroidal plasma relaxes, in general, to a non-zero residual value. Expressions for the residual value in tokamak and stellarator geometries, and for arbitrary wavelengths, are derived. These expressions involve averages over the lowest order particle trajectories, that typically cannot be evaluated analytically. In this work, an efficient numerical method for the evaluation of such expressions is reported. It is shown that this method is faster than direct gyrokinetic simulations performed with the Gene and EUTERPE codes. Calculations of the residual value in stellarators are provided for much shorter wavelengths than previously available in the literature. Electrons must be treated kinetically in stellarators because, unlike in tokamaks, kinetic electrons modify the residual value even at long wavelengths. This effect, that had already been predicted theoretically, is confirmed by gyrokinetic simulations.

  16. Fine-Scale Zonal Flow Suppression of Electron Temperature Gradient Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S. E.; Kohut, J. J.; Chen, Y.; Lin, Z.; Hinton, F. L.; Lee, W. W.

    2006-11-30

    It is found in collisionless Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) turbulence simulations that, while zonal flows are weak at early times, the zonal flows continue to grow algebraically (proportional to time). These fine-scale zonal flows have a radial wave number such that kr{rho}i > 1 and kr{rho}e < 1. Eventually, the zonal flows grow to a level that suppresses the turbulence due to ExB shearing. The final electron energy flux is found to be relatively low. These conclusions are based on particle convergence studies with adiabatic ion electrostatic flux-tube gyrokinetic {delta}f particle simulations run for long times. The Rosenbluth-Hinton random walk mechanism is given as an explanation for the long time build up of the zonal flow in ETG turbulence and it is shown that the generation is (k perpendicular {rho}e)2 smaller than for isomorphic Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) problem. This mechanism for zonal flow generation here is different than the modulational instability mechanism for ITG turbulence. These results are important because previous results indicated zonal flows were unimportant for ETG turbulence. Weak collisional damping of the zonal flow is also shown to be a n important effect.

  17. A PV view of the zonal mean distribution of temperature and wind in the extratropical troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, De-Zheng; Lindzen, Richard S.

    1994-01-01

    The dependence of the temperature and wind distribution of the zonal mean flow in the extratropical troposphere on the gradient of pontential vorticity along isentropes is examined. The extratropics here refer to the region outside the Hadley circulation. Of particular interest is whether the distribution of temperature and wind corresponding to a constant potential vorticity (PV) along isentropes resembles the observed, and the implications of PV homogenization along isentropes for the role of the tropics. With the assumption that PV is homogenized along isentropes, it is found that the temperature distribution in the extratropical troposphere may be determined by a linear, first-order partial differential equation. When the observed surface temperature distribution and tropical lapse rate are used as the boundary conditions, the solution of the equation is close to the observed temperature distribution except in the upper troposphere adjacent to the Hadley circulation, where the troposphere with no PV gradient is considerably colder. Consequently, the jet is also stronger. It is also found that the meridional distribution of the balanced zonal wind is very sensitive to the meridional distribution of the tropopause temperature. The result may suggest that the requirement of the global momentum balance has no practical role in determining the extratropical temperature distribution. The authors further investigated the sensitivity of the extratropical troposphere with constant PV along isentropes to changes in conditions at the tropical boundary (the edge of the Hadley circulation). It is found that the temperature and wind distributions in the extratropical troposphere are sensitive to the vertical distribution of PV at the tropical boundary. With a surface distribution of temperature that decreases linearly with latitude, the jet maximum occurs at the tropical boundary and moves with it. The overall pattern of wind distribution is not sensitive to the change of

  18. A technique for inferring zonal irregularity drift from single-station GNSS measurements of intensity (S4) and phase (σφ) scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, Charles S.; Groves, Keith M.; Rino, Charles L.; Doherty, Patricia H.

    2016-08-01

    The zonal drift of ionospheric irregularities at low latitudes is most commonly measured by cross-correlating observations of a scintillating satellite signal made with a pair of closely spaced antennas. The Air Force Research Laboratory-Scintillation Network Decision Aid (AFRL-SCINDA) network operates a small number of very high frequency (VHF) spaced-receiver systems at low latitudes for this purpose. A far greater number of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) scintillation monitors are operated by the AFRL-SCINDA network (25-30) and the Low-Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (35-50), but the receivers are too widely separated from each other for cross-correlation techniques to be effective. In this paper, we present an alternative approach that leverages the weak scatter scintillation theory to infer the zonal irregularity drift from single-station GNSS measurements of S4, σφ, and the propagation geometry. Unlike the spaced-receiver technique, this approach requires assumptions regarding the height of the scattering layer (which introduces a bias in the drift estimates) and the spectral index of the irregularities (which affects the spread of the drift estimates about the mean). Nevertheless, theory and experiment suggest that the ratio of σφ to S4 is less sensitive to these parameters than it is to the zonal drift. We validate the technique using VHF spaced-receiver measurements of zonal irregularity drift obtained from the AFRL-SCINDA network. While the spaced-receiver technique remains the preferred way to monitor the drift when closely spaced antenna pairs are available, our technique provides a new opportunity to monitor zonal irregularity drift using regional or global networks of widely separated GNSS scintillation monitors.

  19. Comparison of Photoacoustic Signals in Photosynthetic and Nonphotosynthetic Leaf Tissues of Variegated Pelargonium zonale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veljović-Jovanović, S.; Vidović, M.; Morina, F.; Prokić, Lj.; Todorović, D. M.

    2016-09-01

    Green-white variegated leaves of Pelargonium zonale were studied using the photoacoustic method. Our aim was to characterize photosynthetically active green tissue and nonphotosynthetically active white tissue by the photoacoustic amplitude signals. We observed lower stomatal conductance and higher leaf temperature in white tissue than in green tissue. Besides these thermal differences, significantly higher absorbance in green tissue was based on chlorophyll and carotenoids which were absent in white tissue. However, optical properties of epidermal layers of both tissues were equal. The photoacoustic amplitude of white tissue was over four times higher compared to green tissue, which was correlated with lower stomatal conductance. In addition, at frequencies >700 Hz, the significant differences between the photoacoustic signals of green and white tissue were obtained. We identified the photoacoustic signal deriving from photosynthetic oxygen evolution in green tissue, using high intensity of red light modulated at 10 Hz. Moreover, the photoacoustic amplitude of green tissue increased progressively with time which corresponded to the period of induction of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. For the first time, very high frequencies (1 kHz to 5 kHz) were applied on leaf material.

  20. Zonal mean wind, the Indian monsoon, and July drying in the western Atlantic subtropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Patrick; Mapes, Brian

    2011-11-01

    A fully closed zonal momentum budget is decomposed to explain the occurrence of zonal mean easterlies at subtropical latitudes in July. Eddy momentum fluxes from stationary eddies, most prominently the western sector of the Indian monsoon Tibetan High, are the primary mechanism governing the negative tendency of zonal mean momentum near 20°N-30°N. This strengthening of the zonal mean easterlies in July is significantly correlated with the concurrent strengthening of the North Atlantic Subtropical High (NASH) and the rainfall deficit in the western North Atlantic (WATL). Interannual variations of the Indian monsoon reflect changes in the strength of these zonal mean easterlies, with downstream teleconnections on the westward displacement of the NASH and precipitation in the WATL. An increase in rainfall in India from June to July corresponds to a decrease in rainfall in the WATL.

  1. Constraining the depth of Saturn’s zonal winds by measuring thermal and gravitational signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junjun; Schneider, Tapio; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2014-09-01

    Based on straightforward dynamical considerations, we show how available and upcoming measurements of Saturn’s thermal and gravitational signals can be used to constrain the depth to which its zonal winds penetrate. The dynamical considerations issue from the facts that Saturn has a strong intrinsic heat flux, rotates rapidly, and has negligible atmospheric viscosity. As a result, convective motions align with surfaces of constant specific angular momentum, which are, away from the equator, approximately cylinders concentric with the planet’s spin axis. Convective motions in the interior therefore tend to homogenize entropy in the direction of the spin axis, but not necessarily perpendicular to it. Using the assumption of interior entropy homogenization in the direction of the spin axis, we determine the zonal winds and their associated thermal and gravitational signals by combining thermal wind balance, the equation of state, the observed zonal winds at the cloud level, and estimates of the strength of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) drag that zonal winds experience in the deep interior. We find zonal winds likely extend deeply into Saturn, to a depth between about 0.63 and 0.83RS (with Saturn’s radius RS), or to pressures between 1.4 and 0.3 Mbar. The equation of state of hydrogen constrains zonal winds with strengths similar to the cloud level winds to be confined within the outer few percent of Saturn’s radius, with substantially weaker winds below, irrespective of where in the range of plausible estimates Saturn’s imprecisely known rotation rate falls. Depending on the rotation rate and the precise depth to which zonal winds penetrate, we estimate that the meridional equator-to-pole temperature contrasts in thermal wind balance with the inferred zonal winds increase with depth and reach 1-2 K at 1 bar and 2-4 K at 5 bar. They would be much larger if the cutoff radii of the zonal winds were much shallower than we estimate, but thermal observations by

  2. The residual zonal flow in tokamak plasmas toroidally rotating at arbitrary velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Deng

    2014-08-15

    Zonal flows, initially driven by ion-temperature-gradient turbulence, may evolve due to the neoclassic polarization in a collisionless tokamak plasma. In our previous work [D. Zhou, Nucl. Fusion 54, 042002 (2014)], the residual zonal flow in a tokamak plasma rotating toroidally at sonic speed is found to have the same form as that of a static plasma. In the present work, the form of the residual zonal flow is presented for tokamak plasmas rotating toroidally at arbitrary velocity. The gyro-kinetic equation is analytically solved for low speed rotation to give the expression of residual zonal flows, and the expression is then generalized for cases with arbitrary rotating velocity through interpolation. The zonal flow level decreases as the rotating velocity increases. The numerical evaluation is in good agreement with the former simulation result for high aspect ratio tokamaks.

  3. Finite element analysis and frequency shift studies for the bridge coupler of the coupled cavity linear accelerator of the spallation neutron source.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron scattering research facility. The linear accelerator (linac) is the principal accelerating structure and divided into a room-temperature linac and a superconducting linac. The normal conducting linac system that consists of a Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and a Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) is to be built by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The CCL structure is 55.36-meters long. It accelerates H- beam from 86.8 Mev to 185.6 Mev at operating frequency of 805 MHz. This side coupled cavity structure has 8 cells per segment, 12 segments and 11 bridge couplers per module, and 4 modules total. A 5-MW klystron powers each module. The number 3 and number 9 bridge coupler of each module are connected to the 5-MW RF power supply. The bridge coupler with length of 2.5 {beta}{gamma} is a three-cell structure and located between the segments and allows power flow through the module. The center cell of each bridge coupler is excited during normal operation. To obtain a uniform electromagnetic filed and meet the resonant frequency shift, the RF induced heat must be removed. Thus, the thermal deformation and frequency shift studies are performed via numerical simulations in order to have an appropriate cooling design and predict the frequency shift under operation. The center cell of the bridge coupler also contains a large 4-inch slug tuner and a tuning post that used to provide bulk frequency adjustment and field intensity adjustment, so that produce the proper total field distribution in the module assembly.

  4. Effectiveness of T-shaped acoustic resonators in low-frequency sound transmission control of a finite double-panel partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deyu; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Cheng, Li; Yu, Ganghua

    2010-10-01

    Double-panel partitions are widely used for sound insulation purposes. Their insulation efficiency is, however, deteriorated at low frequencies due to the structural and acoustic resonances. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes the use of long T-shaped acoustic resonators in a double-panel partition embedded along the edges. In order to facilitate the design and assess the performance of the structure, a general vibro-acoustic model, characterizing the interaction between the panels, air cavity, and integrated acoustic resonators, is developed. The effectiveness of the technique as well as the optimal locations of the acoustic resonators is examined at various frequencies where the system exhibits different coupling characteristics. The measured optimal locations are also compared with the predicted ones to verify the developed theory. Finally, the performance of the acoustic resonators in broadband sound transmission control is demonstrated.

  5. Titan's Temperature and Zonal Wind Structure and Seasonal Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flasar, F.; Achterberg, Richard; Schinder, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Titan's atmosphere near 80 km (20 mbar) marks the transition between large radiative damping times at lower altitudes, where seasonal variations are muted, and small damping times higher up, where temperatures and winds vary significantly over the year. Cassini CIRS and Radio-Occultation measurements obtained in 2004-2016 have tracked the evolution of temperatures and winds in Titan's atmosphere from early northern winter to late spring. In winter, the northern hemisphere was characterized by cold temperatures at high latitudes in the lower stratosphere and a strong circumpolar vortex that extended to subtropical northern latitudes. At high altitudes over the north pole, there was an elevated stratopause with a temperature roughly 30 K above the seasonal average, associated with subsidence and adiabatic warming. As the northern hemisphere has moved toward summer the dissolution of the circumpolar vortex has been gradual, and there is no evidence of rapid distortion and disruption forced by planetary waves like that seen on Earth. During this time, the southern hemisphere has cooled fairly abruptly at high latitudes. A circumpolar vortex has formed in the stratosphere, but it is more compact than seen in the north, with maximum winds at 60°S. Potential vorticity maps now indicate steep meridional gradients at high southern latitudes, implying a barrier to efficient mixing between the polar region and lower latitudes. One of the curious features of Titan's temperatures has been the destabilization seen in the winter north polar region, where negative temperature gradients were observed between 80 and 100 km. As the southern hemisphere moves toward winter, temperatures retrieved from radio occultation soundings have shown the early development this phenomenon at high southernlatitudes. The cause of the destabilization in winter may be associated with a cloud of organic ices. However, the transition region near 80 km is also where the zonal winds exhibit a sharp

  6. Recent pollen spectra and zonal vegetation in the western USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, G. M.

    The relationship of modern pollen spectra to present-day vegetation is critical to the reconstruction of vegetation and climate from fossil pollen spectra. This study uses isopoll maps to illustrate the pollen-vegetation relationships in the Soviet Union west of 100°E and presents descriptive statistics for 544 modern samples of arboreal pollen and for 370 samples of herb pollen obtained from the Soviet palynological literature. Data are assembled from this large geographic region and presented in a standardized form on a scale which can be used to relate quantitative pollen data to zonal vegetation and climatic variables and to make comparisons with other regions. In order to show the relationship between pollen types and major ecotones in forested and non-forested areas, the pollen data are presented as percentages of a sum including both arboreal and non-arboreal pollen. Major pollen types which attain values of 10% or more in at least one vegetation zone include Betula (birch), Cyperaceae (sedges), Picea (spruce), Pinus (total pine), Pinus sibirica, Ericaceae (heath family), Gramineae (grasses), Artemisia (sage), and Chenopodiaceae (i.e., saltbush, Russian thistle, pigweed family). Samples from the tundra and forest-tundra have high values of Ericaceae (heath family), birch, alder, and sedge pollen. In the boreal forest, pine, spruce, and birch pollen predominate. In the mixed and deciduous forests, Tilia (linden), Quercus (oak), Ulmus (elm), and Corylus (hazel) pollen attain maximum values. In the forest-steppe and steppe zones, arboreal pollen decreases in importance and is replaced by non-arboreal pollen types. Pollen of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae predominates in the semi-desert zones. In spite of variation in the pollen spectra arising from the use of different sediment types (soil, peat, and river sediments), and human disturbance of vegetation, the pollen spectra are clearly related to zonal vegetation. Pollen spectra from the western USSR show

  7. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; ...

    2016-12-16

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. But, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Furthermore, we derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta (“driftons”) as particles in phase space. The drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner–Moyal type, which is commonly known in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this formulation features additional termsmore » missing in the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the WKE. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed formulation can be considered as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion, or CE2.« less

  8. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2016-12-16

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. But, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Furthermore, we derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta (“driftons”) as particles in phase space. The drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner–Moyal type, which is commonly known in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this formulation features additional terms missing in the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the WKE. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed formulation can be considered as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion, or CE2.

  9. Comments on "extended zonal dislocations mediating ? ? twinning in titanium"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kadiri, Haitham; Barrett, Christopher D.

    2013-09-01

    In a recent paper, Li et al. (Philos. Mag. 92 (2012) p.1006) used results of atomistic simulations to advance a growth mechanism of ? ? twinning in titanium based on the concept of two elementary twinning dislocations which nucleate and glide in pairs but separately and sequentially on two neighbouring planes. This new Comment was stimulated after A. Serra, D.J. Bacon and R.C. Pond privately raised concerns on this growth model to one of the present authors, H. El Kadiri, who This was a co-author of the original paper (Philos. Mag. 92 (2012) p.1006). We repeated the simulations and obtained nearly the same simulations results as Li et al. However, after re-analysing these results, we have concluded that the extended extrinsic zonal dislocation mechanism claimed to be that for twin growth in titanium is in fact false, confirming the accuracy of the Comment by Serra et al that results of Li and co-authors were misinterpreted.

  10. Zonal Flow Velocimetry in Spherical Couette Flow using Acoustic Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew M.; Mautino, Anthony R.; Stone, Douglas R.; Triana, Santiago A.; Lekic, Vedran; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2015-11-01

    We present studies of spherical Couette flows using the technique of acoustic mode Doppler velocimetry. This technique uses rotational splittings of acoustic modes to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of a rotating flow, and is of special interest in experiments where direct flow visualization is impractical. The primary experimental system consists of a 60 cm diameter outer spherical shell concentric with a 20 cm diameter sphere, with air or nitrogen gas serving as the working fluid. The geometry of the system approximates that of the Earth's core, making these studies geophysically relevant. A turbulent shear flow is established in the system by rotating the inner sphere and outer shell at different rates. Acoustic modes of the fluid volume are excited using a speaker and measured via microphones, allowingdetermination of rotational splittings. Preliminary results comparing observed splittings with those predicted by theory are presented. While the majority of these studies were performed in the 60 cm diameter device using nitrogen gas, some work has also been done looking at acoustic modes in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Prospects for measuring zonal velocity profiles in a wide variety of experiments are discussed.

  11. Dynamics of zonal flows: failure of wave-kinetic theory, and new geometrical optics approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey B.

    2016-12-01

    The self-organisation of turbulence into regular zonal flows can be fruitfully investigated with quasi-linear methods and statistical descriptions. A wave-kinetic equation that assumes asymptotically large-scale zonal flows leads to ultraviolet divergence. From an exact description of quasi-linear dynamics emerges two better geometrical optics approximations. These involve not only the mean flow shear but also the second and third derivative of the mean flow. One approximation takes the form of a new wave-kinetic equation, but is only valid when the zonal flow is quasi-static and wave action is conserved.

  12. Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.

  13. Zonal Flow as Pattern Formation: Merging Jets and the Ultimate Jet Length Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey B. Parker and John A. Krommes

    2013-01-30

    Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. It is shown that for statisti- cally averaged equations of quasigeostrophic turbulence on a beta plane, zonal flows and inhomoge- neous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.

  14. Novel design for zonal flow probe arrays in the HL-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Longwen; Hong, Wenyu; Zhao, Kaijun; Dong, Jiaqi; Cheng, Jun; Qian, Jun; Yu, Deliang; Luo, Cuiwen; Xu, Zhengyu; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Qingwei; Ding, Xuantong

    2006-11-01

    A novel design of three-step Langmuir probe (TSLP) array has been developed for zonal flow (ZF) studies in the HL-2A tokamak. Three TSLP arrays are used to determine three-dimensional (3D) features of the ZFs. Two TSLP arrays are located in the same poloidal plane at a 6.5cm separation, while the third TSLP array is separated toroidally by 80cm. A fourth TSLP array driven by pneumatically reciprocating system is applied for boundary parameter profile measurements within 8cm. The TSLP structure is described in detail. The measured 3D properties of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) ZFs are described and the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers (m<2,n˜0) are simultaneously determined in the HL-2A tokamak for the first time. The radial wave vector at the GAM frequency is estimated as 2.6±0.2cm-1, corresponding to radial scale length of 2.4cm.

  15. Zonal Flow Velocimetry using Acoustic Modes in Experimental Models of a Planetary Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. M.; Mautino, A. R.; Stone, D.; Triana, S. A.; Lekic, V.; Lathrop, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Rotating hydromagnetic experiments can serve as models of planetary cores, matching some of the dimensionless parameters relevant to planets. One challenge with such experiments is determining the flows present. The opacity of the fluids used in these experiments (e.g. liquid sodium) prevents direct flow visualization techniques from being employed. One method allowing determination of zonal flows in such experiments is acoustic mode velocimetry. In this technique, the rotational splittings of acoustic mode spectra are used to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of the flow. Here we present the use of this technique to study flows in experimental models of the Earth's core. Most of these results were obtained in a 60 cm diameter spherical Couette device, with a 20 cm diameter inner sphere, and using nitrogen gas as the working fluid. Turbulent flow is driven in the system via differential rotation of the outer shell and inner sphere. Acoustic modes are excited in the fluid volume using a speaker, and microphones are used to measure the frequencies and rotational splittings of the modes. We compare the observed splittings with those predicted by theory as a way of validating the method, and infer mean flows from these observations. We also present some preliminary results of acoustic studies in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Finally, we discuss future prospects for this experimental technique.

  16. Fundamental Scalings of Zonal Flows in a Basic Plasma Physics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir; Wei, Xiao; Sen, Amiya K.

    2007-11-01

    A basic physics experimental study of zonal flows (ZF) associated with ITG (ion temperature gradient) drift modes has been performed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM) and ZF has been definitively identified [1]. However, in contrast to most tokamak experiments, the stabilizing effect of ZF shear to ITG appears to be small in CLM. We now report on the study of important scaling behavior of ZF. First and most importantly, we report on the collisional damping scaling of ZF, which is considered to be its saturation mechanism [2]. By varying the sum of ion-ion and ion-neutral collision frequency over nearly half an order of magnitude, we find no change in the amplitude of ZF. Secondly, we study the scaling of ZF amplitude with ITG amplitude via increasing ITG drive though ηi, as well as feedback (stabilizing / destabilizing). We have observed markedly different scaling near and far above marginal stability. [1] V. Sokolov, X. Wei, A.K. Sen and K. Avinash, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 48, S111 (2006). [2] P.H. Diamond, S.-I. Itoh, K.Itoh and T.S. Hahm, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 47, R35 (2005).

  17. Investigating the zonal wind response to SST warming using transient ensemble AGCM experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palipane, Erool; Lu, Jian; Staten, Paul; Chen, Gang; Schneider, Edwin K.

    2017-01-01

    The response of the atmospheric circulation to greenhouse gas-induced SST warming is investigated using large ensemble experiments with two AGCMs, with a focus on the robust feature of the poleward shift of the eddy driven jet. In these experiments, large ensembles of simulations are conducted by abruptly switching the SST forcing on from January 1st to focus on the wintertime circulation adjustment. A hybrid, finite amplitude wave activity budget analysis is performed to elucidate the nonlinear and irreversible aspects of the eddy-mean flow interaction during the adjustment of the zonal wind towards a poleward shifted state. The results confirm the results from earlier more idealized studies, particularly the importance of reduced dissipation of wave activity, in which the midlatitude decrease of effective diffusivity appears to be dominant. This reduction in dissipation increases the survival of midlatitude waves. These surviving waves, when reaching the upper propagation level in the upper troposphere, are subject to the influence of the increase of reflection phase speed at the poleward side of the mean jet, and thus more waves are reflected equatorward across the jet, giving rise to a poleward transport of momentum and thus an eddy momentum flux convergence for the poleward shift. The relative importance of wave breaking-induced PV mixing versus diabatic PV source in the evolution of the Lagrangian PV gradient is also investigated. The former plays the dominant role in the PV gradient formation during the initial phase of the jet shift, while the latter actually opposes the evolution of the Lagrangian PV gradient at times.

  18. Rossby-Khantadze electromagnetic planetary waves driven by sheared zonal winds in the E-layer ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Futatani, S.; Horton, W.; Kahlon, L. Z.; Kaladze, T. D.

    2015-01-15

    Nonlinear simulations of electromagnetic Rossby and Khantadze planetary waves in the presence of a shearless and sheared zonal flows in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer are carried out. The simulations show that the nonlinear action of the vortex structures keeps the solitary character in the presence of shearless zonal winds as well as the ideal solutions of solitary vortex in the absence of zonal winds. In the presence of sheared zonal winds, the zonal flows result in breaking into separate multiple smaller pieces. A passively convected scalar field is shown to clarify the transport associated with the vortices. The work shows that the zonal shear flows provide an energy source into the vortex structure according to the shear rate of the zonal winds.

  19. Thermodynamic and dynamic controls on changes in the zonally anomalous hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Robert C.; Byrne, Michael P.; Schneider, Tapio

    2016-05-01

    The wet gets wetter, dry gets drier paradigm explains the expected moistening of the extratropics and drying of the subtropics as the atmospheric moisture content increases with global warming. Here we show, using precipitation minus evaporation (P - E) data from climate models, that it cannot be extended to apply regionally to deviations from the zonal mean. Wet and dry zones shift substantially in response to shifts in the stationary-eddy circulations that cause them. Additionally, atmospheric circulation changes lead to a smaller increase in the zonal variance of P - E than would be expected from atmospheric moistening alone. The P - E variance change can be split into dynamic and thermodynamic components through an analysis of the atmospheric moisture budget. This reveals that a weakening of stationary-eddy circulations and changes in the zonal variation of transient-eddy moisture fluxes moderate the strengthening of the zonally anomalous hydrological cycle with global warming.

  20. Theory of Fine-scale Zonal Flow Generation From Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm

    2009-06-11

    Most existing zonal flow generation theory has been developed with a usual assumption of qrρθ¡ << 1 (qr is the radial wave number of zonal flow, and ρθ¡ is the ion poloidal gyrora- dius). However, recent nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence exhibit a relatively short radial scale of the zonal flows with qrρθ¡ ~ 1 [Z. Lin et al., IAEA-CN/TH/P2-8 (2006); D. Ernst et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 055906 (2009)]. This work reports an extension of zonal flow growth calculation to this short wavelength regime via the wave kinetics approach. A generalized expression for the polarization shielding for arbitrary radial wavelength [Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm, to appear in Phys. Plasmas (2009)] which extends the Rosenbluth-Hinton formula in the long wavelength limit is applied.

  1. Two- and three-dimensional natural and mixed convection simulation using modular zonal models

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, E.; Nataf, J.M.; Winkelmann, F.

    1996-07-01

    We demonstrate the use of the zonal model approach, which is a simplified method for calculating natural and mixed convection in rooms. Zonal models use a coarse grid and use balance equations, state equations, hydrostatic pressure drop equations and power law equations of the form {ital m} = {ital C}{Delta}{sup {ital n}}. The advantage of the zonal approach and its modular implementation are discussed. The zonal model resolution of nonlinear equation systems is demonstrated for three cases: a 2-D room, a 3-D room and a pair of 3-D rooms separated by a partition with an opening. A sensitivity analysis with respect to physical parameters and grid coarseness is presented. Results are compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and experimental data.

  2. Stationary Zonal Flows during the Formation of the Edge Transport Barrier in the JET Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillesheim, J. C.; Delabie, E.; Meyer, H.; Maggi, C. F.; Meneses, L.; Poli, E.; JET Contributors; EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB, United Kingdom

    2016-02-01

    High spatial resolution Doppler backscattering measurements in JET have enabled new insights into the development of the edge Er. We observe fine-scale spatial structures in the edge Er well with a wave number krρi≈0.4 -0.8 , consistent with stationary zonal flows, the characteristics of which vary with density. The zonal flow amplitude and wavelength both decrease with local collisionality, such that the zonal flow E ×B shear increases. Above the minimum of the L -H transition power threshold dependence on density, the zonal flows are present during L mode and disappear following the H -mode transition, while below the minimum they are reduced below measurable amplitude during L mode, before the L -H transition.

  3. Quasi-Stationary Zonally Asymmetric Circulations in the Equatorial Lower Mesosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchman, Matthew H.; Leovy, Conway B.; Gille, John C.; Bailey, Paul L.

    1987-08-01

    Data from the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) are used to identify a new type of planetary scale disturbance in the equatorial lower mesosphere during northern winter 1978/79. The disturbances consist of two or three vertically stacked temperature extrema of alternating sign. They persist for as long as two weeks and do not propagate. Their occurrence is confined to regions of very weak or negative inertial stability, and their meridional to vertical aspect ratio, meridional structure and zonal spectrum are consistent with disturbances predicted by inertial instability theory. However, they are found only when there is strong forcing of the subtropical mesosphere by zonal wavenumber one and two Rossby waves. This fact, together with the absence of zonal propagation, suggests that stationary Rossby waves determine their occurrence and longitudinal structure. These structures can significantly modify the zonal mean flow and should be taken into account in dynamical models of the equatorial mesosphere.

  4. Stationary zonal flows during the formation of the edge transport barrier in the JET tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesheim, J. C.; Meyer, H.; Maggi, C. F.; Meneses, L.; Poli, E.; Delabie, E.

    2016-02-10

    In this study, high spatial resolution Doppler backscattering measurements in JET have enabled new insights into the development of the edge Er. We observe fine-scale spatial structures in the edge Er well with a wave number krρi ≈ 0.4-0.8, consistent with stationary zonal flows, the characteristics of which vary with density. The zonal flow amplitude and wavelength both decrease with local collisionality, such that the zonal flow E x B shear increases. Above the minimum of the L-H transition power threshold dependence on density, the zonal flows are present during L mode and disappear following the H-mode transition, while below the minimum they are reduced below measurable amplitude during L mode, before the L-H transition.

  5. Stationary zonal flows during the formation of the edge transport barrier in the JET tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Hillesheim, J. C.; Meyer, H.; Maggi, C. F.; ...

    2016-02-10

    In this study, high spatial resolution Doppler backscattering measurements in JET have enabled new insights into the development of the edge Er. We observe fine-scale spatial structures in the edge Er well with a wave number krρi ≈ 0.4-0.8, consistent with stationary zonal flows, the characteristics of which vary with density. The zonal flow amplitude and wavelength both decrease with local collisionality, such that the zonal flow E x B shear increases. Above the minimum of the L-H transition power threshold dependence on density, the zonal flows are present during L mode and disappear following the H-mode transition, while belowmore » the minimum they are reduced below measurable amplitude during L mode, before the L-H transition.« less

  6. Ion Layer Separation and Equilibrium Zonal Winds in Midlatitude Sporadic E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earle, G. D.; Kane, T. J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Bounds, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    In-situ observations of a moderately strong mid-latitude sporadic-E layer show a separation in altitude between distinct sublayers composed of Fe(+), Mg(+), and NO(+). From these observations it is possible to estimate the zonal wind field consistent with diffusive equilibrium near the altitude of the layer. The amplitude of the zonal wind necessary to sustain the layer against diffusive effects is less than 10 meters per second, and the vertical wavelength is less than 10 km.

  7. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  8. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  9. Atmospheric Response to Zonal Variations in Midlatitude SST: Transient and Stationary Eddies and Their Feedback(.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatsu, Masaru; Mukougawa, Hitoshi; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2003-10-01

    Midwinter storm track response to zonal variations in midlatitude sea surface temperatures (SSTs) has been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model under aquaplanet and perpetual-January conditions. Zonal wavenumber-1 SST variations with a meridionally confined structure are placed at various latitudes. Having these SST variations centered at 30°N leads to a zonally localized storm track, while the storm track becomes nearly zonally uniform when the same SST forcing is moved farther north at 40° and 50°N. Large (small) baroclinic energy conversion north of the warm (cold) SST anomaly near the axis of the storm track (near 40°N) is responsible for the large (small) storm growth. The equatorward transfer of eddy kinetic energy by the ageostrophic motion and the mechanical damping are important to diminish the storm track activity in the zonal direction.Significant stationary eddies form in the upper troposphere, with a ridge (trough) northeast of the warm (cold) SST anomaly at 30°N. Heat and vorticity budget analyses indicate that zonally localized condensational heating in the storm track is the major cause for these stationary eddies, which in turn exert a positive feedback to maintain the localized storm track by strengthening the vertical shear near the surface. These results indicate an active role of synoptic eddies in inducing deep, tropospheric-scale response to midlatitude SST variations. Finally, the application of the model results to the real atmosphere is discussed.

  10. Dynamics of Zonal FLow Instability and Saturation in Drift Wave Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katt, S. T.; Kim, E.; Diamond, P. H.

    2001-10-01

    We study generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz (GKH) instability as a saturation mechanism for a collisionless zonal flow in the background of drift waves. By treating drift waves as adiabatically modified by GKH, we investigate the modulation instability of drift waves due to GKH modes as well as the linear inflection-type instability of zonal flow. In the case where zonal flows evolve on the time scale much larger than GKH mode, GKH mode is shown to become destabilized not only by the linear instability of zonal flow but also by coupling to drift waves, with a growth rate which is enhanced over the linear value. Furthermore, the nonlinear (modulational) generation of a zonal flow is estimated to dominate over that of GKH. Our results indicate that GKH may not play an important role in a collisionless saturation of zonal flow, in contrast to [1] and [2]. The effect of temperature fluctuation will be discussed. [1] B.N. Rogers, W. Dorland, and M. Kotschenreuther, PRL, 85, 5336, (2000). [2] Y. Idomura, M. Wakatani, and S. Tokuda, PoP, 7, 3551, (2000).

  11. Tightly linked zonal and meridional sea surface temperature gradients over the past five million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Alexey V.; Burls, Natalie J.; Lawrence, Kira T.; Peterson, Laura C.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the tropics and surrounding regions is defined by pronounced zonal (east-west) and meridional (equator to mid-latitudes) gradients in sea surface temperature. These gradients control zonal and meridional atmospheric circulations, and thus the Earth’s climate. Global cooling over the past five million years, since the early Pliocene epoch, was accompanied by the gradual strengthening of these temperature gradients. Here we use records from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, including a new alkenone palaeotemperature record from the South Pacific, to reconstruct changes in zonal and meridional sea surface temperature gradients since the Pliocene, and assess their connection using a comprehensive climate model. We find that the reconstructed zonal and meridional temperature gradients vary coherently over this time frame, showing a one-to-one relationship between their changes. In our model simulations, we systematically reduce the meridional sea surface temperature gradient by modifying the latitudinal distribution of cloud albedo or atmospheric CO2 concentration. The simulated zonal temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific adjusts proportionally. These experiments and idealized modelling indicate that the meridional temperature gradient controls upper-ocean stratification in the tropics, which in turn controls the zonal gradient along the equator, as well as heat export from the tropical oceans. We conclude that this tight linkage between the two sea surface temperature gradients posits a fundamental constraint on both past and future climates.

  12. Fluctuating zonal flows in the I-mode regime in Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cziegler, I.; Diamond, P. H.; Fedorczak, N.; Manz, P.; Tynan, G. R.; Xu, M.; Churchill, R. M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Lipschultz, B.; Sierchio, J. M.; Terry, J. L.; Theiler, C.

    2013-05-01

    Velocity fields and density fluctuations of edge turbulence are studied in I-mode [F. Ryter et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 40, 725 (1998)] plasmas of the Alcator C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] tokamak, which are characterized by a strong thermal transport barrier in the edge while providing little or no barrier to the transport of both bulk and impurity particles. Although previous work showed no clear geodesic-acoustic modes (GAM) on C-Mod, using a newly implemented, gas-puff-imaging based time-delay-estimate velocity inference algorithm, GAM are now shown to be ubiquitous in all I-mode discharges examined to date, with the time histories of the GAM and the I-mode specific [D. Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)] Weakly Coherent Mode (WCM, f = 100-300 kHz, Δf/f≈0.5, and kθ≈1.3 cm-1) closely following each other through the entire duration of the regime. Thus, the I-mode presents an example of a plasma state in which zero frequency zonal flows and GAM continuously coexist. Using two-field (density-velocity and radial-poloidal velocity) bispectral methods, the GAM are shown to be coupled to the WCM and to be responsible for its broad frequency structure. The effective nonlinear growth rate of the GAM is estimated, and its comparison to the collisional damping rate seems to suggest a new view on I-mode threshold physics.

  13. The Nonmigrating Semidiurnal Tide With Zonal Wavenumber One Observed Over South Pole and its Relationship With the Stationary Planetary Wave With Zonal Wavenumber One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, E. M.; Palo, S. E.; Avery, S. K.; Avery, J. P.; Makarov, N. A.

    2006-12-01

    Early observations of the dynamical features of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) over the geographic South Pole revealed the existence of a nonmigrating component of the semidiurnal tide with zonal wavenumber one. Further observational studies have documented the seasonal and interannual behavior of this semidiurnal tide component. These observations have determined that this tide maximizes during the austral summer reaching amplitudes around 20~m/s and disappears during the winter. Moreover, significant amplitude variations have been measured during the summer months. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the source of this semidiurnal tide component but recent studies favor the nonlinear interaction of a stationary planetary wave with zonal wavenumber one and the migrating semidiurnal tide as the source of the observed oscillation. Continuous observations of the MLT dynamics over the South Pole have been possible since the installation of a meteor radar at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in 2001. The seasonal, interannual, and spatial behavior of the semidiurnal tide with zonal wavenumber one has been and continues to be observed using this meteor radar. In this paper we explore the relationship between our meteor radar measurements of the aforementioned semidiurnal tide component and observations of the stationary planetary wave with zonal wavenumber one obtained from other sources.

  14. Zonal management of arsenic contaminated ground water in Northwestern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jason; Hossain, Faisal; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C

    2009-09-01

    This paper used ordinary kriging to spatially map arsenic contamination in shallow aquifers of Northwestern Bangladesh (total area approximately 35,000 km(2)). The Northwestern region was selected because it represents a relatively safer source of large-scale and affordable water supply for the rest of Bangladesh currently faced with extensive arsenic contamination in drinking water (such as the Southern regions). Hence, the work appropriately explored sustainability issues by building upon a previously published study (Hossain et al., 2007; Water Resources Management, vol. 21: 1245-1261) where a more general nation-wide assessment afforded by kriging was identified. The arsenic database for reference comprised the nation-wide survey (of 3534 drinking wells) completed in 1999 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) in collaboration with the Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE) of Bangladesh. Randomly sampled networks of zones from this reference database were used to develop an empirical variogram and develop maps of zonal arsenic concentration for the Northwestern region. The remaining non-sampled zones from the reference database were used to assess the accuracy of the kriged maps. Two additional criteria were explored: (1) the ability of geostatistical interpolators such as kriging to extrapolate information on spatial structure of arsenic contamination beyond small-scale exploratory domains; (2) the impact of a priori knowledge of anisotropic variability on the effectiveness of geostatistically based management. On the average, the kriging method was found to have a 90% probability of successful prediction of safe zones according to the WHO safe limit of 10ppb while for the Bangladesh safe limit of 50ppb, the safe zone prediction probability was 97%. Compared to the previous study by Hossain et al. (2007) over the rest of the contaminated country side, the probability of successful detection of safe zones in the Northwest is observed to be about 25

  15. Zonal Flow Magnetic Field Interaction in the Semi-Conducting Region of Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hao; Stevenson, David J.

    2016-10-01

    All four giant planets in the Solar System feature zonal flows on the order of 100 m/s in the cloud deck, and large-scale intrinsic magnetic fields on the order of 1 Gauss near the surface. The vertical structure of the zonal flows remains obscure. The end-member scenarios are shallow flows confined in the radiative atmosphere and deep flows throughout the planet with constant velocity along the direction of the spin-axis. The electrical conductivity increases smoothly as a function of depth inside Jupiter and Saturn, while a discontinuity of electrical conductivity inside Uranus and Neptune cannot be ruled out. Deep zonal flows will inevitably interact with the magnetic field, at depth with even modest electrical conductivity. Here we investigate the interaction between zonal flows and magnetic fields in the semi-conducting region of giant planets. Employing mean-field electrodynamics, we show that the interaction will generate detectable poloidal magnetic field perturbations spatially correlated with the deep zonal flows. Assuming the peak amplitude of the dynamo α-effect to be 0.1 mm/s, deep zonal flows on the order of 0.1 - 1 m/s in the semi-conducting region of Jupiter and Saturn would generate poloidal magnetic perturbations on the order of 0.01 % - 1 % of the background dipole field. These poloidal perturbations should be detectable with the in-situ magnetic field measurements from the upcoming Juno mission and the Cassini Grand Finale. This implies that magnetic field measurements can be employed to constrain the properties of deep zonal flows in the semi-conducting region of giant planets.

  16. Planetesimal Formation in Zonal Flows Arising in Magneto-Rotationally-Unstable Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, Karsten; Klahr, Hubert; Johansen, Anders

    2014-04-01

    Recent simulations show long -lived sub- and super-Keplerian flows in protoplanetary disks. These so-called zonal flows are found in local as well as global simulations of magneto-rotationally unstable disks. We investigate the strength and life-time of the resulting long-lived gas over- and under-densities as well as particle concentrations function of the azimuthal and radial size of the local shearing box. Changes in the azimuthal extent do not affect the zonal flow features. However, strength and life-time of zonal flows increase with increasing radial box sizes. Our simulations show indications, and support earlier results, that zonal flows have a natural length scale of approximately 5 pressure scale heights. For the first time, the reaction of dust particles in boxes with zonal flows are studied. We show that particles of some centimeters in size reach a hundred-fold higher density than initially, without any self-gravitating forces acting on the point masses. We further investigate collision velocities of dust grains in a turbulent medium.

  17. Buoyancy storms in a zonal stream on the polar beta-plane: Experiments with altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Y.; Afanasyev, Y. D.

    2013-06-01

    Results from a new series of experiments on flows generated by localized heating in the presence of a background zonal current on the polar β-plane are presented. The flow induced by a heater without the background zonal flow is in the form of a β-plume. Zonal jets of alternating directions are formed within the plume. The westward transport velocity in the plume is proportional to the upwelling velocity above the heater in agreement with linear theory. When the background flow in the form of the eastward zonal current is present, the β-plume can be overwhelmed by the eastward current. The main control parameters of the experiment are the strength of the heater and strength of the sink which is used to create the background flow. The regime diagram shows the area where a β-plume can exist in the parameter space. The critical value of the velocity of the zonal flow below which the β-plume can exist is obtained by considering barotropic Rossby waves emitted by the baroclinic eddies in the heated area.

  18. Self-regulating Drift wave -- Zonal Flow turbulence in a linear plasma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jinlin; Chen, Ran; Hu, Guanghai; Jin, Xiaoli; Li, Hong; Liu, Wandong; Yu, Changxuan

    2012-10-01

    Here we report new and interesting results about the DW-ZF system in a linear plasma device with much better control environments to illustrate important Zonal flow physics: (1) The three-dimensional spectral features of the LFZF have been provided. In particular, it is identified that the LFZF damping is dominated by ion-neutral collision in our case. Also experimental evidence of the shearing effect of ZF on DW has been given. (2) A zonal flow dominated state of the DW-ZF system has been achieved. Theoretically, it has been predicted that a significant portion of the turbulence energy can be stored in the Zonal Flows for the case of low collisionality plasmas. In our experiments we achieve a zonal flow dominated state, in which the maximum ratio of the ZF energy to the total turbulence energy is about 80%, which seems to support the hypothesis of zonostropic state in geostrophic turbulence. (3) The self-regulating dynamics in the DW-ZF system is clearly elucidated. The evolution of the energy partition ratio of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flow is investigated with varying magnetic field strength, which is found consistent with the general prey-predator model.

  19. Calculation of Zonal Winds using Accelerometer and Rate Data from Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Darren T.; Tolson, Robert; Bougher, Stephen; Steers, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft was initially placed into a high eccentricity, nearly polar orbit about Mars with a 45-hour period. To accomplish the science objectives of the mission, a 2-hour, circular orbit was required. Using a method known as aerobraking, numerous passes through the upper atmosphere slowed the spacecraft, thereby reducing the orbital period and eccentricity. To successfully perform aerobraking, the spacecraft was designed to be longitudinally, aerodynamically stable in pitch and yaw. Since the orbit is nearly polar, the yaw orientation of the spacecraft was sensitive to disturbances caused by the zonal components of wind (east-to-west or west-to-east) acting on the spacecraft at aerobraking altitudes. Zonal wind velocities were computed by equating the aerodynamic and inertia-related torques acting on the spacecraft. Comparisons of calculated zonal winds with those computed from the Mars Thermospheric Global Circulation Model are discussed.

  20. Eddy, drift wave and zonal flow dynamics in a linear magnetized plasma

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, H.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasuya, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Yamada, T.; Lesur, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence and its structure formation are universal in neutral fluids and in plasmas. Turbulence annihilates global structures but can organize flows and eddies. The mutual-interactions between flow and the eddy give basic insights into the understanding of non-equilibrium and nonlinear interaction by turbulence. In fusion plasma, clarifying structure formation by Drift-wave turbulence, driven by density gradients in magnetized plasma, is an important issue. Here, a new mutual-interaction among eddy, drift wave and flow in magnetized plasma is discovered. A two-dimensional solitary eddy, which is a perturbation with circumnavigating motion localized radially and azimuthally, is transiently organized in a drift wave – zonal flow (azimuthally symmetric band-like shear flows) system. The excitation of the eddy is synchronized with zonal perturbation. The organization of the eddy has substantial impact on the acceleration of zonal flow. PMID:27628894

  1. Convergence acceleration for a three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes zonal approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, J.

    1985-01-01

    A fast diagonal algorithm is coupled with a zonal approach to solve the three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. Transonic viscous solutions are obtained on a 150,000 point mesh for a NACA 0012 wing. The new computational approach yields a speedup by as much as a factor of 40 over the standard Beam-Warming algorithm/zonal method originally coded. A three-order-of-magnitude drop in the L2-norm of the residual requires approximately 500 iterations, which takes about 45 min of CPU time on a Cray-XMP. The numerically computed solutions are in good agreement with experimental results. Effects on convergence rate owing to increasing the zonal boundary overlap regions, different stretching distributions in the viscous regions, and different CFL values are also explored.

  2. Daytime vertical and zonal velocities from 150-km echoes: Their relevance to F-region dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Jorge L.; Woodman, Ronald F.

    2004-09-01

    As it was suggested by Kudeki and Fawcett [1993], and later shown by Woodman and Villanueva [1995], vertical Doppler velocities of daytime 150-km echoes represent the vertical E × B drift velocities at F region altitudes. Recently a special experiment was conducted to compare not only the vertical but also the zonal velocities from 150-km echoes with those from an incoherent scatter radar (ISR) mode perpendicular to the magnetic field. The vertical velocity comparisons show that (1) there is a very good agreement between 150-km velocity and the mean F-region E × B drift, and (2) much better agreement is found with the extrapolated values from the ISR altitudinal profiles. On the other hand poor-to-good agreement is found between their zonal components. Our preliminary zonal velocity results, indicate that there is a poor agreement before noontime, while better agreement is found in the afternoon.

  3. Conservative zonal schemes for patched grids in 2 and 3 dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hessenius, Kristin A.

    1987-01-01

    The computation of flow over complex geometries, such as realistic aircraft configurations, poses difficult grid generation problems for computational aerodynamicists. The creation of a traditional, single-module grid of acceptable quality about an entire configuration may be impossible even with the most sophisticated of grid generation techniques. A zonal approach, wherein the flow field is partitioned into several regions within which grids are independently generated, is a practical alternative for treating complicated geometries. This technique not only alleviates the problems of discretizing a complex region, but also facilitates a block processing approach to computation thereby circumventing computer memory limitations. The use of such a zonal scheme, however, requires the development of an interfacing procedure that ensures a stable, accurate, and conservative calculation for the transfer of information across the zonal borders.

  4. Collisional Scaling of the Energy Transfer in Drift-Wave Zonal Flow Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, B.; Manz, P.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.

    2017-02-01

    The collisionality scaling of density and potential coupling together with zonal flow energy transfer and spectral power is investigated at the stellarator experiment TJ-K. With a poloidal probe array, consisting of 128 Langmuir probes, density and potential fluctuations are measured on four neighboring flux surfaces simultaneously over the complete poloidal circumference. By analyzing Reynolds stress and pseudo-Reynolds stress, it is found that, for increasing collisionality, the coupling between density and potential decreases which hinders the zonal flow drive. Also, as a consequence, the nonlinear energy transfer, as well as the zonal flow contribution to the complete turbulent spectrum, decreases the same way. This is in line with theoretical expectations and is a first experimental verification of the importance of collisionality for large-scale structure formation in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas.

  5. Eddy, drift wave and zonal flow dynamics in a linear magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, H.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasuya, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Yamada, T.; Lesur, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-09-01

    Turbulence and its structure formation are universal in neutral fluids and in plasmas. Turbulence annihilates global structures but can organize flows and eddies. The mutual-interactions between flow and the eddy give basic insights into the understanding of non-equilibrium and nonlinear interaction by turbulence. In fusion plasma, clarifying structure formation by Drift-wave turbulence, driven by density gradients in magnetized plasma, is an important issue. Here, a new mutual-interaction among eddy, drift wave and flow in magnetized plasma is discovered. A two-dimensional solitary eddy, which is a perturbation with circumnavigating motion localized radially and azimuthally, is transiently organized in a drift wave – zonal flow (azimuthally symmetric band-like shear flows) system. The excitation of the eddy is synchronized with zonal perturbation. The organization of the eddy has substantial impact on the acceleration of zonal flow.

  6. Collisional Scaling of the Energy Transfer in Drift-Wave Zonal Flow Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Schmid, B; Manz, P; Ramisch, M; Stroth, U

    2017-02-03

    The collisionality scaling of density and potential coupling together with zonal flow energy transfer and spectral power is investigated at the stellarator experiment TJ-K. With a poloidal probe array, consisting of 128 Langmuir probes, density and potential fluctuations are measured on four neighboring flux surfaces simultaneously over the complete poloidal circumference. By analyzing Reynolds stress and pseudo-Reynolds stress, it is found that, for increasing collisionality, the coupling between density and potential decreases which hinders the zonal flow drive. Also, as a consequence, the nonlinear energy transfer, as well as the zonal flow contribution to the complete turbulent spectrum, decreases the same way. This is in line with theoretical expectations and is a first experimental verification of the importance of collisionality for large-scale structure formation in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas.

  7. Zonally averaged model of dynamics, chemistry and radiation for the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, K. K.

    1985-01-01

    A nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation is formulated using the nonlinear primitive equations on a sphere, taking advantage of the more direct relationship between the mean meridional circulation and diabatic heating rate which is available in isentropic coordinates. Possible differences between results of nongeostrophic theory and the commonly used geostrophic formulation are discussed concerning: (1) the role of eddy forcing of the diabatic circulation, and (2) the nonlinear nearly inviscid limit vs the geostrophic limit. Problems associated with the traditional Rossby number scaling in quasi-geostrophic formulations are pointed out and an alternate, more general scaling based on the smallness of mean meridional to zonal velocities for a rotating planet is suggested. Such a scaling recovers the geostrophic balanced wind relationship for the mean zonal flow but reveals that the mean meridional velocity is in general ageostrophic.

  8. A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields is based on the coupling of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code to a potential flow code. By minimizing the extent of the viscous Navier-Stokes zones the zonal method can be a cost effective flow analysis tool. The successful coupling of the zonal solutions provides the viscous/inviscid interations that are necessary to achieve convergent and unique overall solutions. The feasibility of coupling the two vastly different codes is demonstrated. The interzone boundaries were overlapped to facilitate the passing of boundary condition information between the codes. Routines were developed to extract the normal velocity boundary conditions for the potential flow zone from the viscous zone solution. Similarly, the velocity vector direction along with the total conditions were obtained from the potential flow solution to provide boundary conditions for the Navier-Stokes solution. Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the overlap of the interzone boundaries and the convergence of the zonal solutions on the convergence of the overall solution. The zonal method was applied to a jet impingement problem to model the suckdown effect that results from the entrainment of the inviscid zone flow by the viscous zone jet. The resultant potential flow solution created a lower pressure on the base of the vehicle which produces the suckdown load. The feasibility of the zonal method was demonstrated. By enhancing the Navier-Stokes code for powered-lift flow fields and optimizing the convergence of the coupled analysis a practical flow analysis tool will result.

  9. Shear in the zonal drifts of 3 m irregularities inside spread F plumes observed over Sanya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guozhu; Ning, Baiqi; Liu, Libo; Abdu, M. A.; Wan, Weixing; Hu, Lianhuan

    2015-09-01

    Incoherent scatter radars near magnetic equator regularly measured a vertical shear in zonal drifts of the evening background plasma, with westward drifts below the equatorial F region peak and eastward drifts above. We report here observations of a clear shear structure in the zonal drifts of 3 m irregularities inside spread F (SF) backscatter plumes measured with a 47.5 MHz coherent scatter radar operated at a low-latitude site Sanya (18.4°N, 109.6°E; dip latitude 12.8°N). The radar interferometry analysis on the zonal drifts of the 3 m irregularities yields results consistent with that estimated from the irregularity echo Doppler velocity measurements with multiple beams. It is shown that the SF 3 m irregularities move westward at the lowest altitudes, while at higher altitudes in the same SF plume structure, the 3 m irregularities drift eastward. One interesting point is that the vertical shear of zonal drifts was centered at ~300 km altitude over Sanya, which maps to an apex altitude of ~650 km at magnetic equator and is thus apparently higher than the apex altitudes 250-450 km where the zonal velocity shear has usually been observed. Analysis of the observations suggests that while the possibility of local generation of the shear flow of the irregularities can exist, the possibility of a plasma vortex appearing at relative high altitudes causing the zonal drift shear of F region 3 m irregularities measured over Sanya cannot be totally ruled out.

  10. Anisotropic macroturbulence and diffusion associated with a westward zonal jet: From laboratory to planetary atmospheres and oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galperin, Boris; Hoemann, Jesse; Espa, Stefania; Di Nitto, Gabriella; Lacorata, Guglielmo

    2016-12-01

    Turbulence with inverse energy cascade and its transport properties are investigated experimentally in a flow associated with a westward propagating jet. Turbulence and the jet were produced by an electromagnetic force in a rotating tank filled with an electrolytic saline solution. The parabolic free surface emulated the topographic β effect which evoked the zonation. The spectral and transport flow characteristics were highly anisotropic. Turbulence is diagnosed by exploring the analogy between vertical and horizontal turbulent overturns in, respectively, stably stratified and quasigeostrophic flows which gives rise to a method of potential vorticity (PV) monotonizing. The anisotropization of transport properties of the flow is investigated using the finite scale Lyapunov exponent technique. After initial exponential particle separation, radial (meridional in geophysical and planetary applications) diffusion attains a short-ranged Richardson regime which transitions to the Taylor (scale-independent diffusivity) one. The azimuthal (zonal) diffusion exhibits a double-plateau structure which attains a superdiffusive regime on large scales. The transition to the Taylor regime for the radial diffusion takes place at a scale of turbulence anisotropization. The radial eddy diffusivity in both regimes as well as the transition scale are all determined by the rate of the inverse energy cascade, ɛ , that can be diagnosed by the PV monotonizing. Conversely, ɛ can be deduced from the scale of the Richardson-Taylor regime transition in the radial eddy diffusivity which, thus, provides an additional tool of diagnosing anisotropic macroturbulence with inverse energy cascade.

  11. Anisotropic macroturbulence and diffusion associated with a westward zonal jet: From laboratory to planetary atmospheres and oceans.

    PubMed

    Galperin, Boris; Hoemann, Jesse; Espa, Stefania; Di Nitto, Gabriella; Lacorata, Guglielmo

    2016-12-01

    Turbulence with inverse energy cascade and its transport properties are investigated experimentally in a flow associated with a westward propagating jet. Turbulence and the jet were produced by an electromagnetic force in a rotating tank filled with an electrolytic saline solution. The parabolic free surface emulated the topographic β effect which evoked the zonation. The spectral and transport flow characteristics were highly anisotropic. Turbulence is diagnosed by exploring the analogy between vertical and horizontal turbulent overturns in, respectively, stably stratified and quasigeostrophic flows which gives rise to a method of potential vorticity (PV) monotonizing. The anisotropization of transport properties of the flow is investigated using the finite scale Lyapunov exponent technique. After initial exponential particle separation, radial (meridional in geophysical and planetary applications) diffusion attains a short-ranged Richardson regime which transitions to the Taylor (scale-independent diffusivity) one. The azimuthal (zonal) diffusion exhibits a double-plateau structure which attains a superdiffusive regime on large scales. The transition to the Taylor regime for the radial diffusion takes place at a scale of turbulence anisotropization. The radial eddy diffusivity in both regimes as well as the transition scale are all determined by the rate of the inverse energy cascade, ε, that can be diagnosed by the PV monotonizing. Conversely, ε can be deduced from the scale of the Richardson-Taylor regime transition in the radial eddy diffusivity which, thus, provides an additional tool of diagnosing anisotropic macroturbulence with inverse energy cascade.

  12. Computational analysis of rotor-stator interaction in turbomachinery using zonal techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Rai, Man Mohan

    1990-01-01

    The development of CFD zonal techniques which allow more intensive computational treatment in some regions than in others, in conjunction with robust, high-accuracy algorithms for the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, is presently shown to have facilitated the investigation of rotor-stator interactions in turbomachinery. Attention is given to integration schemes with two and three spatial dimensions, the conservative 'patched' and the nonconservative zonal boundary schemes, and such natural boundary conditions as those of the endwall, the stator inlet, the airfoil surface, and the rotor exit. Illustrative three-dimensional rotor-stator interaction calculations are presented.

  13. Constraints on the Observed Zonal Flows from the Magnetic Fields in Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. J.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2003-05-01

    The zonal winds on the surface of the giant planets are very strong ( 100m/s ) and stable (on a decadal time scale). Observations by the Galileo probe suggest that the zonal flow might be deep seated. However, the magnitude of the zonal flow must be reduced to a small value in the interior of the giant planets because the flow is defined relative to the magnetic field frame of reference (System III) and very large zonal flows can not be tolerated in a high conductivity region. The mechanisms for reducing the magnitude of the zonal flow and the coupling between the zonal flow and magnetic field are unclear. Here we use a coupled Navier-Stokes equation and the magnetic induction equation in steady state to study this. From Navier-Stokes, we find that the zonal flow vth can be expressed in three parts: vth(s,z) = a(s) + Bth2/4μ0ρ Ω s + F(grad(ρ ),Bth)/4μ0ρ Ω s, where a(s) is an arbitrary function of cylindrical radius (s) only, z is the coordinate parallel to the rotation axis, Bth is the toroidal field, μ 0 is the permeability of free space, ρ (s,z) is the density, Ω is the planetary rotation and F is a function of the density gradient (grad(ρ )) and the toroidal magnetic field. The first part is the geostrophic flow consistent with the Taylor-Proudman theorem. The second part is due to the tensile force that arises from the curvature of the toroidal field, and always leads a prograde flow. The third part comes from the density variation and meridional gradient of the toroidal field, and may lead to the prograde flow or the retrograde flow. Whether the flow observed on the surface could be reduced to small values in the interior will depend on the direction of the flow, the density gradient and also the structure of the toroidal magnetic field. It can also be shown that the magnitude of the generated toroidal magnetic field in the interior of the giant planets is very large and around 10 Tesla for consistency with the observed zonal flow on the surface of

  14. Electromagnetic interchange-like mode and zonal flow in electron-magnetohydrodynamic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Horiuchi, Ritoku

    2006-10-15

    A numerical simulation of the nonlinear state of interchange instability associated with electron inertia in an unmagnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that a self-consistent sheared transverse electron current flow is generated due to nonlinear mechanisms. This zonal flow can reduce the growth rate of the magnetic interchange-like instability and reach a steady state. The zonal flow generation mechanisms are discussed by truncated Fourier mode representation. In the truncated model, three mode equations are considered that have an exact analytic solution that matches well with the numerical solution. The effect of different boundary conditions in such investigations is also discussed.

  15. Comparison of global distributions of zonal-mean gravity wave variance inferred from different satellite instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Offermann, Dirk

    2000-12-01

    Gravity wave temperature fluctuations acquired by the CRISTA instrument are compared to previous estimates of zonal-mean gravity wave temperature variance inferred from the LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET satellite instruments during northern winter. Careful attention is paid to the range of vertical wavelengths resolved by each instrument. Good agreement between CRISTA data and previously published results from LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET are found. Key latitudinal features in these variances are consistent with previous findings from ground-based measurements and some simple models. We conclude that all four satellite instruments provide reliable global data on zonal-mean gravity wave temperature fluctuations throughout the middle atmosphere.

  16. Exploring the connections between dark spot dynamics and zonal wind structure on Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Beau, Raymond P.; Palotai, Csaba

    2015-11-01

    The past several years have witnessed new observations revealing more clouds and long-lived features in the atmosphere of Uranus. Each new set of images provides new cloud-tracking data and the opportunity to assess the structure of the zonal winds on Uranus. This has led to a sequence of fits for the Uranian zonal winds with the latest entries being those proposed in Sromovsky et al. (2015). Karkoschka (2015) also provides a new view of the zonal winds, but in this case through reanalyzing the Voyager II observations. While all these profiles have in common features like a retrograde equatorial jet, the details of these profiles differ significantly. These differences can be further accentuated when considering the vorticity profiles derived from these zonal winds. As shown in LeBeau and Dowling (1998) and Hammel et al. (2009), atmospheric simulations using different zonal vorticity profiles suggest that the vorticity gradient can affect the dynamics of dark spot vortices in the atmosphere. Later work (Deng et al. 2009) has indicated that these dynamics may be further complicated by the presence of cloud companion features.To further investigate these interactions, some of the most recent zonal profiles are used in simulations of Uranus with the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) atmospheric model. By inducing vortices at different latitudes, the effects of different zonal wind profiles on these features can be investigated. A methane microphysics model is used to generate representative companion clouds. The subsequent vortex and companion cloud motions can then be compared to observations, providing another tool in the effort to understand possible changes in the zonal wind structure of Uranus.References:L.A. Sromovsky et al. Icarus 258:192-223, 2015E. Karkoschka. Icarus 250:294-307, 2015H.B. Hammel et al. Icarus 201:257-271, 2009R.P. LeBeau and T.E. Dowling. Icarus 132:239-265, 1998X. Deng et al. 1st AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments

  17. Fluctuating Zonal Flows in I-mode in Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cziegler, Istvan

    2012-10-01

    Velocity fields and density fluctuations of edge turbulence have been studied in I-mode [1] plasmas of Alcator C-Mod, which are characterized by a strong thermal transport barrier in the edge while providing little or no barrier to the transport of both bulk and impurity particles. This allows access to steady state, high performance discharges without explosive edge relaxations or impurity accumulation. The key feature in the I-mode edge seems to be a weakly coherent mode (WCM) at 100-300 kHz, with δf 150 kHz and a poloidal wavenumber k 1.5,-1. Although previous work showed no clear geodesic-acoustic modes (GAM) on C-Mod, using a newly implemented, gas-puff-imaging (GPI) based time-delay-estimate (TDE) velocity inference algorithm, GAM are now shown to be ubiquitous in all I-mode discharges, with the time histories of the GAM and the WCM closely following each other through the entire duration of the regime. The central frequency of the WCM is shown to scale with HITER,98, which itself scales with the depth of the radial electric field well in the edge [2]. Thus, the I-mode presents an example of a plasma state in which quasi-static zonal flows (ZF) and GAM continuously coexist. Using both single- (density) and two-field (density-velocity) bispectral methods, the GAM are shown to be coupled to the WCM and to be responsible for its broad frequency structure. Since the WCM activity is strongly correlated to the I-mode behavior [3], and due to the known dependence of the GAM damping on collisionality [4], the decrease in GAM amplitude, and with it WCM activity, at higher densities offers an explanation for the density limit for I-mode access [3].[4pt] [1] F. Ryter et al, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 40 725 (1998)[0pt] [2] R. McDermott et al, Phys. Plasmas 16 056103 (2009)[0pt] [3] D. Whyte et al, Nucl. Fus. 50 105005 (2010)[0pt] [4] S. Novakovskii et al, Phys. Plasmas 4 4272 (1997)

  18. Stimulated zonal flow generation in the case of TEM and TIM microturbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravier, E.; Lesur, M.; Reveille, T.; Drouot, T.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we show that in some parameter range in gyrokinetic simulations, it is possible to apply a control method to stimulate the appearance of zonal flows while minimizing the duration of the control process and the impact on plasma parameters. For this purpose, a gyrokinetic code considering only trapped particles is used. The starting point of our work is a situation where zonal flows transiently appear after the nonlinear phase of saturation of trapped electron modes or trapped ion modes' micro-instabilities. These are observed to be strongly reduced in a later phase, permitting streamers to govern the plasma behavior in the steady-state. By intervening during this latter state (after this transient growth and decay of zonal flow), i.e., by increasing the ion/electron temperature ratio for a short time, it is found to be possible to bifurcate to a new steady-state, in which zonal flows are strongly present and are maintained indefinitely, thereby allowing a significant reduction in radial heat fluxes.

  19. Time-varying zonal asymmetries in stratospheric nitrous oxide and methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, H.; Stanford, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Previously analyses of Stratospheric And Mesospheric Sounder (SAMS) data of atmospheric constituent gases have dealt almost exclusively with zonal means (and mostly monthly means), owing perhaps to concern over data quality. The purpose of this note is to show that, with care, time-dependent zonally-asymmetric features may be recovered from the SAMS nitrous oxide and methane data. As an example, we demonstrate the existence of zonal wave-1 constituent perturbations with periods of a few weeks in the middle and upper stratosphere. When the perturbations are normalized by the constituent zonal-mean mixing ratio to compensate for the slowly varying (in both space and time) background concentration of constituents, wavepacket-like features are found over all latitudes and seasons in the three-year SAMS record. One specific low-latitude case discussed had features which appear to be consistent with constituent oscillations induced by episodic equatorial Kelvin waves. Further studies are needed to better identify the nature of the plethora of observed wave-like phenomena.

  20. OCT Angiography Identification of Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Levison, Ashleigh L; Baynes, Kimberly; Lowder, Careen Y; Srivastava, Sunil K

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old female with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy presented with a new lesion suspicious for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in her right eye. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) confirmed the presence of CNV. OCTA is a new imaging technique that may help guide diagnosis and management of choroidal neovascular membranes in uveitic diseases.

  1. A Model of the Saturation of Multi-scale Turbulence by Zonal Flow Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Holland, C.; Howard, N.

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of the spectrum of the saturated electric potential fluctuations from multi-scale (both ion and electron scales) gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, in tokamak geometry, reveals that fluctuating zonal (axisymmetric) ExB flows couple the ion and electron scales. The zonal flows are driven by the ion-scale instabilities but strongly regulate the amplitude of the electron-scale turbulence. The electron-scale turbulence can grow to large amplitude when the linear growth rate of the ETG modes exceeds the zonal flow mixing rate due to advection of the ETG modes. The model of the zonal flow mixing is shown to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the threshold for the increase in electron-scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The nonlinear upshift of the effective critical ion temperature gradient (Dimits shift) is also captured by the new model. Prediction of the core plasma fusion performance of ITER with TGLF using the new saturation model yields a 19% increase in fusion power for hybrid regime operation. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy contracts: DE-FG02-95ER54309, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FC02-08ER54963, DE-AC02-05CH11231, DE-FC02-04ER54698, and DE-SC0006957.

  2. Algorithms for Zonal Methods and Development of Three Dimensional Mesh Generation Procedures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    of three dimensional grid generation both elliptic and hyper- bolic methods were developed. A chimera grid scheme, that is, the use of overset multiple...were developed. A chimera grid scheme, that is, the use of overset multiple grid systems, was also tested in two dimensions. In our study of zonal...Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Grid Generation ............................... 2 3. Overset Grids

  3. Self-Organization of Zonal Jets in Outer Planet Atmospheres: Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedson, A. James

    1997-01-01

    The statistical mechnical theory of a two-dimensional Euler fluid is appleid for the first time to explore the spontaneous self-oganization of zonal jets in outer planet atmospheres. Globally conserved integralls of motion are found to play a central role in defining jet structure.

  4. A Model Study of Zonal Forcing in the Equatorial Stratosphere by Convectively Induced Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Holton, James R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-dimensional cloud-resolving model is used to examine the possible role of gravity waves generated by a simulated tropical squall line in forcing the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the zonal winds in the equatorial stratosphere. A simulation with constant background stratospheric winds is compared to simulations with background winds characteristic of the westerly and easterly QBO phases, respectively. In all three cases a broad spectrum of both eastward and westward propagating gravity waves is excited. In the constant background wind case the vertical momentum flux is nearly constant with height in the stratosphere, after correction for waves leaving the model domain. In the easterly and westerly shear cases, however, westward and eastward propagating waves, respectively, are strongly damped as they approach their critical levels, owing to the strongly scale-dependent vertical diffusion in the model. The profiles of zonal forcing induced by this wave damping are similar to profiles given by critical level absorption, but displaced slightly downward. The magnitude of the zonal forcing is of order 5 m/s/day. It is estimated that if 2% of the area of the Tropics were occupied by storms of similar magnitude, mesoscale gravity waves could provide nearly 1/4 of the zonal forcing required for the QBO.

  5. Solar and geomagnetic activity effects on nocturnal zonal velocities of ionospheric plasma depletions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Takahashi, H.; Sawant, H.; Zamlutti, C. J.; Borba, G. L.

    1999-01-01

    The understanding of postsunset zonal drifts of ionospheric plasma depletions in the equatorial and subequatorial regions are of importance to the knowledge of the electrodynamics of the nocturnal ionosphere. Drifts occurring over the low latitude station Cachoeira Paulista-CP during the October and March time frames are analyzed for the period 1980 - 1992. That analysis is based upon about 650 days of zonal scanning photometer measurements of the nocturnal O I 630 nm airglow. The zonal motions of valleys of the O I 630 nm intensity are used to infer the eastward plasma velocity variations with local time. In this way, the velocity variations with solar activity and magnetic activity are studied. The mean trend in the velocity local time variation is a decrease from early evening to postmidnight hours, as expected in view of the F-region vertical electric fields, naturally decreasing magnitudes after sunset due to recombination. The zonal velocity decay between 21 LT and 02 LT is faster during the period of maximum solar activity than during the solar minimum period.

  6. A Rare Excitatory Amino Acid from Flowers of Zonal Geranium responsible for Paralyzing the Japanese Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    e Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flowers from zonal geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum). Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from Pelargonium × hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paraly...

  7. The Effect of Zonally Asymmetric Ozone Heating on the Northern Hemisphere Winter Polar Stratosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-09

    winds). Differences in the ensemble mean winds are negligible throughout much of December. In Jan - uary, the 3DO3 mean westerly winds are ∼5 m s−1...wave propagation versus wave damping in modulating the planetary wave drag and thus the zonal-mean circulation. Acknowledgments. We thank John Albers

  8. Daytime zonal drifts in the ionospheric E and 150 km regions estimated using EAR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peddapati, PavanChaitanya; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Patra, Amit

    2016-07-01

    The Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR), located at Kototabang (0.2o S, 100.32o E, mag. lat. 10.36o S), Indonesia, is capable of detecting both E region and 150 km echoes during daytime. We have conducted multi-beam observations using the EAR during daytime covering all seasons to study seasonal variations of these echoes and their dynamics. Given the facts that drifts at the 150 km region are governed primarily by electric field, drifts at the E region are governed by both electric field and neutral wind, simultaneous observations of drifts in both E and 150 km regions would help understand their variations. In this paper we present local time and seasonal variations of zonal drifts in the E and 150 km regions estimated using multi-beam observations. Zonal drifts (positive eastward) in the E and 150 km regions are found to be in the range of -10 to -60 m/s and -40 to 80 m/s, respectively. In the E region, zonal drifts show height reversal and temporal variations having tidal signature and noticeable seasonal variations. Zonal drifts in the 150 km region also show noticeable height and seasonal variations. These results are compared with model drifts and evaluated in terms of electric field and neutral wind.

  9. Zonal Winds Between 25 and 120 Km Retrieved from Solar Occultation Spectra. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancleef, Garrett Warren; Shaw, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric winds at heights between 25 and 120 km have been retrieved with precisions of 5/ms from the Doppler shifts of atmospheric absorption lines measured from a satellite-borne instrument. Lines of the upsilon 3 CO2 and upsilon 2 H2O rotation-vibration bands caused by gases in the instrument allowed the instrumental frequency scale to be absolutely calibrated so that accurate relative speeds could be obtained. By comparing the positions of both sets of instrumental lines the calibration of the frequency scale was determined to be stable to a precision of less than 2 x 10(-5) cm during the course of each occultation. It was found that the instrumental resolution of 0.015 cm after apodization, the signal to noise ratio of about 100 and stable calibration allowed relative speeds to be determined to a precision of 5 ms or better by using small numbers of absorption lines between 1600 and 3200 cm. Absolute absorption line positions were simultaneously recovered to precisions of 5 x 10(-5) cm or better. The wind speed profiles determined from four sunset occultations and one sunrise occultation show remarkable similarities in the magnitudes and directions of the zonal wind velocities as functions of height. These wind profiles appear to be manifestations of atmospheric tides.

  10. The latitude dependence of the variance of zonally averaged quantities. [in polar meteorology with attention to geometrical effects of earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Bell, T. L.; Cahalan, R. F.; Moeng, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Geometric characteristics of the spherical earth are shown to be responsible for the increase of variance with latitude of zonally averaged meteorological statistics. An analytic model is constructed to display the effect of a spherical geometry on zonal averages, employing a sphere labeled with radial unit vectors in a real, stochastic field expanded in complex spherical harmonics. The variance of a zonally averaged field is found to be expressible in terms of the spectrum of the vector field of the spherical harmonics. A maximum variance is then located at the poles, and the ratio of the variance to the zonally averaged grid-point variance, weighted by the cosine of the latitude, yields the zonal correlation typical of the latitude. An example is provided for the 500 mb level in the Northern Hemisphere compared to 15 years of data. Variance is determined to increase north of 60 deg latitude.

  11. Effects of density stratification in driving zonal flow in gas giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastine, T.; Wicht, J.

    2011-12-01

    The banded structures at the surfaces of Jupiter and Saturn are associated with prograde and retrograde zonal flows. The depth of these jets remains however poorly known. Theoretical scenarios range from ``shallow models'', that assume that zonal flows are restricted to a very thin layer close to the surface; to ``deep models'' that suppose that the jets involve the whole molecular shell (typically 104 kms). The latter idea was supported by fully 3-D numerical simulations (e.g. Heimpel, 2005) using the Boussinesq approximation, meaning that the background properties (temperature, density, ...) are constant with radius (Christensen, 2002). While this approximation is suitable for liquid iron cores of planets, it is more questionable in the envelopes of gas giants, where density increases by several orders of magnitude (Guillot, 1999). The anelastic approximation provides a more realistic framework to simulate the dynamics of zonal flows as it allows compressibility effects, while filtering out fast acoustic waves (Lantz & Fan, 1999). Recent anelastic simulations suggest that including compressibility effects yields interesting differences to Boussinesq approaches (Jones, 2009; Showman et al., 2011). Here, we therefore adopt an anelastic formulation to simulate 3-D compressible flows in rapidly rotating shells. We have conducted a systematic parametric study on the effects of background density stratification and analysed the influences on both convective flows and zonal jets. Despite the strong dependence of convection on the density stratification (i.e. the typical lengthscale of convective flows decreases when compressibility increases), the comparison between Boussinesq and anelastic simulations reveals striking common features: the latitudinal extent, the amplitude and the number of zonal jets is found to be nearly independent of the density stratification, provided convection is strongly driven. Mass-weighted properties of the flow (and notably a mass

  12. On the Longitudinal Morphology of Zonal Irregularity Drift Measured using Networks of GPS Scintillation Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, C. S.; Groves, K. M.; Valladares, C. E.; Delay, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    A complete characterization of field-aligned ionospheric irregularities responsible for the scintillation of satellite signals includes not only their spectral properties (power spectral strength, spectral index, anisotropy ratio, and outer-scale) but also their horizontal drift velocity. From a system impacts perspective, the horizontal drift velocity is important in that it dictates the rate of signal fading and also, to an extent, the level of phase fluctuations encountered by the receiver. From a physics perspective, studying the longitudinal morphology of zonal irregularity may lead to an improved understanding of the F region dynamo and regional electrodynamics at low latitudes. The irregularity drift at low latitudes is predominantly zonal and is most commonly measured by cross-correlating observations of satellite signals made by a pair of closely-spaced antennas. The AFRL-SCINDA network operates a small number of VHF spaced-antenna systems at low latitude stations for this purpose. A far greater number of GPS scintillation monitors are operated by AFRL-SCINDA (25-30) and the Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (35-50), but the receivers are situated too far apart to monitor the drift using cross-correlation techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative approach that leverages the weak scatter scintillation theory (Rino, Radio Sci., 1979) to infer the zonal irregularity drift from single-station GPS measurements of S4, sigma-phi, and the propagation geometry alone. Unlike the spaced-receiver technique, this technique requires assumptions for the height of the scattering layer (which introduces a bias in the drift estimates) and the spectral index of the irregularities (which affects the spread of the drift estimates about the mean). Nevertheless, theory and experiment show that the ratio of sigma-phi to S4 is less sensitive to these parameters than it is to the zonal drift, and hence the zonal drift can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. In

  13. Zonal jets and QBO-like oscillations on Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showman, Adam P.; Zhang, Xi; Tan, Xianyu

    2016-10-01

    At the levels of their visible cloud decks, the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn exhibit numerous east-west (zonal) jet streams with speeds ranging up to 150 m/sec on Jupiter and 400 m/sec on Saturn. Moreover, both planets exhibit long-term stratospheric oscillations involving perturbations of zonal wind and temperature that propagate downward over time on timescales of ~4 years (Jupiter) and ~15 years (Saturn). These oscillations, dubbed the Quasi Quadrennial Oscillation (QQO) for Jupiter and the Semi-Annual Oscillation (SAO) on Saturn, are thought to be analogous to the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) on Earth, which is driven by upward propagation of equatorial waves from the troposphere. Here, we test the hypothesis that the zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn, as well as QBO-like oscillations, can result from interaction of the stably stratified atmosphere with an underlying convective interior. We performed global, three-dimensional, high-resolution numerical simulations of the flow in the stratosphere and upper troposphere of Jupiter-like planets. The effect of convection is parameterized by introducing thermal perturbations that randomly perturb the radiative convective boundary with some characteristic timescale, horizontal wavenumber, and amplitude. Radiative damping is represented using a Newtonian cooling scheme with a characteristic radiative time constant. In the simulations, the convective perturbations generate atmospheric waves and turbulence that interact with the rotation to produce numerous zonal jets. Moreover, the equatorial stratosphere exhibits stacked eastward and westward jets that migrate downward over time, exactly as occurs in the terrestrial QBO, Jovian QQO, and Saturnian SAO. This is the first demonstration of a QBO-like phenomenon in 3D numerical simulations of a giant planet. We will describe how the properties of the zonal jets and equatorial oscillation depend on the details of the forcing and damping. These simulations have

  14. The zonal harmonic model of polarity transitions: A test using successive reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theyer, F.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Hsu, V.; Hammond, S. R.

    1985-02-01

    A recently developed zonal model for the last geomagnetic field reversal, which describes time- and latitude-dependent transitional behavior of intensity and inclination in terms of dominance of low-order field harmonics, was tested using a latitudinal and chronological succession of transition records. The primary data were derived from a high-resolution study of five Matuyama to Brunhes deep-sea cores collected along a 40° meridional band in the north-central Pacific. The transitions analyzed were the onsets and terminations of the Olduvai and Jaramaillo events and the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary. Supplementary data, published by previous workers, included a Jaramillo onset record from the southern Indian Ocean and a transition recorded in the Triassic Chugwater Formation of North America. In a general sense, the measured inclination and intensity records indicate the Jaramillo transitions and the last reversal to be remarkably similar to each other and to differ from the Olduvais. Crosscorrelation of the measured data sets with synthetic zonal harmonic records for the core latitudes indicates that the zonal harmonic model does predict the behavior of Matuyama-Brunhes reversal in the northern hemisphere. For the older reversals, however, the present model requires substantial modification. This is particularly so in the case of the Jaramillo onset: although two inclination and intensity records of this transition from northern and southern hemisphere sediments strongly resemble each other, the current model produces a synthetic record for one hemisphere that is incompatible with that hemisphere's measured data. Further, to model zonally the Olduvai reversals (for which a wide latitudinal northern hemisphere sampling was available), a substantially different ratio of low-order multipole components from that of the standard model is required, and the modeled solution was unsatisfactory at very low latitude. A modified zonal harmonic approach, which introduces a

  15. Comparison of CHAMP and TIME-GCM nonmigrating tidal signals in the thermospheric zonal wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, K.; Lühr, H.; Hagan, M. E.; Maute, A.; Roble, R. G.

    2010-02-01

    Four years (2002-2005) of continuous accelerometer measurements taken onboard the CHAMP satellite (orbit altitude ˜400 km) offer a unique opportunity to investigate the thermospheric zonal wind on a global scale. Recently, we were able to relate the longitudinal wave-4 structure in the zonal wind at equatorial latitudes to the influence of nonmigrating tides and in particular to the eastward propagating diurnal tide with zonal wave number 3 (DE3). The DE3 tide is primarily excited by latent heat release in the tropical troposphere in deep convective clouds. In order to investigate the mechanisms that couple the tidal signals to the upper thermosphere, we undertook a comparison with the thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). We ran the model for a day in March, June, September, and December and applied the same processing steps to the model output as was done for the CHAMP tidal analysis. The main results of the comparison can be summarized as follows: (1) TIME-GCM simulations do not correctly reproduce the observed intra-annual variations of DE3 and the eastward propagating diurnal tide with zonal wave number 2 (DE2). (2) Simulations of DE3 for June are more successful. Both TIME-GCM and CHAMP show an increase in DE3 amplitudes with decreasing solar flux level. (3) The amplitudes of the simulated westward propagating diurnal tide with zonal wave number 2 (DW2) and the standing diurnal tide (D0) increase with increasing solar flux in June. The predicted dependence of DW2 and DO on solar flux is also observed by CHAMP.

  16. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fabian, Paul

    2012-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy is leading the development of alternative energy sources that will ensure the long-term energy independence of our nation. One key renewable resource being advanced is geothermal energy which offers an environmentally benign, reliable source of energy for the nation. To utilize this resource, water will be introduced into wells 3 to 10 km deep to create a geothermal reservoir. This approach is known as an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). The high temperatures and pressures at these depths have become a limiting factor in the development of this energy source. For example, reliable zonal isolation for high-temperature applications at high differential pressures is needed to conduct mini-fracs and other stress state diagnostics. Zonal isolation is essential for many EGS reservoir development activities. To date, the capability has not been sufficiently demonstrated to isolate sections of the wellbore to: 1) enable stimulation; and 2) seal off unwanted flow regions in unknown EGS completion schemes and high-temperature (>200°C) environments. In addition, packers and other zonal isolation tools are required to eliminate fluid loss, to help identify and mitigate short circuiting of flow from injectors to producers, and to target individual fractures or fracture networks for testing and validating reservoir models. General-purpose open-hole packers do not exist for geothermal environments, with the primary barrier being the poor stability of elastomeric seals at high temperature above 175°C. Experimental packer systems have been developed for geothermal environments but they currently only operate at low pressure, they are not retrievable, and they are not commercially available. The development of the high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) zonal isolation device would provide the geothermal community with the capability to conduct mini-fracs, eliminate fluid loss, to help identify and mitigate short circuiting of flow from injectors to

  17. Zonal variations in K+ currents in vestibular crista calyx terminals

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Frances L.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a rodent crista slice to investigate regional variations in electrophysiological properties of vestibular afferent terminals. Thin transverse slices of the gerbil crista ampullaris were made and electrical properties of calyx terminals in central zones (CZ) and peripheral zones (PZ) compared with whole cell patch clamp. Spontaneous action potential firing was observed in 25% of current-clamp recordings and was either regular or irregular in both zones. Firing was abolished when extracellular choline replaced Na+ but persisted when hair cell mechanotransduction channels or calyx AMPA receptors were blocked. This suggests that ion channels intrinsic to the calyx can generate spontaneous firing. In response to depolarizing voltage steps, outward K+ currents were observed at potentials above −60 mV. K+ currents in PZ calyces showed significantly more inactivation than currents in CZ calyces. Underlying K+ channel populations contributing to these differences were investigated. The KCNQ channel blocker XE991 dihydrochloride blocked a slowly activating, sustained outward current in both PZ and CZ calyces, indicating the presence of KCNQ channels. Mean reduction was greatest in PZ calyces. XE991 also reduced action potential firing frequency in CZ and PZ calyces and broadened mean action potential width. The K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (10–50 μM) blocked rapidly activating, moderately inactivating currents that were more prevalent in PZ calyces. α-Dendrotoxin, a selective blocker of KV1 channels, reduced outward currents in CZ calyces but not in PZ calyces. Regional variations in K+ conductances may contribute to different firing responses in calyx afferents. PMID:25343781

  18. Effects of the magnetic activity on F region zonal and vertical plasma drifts over Jicamarca during solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Angela; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, Inez S.; Abdu, Mangalathayil; Souza, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the equatorial F region zonal plasma drifts over Jicamarca, Peru, under magnetically disturbed conditions during two solar minimum epochs, one of them being the recent prolonged solar activity minimum. The study utilizes the plasma drifts measured by the Jicamarca (11.95° S; 76.87° W) incoherent scatter radar during two events that occurred on 10 April 1997 and 24 June 2008 and model calculation of the zonal drift in a realistic ionosphere simulated by the SUPIM-INPE. Two main points are focused: (1) the connection between prompt penetration electric fields and zonal and vertical plasma drifts and (2) anomalous behavior of daytime zonal drift in the absence of any magnetic storm. A perfect anticorrelation between vertical and zonal drifts was observed during the night and in the initial and growth phases of the magnetic storm. Based on a detailed quantitative analysis we will show that this anticorrelation is driven mainly by a vertical Hall electric field induced by the primary zonal penetration electric field in the presence of enhanced nighttime E region conductivity. An increase in the field line integrated Hall-to-Pedersen conductivity ratio, arising from energetic particle precipitation in the South American Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) region is found to be capable of explaining the observed anti correlation between the vertical and zonal plasma drifts. Evidence for the particle ionization is provided from the occurrence of anomalous sporadic E layers over the SAMA region. It will also be shown that the zonal plasma drift reversal to eastward in the afternoon can occur earlier due to the weakening of the zonal wind system during the prolonged solar minimum period.

  19. Low latitude ionospheric scintillation and zonal irregularity drifts observed with GPS-SCINDA system and closely spaced VHF receivers in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwendo, O. J.; Baluku, T.; Baki, P.; Cilliers, P. J.; Mito, C.; Doherty, P.

    2013-05-01

    In this study we have used VHF and GPS-SCINDA receivers located at Nairobi (36.8°E, 1.3°S, dip -24.1°) in Kenya, to investigate the ionospheric scintillation and zonal drift irregularities of a few hundred meter-scale irregularities associated with equatorial plasma density bubbles for the period 2011. From simultaneous observations of amplitude scintillation at VHF and L-band frequencies, it is evident that the scintillation activity is higher during the post sunset hours of the equinoctial months than at the solstice. While it is noted that there is practically no signatures of the L-band scintillation in solstice months (June, July, December, January) and after midnight, VHF scintillation does occur in the solstice months and show post midnight activity through all the seasons. VHF scintillation is characterized by long duration of activity and slow fading that lasts till early morning hours (05:00 LT). Equinoctial asymmetry in scintillation occurs with higher occurrence in March-April than in September-October. The occurrence of post midnight VHF scintillation in this region is unusual and suggests some mechanisms for the formation of scintillation structure that might not be clearly understood. Zonal drift velocities of irregularities were measured using cross-correlation analysis with time series of the VHF scintillation structure from two closely spaced antennas. Statistical analyses of the distribution of zonal drift velocities after sunset hours indicate that the range of the velocities is 30-160 m/s. This is the first analysis of the zonal plasma drift velocity over this region. Based on these results we suggest that the east-west component of the plasma drift velocity may be related to the evolution of plasma bubble irregularities caused by the prereversal enhancement of the eastward electric fields. The equinoctial asymmetry of the drift velocities and scintillation could be attributed to the asymmetry of neutral winds in the thermosphere that drives

  20. Development of an upwind, finite-volume code with finite-rate chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molvik, Gregory A.

    1994-01-01

    Under this grant, two numerical algorithms were developed to predict the flow of viscous, hypersonic, chemically reacting gases over three-dimensional bodies. Both algorithms take advantage of the benefits of upwind differencing, total variation diminishing techniques, and a finite-volume framework, but obtain their solution in two separate manners. The first algorithm is a zonal, time-marching scheme, and is generally used to obtain solutions in the subsonic portions of the flow field. The second algorithm is a much less expensive, space-marching scheme and can be used for the computation of the larger, supersonic portion of the flow field. Both codes compute their interface fluxes with a temporal Riemann solver and the resulting schemes are made fully implicit including the chemical source terms and boundary conditions. Strong coupling is used between the fluid dynamic, chemical, and turbulence equations. These codes have been validated on numerous hypersonic test cases and have provided excellent comparison with existing data.

  1. Physical meaning and temporal variation of the zonal components of the geopotential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, P.

    2003-04-01

    The generalized form of the MacCullagh representation is derived for zonal spherical harmonic coefficients J_n for degrees n >= 2 extending previous results for n=2 (Journal of Geodesy 74 (2000), 7-8, 519-530). It is shown that the even, zonal coefficients J_n can be represented with a difference of multiple moments C_n and A_n which are the volume integrals of the function of the density ρ, the distance from the centre of the Earth r^n and of the geographical coordinates (ϕ, λ) and because of their dependence of secular Love number k_s it enables us to compute the time derivatives partial^J/partial_t as the time derivative of J_n as well as the despinning rate of a deformable body like the Earth.

  2. Calculation of a residual mean meridional circulation for a zonal-mean tracer transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, W.K.; Rotman, D.A.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    Because of their computational advantages, zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport models are widely used to investigate the distribution of chemical species and their change due to the anthropogenic chemicals in the lower and middle atmosphere. In general, the Lagrangian-mean formulation would be ideal to treat transport due to the zonal mean circulation and eddies. However, the Lagrangian formulation is difficult to use in practical applications. The most widely-used formulation for treating global atmospheric dynamics in two-dimensional models is the transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) equations. The residual mean meridional circulation (RMMC) in the TEM system is used to advect tracers. In this study, the authors describe possible solution techniques for obtaining the RMMC in the LLNL two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport model. In the first section, the formulation will be described. In sections 3 and 4, possible solution procedures will be described for a diagnostic and prognostic case, respectively.

  3. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.; Kumar, Suraj

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing frame rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.

  4. Calculations of unsteady flows around high-lift configurations based on a zonal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosnyakov, S.; Kursakov, I.; Mikhaylov, S.; Vlasenko, V.

    2015-06-01

    Zonal approach for unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) problem solution is described. Original feature of this approach is to use Courant-Friedrichs-Levi number CFL ˜ 1 in the main part of calculation domain excluding thin part of boundary layer. It is achieved by using explicit numerical scheme with fractional time stepping in the main part of calculation domain. In the near-wall zone of boundary layer, implicit dual stepping method is used. In addition to zonal approach, fully implicit method with dual stepping technology is also implemented. The methods are verified in comparison with the results of test case data obtained by consortium participants within DeSiReH FP-7 project.

  5. Earth zonal harmonics from rapid numerical analysis of long satellite arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A zonal geopotential is presented to degree 21 from evaluation of mean elements for 21 satellites including 2 of low inclination. Each satellite is represented by an arc of at least one apsidal rotation. The lengths range from 200 to 800 days. Differential correction of the initial elements in all of the arcs, together with radiation pressure and atmospheric drag coefficients, was accomplished simultaneously with the correction for the zonal harmonics. The satellite orbits and their variations are generated by numerical integration of the Lagrange equations for mean elements. Disturbances due to precession and nutation of the earth's pole, atmospheric drag, radiation pressure and luni-solar gravity are added at from 1- to 8-day intervals in the integrated orbits. The results agree well with recent solutions from other authors using different methods and different satellite sets.

  6. Interaction of Moist Convection with Zonal Jets on Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Liming; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Huang, Xianglei

    2006-01-01

    Observations suggest that moist convection plays an important role in the large-scale dynamics of Jupiter s and Saturn s atmospheres. Here we use a reduced-gravity quasigeostrophic model, with a parameterization of moist convection that is based on observations, to study the interaction between moist convection and zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn. Stable jets with approximately the same width and strength as observations are generated in the model. The observed zonal jets violate the barotropic stability criterion but the modeled jets do so only if the flow in the deep underlying layer is westward. The model results suggest that a length scale and a velocity scale associated with moist convection control the width and strength of the jets. The length scale and velocity scale offer a possible explanation of why the jets of Saturn are stronger and wider than those of Jupiter.

  7. Measurement of osmotic second virial coefficients by zonal size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Winzor, Donald J

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulation of protein migration reflecting linear concentration dependence of the partition isotherm has been used to invalidate a published procedure for measuring osmotic second virial coefficients (B22) by zonal exclusion chromatography. Failure of the zonal procedure to emulate its frontal chromatographic counterpart reflects ambiguity about the solute concentration that should be used to replace the applied concentration in the rigorous quantitative expression for frontal migration; the recommended use of the peak concentration in the eluted zone is incorrect on theoretical grounds. Furthermore, the claim for its validation on empirical grounds has been traced to the use of inappropriate B22 magnitudes as the standards against which the experimentally derived values were being tested.

  8. Zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function, from zero to 18th order

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function are usually tabulated in normalized form to provide immediate information as to the relative significance of the coefficients in the gravity model. The normalized form of the geopotential coefficients cannot be used for computational purposes unless the gravity model has been modified to receive them. This modification is usually not done because the absolute or unnormalized form of the coefficients can be obtained from the simple mathematical relationship that relates the two forms. This computation can be quite tedious for hand calculation, especially for the higher order terms, and can be costly in terms of storage and execution time for machine computation. In this report, zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function are tabulated in absolute or unnormalized form. The report is designed to be used as a ready reference for both hand and machine calculation to save the user time and effort.

  9. Instability of non-zonal baroclinic flows - Multiple-scale analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niehaus, M. C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The linear instability of a non-zonal flow can be reduced to an eigenvalue-eigenfunction problem, governed by a nonseparable partial differential equation (Niehaus, 1980). Approximate solutions, found by the method of multiple scales, are derived here and compared with earlier results found using a spectral method. The amplitude maxima are correctly located. The zonal variations of local wavenumber and of amplitude are qualitatively correct, but not sufficiently extreme. Because the method is oversensitive to local conditions, and less sensitive to global constraints, this comparison provides theoretical limits to the possibility of parameterizing transient eddies in terms of the local time mean state of the atmosphere. The method can be extended easily to flows with more realistic vertical structure.

  10. Linkage between the northeast Mongolian precipitation and the Northern Hemisphere Zonal Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijun

    2006-10-01

    The long-term relationship between the tree-ring-reconstructed annual precipitation in northeastern Mongolia (PRM) and the Northern Hemisphere Zonal Circulation (NHZC), defined as the normalized zonal mean sea-level pressure at 60°N in May June July, is examined in this study. A significant correlation coefficient (0.31) was found between the NHZC indices and PRM based on the dataset for the period of 1872 1995. The mechanisms responsible for the relationship are discussed through analyses of the atmospheric general circulation variability associated with NHZC. It follows that NHZC-related atmospheric circulation variability provides an anomalous southeast flow from the ocean to Northeast Mongolia (northwest flow from Northeast Mongolia to the ocean) in the middle and low troposphere in positive (negative) phase of NHZC, resulting in more (less) water vapor transport to the target region and more (less) precipitation in Northeast Mongolia.

  11. Interaction of moist convection with zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liming; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Huang, Xianglei

    2006-01-01

    Observations suggest that moist convection plays an important role in the large-scale dynamics of Jupiter's and Saturn's atmospheres. Here we use a reduced-gravity quasigeostrophic model, with a parameterization of moist convection that is based on observations, to study the interaction between moist convection and zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn. Stable jets with approximately the same width and strength as observations are generated in the model. The observed zonal jets violate the barotropic stability criterion but the modeled jets do so only if the flow in the deep underlying layer is westward. The model results suggest that a length scale and a velocity scale associated with moist convection control the width and strength of the jets. The length scale and velocity scale offer a possible explanation of why the jets of Saturn are stronger and wider than those of Jupiter.

  12. Electromagnetic gyrokinetic turbulence in finite-beta helical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Nakajima, N.; Maeyama, S.

    2014-05-15

    A saturation mechanism for microturbulence in a regime of weak zonal flow generation is investigated by means of electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations. The study identifies a new saturation process of the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) turbulence originating from the spatial structure of the KBM instabilities in a finite-beta Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma. Specifically, the most unstable KBM in LHD has an inclined mode structure with respect to the mid-plane of a torus, i.e., it has a finite radial wave-number in flux tube coordinates, in contrast to KBMs in tokamaks as well as ion-temperature gradient modes in tokamaks and helical systems. The simulations reveal that the growth of KBMs in LHD is saturated by nonlinear interactions of oppositely inclined convection cells through mutual shearing as well as by the zonal flow. The saturation mechanism is quantitatively investigated by analysis of the nonlinear entropy transfer that shows not only the mutual shearing but also a self-interaction with an elongated mode structure along the magnetic field line.

  13. Zonal mean properties of Jupiter's upper troposphere from Voyager infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierasch, P. J.; Magalhaes, J. A.; Conrath, B. J.

    1986-09-01

    Voyager IRIS spectra of Jupiter are used to derive zonal averages for 270- and 150-mb temperatures, as well as optical depths through the troposphere at two temperatures, ammonia concentrations near the 680-mb level, and the parahydrogen fraction near the 270-mb level. Simple modeling of an axisymmetric circulation incorporating the linear damping of perturbations from a uniform state for both winds and temperature yields results that are consistent with observed thermal wind shears and with the vertical motion field.

  14. Tracking Jupiter’s Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation and Mid-Latitude Zonal Waves: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greathouse, Thomas K.; Orton, Glenn S.; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Fletcher, Leigh N.; DeWitt, Curtis N.; Cosentino, Rick; Richter, Matthew J.; Lacy, John H.

    2014-11-01

    We report on initial results of a long term observational study to track the temporal and 3-dimensional evolution of the Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation (QQO) and the propagation and evolution of mid-latitude zonal waves in Jupiter’s stratosphere. These wave-driven phenomena affect variations in Jupiter’s vertical and horizontal temperature field, which can be inferred by measuring methane emission in the thermal infrared at 1245 cm-1. Using TEXES, the Texas Echelon cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph, mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility we observed high-spectral resolution (R=75,000) scan maps of Jupiter’s mid-latitudes in January and October 2012, February 2013, and February 2014. These initial datasets were taken using several different observing strategies in an attempt to optimize efficiency and mapping accuracy in preparation for our prime study period (2014-2019). We will present the zonally averaged inferred thermal structure over ±30° latitude and between 10 and 0.01 mbar, showing the QQO’s downward progression along with inferred 3-dimensional thermal maps (latitude, longitude, pressure) displaying a multitude of vertically isolated waves and eddies. These results set the stage for an unprecedented dataset that will: 1) significantly improve the determination of the period and vertical descent velocity of Jupiter’s QQO and map its 3-dimensional spatial structure; 2) measure the zonal wavenumbers, vertical wavelengths, zonal group velocities and lifetimes of transient mid-latitude waves that are impossible to obtain from historic mid-infrared imaging datasets due to their lack of vertical resolution; and 3) record the thermal state of Jupiter’s stratosphere in detail prior to, during, and after Juno’s prime mission to assist in analysis of Juno Mission observations from the Waves, JIRAM, and UVS instruments.

  15. Characteristic zonal winds and long-lived vortices in the atmospheres of the outer planets.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Reta

    1994-06-01

    The cameras on board the NASA Voyager spacecraft provided a survey of cloud systems within the atmospheres of the giant planets and allowed determination of zonal wind patterns, which constrain long-lived cloud systems. The basic atmospheric circulations are compared and long-lived cloud features are reviewed. The basic structure of the Great Red Spot is reviewed and the tendency of the spot to drift at -4 m s(-1) or -2 m s(-1) is presented.

  16. Simulation of transonic viscous wing and wing-fuselage flows using zonal methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Jolen

    1987-01-01

    The thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are coupled with a zonal scheme (or domain-decomposition method) to develop the Transonic Navier-Stokes (TNS) wing-alone code. The TNS has a total of 4 zones and is extended to a total of 16 zones for the wing-fuselage version of the code. Results are compared on the Cray X-MP-48 and compared with experimental data.

  17. Zonal average earth radiation budget measurements from satellites for climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. S.; Haar, T. H. V.

    1976-01-01

    Data from 29 months of satellite radiation budget measurements, taken intermittently over the period 1964 through 1971, are composited into mean month, season and annual zonally averaged meridional profiles. Individual months, which comprise the 29 month set, were selected as representing the best available total flux data for compositing into large scale statistics for climate studies. A discussion of spatial resolution of the measurements along with an error analysis, including both the uncertainty and standard error of the mean, are presented.

  18. Zonally-decoupled DSMC solutions of hypersonic blunt body wake flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, Richard G.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Moss, James N.; Dogra, Virendra K.

    1993-01-01

    Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) solutions are presented for the hypersonic flow behind a blunt body in which the wake region is solved in a zonally-decoupled manner. The forebody flow is solved separately using either a DSMC or a Navier-Stokes method, and the forebody exit plane solution is specified as the inflow condition to the decoupled DSMC solution of the wake region. Results are presented for a 70-deg, blunted cone at flow conditions that can be accommodated in existing low-density wind tunnels with the Knudsen number based on base diameter ranging from 0.03 to 0.001. The zonally-decoupled solutions show good agreement with fully-coupled DSMC solutions of the wake flow densities and velocities. The wake closure predicted by the zonally-decoupled solutions is in better agreement with fully-coupled results than that predicted by a fully-coupled Navier-Stokes method indicating the need to account for rarefaction in the wake for the cases considered. The combined use of Navier-Stokes for the forebody with a decoupled DSMC solution for the wake provides an efficient method for solving transitional blunt-body flows where the forebody flow is continuum and the wake is rarefied.

  19. Dynamics of zonal-flow-like structures in the edge of the TJ-II stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, J. A.; Velasco, J. L.; Arévalo, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Van Milligen, B. Ph; Carralero, D.; Silva, C.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of fluctuating electric field structures in the edge of the TJ-II stellarator, which display zonal-flow-like traits, is studied. These structures have been shown to be global and affect particle transport dynamically (Alonso J et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 063010). In this paper we discuss the possible drive (Reynolds stress) and damping (neoclassical viscosity, geodesic transfer) mechanisms for the associated E × B velocity. We show that (a) while the observed turbulence-driven forces can provide the necessary perpendicular acceleration, a causal relation could not be firmly established, possibly because of the locality of the Reynolds stress measurements, (b) the calculated neoclassical viscosity and damping times are comparable to the observed zonal-flow relaxation times and (c) although an accompanying density modulation is observed to be associated with the zonal flow, it is not consistent with the excitation of pressure sidebands, as those present in geodesic acoustic oscillations, caused by the compression of the E × B flow field.

  20. Zero potential vorticity envelopes for the zonal-mean velocity of the Venus/Titan atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Zhou, Wei

    1994-01-01

    The diagnostic analysis of numerical simulations of the Venus/Titan wind regime reveals an overlooked constraint upon the latitudinal structure of their zonal-mean angular momentum. The numerical experiments, as well as the limited planetary observations, are approximately consistent with the hypothesis that within the latitudes bounded by the wind maxima the total Ertel potential vorticity associated with the zonal-mean motion is approximately well mixed with respect to the neutral equatorial value for a stable circulation. The implied latitudinal profile of angular momentum is of the form M equal to or less than M(sub e)(cos lambda)(exp 2/Ri), where lambda is the latitude and Ri the local Richardson number, generally intermediate between the two extremes of uniform angular momentum (Ri approaches infinity) and uniform angular velocity (Ri = 1). The full range of angular momentum profile variation appears to be realized within the observed meridional - vertical structure of the Venus atmosphere, at least crudely approaching the implied relationship between stratification and zonal velocity there. While not itself indicative of a particular eddy mechanism or specific to atmospheric superrotation, the zero potential vorticity (ZPV) constraint represents a limiting bound for the eddy - mean flow adjustment of a neutrally stable baroclinic circulation and may be usefully applied to the diagnostic analysis of future remote sounding and in situ measurements from planetary spacecraft.

  1. Turbulent anti-resistivity and the zonal magnetic field dynamo in drift-ballooning turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Kleva, Robert G.; Guzdar, Parvez N.

    2007-11-15

    The effect of turbulent fluctuations on the zonal (flux surface averaged) magnetic field in drift-ballooning turbulence is shown to be equivalent to a turbulent anti-resistivity. The flux surface average of the convective nonlinearity in Ohm's law is proportional to the flux surface average of the current. The coefficient of proportionality can be defined as a turbulent resistivity {eta}{sub turb}. The correlation of the flux surface average of the convective nonlinearity with the negative of the flux surface average of the current is nearly 100%. Because the convective nonlinearity is correlated with the negative of the current, and not the current, the turbulent resistivity is negative. The magnitude of {eta}{sub turb} is virtually identical to the magnitude of the collisional resistivity {eta}, but opposite in sign, so that the total resistivity {eta}{sub total}={eta}+{eta}{sub turb} is nearly zero. The effect of the fluctuations is to balance the effect of collisional resistive diffusion. As a result, while the energy in the zonal flow increases to a large value as the fluctuations grow and saturate, the energy in the zonal magnetic field remains very small.

  2. Computation of transonic separated wing flows using an Euler/Navier-Stokes zonal approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaynak, Uenver; Holst, Terry L.; Cantwell, Brian J.

    1986-01-01

    A computer program called Transonic Navier Stokes (TNS) has been developed which solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations around wings using a zonal grid approach. In the present zonal scheme, the physical domain of interest is divided into several subdomains called zones and the governing equations are solved interactively. The advantages of the Zonal Grid approach are as follows: (1) the grid for any subdomain can be generated easily; (2) grids can be, in a sense, adapted to the solution; (3) different equation sets can be used in different zones; and, (4) this approach allows for a convenient data base organization scheme. Using this code, separated flows on a NACA 0012 section wing and on the NASA Ames WING C have been computed. First, the effects of turbulence and artificial dissipation models incorporated into the code are assessed by comparing the TNS results with other CFD codes and experiments. Then a series of flow cases is described where data are available. The computed results, including cases with shock-induced separation, are in good agreement with experimental data. Finally, some futuristic cases are presented to demonstrate the abilities of the code for massively separated cases which do not have experimental data.

  3. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine–airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411

  4. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-08-13

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed.

  5. Rossby and drift wave turbulence and zonal flows: The Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connaughton, Colm; Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    A detailed study of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions is presented. These simple nonlinear partial differential equations suggested for both Rossby waves in the atmosphere and drift waves in a magnetically-confined plasma, exhibit some remarkable and nontrivial properties, which in their qualitative form, survive in more realistic and complicated models. As such, they form a conceptual basis for understanding the turbulence and zonal flow dynamics in real plasma and geophysical systems. Two idealised scenarios of generation of zonal flows by small-scale turbulence are explored: a modulational instability and turbulent cascades. A detailed study of the generation of zonal flows by the modulational instability reveals that the dynamics of this zonal flow generation mechanism differ widely depending on the initial degree of nonlinearity. The jets in the strongly nonlinear case further roll up into vortex streets and saturate, while for the weaker nonlinearities, the growth of the unstable mode reverses and the system oscillates between a dominant jet, which is slightly inclined to the zonal direction, and a dominant primary wave. A numerical proof is provided for the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence-zonostrophy. While the theoretical derivations of this invariant stem from the wave kinetic equation which assumes weak wave amplitudes, it is shown to be relatively well-conserved for higher nonlinearities also. Together with the energy and enstrophy, these three invariants cascade into anisotropic sectors in the k-space as predicted by the Fjørtoft argument. The cascades are characterised by the zonostrophy pushing the energy to the zonal scales. A small scale instability forcing applied to the model has demonstrated the well-known drift wave-zonal flow feedback loop. The drift wave turbulence is generated from this primary instability. The zonal flows are then excited by either one of the generation mechanisms, extracting energy from

  6. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special cluster issue on `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, S.-I.

    2005-07-01

    Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (PPCF) invites submissions on the topic of `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence', for consideration for a special topical cluster of articles to be published early in 2006. The topical cluster will be published in an issue of PPCF, combined with regular articles. The Guest Editor for the special cluster will be S-I Itoh, Kyushu University, Japan. There has been remarkable progress in the area of structure formation by turbulence. One of the highlights has been the physics of zonal flow and drift wave turbulence in toroidal plasmas. Extensive theoretical as well as computational studies have revealed the various mechanisms in turbulence and zonal flows. At the same time, experimental research on the zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of global electric field by turbulence has evolved rapidly. Fast growth in reports of experimental results has stimulated further efforts to develop increased knowledge and systematic understanding. Each paper considered for the special cluster should describe the present research status and new scientific knowledge/results from the authors on experimental studies of zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of electric field by turbulence (including studies of Reynolds-Maxwell stresses, etc). Manuscripts submitted to this special cluster in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion will be refereed according to the normal criteria and procedures of the journal. The Guest Editor guides the progress of the cluster from the initial open call, through the standard refereeing process, to publication. To be considered for inclusion in the special cluster, articles must be submitted by 2 September 2005 and must clearly state `for inclusion in the Turbulent Plasma Cluster'. Articles submitted after this deadline may not be included in the cluster issue but may be published in a later issue of the journal. Please submit your manuscript electronically via our web site at www

  7. Turbulent Deep Convection at low Rossby Number: A Model for Zonal Flow and Thermal Emissions of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimpel, M.; Aurnou, J.; Wicht, J.

    2007-12-01

    We use numerical models to show that deep convection can result in the observed surface fluid flow and thermal emission patterns of Jupiter and Saturn. The simulations of Boussinesq convection in a spherical shell are dynamically self-consistent and generate large-scale zonal jets that interact with thermal plumes to produce the surface heat flow pattern. The surface fluid flow is dominantly zonal with a prograde equatorial jet and multiple alternating jets at higher latitudes. The zonal jet widths in our numerical models, and of Jupiter and Saturn, follow Rhines scaling. The scaling for zonal flow in a spherical shell is distinguished from that in a full sphere or a shallow layer by the effect of the tangent cylinder, which marks a reversal in the sign of the planetary β - parameter and a jump in the Rhines length. This jump is present in the numerical simulations as a sharp equator-ward increase in jet widths - a transition that is also apparent on Jupiter and Saturn. Our models generate a surface heat flow pattern with a broad minimum at the equator and peaks at the poles. The zonal jets modulate this pattern at smaller latitudinal scales. Superposing the model heat flow pattern with incoming solar radiation results in global heat flow that, similar to Jupiter and Saturn, is roughly constant in latitude. Our results support the hypothesis that the large-scale patterns of heat and zonal flow originate deep within the molecular hydrogen envelopes of the giant planets.

  8. Comparison of zonal elution and nonlinear chromatography in determination of the interaction between seven drugs and immobilised β(2)-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Yuqing Yuan; Yang, Lingjian; Zhang, Yajun; Bian, Liujiao; Zheng, Jianbin; Li, Zijian; Zhao, Xinfeng; Zhang, Youyi

    2015-07-03

    Zonal elution and nonlinear chromatography are two mainstream models for the determination of drug-protein interaction in affinity chromatography. This work intended to compare the results by zonal elution with that by nonlinear chromatography when it comes to the analysis of the interaction between seven drugs and immobilised β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR). The results of the zonal elution showed that clorprenaline, clenbuterol, methoxyphenamine, salbutamol, terbutaline, tulobuterol and bambuterol have only one type of binding site on immobilised β2-AR, while nonlinear chromatography confirmed the existence of at least two types of binding sites between β2-AR and clorprenaline, clenbuterol and bambuterol. On these sites, both zonal elution and nonlinear chromatography presented the same rank order for the association constants of the seven drugs. Compared with the data from zonal elution, the association constants calculated using nonlinear chromatography gave a good linear response to the corresponding values by radio-ligand binding assay. The sampling efficiencies of nonlinear chromatography were clearly higher than zonal elution. Nonlinear chromatography will probably become a powerful alternative for the high throughput determination of drug-protein interaction.

  9. Effect of the magnetic field curvature on the generation of zonal flows by drift-Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Kovalishen, E. A.; Shirokov, M. S.; Tsypin, V. S.; Galvao, R. M. O.

    2007-05-15

    The generation of zonal flows by drift-Alfven waves is studied with allowance for magnetic curvature effects. The basic plasmadynamic equations relating the electrostatic potential, vector potential, and perturbed plasma density are the vorticity equation, longitudinal Ohm's law, and continuity equation. The basic equations are analyzed by applying a parametric formalism similar to that used in the theory of the generation of convective cells. In contrast to most previous investigations on the subject, consideration is given to primary modes having an arbitrary spectrum rather than to an individual monochromatic wave packet. The parametric approach so modified makes it possible to reveal a new class of instabilities of zonal flows that are analogous to two-stream instabilities in linear theory. It is shown that, in the standard theory of zonal flows, the zonal components of the vector potential and perturbed density are not excited. It is pointed out that zonal flows can be generated both in the case of a magnetic hill and in the case of a magnetic well. In the first case, the instabilities of zonal flows are analogous to negative-mass instabilities in linear theory, and, in the second case, they are analogous to two-stream instabilities.

  10. Modal Frequency Detection in Composite Beams Using Fiber Optic Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-28

    optic sensors showed more sensitivity and better signal-to-noise ratios. The analytical classical beam theory and a finite element model validated the...61 C. INPUT AND OUTPUT FOR THE FINITE ELEMENT MODEL ..... 88 B IB LIO G RA PH Y...beam compared to MATLAB generated frequencies of classical beam theory and frequencies calculated using a finite element model (FEM

  11. Double excitations in finite systems.

    PubMed

    Romaniello, P; Sangalli, D; Berger, J A; Sottile, F; Molinari, L G; Reining, L; Onida, G

    2009-01-28

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is widely used in the study of linear response properties of finite systems. However, there are difficulties in properly describing excited states, which have double- and higher-excitation characters, which are particularly important in molecules with an open-shell ground state. These states would be described if the exact TDDFT kernel were used; however, within the adiabatic approximation to the exchange-correlation (xc) kernel, the calculated excitation energies have a strict single-excitation character and are fewer than the real ones. A frequency-dependent xc kernel could create extra poles in the response function, which would describe states with a multiple-excitation character. We introduce a frequency-dependent xc kernel, which can reproduce, within TDDFT, double excitations in finite systems. In order to achieve this, we use the Bethe-Salpeter equation with a dynamically screened Coulomb interaction W(omega), which can describe these excitations, and from this we obtain the xc kernel. Using a two-electron model system, we show that the frequency dependence of W does indeed introduce the double excitations that are instead absent in any static approximation of the electron-hole screening.

  12. Saturn Ring Mass and Zonal Gravitational Harmonics Estimate at the End of the Cassini "Grand Finale"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozovic, M.; Jacobson, R. A.; Roth, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    "Solstice" mission is the 7-year extension of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft exploration of the Saturn system that will culminate with the "Grand Finale". Beginning in mid-2017, the spacecraft is scheduled to execute 22 orbits that have their periapses between the innermost D-ring and the upper layers of Saturn's atmosphere. These orbits will be perturbed by the gravitational field of Saturn as well as by the rings. We present an analysis of simulated "Grand Finale" radiometric data, and we investigate their sensitivity to the ring mass and higher zonal gravitational harmonics of the planet. We model the data quantity with respect to the available coverage of the tracking stations on Earth, and we account for the times when the spacecraft is occulted either by Saturn or the rings. We also use different data weights to simulate changes in the data quality. The dynamical model of the spacecraft motion includes both gravitational and non-gravitational forces, such as the daily momentum management due to Reaction Wheel Assembly and radioisotope thermo-electric generator accelerations. We solve the equations of motion and use a weighted-least squares fit to obtain spacecraft's state vector, mass(es) of the ring or the individual rings, zonal harmonics, and non-gravitational accelerations. We also investigate some a-priori values of the A- and B-ring masses from Tiscareno et al. (2007) and Hedman et al. (2015) analyses. The preliminary results suggest that the "Grand Finale" orbits should remain sensitive to the ring mass even for GMring<2 km3/s2 and that they will also provide high accuracy estimates of the zonal harmonics J8, J10, and J12.

  13. The compressional beta effect: A source of zonal winds in planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, Jan; Stellmach, Stephan

    2014-07-01

    Giant planets like Jupiter and Saturn feature strong zonal wind patterns on their surfaces. Although several different mechanisms that may drive these jets have been proposed over the last decades, the origin of the zonal winds is still unclear. Here, we explore the possibility that the interplay of planetary rotation with the compression and expansion of the convecting fluid can drive multiple deep zonal jets by a compressional Rhines-type mechanism, as originally proposed by Ingersoll and Pollard (Ingersoll, A.P., Pollard, D. [1982]. Icarus 52(1), 62-80). In a certain limit, this deep mechanism is shown to be mathematically analogous to the classical Rhines mechanism possibly operating at cloud level. Jets are predicted to occur on a compressional Rhines length lR=(2, where Ω is the angular velocity, is the mean inverse density scale height and vjet is the typical jet velocity. Two-dimensional numerical simulations using the anelastic approximation reveal that this mechanism robustly generates jets of the predicted width, and that it typically dominates the dynamics in systems deeper than O(lR). Potential vorticity staircases are observed to form spontaneously and are typically accompanied by unstably stratified buoyancy staircases. The mechanism only operates at large rotation rates, exceeding those typically reached in three-dimensional simulations of deep convection in spherical shells. Applied to Jupiter and Saturn, the compressional Rhines scaling reasonably fits the available observations. Interestingly, even weak vertical density variations such as those in the Earth core can give rise to a large number of jets, leading to fundamentally different flow structures than predicted by the Boussinesq models typically used in this context.

  14. Topical hemostatic effect of a common ornamental plant, the geraniaceae Pelargonium zonale.

    PubMed

    Páez, Ximena; Hernández, Luis

    2003-03-01

    Geranium has been traditionally used as a local hemostatic medicine in some Andean regions, but this effect has not been tested in controlled experiments. In the present report, the leaves of a geraniaceae (Pelargonium zonale) were tested on a bleeding rat model. The bleeding time was 50% shorter in the geranium leaf juice treatment group (18.10 +/- 2.03 min) and 80% shorter in the geranium crushed-leaf group (7.10 +/- 0.88 min) than in the control (nontreatment) group (37.6 +/- 3.04 min), p < 0.0001. Bleeding time with guava (Psidium guajava) crushed leaves (39.90 +/- 1.54 min) was not different from the control group. A proved hemostatic agent, gelatin sponge, had a similar effect as geranium juice (16.7 +/- 3.32 min) in the same animal model. A buffer solution at pH 3 (the same pH as the geranium leaf extract) did not have any hemostatic effect, and the bleeding time (39.3 +/- 2.71 min) was not different from the control group. The dilution 1:4 geranium leaf juice at pH 3(25.6 +/- 3.08 min) or pH 5 (28.8 +/- 3.98 min) still had a statistically significant hemostatic effect. The results confirm the hemostatic effect of P. zonale leaves and show that it is similar (geranium leaf juice) or better (crushed geranium leaves) than the hemostatic effect of a commercial hemostatic sponge. It seems that the hemostasis caused by P. zonale extract leaves is not due to its low pH. The potential benefits as a new, inexpensive, safe, and easily available natural topical hemostatic agent are discussed.

  15. Reversal and amplification of zonal flows by boundary enforced thermal wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W.; Gastine, T.; Wicht, J.

    2017-01-01

    Zonal flows in rapidly-rotating celestial objects such as the Sun, gas or ice giants form in a variety of surface patterns and amplitudes. Whereas the differential rotation on the Sun, Jupiter and Saturn features a super-rotating equatorial region, the ice giants, Neptune and Uranus harbour an equatorial jet slower than the planetary rotation. Global numerical models covering the optically thick, deep-reaching and rapidly rotating convective envelopes of gas giants reproduce successfully the prograde jet at the equator. In such models, convective columns shaped by the dominant Coriolis force typically exhibit a consistent prograde tilt. Hence angular momentum is pumped away from the rotation axis via Reynolds stresses. Those models are found to be strongly geostrophic, hence a modulation of the zonal flow structure along the axis of rotation, e.g. introduced by persistent latitudinal temperature gradients, seems of minor importance. Within our study we stimulate these thermal gradients and the resulting ageostrophic flows by applying an axisymmetric and equatorially symmetric outer boundary heat flux anomaly (Y20) with variable amplitude and sign. Such a forcing pattern mimics the thermal effect of intense solar or stellar irradiation. Our results suggest that the ageostrophic flows are linearly amplified with the forcing amplitude q⋆ leading to a more pronounced dimple of the equatorial jet (alike Jupiter). The geostrophic flow contributions, however, are suppressed for weak q⋆, but inverted and re-amplified once q⋆ exceeds a critical value. The inverse geostrophic differential rotation is consistently maintained by now also inversely tilted columns and reminiscent of zonal flow profiles observed for the ice giants. Analysis of the main force balance and parameter studies further foster these results.

  16. Non-Migrating Tides, with Zonally Symmetric Component, Generated in the Mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Talaat, E. R.; Porter, H. S.; Hines, C. O.

    2003-01-01

    For comparison with measurements from the TIMED satellite and coordinated ground based observations, we discuss results from our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) that incorporates the Doppler Spread Parameterization (Hines, 1997) for small-scale gravity waves (GWs). The NSM extends from the ground into the thermosphere and describes the major dynamical features of the atmosphere including the wave driven equatorial oscillations (QBO and SAO), and the seasonal variations of tides and planetary waves. With emphasis on the non-migrating tides, having periods of 24 and 12 hours, we discuss our modeling results that account for the classical migrating solar excitation sources only. As reported earlier, the NSM reproduces the observed seasonal variations and in particular the large equinoctial maxima in the amplitude of the migrating diurnal tide at altitudes around 90 km. Filtering of the tide by the zonal circulation and GW momentum deposition was identified as the cause. The GWs were also shown to produce a strong non-linear interaction between the diurnal and semi-diurnal tides. Confined largely to the mesosphere, the NSM produces through dynamical interactions a relatively large contribution of non-migrating tides. A striking feature is seen in the diurnal and semi-diurnal oscillations of the zonal mean (m = 0). Eastward propagating tides are also generated for zonal wave numbers m = 1 to 4. When the NSM is run without GWs, the amplitudes for the non-migrating tides, including m = 0, are generally small. Planetary wave interaction and non-linear coupling that involves the filtering of GWs and related height integration of dynamical features are discussed as possible mechanisms for generating these non-migrating tides in the NSM. As is the case for the solar migrating tides, the non-migrating tides reveal persistent seasonal variations. Under the influence of the QBO and SAO, interannual variations are produced.

  17. From international to zonal trials: the origins of the Nuremberg medical trial.

    PubMed

    Weindling, P

    2000-01-01

    This article examines how plans to have a second International Military Tribunal led to the Medical Trial at Nuremberg. While the British opposed a second international trial because of their distrust of the Soviets, they supported a plan for a series of special zonal trials to be conducted by the American authorities at Nuremberg. In December 1945 the British became aware of the extent of medical war crimes committed by the Germans. Their investigation led to an eventual handover to the Americans of a group of German doctors for trial at Nuremberg. At the same time the British and French Supported an International Scientific Commission for the Investigation of Medical War Crimes.

  18. Zonal velocity and texture in the Jovian atmosphere inferred from Voyager images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, A. P.; Beebe, R. F.; Collins, S. A.; Mitchell, J. L.; Terrile, R. J.; Hunt, G. E.; Muller, P.; Smith, B. A.

    1979-01-01

    Smith et al. (1970) have described Jupiter's changing appearance at resolutions down to 10 km over intervals as small as 1 h. Examples of small-scale convection, rapid variations of features, and complex interactions of closed vortices were given. In the present paper, these results are extended to include measurements of the latitudinal profile of zonal (eastward) velocity, from which the absolute vorticity gradient is estimated. Also, a classification scheme based on texture (i.e., the patterns of small features visible at resolutions of 100 km or better) is proposed.

  19. In vitro anti-HMPV activity of meroditerpenoids from marine alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotales).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gabriella; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Sigiliano, Lorena; Machado, Fernanda; Kaiser, Carlos; Romeiro, Nelilma; Gestinari, Lísia; Santos, Norma; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela

    2011-10-10

    In this paper, we evaluated the antiviral activity against HMPV replication of crude extract of the marine algae Stypopodium zonale and of two meroditerpenoids obtained from it, atomaric acid and epitaondiol, and a methyl ester derivative of atomaric acid. Their selectivity indexes were 20.78, >56.81, 49.26 and 12.82, respectively. Compared to ribavirin, the substances showed a relatively low cytotoxicity on LLC-MK2 cells, with a significant antiviral activity, inhibiting at least 90% of viral replication in vitro, which demonstrates the potential of these marine natural products to combat infections caused by HMPV in vitro.

  20. Generation of electrostatic drift zonal flows under the action of mean sheared flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaladze, T. D.; Kharshiladze, O.

    2016-12-01

    Generation of large-scale zonal flows by the small-scale electrostatic drift wave turbulence in the magnetized plasma under the action of mean poloidal sheared flow is considered. Attention to large-scale (compared to the ion Larmor radius) drift structures is paid. To this end, the generalized Hasegawa-Mima equation containing both vector and scalar nonlinearities is derived, and the appropriate eigenvalue problem is solved numerically. Destabilizing role of the small amplitude mean shear flow and spatial inhomogeneity of electron temperature is shown.

  1. Recursive analytical solution describing artificial satellite motion perturbed by an arbitrary number of zonal terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical first order solution has been developed which describes the motion of an artificial satellite perturbed by an arbitrary number of zonal harmonics of the geopotential. A set of recursive relations for the solution, which was deduced from recursive relations of the geopotential, was derived. The method of solution is based on Von-Zeipel's technique applied to a canonical set of two-body elements in the extended phase space which incorporates the true anomaly as a canonical element. The elements are of Poincare type, that is, they are regular for vanishing eccentricities and inclinations. Numerical results show that this solution is accurate to within a few meters after 500 revolutions.

  2. Jupiter's zonal winds: are they bands of homogenized potential vorticity organized as a monotonic staircase?

    PubMed

    Marcus, Philip S; Shetty, Sushil

    2011-02-28

    The east-west striped pattern of clouds in Jupiter's weather layer is accompanied by a zonal flow containing 12 eastward-going jet streams alternating in latitude with westward-going jet streams. Based on theory, simulation and observations of the Earth's oceans and atmosphere, it is conjectured that Jupiter's weather layer is made of bands of constant potential vorticity (PV), where the interfaces between bands are at the latitudes of the maxima of the eastward-going jet streams. It is speculated that the mixing of PV on Jupiter is analogous to the mixing of salt in the ocean by the Phillips effect, which causes the salt density to form a monotonic 'staircase'. It is hypothesized that the PV in Jupiter's weather layer is also a staircase, decreasing from north to south. PV is a function of vorticity, as well as parameters with unknown values, e.g. the vertical stratification and the zonal flow beneath the observable weather layer. Therefore, these hypotheses cannot be tested directly. Using an atmospheric model that contains these unknown parameters, we solved the inverse problem and found values of the unknown parameters (and their uncertainties) that best fit Jovian observations. The unknown parameters influence how the zonal flow interacts with large vortices, e.g. the Great Red Spot (GRS; the largest and longest-lived Jovian vortex, centred at 23° S) and the Oval BA (the second largest vortex, centred at 33° S). Although we found that the PV distribution is approximately piecewise-constant and that the peaks of the eastward-going jet streams are at the latitudes of PV interfaces, there is also a PV interface at 20° S, where there is a westward-going jet stream. We find that the zonal PV is not a monotonic staircase due to the 'backwards' interface at 20° S. We show that this backwards interface is necessary to make the GRS nearly round, and that without that interface, the Red Spot would be highly elongated in the east-west direction and probably unstable.

  3. Nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation. II - Eliassen-Palm flux divergence and isentropic mixing coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H.; Tung, K. K.; Olaguer, E.

    1990-01-01

    A diagnostic study of Eliassen-Palm flux divergence and isentropic mixing coefficient (Kyy) in the stratosphere is performed for different seasons and for both hemispheres, based on the nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation of Tung (1986). An easily implementable procedure is described which yields a Kyy field that is consistent with advective transport. It is shown that the resultant time- and space-varying structure of Kyy leads to improved simulation of stratospheric species whose distributions are affected by dynamical transport. In particular, it is shown that the simulation of nitric acid is more satisfactory than previous model calculations.

  4. Long period perturbations of earth satellite orbits. [Von Zeipel method and zonal harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, K. C.

    1979-01-01

    All the equations involved in extending the PS phi solution to include the long periodic and second order secular effects of the zonal harmonics are presented. Topics covered include DSphi elements and relations for their conconical transformation into the PS phi elements; the solution algorithm based on the Von Zeipel method; and the elimination of long periodic terms and analytical integration of primed variables. The equations were entered into the ASOP program, checked out, and verified. Comparisons with numerical integrations show the long period theory to be accurate within several meters after 800 revolutions.

  5. First simultaneous measurements of thermospheric winds and zonal ion drifts from the Jicamarca Radio Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriwether, John; Baker, Brooke; Twork, Greg; Chau, Jorge; Veliz, Oskar; Woodman, Ronald; Hedden, Russell; Hysell, David

    The first simultaneous observations of thermospheric winds and zonal ion drifts have been ob-tained at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory using a new Fabry-Perot interferometer observatory installed on a mountain ridge overlooking the valley where the JRO radar is located. The re-sults show that the neutral winds and ion drifts generally have the same speed and temporal variation characteristics. These results illustrate the simultaneous detection of the midnight temperature maximum as well. The paper will also describe efforts to obtain common volume measurements of thermospheric winds and temperatures utilizing the FPI Arequipa observatory which is located 4 degrees south of the geomagnetic equator.

  6. Representation of the tropical stratospheric zonal wind in global atmospheric reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawatani, Yoshio; Hamilton, Kevin; Miyazaki, Kazuyuki; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Anstey, James A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on a project to compare the representation of the monthly-mean zonal wind in the equatorial stratosphere among major global atmospheric reanalysis data sets. The degree of disagreement among the reanalyses is characterized by the standard deviation (SD) of the monthly-mean zonal wind and this depends on latitude, longitude, height, and the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). At each height the SD displays a prominent equatorial maximum, indicating the particularly challenging nature of the reanalysis problem in the low-latitude stratosphere. At 50-70 hPa the geographical distributions of SD are closely related to the density of radiosonde observations. The largest SD values are over the central Pacific, where few in situ observations are available. At 10-20 hPa the spread among the reanalyses and differences with in situ observations both depend significantly on the QBO phase. Notably the easterly-to-westerly phase transitions in all the reanalyses except MERRA are delayed relative to those directly observed in Singapore. In addition, the timing of the easterly-to-westerly phase transitions displays considerable variability among the different reanalyses and this spread is much larger than for the timing of the westerly-to-easterly phase changes. The eddy component in the monthly-mean zonal wind near the Equator is dominated by zonal wavenumber 1 and 2 quasi-stationary planetary waves propagating from midlatitudes in the westerly phase of the QBO. There generally is considerable disagreement among the reanalyses in the details of the quasi-stationary waves near the Equator. At each level, there is a tendency for the agreement to be best near the longitude of Singapore, suggesting that the Singapore observations act as a strong constraint on all the reanalyses. Our measures of the quality of the reanalysis clearly show systematic improvement over the period considered (1979-2012). The SD among the reanalysis declines significantly over

  7. Some studies of zonal and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.

    1985-01-01

    At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both zonal and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.

  8. An analysis of finite-difference and finite-volume formulations of conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinokur, Marcel

    1986-01-01

    Finite-difference and finite-volume formulations are analyzed in order to clear up the confusion concerning their application to the numerical solution of conservation laws. A new coordinate-free formulation of systems of conservation laws is developed, which clearly distinguishes the role of physical vectors from that of algebraic vectors which characterize the system. The analysis considers general types of equations--potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes. Three-dimensional unsteady flows with time-varying grids are described using a single, consistent nomeclature for both formulations. Grid motion due to a non-inertial reference frame as well as flow adaptation is covered. In comparing the two formulations, it is found useful to distinguish between differences in numerical methods and differences in grid definition. The former plays a role for non-Cartesian grids, and results in only cosmetic differences in the manner in which geometric terms are handled. The differences in grid definition for the two formulations is found to be more important, since it affects the manner in which boundary conditions, zonal procedures, and grid singularities are handled at computational boundaries. The proper interpretation of strong and weak conservation-law forms for quasi-one-dimensional and axisymmetric flows is brought out.

  9. An analysis of finite-difference and finite-volume formulations of conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinokur, Marcel

    1989-01-01

    Finite-difference and finite-volume formulations are analyzed in order to clear up the confusion concerning their application to the numerical solution of conservation laws. A new coordinate-free formulation of systems of conservation laws is developed, which clearly distinguishes the role of physical vectors from that of algebraic vectors which characterize the system. The analysis considers general types of equations: potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes. Three-dimensional unsteady flows with time-varying grids are described using a single, consistent nomenclature for both formulations. Grid motion due to a non-inertial reference frame as well as flow adaptation is covered. In comparing the two formulations, it is found useful to distinguish between differences in numerical methods and differences in grid definition. The former plays a role for non-Cartesian grids, and results in only cosmetic differences in the manner in which geometric terms are handled. The differences in grid definition for the two formulations is found to be more important, since it affects the manner in which boundary conditions, zonal procedures, and grid singularities are handled at computational boundaries. The proper interpretation of strong and weak conservation-law forms for quasi-one-dimensional and axisymmetric flows is brought out.

  10. Model Reduction of Viscoelastic Finite Element Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C. H.; Inman, D. J.; Lam, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines a method of adding viscoelastic properties to finite element models by using additional co-ordinates to account for the frequency dependence usually associated with such damping materials. Several such methods exist and all suffer from an increase in order of the final finite model which is undesirable in many applications. Here we propose to combine one of these methods, the GHM (Golla-Hughes-McTavish) method, with model reduction techniques to remove the objection of increased model order. The result of combining several methods is an ability to add the effects of visoelastic components to finite element or other analytical models without increasing the order of the system. The procedure is illustrated by a numerical example. The method proposed here results in a viscoelastic finite element of a structure without increasing the order of the original model.

  11. Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h) and H = U(h) # C[Γ], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, Γ is an arbitrary group acting on U(h) by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of Reverberation Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunting, Charles F.; Nguyen, Duc T.

    2000-01-01

    The primary motivating factor behind the initiation of this work was to provide a deterministic means of establishing the validity of the statistical methods that are recommended for the determination of fields that interact in -an avionics system. The application of finite element analysis to reverberation chambers is the initial step required to establish a reasonable course of inquiry in this particularly data-intensive study. The use of computational electromagnetics provides a high degree of control of the "experimental" parameters that can be utilized in a simulation of reverberating structures. As the work evolved there were four primary focus areas they are: 1. The eigenvalue problem for the source free problem. 2. The development of a complex efficient eigensolver. 3. The application of a source for the TE and TM fields for statistical characterization. 4. The examination of shielding effectiveness in a reverberating environment. One early purpose of this work was to establish the utility of finite element techniques in the development of an extended low frequency statistical model for reverberation phenomena. By employing finite element techniques, structures of arbitrary complexity can be analyzed due to the use of triangular shape functions in the spatial discretization. The effects of both frequency stirring and mechanical stirring are presented. It is suggested that for the low frequency operation the typical tuner size is inadequate to provide a sufficiently random field and that frequency stirring should be used. The results of the finite element analysis of the reverberation chamber illustrate io-W the potential utility of a 2D representation for enhancing the basic statistical characteristics of the chamber when operating in a low frequency regime. The basic field statistics are verified for frequency stirring over a wide range of frequencies. Mechanical stirring is shown to provide an effective frequency deviation.

  13. The emergence of zonal jets in forced rotating shallow water turbulence: A laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espa, S.; Di Nitto, G.; Cenedese, A.

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of a sequence of alternating intense and elongated eastward-westward bands i.e. zonal jets in the atmosphere of the giant planets and in Earth's oceans have been widely investigated. Nevertheless jets formation and role as material barriers remain still unclear. Jets are generated in a quasi-2D turbulent flow due to the latitudinal variation of the Coriolis parameter (the so-called β-effect) which modifies the inverse cascade process channeling energy towards zonal modes. In previous experiments we have investigated the impact of the variation of the rotation rate, of the domain geometry and of the initial spectra on jets organization in a decaying regime. In this work we investigate the formation of jets in a continuously forced flow, we characterize the observed regime and also we attempt to verify the existence of an universal regime corresponding to the so-called zonostrophic turbulence. The experimental set-up consists of a rotating tank where turbulence is generated by electromagnetically forcing a shallow layer of an electrolyte solution, and the variation of the Coriolis parameter has been simulated by the parabolic profile assumed by the free surface of the fluid under rotation. Flow measurements have been performed using image analysis.

  14. The switching between zonal and blocked mid-latitude atmospheric circulation: a dynamical system perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faranda, Davide; Masato, Giacomo; Moloney, Nicholas; Sato, Yuzuru; Daviaud, Francois; Dubrulle, Bérengère; Yiou, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric mid-latitude circulation is dominated by a zonal, westerly flow. Such a flow is generally symmetric, but it can be occasionally broken up by blocking anticyclones. The subsequent asymmetric flow can persist for several days. In this paper, we apply new mathematical tools based on the computation of an extremal index in order to reexamine the dynamical mechanisms responsible for the transitions between zonal and blocked flows. We discard the claim that mid-latitude circulation features two distinct stable equilibria or chaotic regimes, in favor of a simpler mechanism that is well understood in dynamical systems theory: we identify the blocked flow as an unstable fixed point (or saddle point) of a single basin chaotic attractor, dominated by the westerlies regime. We also analyze the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation atmospheric indices, whose behavior is often associated with the transition between the two circulation regimes, and investigate analogies and differences with the bidimensional blocking indices. We find that the Arctic Oscillation index, which can be thought as a proxy for a hemispheric average of the Tibaldi-Molteni blocking index, tracks unstable fixed points. On the other hand, the North Atlantic Oscillation, representative only for local properties of the North Atlantic blocking dynamics, does not show any trace of the presence of unstable fixed points of the dynamics.

  15. Purification and characterization of retrovirus vector particles by rate zonal ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Segura, María de las Mercedes; Garnier, Alain; Kamen, Amine

    2006-04-01

    Sucrose equilibrium density ultracentrifugation remains the most widely used technique for retrovirus purification. However, purified virus preparations obtained by this routine method usually contain considerable amounts of contaminating cell membrane vesicles. In addition, sucrose solutions are highly viscous and hyperosmotic which jeopardizes the integrity and functionality of the retrovirus particle. In order to overcome these limitations, an alternative purification technique using rate zonal ultracentrifugation and iodixanol as gradient medium was developed. Recombinant retrovirus particles were produced by 293-GPG packaging cells grown in suspension in the presence of 10% FBS. Concentrated supernatants were purified by rate zonal sedimentation on a 10-30% continuous iodixanol gradient. Virus particles were recovered intact and active from the central fractions of the gradient. By using this strategy, high levels of purification were achieved, with no evident contamination with cell membrane vesicles as indicated by subtilisin treatment studies. The level of purity of the retrovirus preparation is over 95% as shown by SDS-PAGE analysis and size-exclusion chromatography. Purified particles appear homogenous in size and morphology according to negative stain electron microscopy. In addition, large amounts of defective retrovirus particles produced by 293-GPG packaging cells can be separated from functional retrovirus particles using this purification strategy.

  16. Zonal Toroidal Harmonic Expansions of External Gravitational Fields for Ring-like Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We present an expression of the external gravitational field of a general ring-like object with axial and plane symmetries such as oval toroids or annular disks with an arbitrary density distribution. The main term is the gravitational field of a uniform, infinitely thin ring representing the limit of zero radial width and zero vertical height of the object. The additional term is derived from a zonal toroidal harmonic expansion of a general solution of Laplace’s equation outside the Brillouin toroid of the object. The special functions required are the point value and the first-order derivative of the zonal toroidal harmonics of the first kind, namely, the Legendre function of the first kind of half integer degree and an argument that is not less than unity. We developed a recursive method to compute them from two pairs of seed values explicitly expressed by some complete elliptic integrals. Numerical experiments show that appropriately truncated expansions converge rapidly outside the Brillouin toroid. The truncated expansion can be evaluated so efficiently that, for an oval toroid with an exponentially damping density profile, it is 3000-10,000 times faster than the two-dimensional numerical quadrature. A group of the Fortran 90 programs required in the new method and their sample outputs are available electronically.

  17. The Brown Alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae): A Potential Source of Anti-Leishmania Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Deivid Costa; Szlachta, Marcella Macedo; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Soares, Angelica Ribeiro; Saraiva, Elvira Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of a lipophilic extract from the brown alga Stypopodium zonale and atomaric acid, its major compound. Our initial results revealed high inhibitory activity for intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner and an IC50 of 0.27 μg/mL. Due to its high anti-Leishmania activity and low toxicity toward host cells, we fractionated the lipophilic extract. A major meroditerpene in this extract, atomaric acid, and its methyl ester derivative, which was obtained by a methylation procedure, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 20.2 μM (9 μg/mL) and 22.9 μM (10 μg/mL), and selectivity indexes of 8.4 μM and 11.5 μM. The leishmanicidal activity of both meroditerpenes was independent of nitric oxide (NO) production, but the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be at least partially responsible for the amastigote killing. Our results suggest that the lipophilic extract of S. zonale may represent an important source of compounds for the development of anti-Leishmania drugs. PMID:27618071

  18. Exchange factor method: An alternative basis for zonal analysis of radiating enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, M.E.; Howell, J.R.

    1985-11-01

    In zonal analysis of an enclosure containing a radiatively participating medium, the volume and bounding surface are divided into volume and area elements which are assumed to be isothermal. For a system of M elements consisting of N surfaces and GAMMA volume elements (M = N+GAMMA), M/sup 2/ relationships (direct- or total-exchange areas of conventional zonal analysis) define all possible radiant interchange between element pairs. Due to reciprocity there are at most M(M+1)/2 unique direct-exchange areas. The use of symmetry may greatly reduce the number of unique exchange areas. In the alternative form presented, exchange factors are defined such that a gray medium's gas-to-gas exchange factors describe only the redistribution of radiative source terms. Only surface-to-surface and surface-to-gas (gas-to-surface) relationships are required to wholly define the system in radiative equilibrium. That is, a system in radiative equilibrium may be characterized by as many as GAMMA(GAMMA+1)/2 fewer factors. These same exchange factors may be augmented by gas-to-gas exchange factors to analyze media not in radiative equilibrium. In an isotropically scattering, gray medium, exchange factors are functions of system geometry and total extinction only. The degree of extinction due to scattering does not affect exchange factor. Transformations between direct-exchange areas and exchange factors are developed.

  19. Dynamic coupling of magnetic fields, thermal emissions, and zonal flows in ice giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderlund, Krista M.; Heimpel, M. H.; King, E. M.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Magnetic fields are ubiquitous in the solar system, yet their characteristics are as diverse as the planets themselves. These fields are thought to result from dynamo action driven by thermochemical convection in electrically conducting fluid regions. The multipolar dynamos of Uranus and Neptune provide a unique opportunity to test hypotheses for magnetic field generation. Since no sharp structural boundaries in the ice giants between the ionic ocean and overlying molecular envelope are expected, it is possible that these regions are linked dynamically. Thus, an understanding of the coupling between magnetic fields, heat flow, and atmospheric winds is crucial to determine what controls the strength, morphology, and evolution of giant planet dynamos. Here we present numerical simulations of turbulent convection in spherical shells to test the hypothesis that poorly organized turbulence will generate ice giant-like magnetic fields, thermal emissions, and zonal flows. We find that this style of convection leads to small-scale, fluctuating dynamo action that generates a multipolar magnetic field, Hadley-like circulation cells that promote equatorial upwellings to create low latitude peaks in internal heat flux, and homogenized absolute angular momentum that drives three-jet zonal flows. This qualitative agreement with observations suggests that the internal dynamics of ice giant planets may be characterized by three-dimensional convective turbulence with dynamic coupling between the dynamo region and electrically insulating envelope above playing an important role as well.

  20. SPCZ zonal events and downstream influence on surface ocean conditions in the Indonesian Throughflow region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, Braddock K.; Wu, Henry C.; Rixen, Tim; Charles, Christopher D.; Gordon, Arnold L.; Moore, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal surface freshening of the Makassar Strait, the main conduit of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), is a key factor controlling the ITF. Here we present a 262 year reconstruction of seasonal sea-surface-salinity variability from 1742 to 2004 Common Era by using coral δ18O records from the central Makassar Strait. Our record reveals persistent seasonal freshening and also years with significant truncations of seasonal freshening that correlate exactly with South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) zonal events >4000 km to the east. During these events, the SPCZ dramatically rotates 15° north to near the equator and stronger westward flowing South Pacific boundary currents force higher-salinity water through the Makassar Strait in February-May halting the normal seasonal freshening in the strait. By these teleconnections, our Makassar coral δ18O series provides the first record of the recurrence interval of these zonal SPCZ events and demonstrates that they have occurred on a semiregular basis since the mid-1700s.

  1. QUARKONIUM AT FINITE TEMPERATURE.

    SciTech Connect

    UMEDA, T.

    2006-06-09

    Lattice QCD studies on charmonium at finite temperature are presented After a discussion about problems for the Maximum Entropy Method applied to finite temperature lattice QCD, I show several results on charmonium spectral functions. The 'wave function' of charmonium is also discussed to study the spatial correlation between quark and anti-quark in deconfinement phase.

  2. Finite Control in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kum Young

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores finite control in Korean. An overview of the previous studies of control shows that the mainstream literature on control has consistently argued that referential dependence between an overt matrix argument and an embedded null subject is characteristic of non-finite clauses which contain a PRO subject. Moreover, although some…

  3. Direct evidence of stationary zonal flows and critical gradient behavior for Er during formation of the edge pedestal in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillesheim, Jon

    2015-11-01

    High spatial resolution measurements with Doppler backscattering in JET have provided new insights into the development of the edge radial electric field during pedestal formation. The characteristics of Er have been studied as a function of density at 2.5 MA plasma current and 3 T toroidal magnetic field. We observe fine-scale spatial structure in the edge Er well prior to the LH transition, consistent with stationary zonal flows. Zonal flows are a fundamental mechanism for the saturation of turbulence and this is the first direct evidence of stationary zonal flows in a tokamak. The radial wavelength of the zonal flows systematically decreases with density. The zonal flows are clearest in Ohmic conditions, weaker in L-mode, and absent in H-mode. Measurements also show that after neutral beam heating is applied, the edge Er builds up at a constant gradient into the core during L-mode, at radii where Er is mainly due to toroidal velocity. The local stability of velocity shear driven turbulence, such as the parallel velocity gradient mode, will be assessed with gyrokinetic simulations. This critical Er shear persists across the LH transition into H-mode. Surprisingly, a reduction in the apparent magnitude of the Er well depth is observed directly following the LH transition at high densities. Establishing the physics basis for the LH transition is important for projecting scalings to ITER and these observations challenge existing models based on increased Er shear or strong zonal flows as the trigger for the transition. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under grant agreement No 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission.

  4. Relationship between eastern tropical Pacific cooling and recent trends in the Southern Hemisphere zonal-mean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, Kyle R.; Renwick, James A.; McGregor, James

    2016-08-01

    During 1979-2014, eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures significantly cooled, which has generally been attributed to the transition of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to its negative phase after 1999. We find the eastern tropical Pacific cooling to be associated with: (1) an intensified Walker Circulation during austral summer (December-February, DJF) and autumn (March-May, MAM); (2) a weakened South Pacific Hadley cell and subtropical jet during MAM; and (3) a strengthening of the circumpolar westerlies between 50 and 60°S during DJF and MAM. Observed cooling in the eastern tropical Pacific is linearly congruent with 60-80 % of the observed Southern Hemisphere positive zonal-mean zonal wind trend between 50 and 60°S during DJF (~35 % of the interannual variability), and around half of the observed positive zonal-mean zonal wind trend during MAM (~15 % of the interannual variability). Although previous studies have linked the strengthened DJF and MAM circumpolar westerlies to stratospheric ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases, we note that the continuation of the positive SAM trends into the twenty-first century is partially associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling, especially during MAM when zonal wind anomalies associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling project strongly onto the observed trends. Outside of DJF and MAM, eastern tropical Pacific cooling is associated with opposing zonal wind anomalies over the Pacific and Indian sectors, which we infer is the reason for the absence of significant positive SAM trends outside of DJF and MAM despite significant eastern tropical Pacific cooling seen during all seasons.

  5. Thermal zonal winds in the Venus mesosphere from the Venus Express temperature soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccialli, Arianna; Titov, Dmitri; Tellmann, Silvia; Migliorini, Alessandra; Read, Peter; Grassi, Davide; Paetzold, Martin; Haeusler, Bernd; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

    The Venus mesosphere (60-100 km altitude) is a transition region characterized by extremely complex dynamics: strong retrograde zonal winds dominate in the troposphere and lower meso-sphere while a solar-antisolar circulation can be observed in the upper mesosphere. The super-rotation extends from the surface up to the cloud top (˜65 km altitude) with wind speeds of only a few meters per second near the surface and reaching a maximum value of ˜100 m s-1 at cloud top, corresponding to a rotation period of ˜4 Earth days (˜60 times faster than Venus itself). The solar-antisolar circulation is driven by the day-night contrast in solar heating, and occurs above 110 km altitude with speeds of 120 m s-1 . The processes responsible for maintain-ing the zonal super-rotation in the lower atmosphere and its transition to the solar-antisolar circulation in the upper atmosphere are still poorly understood (Schubert et al.,2007). Different techniques have been used to obtain direct observations of wind at various altitudes: tracking of clouds in ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) images give information on wind speeds at the cloud top (Moissl et al., 2009; Sanchez-Lavega et al., 2008) and within the clouds (˜47 km, ˜61 km) (Sanchez-Lavega et al., 2008) while ground-based measurements of Doppler shifts in the CO2 band at 10 µm (Sornig et al., 2008) and in several CO millimiter lines (Rengel et al., 2008) provide wind speeds above the clouds up to ˜110 km altitude. The deep atmosphere from the surface up to the cloud top has been investigated through the Doppler tracking of descent probes and balloons (Counselman et al., 1980; Kerzhanovich and Limaye, 1985). In the mesosphere, between 45-85 km of altitude, where direct observations of wind are not possible, the zonal wind field can be derived from the vertical temperature structure using a special approximation of the thermal wind equation: based on cyclostrophic balance. Previous studies (Leovy, 1973; Newman et al

  6. [Model estimates of climate change impact on habitats of zonal vegetation for the plain territories of Russia].

    PubMed

    Golubiatnikov, L L; Denisenko, E A

    2007-01-01

    Possible changes in the habitats of zonal phytocenoses for the plain territories of Russia under a 1 degrees C increase in the annual mean global surface temperature are estimated by simulation with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models ECHAM4/OPYC3 and HadCM3 and the intermediate-complexity climate model of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics for anthropogenic scenarios of greenhouse gas changes. The response of the phytocenotic habitats to possible climate changes is estimated from the changes in net primary production for the considered climatic scenarios. The obtained data allowed us to recognize the zonal phytocenoses most sensitive to climate changes.

  7. Predictions of zonal wind and angular momentum by the NMC medium-range forecast model during 1985-89

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Richard D.; Salstein, David A.; Nehrkorn, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the quality of weather predictions of the atmosphere's relative angular momentum (M) made by the most recent version of the NMC medium-range forecast model (MRF88) during December 1985-1989. It was found that, compared with older versions of MRF, bias errors in the MRF88 forecasts of M became more prominent, while random errors were not affected. Both types of errors in the M forecasts could be traced to problems with forecasts in the zonal mean zonal wind in the tropics.

  8. A parallel finite-difference method for computational aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisshelm, Julie M.

    1989-01-01

    A finite-difference scheme for solving complex three-dimensional aerodynamic flow on parallel-processing supercomputers is presented. The method consists of a basic flow solver with multigrid convergence acceleration, embedded grid refinements, and a zonal equation scheme. Multitasking and vectorization have been incorporated into the algorithm. Results obtained include multiprocessed flow simulations from the Cray X-MP and Cray-2. Speedups as high as 3.3 for the two-dimensional case and 3.5 for segments of the three-dimensional case have been achieved on the Cray-2. The entire solver attained a factor of 2.7 improvement over its unitasked version on the Cray-2. The performance of the parallel algorithm on each machine is analyzed.

  9. Using box models to quantify zonal distributions and emissions of halocarbons in the background atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, J. W.; Nance, J. D.; Dutton, G. S.; Montzka, S. A.; Hall, B. D.; Miller, B.; Butler, J. H.; Mondeel, D. J.; Siso, C.; Moore, F. L.; Hintsa, E. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Rigby, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) of NOAA's Global Monitoring Division started measurements of the major chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide in 1977 from flask samples collected at five remote sites around the world. Our program has expanded to over 40 compounds at twelve sites, which includes six in situ instruments and twelve flask sites. The Montreal Protocol for Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and its subsequent amendments has helped to decrease the concentrations of many of the ozone depleting compounds in the atmosphere. Our goal is to provide zonal emission estimates for these trace gases from multi-box models and their estimated atmospheric lifetimes in this presentation and make the emission values available on our web site. We plan to use our airborne measurements to calibrate the exchange times between the boxes for 5-box and 12-box models using sulfur hexafluoride where emissions are better understood.

  10. Computational aspects of zonal algorithms for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, T. L.; Thomas, S. D.; Kaynak, U.; Gundy, K. L.; Flores, J.; Chaderjian, N. M.

    1985-01-01

    Transonic flow fields about wing geometries are computed using an Euler/Navier-Stokes approach in which the flow field is divided into several zones. The flow field immediately adjacent to the wing surface is resolved with fine grid zones and solved using a Navier-Stokes algorithm. Flow field regions removed from the wing are resolved with less finely clustered grid zones and are solved with an Euler algorithm. Computational issues associated with this zonal approach, including data base management aspects, are discussed. Solutions are obtained that are in good agreement with experiment, including cases with significant wind tunnel wall effects. Additional cases with significant shock induced separation on the upper wing surface are also presented.

  11. A grid interfacing zonal algorithm for three-dimensional transonic flows about aircraft configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta, E. H.; Vadyak, J.

    An efficient grid interfacing zonal algorithm has been developed for computing the transonic flow field about three-dimensional multicomponent configurations. The algorithm uses the full-potential formulation and the fully-implicit approximate factorization scheme (AF2). The flow field solution is computed using a component adaptive grid approach in which separate grids are employed for the individual components in the multicomponent configuration, where each component grid is optimized for a particular geometry. The component grids are allowed to overlap, and flow field information is transmitted from one grid to another through the overlap region. An overlapped-grid scheme is implemented for a wing and a wing/pylon/nacelle configuration. Numerical results show that the present algorithm is stable, accurate, and can be used effectively to compute the flow field about complex configurations.

  12. Present-day zonal wind influences projected Indian Ocean Dipole skewness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Benjamin; Cai, Wenju

    2016-11-01

    A prominent feature of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is its positive skewness, where positive phases tend to be stronger in amplitude than the negative phase. Positive IOD events are associated with devastating floods over parts of East Africa and India, while Australia and Indonesia experience dry conditions. Under greenhouse warming, climate models project a weakening of the positive IOD skewness, but their simulation of present-day skewness is too weak. Here we show that this bias and the projected skewness change are related to the simulation of the climatological zonal wind in the central equatorial Indian Ocean. In particular, models with overly weak present-day westerlies, which is a common model bias, generate overly weak present-day skewness and a smaller projected reduction in skewness. Improving the ability of models in simulating stronger westerly winds may lead to stronger present-day simulated skewness and a larger skewness reduction in a warmer climate.

  13. Comparative phloem Mobility of nickel in nonsenescent plants. [Pisum sativa L. ; Pelargonium zonale L

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, P.M.; Chamel, A.

    1986-06-01

    /sup 63/Ni was applied to nonsenescent source leaves and found to be transported to sink tissues in pea (Pisum saativum L.) and geranium plants (Pelargonium zonale L.). The comparative mobilities (percent tracer transported out of source leaf division % /sup 86/Rb transported) for /sup 63/Ni in peas was 2.12 and in geranium 0.25. The value for the phloem mobile /sup 86/Rb was 1.00. By contrast, the comparative mobility of /sup 45/Ca, which is relatively immobile in the phloem, was low (0.05 in peas, 0.00 in geranium). Interruption of the phloem pathway between source and sink leaves by steam girdling almost completely inhibited /sup 63/Ni accumulation in the sink leaves of both species. The authors conclude that Ni is transported from nonsenescent source leaves to sink tissues via the phloem of leguminous and nonleguminous plants.

  14. Least-squares smoothing of direct-exchange in zonal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, M. E.; Howell, J. R.

    1984-08-01

    The method of Lagrange-multipliers has been used to determine adjustments to be made to a set of direct-exchange areas used in zonal analysis of a radiating enclosure containing a participating medium. The resulting adjusted direct-exchange areas satisfy conservation laws and the condition that an objective function be minimized. The objective function allows weights to be assigned to each adjustment. The solution of a set of linear algebraic equations yields the required adjustments. The method is well-suited for adjusting a set of direct-exchange areas which are assumed to include random inaccuracies. Other adjustment techniques in the literature are discussed and compared, and application of the present method is demonstrated.

  15. Least-squares smoothing of direct-exchange areas in zonal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, M.E.; Howell, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The method of Lagrange-multipliers has been used to determine adjustments to be made to a set of direct-exchange areas used in zonal analysis of a radiating enclosure containing a participating medium. The resulting adjusted direct-exchange areas satisfy conservation laws and the condition that an objective function be minimized. The objective function allows weights to be assigned to each adjustment. The solution of a set of linear algebraic equations yields the required adjustments. The method is well-suited for adjusting a set of direct-exchange areas which are assumed to include random inaccuracies. Other adjustment techniques in the literature are discussed and compared, and application of the present method is demonstrated.

  16. A zonal computational procedure adapted to the optimization of two-dimensional thrust augmentor inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, T. S.; Tavella, D. A.; Roberts, L.

    1985-01-01

    A viscous-inviscid interaction methodology based on a zonal description of the flowfield is developed as a mean of predicting the performance of two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejectors. An inviscid zone comprising the irrotational flow about the device is patched together with a viscous zone containing the turbulent mixing flow. The inviscid region is computed by a higher order panel method, while an integral method is used for the description of the viscous part. A non-linear, constrained optimization study is undertaken for the design of the inlet region. In this study, the viscous-inviscid analysis is complemented with a boundary layer calculation to account for flow separation from the walls of the inlet region. The thrust-based Reynolds number as well as the free stream velocity are shown to be important parameters in the design of a thrust augmentor inlet.

  17. Low-latitude zonal and vertical ion drifts seen by DE 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coley, W. R.; Heelis, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical ion drift data from the DE 2 spacecraft have been used to determine average zonal and vertical plasma flow (electric field) characteristics in the +/- 26-deg dip latitude region during a time of high solar activity. The 'average data' local time profile for an apex height bin centered at 400 km indicates westward plasma flow from 0600 to 1900 solar local time ((SLT) with a maximum westward velocity of 80 m/s in the early afternoon. There is a sharp change to eastward flow at approximately 1900 hours with an early evening peak of 170 m/s. A secondary nighttime maximum exists at 0430 SLT preceeding the reversal to westward flow. This profile is in good agreement with Jicamarca, Peru, radar measurements made under similar solar maximum conditions. Haramonic analysis indicates a net superrotation which is strongest at lower apex altitudes. The diurnal term is dominant, but higher order terms through the quatradiurnal are significant.

  18. Angle-of-attack validation of a new zonal CFD method for airfoil simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, Sungyul; Summa, J. Michael; Strash, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    The angle-of-attack validation of a new concept suggested by Summa (1990) for coupling potential and viscous flow methods has been investigated for two-dimensional airfoil simulations. The fully coupled potential/Navier-Stokes code, ZAP2D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program 2D), has been used to compute the flow field around an NACA 0012 airfoil for a range of angles of attack up to stall at a Mach number of 0.3 and a Reynolds number of 3 million. ZAP2D calculation for various domain sizes from 25 to 0.12 chord lengths are compared with the ARC2D large domain solution as well as with experimental data.

  19. Present-day secular variations in the zonal harmonics of earth's geopotential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Peltier, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    The mathematical formulation required for predicting secular variation in the geopotential is developed for the case of a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating, viscoelastic earth model and an arbitrary surface load which can include a gravitational self-consistent ocean loading component. The theory is specifically applied to predict the present-day secular variation in the zonal harmonics of the geopotenial arising from the surface mass loading associated with the late Pleistocene glacial cycles. A procedure is outlined in which predictions of the present-day geopotential signal due to the late Pleistocene glacial cycles may be used to derive bounds on the net present-day mass flux from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to the local oceans.

  20. Equatorial semiannual oscillation in zonally averaged temperature observed by the Nimbus 7 SAMS and LIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delisi, Donald P.; Dunkerton, Timothy J.

    1988-04-01

    Zonally averaged equatorial temperatures obtained aboard Nimbus 7 by the stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS) are compared to comparable data obtained from the limb IR monitor of the stratosphere. The SAMS data are shown to confirm the seasonal asymmetry in semiannual wind regimes previously noted in rocketsonde observations near the equator. Two explanations for the asymmetry are considered: (1) an improved Kelvin and gravity wave transmissivity in stronger equatorial easterlies (resulting from planetary Rossby wave momentum transport), implying stronger westerly mean flow acceleration in the first cycle than in the second; and (2) evidence of strong polar-tropical coupling in the northern winter indicating that mean meridional circulations are present on a global scale.

  1. The effect of zonal gradients of sea surface temperature on the Indian Ocean winter monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, C.

    1981-01-01

    Several global climate simulations by the 7-layer, 8 x 10 GISS climate model were designed to test the contributions of various surface boundary conditions to the global climate. The model was run with the sun fixed at a perpetual January. In a comparison of run #5, in which realistic January surface boundary conditions were used, with run #4, which was the same except that a zonally symmetric climatological January sea surface temperature (SST) field was used, one of the results was that run #5 provided a better simulation of the Indian Ocean monsoon. A further comparison of the wind fields over the Indian Ocean that were generated by these two model runs is presented.

  2. Radiative modelling by the zonal method and WSGG model in inhomogeneous axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méchi, Rachid; Farhat, Habib; Said, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Nongray radiation calculations are carried out for a case problem available in the literature. The problem is a non-isothermal and inhomogeneous CO2-H2O- N2 gas mixture confined within an axisymmetric cylindrical furnace. The numerical procedure is based on the zonal method associated with the weighted sum of gray gases (WSGG) model. The effect of the wall emissivity on the heat flux losses is discussed. It is shown that this property affects strongly the furnace efficiency and that the most important heat fluxes are those leaving through the circumferential boundary. The numerical procedure adopted in this work is found to be effective and may be relied on to simulate coupled turbulent combustion-radiation in fired furnaces.

  3. An Assessment of the Impact of Transient Eddies on the Zonal Flow during a Blocking Episode Using Localized Eliassen-Palm Flux Diagnostics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.

    1986-10-01

    The Eliassen-Palm (E-P) flux, applied to zonal men flows, is an indicator of both the flux of eddy activity and the eddy forcing of the zonal mean flow. For time mean flows, a localized E-P flux is derived and used diagnostically to assess the impact of transient eddies on a major blocking episode that occurred over the South Pacific during the Southern Hemisphere winter of 1979. In contrast to previous studies that have focused on the mean quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity equation, the focus here is on the mean momentum equations. Eddy transports and the associated induced meridional circulation and other internal adjustments necessary to maintain the thermal wind balance, are gathered together allowing the residual circulation and the effects of the eddies to be determined. The time-mean equations of motion are thus transformed to consist of mean terms, the residual circulation and the divergence of a localized E-P flux vector. The latter is a measure of the eddy forcing of the mean flow, and the east-west component is shown to be related to the flux of wave activity. For the zonal mean case it is identical to the E-P flux. The local E-P flux is closely related to, but differs from, the E-vector of Hoskins et al. and Plumb's radiative wave activity flux, but has several advantages over both.For the blocking episode, defined as 20 July-31 August 1979, transient eddies were steered around the location of the blocking anticyclones following the two branches of the split westerly jet. However, the transient eddies in each branch differed in character, both from each other and from those in the main Southern Hemisphere storm track that extends across the southern Indian Ocean near 50°S. In the latter, the high frequency synoptic-scale baroclinic eddies are barotropically damped. The eddies have similar character to the south of the block but consist mainly of zonal wavenumbers 3 and 4 with periods shorter than a week. In contrast, the transient eddies in the

  4. The Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation Climate Impact - Zonal and Meridional Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Rolf; Kirillov, Andrey; Valev, Dimitar; Atanassov, Atanas; Danov, Dimitar; Guineva, Veneta

    2016-07-01

    The Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation (AMO) shows a period of about 60-70 years. Over the time span from 1860 up to 2014 the AMO has had a strong climate impact on the Northern Hemisphere. The AMO is considered to be related to the Atlantic overturning circulation, but the origin of the oscillation is not fully understood up till now. To study the AMO impact on climate, the Hadcrut4, Crut4 and HadSST3 temperature data sets have been employed in the current study. The influence of the AMO on the zonal and meridional temperature distribution has been investigated in detail. The strongest zonal AMO impact was obtained in the Arctic region. The results indicated that the AMO influence on temperature at Southern latitudes was opposite in phase compared to the temperature influence in the Northern Hemisphere, in agreement with the well known heat transfer phenomenon from South to North Atlantic. In the Northern Hemisphere the strongest AMO temperature impact was found over the Atlantic and America. In the West from American continent, over the Pacific, the AMO impact was the lowest obtained over the whole Northern Hemisphere. The Rocky Mountains and Sierra Madre, connected with it southwards, built up an atmospheric circulation barrier preventing a strong propagation of the AMO temperature signal westerly. The amplitude of the AMO index itself was greater during summer-fall. However stronger AMO influence on the Northern Hemisphere temperatures was found during the fall-winter season, when the differences between the Northern Hemisphere temperatures and the temperatures in the tropics were the greatest.

  5. Zonally resolved impact of ENSO on the stratospheric circulation and water vapor entry values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Paul; Ploeger, Felix; Tao, Mengchu; Riese, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Based on simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) for the period 1979-2013, with model transport driven by the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis, we discuss the impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the variability of the dynamics, water vapor, ozone, and mean age of air (AoA) in the tropical lower stratosphere during boreal winter. Our zonally resolved analysis at the 390 K potential temperature level reveals that not only (deseasonalized) ENSO-related temperature anomalies are confined to the tropical Pacific (180-300°E) but also anomalous wave propagation and breaking, as quantified in terms of the Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux divergence, with strongest local contribution during the La Niña phase. This anomaly is coherent with respective anomalies of water vapor (±0.5 ppmv) and ozone (±100 ppbv) derived from CLaMS being in excellent agreement with the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations. Thus, during El Niño a more zonally symmetric wave forcing drives a deep branch of the Brewer-Dobson (BD) circulation. During La Niña this forcing increases at lower levels (≈390 K) over the tropical Pacific, likely influencing the shallow branch of the BD circulation. In agreement with previous studies, wet (dry) and young (old) tape recorder anomalies propagate upward in the subsequent months following El Niño (La Niña). Using CLaMS, these anomalies are found to be around +0.3 (-0.2) ppmv and -4 (+4) months for water vapor and AoA, respectively. The AoA ENSO anomaly is more strongly affected by the residual circulation (≈2/3) than by eddy mixing (≈1/3).

  6. Characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities with respect to zonal vegetation in a coastal dune ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Ai; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro

    2013-10-01

    Coastal dune vegetation distributes zonally along the environmental gradients of, e.g., soil disturbance. In the preset study, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a coastal dune ecosystem were characterized with respect to tolerance to soil disturbance. Two grass species, Elymus mollis and Miscanthus sinensis, are distributed zonally in the seaward and landward slopes, respectively, in the primary dunes in Ishikari, Japan. The seaward slope is severely disturbed by wind, while the landward slope is stabilized by the thick root system of M. sinensis. The roots and rhizosphere soils of the two grasses were collected from the slopes. The soils were sieved to destruct the fungal hyphal networks, and soil trap culture was conducted to assess tolerance of the communities to disturbance, with parallel analysis of the field communities using a molecular ecological tool. In the landward communities, large shifts in the composition and increases in diversity were observed in the trap culture compared with the field, but in the seaward communities, the impact of trap culture was minimal. The landward field community was significantly nested within the landward trap culture community, implying that most members in the field community did not disappear in the trap culture. No nestedness was observed in the seaward communities. These observations suggest that disturbance-tolerant fungi have been preferentially selected in the seaward slope due to severe disturbance in the habitat. Whereas a limited number of fungi, which are not necessarily disturbance-sensitive, dominate in the stable landward slope, but high-potential diversity has been maintained in the habitat.

  7. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Affek, Hagit P.; Ivany, Linda C.; Houben, Alexander J. P.; Sijp, Willem P.; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10–17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands. PMID:24753570

  8. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-05-06

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands.

  9. A zonally averaged, coupled ocean-atmosphere model for paleoclimate studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stocker, T.F.; Mysak, L.A. ); Wright, D.G. )

    1992-08-01

    A zonally averaged ocean model for the thermohaline circulation is coupled to a zonally averaged, one-layer energy balance model of the atmosphere to form a climate model for paleoclimate studies. The emphasis of the coupled model is on the ocean's thermohaline circulation in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans. Under present-day conditions, the global conveyor belt is simulated. Latitude-depth structures of modeled temperature and salinity fields, as well as depth-integrated meridional transports of heat and freshwater, compare well with estimates from observations when wind stress is included. Ekman cells are present in the upper ocean and contribute substantially to the meridional fluxes at low latitudes.The atmospheric component of the coupled climate model consists of a classical balance model. When the two components are coupled after being spun up individually, the system remains steady. If intermittent convection is operating, the coupled model shows systematic deviations of the surface salinity, which may result in reversals of the thermohaline circulation. This climate drift can be inhibited by removing intermittent convection prior to coupling. The climate model is applied to investigate the effect of excess freshwater discharge into the North Atlantic, and the influence of the parameterization of precipitation is tested. The Atlantic thermohalinc flow is sensitive to anomalous freshwater input. Reversals of the deep circulation can occur in the Atlantic, leading to a state where deep water is formed only in the Southern Ocean. A feedback mechanism is identified that may also trigger the reversal of the Pacific thermobaline circulation yielding the inverse conveyor bell as an additional steady state. In total, four different stable equilibria of the coupled model were realized.

  10. The jovian anticyclone BA. II. Circulation and interaction with the zonal jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Legarreta, J.; García-Melendo, E.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.

    2009-10-01

    In this second part of our study of the large jovian anticyclone BA we present detailed measurements of its internal circulation and numerical models of its interaction with the zonal jets and nearby cyclonic regions. We characterized the flow using high-resolution observations obtained by the Cassini spacecraft in December 2000 (9 months after the genesis of BA as a result of the merger of two large White Ovals), by the ACS camera onboard HST in January 2005 and April 2006 and by the New Horizons spacecraft in February 2007. Cloud motions were derived from high-resolution images using an automatic correlator that provides a large sampling of the motions in images separated by short time intervals (30 min-2 h). The internal wind structure did not change when the oval changed its color reddening in late 2005-early 2006 and all four datasets from 2000 to 2007 consistently show a similar wind regime: an asymmetric intense anticyclonic vortex with faster winds in its Southern portion with mean speeds of 110 m/s and peak velocities of 135 m/s. These speeds are slightly higher than those measured in the three White Ovals predecessors of BA by the Voyagers [Mitchell, J.L., Beebe, R.F., Ingersoll, A.P., Garneau, G.W., 1981. J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8751-8757] and Galileo [Vasavada, A.R., and 13 colleagues, 1998. Icarus 135, 265-275] but not as much as it has been recently reported [Simon-Miller, A.A., Chanover, N.J., Orton, G.S., Sussman, M., Tsavaris, I.G., Karkoschka, E., 2006. Icarus 185, 558-562; Cheng, A.F., and 14 colleagues, 2008. Astronom. J. 135, 2446-2452]. The asymmetry of the velocities in the vortex is a consequence of the interaction of BA with the zonal circulation and emerges as a natural result in high-resolution simulations of the vortex dynamics using the EPIC model.

  11. Multiple, zonal and multi-zone adenoma detection rates according to quality of cleansing during colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Cesare; Maselli, Roberta; Pontone, Paolo; Angelini, Rita; Brighi, Manuela; Patrizi, Gregorio; Pironi, Daniele; Magliocca, Fabio Massimo; Filippini, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Background The safety and diagnostic accuracy of colonoscopy depend on the quality of colon cleansing. The adenoma detection rate is usually used as a quality measurement score. Objective We aimed to introduce and evaluate three new parameters to determine polyps and adenomas segmental localization and their distribution in association with different bowel preparation levels during colonoscopy. We introduce the multiple adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy), the zonal adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy in different colon areas (rectum, sigmoid, descending, transverse, ascending and cecum colon)), and multi-zone adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy in different colon areas with at least a segment between them with or without lesions (i.e. rectum and descending colon with or without lesions in the sigmoid)). Methods We prospectively enrolled outpatients who underwent colonoscopy from January 2013 to October 2014. The bowel preparation quality, according to the Aronchick modified scale, number and location of lesions, Paris classification and histology, were recorded. The multiple adenoma/polyp detection rate, zonal adenoma/polyp detection rate, and multi-zone adenoma/polyp detection rate were determined. Results In total, 519 consecutive patients (266/253 M/F; mean age 55.3 ± 12.8 years) were enrolled. The adenoma and polyp detection rates were 21% and 35%, respectively. Multiple adenomas were detected in 28 patients. Adenoma and polyp detection rate and new parameters were statistically significantly higher in the optimal as compared with the adequate bowel preparation. Conclusions An optimal level of bowel preparation was strongly associated not only with a higher adenoma detection rate, but also with a higher chance of detecting multiple clinically relevant lesions in adjacent or

  12. Estimation of thermospheric zonal and meridional winds using a Kalman filter technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomidze, Levan; Scherliess, Ludger

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the thermospheric neutral wind and its horizontal components is critical for an improved understanding of F region dynamics and morphology. However, to date their reliable estimation remains a challenge because of difficulties in both measurement and modeling. We present a new method to estimate the climatology of the zonal and meridional components of thermospheric neutral wind at low and middle latitudes using a Kalman filter technique. First, the climatology of the magnetic meridional wind is obtained by assimilating seasonal maps of F region ionosphere peak parameters (NmF2 and hmF2), obtained from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate radio occultation data, into the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements Full Physics (GAIM-FP) model. GAIM-FP provides the 3-D electron density throughout the ionosphere, together with the magnetic meridional wind. Next, the global zonal and meridional wind components are estimated using a newly developed Thermospheric Wind Assimilation Model (TWAM). TWAM combines magnetic meridional wind data obtained from GAIM-FP with a physics-based 3-D thermospheric neutral wind model using an implicit Kalman filter technique. Ionospheric drag and ion diffusion velocities, needed for the wind calculation, are also taken from GAIM-FP. The obtained wind velocities are in close agreement with measurements made by interferometers and with wind values from the Horizontal Wind Model 93 (HWM93) over Millstone Hill, Arecibo, and Arequipa during December and June solstices, and March equinox. In addition, it is shown that compared to HWM93 the winds from TWAM significantly improve the accuracy of the Ionosphere/Plasmasphere Model in reproducing the observed electron density variation over the Weddell Sea Anomaly.

  13. Self-generated zonal flows in the plasma turbulence driven by trapped-ion and trapped-electron instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouot, T.; Gravier, E.; Reveille, T.; Collard, M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a study of zonal flows generated by trapped-electron mode and trapped-ion mode micro turbulence as a function of two plasma parameters—banana width and electron temperature. For this purpose, a gyrokinetic code considering only trapped particles is used. First, an analytical equation giving the predicted level of zonal flows is derived from the quasi-neutrality equation of our model, as a function of the density fluctuation levels and the banana widths. Then, the influence of the banana width on the number of zonal flows occurring in the system is studied using the gyrokinetic code. Finally, the impact of the temperature ratio Te/Ti on the reduction of zonal flows is shown and a close link is highlighted between reduction and different gyro-and-bounce-average ion and electron density fluctuation levels. This reduction is found to be due to the amplitudes of gyro-and-bounce-average density perturbations ne and ni gradually becoming closer, which is in agreement with the analytical results given by the quasi-neutrality equation.

  14. The response of equatorial electrojet, vertical plasma drift, and thermospheric zonal wind to enhanced solar wind input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chao; Lühr, Hermann; Fejer, Bela G.

    2016-06-01

    In this study we used observations from the CHAMP and ROCSAT-1 satellites to investigate the solar wind effects on the equatorial electrojet (EEJ), vertical plasma drift, and thermospheric zonal wind. We show that an abrupt increase in solar wind input has a significant effect on the low-latitude ionosphere-thermosphere system, which can last for more than 24 h. The disturbance EEJ and zonal wind are mainly westward for all local times and show most prominent responses during 07-12 and 00-06 magnetic local time (MLT), respectively. The equatorial disturbance electric field is mainly eastward at night (most prominent for 00-05 MLT) and westward at daytime with small amplitudes. In this study we show for the first time that the penetration electric field is little dependent on longitude at both the day and night sides, while the disturbance zonal wind is quite different at different longitude sectors, implying a significant longitudinal dependence of the ionospheric disturbance dynamo. Our result also indicates that the F region equatorial zonal electric field reacts faster than E region dynamo, to the enhanced solar wind input.

  15. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: A few remarks on integral representation for zonal spherical functions on the symmetric space ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñena, J. F.; Perelomov, A. M.

    1997-08-01

    The integral representation of the orthogonal groups for zonal spherical functions of the symmetric space 0305-4470/30/15/003/img2 is used to obtain a generating function for such functions. For the case N = 3 the three-dimensional integral representation reduces to a one-dimensional one.

  16. Self-generated zonal flows in the plasma turbulence driven by trapped-ion and trapped-electron instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Drouot, T.; Gravier, E.; Reveille, T.; Collard, M.

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents a study of zonal flows generated by trapped-electron mode and trapped-ion mode micro turbulence as a function of two plasma parameters—banana width and electron temperature. For this purpose, a gyrokinetic code considering only trapped particles is used. First, an analytical equation giving the predicted level of zonal flows is derived from the quasi-neutrality equation of our model, as a function of the density fluctuation levels and the banana widths. Then, the influence of the banana width on the number of zonal flows occurring in the system is studied using the gyrokinetic code. Finally, the impact of the temperature ratio T{sub e}/T{sub i} on the reduction of zonal flows is shown and a close link is highlighted between reduction and different gyro-and-bounce-average ion and electron density fluctuation levels. This reduction is found to be due to the amplitudes of gyro-and-bounce-average density perturbations n{sub e} and n{sub i} gradually becoming closer, which is in agreement with the analytical results given by the quasi-neutrality equation.

  17. Changes to Saturn's zonal-mean tropospheric thermal structure after the 2010-2011 northern hemisphere storm

    SciTech Connect

    Achterberg, R. K.; Hesman, B. E.; Gierasch, P. J.; Conrath, B. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Flasar, F. M.

    2014-05-10

    We use far-infrared (20-200 μm) data from the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on the Cassini spacecraft to determine the zonal-mean temperature and hydrogen para-fraction in Saturn's upper troposphere from observations taken before and after the large northern hemisphere storm in 2010-2011. During the storm, zonal mean temperatures in the latitude band between approximately 25°N and 45°N (planetographic latitude) increased by about 3 K, while the zonal mean hydrogen para-fraction decreased by about 0.04 over the same latitudes, at pressures greater than about 300 mbar. These changes occurred over the same latitude range as the disturbed cloud band seen in visible images. The observations are consistent with low para-fraction gas being brought up from the level of the water cloud by the strong convective plume associated with the storm, while being heated by condensation of water vapor, and then advected zonally by the winds near the plume tops in the upper troposphere.

  18. Competition for finite resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, L. Jonathan; Zia, R. K. P.

    2012-05-01

    The resources in a cell are finite, which implies that the various components of the cell must compete for resources. One such resource is the ribosomes used during translation to create proteins. Motivated by this example, we explore this competition by connecting two totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) to a finite pool of particles. Expanding on our previous work, we focus on the effects on the density and current of having different entry and exit rates.

  19. Effective Frequency Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, C. Laurence; Weng, Chi Y.

    2002-01-01

    An effective monochromatic frequency technique is described to represent the effects of finite spectral bandwidth for active and passive measurements centered on an absorption line, a trough region, or a slowly varying spectral feature. For Gaussian and rectangular laser line shapes, the effective frequency is shown to have a simple form which depends only on the instrumental line shape and bandwidth and not on the absorption line profile. The technique yields accuracies better than 0.1% for bandwidths less than 0.2 times the atmospheric line width.

  20. The effect of global warming on lightning frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Colin; Rind, David

    1990-01-01

    The first attempt to model global lightning distributions by using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM is reported. Three sets of observations showing the relationship between lightning frequency and cloud top height are shown. Zonally averaged lightning frequency observed by satellite are compared with those calculated using the GISS GCM, and fair agreement is found. The change in lightning frequency for a double CO2 climate is calculated and found to be nearly 2.23 x 10 exp 6 extra lightning flashes per day.

  1. The Relation of Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinokur, M.

    1976-01-01

    Finite element and finite difference methods are examined in order to bring out their relationship. It is shown that both methods use two types of discrete representations of continuous functions. They differ in that finite difference methods emphasize the discretization of independent variable, while finite element methods emphasize the discretization of dependent variable (referred to as functional approximations). An important point is that finite element methods use global piecewise functional approximations, while finite difference methods normally use local functional approximations. A general conclusion is that finite element methods are best designed to handle complex boundaries, while finite difference methods are superior for complex equations. It is also shown that finite volume difference methods possess many of the advantages attributed to finite element methods.

  2. Investigation of the turbulent wake flow of generic launcher configurations via a zonal RANS/LES method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statnikov, V.; Meiß, J.-H.; Meinke, M.; Schröder, W.

    2013-09-01

    A numerical analysis of the turbulent wake flow of a generic space launcher at supersonic freestream conditions (Ma∞ = 6.0 and Re D = 1.7 × 106) is performed using a zonal RANS/LES method. To investigate the influence of various components of a rocket model on the base flow, three supported wind tunnel configurations with the same main body geometry and different aft-body extensions consisting of a blunt base, a nozzle dummy, and a full flowing underexpanded TIC nozzle (Mae = 2.52, p e/ p ∞ = 100) are considered. Flow topologies for three cases are described in detail including an estimate of the impact of the wind tunnel model support on the flow field. To validate the applied numerical method, the computed flow fields are compared to experimental data from high-speed schlieren measurements provided by DLR Cologne. The influence of the used aft-body extensions on the steady-state and dynamic base flow characteristics is evaluated by a detailed analysis and comparison of the pressure distribution and its spectra along the base and nozzle walls for three investigated configurations. The numerical findings are compared to experimental wall pressure oscillation measurements provided by DLR Cologne. The major results are the non-negligible influence of the model support on the wake even on the strut averted side, the base drag reduction effect of the aft-expanding jet plume consisting of an increase of the base pressure level from p/p_∞≈0.2-0.25 (blunt base and nozzle dummy configurations) up to p/p_∞≈0.7 leading to a decrease of the base pressure drag coefficient from C Dp base = 0.032 to 0.012 correspondingly, and the identified dominant low-frequency modes of the base pressure oscillations at Sr D ≈ 0.05, Sr D ≈ 0.1, and Sr D ≈ 0.2 also detected in the experiments.

  3. Behavior of zonal ion drifts in low and middle latitude ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Sasmita

    The Earth's environment consists of a neutral and an ionized atmosphere. The neutral atmosphere can be divided by its temperature profile into the troposphere (0-12 km), the stratosphere (12-45 km), the mesosphere (45-85 km), the thermosphere (85-1000 km) and exosphere (>1000 km). The Earth's ionized atmosphere is typically divided by density and composition into the ionosphere (70-1000 km), the plasmasphere (1000 km to 4 Re for MLAT less than 60°), and the magnetosphere extending to nearly 8 Re on the dayside and to approximately 1000 Re on the nightside. The Earth's ionosphere does not get direct energy from the solar wind because it is shielded by its magnetic field. The region of geospace is dominated by Earth's magnetic field is called the magnetosphere and outermost edge of the magnetosphere, called the magnetopause is maintained by the charged particles from the solar wind flowing along the boundary. The largest energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere is driven by an electric field directed dawn to dusk. This limited study shows that during large magnetic storms, ion drifts driven by the magnetosphere penetrate to latitudes as low as the dip equator on the dusk side and extend a few degrees equatorward of the auroral zone on the dawn side. A description of the evolution of the auroral precipitation and the zonal ion drifts at high latitudes during times of extreme storm activity is produced by applying some quantitative definitions that allow us to identify the expansion and penetration of the high-latitude zonal ion drifts to middle and low latitudes in the ionosphere. Times are identified when ion drifts driven from the magnetosphere exist at latitudes inside the plasmasphere and when regions below the auroral zone may be influenced by a disturbance dynamo. The resolved boundaries in the ion drifts and the electron precipitation allow us to distinguish penetration events from sub-auroral polarization fields. This limited study also shows

  4. Drift zonal plasma ionospheric in the Brazilian sector during a period of extreme low solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Tardelli-Coelho, Flavia Elaine

    2016-07-01

    The zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma irregularities of large scale were analyzed; these irregularities were observed using optical emission techniques OI 630.0 nm obtained by photometers imagers installed in two locations on the campus of Urbanova UNIVAP in São José dos Campos - SP designated SJC and Campus ULBRA in Palmas - TO cited as PAL. Data were collected from five years, from 2006 to 2010, low solar activity period. Of the total of 337 nights in SJC and 329 nights in PAL analyzed were selected a total of 18 nights of significant plasma bubble occurrences, 9 nights in SJC and 9 nights in PAL, and studied under two conditions: considering fixed altitude of 280 km OI emission layer of 630.0 nm and calculating the height of this variable layer over each night analyzed. To find these varying altitudes along each night we were assisted with the analysis of CADI digital ionosonde data operating in conjunction with the imaging photometer in its observatory. The radio data available in digisonde allowed to do the analysis on 12 variables altitudes of 18 nights studied for fixed altitude; this occurred because of scattering present in ionograms for those nights and times, due to the presence of plasma bubbles in the study through the of the observatory zenith. Quantitative analysis determined the drift velocity zone for each of the analyzed bubbles 18 nights during the given fixed height and 12 nights evaluating varying altitudes along each night. The means were obtained nights analyzed in each observatory for both methods; SJC in the average velocities is derived from the plasma zone 9 nights bubbles analyzed in the method is fixed altitude 84 ± 18 m / s in the case of PAL the average velocities found is 87 ± 12 m / s. In the other case with variable altitude emission to SJC 8 nights analyzed, we reached a mean value of 87 ± 12 m / s, and for PAL, 4 of 9 nights initially selected, the average speed of the zonal drift plasma bubbles were found 85

  5. Global ozone observations from the UARS MLS: An overview of zonal-mean results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe W.; Read, William G.; Elson, Lee S.; Flower, Dennis A.; Jarnot, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the zonal-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Well-known features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longer-term changes are believed to be related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), with a strong semiannual signal above 20 hPa. Ozone values near 50 hPa exhibit an equatorial low from October 1991 to June 1992, after which the low ozone pattern splits into two subtropical lows (possibly in connection with residual circulation changes tied to the QBO) and returns to an equatorial low in September 1993. The ozone hole development at high southern latitudes is apparent in MLS column data integrated down to 100 hPa, the MLS data reinforce current knowledge of this lower-stratospheric phenomenon by providing a height-dependent view of the variations. The region from 30 deg S to 30 deg N (an area equal to half the global area) shows very little change in the ozone column from year to year and within each year. The most striking ozone changes have occurred at northern midlatitudes, with the October 1992 to July 1993 column values significantly lower than during the prior year. The zonal-mean changes manifest themselves as a slower rate of increase during the 1992/93 winter, and there is some evidence for a lower fall minimum. A recovery occurs during late summer of 1993; early 1994 values are significantly larger than during the two previous winters. The timing and latitudinal extent of the northern midlatitude decreases appear to rule out observed ClO enhancements in the Arctic vortex, with related chemical processing and ozone dilution effects, as a unique cause. Local depletion from ClO-related chemical mechanisms alone is also not sufficient, based

  6. Finite-Temperature Micromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Skomski, R; Kumar, P; Hadjipanayis, GC; Sellmyer, DJ

    2013-07-01

    It is investigated how magnetic hysteresis is affected by finite-temperature excitations, using soft regions in hard-magnetic matrices as model systems. In lowest order, magnetization processes are described by the traditional approach of using finite-temperature materials constants such as K-1(T). Nanoscale excitations are usually small perturbations. For example, a Bloch summation over all magnon wave vectors shows that remanence is slightly enhanced, because long-wavelength excitations are suppressed. However, a reverse magnetic field enhances the effect of thermal excitations and causes a small reduction of the coercivity. To describe such effects, we advocate micromagnetic calculations where finite-temperature fluctuations are treated as small corrections to the traditional approach, as contrasted to full-scale Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Measurements of Seasonal Changes in Saturn's Zonal Wind and Vertical Wind Shear between 2004 and 2016 from Cassini ISS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blalock, John J.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ewald, Shawn P.

    2016-10-01

    We present updated zonal wind measurements of Saturn using Cassini ISS images between 2004 and 2016. In addition, we present measurements of the vertical wind shear between the cloud levels sensed in the near-infrared continuum band at 750 nm (CB2 filter) and the methane bands at 727 and 889 nm (MT2 and MT3 filters). We previously reported that there may be small seasonal changes in Saturn's zonal wind profile but it was inconclusive due to measurement uncertainties. In our previous reports, we used the zonal standard deviation of the wind vectors as a proxy for the measurement uncertainty. However, zonal standard deviation contains contributions from both real spatial variations in the wind speed as well as uncertainties in the measurements. This raised a difficulty in distinguishing small, real changes in the wind field from the uncertainties in the measurement. We have developed a technique which isolates real spatial variations from measurement uncertainties by analyzing the correlation fields produced in the two-dimensional Correlation Imaging Velocimetry (CIV) cloud-tracking wind measurement method. In our new method, for each single wind vector measurement, we fit an ellipse to the correlation threshold contour, and define it as the uncertainty ellipse of each wind vector. The advantage of our method is that it allows quantification of the anisotropic uncertainty components of each single wind vector, i.e., using the uncertainty ellipse, we deduce the northward, southward, eastward and westward uncertainties for each wind vector from the correlation peak. Comparing the uncertainty values of each wind vector to the zonal standard deviation of all wind vectors at each latitude allows us to decouple the real spatial variations in the wind from the measurement uncertainties. Using this technique, our measurements show small seasonal variations in Saturn's zonal wind profile as well as the vertical wind shear. As a next step, we plan to apply our uncertainty

  8. Spectrophotometry of zonal cloud structure variations on Jupiter, 1988-1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejfel, V. G.; Vdovichenko, V. D.; Sinyaeva, N. V.; Mosina, S. A.; Gajsina, W. N.; Kharitonova, G. A.; Aksenov, A. N.

    1994-04-01

    Global changes of zonal cloud structure on Jupiter have been observed and analyzed from data obtained with a 1-m telescope and a low-dispersion spectrograph in the spectral range wavelengths 400-680 nm, and with a 70-cm telescope and planetary three-channel spectrometer in the spectral range wavelengths 320-1100 nm during each Jovian apparition from 1988 to 1992. Variations of the observed meridional intensity profiles and relative spectrophotometric gradients are described as well as the changes of absolute spectral reflectivity of five main belts on Jupiter (North and South Equatorial belts, North and South Tropical zones, and Equatorial region). Some peculiarities in the behavior of spectrophotometric gradients may be interpreted as a result of increased Rayleigh scattering in the gas layer over the deeper effective cloud boundary within main dark belts. The polar limb darkening varies only slightly with wavelength and it may be considered as evidence for dark aerosols in the stratosphere at high latitudes. The intensity of the methane absorption band centered at 8860 A shows an increase from the equator to temperate latitudes throughout the 1988-1992 period, despite the large variations in belt and zone reflectivities observed during this period in the southern hemisphere.

  9. Version 8 SBUV Ozone Profile Trends Compared with Trends from a Zonally Averaged Chemical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.; Frith, Stacey; Stolarski, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Linear regression trends for the years 1979-2003 were computed using the new Version 8 merged Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) data set of ozone profiles. These trends were compared to trends computed using ozone profiles from the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) zonally averaged coupled model. Observed and modeled annual trends between 50 N and 50 S were a maximum in the higher latitudes of the upper stratosphere, with southern hemisphere (SH) trends greater than northern hemisphere (NH) trends. The observed upper stratospheric maximum annual trend is -5.5 +/- 0.9 % per decade (1 sigma) at 47.5 S and -3.8 +/- 0.5 % per decade at 47.5 N, to be compared with the modeled trends of -4.5 +/- 0.3 % per decade in the SH and -4.0 +/- 0.2% per decade in the NH. Both observed and modeled trends are most negative in winter and least negative in summer, although the modeled seasonal difference is less than observed. Model trends are shown to be greatest in winter due to a repartitioning of chlorine species and the increasing abundance of chlorine with time. The model results show that trend differences can occur depending on whether ozone profiles are in mixing ratio or number density coordinates, and on whether they are recorded on pressure or altitude levels.

  10. Vaporization and Zonal Mixing in Performance Modeling of Advanced LOX-Methane Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, George J., Jr.; Stiegemeier, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    Initial modeling of LOX-Methane reaction control (RCE) 100 lbf thrusters and larger, 5500 lbf thrusters with the TDK/VIPER code has shown good agreement with sea-level and altitude test data. However, the vaporization and zonal mixing upstream of the compressible flow stage of the models leveraged empirical trends to match the sea-level data. This was necessary in part because the codes are designed primarily to handle the compressible part of the flow (i.e. contraction through expansion) and in part because there was limited data on the thrusters themselves on which to base a rigorous model. A more rigorous model has been developed which includes detailed vaporization trends based on element type and geometry, radial variations in mixture ratio within each of the "zones" associated with elements and not just between zones of different element types, and, to the extent possible, updated kinetic rates. The Spray Combustion Analysis Program (SCAP) was leveraged to support assumptions in the vaporization trends. Data of both thrusters is revisited and the model maintains a good predictive capability while addressing some of the major limitations of the previous version.

  11. Zonal multigrid solution of compressible flow problems on unstructured and adaptive meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    1989-01-01

    The simultaneous use of adaptive meshing techniques with a multigrid strategy for solving the 2-D Euler equations in the context of unstructured meshes is studied. To obtain optimal efficiency, methods capable of computing locally improved solutions without recourse to global recalculations are pursued. A method for locally refining an existing unstructured mesh, without regenerating a new global mesh is employed, and the domain is automatically partitioned into refined and unrefined regions. Two multigrid strategies are developed. In the first, time-stepping is performed on a global fine mesh covering the entire domain, and convergence acceleration is achieved through the use of zonal coarse grid accelerator meshes, which lie under the adaptively refined regions of the global fine mesh. Both schemes are shown to produce similar convergence rates to each other, and also with respect to a previously developed global multigrid algorithm, which performs time-stepping throughout the entire domain, on each mesh level. However, the present schemes exhibit higher computational efficiency due to the smaller number of operations on each level.

  12. Purification of DNA-origami nanostructures by rate-zonal centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chenxiang; Perrault, Steven D.; Kwak, Minseok; Graf, Franziska; Shih, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Most previously reported methods for purifying DNA-origami nanostructures rely on agarose-gel electrophoresis (AGE) for separation. Although AGE is routinely used to yield 0.1–1 µg purified DNA nanostructures, obtaining >100 µg of purified DNA-origami structure through AGE is typically laborious because of the post-electrophoresis extraction, desalting and concentration steps. Here, we present a readily scalable purification approach utilizing rate-zonal centrifugation, which provides comparable separation resolution as AGE. The DNA nanostructures remain in aqueous solution throughout the purification process. Therefore, the desired products are easily recovered with consistently high yield (40–80%) and without contaminants such as residual agarose gel or DNA intercalating dyes. Seven distinct three-dimensional DNA-origami constructs were purified at the scale of 0.1–100 µg (final yield) per centrifuge tube, showing the versatility of this method. Given the commercially available equipment for gradient mixing and fraction collection, this method should be amenable to automation and further scale up for preparation of larger amounts (e.g. milligram quantities) of DNA nanostructures. PMID:23155067

  13. Exact two-dimensional zonal wavefront reconstruction with high spatial resolution in lateral shearing interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Fengzhao; Li, Jie; Wang, Xiangzhao; Bu, Yang

    2016-05-01

    A novel zonal method is proposed for exact discrete reconstruction of a two-dimensional wavefront with high spatial resolution for lateral shearing interferometry. Four difference wavefronts measured in the x and y shear directions are required. Each of the two shear directions is measured twice with different shear amounts. The shear amounts of the second measurements of the x and y directions are Sx+1 pixels and Sy+1 pixels, where Sx pixels and Sy pixels are the shear amounts of the first measurements in the x and y directions, respectively. The shear amount in each direction can be chosen freely, provided that it is below a maximum value determined by the pupil shape and the number of samples N in that direction; thus, the choices are not limited by the more stringent condition required by previous methods, namely, that the shear amounts must be divisors of N. This method can exactly reconstruct any wavefront at evaluation points up to an arbitrary constant if the data is noiseless, and high spatial resolution can be achieved even with large shear amounts. The method is applicable not only to square pupils, but also to general pupil shapes if a sufficient number of Gerchberg iterations are employed. In this study, the validity and capability of the method were confirmed by numerical experiments. In addition, the experiments demonstrated that the method is stable with respect to noise in the difference wavefronts.

  14. A Pluto Central-Flash Occultation: Constraints on Haze Abundances, Temperature Profiles and Zonal Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot; Young, Leslie; Olkin, Cathy; Barth, Erika

    2014-05-01

    Central flashes occur in occultation light curves when the observing station is located close to the center of the shadow path. We observed a double-peaked central flash event on 31-JUL-2007 from the Mt John Observatory in New Zealand, in two filters simultaneously. A stellar occultation by Pluto in 2002 was observed from various telescopes on Mauna Kea over wavelengths spanning B- through K-bands and showed compelling evidence of a wavelength-dependent opacity source. Unlike the 2002 results, the 2007 central flash light curve shows no difference between the 0.5 and 0.7 micron light curves, suggesting that the haze observed in 2002 is a variable phenomenon. In the absence of haze, the height of the central flash peaks must be due to differential refraction; the peaks therefore provide strong constraints on the location and magnitude of a thermal inversion in Pluto's atmosphere at the time of the event. Finally, the relative height and spacing of the two central flash peaks are extremely sensitive constraints on Pluto's oblateness, which in turn can constrain the magnitude of zonal winds.

  15. Stratospheric dynamical effects of solar ultraviolet variations: Evidence from zonal mean ozone and temperature data

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, L.L.; Jirikowic, J.L. )

    1991-04-20

    Cross-spectral analysis of low-altitude average Nimbus 7 stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS) temperature deviations versus Nimbus 7 solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) solar 205 nm flux measurements in the 1-3 mbar pressure range yields significant coherence at periods near 27 and 13 days. This supports earlier correlative evidence that the ozone response to solar ultraviolet variations is supplemented by a coupled temperature response in the upper stratosphere. Comparisons of improved one-dimensional radiative photochemical model calculations with ozone and temperature response measurements at low latitudes yields agreement only in the case of ozone at levels below 3 mbar. An additional, presumably dynamical, component of the upper stratospheric response is suggested. Cross-spectral analysis of low-latitude average SAMS temperature deviations versus higher-latitude temperature fluctuations of opposite sign in the winter hemisphere also yields significant coherency at periods near 27 and 13 days. Latitudinal temperature oscillations of this type result from interference between stationary and traveling wave components at stratospheric heights. It is therefore hypothesized that solar ultraviolet variations may force or modulate traveling waves with periods near 27 and 13 days in the upper stratosphere. The existence of such waves with higher amplitude near solar maximum than near solar minimum may help to explain observed solar cycle variations of zonally averaged winds and temperature in the upper stratosphere.

  16. The zonally averaged transport characteristics of the atmosphere as determined by a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Two dimensional modeling has become an established technique for the simulation of the global structure of trace constituents. Such models are simpler to formulate and cheaper to operate than three dimensional general circulation models, while avoiding some of the gross simplifications of one dimensional models. Nevertheless, the parameterization of eddy fluxes required in a 2-D model is not a trivial problem. This fact has apparently led some to interpret the shortcomings of existing 2-D models as indicating that the parameterization procedure is wrong in principle. There are grounds to believe that these shortcomings result primarily from incorrect implementations of the predictions of eddy transport theory and that a properly based parameterization may provide a good basis for atmospheric modeling. The existence of these GCM-derived coefficients affords an unprecedented opportunity to test the validity of the flux-gradient parameterization. To this end, a zonally averaged (2-D) model was developed, using these coefficients in the transport parameterization. Results from this model for a number of contrived tracer experiments were compared with the parent GCM. The generally good agreement substantially validates the flus-gradient parameterization, and thus the basic principle of 2-D modeling.

  17. A New Look at Titan's Zonal Winds from Cassini Radio Occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Schinder, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    We use the existing thirteen Cassini radio'occultation soundings to construct a meridional cross section of geopotential height vs. pressure and latitude. The assumption of balanced flow permits the construction of a similar cross section of zonal winds, from near the surface to the 0.1'mbar level. In the lower troposphere, the winds are approx.10 m/s, except within 20deg of the equator, where they are much smaller. The winds increase higher up in the troposphere to nearly 40 m/s in the tropopause region, but then decay rapidly in the lower stratosphere to near'zero values at 20 mbar (approx.80 km), reminiscent of the Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment result. This null zone extends over most latitudes, except for limited bands at mid'latitudes. Higher up in the stratosphere, the winds become larger. They are highest in the northern (winter) hemisphere. We compare the occultation results with the DWE and CIRS retrievals and discuss the similarities and differences among the data sets.

  18. Low-latitude zonal and vertical ion drifts seen by DE 2

    SciTech Connect

    Coley, W. R.; Heelis, R. A.

    1989-06-01

    Horizontal and vertical ion drift data from the DE 2 spacecraft have been used to determine average zonal and vertical plasma flow (electric field) characteristics in the /plus minus/26/degree/ dip latitude region during a time of high solar activity. The data base consists of over 800 equatorial passes. Horizontal ion drift data were projected along magnetic field lines to the magnetic equator,using a dipole model to yield their apex height dependence. The 'average data' local time profile for an apex height bin centered at 400 km indicates westward plasma flow from 0600 to 1900 solar local time (SLT) with a maximum westward velocity of 80 m/s in the early afternoon. There is a sharp change to eastward flow at approximately 1900 hours with an early evening peak of 170 m/s. A secondary nighttime maximum exists a 0430 SLT preceeding the reversal to westward flow. This profile is in good agreement with Jicamarca radar measurements made under similar solar maximum conditions. Harmonic analysis indicates a net superrotation which is strongest at lower apex altitudes. The diurnal term is dominant, but higher order terms through th quatradiurnal are significant. Vertical ion data taken at low (/plus minus/5/degree/) dip latitudes, while possessing greater scatter, generally agree wtih Jicamarca values. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989

  19. Saturn meteorology - A diagnostic assessment of thin-layer configurations for the zonal flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, M.; Stone, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager imaging, infrared, and radio observations for Saturn have been recently interpreted by Smith et al. (1982) as an indication that the jet streams observed at the cloud tops extend to depths greater than the 10,000-bar level. This analysis assumes a maximum latitudinal temperature contrast of a few percent, a mean atmospheric rotation rate at depth given by Saturn's ratio period, and no variation with latitude of the bottom pressure level for the zonal flow system. These assumptions are not, however, firmly constrained by observation. The diagnostic analysis of plausible alternative configurations for Saturn's atmospheric structure demonstrates that a thin weather layer system (confined at mid to high latitudes to levels above 200 bar) cannot be excluded by any of the available observations. A quantitative estimate of the effects of moisture condensation (including the differentiation of mean molecular weight) suggests that these might provide the buoyancy contrasts necessary to support a thin-layer flow provided that Saturn's outer envelope is enriched approximately 10 times in water abundance relative to a solar composition atmosphere and strongly differentiated with latitude at the condensation level.

  20. Flow Optimization in the Princeton MRI Experiment and Zonal Flow Generation in HTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspary, Kyle; Burin, Michael; Gilson, Erik; Goodman, Jeremy; Ji, Hantao; McNulty, Michael; Schartman, Ethan; Sloboda, Peter; Wei, Xing

    2015-11-01

    The Princeton Magneto-Rotational Instability (MRI) experiment and the Hydrodynamic Turbulence Experiment (HTX) are a pair of modified Taylor-Couette devices which explore rotating magnetohydrodynamic and hydrodynamic flows. The Princeton MRI experiment uses a GaInSn working fluid and was designed to study the MRI, which is believed to be the mechanism responsible for the rapid accretion rate observed in some magnetized accretion disks. The experiment utilizes ultrasound Doppler velocimetry to measure velocity profiles and a newly installed suite of hall sensors on the inner and outer cylinders to characterize the magnetic field. Results are presented from experiments which seek to optimize the flow by varying the inner ring speed for a given magnetic field strength. In HTX, we explore the generation of zonal flows from turbulence by flow jets with water as the working fluid. Laser Doppler velocimetry is used to measure the mean and fluctuating velocity. The generation of anisotropic mean flow by means of beta plane turbulence is investigated through the use of a sloped end-cap. The impact of varying the end cap slope, fluid height and jet flow rate will be discussed.

  1. Evapotranspiration Analysis using a Zonal Temperature-Vegetation Remote Sensing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Gorelick, S.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing methods based on temperature-vegetation relationships have been widely used to analyze regional evapotranspiration (ET) patterns. These methods essentially rely on the identification of extreme soil moisture conditions (i.e., cold and hot pixels) as determined from the outer boundaries a triangle or trapezoid-shaped scatterplot of radiometric surface temperature and vegetation fraction. However, the validity of these pixels has been increasingly questioned in studies that involve heterogeneous climatic and land cover conditions, compromising the performance of remote sensing-based ET estimates in large areas. Here we developed a geospatial analysis scheme to discretize a targeted area into climate-land zones based on precipitation, radiation, wind, humidity, soil, and vegetation factors. Zonal ET estimates based on temperature-vegetation indexes were spatially aggregated to generate regional ET estimates over different time scales. We applied this approach to Jordan using Landsat and MODIS images over the period 2005-2014 and compared the ET estimates to MOD16 ET products and pan evaporation measurements. We explored contrasting hydrological conditions across a range of bioclimatic regions. Results show that our approach is able to capture regional ET heterogeneity in both water-limited and energy-limited environments and identify the hydroclimatic controls. Our comparisons of different methods shed light on the efficient estimation of agricultural water use in data-scarce, arid/semi-arid regions based on remote sensing.

  2. Abortion and unwanted pregnancy in Adigrat Zonal Hospital, Tigray, north Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gessessew, Amanuel

    2010-09-01

    Unwanted pregnancy is associated with increased risk of maternal mortality and morbidity. This study was done to determine the causes of unwanted pregnancy and its impact on maternal health. A cross sectional study (February 1, 2002-January 31, 2004) was conducted on 907 patients with diagnosis of abortion and admitted to the gynecological ward of Adigrat zonal hospital, Tigray Region, Ethiopia. This accounts to 12.6% of all hospital and 60.6% of gynecological admissions. The majority of these women (69.8%) had unwanted pregnancy. Modern contraception methods were not in use in 76.2% of unwanted and 57.7% of wanted pregnancies (P = 0.008). Interference was reported in 81.4% of unwanted pregnancy. High incidence of complication was reported in patients with unwanted pregnancy. In this study it is found that unwanted pregnancy is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity and mortality. The development and prompt implementation of a strategy that enables women to safely manage unwanted pregnancy is recommended.

  3. Zonal wavefront sensor with reduced number of rows in the detector array.

    PubMed

    Boruah, Bosanta R; Das, Abhijit

    2011-07-10

    In this paper, we describe a zonal wavefront sensor in which the photodetector array can have a smaller number of rows. The test wavefront is incident on a two-dimensional array of diffraction gratings followed by a single focusing lens. The periodicity and the orientation of the grating rulings of each grating can be chosen such that the +1 order beam from the gratings forms an array of focal spots in the detector plane. We show that by using a square array of zones, it is possible to generate an array of +1 order focal spots having a smaller number of rows, thus reducing the height of the required detector array. The phase profile of the test wavefront can be estimated by measuring the displacements of the +1 order focal spots for the test wavefront relative to the +1 order focal spots for a plane reference wavefront. The narrower width of the photodetector array can offer several advantages, such as a faster frame rate of the wavefront sensor, a reduced amount of cross talk between the nearby detector zones, and a decrease in the maximum thermal noise. We also present experimental results of a proof-of-concept experimental arrangement using the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.

  4. Biostratigraphical study around the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in Central Tunisia zonal schemes and correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalaoui, Kamel; Zargouni, Fouad

    2017-01-01

    The fossil data from Central Tunisia has led to the recognition of ten calpionellid and ammonite zones and subzones in the Upper Tithonian-Middle Berriasian interval. The results of this revision are congruent with local interval zones and they were tested with the Mediterranean zonal schemes. Six subzones of calpionellids constitute the basis of our investigations in this study. We recognized the A2+A3, B1, B2, B3, C1 and C2 Subzones. These subzones are calibrated with the ammonite biozones: Berriasella jacobi and Subthurmannia occitanica Zones. Integration of the biostratigraphy of ammonites and calpionellids has allowed us to define the J/K boundary interval and the Middle/Upper Berriasian boundary. Biostratigraphic data provided by the two sections in Central Tunisia allowed the revision of the biostratigraphic attribution of Sidi Kralif Formation. These faunas suggest a late Tithonian to mid Berriasian age for the Jebel Rheouis section, and early Berriasian to mid Berriasian age for Jebel Meloussi section; correlating with their equivalents in other regions of the Tethyan Realm.

  5. Calculation of a residual mean meridional circulation for a zonal-mean tracer transport model: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, W.K.; Rotman, D.A.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Because of their computational advantages, zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport models are widely used to investigate the distribution of chemical species and their change due to the anthropogenic chemicals in the lower and middle atmosphere. In general, the Lagrangian-mean formulation would be ideal to treat transport due to the zonal mean circulation and eddies. However, the Lagrangian formulation is difficult to use in practical applications. The most widely-used formulation for treating global atmospheric dynamics in two-dimensional models is the transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) equations. The residual mean meridional circulation (RMMC) in the TEM system is used to advect tracers. In this study, we describe possible solution techniques for obtaining the RMMC in the LLNL two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport model. In the next section, the formulation will be described. In sections 3 and 4, possible solution procedures will be described for a diagnostic and prognostic case, respectively.

  6. Temporal variation of the earth's low-degree zonal gravitational field caused by atmospheric mass redistribution - 1980-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. Fong; Au, Andrew Y.

    1991-01-01

    Temporal variations in the low-degree zonal harmonics of the earth's gravitational field have recently been observed by satellite laser ranging. A host of geophysical processes contribute to these variations. The present paper studies quantitatively a prime contributor, atmospheric mass redistribution, using ECMWF global surface pressure data for the period of 1980-1988. The annual and semiannual amplitudes and phases of the zonal J(l) coefficient with degree l = 2-6 with and without the oceanic inverted-barometer (IB) effect are computed to obtain the predicted effects on the orbit nodal residuals of Lageos and Starlette. These predicted values are then compared with observations. It is found that the atmospheric influence, combined with the hydrological influence agree well with the Lageos observation for the annual term. The corresponding match appears poorer for Starlette.

  7. Evidence for wavelike anomalies with short meridional and large zonal scales in the lower stratospheric temperature field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, J. L.; Short, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Global microwave brightness temperature measurements are analyzed to investigate the range of meridional wavelengths 2000-3000 km where spectral studies reveal larger than expected variance. The data, from the TIROS-N Microwave Sounding Unit, are sensitive to lower stratospheric temperatures (30-150 mb). The results reveal striking temperature anomalies with short meridional wavelengths (2000-3000 km) and long zonal wavelengths (zonal wavenumbers 1-4). The anomalies, with amplitudes approximately 1-2 K, extend from the equatorial region to at least as high as 70 deg N and 70 deg S during January 1979. The features exhibit slow eastward movement or else are nearly stationary for several days. In the Northern Hemisphere, comparison with NMC data reveals that the strongest features tend to be associated with major jet streams.

  8. Cone beam CT with zonal filters for simultaneous dose reduction, improved target contrast and automated set-up in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moore, C J; Marchant, T E; Amer, A M

    2006-05-07

    Cone beam CT (CBCT) using a zonal filter is introduced. The aims are reduced concomitant imaging dose to the patient, simultaneous control of body scatter for improved image quality in the tumour target zone and preserved set-up detail for radiotherapy. Aluminium transmission diaphragms added to the CBCT x-ray tube of the Elekta Synergytrade mark linear accelerator produced an unattenuated beam for a central "target zone" and a partially attenuated beam for an outer "set-up zone". Imaging doses and contrast noise ratios (CNR) were measured in a test phantom for transmission diaphragms 12 and 24 mm thick, for 5 and 10 cm long target zones. The effect on automatic registration of zonal CBCT to conventional CT was assessed relative to full-field and lead-collimated images of an anthropomorphic phantom. Doses along the axis of rotation were reduced by up to 50% in both target and set-up zones, and weighted dose (two thirds surface dose plus one third central dose) was reduced by 10-20% for a 10 cm long target zone. CNR increased by up to 15% in zonally filtered CBCT images compared to full-field images. Automatic image registration remained as robust as that with full-field images and was superior to CBCT coned down using lead-collimation. Zonal CBCT significantly reduces imaging dose and is expected to benefit radiotherapy through improved target contrast, required to assess target coverage, and wide-field edge detail, needed for robust automatic measurement of patient set-up error.

  9. Recent intensification of the South and East Asian monsoon contrast associated with an increase in the zonal tropical SST gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kyung-Sook; Lee, June-Yi; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2014-07-01

    Observed analysis of the 35 years of 1979-2013 reveals considerable interdecadal change and significant recent intensification in the difference of convective precipitation between the South Asian monsoon (SAM) and East Asian monsoon (EAM) systems during the major summer monsoon season (June-July). We propose that the recent strengthening of the zonal gradient of sea surface temperature (SST) between the Indian Ocean, western Pacific, and eastern Pacific is a possible cause for the intensification of the convective precipitation contrast. It is noted that the strengthening of the zonal SST gradient associated with the recent mega-La Niña trend tends to reinforce the negative connection between SAM and EAM systems by inducing enhanced convection over the maritime continent and then facilitating the northwestward emanation of Rossby waves. Consequently, a cyclonic circulation anomaly that effectively changes the local Hadley circulation has been formed over the SAM region, resulting in the noticeable difference between the SAM and EAM. The years 2013 and 1983 are further investigated as the strongest extreme years for positive and negative phases of submonsoon contrast, respectively. The result confirms that the meridional dipole height pattern along the Asian Jet stream, which is caused by the strong zonal gradient of tropical SST, serves as a key trigger in strengthening the submonsoon contrast.

  10. Response of the annual and zonal mean winds and temperatures to variations in the heat and momentum sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, E. K.

    1984-01-01

    Comparisons are made among solutions to zonal-mean equations obtained with parameterized friction and radiative cooling and those forced from specified heat and momentum sources. Budget equations are defined for zonally averaged steady state responses in a thin spherically rotating atmosphere. The heat sources and sinks and mean meridional circulation that maintain observed annual and zonal mean temperatures are identified with a diagnostic calculation. Estimates are made of the surface sensible heating, atmospheric latent heating and vertical flux eddy divergences. The heat and moisture sources and sinks are varied to obtain the steady state responses. The Hadley circulation is fairly insensitive to changes in the strength of the eddy momentum flux when sufficient internal friction is present. Varying the width of the total precipitation of the intertropical convergence zone with fixed eddy fluxes and extratropical heat sources yields conditions similar to El Nino. Finally, a minimum speed is found for the jet stream after varying the horizontal eddy momentum fixing latent and eddy heat sources.

  11. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain.

  12. Influence of the parallel nonlinearity on zonal flows and heat transport in global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliet, S.; McMillan, B. F.; Vernay, T.; Villard, L.; Hatzky, R.; Bottino, A.; Angelino, P.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of the parallel nonlinearity on zonal flows and heat transport in global particle-in-cell ion-temperature-gradient simulations is studied. Although this term is in theory orders of magnitude smaller than the others, several authors [L. Villard, P. Angelino, A. Bottino et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 46, B51 (2004); L. Villard, S. J. Allfrey, A. Bottino et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 172 (2004); J. C. Kniep, J. N. G. Leboeuf, and V. C. Decyck, Comput. Phys. Commun. 164, 98 (2004); J. Candy, R. E. Waltz, S. E. Parker et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 074501 (2006)] found different results on its role. The study is performed using the global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes TORB (theta-pinch) [R. Hatzky, T. M. Tran, A. Könies et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 898 (2002)] and ORB5 (tokamak geometry) [S. Jolliet, A. Bottino, P. Angelino et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 177, 409 (2007)]. In particular, it is demonstrated that the parallel nonlinearity, while important for energy conservation, affects the zonal electric field only if the simulation is noise dominated. When a proper convergence is reached, the influence of parallel nonlinearity on the zonal electric field, if any, is shown to be small for both the cases of decaying and driven turbulence.

  13. Mixed boundary conditions versus coupling with an energy-moisture balance model for a zonally averaged ocean climate model

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornsson, H.; Mysak, L.A.; Schmidt, G.A.

    1997-10-01

    The Wright and Stocker oceanic thermohaline circulation model is coupled to a recently developed zonally averaged energy moisture balance model for the atmosphere. The results obtained with this coupled model are compared with those from an ocean-only model that employs mixed boundary conditions. The ocean model geometry uses either one zonally averaged interhemispheric basin (the {open_quotes}Atlantic{close_quotes}) or two zonally averaged basins (roughly approximating the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans) connected by a parameterized Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The differences in the steady states and their linear stability are examined over a wide range of parameters. The presence of additional feedbacks between the ocean circulation and the atmosphere and hydrological cycle in the coupled model produces significant differences between the latter and the ocean-only model, in both the one-basin and two-basin geometries. The authors conclude that due to the effects produced by the feedbacks in the coupled model, they must have serious reservations about the results concerning long-term climate variability obtained from ocean-only models. Thus, to investigate long-term climatic variability a coupled model is necessary. 31 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. A New Generalized Thermal Wind Equation and its Application to Zonal Flows on the Gas Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Philip; Tollefson, Joshua; de Pater, Imke

    2015-11-01

    For baroclinic, rapidly-rotating flows, the Thermal Wind Equation (TWE) describes how the flow varies along the rotation axis as a function of temperature gradients. The TWE works well for many laboratory and atmospheric flows on Earth. We show that the TWE also works well for the zonal (west-to-east) flows u on Jupiter. However, our recent observations of Neptune's zonal flows not only do not fit the TWE, but also have the incorrect ``sign.'' When an atmosphere's longitudinally-averaged temperature is warmer at the equator than at the mid-latitudes, the TWE indicates that u increases with height in the atmosphere. The change in u as a function of height on Neptune has the opposite sign. Here, we show that the high-velocities of u on Neptune make the cyclostrophic terms (i.e., some of the nonlinear terms proportional to u2) large, and these terms are dropped in the standard derivation of the TWE. When the cyclostrophic terms are retained, a more generalized TWE is obtained that both qualitatively and quantitatively agrees with the observations of the change in u as a function of height in Neptune's atmosphere. We show that both the standard and generalized TWE for zonal flows can be extended to the equator despite the fact that the Coriolis force vanishes there.

  15. Nonlinear, finite deformation, finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nhung; Waas, Anthony M.

    2016-06-01

    The roles of the consistent Jacobian matrix and the material tangent moduli, which are used in nonlinear incremental finite deformation mechanics problems solved using the finite element method, are emphasized in this paper, and demonstrated using the commercial software ABAQUS standard. In doing so, the necessity for correctly employing user material subroutines to solve nonlinear problems involving large deformation and/or large rotation is clarified. Starting with the rate form of the principle of virtual work, the derivations of the material tangent moduli, the consistent Jacobian matrix, the stress/strain measures, and the objective stress rates are discussed and clarified. The difference between the consistent Jacobian matrix (which, in the ABAQUS UMAT user material subroutine is referred to as DDSDDE) and the material tangent moduli ( C e ) needed for the stress update is pointed out and emphasized in this paper. While the former is derived based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress, the latter is derived using the Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress. Understanding the difference between these two objective stress rates is crucial for correctly implementing a constitutive model, especially a rate form constitutive relation, and for ensuring fast convergence. Specifically, the implementation requires the stresses to be updated correctly. For this, the strains must be computed directly from the deformation gradient and corresponding strain measure (for a total form model). Alternatively, the material tangent moduli derived from the corresponding Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress of the constitutive relation (for a rate form model) should be used. Given that this requirement is satisfied, the consistent Jacobian matrix only influences the rate of convergence. Its derivation should be based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress to ensure fast convergence; however, the use of a different objective stress rate may also be possible. The error associated

  16. Structures of the low frequency Alfven continuous spectrum and their consequences on MHD and micro-turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Zonca, F.; Chen, L.

    2008-11-01

    We briefly discuss the unified theoretical framework that allows explaining a variety of experimental observations with one single 'fishbone-like' dispersion relation. We also point out the relationship of MHD and shear Alfven waves in the kinetic thermal ion frequency gap with microturbulence, Zonal Flows and Geodesic Acoustic Modes, emphasizing its importance in determining long time scale dynamic behaviors in burning plasmas.

  17. Zonal Wave Number 2 Rossby Wave (3.5-day oscillation) Over The Martian Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.; Thokuluwa, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    to get decreasing monotonously to the statistically significant lowest power of 20 K^2 in the height of 450 Pascal level. Similar to the 0-30E longitude region, there is no significant wave in all the heights above the 450 Pascal level. The 190-230 E region shows similar wave characteristics (both the power and height structure) as observed for the 0-30 E region. This would indicate that the here reporting 3.5 day wave might be associated with eastward propagating (observed the zonal phase speed of ~0.5 days per 30 degree longitude) wave number 2 Rossby wave as the wave shows similar characteristics in the two longitude regions of 0-30E and 190-230 E with the longitudinal interval of 180 degrees. Peculiarly, in the 250-280 E region, the wave shows maximum power (120 K^2) in the two heights of 550 and 700 Pascal levels. As a further support for the zonal wave number 2 structure, there is no significant 3.5-day oscillation in all the height levels in the 290-320 E longitude region which is similar to what observed in the 35-60E longitude sector. A detailed investigation of this 3.5 day oscillation will be presented also for other periods of different years.

  18. Mercury in the North Atlantic Ocean: The U.S. GEOTRACES zonal and meridional sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Katlin L.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Swarr, Gretchen

    2015-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the ocean undergoes many chemical transformations, including in situ production of monomethylmercury (MMHg), the form that biomagnifies in marine food webs. Because the ocean is a primary and dynamic reservoir of Hg cycling at earth's surface and the principal source of human MMHg exposures through seafood, it is important to understand the distribution of Hg and its chemical species in marine environments. We examined total Hg, elemental Hg (Hg0), MMHg, and dimethylmercury (DMHg) with fully resolved high-resolution profiles during the U.S. GEOTRACES zonal and meridional sections of the North Atlantic Ocean (GEOTRACES GA03). Total Hg in filtered water had both scavenged- and nutrient-type vertical distributions, whereas concentrations of DMHg, Hg0, and filtered MMHg were increased in the oxygen deficient zone of the permanent thermocline across the basin, relative to water above and often below. Total Hg and MMHg on suspended particles accounted for less than 10% of total concentrations. The TAG hydrothermal vent on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) was a source of total Hg and MMHg to nearby waters with apparent scavenging and Hg transformation occurring in the buoyant plume. Uniquely, we observed significant horizontal segregation of filtered total Hg and MMHg, DMHg, and Hg0 in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) between younger water on the western and older water on the eastern side of the MAR. Relative to eastern NADW, Hg concentrations in western NADW were greater, on average, by 1.14× for filtered total Hg, 1.6× for Hg0, 2.5× for filtered MMHg, and 2.6× for DMHg. Total Hg enrichment in deep water of the western basin may have resulted from downwelling of anthropogenic Hg during NADW formation. Enrichment of MMHg, DMHg, and Hg0 in western basin NADW may be explained by either greater Hg substrate availability or greater methylation and reduction potentials in younger deep waters.

  19. Climate contributes to zonal forest mortality in Southern California's San Jacinto Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellows, A.; Goulden, M.

    2010-12-01

    An estimated 4.6 million trees died over ~375,000 acres of Southern California forest in 2002-2004. This mortality punctuated a decline in forest health that has been attributed to air pollution, stem densification, or drought. Bark beetles were the proximate cause of most tree death but the underlying cause of this extensive mortality is arguably poor forest health. We investigated the contributions that climate, particularly drought, played in tree mortality and how physiological drought stress may have structured the observed patterns of mortality. Field surveys showed that conifer mortality was zonal in the San Jacinto Mountains of Southern California. The proportion of conifer mortality increased with decreasing elevation (p=0.01). Mid-elevation conifers (White Fir, Incense Cedar, Coulter Pine, Sugar Pine, Ponderosa and Jeffrey Pine) died in the lower portions of their respective ranges, which resulted in an upslope lean in species’ distribution and an upslope shift in species’ mean elevation. Long-term precipitation (P) is consistent with elevation over the conifer elevation range (p=0.43). Potential evapotranspiration (ET) estimated by Penman Monteith declines with elevation by nearly half over the same range. These trends suggest that ET, more than P, is critical in structuring the elevational trend in drought stress and may have contributed to the patterns of mortality that occurred in 2002-04. Physiological measurements in a mild drought year (2009) showed late summer declines in plant water availability with decreasing elevation (p < 0.01) and concomitant reductions in carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance with decreasing elevation. We tie these observations together with a simple water balance model.

  20. Upwelling and primary production during the U.S. GEOTRACES East Pacific Zonal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadko, David

    2017-02-01

    The 2013 U.S. GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect (EPZT) traversed the highly productive Peruvian coastal upwelling (PCU) region. In this work, the flux of nitrate into the euphotic zone is derived for stations within the PCU using a previously developed method whereby dilution of the water column 7Be inventory by upwelled 7Be-free water provides a means to infer upwelling rates. Furthermore, with knowledge of upwelling rates, 7Be profiles are used to constrain vertical diffusivity within the upper thermocline. These transport terms are applied to nitrate profiles to estimate net community production between 79°W and 104°W along the EPZT, which includes the zone of active upwelling to the edge of the oligotrophic gyre. With a simple, one-dimensional model, the calculated upwelling rates were inversely related to mixed layer temperature and ranged from 0 to 3.0 m/d. Results using a depth-dependent upwelling rate with a component of horizontal advection are also described. Vertical diffusivities near the base of the euphotic zone were in the range 1.7-4.5 × 10-4 m2/s. These values are compared to those generated by analysis of temperature profiles. Net community production averaged 15 mmol C/m2/d for stations between 84°W and 104°W and was 134 mmol C/m2/d for the furthest inshore station at 79°W which displayed the lowest SST and greatest rate of upwelling.

  1. Vineyard zonal management for grape quality assessment by combining airborne remote sensed imagery and soil sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, I.; Martínez De Toda, F.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Vineyard variability within the fields is well known by grape growers, producing different plant responses and fruit characteristics. Many technologies have been developed in last recent decades in order to assess this spatial variability, including remote sensing and soil sensors. In this paper we study the possibility of creating a stable classification system that better provides useful information for the grower, especially in terms of grape batch quality sorting. The work was carried out during 4 years in a rain-fed Tempranillo vineyard located in Rioja (Spain). NDVI was extracted from airborne imagery, and soil conductivity (EC) data was acquired by an EM38 sensor. Fifty-four vines were sampled at véraison for vegetative parameters and before harvest for yield and grape analysis. An Isocluster unsupervised classification in two classes was performed in 5 different ways, combining NDVI maps individually, collectively and combined with EC. The target vines were assigned in different zones depending on the clustering combination. Analysis of variance was performed in order to verify the ability of the combinations to provide the most accurate information. All combinations showed a similar behaviour concerning vegetative parameters. Yield parameters classify better by the EC-based clustering, whilst maturity grape parameters seemed to give more accuracy by combining all NDVIs and EC. Quality grape parameters (anthocyanins and phenolics), presented similar results for all combinations except for the NDVI map of the individual year, where the results were poorer. This results reveal that stable parameters (EC or/and NDVI all-together) clustering outcomes in better information for a vineyard zonal management strategy.

  2. Global ozone observations from the UARS MLS: An overview of zonal-mean results

    SciTech Connect

    Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J.W.; Read, W.G.; Elson, L.S.; Flower, D.A.; Jarnot, R.F.

    1994-10-15

    Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the zonal-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Well-known features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longer-term changes are believed to be related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), with a strong semiannual signal above 20 hPa. Ozone values near 50 hPa exhibit an equatorial low from October 1991 to June 1992, after which the low ozone pattern splits into two subtropical lows (possibly in connection with residual circulation changes tied to the QBO) and returns to an equatorial low in September 1993. The ozone hole development at high southern latitudes is apparent in MLS column data integrated down to 100 hPa, with a pattern generally consistent with Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) measurements of total column; the MLS data reinforce current knowledge of this lower-stratospheric phenomenon by providing a height-dependent view of the variations. The region from 30{degrees}S to 30{degrees}N (an area equal to half the global area) shows very little change in the ozone column from year to year and within each year. Finally, residual ozone values extracted from TOMS-minus-MLS column data are briefly presented as a preliminary view into the potential usefulness of such studies, with information on tropospheric ozone as an ultimate goal. 99 refs., 13 figs.

  3. A zonally averaged, three-basin ocean circulation model for climate studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hovine, S.; Fichefet, T.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional, three-basin ocean model suitable for long-term climate studies is developed. The model is based on the zonally averaged form of the primitive equations written in spherical coordinates. The east-west density difference which arises upon averaging the momentum equations is taken to be proportional to the meridional density gradient. Lateral exchanges of heat and salt between the basins are explicitly resolved. Moreover, the model includes bottom topography and has representations of the Arctic Ocean and of the Weddell and Ross seas. Under realistic restoring boundary conditions, the model reproduces the global conveyor belt: deep water is formed in the Atlantic between 60 and 70{degree}N at a rate of about 17 Sv (1 Sv=10{sup 6} m{sup 3}S{sup {minus}1}) and in the vicinity of the Antarctic continent, while the Indian and Pacific basins show broad upwelling. Superimposed on this thermohaline circulation are vigorous wind-driven cells in the upper thermocline. The simulated temperature and salinity fields and the computed meridional heat transport compare reasonably well with the observational estimates. When mixed boundary conditions i.e., a restoring condition no sea-surface temperature and flux condition on sea-surface salinity are applied, the model exhibits an irregular behavior before reaching a steady state characterized by self-sustained oscillations of 8.5-y period. The conveyor-belt circulation always results at this stage. A series of perturbation experiments illustrates the ability of the model to reproduce different steady-state circulations under mixed boundary conditions. Finally, the model sensitivity to various factors is examined. This sensitivity study reveals that the bottom topography and the presence of a submarine meridional ridge in the zone of the Drake passage play a crucial role in determining the properties of the model bottom-water masses. The importance of the seasonality of the surface forcing is also stressed.

  4. A Quasigeostrophic Model of Zonal Wind Generation on the Gas Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laycock, D.; Dumberry, M.

    2014-12-01

    Convecting fluids under rapid rotation play an important role in many geophysical systems. In such such systems, the dominant force balance is geostrophic, between the Coriolis term and the pressure gradient, and the resulting motion exhibits strongly 2D columnar structures which are mostly invariant parallel to the axis of rotation. To exploit this rigidity, quasigeostrophic (QG) models of convection have been developed by integrating the equations of motion in the axial direction, averaging over small departures from two dimensionality. Evolving these axially averaged 2D variables, rather than the full 3D variables, enables these models to reproduce the mean dynamics of the system at a lower computational cost, and hence more aggressive parameters than are accessible to direct 3D simulations can be explored. Traditionally, these QG models have only been devised for the region of a convection shell outside the tangent cylinder, which circumscribes the inner boundary of the convection shell. In the present work we have extended the QG framework to the region inside the tangent cylinder where axial convection, transporting heat from the inner to the outer boundary of the shell, is the dominant mode. Thus, in addition to the traditional QG equations, we must also solve the axial flow equation. Numerical results from our 2D QG model applied to a Jovian-like system of thermal convection in a thin spherical shell will be presented which demonstrate that it is capable of capturing the major features of the dynamics of such a system. In particular, our model successfully reproduces the atmospheric zonal jets produced by full 3D models and observed on the gas giant.

  5. A bow-shaped thermal structure traveling upstream of the zonal wind flow of Venus atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Makoto; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Imamura, Takeshi; Kouyama, Toru; Nakamura, Masato; Sato, Takao M.; Ueno, Munetaka; Suzuki, Makoto; Iwagami, Naomoto; Sato, Mitsuteru; Hashimoto, George L.; Takagi, Seiko; Akatsuki Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR) onboard the Japanese Venus orbiter Akatsuki acquires a snap shot of Venus in the middle infrared region, and provides a brightness temperature distribution at the cloud-top altitudes of about 65 km. Hundreds of images taken by LIR have been transferred to the ground since the successful Venus orbit insertion of Akatsuki on Dec. 7, 2015. Here we report that a bow shaped thermal structure extending from the northern high latitudes to the southern high latitudes was found in the brightness temperature map on Dec. 7, 2015, and that it lasted for four days at least surprisingly at almost same geographical position. The bow shape structure looks symmetrical with the equator, and consists of a high temperature region in east or upstream of the background strong westward wind or the super rotation of the Venus atmosphere followed by a low temperature region in west with an amplitude of 5 K. It appeared close to the evening terminator in the dayside, and seems not to have stayed in the same local time rather to have co-rotated with the slowly rotating ground where the western part of Aphrodite Continent was below the center of the bow shape. Meridionally aligned dark filaments similar to the bow shape structure in shape but in much smaller scale were also identified in the brightness temperature map on Dec. 7, and they propagated upstream of the zonal wind as well. The bow shape structure disappeared when LIR observed the same local time and longitude in the earliest opportunity on Jan. 16, 2016. Similar events, though their amplitudes were less than 1 K, were found on Apr. 15 and 26, 2016, but they appeared in different local times and longitudes. A simulation of a gravity wave generated in the lower atmosphere and propagating upward reproduces the observed bow shape structure. The bow shape structure could be a signature of transferring momentum from the ground to the upper atmosphere.

  6. Sensitive Indicators of Zonal Stipa Species to Changing Temperature and Precipitation in Inner Mongolia Grassland, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xiliang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change often induces shifts in plant functional traits. However, knowledge related to sensitivity of different functional traits and sensitive indicator representing plant growth under hydrothermal change remains unclear. Inner Mongolia grassland is predicted to be one of the terrestrial ecosystems which are most vulnerable to climate change. In this study, we analyzed the response of four zonal Stipa species (S. baicalensis, S. grandis, S. breviflora, and S. bungeana) from Inner Mongolia grassland to changing temperature (control, increased 1.5, 2, 4, and 6°C), precipitation (decreased 30 and 15%, control, increased 15 and 30%) and their combined effects via climate control chambers. The relative change of functional traits in the unit of temperature and precipitation change was regarded as sensitivity coefficient and sensitive indicators were examined by pathway analysis. We found that sensitivity of the four Stipa species to changing temperature and precipitation could be ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. grandis > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis. In particular, changes in leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio could account for 86% of the changes in plant biomass in the four Stipa species. Also these three measurements were more sensitive to hydrothermal changes than the other functional traits. These three functional indicators reflected the combination of plant production capacity (leaf area), adaptive strategy (root/shoot ratio), instantaneous environmental effects (specific leaf area), and cumulative environmental effects (leaf area and root/shoot ratio). Thus, leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio were chosen as sensitive indicators in response to changing temperature and precipitation for Stipa species. These results could provide the basis for predicting the influence of climate change on Inner Mongolia grassland based on the magnitude of changes in sensitive indicators. PMID:26904048

  7. Studies of nuclei separated by zonal centrifugation from liver of rats treated with thioacetamide

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Mujica, F.; Mathias, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    1. The effects of the inclusion of thioacetamide in the diet on the properties of rat liver nuclei were studied both in adolescent rats, in which the parenchymal cells contain diploid nuclei, and in young adult rats, with a high proportion of tetraploid nuclei. 2. These investigations included a survey of the sedimentation properties of the nuclei, the nuclear volumes, content of DNA, RNA and protein, the incorporation in vivo of [3H]thymidine into DNA and [14C]orotate into RNA, and measurements of the activity of RNA polymerase and ribonuclease. These studies were conducted on nuclei fractionated by zonal centrifugation. 3. In both groups of animals, exposure to thioacetamide produced large numbers of nuclei that were abnormal in their chemical composition and enzymic activity. The changes were complex as regards both the types of nuclei that were affected and in their variation with time. 4. In adolescent rats two waves of synthesis of DNA and RNA were observed, one at 3 days and the other after 2 weeks of treatment. The first decline in the incorporations into both DNA and RNA coincided with a decrease in the pool sizes of some of the precursors. The activity of RNA polymerase was not substantially altered. A marked increase in the content of protein was observed before the first wave of synthesis. The normal progressive increase in tetraploid nuclei was prevented. 5. In young adult rats two waves of DNA synthesis were detected. Each was preceded by a large increase in the amount of protein per nucleus but was not accompanied by increased RNA synthesis. After 4 weeks of treatment, the diploid stromal nuclei appeared mainly unaffected and large numbers of tetraploid nuclei with a greatly increased quantity of protein were observed. PMID:4353443

  8. Investigating the zonal wind response to SST warming using transient ensemble AGCM experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Palipane, Erool; Lu, Jian; Staten, Paul; Chen, Gang; Schneider, Edwin K.

    2016-04-13

    The response of the atmospheric circulation to greenhouse gas-induced SST warming is investigated using large ensemble experiments with two AGCMs, with a focus on the robust feature of the poleward shift of the eddy driven jet. In these experiments, large ensembles of simulations are conducted by abruptly switching the SST forcing on from January 1st to focus on the wintertime circulation adjustment. A hybrid, nite amplitude wave activity budget analysis is performed to elucidate the nonlinear and irreversible aspects of the eddy-mean ow interaction during the adjustment of the zonal wind towards a poleward shifted state. The results conrm the results from earlier more idealized studies, particularly the importance of reduced dissipation of wave activity and the dominant role of the decrease of elective diffusivity in the midlatitudes. Some quantitative discrences do exist between the wave activity budgets of our more realistic experiments and the earlier idealized ones, including larger wave activity tendency and diabatic wave source, and a somewhat greater role of the changing PV gradient in the total reduction of the wave activity dissipation. The relative importance of wave breaking-induced PV mixing versus diabatic PV source in the evolution of the Lagrangian PV gradient is also investigated. The former plays the dominant role in the PV gradient formation during the initial phase of the jet shift, while the latter even opposes the evolution of the Lagrangian PV gradient at times. The possible involvement of the wave reflection level at the poleward flank of the mean jet is also investigated.

  9. LATTICE QCD AT FINITE TEMPERATURE.

    SciTech Connect

    PETRECZKY, P.

    2005-03-12

    I review recent progress in lattice QCD at finite temperature. Results on the transition temperature will be summarized. Recent progress in understanding in-medium modifications of interquark forces and quarkonia spectral functions at finite temperatures is discussed.

  10. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  11. Formation mechanism for the amplitude of interannual climate variability in subtropical northern hemisphere: relative contributions from the zonal asymmetric mean state and the interannual variability of SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Lin, Ailan; Gu, Dejun; Li, Chunhui; Zheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The Amplitude Interannual climate Variability (AIV) differs among the subtropical northern hemisphere, and the Western North Pacific (WNP) was claimed to exhibit the largest AIV. The robustness of the AIV pattern is investigated in this study with different atmospheric variables from multiple datasets. As consistently shown by the interannual variance patterns of precipitation and circulation, the AIV over subtropical northern hemisphere closely follows the mean state of precipitation, where higher (lower) AIV is located at moister (drier) regions. The largest AIV is seen over the broad area from South Asia to WNP, followed by a secondary local maximum over the Gulf of Mexico. To further investigate the formation mechanism for the AIV pattern, numerical simulations are performed by Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4). The zonal asymmetry of AIV is reduced if the interannual SST variability is removed, and it almost disappears if the zonal asymmetry of SST mean state is removed. The results suggest that the zonal asymmetric AIV pattern primarily originates from the zonal asymmetric SST mean state, and it is amplified by the interannual SST variability. The atmospheric convection-circulation feedback plays a key role in connecting the AIV with the mean state precipitation. In both observation and CAM4 simulations, stronger (weaker) convection-circulation feedback is seen in moister (drier) regions. By modulating the mean state precipitation and the associated intensity of convection-circulation feedback, the zonal asymmetric SST mean state accounts for the zonal asymmetry of AIV in the subtropical northern hemisphere.

  12. High-Pass Filtering at Vestibular Frequencies by Transducer Adaptation in Mammalian Saccular Hair Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Songer, Jocelyn E.; Eatock, Ruth Anne

    2011-11-01

    The mammalian saccule detects head tilt and low-frequency head accelerations as well as higher-frequency bone vibrations and sounds. It has two different hair cell types, I and II, dispersed throughout two morphologically distinct regions, the striola and extrastriola. Afferents from the two zones have distinct response dynamics which may arise partly from zonal differences in hair cell properties. We find that type II hair cells in the rat saccular epithelium adapt with a time course appropriate for influencing afferent responses to head motions. Moreover, striolar type II hair cells adapted by a greater extent than extrastriolar type II hair cells and had greater phase leads in the mid-frequency range (5-50 Hz). These differences suggest that hair cell transduction may contribute to zonal differences in the adaptation of vestibular afferents to head motions.

  13. Correlated and Zonal Errors of Global Astrometric Missions: A Spherical Harmonic Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    significance in astrom- etry, because it directly affects the cosmic distance scale based on trigonometric parallaxes. A common offset of parallaxes is...observation, and the finite field of view of the telescope , all lead to a strongly non- uniform propagation of observational noise in different orders of...and self-calibrating basic angle separating the two viewing directions of the telescope . Hoyer et al. (1981) suggested that the problem of propagating

  14. A finite element simulation of sound attenuation in a finite duct with a peripherally variable liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Using multimodal analysis, a variational finite element method is presented for analyzing sound attenuation in a three-dimensional finite duct with a peripherally variable liner in the absence of flow. A rectangular element, with cubic shaped functions, is employed. Once a small portion of a peripheral liner is removed, the attenuation rate near the frequency where maximum attenuation occurs drops significantly. The positioning of the liner segments affects the attenuation characteristics of the liner. Effects of the duct termination are important in the low frequency ranges. The main effect of peripheral variation of the liner is a broadening of the attenuation characteristics in the midfrequency range. Because of matrix size limitations of the presently available computer program, the eigenvalue equations should be solved out of core in order to handle realistic sources.

  15. Finite element analysis of two disk rotor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Harsh Kumar

    2016-05-01

    A finite element model of simple horizontal rotor system is developed for evaluating its dynamic behaviour. The model is based on Timoshenko beam element and accounts for the effect of gyroscopic couple and other rotational forces. Present rotor system consists of single shaft which is supported by bearings at both ends and two disks are mounted at different locations. The natural frequencies, mode shapes and orbits of rotating system for a specific range of rotation speed are obtained by developing a MATLAB code for solving the finite element equations of rotary system. Consequently, Campbell diagram is plotted for finding a relationship between natural whirl frequencies and rotation of the rotor.

  16. Finite Element Model Development For Aircraft Fuselage Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Fleming, Gary A.; Pappa, Richard S.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to extend the valid frequency range for finite element based structural dynamic predictions using detailed models of the structural components and attachment interfaces is examined for several stiffened aircraft fuselage structures. This extended dynamic prediction capability is needed for the integration of mid-frequency noise control technology. Beam, plate and solid element models of the stiffener components are evaluated. Attachment models between the stiffener and panel skin range from a line along the rivets of the physical structure to a constraint over the entire contact surface. The finite element models are validated using experimental modal analysis results.

  17. Time domain finite element analysis of multimode microwave applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Dibben, D.C.; Metaxas, R.

    1996-05-01

    Analysis of multimode applicators in the frequency domain via the finite element technique produces a set of very ill-conditioned equations. This paper outlines a time domain finite element method (TDFE) for analyzing three dimensional microwave applicators where this ill-conditioning is avoided. Edge elements are used in order to handle sharp metal edges and to avoid spurious solutions. Analysis in the time domain allows field distributions at a range of different frequencies to be obtained with a single calculation. Lumping is investigated as a means of reducing the time taken for the calculation. The reflection coefficient is also obtained.

  18. Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    Much of modern research in the field of atomic, molecular, and optical science relies on lasers, which were invented some 50 years ago and perfected in five decades of intense research and development. Today, lasers and photonic technologies impact most fields of science and they have become indispensible in our daily lives. Laser frequency combs were conceived a decade ago as tools for the precision spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. Through the development of optical frequency comb techniques, technique a setup of the size 1 ×1 m2, good for precision measurements of any frequency, and even commercially available, has replaced the elaborate previous frequency-chain schemes for optical frequency measurements, which only worked for selected frequencies. A true revolution in optical frequency measurements has occurred, paving the way for the creation of all-optical clocks clock with a precision that might approach 10-18. A decade later, frequency combs are now common equipment in all frequency metrology-oriented laboratories. They are also becoming enabling tools for an increasing number of applications, from the calibration of astronomical spectrographs to molecular spectroscopy. This chapter first describes the principle of an optical frequency comb synthesizer. Some of the key technologies to generate such a frequency comb are then presented. Finally, a non-exhaustive overview of the growing applications is given.

  19. Effect of magnetic bending on the EBT high-frequency modes

    SciTech Connect

    El-Nadi, A.M.; Hiroe, S.; Whitson, J.C.; Hassen, H.F.; Kirolous, H.A.

    1986-02-01

    The high-frequency stability of the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) device is studied when the wave vector has a finite component along the magnetic field lines. Unstable modes exist for any finite hot electron density. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Finite element modelling of SAW correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikka, Ajay C.; Al-Sarawi, Said F.; Abbott, Derek

    2007-12-01

    Numerical simulations of SAW correlators so far are limited to delta function and equivalent circuit models. These models are not accurate as they do not replicate the actual behaviour of the device. Manufacturing a correlator to specifically realise a different configuration is both expensive and time consuming. With the continuous improvement in computing capacity, switching to finite element modelling would be more appropriate. In this paper a novel way of modelling a SAW correlator using finite element analysis is presented. This modelling approach allows the consideration of different code implementation and device structures. This is demonstrated through simulation results for a 5×2-bit Barker sequence encoded SAW correlator. These results show the effect of both bulk and leaky modes on the device performance at various operating frequencies. Moreover, the ways in which the gain of the correlator can be optimised though variation of design parameters will also be outlined.

  1. Finite state modeling of aeroelastic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vepa, R.

    1977-01-01

    A general theory of finite state modeling of aerodynamic loads on thin airfoils and lifting surfaces performing completely arbitrary, small, time-dependent motions in an airstream is developed and presented. The nature of the behavior of the unsteady airloads in the frequency domain is explained, using as raw materials any of the unsteady linearized theories that have been mechanized for simple harmonic oscillations. Each desired aerodynamic transfer function is approximated by means of an appropriate Pade approximant, that is, a rational function of finite degree polynomials in the Laplace transform variable. The modeling technique is applied to several two dimensional and three dimensional airfoils. Circular, elliptic, rectangular and tapered planforms are considered as examples. Identical functions are also obtained for control surfaces for two and three dimensional airfoils.

  2. Finite-difference migration to zero offset

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianchao.

    1992-01-01

    Migration to zero offset (MZO), also called dip moveout (DMO) or prestack partial migration, transforms prestack offset seismic data into approximate zero-offset data so as to remove reflection point smear and obtain quality stacked results over a range of reflector dips. MZO has become an important step in standard seismic data processing, and a variety of frequency-wavenumber (f-k) and integral MZO algorithms have been used in practice to date. Here, I present a finite-difference MZO algorithm applied to normal-moveout (NMO)-corrected, common-offset sections. This algorithm employs a traditional poststack 15-degree finite-difference migration algorithm and a special velocity function rather than the true migration velocity. This paper shows results of implementation of this MZO algorithm when velocity varies with depth, and discusses the possibility of applying this algorithm to cases where velocity varies with both depth and horizontal distance.

  3. Finite-difference migration to zero offset

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianchao

    1992-07-01

    Migration to zero offset (MZO), also called dip moveout (DMO) or prestack partial migration, transforms prestack offset seismic data into approximate zero-offset data so as to remove reflection point smear and obtain quality stacked results over a range of reflector dips. MZO has become an important step in standard seismic data processing, and a variety of frequency-wavenumber (f-k) and integral MZO algorithms have been used in practice to date. Here, I present a finite-difference MZO algorithm applied to normal-moveout (NMO)-corrected, common-offset sections. This algorithm employs a traditional poststack 15-degree finite-difference migration algorithm and a special velocity function rather than the true migration velocity. This paper shows results of implementation of this MZO algorithm when velocity varies with depth, and discusses the possibility of applying this algorithm to cases where velocity varies with both depth and horizontal distance.

  4. Waveguide finite elements for curved structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnveden, Svante; Fraggstedt, Martin

    2008-05-01

    A waveguide finite element formulation for the analysis of curved structures is introduced. The formulation is valid for structures that along one axis have constant properties. It is based on a modified Hamilton's principle valid for general linear viscoelastic motion, which is derived here. Using this principle, material properties such as losses may be distributed in the system and may vary with frequency. Element formulations for isoparametric solid elements and deep shell elements are presented for curved waveguides as well as for straight waveguides. In earlier works, the curved elements have successfully been used to model a passenger car tyre. Here a simple validation example and convergence study is presented, which considers a finite length circular cylinder and all four elements presented are used, in turn, to model this structure. Calculated results compare favourably to those in the literature.

  5. Spectral-Domain Analysis of Finite Frequency Selective Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    field will be a discrete spectrum of plane waves of the form, 3 ES(z > zt) = ( epq + eOO0p8Oq)e j (aPtx +fipqy)- oqZ, (5.1) 3 p,q = _,, where (5mn is...with the vector constants epq is due to the induced current on the printed surface radiating in the I presence of the dielect ic medium; and (2) the...are omitted here.Iz Figure 5.1. Arbitrary periodic surface surrounded by an N-layer dielectric medium. I To find the constants epq , the strategy is to

  6. Zonal Soil Type Determines Soil Microbial Responses to Maize Cropping and Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mengxin; Wu, Linwei; Gao, Qun; Wang, Feng; Wen, Chongqing; Wang, Mengmeng; Liang, Yuting; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soil types heavily influence ecological dynamics. It remains controversial to what extent soil types shape microbial responses to land management changes, largely due to lack of in-depth comparison across various soil types. Here, we collected samples from three major zonal soil types spanning from cold temperate to subtropical climate zones. We examined bacterial and fungal community structures, as well as microbial functional genes. Different soil types had distinct microbial biomass levels and community compositions. Five years of maize cropping (growing corn or maize) changed the bacterial community composition of the Ultisol soil type and the fungal composition of the Mollisol soil type but had little effect on the microbial composition of the Inceptisol soil type. Meanwhile, 5 years of fertilization resulted in soil acidification. Microbial compositions of the Mollisol and Ultisol, but not the Inceptisol, were changed and correlated (P < 0.05) with soil pH. These results demonstrated the critical role of soil type in determining microbial responses to land management changes. We also found that soil nitrification potentials correlated with the total abundance of nitrifiers and that soil heterotrophic respiration correlated with the total abundance of carbon degradation genes, suggesting that changes in microbial community structure had altered ecosystem processes. IMPORTANCE Microbial communities are essential drivers of soil functional processes such as nitrification and heterotrophic respiration. Although there is initial evidence revealing the importance of soil type in shaping microbial communities, there has been no in-depth, comprehensive survey to robustly establish it as a major determinant of microbial community composition, functional gene structure, or ecosystem functioning. We examined bacterial and fungal community structures using Illumina sequencing, microbial functional genes using GeoChip, microbial biomass using phospholipid fatty

  7. Size-fractionated major particle composition and concentrations from the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic Zonal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Auro, Maureen E.

    2015-06-01

    The concentration and the major phase composition (particulate organic matter, CaCO3, opal, lithogenic matter, and iron and manganese oxyhydroxides) of marine particles is thought to determine the scavenging removal of particle-reactive TEIs. Particles are also the vector for transferring carbon from the atmosphere to the deep ocean via the biological carbon pump, and their composition may determine the efficiency and strength of this transfer. Here, we present the first full ocean depth section of size-fractionated (1-51 μm, >51 μm) suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration and major phase composition from the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic Zonal Transect between Woods Hole, MA and Lisbon, Portugal conducted in 2010 and 2011. Several major particle features are notable in the section: intense benthic nepheloid layers were observed in the western North American margin with concentrations of SPM of up to 1648 μg/L, two to three orders of magnitude higher than surrounding waters, that were dominated by lithogenic material. A more moderate benthic nepheloid layer was also observed in the eastern Mauritanian margin (44 μg/L) that had a lower lithogenic content and, notably, significant concentrations of iron and manganese oxyhydroxides (2.5% each). An intermediate nepheloid layer reaching 102 μg/L, an order of magnitude above surrounding waters, was observed associated with the Mediterranean Outflow. Finally, there was a factor of two enhancement in SPM at the TAG hydrothermal plume due almost entirely to the addition of iron oxyhydroxides from the hydrothermal vent. We observe correlations between POC and CaCO3 in large (>51 μm) particles in the upper 2000 m, but not deeper than 2000 m, and no correlations between POC and CaCO3 at any depth in small (<51 μm) particles. There were also no correlations between POC and lithogenic material in large particles. Overall, there were very large uncertainties associated with all regression coefficients for mineral

  8. Zonal Soil Type Determines Soil Microbial Responses to Maize Cropping and Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengxin; Sun, Bo; Wu, Linwei; Gao, Qun; Wang, Feng; Wen, Chongqing; Wang, Mengmeng; Liang, Yuting; Hale, Lauren; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Soil types heavily influence ecological dynamics. It remains controversial to what extent soil types shape microbial responses to land management changes, largely due to lack of in-depth comparison across various soil types. Here, we collected samples from three major zonal soil types spanning from cold temperate to subtropical climate zones. We examined bacterial and fungal community structures, as well as microbial functional genes. Different soil types had distinct microbial biomass levels and community compositions. Five years of maize cropping (growing corn or maize) changed the bacterial community composition of the Ultisol soil type and the fungal composition of the Mollisol soil type but had little effect on the microbial composition of the Inceptisol soil type. Meanwhile, 5 years of fertilization resulted in soil acidification. Microbial compositions of the Mollisol and Ultisol, but not the Inceptisol, were changed and correlated (P < 0.05) with soil pH. These results demonstrated the critical role of soil type in determining microbial responses to land management changes. We also found that soil nitrification potentials correlated with the total abundance of nitrifiers and that soil heterotrophic respiration correlated with the total abundance of carbon degradation genes, suggesting that changes in microbial community structure had altered ecosystem processes. IMPORTANCE Microbial communities are essential drivers of soil functional processes such as nitrification and heterotrophic respiration. Although there is initial evidence revealing the importance of soil type in shaping microbial communities, there has been no in-depth, comprehensive survey to robustly establish it as a major determinant of microbial community composition, functional gene structure, or ecosystem functioning. We examined bacterial and fungal community structures using Illumina sequencing, microbial functional genes using GeoChip, microbial biomass using phospholipid fatty acid

  9. A zonally symmetric model for the monsoon-Hadley circulation with stochastic convective forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Chevrotière, Michèle; Khouider, Boualem

    2017-02-01

    Idealized models of reduced complexity are important tools to understand key processes underlying a complex system. In climate science in particular, they are important for helping the community improve our ability to predict the effect of climate change on the earth system. Climate models are large computer codes based on the discretization of the fluid dynamics equations on grids of horizontal resolution in the order of 100 km, whereas unresolved processes are handled by subgrid models. For instance, simple models are routinely used to help understand the interactions between small-scale processes due to atmospheric moist convection and large-scale circulation patterns. Here, a zonally symmetric model for the monsoon circulation is presented and solved numerically. The model is based on the Galerkin projection of the primitive equations of atmospheric synoptic dynamics onto the first modes of vertical structure to represent free tropospheric circulation and is coupled to a bulk atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model. The model carries bulk equations for water vapor in both the free troposphere and the ABL, while the processes of convection and precipitation are represented through a stochastic model for clouds. The model equations are coupled through advective nonlinearities, and the resulting system is not conservative and not necessarily hyperbolic. This makes the design of a numerical method for the solution of this system particularly difficult. Here, we develop a numerical scheme based on the operator time-splitting strategy, which decomposes the system into three pieces: a conservative part and two purely advective parts, each of which is solved iteratively using an appropriate method. The conservative system is solved via a central scheme, which does not require hyperbolicity since it avoids the Riemann problem by design. One of the advective parts is a hyperbolic diagonal matrix, which is easily handled by classical methods for hyperbolic equations, while

  10. The study of Merydunal and Zonal Index and its relationships with Cyclone Gonu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzatian, Victoria

    2010-05-01

    , Tropical Cyclone Gonu, merridional index, zonal index .

  11. A zonally symmetric model for the monsoon-Hadley circulation with stochastic convective forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Chevrotière, Michèle; Khouider, Boualem

    2016-09-01

    Idealized models of reduced complexity are important tools to understand key processes underlying a complex system. In climate science in particular, they are important for helping the community improve our ability to predict the effect of climate change on the earth system. Climate models are large computer codes based on the discretization of the fluid dynamics equations on grids of horizontal resolution in the order of 100 km, whereas unresolved processes are handled by subgrid models. For instance, simple models are routinely used to help understand the interactions between small-scale processes due to atmospheric moist convection and large-scale circulation patterns. Here, a zonally symmetric model for the monsoon circulation is presented and solved numerically. The model is based on the Galerkin projection of the primitive equations of atmospheric synoptic dynamics onto the first modes of vertical structure to represent free tropospheric circulation and is coupled to a bulk atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model. The model carries bulk equations for water vapor in both the free troposphere and the ABL, while the processes of convection and precipitation are represented through a stochastic model for clouds. The model equations are coupled through advective nonlinearities, and the resulting system is not conservative and not necessarily hyperbolic. This makes the design of a numerical method for the solution of this system particularly difficult. Here, we develop a numerical scheme based on the operator time-splitting strategy, which decomposes the system into three pieces: a conservative part and two purely advective parts, each of which is solved iteratively using an appropriate method. The conservative system is solved via a central scheme, which does not require hyperbolicity since it avoids the Riemann problem by design. One of the advective parts is a hyperbolic diagonal matrix, which is easily handled by classical methods for hyperbolic equations, while

  12. Tightly linked oceanic meridional and zonal temperature gradients - a fundamental climate constraint for the Miocene, Pliocene and other epochs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. V.; Burls, N.; Lawrence, K. T.; Peterson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Two major characteristics define the mean climate of the tropics - pronounced zonal (east-west) and meridional (equator to mid-latitudes) gradients in sea surface temperature (SST). These gradients control the atmospheric zonal and meridional circulations and thus Earth's climate. Previous studies have shown that global cooling, which started in the late Miocene and accelerated since the early Pliocene, was accompanied by the gradual strengthening of these gradients. Here, we carefully analyze temperature trends over the past 5 million years, including a newly generated SST record from the Southern Pacific Ocean (ODP site 1125), and show that changes in these gradients followed each other very closely, reflecting a tight relationship between these two climatic variables. To investigate this relationship we conduct simulations with a comprehensive climate model (CESM) wherein we systematically reduce the meridional temperature gradient by modifying the latitudinal distribution of cloud albedo or atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We find that the zonal SST gradient in the Pacific adjusts accordingly, such that changes along the equator match the imposed changes in the meridional gradient, with the two variables linked by upper-ocean circulation. The meridional temperature distribution is mapped onto the ocean vertical thermal stratification and then onto the east-west SST distribution along the equator. These findings are accounted for by a simple model of tropical climate informed by our simulations. Consequently, the tight relationship between the two SST gradients posits a fundamental constraint on past climates that can help resolve current debates on the state of the tropics during the early Pliocene, including the prevalence of permanent El Nino-like conditions (El Padre).

  13. Influence of solar UV irradiance on the quasi-biennial oscillation of zonal winds in the equatorial stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabis, I.; Troshichev, O.

    2006-12-01

    The vertical wind profiles in the equatorial stratosphere for 1953 2005 have been examined in relation to variations of solar F10.7 index to reveal influence of solar UV irradiance on the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of zonal winds. Previously it was shown (Gabis, I.P., Troshichev, O.A., 2005. QBO cycle identified by changes in height profile of the zonal winds: new regularities. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 67, 33 44) that Stage 1, with the easterly winds above 20 30 hPa and westerly winds below this layer, always starts in solstice (winter or summer) and can be of different but quite quantized (about 3, 9, or 15 months) duration. The present investigation shows that course of the subsequent, after Stage 1 beginning, evolution of the zonal winds depends on intensity of solar UV flux. The easterly winds descend below ˜30 hPa (Stage 2) only under condition of high level of the UV irradiance or steady increase of the UV flux happening in time of the first equinox in course of QBO cycle. If level of UV irradiance is low or UV flux decreases during the equinox, the easterly winds typical of the upper layer, do not descend below 30 hPa, and Stage 1 persists till next equinox. In other words, the stopping of easterly shear zone at ˜30 hPa is defined by the level of UV irradiance in a proper time. Since the length of the QBO cycle is determined by duration of Stage 1, the cycle length (24, 30, or 36 months) can be predicted setting the time of transformation from Stage 1 to Stage 2.

  14. Landscape and zonal features of the formation of producing economy in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2016-04-01

    Based on analysis of the extensive source base, including complex landscape, component, paleogeographic and archeological published and scientific materials as well as the connected analysis of published paleogeographical, paleolandscape and historical and geographic maps of the territory of Russia landscape and zonal features of the transition from appropriating economy to producing economy were determined. All the specifics of historical changes in the landscape use of the vast areas of Russia is caused by the variety of its landscape zones and the specifics of their constituent landscapes. Human economic activities as a factor of differentiation and development of landscapes became apparent almost in all landscape zones together with the emergence of the producing type of economy from the Aeneolithic-Bronze Age (Atlantic period) in the southern steppe regions (in the northern areas of the main centers of the producing economy) and from the Bronze Age in the forest areas. The emergence of the producing economy in the forest-steppe and steppe landscape zones on the territory of Russia is dated IV (Aeneolithic) - III (Early Bronze Age) millennium BC. It is from this period that on the European part of Russia and in Siberia the so-called Neolithic revolution begins. The use of copper and bronze axes helped to develop new areas for planting crops in the forest-steppe zone. In the forest-steppe zone swidden and lea tillage cultivation develops. In the steppe and forest-steppe Eurasia depending on the local landscape conditions two ways of producing economy with a predominance of cattle-breeding developed: nomadic cattle breeding and house cattle breeding with a significant influence of agriculture in the economy and long-term settlements. The steppe areas were completely dominated by the mobile nomadic herding, breeding cattle and small cattle. Along with the valley landscapes the interfluvial landscapes were also actively explored. Almost in all the steppe areas

  15. Role of zonal flow predator-prey oscillations in triggering the transition to H-mode confinement.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, L; Zeng, L; Rhodes, T L; Hillesheim, J C; Doyle, E J; Groebner, R J; Peebles, W A; Burrell, K H; Wang, G

    2012-04-13

    Direct evidence of zonal flow (ZF) predator-prey oscillations and the synergistic roles of ZF- and equilibrium E×B flow shear in triggering the low- to high-confinement (L- to H-mode) transition in the DIII-D tokamak is presented. Periodic turbulence suppression is first observed in a narrow layer at and just inside the separatrix when the shearing rate transiently exceeds the turbulence decorrelation rate. The final transition to H mode with sustained turbulence and transport reduction is controlled by equilibrium E×B shear due to the increasing ion pressure gradient.

  16. [Landscape and zonal distribution of bloodsucking mosquitoes and horse flies (Diptera: Culicidae, Tabanidae) in the northeastern Russian Plain].

    PubMed

    Pestov, S V; Paniukova, E V

    2013-01-01

    The data on the distribution of 34 species of bloodsucking mosquitoes and on 42 horsefly species of the fauna of the northeastern Russian Plain are given. The analysis of the landscape and zonal changes in species diversity and their abundance was performed. Species diversity of these families increased northwards. Two borders of the fauna's depletion were discovered: at the border between the middle and northern taiga subzones (mosquitoes and horseflies) and at the border between the northernmost taiga subzone and the forest-tundra zone (horseflies only). The northern and southern boundaries of species ranges in the region are identified.

  17. Three-dimensional zonal grids about arbitrary shapes by Poisson's equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, Reese L.

    1988-01-01

    A method for generating 3-D finite difference grids about or within arbitrary shapes is presented. The 3-D Poisson equations are solved numerically, with values for the inhomogeneous terms found automatically by the algorithm. Those inhomogeneous terms have the effect near boundaries of reducing cell skewness and imposing arbitrary cell height. The method allows the region of interest to be divided into zones (blocks), allowing the method to be applicable to almost any physical domain. A FORTRAN program called 3DGRAPE has been written to implement the algorithm. Lastly, a method for redistributing grid points along lines normal to boundaries will be described.

  18. The Acoustic Field Scattered from Some Approximate Pressure Release Materials Coating a Finite Cyclinder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Center Frequency) 101 Figure 3-29 Normalized Scattered Pressure Versus ka for Thick Finite Shell (b/a =.9) with Axial Incidence (Solid Line is Shell...Incidence (45 kiz Center Frequency) 104 Figure 3-31 Normalized Scattered Pressure Versus ka for Thick Finite Shell (b/a =.9) with Axial Incidence and...with 0.25 inches of Neoprene for Normal Incidence (20 kHz Center Frequency) 112 X; Figure 3-36 Normalized Scattered Pressure Versus ka for Thick Finite

  19. Dynamical observer for a flexible beam via finite element approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manitius, Andre; Xia, Hong-Xing

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this view-graph presentation is a computational investigation of the closed-loop output feedback control of a Euler-Bernoulli beam based on finite element approximation. The observer is part of the classical observer plus state feedback control, but it is finite-dimensional. In the theoretical work on the subject it is assumed (and sometimes proved) that increasing the number of finite elements will improve accuracy of the control. In applications, this may be difficult to achieve because of numerical problems. The main difficulty in computing the observer and simulating its work is the presence of high frequency eigenvalues in the finite-element model and poor numerical conditioning of some of the system matrices (e.g. poor observability properties) when the dimension of the approximating system increases. This work dealt with some of these difficulties.

  20. Northern Hemisphere Meridional and Zonal Temperature Gradients and their Relation to Hydrologic Extremes at Mid-latitudes: Trends, Variability and Link to Climate Modes in Observations and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamperidou, C.; Lall, U.; Cioffi, F.

    2010-12-01

    The mid-latitude storm track, which depends on how the jet stream dynamics (mean flow and transient eddies coupled to it) are modulated by large scale ocean-land boundary conditions, is a factor in determining moisture and heat transport associated with extreme hydrologic events, such as floods and droughts. These boundary conditions depend in turn on both the state of evolution of the known interannual and multi-decadal natural variability (e.g., the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)) and on changes in meridional and zonal surface temperature gradients (Equator-to-Pole and Ocean-Land contrast, respectively) due to anthropogenic forcing. We examine the historical trends of the seasonal NH Equator-to-Pole temperature Gradient (EPG) and the Ocean-Land temperature Contrast (OLC), their probability structure, and their potential relation to anthropogenic warming. We investigate how different combinations of EPG and OLC are associated with precipitation anomalies at mid-latitudes, with a focus in the US and European region. Figure 1 shows an example of how the combination of high OLC- low EPG is associated with positive precipitation anomalies in the aforementioned regions (upper panel), while the combination of low EPG-high OLC is linked to average conditions or negative precipitation anomalies (lower panel), data from Eischeid et al. (1991). We also explore their relation to modes of variability, such as ENSO, as exhibited in observational data and GCM simulations, and utilize GCM projections to estimate potential changes in the frequency and persistence of certain combinations of EPG and OLC associated with precipitation anomalies under climate change scenarios. Winter (DJF) precipitation anomalies for two cases of combinations of EPG and OLC. (a) High OLC and low EPG corresponds to positive anomalies. (b) Low OLC and high EPG corresponds to near zero or negative anomalies for most regions. Data from Eischeid et al (1991).

  1. Reduction in the amount of crosstalk with reduced number of focal spot rows in a grating array based zonal wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2015-06-01

    The Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS), named after Johannes Franz Hartmann and Roland Shack, is one of the most well-known and popularly used optical wavefront sensor that finds numerous applications in various optical technologies. SHWS samples the incident wavefront by means of a lenslet array to produce an array of regular 2D array of focal spots on the detector plane of a digital camera, in the case of an unaberrated plane wavefront. If the incident wavefront is aberrated or deviates from a plane wavefront, the respective focal spots get shifted from its reference positions corresponding to the regular grid. If the incident wavefront aberration increases or has a very large curvature, the focal spot of one lenslet may enter the detector sub-aperture of the nearby lenslet. Thus, the SHWS has a limited dynamic range that is restricted to aberrations which do not allow the sub-images to be displaced out from their own detector sub-array. It makes the SHWS sensitive to cross-talk when higher order aberrations are present thereby unavoidably a ecting the wavefront estimation process. The array of tiny lenses of the SHWS can be replaced by an array of gratings followed by a focusing lens, generating an array of focal spots which is similar to that as in the case of a SHWS. In this paper, the spatial frequency of such a grating array based zonal wavefront sensor is configured to produce lesser number of rows of focal spots. The reduction in the number of focal spot rows reduces the amount of cross talk in the vertical direction. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results to demonstrate the above stated reduction in crosstalk.

  2. A finite different field solver for dipole modes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.M.

    1992-08-01

    A finite element field solver for dipole modes in axisymmetric structures has been written. The second-order elements used in this formulation yield accurate mode frequencies with no spurious modes. Quasi-periodic boundaries are included to allow travelling waves in periodic structures. The solver is useful in applications requiring precise frequency calculations such as detuned accelerator structures for linear colliders. Comparisons are made with measurements and with the popular but less accurate field solver URMEL.

  3. Atmospheric Ozone Perturbation from Oceanic Asteroid Impacts: Seasonal and Zonal Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierazzo, E.; Garcia, R. R.; Kinnison, D. E.; Marsh, D. R.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Mills, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    , far exceed levels currently experienced anywhere on Earth. Upper atmospheric ozone concentration shows seasonal variability, especially at high latitudes, and the effects of an impact event may vary depending on the season when it occurs. Impact location also affects the atmospheric perturbation. High latitude impacts cause atmospheric perturbations that may be confined to the hemisphere of impact, while atmospheric perturbations from tropical impacts are more likely to be spread to both hemispheres, thus having a global effect. The initial conditions for our initial atmospheric simulations are for January 1, corresponding to Northern Hemisphere winter. The impact was located in the subtropical Northern Pacific, at latitude of 30°N and longitude of 180°E (the dateline). We will report on new simulations with CESM (Community Earth System Model) that explore the seasonal and zonal effects in the perturbation of atmospheric chemistry from an oceanic asteroid impact.

  4. Transonic Navier-Stokes wing solution using a zonal approach. Part 1: Solution methodology and code validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, J.; Gundy, K.; Gundy, K.; Gundy, K.; Gundy, K.; Gundy, K.

    1986-01-01

    A fast diagonalized Beam-Warming algorithm is coupled with a zonal approach to solve the three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. The computer code, called Transonic Navier-Stokes (TNS), uses a total of four zones for wing configurations (or can be extended to complete aircraft configurations by adding zones). In the inner blocks near the wing surface, the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are solved, while in the outer two blocks the Euler equations are solved. The diagonal algorithm yields a speedup of as much as a factor of 40 over the original algorithm/zonal method code. The TNS code, in addition, has the capability to model wind tunnel walls. Transonic viscous solutions are obtained on a 150,000-point mesh for a NACA 0012 wing. A three-order-of-magnitude drop in the L2-norm of the residual requires approximately 500 iterations, which takes about 45 min of CPU time on a Cray-XMP processor. Simulations are also conducted for a different geometrical wing called WING C. All cases show good agreement with experimental data.

  5. Selection for production-related traits in Pelargonium zonale: improved design and analysis make all the difference

    PubMed Central

    Molenaar, Heike; Glawe, Martin; Boehm, Robert; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Ornamental plant variety improvement is limited by current phenotyping approaches and neglected use of experimental designs. The present study was conducted to show the benefits of using an experimental design and corresponding analysis in ornamental breeding regarding simulated response to selection in Pelargonium zonale for production-related traits. This required establishment of phenotyping protocols for root formation and stem cutting counts, with which 974 genotypes were assessed in a two-phase experimental design. The present paper evaluates this protocol. The possibility of varietal improvement through indirect selection on secondary traits such as branch count and flower count was assessed by genetic correlations. Simulated response to selection varied greatly, depending on the genotypic variances of the breeding population and traits. A varietal improvement of over 20% is possible for stem cutting count, root formation, branch count and flower count. In contrast, indirect selection of stem cutting count by branch count or flower count was found to be ineffective. The established phenotypic protocols and two-phase experimental designs are valuable tools for breeding of P. zonale. PMID:28243453

  6. Interaction of eddies and mean zonal flow on Jupiter as inferred from Voyager 1 and 2 images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, A. P.; Beebe, R. F.; Mitchell, J. L.; Garneau, G. W.; Yagi, G. M.; Muller, J.-P.

    1981-01-01

    Voyagers 1 and 2 narrow angle frames are used to obtain displacements of features at resolutions of 130 km over time intervals of 1 Jovian rotation. It is shown that the mean zonal velocity profile does not change by a measurable amount between Voyagers 1 and 2, which is consistent with previous observations. It is also shown that the curvature of the velocity profile vanes varies with latitudes in the range from -3 beta to +2 beta. The barotropic stability criterion is violated at 10 latitudes between + and - 60 deg, and the rate of conversion of eddy kinetic energy into zonal mean kinetic energy is in the range from 1.5 to 3.0 per sq Wm for a layer 2.5 bar deep. The rate of energy conversion is more than 10% of the total infrared heat flux for Jupiter, as compared to the earth where it is only 0.1% of the infrared, which suggests that the two planets possess fundamentally different thermomechanical energy cycles.

  7. Comparison of entropy production rates in two different types of self-organized flows: Benard convection and zonal flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kawazura, Y.; Yoshida, Z.

    2012-01-15

    Two different types of self-organizing and sustaining ordered motion in fluids or plasmas--one is a Benard convection (or streamer) and the other is a zonal flow--have been compared by introducing a thermodynamic phenomenological model and evaluating the corresponding entropy production rates (EP). These two systems have different topologies in their equivalent circuits: the Benard convection is modeled by parallel connection of linear and nonlinear conductances, while the zonal flow is modeled by series connection. The ''power supply'' that drives the systems is also a determinant of operating modes. When the energy flux is a control parameter (as in usual plasma experiments), the driver is modeled by a constant-current power supply, and when the temperature difference between two separate boundaries is controlled (as in usual computational studies), the driver is modeled by a constant-voltage power supply. The parallel (series)-connection system tends to minimize (maximize) the total EP when a constant-current power supply drives the system. This minimum/maximum relation flips when a constant-voltage power supply is connected.

  8. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.

  9. Oscillating layer thickness and vortices generated in oscillation of finite plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, V. K.; Wong, I. K.

    2016-06-01

    Moving mesh strategy is used in the model of flow induced by oscillating finite plate through software - COMSOL Multiphysics. Flow is assumed to be laminar and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method is used for moving mesh in the simulation. Oscillating layer thickness is found which is different from the analytical solution by 2 to 3 times depends on the oscillating frequency. Vortices are also observed near the oscillating finite plate because of the edge effect of the finite plate.

  10. Finite elements and finite differences for transonic flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafez, M. M.; Murman, E. M.; Wellford, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews the chief finite difference and finite element techniques used for numerical solution of nonlinear mixed elliptic-hyperbolic equations governing transonic flow. The forms of the governing equations for unsteady two-dimensional transonic flow considered are the Euler equation, the full potential equation in both conservative and nonconservative form, the transonic small-disturbance equation in both conservative and nonconservative form, and the hodograph equations for the small-disturbance case and the full-potential case. Finite difference methods considered include time-dependent methods, relaxation methods, semidirect methods, and hybrid methods. Finite element methods include finite element Lax-Wendroff schemes, implicit Galerkin method, mixed variational principles, dual iterative procedures, optimal control methods and least squares.

  11. Finite elements of nonlinear continua.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    The finite element method is extended to a broad class of practical nonlinear problems, treating both theory and applications from a general and unifying point of view. The thermomechanical principles of continuous media and the properties of the finite element method are outlined, and are brought together to produce discrete physical models of nonlinear continua. The mathematical properties of the models are analyzed, and the numerical solution of the equations governing the discrete models is examined. The application of the models to nonlinear problems in finite elasticity, viscoelasticity, heat conduction, and thermoviscoelasticity is discussed. Other specific topics include the topological properties of finite element models, applications to linear and nonlinear boundary value problems, convergence, continuum thermodynamics, finite elasticity, solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations, and discrete models of the nonlinear thermomechanical behavior of dissipative media.

  12. Simulation of the zonal mean climatology of the middle atmosphere with a three-dimensional spectral model for solstice and equinox conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akmaev, R. A.; Fomichev, V. I.; Gavrilov, N. M.; Shved, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    A 3D spectral model was used to simulate the zonal mean state of the middle atmosphere for solstice and equinox conditions. The model incorporates realistic parameterizations of atmospheric infrared cooling and a gravity wave formulation based on a combination of Lindzen's (1981) and Matsuno's (1982) approaches. The temperature distributions for both seasons and the zonal wind distribution for solstice are found to be in satisfactory agreement with the empirical model of Fleming et al. (1988). Net vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum are in good agreement with systematic observations of gravity waves in the middle atmosphere.

  13. Low latitude ionospheric scintillation and zonal plasma irregularity drifts climatology around the equatorial anomaly crest over Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwendo, O. J.; Baki, P.; Cilliers, P. J.; Doherty, P.; Radicella, S.

    2016-02-01

    In this study we have used a VHF and GPS-SCINDA receiver located at Nairobi (36.8°E, 1.3°S, dip -24.1°) in Kenya to investigate the climatology of ionospheric L-band scintillation occurrences for the period 2009 to 2012; and seasonal variation of the zonal plasma drift irregularities derived from a VHF receiver for the period 2011. The annual and diurnal variations of L-band scintillation indicate occurrence at post sunset hours and peaks in the equinoctial months. However VHF scintillation occurs at all seasons around the year and is characterized by longer duration of activity and a slow fading that continues till early morning hours unlike in the L-band where they cease after midnight hours. A directional analysis has shown that the spatial distribution of scintillation events is mainly on the Southern and Western part of the sky over Nairobi station closer to the edges of the crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly. The distribution of zonal drift velocities of the VHF related scintillation structures indicates that they move at velocities in the range of 20-160 m/s and their dimension in the East-West direction is in the range of 100-00 km. The December solstice is associated with the largest plasma bubbles in the range of 600-900 km. The most significant observation from this study is the occurrence of post-midnight scintillation without pre-midnight scintillations during magnetically quiet periods. The mechanism leading to the formation of the plasma density irregularity causing scintillation is believed to be via the Rayleigh Tailor Instability; it is however not clear whether we can also attribute the post-midnight plasma bubbles during magnetic quiet times to the same mechanism. From our observations in this study, we suggest that a more likely cause of the east ward zonal electric fields at post-midnight hours is the coupling of the ionosphere with the lower atmosphere during nighttime. This however needs a further investigation based on relevant

  14. Mars atmosphere dynamics: seasonal evolution of mean meridional temperature cross section and zonal wind derived from PFS-MEX.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, M.; Grassi, D.; Formisano, V.

    2008-09-01

    A big amount of data acquired by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) on board of Mars Express mission (MEX) has been analyzed, resulting in a higher level data, namely calculated atmospheric temperatures field, thanks to the operational range of PFS long wavelength channel falling in the Thermal Infrared region. Singles temperature profile has been obtained by the BDM algorithm, developed in IFSI and described in great detail in [1]. Starting from these data, thanks also to spacecraft polar orbit, we are able to derive mean meridional cross section of thermal structure, using the geostrophic or higher-order approximations [3], and to compute the related zonal wind in the range from 5 to about 50 km. Also the annual evolution atmospheric temperature and zonal winds can be seen from the analysis, thanks to the large time spanned by data set, namely solar longitude 330°-360° for the first observation year, until 210° of solar longitude from the second year, or, in other words, from the end of the north hemisphere winter to the middle autumn, highlighting the residual Hadley circulation. As from previous results performed on Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), presence of asymmetric Hadley circulation is clearly shown: during the solstice there should be only one cell (Fig.1) starting from a near equatorial region ascending branch and ending in a polar descending branch in northern hemisphere at the beginning of the northern winter and in southern hemisphere at the end of the northern summer [2]. An attempt to compare our results with model and other instruments' result is made, showing both the agreement whit the European Mars Climate Database and with zonal wind derived from TES, on board the Mars Global Surveyor. The latter dataset present significative difference due to different observational parameters, first of all a different orbit, even if there is a good agreement between results from the two instruments. References [1] Grassi D. , et al (2005) PSS

  15. A numerical technique for two-way radio occultations by oblate axisymmetric atmospheres with zonal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinder, P. J.; Flasar, F. M.; Marouf, E. A.; French, R. G.; Anabtawi, A.; Barbinis, E.; Kliore, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    The Ultra Stable Oscillator aboard the Cassini spacecraft failed in late 2011, which means that all radio occultations after that date have to be done in two-way mode, using a ground-based signal transmitted to the spacecraft as the frequency reference. Here we present the numerical technique we use to analyze the data from the two-way atmospheric radio occultations of both Saturn and Titan that have occurred since the Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO) failure, along with the theoretical reasons behind this technique. Since our two-way technique is based upon our earlier one-way technique which used the USO as the frequency reference, we also present our one-way technique which we used for Saturn occultations prior to the loss of the USO.

  16. Zonal and geographical distributions of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, G. E.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) data obtained from February 1979-November 1981 are analyzed in order to evaluate the spatial extent and frequency occurrence of cirrus clouds. The capabilities of the SAGE measurement system which has a field of view of 100 sq km are discussed. The frequency of occurrence of the cirrus clouds and the frequency penetration of the clouds to fixed altitudes of 5, 7, and 9 km, and to altitudes of 1, 3 and 5 km below the troposphere are examined. It is observed that optically thick cirrus clouds form most frequently in the midlatitudes over the equator, with distinct minima near latitude bands of 20-30 deg north and south; height penetrations to 7 km occur 60 percent of the time in upper latitudes and drop to 30 percent over the tropics. The SAGE data are compared with selective chopper radiometer data and good correlation in shape and seasonal movement is displayed. The seasonal geographical distributions of cirrus clouds in regions of rising moist air associated with low-level convergence zones are described.

  17. On the computational noise of finite-difference schemes used in ocean models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batteen, M. L.; Han, Y.-J.

    1981-01-01

    Different distributions of variables over the horizontal array of grid points in an ocean circulation model are investigated, using the shallow water equations as a guide in the choice of finite-difference schemes for use in ocean modeling. It is shown that the scheme with diffusive dissipation, in which the horizontal velocity is carried at the center and the height field is carried at each corner of a rectangular grid, successively suppresses numerical noise in a coarse (greater than 100 km) grid ocean model. For resolutions smaller than 50 km, it is shown that the scheme in which zonal velocity is carried at points to the east and west of the point of a rectangular grid where the height is carried, with meridional velocity carried to the north and south of the height point, can be free of noise for the gravest mode.

  18. Finite Element Model Development and Validation for Aircraft Fuselage Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Fleming, Gary A.; Pappa, Richard S.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to extend the valid frequency range for finite element based structural dynamic predictions using detailed models of the structural components and attachment interfaces is examined for several stiffened aircraft fuselage structures. This extended dynamic prediction capability is needed for the integration of mid-frequency noise control technology. Beam, plate and solid element models of the stiffener components are evaluated. Attachment models between the stiffener and panel skin range from a line along the rivets of the physical structure to a constraint over the entire contact surface. The finite element models are validated using experimental modal analysis results. The increased frequency range results in a corresponding increase in the number of modes, modal density and spatial resolution requirements. In this study, conventional modal tests using accelerometers are complemented with Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Electro-Optic Holography measurements to further resolve the spatial response characteristics. Whenever possible, component and subassembly modal tests are used to validate the finite element models at lower levels of assembly. Normal mode predictions for different finite element representations of components and assemblies are compared with experimental results to assess the most accurate techniques for modeling aircraft fuselage type structures.

  19. The biological activity of chernozems in the Central Caucasus Mountains (Terskii variant of altitudinal zonality), Kabardino-Balkaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedgafova, F. V.; Uligova, T. S.; Gorobtsova, O. N.; Tembotov, R. Kh.

    2015-12-01

    Some parameters of the biological activity (humus content; activity of hydrolytic enzymes invertase, phosphatase, urease; and the intensity of carbon dioxide emission) were studied in the chernozems of agrocenoses and native biogeocenoses in the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains representing the Terskii variant of the altitudinal zonality. The statistically significant differences were revealed between the relevant characteristics of the soils of the agrocenoses and of the native biogeocenoses. The integral index of the ecological-biological state of the soils was used to estimate changes in the biological activity of the arable chernozems. The 40-60% decrease of this index in the cultivated chernozems testified to their degradation with a decrease in fertility and the disturbance of ecological functions as compared to these characteristics in the virgin chernozems.

  20. The Study Of Soil And Agrochemical Features Of Zonal Soils Of Coal Mining Enterprises In Kemerovo Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovchenko, M. A.; Kosolapova, A. A.; Ermolaev, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper represents the results of the study of soil and agrochemical features of zonal soils: the grain-size composition, the content of humus, phosphorus and potassium, and heavy metals, the reaction of soil solution of the territory of the open-pit coal mine No12 of Kemerovo region in the areas of the working enterprise. The species composition of the lignose and herbaceous vegetation of the undisturbed territories has been studied. It has been revealed that the fertile soil layer of the studied areas of the open-pit coal mine is characterized as fertile but can’t be removed and stored because the surface of the whole area under study is forest-covered very much, rumpled, there are gullies and a lot of wind-fallen trees.